Pham, Tammy B; Adesman, Andrew
Objective To examine, in a nationally-representative sample of high school students, to what extent one or more additional threats to physical safety exacerbates the risk of sadness and suicidality among victims of school and/or cyber-bullying. Methods National data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) were analyzed for grades 9-12 (n = 15,624). Victimization groups were characterized by school-bullying and cyber-bullying, with and without additional threats to physical safety: fighting at school, being threatened/injured at school, and skipping school out of fear for one's safety. Outcomes included 2-week sadness and suicidality. Outcomes for victimization groups were compared to non-victims using logistic regression adjusting for sex, grade and race/ethnicity. Results Overall, 20.2% of students were school-bullied, and 15.5% were cyber-bullied in the past year. Compared to non-victims, victims of school-bullying and victims of cyber-bullying (VoCBs) who did not experience additional threats to physical safety were 2.76 and 3.83 times more likely to report 2-week sadness, and 3.39 and 3.27 times more likely to exhibit suicidality, respectively. Conversely, victims of bullying who experienced one or more additional threats to physical safety were successively more likely to report these adverse outcomes. Notably, victims of school-bullying and VoCBs with all three additional risk factors were 13.13 and 17.75 times more likely to exhibit suicidality, respectively. Conclusion Risk of depression symptoms and suicidality among victims of school-bullying and/or cyber-bullying is greatly increased among those who have experienced additional threats to physical safety: fighting at school, being threatened/injured at school and skipping school out of fear for their safety.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Moore, Todd M.; McNulty, James K.; Stuart, Gregory L.
Objective Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem, with females being victimized by partners at high rates with numerous negative health consequences. Previous research has been equivocal on whether substance use on the part of the victim temporally precedes and, thus, increases the odds of victimization. While the sole responsibility for violence is always with the perpetrator, knowing this information could provide useful information for theory as well as interventions designed to keep women safe. Method Participants were female college students in a current dating relationship who had consumed alcohol in the previous month (N = 173). Students completed daily surveys on their violence victimization, alcohol use, and marijuana use for up to 90 consecutive days. Results On any drinking days, heavy drinking days, and as the number of alcoholic drinks consumed increased, women were more likely to be victimized by psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence. Marijuana use also preceded and increased the odds of sexual victimization. Relationship length moderated some of these temporal associations, such that the odds of victimization on a drinking day, or marijuana use day, were increased for participants in longer relationships. Conclusions Findings underscore the importance of considering the role that alcohol and marijuana use play in increasing the risk for dating violence victimization among women. Intervention programs for dating violence may benefit by attempting to decrease substance use in order to reduce risk for female victims. PMID:27818840
Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter; Dressing, Harald
Population-based studies on the relationship between stalking and mental health outcomes in victims are scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between stalking victimization and specific DSM-IV mental disorders in a community sample. A postal survey was conducted in a middle-sized German city (sample size=675). Lifetime stalking victims and non-victims were compared regarding rates of any mental disorder, comorbid mental disorders, and specific disorders assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Victims had a higher incidence of mental disorders and comorbid mental disorders. Sex- and age-adjusted rates of specific disorders were increased, with the most robust associations identified for major depression (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-12.8) and panic disorder (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.1-14.9). Victims also reported higher current use of psychotropic medication (20.8% versus 5.6%). Our study indicates substantial associations between stalking victimization and impaired mental health that can be quantified at diagnostic levels in the general population. To confirm these findings, larger community studies are needed, which also include an assessment of lifetime psychopathology and of factors potentially mediating the associations between stalking victimization and mental health.
White, Helene Raskin; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This study compared mortality data and causes of death in a sample of 908 abused and/or neglected individuals and 667 matched controls followed for 25 years into young adulthood. The study found no significant differences in rates of mortality for the two groups and victims of child abuse and neglect were not more likely to experience a violent…
Gibson-Young, Linda; Martinasek, Mary P; Clutter, Michiko; Forrest, Jamie
Adolescents with asthma are at risk for psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to determine whether high school students with asthma are at increased risk for bullying in school and cyberspace, and to explore the role of depressive symptoms in moderating this association. A secondary data analysis was completed with the 2011 Florida Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Participant included a random sample of adolescents in grades 9 through 12 who attended public high schools in Florida. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted using SPSS software. We examined data from 6212 high school adolescents and found a significant relationship between current asthma and cyberbullying in adolescents. Of the sample diagnosed with asthma, 15.6% reported bullying and 17% cyberbullying (versus 10.2% and 11% of nonasthmatics). We further examined data using depressive symptoms as a mediating and moderating variable and found significance on all accounts. Adolescents with asthma are at increased risk for being victims of bullying in school and cyberspace. Our findings suggest that adolescents with asthma who also report depressive symptoms are particularly at high risk for bullying than adolescents with asthma who did not report depressive symptoms. Efforts to increase education and decrease all types of bullying at the high school level for both students with and without asthma are warranted. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung
We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.
Full Text Available We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES, exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.
Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Samara, Muthanna; Wolke, Dieter
Being bullied has adverse effects on children's health. Children's family experiences and parenting behavior before entering school help shape their capacity to adapt and cope at school and have an impact on children's peer relationship, hence it is important to identify how parenting styles and parent-child relationship are related to victimization in order to develop intervention programs to prevent or mitigate victimization in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on parenting behavior and peer victimization using MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Eric and EMBASE from 1970 through the end of December 2012. We included prospective cohort studies and cross-sectional studies that investigated the association between parenting behavior and peer victimization. Both victims and those who both bully and are victims (bully/victims) were more likely to be exposed to negative parenting behavior including abuse and neglect and maladaptive parenting. The effects were generally small to moderate for victims (Hedge's g range: 0.10-0.31) but moderate for bully/victims (0.13-0.68). Positive parenting behavior including good communication of parents with the child, warm and affectionate relationship, parental involvement and support, and parental supervision were protective against peer victimization. The protective effects were generally small to moderate for both victims (Hedge's g: range: -0.12 to -0.22) and bully/victims (-0.17 to -0.42). Negative parenting behavior is related to a moderate increase of risk for becoming a bully/victim and small to moderate effects on victim status at school. Intervention programs against bullying should extend their focus beyond schools to include families and start before children enter school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Mehari, Krista; Bradshaw, Catherine P
Obese and overweight youth are at an increased risk for poor peer relations and psychosocial adjustment. Of particular concern is the high rate of bullying victimization experienced by obese and overweight youth. While it is known that victimized youth are at an increased risk for internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined if weight status exacerbates the association between victimization and internalizing symptoms. The current study drew upon data from over 43,000 youth attending 107 middle and high schools. Multilevel results suggested that compared with normal weight youth, both overweight and obese youth were at an increased risk for experiencing relational, verbal, and cyber victimization, with only obese youth being at an increased risk for experiencing physical victimization. Notably, the odds for experiencing cyber victimization were higher than the odds for experiencing other forms of victimization. Frequently victimized obese youth, but not frequently victimized overweight youth, had significantly higher levels of internalizing symptoms compared to their frequently victimized, normal-weight peers. Together, these findings highlight the increased risk for psychosocial adjustment problems among frequently victimized overweight and obese youth, suggesting these youth may require preventive interventions tailored to meet their unique needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Background: Road traffic injuries involving motorcycles are increasing especially in rural Kenya resulting in both human and economic loss. This study was done to identify the risk factors and the host characteristics associated with motorcycle injury victims in rural setting so as to institute appropriate interventions for ...
Cook, Carrie L; Fox, Kathleen A
Fear of crime research has primarily focused on fear of crime in general or on fear of specific types of violent crimes. This study builds from this line of research by focusing exclusively on the night fear of six types of property crimes, including fear of burglary while away from home, vehicle theft, bicycle theft, property theft, vandalism, and vehicle burglary. This study examines the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk on fear of property crime. Survey data from college students reveal that victimization and vicarious victimization were not significant predictors of fear of property crime, whereas perceived risk was a consistent and significant predictor of fear of all property crimes.
Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Feng, Jui-Ying; Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Huang, Soar Ching-Yu
Students with physical symptoms and diseases may be at an increased risk of peer victimization. This study examined the associations of several medical conditions (obesity, asthma, allergy, epilepsy, and diabetes) with experience of physical, verbal, and relational victimization among children. A sample of 6,233 fourth-grade students from 314…
Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.
Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…
Huang, Zepeng; Liu, Zhenni; Liu, Xiangxiang; Lv, Laiwen; Zhang, Yan; Ou, Limin; Li, Liping
Despite the prevalence of the phenomena of peer victimization and bystander behaviors, little data has generated to describe their relationships and risk factors. In this paper, a self-administered survey using a cross-sectional cluster-random sampling method in a sample of 5450 participants (2734 girls and 2716 boys) between 4th and 11th grades was conducted at six schools (two primary schools and four middle schools) located in Shantou, China. Self-reported peer victimization, bystander behaviors and information regarding parents' risky behaviors and individual behavioral factors were collected. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate risk factors affecting peer victimization and bystander behaviors. The results indicated that urban participants were more likely to become bullying victims but less likely to become passive bystanders. Contrarily, bullying victimization was related to the increasing of passive bystander behaviors. Father drinking and mother smoking as independent factors were risk factors for peer victimization. Participants who were smoking or drinking had a tendency to be involved in both peer victimization and passive bystander behaviors. This study suggested that bystander behaviors, victims' and parents' educations play a more important role in peer victimization than previously thought.
McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…
Stapinski, Lexine A; Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Pearson, Rebecca M; Mahedy, Liam; Button, Katherine S; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo
Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has been suggested as one developmental pathway to anxiety disorders. However, there is a dearth of prospective studies examining this relationship. The purpose of this cohort study was to examine the association between peer victimization during adolescence and subsequent anxiety diagnoses in adulthood. A secondary aim was to investigate whether victimization increases risk for severe anxiety presentations involving diagnostic comorbidity. The sample comprised 6,208 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who were interviewed about experiences of peer victimization at age 13. Maternal report of her child's victimization was also assessed. Anxiety disorders at age 18 were assessed with the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between victimization and anxiety diagnoses adjusted for potentially confounding individual and family factors. Sensitivity analyses explored whether the association was independent of diagnostic comorbidity with depression. Frequently victimized adolescents were two to three times more likely to develop an anxiety disorder than nonvictimized adolescents (OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.62-3.85). The association remained after adjustment for potentially confounding individual and family factors, and was not attributable to diagnostic overlap with depression. Frequently victimized adolescents were also more likely to develop multiple internalizing diagnoses in adulthood. Victimized adolescents are at increased risk of anxiety disorders in later life. Interventions to reduce peer victimization and provide support for victims may be an effective strategy for reducing the burden associated with these disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kuijpers, Karlijn F.; Van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Winkel, Frans Willem
Research has reported that not only characteristics of the perpetrator but also characteristics of the victim influence risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). This would suggest that prevention of repeat abuse could benefit from a focus on both perpetrator and victim characteristics. Knowledge on factors that are within victims' sphere of…
Bejerot, Susanne; Plenty, Stephanie; Humble, Alice; Humble, Mats B
Children who are clumsy are often bullied. Nevertheless, motor skills have been overlooked in research on bullying victimization. A total of 2,730 Swedish adults (83% females) responded to retrospective questions on bullying, their talents in physical education (i.e., coordination and balls skills) and school academics. Poor talents were used as indicators of poor gross motor skills and poor academic skills. A subset of participants also provided information on educational level in adulthood, childhood obesity, belonging to an ethic minority in school and socioeconomic status relative to schoolmates. A total of 29.4% of adults reported being bullied in school, and 18.4% reported having below average gross motor skills. Of those with below average motor skills, 48.6% were bullied in school. Below average motor skills in childhood were associated with an increased risk (OR 3.01 [95% CI: 1.97–4.60]) of being bullied, even after adjusting for the influence of lower socioeconomic status, poor academic performance, being overweight, and being a bully. Higher odds for bully victimization were also associated with lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.29 [95% CI: 1.45–3.63]), being overweight (OR 1.71 [95% CI: 1.18–2.47]) and being a bully (OR 2.18 [95% CI: 1.53–3.11]). The findings indicate that poor gross motor skills constitute a robust risk-marker for vulnerability for bully victimization. Aggr. Behav. 39:453–461, 2013. © 2013 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley-Blackwell PMID:23784933
Kirwan, Gráinne H; Fullwood, Chris; Rooney, Brendan
Social networking sites (SNSs) can provide cybercriminals with various opportunities, including gathering of user data and login credentials to enable fraud, and directing of users toward online locations that may install malware onto their devices. The techniques employed by such cybercriminals can include clickbait (text or video), advertisement of nonexistent but potentially desirable products, and hoax competitions/giveaways. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with falling victim to these malicious techniques. An online survey was completed by 295 Malaysian undergraduate students, finding that more than one-third had fallen victim to SNS scams. Logistic regression analysis identified several victimization risk factors including having higher scores in impulsivity (specifically cognitive complexity), using fewer devices for SNSs, and having been on an SNS for a longer duration. No reliable model was found for vulnerability to hoax valuable gift giveaways and "friend view application" advertising specifically, but vulnerability to video clickbait was predicted by lower extraversion scores, higher levels of openness to experience, using fewer devices, and being on an SNS for a longer duration. Other personality traits were not associated with either overall victimization susceptibility or increased risk of falling victim to the specific techniques. However, age approached significance within both the video clickbait and overall victimization models. These findings suggest that routine activity theory may be particularly beneficial in understanding and preventing SNSs scam victimization.
Crookston, Benjamin T; Merrill, Ray M; Hedges, Stephanie; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar
While extensive research has been conducted on bullying and victimization in western countries, research is lacking in low- and middle-income settings. This study focused on bullying victimization in Peru. It explored the relationship between the caregiver's perception of child victimization and the child's view of selected negative experiences occurring with other children their age. Also, the study examined the association between victimization and adolescent health risk behaviors. This study used data from 675 children participating in the Peru cohort of the Young Lives study. Children and caregivers were interviewed in 2002 when children were 8 years of age and again in 2009 when children were 15 years of age. Measures of victimization included perceptions from children and caregivers while measures of health risk behaviors included cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and sexual relations among adolescents. Caregivers identified 85 (12.6%) children bullied at ages 8 and 15, 235 (34.8%) bullied at age 8 only, 61 (9.0%) bullied at age 15 only, and 294 (43.6%) not bullied at either age. Children who were bullied at both ages compared with all other children were 1.58 (95% CI 1.00-2.50) times more likely to smoke cigarettes, 1.57 (1.04-2.38) times more likely to drink alcohol, and 2.17 (1.41-3.33) times more likely to have ever had a sexual relationship, after adjusting for gender. The caregiver's assessment of child victimization was significantly associated with child reported bullying from other children their age. Child reported victimization was significantly associated with increased risky behaviors in some cases. Long-term victimization from bullying is more strongly associated than less frequent victimization with increased risk of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and sexual relations at age 15. Hence, programs focused on helping children learn how to mitigate and prevent bullying consistently over time may also help reduce risky adolescent health
Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas
This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks.
Brignone, Laura; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti
Many intimate partner homicide victims visit emergency departments (EDs) prior to their deaths, yet their lethality risk is not well understood. eHealth interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) improve provider information, tailor care to victim need and link victims to services. We analyzed ED patients' lethality risk using one such intervention, Domestic Violence Report and Referral (DVRR). DVRR records were assessed for 263 female patients aged 16 and older seen for IPV at an urban, high-traffic, Northern California ED in 2014-15. Multiple linear regression was used to test the association of children's presence at home, pregnancy, age, and abuser-victim relationship with victim's lethality risk using the Danger Assessment (DA) score from the Lethality Risk Assessment for Intimate Partner Femicide. Differences in means were assessed using t- and F-tests. The mean DA score indicated high lethality risk, with a third of respondents (33.1%) reporting very high DA scores. Multiple linear regression models indicated that increasing victim age (β=0.20/year; 95% CI: 0.11-0.29), children's presence at home (β=2.61, 95% CI: 0.63-4.58), and perpetrator reported as dating partner (β=4.50, 95% CI: 1.62-7.38) or ex-partner (β=4.38, 95% CI: 1.10-7.66) were significantly associated with the DA score (p<0.05). Use of DA scores as ED risk assessment tools in response to IPV victimization could help hospital staff and IPV advocates direct resources toward highest-need patients, improving health outcomes without additional burden on hospitals. These results also foreground eHealth interventions' utility in linking providers and IPV advocates and reducing the risk of intimate partner homicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harris, Taylor; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Wenzel, Suzanne
Experiencing sexual victimization prior to becoming homeless is common among homeless youth and is associated with increased HIV risk behavior. This study examined mediating variables that underlie this association, adding to the understanding of gender differences in these paths. Participants were homeless youth in Los Angeles recruited through service access centers who completed a computerized self-administered interview in English or Spanish using an iPad. Findings indicate a high presence of sexual victimization across both genders. Female participants experienced posttraumatic stress disorder and subsequent engagement with exchange sex, whereas male participants were primarily involved in substance use risk pathways. Results indicate paths in the association between sexual victimization and HIV risk behavior differ between male and female homeless youth. Gender-specific, mental-health-informed interventions targeting sexual risk reduction are warranted.
Bergmann, Marie Christine; Dreißigacker, Arne; von Skarczinski, Bennet; Wollinger, Gina Rosa
The Internet has simplified daily life activities. However, besides its comfortability, the Internet also presents the risk of victimization by several kinds of crimes. The present article addresses the question of which factors influence cyber-dependent crime and how they vary between three kinds of cyber-dependent offences: malware infection, ransomware infection, and misuse of personal data. According to the Routine Activity Approach, it is assumed that crime is determined by a motivated offender, the behavior of the Internet user, and the existence of prevention factors. Our analyses were based on a random sample of 26,665 Internet users in two federal states in Germany, aged 16 years and older; 16.6 percent of the respondents had experienced at least one form of cyber-dependent victimization during the year 2014. The results indicate that individual and household factors, as well as online and prevention behavior, influence the risk of cyber-dependent victimization. Furthermore, the effects differ between the three types of offences. In conclusion, the risk of being victimized by cyber-dependent crime is not the same for anyone, but depends on multivariate factors according to the idea of Routine Activity Approach. However, in view of the fact that crime-related factors also matter, studying different cybercrime offences separately seems to be an appropriate research approach.
Sanchez-Bahillo, A; Bautista-Hernandez, V; Barcia Gonzalez, Carlos; Bañon, R; Luna, A; Hirsch, EC; Herrero, Maria-Trinidad
Suicidal behavior is a problem with important social repercussions. Some groups of the population show a higher risk of suicide; for example, depression, alcoholism, psychosis or drug abuse frequently precedes suicidal behavior. However, the relationship between metabolic alterations in the brain and premorbid clinical symptoms of suicide remains uncertain. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have frequently been, implicated in suicidal behavior and the amount of serotonin in the brain and CSF of suicide victims has been found to be low compared with normal subjects. However, there are contradictory results regarding the role of noradrenergic neurons in the mediation of suicide attempts, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of conditions that lead to a common outcome. In the present work we focus on the subgroup of suicide victims that share a common diagnosis of major depression. Based on post-mortem studies analyzing mRNA expression by in situ hybridization, serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) from depressive suicide victims are seen to over-express cytochrome oxidase mRNA. However, no corresponding changes were found in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in the noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC). These results suggest that, despite of the low levels of serotonin described in suicide victims, the activity of DRN neurons could increase in the suicidally depressed, probably due to the over activation of serotonin re-uptake. No alteration was found in noradrenergic neurons, suggesting that they play no crucial role in the suicidal behavior of depressive patients. PMID:18728743
Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth's overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully victim). This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and an emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents' characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age = 14.5, M = 65, F = 71) were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully (n = 27), Victim (n = 20), Bully victim (n = 37) and Control (n = 52). Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE) questionnaire was used to measure participants' expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational
Full Text Available Bullying and risky behavior are two common problems among adolescents and can strongly affect a youth’s overall functioning when both coexist. Some studies suggest that bullying in adolescence may promote risky behavior as a coping strategy to deal with victimization related stress. Other studies consider bullying as an outcome of high-risk behavior. Despite the association between the two is well-established, no study has examined the risk-taking patterns among bullying groups (i.e., bully, victim, and bully-victim. This study attempted to elucidate the potential relationships between bullying and risk-taking by addressing the two models: a cognitive-focused model and a emotion-focused model of risk taking, and to clarify how adolescents’ characteristics in risk taking associate with bullying outcomes. Method: 136 Chinese adolescents (Mean Age =14.5, M= 65, F =71 were recruited and grouped according to bullying identity: Bully (n =27, Victim (n =20, Bully-victim (n =37 and Control (n =52. Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE questionnaire was used to measure participants’ expectancies about the risks, benefits and involvement associated with risky activities. Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT was administered to capture the emotion-laden process in risk taking. Results: Cognitively, Bully was associated with an overestimation of risk while Victim was associated with an underestimation of risk and overrated benefit. Bully-victim exhibited a unique pattern with an overestimation of benefit and risk. All study groups projected higher involvement in risky behavior. Behaviorally, both Bully and Bully-victim were associated with high risk modulation whereas Victim was associated with impulsive decision-making. Interestingly, compared with bully, bully-victim had significantly higher bullying scores, suggesting a wider range and more frequent bullying activities. In conclusion, Bully maybe a group of adolescents that is vigilant in situational
Rokven, Josja J; de Boer, Gijs; Tolsma, Jochem; Ruiter, Stijn
This article examines how friends’ involvement in crime influences such involvement in those around them, as offenders or victims, and the extent to which such friendship effects vary with contact frequency, friendship intimacy, and geographical proximity. To test our hypotheses we used four waves from the Dutch panel survey CrimeNL, which includes ego-centered network measures in each wave for respondents aged between 16 and 45. To test our hypotheses, fixed-effects panel models were employed. The results show that living in close proximity to delinquent friends increases people’s own risk of offending, and daily interaction with these friends decreases the risk of victimization. Victimization is also communicated among friends in their daily interactions. These findings stress the need to consider factors that condition how friendships exert influence on the risk of crime involvement. PMID:29187805
Gabriel Costa Serrão de Araújo
Full Text Available Gunshot wounds require surgeons to decide whether to remove or leave bullet fragments in the body. Surgeons also decide how to follow up with patients who have lead fragments retained in their body. Current literature recommends to remove only intra-articular fragments without the need for a follow-up for patients with the metal retained. Therefore, this study investigates chronic lead toxicity for gunshot wounds.The study was performed in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, between 2013 and 2015. It was a case-control study that included 45 victims of gunshot lesions with metallic fragments retained for more than 6 months. The 45 controls were matched for gender, age, and race. We compared the lead blood levels and frequency of symptoms.The control group had average blood lead levels of 2.17 μg/dL (95% Confidence Interval [CI]; 1.71-2.63 and median 2.1 μg/dL. The case group had average values of 9.01 μg/dL (CI; 6.07-11.96 and median values of 6.5 μg/dL with p-values < = 0.001. The case group reported the following more frequently: irritancy, bad mood, headache, memory losses, daylight drowsiness, myalgia, weakness, abdominal pain, joint pain, trembling, tingling limbs. There was statistical significance for the differences of symptoms frequencies and for odds ratio between groups.Although the mean lead levels found were lower than the current laboratory references, low levels have been associated with both rising morbidity and mortality. The WHO stated: "There is no known level of lead exposure that is considered safe". In conclusion, this work showed that bullets retained in the body are not innocuous. There are impacts in the blood lead levels and symptoms related to it, even with few fragments, extra-articular located or existing with low blood lead levels.
Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu
This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from…
Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford
AimsDescriptive and genetic studies suggest that relatives of sudden cardiac death (SCD) victims have an increased risk of several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Given the severe consequences of undiagnosed CVD and the availability of effective treatment, the potential for prevention in this gro...
Like, Toya Z.
Past research has shown that racial inequality in urban areas--Black and White residential segregation and economic inequality--is associated with increased levels of homicide offending and that victimization among Blacks yet serves as a protection mechanism against such violence among Whites. However, few studies have considered alternative…
Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Hung; Lee, Ching-Mei; Huang, Tzu-Fu; Pan, Yun-Chieh
The present study examined factors associated with the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying and victimization in Taiwan. A total of 2,315 students from 26 high schools were assessed in the 10th grade, with follow-up performed in the 11th grade. Self-administered questionnaires were collected in 2010 and 2011. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors. Multivariate analysis results indicated that higher levels of risk factors (online game use, exposure to violence in media, internet risk behaviors, cyber/school bullying experiences) in the 10th grade coupled with an increase in risk factors from grades 10 to 11 could be used to predict the emergence of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. In contrast, lower levels of risk factors in the 10th grade and higher levels of protective factors coupled with a decrease in risk factors predicted the cessation of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. Online game use, exposure to violence in media, Internet risk behaviors, and cyber/school bullying experiences can be used to predict the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying perpetration and victimization.
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; de Waart, Frouwkje G; Raat, Hein
To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially because early-onset mental health problems
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein
Purpose To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. Results There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. METHODS: A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181. Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying
Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn
This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...
Barslund, Mikkel; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn
This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...
Holt, Melissa K.; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman
This study explored the possibility that bullies, victims of bullying, and bully-victims (i.e., youth who both perpetrate and are victims of bullying) are at increased risk for victimization in four other domains: conventional crime, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, and witnessing or indirect victimization. It also evaluated the extent to…
Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather
Research examining childhood abuse has shown an association between victimization and psychiatric diagnoses (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). Historically, psychiatric diagnoses have been emphasized as a consequence of victimization, with less research examining if it also functions as a risk factor for further victimization,…
Gia Elise Barboza, PhD
Full Text Available We investigated whether being attacked physically due to one's gender identity or expression was associated with suicide risk among trans men and women living in Virginia. The sample consisted of 350 transgender men and women who participated in the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Survey (THIS. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the competing outcomes associated with suicidal risk. Thirty-seven percent of trans men and women experienced at least one physical attack since the age of 13. On average, individuals experienced 3.97 (SD = 2.86 physical attacks; among these about half were attributed to one's gender identity or expression (mean = 2.08, SD = 1.96. In the multivariate multinomial regression, compared to those with no risk, being physically attacked increased the odds of both attempting and contemplating suicide regardless of gender attribution. Nevertheless, the relative impact of physical victimization on suicidal behavior was higher among those who were targeted on the basis of their gender identity or expression. Finally, no significant association was found between multiple measures of institutional discrimination and suicide risk once discriminatory and non-discriminatory physical victimization was taken into account. Trans men and women experience high levels of physical abuse and face multiple forms of discrimination. They are also at an increased risk for suicidal tendencies. Interventions that help transindividuals cope with discrimination and physical victimization simultaneously may be more effective in saving lives.
Rubanzana, Wilson; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L
Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particular attention on the latent effects of the 1994 genocide. A population-based matched case-control study was conducted, with subjects enrolled prospectively from May 2011 to May 2013. Cases of homicide victimization were identified via police reports, and crime details were provided by law enforcement agencies. Three controls were matched to each case by sex, 5-year age group and village of residence. Socioeconomic and personal background data, including genocide exposure, were provided via interview of a family member or through village administrators. Conditional logistic regression, stratified by gender status, was used to identify risk factors for homicide victimization. During the study period, 156 homicide victims were enrolled, of which 57 % were male and 43 % were female. The most common mechanisms of death were wounds inflicted by sharp instruments (knives or machetes; 41 %) followed by blunt force injuries (36.5 %). Final models indicated that risk of homicide victimhood increased with victim alcohol drinking patterns. There was a dose response noted for alcohol use: for minimal drinking versus none, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.1, 95%CI: 1,3-7.9; for moderate drinking versus none, aOR = 10.1, 95%CI: 3.7-24.9; and for heavy drinking versus none, aOR = 11.5, 95%CI: 3.6-36.8. Additionally, having no surviving parent (aOR = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.1-6.1), previous physical and/or sexual abuse (aOR = 28.1, 95%CI: 5.1-28.3) and drinking illicit brew and/or drug use (aOR = 7.7, 95%CI: 2.4-18.6) were associated with a higher risk of being killed. The test of interaction revealed that the variables that
Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.; Henning, Kris; Moore, Stephanie; Holdford, Robert
Recent studies support the validity of both structured risk assessment tools and victim perceptions as predictors of risk for repeat intimate partner violence (IPV). Combining structured risk assessments and victim risk assessments leads to better predictions of repeat violence than either alone, suggesting that the two forms of assessment provide…
Karlsson, Elisabeth; Stickley, Andrew; Lindblad, Frank; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav
This study examined whether internalizing problems, parental warmth and teacher support were associated with adolescents' experience of future peer victimization in school. Data were drawn from two rounds of the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Study subjects comprised 593 US urban adolescents (aged 13.8 ± 0.8 years; 56 % female). Results showed that there was a substantial degree of continuity in peer victimization over a 1-year period. The presence of internalizing (anxiety, depressive and somatic) symptoms at baseline was associated with an increased risk of peer victimization over time. Both parental warmth and teacher support were uniquely associated with a lower risk for peer victimization. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.
Ahlin, Eileen M
Research suggests that youth are at higher risk of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than adult inmates. However, compared with adult inmates, very little is known about the risk factors associated with such violence among youth in custody. Without sufficient research on risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody, practitioners and policy makers may be reliant on the adult literature when making decisions about how to address and prevent such violence among juveniles. This article seeks to determine if extrapolating data from the substantial prison literature is appropriate by assessing the parallels between risk factors of sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody and those identified for adult inmates. This study uses data of 8,659 youth from the second administration of the National Survey of Youth in Custody (NSYC-2) to assess correlates of sexual assault and victimization during periods of detention. Study findings show that experiences with assault and victimization prior to the present period of detention were stronger indicators of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than youth characteristics and demographics and other experiences with assault and victimization. Further, there are differences in risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody compared to adult inmates, which emphasizes the risk of prior sexual assault and victimization in the community and prior custodial settings.
Hequembourg, Amy L.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Parks, Kathleen A.
This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women’s most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming-out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners. PMID:23759663
Hequembourg, Amy L; Livingston, Jennifer A; Parks, Kathleen A
This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women's most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners.
Melkonian, Alexander J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Bridges, Ana J.; Fugitt, Jessica L.
Objective: High rates of sexual victimization among college students necessitate further study of factors associated with sexual assault risk detection. The present study examined how social information processing relates to sexual assault risk detection as a function of sexual assault victimization history. Participants: 225 undergraduates…
Full Text Available A Sanchez-Bahillo1, V Bautista-Hernandez1, Carlos Barcia Gonzalez1, R Bañon2, A Luna2, EC Hirsch3, Maria-Trinidad Herrero11Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED; 2Department of Legal Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Murcia 30100, Spain; 3INSERM U679 Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Suicidal behavior is a problem with important social repercussions. Some groups of the population show a higher risk of suicide; for example, depression, alcoholism, psychosis or drug abuse frequently precedes suicidal behavior. However, the relationship between metabolic alterations in the brain and premorbid clinical symptoms of suicide remains uncertain. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have frequently been, implicated in suicidal behavior and the amount of serotonin in the brain and CSF of suicide victims has been found to be low compared with normal subjects. However, there are contradictory results regarding the role of noradrenergic neurons in the mediation of suicide attempts, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of conditions that lead to a common outcome. In the present work we focus on the subgroup of suicide victims that share a common diagnosis of major depression. Based on post-mortem studies analyzing mRNA expression by in situ hybridization, serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN from depressive suicide victims are seen to over-express cytochrome oxidase mRNA. However, no corresponding changes were found in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA in the noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC. These results suggest that, despite of the low levels of serotonin described in suicide victims, the activity of DRN neurons could increase in the suicidally depressed, probably due to the over activation of
Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.
Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children’s long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research specifically demonstrates lasting effects of early victimization. This research examined whether early (2nd grade) victimization and increasing (2nd – 5th grade) victimization independently predicted depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior (overt and relational) in 5th grade. Participants included 433 children (238 girls, 195 boys). Children reported on peer victimization and depressive symptoms; teachers reported on peer victimization and aggressive behavior. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that both early and increasing victimization made unique contributions to subsequent depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. Relational aggression was particularly likely to follow victimization in girls. PMID:21229448
Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Hessel, Elenda T.; Schmidt, Jennifer D.
Peer victimization has been implicated as a traumatic stressor that compromises children's long-term mental health, yet a dearth of prospective research documents lasting effects of early victimization. This study examined whether early (2nd grade) and increasing (2nd-5th grade) victimization predicted 5th grade depressive symptoms and aggressive…
Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara
To test the potential mediation effect of psychosomatic symptoms on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical victimization and current risk for child physical maltreatment. Data from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect were used. Nine-hundred and twenty-four parents completed the Childhood History Questionnaire, the Psychosomatic Scale of the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Mediation analysis revealed that the total effect of the childhood physical victimization on child maltreatment risk was significant. The results showed that the direct effect from the parents' history of childhood physical victimization to their current maltreatment risk was still significant once parents' psychosomatic symptoms were added to the model, indicating that the increase in psychosomatic symptomatology mediated in part the increase of parents' current child maltreatment risk. The mediation analysis showed parents' psychosomatic symptomatology as a causal pathway through which parents' childhood history of physical victimization exerts its effect on increased of child maltreatment risk. Somatization-related alterations in stress and emotional regulation are discussed as potential theoretical explanation of our findings. A cumulative risk perspective is also discussed in order to elucidate about the mechanisms that contribute for the intergenerational continuity of child physical maltreatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A
Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.
Katz, Jennifer; Pazienza, Rena; Olin, Rachel; Rich, Hillary
The present research examined bystander responses to potential party rape scenarios involving either a friend or a stranger at risk. Undergraduate students (N = 151) imagined attending a party and seeing a man lead an intoxicated woman (friend or stranger) into a bedroom. After random assignment to conditions, participants reported on intentions to help, barriers to helping, victim blame, and empathic concern. As expected, based on their shared social group membership, bystanders intended to offer more help to friends than to strangers. Bystanders also reported more personal responsibility to help and more empathic concern when the potential victim was a friend rather than stranger. Observing a friend versus stranger at risk did not affect audience inhibition or perceived victim blame. Compared with women, men reported more blame and less empathic concern for potential victims. However, there were no gender differences in bystander intent to help or barriers to helping. In multivariate analyses, both responsibility to help and empathic concern for the potential victim uniquely predicted bystanders' intent to help a woman at risk for party rape. Results suggest that promoting social identification with peers at risk could increase bystander intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina
Risk factors for same- and other-sex victimization were examined in a longitudinal data set involving 9- to 14-year-old students. The findings regarding same-sex victimization supported the view that bullies select personally and interpersonally vulnerable targets in order to maximize their gains in
Bonanno, Rina A.; Hymel, Shelley
This study investigated why some adolescents who are victimized through peer bullying are more negatively impacted than others. Drawing from research on peer victimization and suicidology, two theoretically derived models were investigated, one examining social hopelessness as a risk factor, the other examining social support as a protective…
Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
The present study examined whether and which facets of emotion dysregulation serve an intervening role in the association between prior victimization and risk perception in an analogue sexual assault vignette. Participants were 714 university women who completed self-report measures of sexual victimization, emotion dysregulation, and a…
Chiu, Yu-Lung; Kao, Senyeong; Tou, Shao-Wen; Lin, Fu-Gong
To investigate the prevalence of various types of bullying victimization among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and examine the effects of victimization on the mental health of adolescents with ASD. The sample was collected from the Special Needs Education Longitudinal Study (SNELS) database released in 2011. Variables comprising seven psychological distress (PD) items and four types of bullying victimization and family-, school-, and peer-related factors were included in a multivariate regression analysis. Exclusion and verbal bullying were most frequently reported, 72.4% of students with ASD experiencing exclusion bullying and 66% of them experiencing verbal bullying. Among the victims, delayed bedtime, use of medication, and conflicts with parents significantly increased PD. By contrast, good relationships with parents and friends and liking school environments relieved PD symptoms. Furthermore, delayed bedtime after 12 a.m. enhanced the effects of exclusion victimization on PD in the participants. Our results indicated that bullying victimization among adolescents with ASD was a risk factor for their psychological well-being. Nevertheless, good parent-adolescent and interpeer relationships improved their mental health. Our results can serve as a reference in implementing strategies for motivating parents and teachers to pay more attention to the needs of adolescents with ASD. Implications for Rehabilitation More than 80% of adolescents with autism experience at least one type of bullying victimization. Bullying victimization attributes to a major factor influencing mental health of adolescents with autism. Good parent-adolescent and interpeer relationships can play beneficial roles in improving mental health of the adolescents.
Bullying has garnered the attention of researchers and policy makers alike, because of various negative physical, mental, and educational outcomes that stem from these experiences. Certain youth are more at risk for bullying victimization (ASPA, 2012). Thus, research highlighting and addressing these experiences is crucial to provide safer environments for youth. This study utilizes the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data to investigate whether or not experiences of victimization differ for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) youth. Drawing from a sample of 12,642 9th through 12th grade youth, this study investigates two primary areas: (a) the prevalence of traditional bullying, electronic bullying, and homophobic bullying victimizations among LGBQ youth, and (b) the interaction of sexual orientation and gender with traditional bullying, electronic bullying, and homophobic bullying victimizations. Results suggest that LGBQ youth experience all types of bullying victimization at higher rates than heterosexual youth. Results also highlight the importance of the interaction of sexual orientation and gender in bullying victimization. Findings reveal that LGBQ females, LGBQ males, and heterosexual females experience each type of victimization at higher rates than heterosexual males. Findings confirm that disparities exist in bullying victimization among LGBQ youth, and thus cannot be ignored in schools. School policies must explicitly acknowledge and address how sexual orientation and gender matter within the constructs of youth violence if they wish to create safer learning environments for youth.
Storch, Eric A; Milsom, Vanessa A; Debraganza, Ninoska; Lewin, Adam B; Geffken, Gary R; Silverstein, Janet H
To examine the relationship between peer victimization and child and parent reports of psychosocial adjustment and physical activity in a clinical sample of at-risk-for-overweight and overweight children and adolescents...
Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Sheffer, Nicole
Data on risk perception, sexual victimization, and substance use were obtained via surveys from 496 female college students to determine what factors influence risk perception using a written vignette in which participants make a hypothetical decision to leave a potentially risky situation. Experiences of substance-related (SR) victimization, rather than forcible victimization, were associated with significantly delayed risk perception. SR victimization victims reported feeling uncomfortable significantly later and leaving the scenario significantly later than non-victims. SR victimization victims also had significantly higher scores on heavy episodic drinking (HED), marijuana use, alcohol-related tolerance, and blackouts. Both substance use (HED and marijuana use) and alcohol-related problems (tolerance and blackouts) mediated the link between SR victimization and risk perception in the form of behavioral leave response. In contrast, only HED and tolerance mediated the link between SR victimization and risk recognition. Findings suggest the importance of differentiating types of victimization in predicting risk perception and of addressing substance use in sexual victimization risk reduction interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Leukfeldt, Eric Rutger
This paper compares the risk factors for becoming a victim of two types of phishing: high-tech phishing (using malicious software) and low-tech phishing (using e-mails and telephone calls). These risk factors are linked to possibilities for situational crime prevention. Data from a cybercrime victim survey in the Netherlands (n=10,316) is used. Based on routine activity theory, the multivariate analyses include thirty variables. The findings show situational crime prevention has to be aimed a...
This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.
Ohene, Sally-Ann; Johnson, Kiana; Atunah-Jay, Sarah; Owusu, Andrew; Borowsky, Iris Wagman
Violence in all forms poses a concern because of associations with multiple adverse effects including injuries and mental health problems. There is however limited data on violence in general and youth violence in particular in Ghana. To explore the nature and scope of youth violence in Ghana, we used the nationwide Global School-based Health Survey, conducted among senior high school students in Ghana, to explore risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and environmental levels associated with sexual and physical violence victimization. A fifth of these students reported being forced to have sex in their lifetime while two out of five had been a victim of a physical attack in the year preceding the survey. In final multivariate analysis, for sexual violence victimization, history of sexual activity with or without condom use at last sex, feeling sad or hopeless, and being a victim of bullying and electronic bullying were identified as risk factors, while having friends who were not sexually active was protective. Independent risk factors for physical violence victimization were attempting suicide in the last year, alcohol use in the past month, and bullying other students in the past month. Parent respect for privacy just reached significance as a protective factor for physical violence victimization in the final model. Recognition of the magnitude of violence victimization among Ghanaian students and associated factors must be used to guide development and implementation of appropriate concrete measures to prevent and address the problem.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A
Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained considerable popularity among youth in recent years; however, there is a noticeable paucity of research examining the association between the use of these web-based platforms and cyberbullying victimization at the population level. This study examines the association between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization using a large-scale survey of Canadian middle and high school students. Data on 5,329 students aged 11-20 years were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization while adjusting for covariates. Overall, 19 percent of adolescents were cyberbullied in the past 12 months. Adolescents who were female, younger, of lower socioeconomic status, and who used alcohol or tobacco were at greater odds of being cyberbullied. The use of SNSs was associated with an increased risk of cyberbullying victimization in a dose-response manner (p-trend <0.001). Gender was not a significant moderator of the association between use of SNSs and being cyberbullied. Results from this study underscore the need for raising awareness and educating adolescents on effective strategies to prevent cyberbullying victimization.
Storey, Jennifer E; Strand, Susanne
This study investigated the influence of victim vulnerability factors and gender on risk assessment for intimate partner violence (IPV). 867 cases of male and female perpetrated IPV investigated by Swedish police officers using the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) were examined. For male-to-female IPV, victim vulnerability factors were associated with summary risk judgments and risk management recommendations. For female-to-male IPV, vulnerability factors were more often omitted, and consistent associations were not found between vulnerability factors, summary risk judgments, and risk management. Results indicate that B-SAFER victim vulnerability factors can assist in assessing male-to-female IPV risk. Further research is necessary to examine the use of B-SAFER victim vulnerability factors for female-to-male IPV, as results showed victim vulnerability factors to be less relevant to officers' decision making, particularly their management recommendations. However, several variables external to the B-SAFER, such as the availability of management strategies may account for these findings.
Oshri, Assaf; Handley, Elizabeth D; Sutton, Tara E; Wortel, Sanne; Burnette, Mandi L
To examine mechanisms underlying the development of sexual health risk behaviors in sexual minority girls (SMGs) and its association with sexual victimization. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods cohorts, aged 15 and 18 years (N = 391; 54 SMGs). Sexual minority girls reported more sexual victimization and steeper positive trajectories of substance misuse over time than heterosexual girls. Growth in alcohol use during adolescence mediated the link between SMG status and past year number of partners, whereas growth in marijuana use mediated the link between SMG status and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Adding unwanted sexual experiences to the models resulted in a reduction of significance in the direct or indirect effects from SMG status on the sexual health outcomes. Unwanted sexual experiences emerged as a robust predictor directly and indirectly related to past-year number of partners via growth in alcohol use. Unwanted sexual experiences also directly predicted STD history. The increased risk of SMGs for alcohol and marijuana during adolescence, higher rates of sexual partners, and STD diagnosis may also be linked to their significant risk for sexual victimization. Findings highlight the importance of preventive interventions targeting victimization of SMGs. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Kleinman, Marjorie; Altschuler, Elizabeth; Marrocco, Frank; Amakawa, Lia; Gould, Madelyn S
This is the first study to examine the extent to which frequent involvement in high-school bullying (as a bullying perpetrator, victim of bullying, or bully-victim) increases the risk for later depression and suicidality beyond other well-established risk factors of suicide. The study included 96 students who reported being a bully, a victim, or a bully-victim, and also reported depression, suicidality, or substance problems during an initial suicide screen. These students were interviewed 2 years later and were compared with 142 youth identified during the initial screen as "suicide-at-risk" by virtue of their depression, suicidal ideation, attempts, and substance problems, but who did not report any involvement in bullying behavior. Students who reported both bullying others and other suicide-related behaviors at baseline had higher suicide ideation and were more functionally impaired at follow-up than students who reported suicide-related behaviors but were not involved in bullying. Preventive efforts in high school should target those children who are characterized by both psychological disturbance and bullying, especially the frequent bullies. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elledge, L Christian; Elledge, Allison R; Newgent, Rebecca A; Cavell, Timothy A
Children not accepted or actively rejected by peers are at greater risk for peer victimization. We examined whether a positive teacher-student relationship can potentially buffer these children from the risk of peer victimization. Participants were 361 elementary school children in the 4th or 5th grade. Peer-report measures were used to assess teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), social preference, and rejected sociometric status; peer victimization was assessed via self-, peer-, and teacher-reports. As expected, social preference assessed in the fall semester was a significant negative predictor of self- and peer-reported victimization measured in the spring, controlling for prior levels of peer victimization. TSRQ in the fall was not a significant unique predictor of self-, peer-, or teacher-reported victimization the following spring, controlling for fall victimization and social preference scores. We found a significant interaction between social preference and TSRQ in predicting self-, peer-, and teacher-reported peer victimization: Social preference significantly predicted peer victimization, but only for those children with relatively poor student-teacher relationships. Subgroup analysis revealed that children actively rejected by peers in the fall reported significantly less peer victimization in the spring (controlling for fall victimization scores) when their fall TSRQ scores were at or above the sample mean compared to rejected children whose TSRQ scores were low (i.e., relationship quality can buffer children at social risk for continued peer victimization.
Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio
In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…
Hyun Ja Lim
Full Text Available Objective To identify significant risk factors associated with repeat emergency department (ED. Visits for violent injuries in youth firearm victims. Methods The study subjects of this retrospective cohort study were firearm victims aged 18 and younger presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department/Trauma Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin between 1990 and 1995. The primary outcome was subsequent Emergency Department visits (REDV at any emergency department in Milwaukee for a violent injury. Results A total of 495 subjects were eligible for the present study in the pediatric firearm victim's ED visit database. Eighty-five percent (n = 420 were males and 82% were African-Americans. Mean age was 15 years old (s.d = ±3.6. A majority of them had a single-parent family. Eighty-eight subjects (17.8% had a prior history of ED visit due to violence. During the study time, 201 subjects had at least one REDV. In the multivariable model, a subject without a social worker consulting at the hospital were more likely to have REDV compared to subjects with a social worker consulting (O.R = 1.749; p-value = 0.047, controlling for guardian and disposition. Subjects disposed to detention center or police custody were more likely to have REDV compared to subjects disposed to home or a hospital (O.R = 5.351; p-value = 0.003. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that individuals with guardians, those who did not receive social worker intervention on their initial visit, and those discharged in police custody were associated with increased repeat ED visits due to a violent injury.
Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick
Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Stoner, Susan A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Morrison, Diane M; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M
This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N=161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex - perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence - and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication.
Sherrill, Andrew M; Bell, Kathryn M; Wyngarden, Nicole
Little is known about intimate partner violence (IPV) victims' situational risk recognition, defined as the ability to identify situational factors that signal imminent risk of victimization. Using semi-structured interviews, qualitative data were collected from a community sample of 31 female victims of IPV episodes involving substance use. Thirteen themes were identified, the most prevalent being related to the partner's verbal behavior, tone of voice, motor behavior, alcohol or drug use, and facial expression. Participants reporting at least some anticipation of physical aggression (61.3% of the sample) tended to identify multiple factors (M = 3.47), suggesting numerous situational features often contribute to situational risk recognition. © The Author(s) 2015.
Reese, Bianka M; Chen, May S; Nekkanti, Manali; Mulawa, Marta I
Recent studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) in high-resource countries suggest that men and women may perpetrate similar rates of violence against their partners, yet the prevalence and etiology of female-perpetrated IPV, especially in comparison with IPV victimization among females, remains largely understudied in low-resource, high-prevalence countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Using multivariate logistic regression models, the current study examines the prevalence of and risk factors associated with past 12-month experiences of isolated physical IPV perpetration (i.e., violence perpetrated against an intimate partner not in self-defense) and physical IPV victimization among a nationally representative sample of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) from Tanzania who completed the Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey Domestic Violence Module ( n = 5,372). Approximately 1.5% reported perpetrating violence in the past 12 months, whereas 35% reported victimization in the same time period. Risk factors of past 12-month IPV perpetration included past 12-month IPV victimization, making cash or in-kind earnings, having autonomy in decision making, and acceptance of justifications for wife beating. Women much younger than their partners had lower odds of IPV perpetration. Risk factors of past 12-month IPV victimization included past 12-month IPV perpetration, educational attainment, having children, partner's alcohol consumption, partner's decision making, acceptance of justifications for wife beating, and exposure to parental IPV. Making cash or in-kind earnings was the only protective factor against victimization. Findings suggest that female IPV perpetration and victimization may result from a combination of factors including power differentials between partners and attitudes about the acceptability of using violence. Future research directions and implications for policy and prevention efforts to reduce IPV in Tanzania are discussed.
Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov
Exposure to childhood victimization and abuse has been shown to affect HIV risk in adult populations. In Russia, the existence of child abuse was largely unrecognized until 1990s and its behavioral consequences remain understudied. Our goal was to assess childhood victimization and HIV risk behavior among young adults in Saint-Petersburg, Russia: 743 students from 15 local universities were surveyed. Unprotected sexual intercourse was the most common type of HIV risk behavior: study participants reported no condom use at last intercourse (65.17%), inconsistent condom use (58.43%) and 30.81% never used condoms in the past 3 months. Childhood sexual victimization was significantly associated with unprotected sex at last intercourse and with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months. Young adults in Russia are vulnerable to HIV epidemic due to the pervasiveness of unprotected sexual intercourse, and childhood sexual victimization is associated with risky sexual behavior in this population. Efforts to combat HIV epidemic in Russia must include programming for the prevention of childhood sexual abuse and the development of services for the survivors of childhood victimization.
Pittenger, Samantha L; Schreier, Alayna; Meidlinger, Katie; Pogue, Jessica K; Theimer, Kate; Flood, Mary Fran; Hansen, David J
Psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, has been associated with increased risk for sexual revictimization in youth who have experienced child sexual abuse. The present study utilized assessment information from treatment seeking youth with histories of sexual abuse to explore specific risk indicators for revictimization-risk taking, social problems, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress-that may be indicated by self-reported distress. The relationship between initial levels of distress and change in symptoms over a 12-week course of treatment was also explored. Participants were 101 youth referred to a child-focused therapeutic group for victims of sexual abuse, 65 youth referred to an adolescent-focused group, and their non-offending caregivers. Results revealed that when combined into a distress score, depression and anxiety were associated with delinquent behaviors, interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress symptoms for child and adolescent group participants at presentation to treatment. Children exhibited improvement on measures of interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Adolescents exhibited less change over time, with significant improvement on self-reported social problems and PTSD only. Higher psychological distress was associated with less improvement in regard to negative expectations of abuse impact for child group participants. The findings suggest that distress indicates the presence of specific revictimization risk indicators, helping to identify targetable symptoms for intervention. Therefore, screening for psychological distress after discovery of sexual abuse may help detect youth at higher risk for revictimization and guide treatment.
Blake, Jamilia J.; Zhou, Qiong; Kwok, Oi-Man; Benz, Michael R.
The literature on bullying among students with disabilities is burgeoning. The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors for adolescents' involvement in bullying across the bullying continuum. Drawing from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), 2,870 adolescents with disabilities were sampled. Results from multinomial…
Hertz, Marci Feldman; Everett Jones, Sherry; Barrios, Lisa; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Holt, Melissa
Childhood exposure to adverse experiences has been associated with adult asthma, smoking, sexually transmitted disease, obesity, substance use, depression, and sleep disturbances. Conceptualizing bullying as an adverse childhood experience, 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data were used to examine the relationship between in-person and electronic bullying victimization among US high school students and health risk behaviors and conditions related to violence, substance use, sexual risk, overweight and physical activity, sleep, and asthma. Data were from the 2011 national YRBS among students who answered questions about in-person and electronic bullying (N = 13,846). The YRBS is a biennial, nationally representative survey of students in grades 9-12 (overall response rate = 71%). Logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex and controlling for race/ethnicity and grade, examined the association between bullying victimization and health risk behaviors or conditions. Rates of victimization varied; 9.4% of students reported being bullied in-person and electronically, 10.8% only bullied in-person, 6.8% only electronically bullied, and 73.0% uninvolved. Bullying was associated with nearly all health risk behaviors and conditions studied. Assessing the broad functioning and behaviors of victims of bullying could enable educators and health practitioners to intervene early and promote the long-term health of youth. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (revictimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients.
Logan, T K; Walker, Robert
Previous research has documented that, in general, women are more concerned about their personal safety and take more safety precautions than men. However, this study looks beyond gender by examining the association of three overall factors including victimization history, perceived risk of future victimization, and personal control with worry about safety, safety responses, and bystander intervention intentions for 270 men and 821 women. There were four main findings from this study including the following: (a) The two most consistently associated factors with worry about safety, safety responses, and bystander intervention intentions were higher perceived risk of violent victimization and safety efficacy; (b) recent victimization, rather than victimization history, played an important role in safety responses particularly for women; (c) different patterns of factors are associated with different safety responses demonstrating the importance of examining a wide variety of safety responses; and (d) the pattern of factors associated with worry about safety and safety responses do differ by gender but also had some important similarities. Implications for future research and prevention as well as safety planning interventions are discussed.
Wohlfarth, T.; Winkel, F. W.; van den Brink, W.
Objective To construct a practical instrument for the identification and referral of crime victims who are at high risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Crime victims filing a complaint at a police station were asked to fill out a questionnaire probing risk factors for PTSD (n
Jansen, Danielle Emc; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Data regarding the impact of early risk factors on later involvement in bullying are scarce. We investigated the impact of preschool behaviors, family characteristics (socio-economic status, family breakup) and parental mental health on bullying and victimization at age 11 (T1) and age 13.5 (T2). longitudinal data from a subsample of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) (T1: N = 982; T2: N = 977). TRAILS is a prospective study of adolescent mental health in a mixed urban and rural region of the Netherlands. At T1 parents reported on family characteristics, parental mental health and retrospectively on children's preschool behavior at age 4-5. Schoolmates reported involvement of adolescents in bullying or victimization at T1 and T2. Children with preschool anxiety were less likely to be bully/victim at T1. Children with preschool aggressiveness were more likely to be bully (T1), bully/victim (T1 and T2) and victim (T2) and children with good preschool motor functioning were more likely to be bully (T1) and less likely to be victim (T1 and T2). Children from low socioeconomic status families were more likely be to be bully, victim, or bully/victim and less likely to be uninvolved both at T1 and T2. Finally, children from intact two parent families were more likely to be uninvolved at T2. Preschool behavioral, emotional and motor problems, socioeconomic status, and family breakup are related to involvement in bullying at a later age. Prevention of bullying and its consequences can be enhanced by focusing on risk groups in early life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data regarding the impact of early risk factors on later involvement in bullying are scarce. We investigated the impact of preschool behaviors, family characteristics (socio-economic status, family breakup and parental mental health on bullying and victimization at age 11 (T1 and age 13.5 (T2. Methods longitudinal data from a subsample of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS (T1: N = 982; T2: N = 977. TRAILS is a prospective study of adolescent mental health in a mixed urban and rural region of the Netherlands. At T1 parents reported on family characteristics, parental mental health and retrospectively on children's preschool behavior at age 4-5. Schoolmates reported involvement of adolescents in bullying or victimization at T1 and T2. Results Children with preschool anxiety were less likely to be bully/victim at T1. Children with preschool aggressiveness were more likely to be bully (T1, bully/victim (T1 and T2 and victim (T2 and children with good preschool motor functioning were more likely to be bully (T1 and less likely to be victim (T1 and T2. Children from low socioeconomic status families were more likely be to be bully, victim, or bully/victim and less likely to be uninvolved both at T1 and T2. Finally, children from intact two parent families were more likely to be uninvolved at T2. Conclusion Preschool behavioral, emotional and motor problems, socioeconomic status, and family breakup are related to involvement in bullying at a later age. Prevention of bullying and its consequences can be enhanced by focusing on risk groups in early life.
Karna, Antti; Voeten, Marinus; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina
We examined whether the bystanders' behaviors in bullying situations influence vulnerable students' risk for victimization. The sample consisted of 6,980 primary school children from Grades 3-5, who were nested within 378 classrooms in 77 schools. These students filled out Internet-based questionnaires in their schools' computer labs. The results…
Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.
Objective: Women who experience sexual victimization, whether in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, are at elevated risk of sexual revictimization. The mechanism responsible for this robust association is unclear, however. The present study proposed and tested a prospective, mediated model that posited that the association between adolescent…
Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi
Prevalence of dating violence, as well as its relationship to potential risk factors, was examined among a sample of 9th- through 12th-grade girls. Nearly one in ten reported dating violence. Victims of this violence were more likely to be involved in other violent behaviors, report extreme sadness and suicidal actions, use illicit substances, and…
Kärnä, A.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Poskiparta, E.H.; Salmivalli, C.
We examined whether the bystanders' behaviors in bullying situations influence vulnerable students' risk for victimization. The sample consisted of 6,980 primary school children from Grades 3-5, who were nested within 378 classrooms in 77 schools. These students filled out Internet-based
Son, Esther; Peterson, N. Andrew; Pottick, Kathleen J.; Zippay, Allison; Parish, Susan L.; Lohrmann, Sharon
The purpose of this study was to examine the risk and protective factors of peer victimization among young children with disabilities. This study analyzed data from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (n =1,130) to test a path model that included child, family, and school characteristics at Year 1 and peer-relation difficulties and…
Staksrud, Elisabeth; Livingstone, Sonia
Research on the risks associated with children’s use of the internet often aim to inform policies of risk prevention. Yet paralleling the effort to map the nature extent of online risk is a growing unease that the goal of risk prevention tends support an over-protective, risk-averse culture that restricts the freedom of online exploration that society encourages for children in other spheres. It is central to adolescence that teenagers learn to anticipate and cope with risk - in short, to res...
Davis, Jordan P; Merrin, Gabriel J; Berry, Daniel J; Dumas, Tara M; Hong, Jun Sung; Smith, Douglas C
The goals of this study were to examine associations between within- and between-person social risk and victimization and cannabis use among emerging adults in substance-use treatment. We also tested gender differences for both victimization and social risk. Participants consisted of 3,052 emerging adults (M(age) = 20.0 years; SD = 2.21) entering substance-use treatment in a wide range of treatment centers across the United States. Individuals were assessed on all measures at baseline 3, 6, and 12 months. We fitted a taxonomy of multilevel growth curve models to test main effects, and interactive relations between within- and between-person social risk, victimization, and gender on cannabis use. Several significant interactions were evident. Irrespective of gender, within-person increases in social risk were associated with contemporaneous increases in cannabis use; however, the magnitude of this relation was comparatively more pronounced for men. Similar gender differences emerged between individuals. Males experiencing heightened social risk over time tended to show high levels of early cannabis use. Simple slope analyses revealed that reporting more (+1 SD) social risk than one's own mean resulted in significant increases in cannabis use for both men and women. Cross-level simple slope analyses revealed no differences in cannabis use among individuals reporting low (-1 SD) social risk and victimization, but significant increases in cannabis use for individuals reporting high (+ 1 SD) victimization and social risk. Results demonstrate support for gender differences in social risk on cannabis use and the importance of considering within-person effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The aging process is inevitable. It follows the individual from birth until death. Due to the inability of people to influence it, there is a greater obligation of society to provide the people in the „third age“ a dignified life, without any form of victimization. The author defines which people are considered old according to positive legal acts of the Republic of Serbia. The subject of this paper are the factors that increase the risk of victimization of the elderly within the family, taking into account the physical, psychological, sexual and economic violence against the elderly, as well as mechanisms for their legal protection from domestic violence, as one of the most effective tools of the state and society in general for protection of this particularly vulnerable social group. Relevant provisions of the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Serbia with a critical analysis of the incrimination of offenses with elements of domestic violence where the victim is usually an old person will be analyzed. From the subject defined in this manner, stems the paper‘ s mainly descriptive goal of describing the phenomenon through the analysis of the major forms of violence to which the elderly within the family are exposed (physical, psychological, economic and sexual violence. The purpose of the paper is also to analyze the factors that increase the risk of victimization of the elderly and the mechanisms for their legal protection from domestic violence, point out the harm of this type of violence and thus contribute to combating this negative social phenomenon.
aggressive road safety campaigns. Injury prevention and safety promotion campaigns should focus more on the risk factors for motorcycle accidents. Key Words: Motorcycles, Crash, Risk factors, Rural. Background. It is estimated that every day, about 3000 people die and 30,000 are seriously injured in road crashes,.
George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.
This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10%) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol’s effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517
Burk, Thad; Edmondson, Andrea Hamor; Whitehead, Tyler; Smith, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between exposure to bullying and other forms of violence and suicide risk among public high school students in Oklahoma. Data from the 2009 and 2011 Oklahoma Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used for this analysis and were representative of public school students in grades 9-12 in Oklahoma. Students who were bullied, threatened or injured by someone with a weapon, physically hurt by their partner, or had ever been forced to have sex, were twice as likely as students who had not experienced victimization to have experienced persistent sadness, considered attempting suicide, made a plan to attempt suicide, and attempted suicide. The results of this study indicate that being a victim of bullying or other forms of violence significantly increases the likelihood for experiencing signs and symptoms of depression, suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans, or suicidal attempts.
Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona
Verbal and indirect violence among peers in residential care settings (RCSs) are understudied social problems. This study, based on a sample of 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents aged 11-19 in 32 RCSs, examines the prevalence and multilevel correlates of verbal (such as cursing) and indirect (such as social exclusion) forms of victimization by peers in RCSs. Adolescents completed a self-report anonymous questionnaire in their facility. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) is used to examine the links between adolescents' victimization, individual-level characteristics (gender, age, adjustment difficulties, self-efficacy, staff maltreatment experiences and perceived institutional social climate), and RCS-level characteristics (setting type of care, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). Most adolescents reported having been verbally (73%) and indirectly (62%) victimized by their peers at least once in the month prior to filling out the questionnaire. Vulnerability to indirect violence is higher among girls and those with low perception of their social self-efficacy. Younger adolescents, adolescents with higher levels of overall adjustment difficulties, those experiencing high levels of physical maltreatment by RCS staff and those perceiving levels of child friendliness in their RCS as poor, were all more vulnerable to verbal and indirect victimization by peers. Verbal victimization is positively associated with residence in Jewish RCSs and indirect victimization is positively associated with residence in therapeutic settings which contain higher concentrations of vulnerable youth compared with rehabilitative settings. The findings can assist in designing anti-bullying intervention and prevention programs tailored for the at-risk children and institutions identified in the study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O’Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R.
The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. Participants were given a set of legal vignettes that described an event during which an offender engaged in criminal offenses against victims. As an unaffected third-party, participants were asked to rate those criminal offenses on the degree to which the offender deserved punishment and how much harm was inflicted on the victim. Exogenous oxytocin selectively increased third-party decision-makers’ perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses. We argue that oxytocin promoted empathic concern for the victim, which in turn increased the tendency for prosocial approach behavior regarding the interpersonal relationship between an unaffected third-party and a fictional victim in the criminal scenarios. Future research should explore the context- and person-dependent nature of exogenous oxytocin in individuals with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, in whom deficits in empathy feature prominently. PMID:22368214
Krueger, Frank; Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O'Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R
The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. Participants were given a set of legal vignettes that described an event during which an offender engaged in criminal offenses against victims. As an unaffected third-party, participants were asked to rate those criminal offenses on the degree to which the offender deserved punishment and how much harm was inflicted on the victim. Exogenous oxytocin selectively increased third-party decision-makers' perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses. We argue that oxytocin promoted empathic concern for the victim, which in turn increased the tendency for prosocial approach behavior regarding the interpersonal relationship between an unaffected third-party and a fictional victim in the criminal scenarios. Future research should explore the context- and person-dependent nature of exogenous oxytocin in individuals with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, in whom deficits in empathy feature prominently.
Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James R P; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E; Mann, Emily
The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways. The data were collected as part of a large-scale data-linkage study in which the medical records of 2759 cases of contact-CSA between 1964 and 1995 were linked, between 13 and 44 years following abuse, to police and public psychiatric databases; cases were compared to a matched community sample (n=2677). Using a subsample of 510 (401 victims; 109 comparisons) individuals with an interpersonal (re)victimization history, we examined the aggregate 'age-(re)victimization' curves for CSA victims and comparisons, respectively. Further, we applied longitudinal latent class analysis to explore heterogeneity in re-victimization trajectories among abuse survivors across their early life-course. Four latent pathways were identified, labeled: Normative; Childhood-Limited; Emerging-Adulthood; and Chronic re-victimization trajectories. Older age at abuse, a criminal history, and mental health problems were uniquely predictive of membership to the more problematic and persistent re-victimization trajectories. Findings indicate that individuals exposed to CSA during adolescence may be particularly vulnerable to poorer re-victimization trajectories, characterized by multiple risk indices, and thus may warrant increased service provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Veenstra, R.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Data regarding the impact of early risk factors on later involvement in bullying are scarce. We investigated the impact of preschool behaviors, family characteristics (socio-economic status, family breakup) and parental mental health on bullying and victimization at age 11 (T1) and age
D.E.M.C. Jansen (Daniëlle); R. Veenstra (René); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen)
textabstractBackground: Data regarding the impact of early risk factors on later involvement in bullying are scarce. We investigated the impact of preschool behaviors, family characteristics (socio-economic status, family breakup) and parental mental health on bullying and victimization at age 11
Full Text Available Objective: We examined the association between pre-teen alcohol use initiation and the victimization and perpetration of bullying among middle and high school students in Georgia.Methods: We computed analyses using data from the 2006 Georgia Student Health Survey (N=175,311 of students in grades 6, 8, 10 and 12. The current analyses were limited to students in grades 8, 10 and 12 (n=122,434. We used multilogistic regression analyses to determine the associations between early alcohol use and reports of both victimization and perpetration of bullying, perpetration only, victimization only, and neither victimization or perpetration, while controlling for demographic characteristics, other substance use, peer drinking and weapon carrying.Results: Pre-teen alcohol use initiation was significantly associated with both bullying perpetration and victimization relative to non drinkers in bivariate analyses (OR=3.20 95%CI:3.03-3.39. The association was also significant between pre-teen alcohol use initiation and perpetration and victimization of bullying in analyses adjusted for confounders (Adj.OR=1.74; 95%CI:1.61-1.89. Overall, findings were similar for boys and girls.Conclusion: Pre-teen alcohol use initiation is an important risk factor for both the perpetration and victimization of bullying among boys and girls in Georgia. Increased efforts to delay and reduce early alcohol use through clinical interventions, education and policies may also positively impact other health risk behaviors, including bullying. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(3:305-309.
Since the Jesse oil pipeline fire disaster in October 1998 in Delta State, oil pipeline fire disasters have become a recurrent source of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Undoubtedly, the past decade has witnessed increasing incidences of pipeline vandalization with concomitant cascading explosions that pose serious ...
Sotskova, Alina; Woodin, Erica M
The first year of parenthood can be a stressful time, especially for high-risk couples. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) have been associated with decreased intimacy, communication, and relationship adjustment, yet there is a lack of research on how PTS symptoms might affect couples in early parenthood. Furthermore, there is little evidence regarding the way in which PTS symptoms may affect couples above and beyond known risk factors such as intimate partner violence (IPV) and harmful alcohol use. The current study investigated how PTS symptoms were related to new parents' relationship satisfaction in the context of IPV and harmful drinking. Ninety-eight heterosexual couples filled out questionnaires 1 year after the birth of their first child. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that, for men, PTS symptoms predicted lower relationship satisfaction over and above IPV victimization and harmful drinking. However, for women, psychological IPV victimization was the only significant multivariate predictor. In addition, for men, PTS symptoms interacted with harmful drinking to predict poorer relationship satisfaction. The results suggest that women's relationship satisfaction is particularly linked to psychological IPV victimization during early parenthood, whereas men's relationship satisfaction is particularly associated with their own harmful drinking and PTS symptoms. Implications are discussed.
Noll, Jennie G.; Shenk, Chad E.; Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Putnam, Frank W.
Objective The objective of the study was to determine the risk factors for Internet-initiated victimization of female adolescents. In particular, it was expected that girls who experienced childhood abuse would show higher vulnerability than their nonabused peers. In addition, the study examined how provocative self-presentations might be related to online sexual advances and offline encounters. Patients and Methods Adolescent girls aged 14 to 17 years who had experienced substantiated childhood abuse (N = 104) were demographically matched with nonabused girls (N = 69) and surveyed regarding Internet usage, maternal and paternal caregiver presence, substance use, high-risk sexual attitudes, and involvement with high-risk peers. To measure online self-presentation, participants each created avatars, which were quantified according to the degree of provocative physical features. Results Forty percent of the sample reported experiencing online sexual advances, and 26% reported meeting someone offline who they first met online. Abused girls were significantly more likely to have experienced online sexual advances and to have met someone offline. Having been abused and choosing a provocative avatar were significantly and independently associated with online sexual advances, which were, in turn, associated with offline encounters. Conclusions A history of childhood abuse may increase Internet-initiated victimization vulnerability. Parents should be aware of the ways in which their adolescents are presenting themselves online. Making adolescent girls and their parents aware that provocative online self-presentations may have implications for sexual solicitation might help to ward off sexual advances and might help prevent Internet-initiated victimizations. Practitioners should consider standard inquiry into Internet and media usage an aspect of comprehensive care. PMID:19482741
Tsypes, Aliona; Gibb, Brandon E
Although children of depressed mothers are at an increased risk for suicidal thinking, little is known about the potential mechanisms by which this occurs. The present study is the first to our knowledge to utilize a prospective design with the goal of examining whether the impact of maternal depression on children's risk for suicidal ideation is mediated by children's levels of overt and relational peer victimization. Participants were 203 mother-child pairs recruited from the community. The age range of the children was 8 to 14 years old (50.2 % girls). Mothers either met criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD) during their child's lifetime (n = 96) or had no lifetime diagnosis of any DSM-IV mood disorder and no current Axis I diagnosis (n = 107). At the baseline assessment, diagnostic interviews were used to assess mothers' and children's histories of MDD and children completed a self-report measure of peer victimization. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the initial assessment during which time interviewers assessed for the occurrence of suicidal ideation in the children. Utilizing a mediated moderation model, we found significant indirect pathways from maternal depression to children's suicidal ideation through both relational and overt forms of peer victimization among girls, but not among boys. The current study suggests that peer victimization may constitute one of the potential mechanisms by which daughters of depressed mothers are at increased risk for suicidal thinking.
Turner, Alezandria K; Jones, Kandice C; Rudolph, Abby; Rivera, Alexis V; Crawford, Natalie; Lewis, Crystal Fuller
Physical victimization has been linked to high-risk sexual partnerships in women. Although illicit drug-using heterosexual men are at high-risk of physical victimization, the association between violence and high-risk partners in heterosexual men has received little attention in the published literature. We examined the association between experience of severe physical victimization and acquisition of a high-risk sexual partner (i.e., a partner who injected drugs or participated in transactional sex) 1 year later among illicit drug-using men in New York City (2006-2009) using secondary cross-sectional data. Injection and non-injection drug-using men (n = 280) provided a retrospectively recalled history of risk behavior and violence for each year over the past 4 years. Our primary outcome was acquisition of a high-risk sexual partner in any year following the baseline year. Our primary exposure was severe physical victimization (i.e., threatened with a knife or gun, beaten up, shot, or stabbed) in the prior year. Frequency of cocaine, heroin, and crack use and sexual victimization were also assessed. Log-binomial logistic regression with generalized estimating equation (GEE) methods was used to account for repeated measures for up to four time points. After adjustment for important covariates, participants that experienced physical victimization were significantly more likely to have acquired a high-risk sexual partner 1 year later (relative risk (RR), 3.73; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.55-8.97). Our study challenges gender-based stereotypes surrounding physical victimization and provides support for multidisciplinary programs that address both violence and HIV risk among illicit drug-using heterosexual men.
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel
This brief report describes dating violence victimization among adolescents in Flanders, Belgium, and focuses on how dating violence is related to adolescents' well-being and engagement in risk behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behaviors, and engagement in vandalism or fighting. A survey was conducted in Flanders, Belgium among 1187 adolescents (61.3% female, n = 728). A total of 466 respondents between 16 and 22 years old (M = 17.82 years, SD = 0.92) were in a relationship (71.0% female, n = 331), and, therefore, formed the subsample of the present study. The results show that adolescents, who consume alcohol at a younger age, have ever used marihuana, or were involved in vandalism have a higher probability to become victim of dating violence than adolescents who are not involved in these behaviors. Dating violence victimization was also linked with symptoms of depression and a lower self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Day, Kimberly L; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; peer victimization. We examined retrospectively reported peer victimization in ELBW and control children in the oldest known, prospectively followed, population-based birth cohort of ELBW survivors. We compared levels of verbal and physical peer victimization in ELBW and control children. We also predicted peer victimization in the ELBW sample from child characteristics. ELBW children, especially girls, were at an increased risk for verbal, but not physical victimization. In addition, ELBW children with a higher IQ reported higher levels of verbal victimization, although ELBW females who had a lower body mass index in childhood reported higher levels of physical victimization. Findings highlight the need for parents and clinicians to be aware that ELBW girls, especially those with a lower body mass index in childhood, may be at increased risk of peer victimization, as are ELBW children with a higher IQ. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John F M; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl
Cyberbullying victimization is associated with a range of emotional and behavioral outcomes for adolescents. However, previous research has shown that this type of victimization does not affect all individuals negatively. The factors that account for individual differences in reactions to the same online experiences are not well understood. Using a qualitative inductive approach, a set of strong themes relating to factors that either increased the severity of impact of cyberbullying victimization or buffered victims against the impact emerged from interviews with 25 adolescents aged 15-24 years. Themes related to publicity, anonymity of perpetrators, features of the medium, presence of bystanders, and individual level factors were identified as potential influences upon impact severity. The implications of these results for further research and for school/university cyberbullying prevention programs for victims, perpetrators, and bystanders are discussed.
Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Pérusse, Daniel; Boivin, Michel
This study examined whether (a) a genetic disposition for physical health problems increases the risk of peer victimization and (b) peer victimization interacts with genetic vulnerability in explaining physical health problems. Participants were 167 monozygotic and 119 dizyogtic twin pairs. Physical symptoms were assessed in early childhood and early adolescence. Peer victimization was assessed in middle childhood. Genetic vulnerability for physical health problems in early childhood was unrelated to later peer victimization, but genetic vulnerability for physical health problems during early adolescence increased the risk of victimization. Victimization did not interact with genetic factors in predicting physical symptoms. Environmental, not genetic, factors had the greatest influence on the development of physical symptoms in victims. Genetic vulnerability for physical health problems in early adolescence increases the risk of peer victimization. Whether victims suffer a further increase in physical symptoms depends on the presence of protective environmental factors.
Cluver, Lucie; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances
Objectives: To examine whether bullying is a risk factor for psychological distress among children in poor, urban South Africa. To determine risk and protective factors for bullying victimization. Method: One thousand and fifty children were interviewed in deprived neighborhoods, including orphans, AIDS-affected children, street children, and…
Parker, Elizabeth M.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Debnam, Katrina J.; Milam, Adam J.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Background: Much etiologic research has focused on individual-level risk factors for teen dating violence (TDV); therefore, less is known about school-level and neighborhood-level risk factors. We examined the association between alcohol outlet density around high schools and TDV victimization and the association between markers of physical…
Owens, Jennifer Gatewood
This study examines the impact of methodological features of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) on respondent willingness to report violent, serious violent, and property victimizations to the NCVS. Bounded and unbounded data from the 1999-2005 NCVS are used to create a longitudinal file of respondents, and survey-weighted logistic regression models are used to assess the factors associated with the reporting of victimization. Net of sociodemographic control variables, unbounded interviews produced higher estimates of serious violence (72%), violence (66%), and property victimization (67%). Mobile respondents reported higher estimates than nonmobile respondents of serious violence (48%), violence (35%), and property victimization (15%). Compared with in-person interviews, interviewing by telephone increased reporting for serious violence (7%), violence (12%), and property victimization (17%). This study highlights the importance of controlling for these factors in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses to estimate victimization risk.
Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta
In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.
Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Morrison, Diane M.; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M.
This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N = 161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex – perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence – and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication. PMID:18556139
Crookston, Benjamin T; Merrill, Ray M; Hedges, Stephanie; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar
.... This study focused on bullying victimization in Peru. It explored the relationship between the caregiver's perception of child victimization and the child's view of selected negative experiences occurring with other children their age...
Heerde, Jessica A; Hemphill, Sheryl A
The use of substances among youth experiencing homelessness is an important issue in the context of addressing the developing burden of morbidities arising due to illness, injury, physical and mental health concerns, and low rates of health care utilization among this population group. Youth experiencing homelessness report engaging in and being victimized by various forms of sexual behavior. Of interest in this systematic review were published studies investigating substance use in its association with perpetration of sexual offenses, engagement in sexual risk behavior, or experience of sexual victimization among homeless youth. A systematic search of 12 psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "sex crimes," "sexual victimization," "survival sex," "rape," "drugs," and "substance abuse." Twenty-three studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. No studies statistically examining substance use in its association with perpetrating sexual offenses were located. Findings showed substance use was generally associated with sexual risk behavior or sexual victimization; however, it remains unclear whether substance use precedes or follows these behaviors and experiences. It is possible substances are used by homeless youth as a means of coping with sexual risk behavior and victimization. Implications of the review findings in relation to prevention and intervention approaches aimed to decrease the incidence and severity of health concerns among homeless youth are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Juvonen, Jaana; Schacter, Hannah L; Sainio, Miia; Salmivalli, Christina
This study was designed to examine whether a school-wide antibullying program, effective in reducing incidents of bullying, can also reduce the harm associated with victimization. Specifically, we test whether baseline victimization moderates the KiVa program intervention effects on school perceptions, depression, and self-esteem. Relying on a randomized control sample consisting of 7,010 fourth to sixth grade Finnish elementary school students, self-report data were examined using multilevel modeling across 39 intervention and 38 control schools over a 12-month period. The KiVa program was particularly effective in facilitating perceptions of a caring school climate among students who were most victimized before the intervention, while program benefits on attitudes toward school did not vary by level of victimization. The intervention effects on depression and self-esteem were strongest only among the most victimized sixth graders. The results suggest that antibullying programs designed to improve the school ecology can alleviate the plight of the victimized and underscore that harm reduction should be assessed by testing risk × intervention effects when evaluating effectiveness of such programs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Original title: Slachtoffers van criminaliteit. More than three million people in the Netherlands are victims of crime each year. Are all Dutch citizens equally at risk of becoming victims? And of those who become victims, which report the offence to the police, and what motivates them to do
Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter
It has been suggested that those who both bully and are victims of bullying (bully/victims) are at the highest risk of adverse mental health outcomes. However, unknown is whether most bully/victims were bullies or victims first and whether being a bully/victim is more detrimental to mental health than being a victim. A total of 4101 children were prospectively studied from birth, and structured interviews and questionnaires were used to assess bullying involvement at 10 years (elementary school) and 13 years of age (secondary school). Mental health (anxiety, depression, psychotic experiences) was assessed at 18 years. Most bully/victims at age 13 (n = 233) had already been victims at primary school (pure victims: n = 97, 41.6 % or bully/victims: n = 47, 20.2 %). Very few of the bully/victims at 13 years had been pure bullies previously (n = 7, 3 %). After adjusting for a wide range of confounders, both bully/victims and pure victims, whether stable or not from primary to secondary school, were at increased risk of mental health problems at 18 years of age. In conclusion, children who are bully/victims at secondary school were most likely to have been already bully/victims or victims at primary school. Children who are involved in bullying behaviour as either bully/victims or victims at either primary or secondary school are at increased risk of mental health problems in late adolescence regardless of the stability of victimization. Clinicians should consider any victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems.
Full Text Available Contemporary concept of restorative justice emerged at the end of 1960s and the beginning of 1970s, at the time when repression and social exclusion stared to show their lacks. Restorative justice has emerged on the critics of the conventional criminal justice response to crime, which denies the power to both the victim and the offender, and particularly neglecting a victim and minimizing his/her role in the procedure. While the accent of the repressive discourse is on the crime and punishment, restorative discourse is focused on the relationship between parities involved in a criminal case, who should actively participate in the process of finding out adequate solution of the problem arose from the criminal offence. Keeping that in mind, it is quite obvious that theoretical knowledge, concepts and movements that are focused on victims, their rights, legal and overall position had the strongest impact on the development of restorative justice. Taking that as a departure point, the impact of the “conflict as property” concept, victimology, movement for the restitution, movement for victim’s rights, and feminist movement, on the development of a contemporary concept of restorative justice is analyzed in this paper, and vice versa.
Gilmore, Amanda K.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.
Current sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher incidence and severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less incidence/severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. PMID:26408290
Gilmore, Amanda K; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H
Sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barboza, Gia Elise
This purpose of this paper is to identify risk profiles of youth who are victimized by on- and offline harassment and to explore the consequences of victimization on school outcomes. Latent class analysis is used to explore the overlap and co-occurrence of different clusters of victims and to examine the relationship between class membership and school exclusion and delinquency. Participants were a random sample of youth between the ages of 12 and 18 selected for inclusion to participate in the 2011 National Crime Victimization Survey: School Supplement. The latent class analysis resulted in four categories of victims: approximately 3.1% of students were highly victimized by both bullying and cyberbullying behaviors; 11.6% of youth were classified as being victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and cyberbullying; a third class of students were victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and physical bullying but were not cyberbullied (8%); the fourth and final class, characteristic of the majority of students (77.3%), was comprised of non-victims. The inclusion of covariates to the latent class model indicated that gender, grade and race were significant predictors of at least one of the four victim classes. School delinquency measures were included as distal outcomes to test for both overall and pairwise associations between classes. With one exception, the results were indicative of a significant relationship between school delinquency and the victim subtypes. Implications for these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Westen, Antoinette A; Gerretsen, Reza R R; Maat, George J R
Although much literature is available on DNA extraction from tissue samples to obtain the best possible genotyping results, to the best of our knowledge no written recommendations exist on how to excise or extract bone and tooth samples from a victim to facilitate this. Because the possibility of cross-contamination is high, especially when excising numerous samples under disaster conditions, it is important to minimize this risk and to keep samples in optimum condition. In this paper a standard operating procedure is proposed for collection of femur, rib, and tooth samples to aid victim identification both after mass disasters and in (single) forensic investigations.
Priesman, Emily; Newman, Rameika; Ford, Jason A
The current research examines the association between bullying victimization, binge drinking, and marijuana use among adolescents. We seek to determine if this association varies based on the type of bullying experienced, traditional or cyberbullying. We used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The dependent variables were binge drinking and marijuana use. Our key independent variable, bullying victimization, included both traditional and cyberbullying. We estimated logistic regression models, by gender, to examine the association between bullying victimization and substance use. About 25% of the sample reported bullying victimization, including 10.39% for only traditional, 5.47% for only cyber, and 9.26% for both. Traditional bullying was not significantly associated with binge drinking, but was negatively related to marijuana use. Being the victim of cyberbullying and both types of bullying was significantly associated with binge drinking and marijuana use. We also found important gender differences. The current research adds to a growing list of studies that suggests that cyberbullying is associated with more adverse outcomes than traditional bullying. Bullying prevention and intervention efforts should focus on reducing cyberbullying and providing adolescents with the skills needed to effectively deal with cyberbullying.
Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a growing public health issue. Despite good numbers of traffic legislations/ law/bye-laws/ regulations/ policies at the national/ state level and various safety measures to prevent road accidents/ mishaps, awareness remains comparatively low in India. Till date no questionnaire has been suitably developed, standardized and positivised for determining association of causality with injury pattern and severity score. Objective: To design and develop a précised survey questionnaire determining association of causality with injury pattern along with severity score in RTA victims. Methodology: Till date no such study has been ventured which has observed the inter relationship of these factors resulting in a specific injury. Designed questionnaire was based on literature review, and updated several times to ensure the precision and agreement with the help of institutional trauma expert team. As a pilot study, 30 RTA victims admitted in trauma centre of KG Medical University were enrolled and designed questionnaire was tested for easiness and doubts. The results were thoroughly analyzed for item difficulty, precision and internal consistency. Results: A significant agreement of question pertaining to speed (k=0.99, CI=0.95, visibility (k=0.87, alcohol (k=0.65 in the questionnaire. Questions related to environment, driver, vehicle and road factors show a significant consistency (p>0.05 as cause of accidents. Test of agreements done by Kappa showed in variables having value more than 0.60 except few variables. Discussion: The designed questionnaire is precise, reasonably reliable in perfect agreement. This questionnaire should emerge a useful tool in determining the association of risk factors with injury pattern and severity.
de l'Escalopier, Nicolas; Mathieu, Laurent; Valade, Guillaume; Ficko, Cécile; Rigal, Sylvain
In suicide bomber attacks (SBAs), the explosive forces may disperse fragments from the body of the bomber to which the device is attached. This biologic material can cause physical injury to bystanders and may represent a source of severe infectious diseases. Two French soldiers, victims of an SBA in Africa, were managed in the Percy Military Teaching Hospital. They sustained multiple injuries, including some caused by bony fragments converted into projectiles by the explosion. One patient had multiple superficial wounds managed conservatively. The other was treated surgically by serial debridement with removal of a bony piece related to the suicide bomber. The decision not to prescribe antiretroviral therapy was determined after discussion with infectious disease specialists. Blood tests for HIV, HCV and HBV were taken at months zero, three and six; all were negative. In the French Military Health Service, guidelines are based on evaluation of the viral status of the bomber and on the regional HIV prevalence breakpoint. There is no indication for HCV post-exposition prophylaxis (PEP). Accessible human foreign bodies related to an SBA should be removed as soon as possible, in association with antibiotic medication and a possible HIV PEP. These infectious risks have been discussed in some military and law enforcement literature. It should be a risk-based decision supported by medical intelligence.
Modecki, Kathryn L.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Vernon, Lynnette
Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of…
Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Clifford, Cynthia; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.
Objective: The goal of this study is to examine the role of psychological distress in predicting child re-victimization across various forms including conventional crime, peer/sibling violence, maltreatment, sexual violence, and witnessed violence. Methods: Longitudinal data from the Developmental Victimization Survey, which surveyed children…
Kochel, Karen P; Ladd, Gary W; Bagwell, Catherine L; Yabko, Brandon A
Study aims were to: (1) evaluate the association between bully/victim profiles, derived via latent profile analysis (LPA), and changes in peer acceptance from the fall to spring of 7 th grade, and (2) investigate the likelihood of friendlessness, and the protective function of mutual friendship, among identified profiles. Participants were 2,587 7 th graders; peer nomination and rating-scale data were collected in the fall and spring. Four profiles, including bullies, victims, bully-victims, and uninvolved adolescents, were identified at each time point. Findings showed that for victims, more so than for bullies and uninvolved profiles, acceptance scores worsened over time. Results further revealed that bully-victim and victim profiles included a greater proportion of friendless youth relative to the bully profile, which, in turn, contained a greater proportion of friendless adolescents than the uninvolved profile. Findings also provided evidence for the buffering role of friendship among all bully/victim profiles and among bully-victims especially.
Kochel, Karen P.; Ladd, Gary W.; Bagwell, Catherine L.; Yabko, Brandon A.
Study aims were to: (1) evaluate the association between bully/victim profiles, derived via latent profile analysis (LPA), and changes in peer acceptance from the fall to spring of 7th grade, and (2) investigate the likelihood of friendlessness, and the protective function of mutual friendship, among identified profiles. Participants were 2,587 7th graders; peer nomination and rating-scale data were collected in the fall and spring. Four profiles, including bullies, victims, bully-victims, and uninvolved adolescents, were identified at each time point. Findings showed that for victims, more so than for bullies and uninvolved profiles, acceptance scores worsened over time. Results further revealed that bully-victim and victim profiles included a greater proportion of friendless youth relative to the bully profile, which, in turn, contained a greater proportion of friendless adolescents than the uninvolved profile. Findings also provided evidence for the buffering role of friendship among all bully/victim profiles and among bully-victims especially. PMID:26309346
McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Kofler, Michael J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
The current study examined associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and future interpersonal victimization among adolescents, after accounting for the impact of early victimization exposure, gender, ethnicity, and household income. In addition, problematic alcohol use was tested as a mediator of the relation between PTSD…
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos
Sexual revictimization is frequent among victims of child sexual abuse. Several variables, such as sexual experience, substance abuse, and sexual assertiveness, have been proposed to explain the link between child sexual abuse and adolescent and adult sexual victimization, although they have typically been tested separately. The main objective of…
Kelley-Baker, Tara; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Vishnuvajjala, Radha; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Johnson, Mark
We examine the epidemiology of victimization among females crossing the U.S. border to drink in Tijuana, Mexico, with the purpose of creating a framework for an intervention to improve safety among female youth in drinking settings. Drinking history, history of victimization, evening drinking experience, and environmental factors are assessed.…
Mitchell, Kimberly J; Segura, Anna; Jones, Lisa M; Turner, Heather A
This article explores the ways poly-victimized youth (those experiencing multiple different types of victimization over the course of 1 year) use technology to interact with peers. Particular attention is given to the peer harassment victimization and perpetration experiences of poly-victimized youth compared with less victimized and non-victimized youth-both overall and through technology. Data were collected as part of the Technology Harassment Victimization (THV) study; a national survey of 791 youth, ages 10 to 20 across the United States. Study results document the heightened risks that poly-victimized youth experience when interacting with peers. Low and high poly-victimized youth were both at significantly greater risk of being dual victims and perpetrators of peer harassment when compared with non-victimized youth even after taking into account other potentially explanatory factors. This was not found to be the case for less victimized youth. This was true for high poly-victims and technology-involved harassment risk as well. There were indications that poly-victimized youth were interacting with peers in more intense and risky ways in general using new technology. The increase in attention to poly-victimization in recent years has importantly identified the detrimental role that experiencing different forms of victimization have on youth. This study not only adds to that literature but suggests that there is an opportunity to interrupt additional victimization by understanding how poly-victimized youth interact with peers before and during adolescence. Although preliminary, the differences in technology use by poly-victimized youth versus others suggest that more information is needed to understand how they are relating to peers in both positive and risky ways in this environment.
Thongtaeparak, Wittaya; Pratchyapruit, Walai-Orn; Kotanivong, Settha; Sirithanakit, Nimit; Thunyaharn, Sudaluck; Rangsin, Ram; Chaikaew, Phachara; Wongyongsin, Pitee; Pinyoboon, Pongpak; Sutthiwan, Phatcharaphan; Theethansiri, Witchwaree; Janthayanont, Dusit; Mungthin, Mathirut
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for skin problems among flood victims and army personnel during the 2011 floods in Thailand. To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for skin symptoms, standardized questionnaires were used to collect demographic data, current skin symptoms, history of water exposure, and sanitary behaviors. A certified dermatologist evaluated those who presented with skin problems and provided diagnoses. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess independent risk factors for skin symptoms. The most prevalent skin disease was irritant contact dermatitis. Flood victims showed a higher prevalence of skin symptoms compared with army personnel. Development of skin symptoms after exposure to floodwater was also observed earlier among flood victims. Having a history of skin diseases and delayed skin cleaning after exposure were also significant risk factors for the development of skin symptoms. This information might be used as guidelines for protecting military personnel and to educate the general public regarding flood disaster management. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:570-575).
Raiford, Jerris L; Hall, Grace J; Taylor, Raekiela D; Bimbi, David S; Parsons, Jeffrey T
This study examines the role of structural barriers experienced by a community-based sample of 63 HIV-positive and negative transgender women that may elevate HIV infection and transmission risks. Separate hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses tested the association between structural barriers (e.g., unemployment, lack of food, shelter) and condomless anal sex acts, abuse, and readiness to change risk behavior, while controlling for other related factors. Among this primarily Hispanic and African-American sample, HIV-positive and negative transgender women experienced a similar number of structural barriers and experiencing structural barriers was significantly associated with an increased number of condomless anal sex acts (p = .002), victimization (p = .000) and a decreased readiness to change HIV-related risk behavior (p = .014). Structural-level interventions are needed to address this elevated risk among this underserved and hard-to-reach population.
Williams, Caitlin A; Doorley, James D; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne
Previous research has demonstrated a strong link between peer victimization and suicidal ideation and aggression. This study examined interpersonal rejection sensitivity as a mediator of these associations. Diagnostic interviews and assessments were administered to 80 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents and their parents. Interpersonal rejection sensitivity mediated the association between peer victimization and suicidal ideation as well as aggression after controlling for participant sex and mood disorder diagnosis. Interpersonal rejection sensitivity influences the relation between peer victimization and mental health symptoms, including suicidal ideation and aggression. Assessing for and addressing heightened interpersonal rejection sensitivity among adolescents who have been victimized by peers may decrease the likelihood of negative mental health outcomes. Implications, especially for clinicians, are further discussed.
Roodman, Allison A.
Both a recent narrative review and a meta-analytic review of prevalence rates, indicates that prior sexual victimization increases risk for future victimization (Messman & Long, 1996, Roodman & Clum, in press). The purpose of this study was to examine two competing models of sexual victimization that examined the path between child abuse and later sexual victimization. Hypothesized mediating variables were negative cognitive schemas, dissociation, risky behaviors, and coping strategies. St...
Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839
Eaton, Danice K.; Davis, Kristen S.; Barrios, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Noonan, Rita K.
This study examined the association of victimization in a physically violent dating relationship with risk behaviors, age of risk behavior initiation, and co-occurrence of risk behaviors among students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Data were from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Nearly 9% of students reported…
Swahn, Monica H; Bossarte, Robert M; Sullivent, Ernest E
We examined the cross-sectional associations between reports of an early age of alcohol use initiation and suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and peer and dating violence victimization and perpetration among high-risk adolescents. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey conducted in 2004 and administered to all public school students enrolled in grades 7, 9, and 11/12 (N = 4131) in a high-risk school district in the United States. Our analyses were limited to seventh-grade students who either began drinking before the age of 13 or were nondrinkers, with complete information on all covariates (n = 856). Cross-sectional logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between early alcohol use and each of the 6 outcome behaviors (dating violence victimization and perpetration, peer violence victimization and perpetration, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) while controlling for demographic characteristics and other potential confounders (ie, heavy episodic drinking, substance use, peer drinking, depression, impulsivity, peer delinquency, and parental monitoring). In our study, 35% of students reported alcohol use initiation before 13 years of age (preteen alcohol use initiators). Students who reported preteen alcohol use initiation reported involvement in significantly more types of violent behaviors (mean: 2.8 behaviors), compared with nondrinkers (mean: 1.8 behaviors). Preteen alcohol use initiation was associated significantly with suicide attempts, relative to nondrinkers, controlling for demographic characteristics and all other potential confounders. Early alcohol use is an important risk factor for involvement in violent behaviors and suicide attempts among youths. Increased efforts to delay and to reduce early alcohol use among youths are needed and may reduce both violence and suicide attempts.
Ali, Bina; Swahn, Monica; Hamburger, Merle
This study examines the associations between attitudes supporting physical dating violence against boys hitting girls and girls hitting boys and experiences with physical dating violence perpetration and victimization among youth in a high-risk community. Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses are based on data from the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and administered to more than 80% of public school students in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in an urban school district. Findings show that attitudes supporting physical dating violence against boys and girls are significantly associated with physical dating violence perpetration and victimization. Prevention programs that seek to reduce physical dating violence among adolescents may benefit from including sex-specific attitude modification as part of a comprehensive violence prevention approach.
Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.
Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454
Fischer, Peter; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Asal, Kathrin
We investigated how the availability of self-control resources affects risk-taking inclinations and behaviors. We proposed that risk-taking often occurs from suboptimal decision processes and heuristic information processing (e.g., when a smoker suppresses or neglects information about the health risks of smoking). Research revealed that depleted self-regulation resources are associated with reduced intellectual performance and reduced abilities to regulate spontaneous and automatic responses (e.g., control aggressive responses in the face of frustration). The present studies transferred these ideas to the area of risk-taking. We propose that risk-taking is increased when individuals find themselves in a state of reduced cognitive self-control resources (ego-depletion). Four studies supported these ideas. In Study 1, ego-depleted participants reported higher levels of sensation seeking than non-depleted participants. In Study 2, ego-depleted participants showed higher levels of risk-tolerance in critical road traffic situations than non-depleted participants. In Study 3, we ruled out two alternative explanations for these results: neither cognitive load nor feelings of anger mediated the effect of ego-depletion on risk-taking. Finally, Study 4 clarified the underlying psychological process: ego-depleted participants feel more cognitively exhausted than non-depleted participants and thus are more willing to take risks. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.; Hamby, Sherry L.
Objective: Children who experience multiple victimizations (referred to in this paper as poly-victims) need to be identified because they are at particularly high risk of additional victimization and traumatic psychological effects. This paper compares alternative ways of identifying such children using questions from the Juvenile Victimization…
Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie; Ennett, Susan
This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9% female). Growth mixture models were used to identify trajectory classes of physical dating violence victimization separately for girls and boys. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify situational and target vulnerability factors associated with the trajectory classes. For girls, three trajectory classes were identified: a low/non-involved class; a moderate class where victimization increased slightly until the 10th grade and then decreased through the 12th grade; and a high class where victimization started at a higher level in the 8th grade, increased substantially until the 10th grade, and then decreased until the 12th grade. For males, two classes were identified: a low/non-involved class, and a victimized class where victimization increased slightly until the 9th grade, decreased until the 11th grade, and then increased again through the 12th grade. In bivariate analyses, almost all of the situational and target vulnerability risk factors distinguished the victimization classes from the non-involved classes. However, when all risk factors and control variables were in the model, alcohol use (a situational vulnerability) was the only factor that distinguished membership in the moderate trajectory class from the non-involved class for girls; anxiety and being victimized by peers (target vulnerability factors) were the factors that distinguished the high from the non-involved classes for the girls; and victimization by peers was the only factor distinguishing the victimized from the non-involved class for boys. These findings contribute to our understanding of the heterogeneity in physical dating violence victimization during
van Kesteren, John
This article presents results of multivariate and multi-level analyses of data on hate crime victimization from 14 Western European nations. Although the ethnic composition of immigrant communities shows considerable variation across the 14 countries, in all countries self-defined immigrants are
Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P; Chen, Minxing; Mooss, Angela
Street-based female sex workers constitute a vulnerable population for HIV, as they are often enmeshed in chronic patterns of substance use, sexual risk, homelessness, and violent victimization. This study examined the specific contributions of victimization history and abuse-related traumagenic factors to mental health functioning and sexual risk behaviors, while considering the impact of environmental risk factors as well. Using targeted sampling strategies, we enrolled 562 Miami-based female sex workers into an intervention trial testing the relative effectiveness of two alternative case management conditions in establishing linkages with health services and reducing risk for HIV. Lifetime prevalence of abuse was extremely elevated at 88%. Nearly half reported abuse before the age of 18, while 34% reported violent encounters with "dates" or clients in the past 90 days. Serious mental illness (SMI) was quite common, with 74% reporting severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, or traumatic stress. For those with histories of abuse, SMI appeared to mediate the association between abuse-related trauma and unprotected sex behaviors. Mental health treatment would appear to be an important component of effective HIV prevention among this vulnerable group, and should form part of a compendium of services offered to female sex workers.
Full Text Available Capital derived from immoral sources is increasingly circulated in today's financial markets. The moral associations of capital are important, although their impact on investment remains unknown. This research aims to explore the influence of principal source morality on investors' risk preferences. Three studies were conducted in this regard. Study 1 finds that investors are more risk-seeking when their principal is earned immorally (through lying, whereas their risk preferences do not change when they invest money earned from neutral sources after engaging in immoral behavior. Study 2 reveals that guilt fully mediates the relationship between principal source morality and investors' risk preferences. Studies 3a and 3b introduce a new immoral principal source and a new manipulation method to improve external validity. Guilt is shown to the decrease the subjective value of morally flawed principal, leading to higher risk preference. The findings show the influence of morality-related features of principal on people's investment behavior and further support mental account theory. The results also predict the potential threats of "grey principal" to market stability.
Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A
Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215
Using data from Argentina's National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women's vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less "formal" long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.
Full Text Available Using data from Argentina’s National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women’s vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less “formal” long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.
Clavijo Poveda, Jairo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Venegas Carrillo, Juan Camilo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
Between 1950 and 1980 the Colombian state institutions underwent an accelerated modernization process reflected on the bureaucratic reorganization and public policies that had a deep impact on society and shaped the future of the relationship between government and citizens. In this article we will focus our attention on a power supply policy related to cooking on gasoline-powered stoves which had a painful impact on Colombian society, as it led to over four decades of burn victims. The text ...
Leelawat, N.; Suppasri, A.; Latcharote, P.; Imamura, F.; Abe, Y.; Sugiyasu, K.
In the information and communication technology era, smartphones have become a necessity. With the capacity and availability of smart technologies, a number of benefits are possible. As a result, designing a mobile application to increase tsunami awareness has been proposed, and a prototype has been designed and developed. The application uses data from the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami. Based on the current location determined by a GPS function matched with the nearest point extracted from the detailed mesh data of that earlier disaster, the application generates the inundation depth at the user’s location. Thus, not only local people but also tourists visiting the affected areas can understand the risks involved. Application testing has been conducted in an evacuation experiment involving both Japanese and foreign students. The proposed application can be used as a supplementary information tool in tsunami evacuation drills. It also supports the idea of smart tourism: when people realize their risks, they possess risk awareness and hence can reduce their risks. This application can also be considered a contribution to disaster knowledge and technology, as well as to the lessons learned from the practical outcome.
Full Text Available Background: aggression against healthcare workers is an alarming issue worldwide. However, there is lack of data on psychological vulnerability factors (such as personality traits, attachment style which can constitute a risk or a protective factor for being a victim of an episode of violence in the health sector. Methods/design: the present protocol is a cross-sectional study on prevalence and characteristics of violent episodes experienced by nursing students in the clinical setting. Its aim is to identify risk and protective factors for becoming a victim of verbal and/or physical aggression among healthcare workers. Participants will undergo an intensive battery of psychometric tests, dealing with episodes of aggression in the previous year, attachment style, personality traits, perceived stress, health related quality of life and job strain. Conclusions: the findings derived from this study may be of value in identifying vulnerability factors in experiencing an episode of aggression in the health sector. In this respect, it is a step towards the development of valid training and support focused on health workers, aimed at teaching them how to modulate and manage their vulnerability factors in an efficient way.
Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Deleuran, Bent
IRR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.92), celiac disease (aIRR, 5.12; 95% CI, 2.58-10.16), pernicious anemia (aIRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.50-3.68), and psoriasis (aIRR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.32-4.97). There was no increase in the incidence rate for rheumatoid arthritis (aIRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.15); the incidence rate......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients...... (controls) of the same sex and age. The incidence rates of various autoimmune diseases were compared between patients with cirrhosis and controls and adjusted for the number of hospitalizations in the previous year (a marker for the frequency of clinical examination). RESULTS: Of the 24,679 patients...
The European Concerted Action Project \\'Homocysteine and Vascular Disease\\' showed that an elevated homocysteine is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and particularly when combined with other factors such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interactions between homocysteine and individual lipid subfractions. In addition, it was hypothesized that HDL cholesterol may protect against hyperhomocysteinaemia because HDL cholesterol is associated with the enzyme paroxonase, which reduces oxidization of homocysteine to the harmful metabolite, homocysteine thiolactonase.
Prescott, E; Osler, M; Andersen, P K
BACKGROUND: Two recent much cited publications have raised the concern that risk associated with cigarette smoking has so far been underestimated. In this study we wish to determine whether excess all-cause mortality associated with smoking has increased during the last 20-30 years in a study...... population representative of the general Danish population and whether any such changes relate to changes in smoking behaviour. METHODS: Pooled data from three prospective population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habits. A total of 31,194 subjects, 17,669 males and 13....... RESULTS: Male smokers' exposure did not change during the study period whereas female smokers' exposure to tobacco increased in terms of age at smoking onset, quantity smoked and depth of inhalation. During follow-up 5744 males and 2900 females died. In males, death rate ratios (comparing continuous...
Sterzing, Paul R; Auslander, Wendy F; Ratliff, G Allen; Gerke, Donald R; Edmond, Tonya; Jonson-Reid, Melissa
Childhood abuse is a common experience for youth in the child welfare system, increasing their risk of bullying perpetration and victimization. Little research exists that has examined the rates of bullying perpetration and victimization for child welfare-involved adolescent girls. The study addressed the following aims: (a) to generate frequency estimates of physical, nonphysical, and relational forms of bullying perpetration and victimization; (b) to identify the frequency of bully-only, victim-only, bully-victim, and noninvolved roles; and (c) to identify risk and protective factors that correlate with these bullying role types. Participants were 236 girls (12-19 years) in the child welfare system from a Midwestern urban area. Participants were referred to the study to join a trauma-focused group program. Seventy-five percent of the total sample were youth of color, with the remaining 25% identifying as White, non-Hispanic. Data were collected through baseline surveys that assessed childhood abuse, bullying perpetration and victimization, posttraumatic stress, substance misuse, aggression-related beliefs and self-efficacy, placement type, placement instability, and mental health service use. Child welfare-involved adolescent girls were found to assume all four major role types: bully-only (6.4%, n = 15), victim-only (20.3%, n = 48), bully-victim (44.1%, n = 104), and nonvictims (29.2%, n = 69). The bully-victim rate was approximately 7 times higher than the rate found in a nationally representative sample of non-child welfare-involved youth. The current study identified posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, anger self-efficacy, and alcohol use as significant correlates of bullying roles. The identification of a substantially higher rate of bully-victims has important practice implications, suggesting child welfare and school systems adopt trauma-informed systems of care. Bully-victims are very likely traumatized children who are in need of effective
Mulder, Saskia F.; Hutteman, Roos; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
This longitudinal study focused on clarifying the direction of effects between social anxiety and victimization in a community-based sample. In addition, we studied the moderating effect of gender on this association. A total of 1,649 children (45% boys, approximately 12 years old) of 65 secondary-school classes participated in the study.…
Calvete, Esther; Fernández-González, Liria; González-Cabrera, Joaquín M; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel
Bullying victimization in adolescence is a significant social problem that can become persistent over time for some victims. However, there is an overall paucity of research examining the factors that contribute to continued bullying victimization. Schema therapy proposes a model that can help us understand why bullying victimization can be persistent for some victims. This study examines the role of maladaptive schemas, the key concept in schema therapy, as a mechanism of continued bullying victimization. The hypothesis was that maladaptive schemas of rejection mediate the predictive association between victimization in both the family and at school and future bullying victimization. Social anxiety was also considered, as previous research suggests that it can increase the risk of victimization. The participants were 1328 adolescents (45% female) with a mean age of 15.05 years (SD = 1.37), who completed questionnaires at three time points with a 6-month interval between them. Time 2 maladaptive schemas of rejection significantly mediated the predictive association from Time 1 bullying victimization, family abuse and social anxiety to Time 3 bullying victimization. The findings pertaining to potentially malleable factors, such as maladaptive schemas that maintain continued interpersonal victimization, have important implications for prevention and treatment strategies with adolescents.
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778
Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.
Krueger, Frank; Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O’Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R.
The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,...
Daigle, Leah E; Mummert, Sadie J
Although sex-role identification has been found to be associated with crime and delinquency, the link between sex-role identification and violent victimization has remained largely unexplored. Using the Add Health data, this study examines sex-role identification and its relationship to violent victimization. The findings suggest that masculinity increases the risk of violent victimization for males, but does not for females. Other differences in risk factors across gender were also found. These findings indicate that masculinity is an important construct in understanding the complexity of why some persons are violently victimized and others are not.
Cromer, B; Harel, Z
Perhaps the most important factor in the primary prevention of osteoporosis is the attainment of an optimal peak bone during adolescence. In addition to endogenous factors, such as genetic and ethnic background, environmental factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, and sex hormone therapy, influence the accretion of bone mass during this critical period of skeletal growth. First, calcium dietary intake in adolescents is generally well less than the current recommended RDA of 1200 mg/day. Multiple studies of children and adolescents have demonstrated increases in bone mass with dietary calcium supplementation. Second, regarding physical activity, the overall impression is that a moderate amount of particularly weight-bearing exercise has a positive impact on bone. There appears, however, to be a threshold of intensity of physical activity over which a negative impact on bone occurs, particularly when the exercise is of an anaerobic nature or occurring in very thin, amenorrheic participants. Third, previous research suggests that the various forms of hormonal contraception exert differing effects on bone mass in adolescents, with levonorgestrel implants and combined oral contraceptives may be associated with a more positive effect on bone mass compared with that observed with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. From a clinical perspective, approaches to optimizing peak bone mass in adolescents would include increasing calcium intake, whether in the form of dairy products, fortified foods, or supplements as well as encouraging participation at a moderate level, in weight-bearing exercise. Last, in adolescents with extensive risk factors and predicted long duration of use, subdermal implants or combined oral contraceptives may be the optimal hormonal methods of birth control.
Full Text Available Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual’s earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded.
Li, Shasha; Zhai, Guofang; Zhou, Shutian; Fan, Chenjing; Wu, Yunqing; Ren, Chongqiang
Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual's earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded.
Li, Shasha; Zhai, Guofang; Zhou, Shutian; Fan, Chenjing; Wu, Yunqing; Ren, Chongqiang
Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual’s earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded. PMID:28272359
There are no known studies to date examining the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with sudden and dramatic personal financial loss. A Web-based, online, nonprobability convenience survey of 172 Madoff victims (56 percent female; mean age, 60.9 years) using the Posttraumatic Stress List Checklist, civilian version was…
Wooldredge, John; Steiner, Benjamin
Violent victimization in prison may enhance inmates' cynicism toward legal authority and the risk of subsequent criminality. Both micro- and macro-level effects on the prevalence and incidence of inmate-on-inmate physical assault during a 6-month period were examined for random samples of inmates (n1 = 5,640) from all state prisons in Ohio and Kentucky (n2 = 46). Findings revealed that nonprovoked assaults were more common among inmates with lifestyles that might have increased their vulnerability to victimization (less time spent in structured activities, committed violent acts themselves, etc.), and in prisons with larger populations and officers who practice lax rule enforcement. A supplementary analysis of violent offending also revealed that inmate offenders and victims may look less like each other compared to offenders and victims in the general population. Policies focused on increasing inmates' involvement in structured prison activities, enhancing professionalism among officers, and lowering prison populations may be most effective for minimizing the risk of violent victimization.
Rodway, Cathryn; Flynn, Sandra; While, David; Rahman, Mohammed S; Kapur, Navneet; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny
The media attention received by homicides committed by patients with mental illness is thought to increase stigma. However, people with mental illness can also be victims of violence. We aimed to assess how often victims of homicide are current mental health patients and their relationship to the perpetrators. In a national consecutive case-series study, we obtained data for victims and perpetrators of all confirmed homicides between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2005, in England and Wales. We requested information about contact with mental health services in the 12 months before the homicide for all victims and perpetrators. For victims and perpetrators who had contact with mental health services in the 12 months before homicide, we sent questionnaires to the clinician responsible for the patient's care. 1496 victims of confirmed homicide died between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2005, in England and Wales. Patients with mental illness were more likely to die by homicide than were people in the general population (incidence rate ratio 2·6, 95% CI 1·9-3·4). 90 homicide victims (6%) had contact with mental health services in the 12 months before their death. 213 patients with mental illness were convicted of homicide in the same 3 year period. 29 of 90 patient victims were killed by another patient with mental illness. In 23 of these 29 cases, the victim and perpetrator were known to each other, and in 21 of these cases, the victims and perpetrators were undergoing treatment at the same National Health Service Trust. In these 29 cases in which patient victims were killed by another patient with mental illness, alcohol and drug misuse (19 victims [66%], 27 perpetrators [93%]) and previous violence (7 victims [24%], 7 perpetrators [24%]) were common in both victims and, particularly, perpetrators. In seven of the 29 cases in which the victim was killed by another patient with mental illness, both victim and perpetrator were diagnosed with schizophrenia. The high risk of
Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Iannotti, Ronald J
Dating violence is a major public health issue among youth. Overweight/obese adolescents experience peer victimization and discrimination and may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. Furthermore, given the stigma associated with overweight/obesity, perceptions and misperceptions of overweight may be more important than actual weight status for dating violence victimization. This study examines the association of three weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, and weight perception accuracy) with psychological and physical dating violence victimization. The 2010 baseline survey of the 7-year NEXT Generation Health Study used a three-stage stratified clustered sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of U.S. 10th-grade students (n = 1,983). Participants who have had a boyfriend/girlfriend reported dating violence victimization and perceived weight. Weight status was computed from measured height/weight. Weight perception accuracy (accurate/underestimate/overestimate) was calculated by comparing weight status and perceived weight. Gender-stratified regressions examined the association of weight indices and dating violence victimization. Racial/ethnic differences were also examined. The association of weight indices with dating violence victimization significantly differed by gender. Overall, among boys, no associations were observed. Among girls, weight status was not associated with dating violence victimization, nor with number of dating violence victimization acts; however, perceived weight and weight perception accuracy were significantly associated with dating violence victimization, type of victimization, and number of victimization acts. Post hoc analyses revealed significant racial/ethnic differences. White girls who perceive themselves (accurately or not) to be overweight, and Hispanic girls who are overweight, may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. These findings suggest a targeted approach to
Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Iannotti, Ronald J.
Dating violence is a major public health issue among youth. Overweight/obese adolescents experience peer victimization and discrimination and may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. Furthermore, given the stigma associated with overweight/obesity, perceptions and misperceptions of overweight may be more important than actual weight status for dating violence victimization. This study examines the association of three weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, and weig...
Deans, Katherine J; Thackeray, Jonathan; Groner, Jonathan I; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C
Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007-2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age < 30 months old, having only 1 or 2 initially detected injuries, and having a dislocation, open wound, or superficial injury at the previous event (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Over 25% of children who experienced a suspected NAT event had a recurrent episode within one year. These children were younger and more likely to present with "minor" injuries at their previous event.
Leukfeldt, E Rutger
This article investigates phishing victims, especially the increased or decreased risk of victimization, using data from a cybercrime victim survey in the Netherlands (n=10,316). Routine activity theory provides the theoretical perspective. According to routine activity theory, several factors influence the risk of victimization. A multivariate analysis was conducted to assess which factors actually lead to increased risk of victimization. The model included background and financial data of victims, their Internet activities, and the degree to which they were "digitally accessible" to an offender. The analysis showed that personal background and financial characteristics play no role in phishing victimization. Among eight Internet activities, only "targeted browsing" led to increased risk. As for accessibility, using popular operating systems and web browsers does not lead to greater risk, while having up-to-date antivirus software as a technically capable guardian has no effect. The analysis showed no one, clearly defined group has an increased chance of becoming a victim. Target hardening may help, but opportunities for prevention campaigns aimed at a specific target group or dangerous online activities are limited. Therefore, situational crime prevention will have to come from a different angle. Banks could play the role of capable guardian.
A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.
Forster, Myriam; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Borowsky, Iris W
Retrospective studies using adult self-report data have demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase risk of violence perpetration and victimization. However, research examining the associations between adolescent reports of ACE and school violence involvement is sparse. The present study examines the relationship between adolescent reported ACE and multiple types of on-campus violence (bringing a weapon to campus, being threatened with a weapon, bullying, fighting, vandalism) for boys and girls as well as the risk of membership in victim, perpetrator, and victim-perpetrator groups. The analytic sample was comprised of ninth graders who participated in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey ( n ~ 37,000). Multinomial logistic regression models calculated the risk of membership for victim only, perpetrator only, and victim-perpetrator subgroups, relative to no violence involvement, for students with ACE as compared with those with no ACE. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between cumulative ACE and school-based violence, adjusting for age, ethnicity, family structure, poverty status, internalizing symptoms, and school district size. Nearly 30% of students were exposed to at least one ACE. Students with ACE represent 19% of no violence, 38% of victim only, 40% of perpetrator only, and 63% of victim-perpetrator groups. There was a strong, graded relationship between ACE and the probability of school-based victimization: physical bullying for boys but not girls, being threatened with a weapon, and theft or property destruction ( ps bullying and bringing a weapon to campus ( ps effects of cumulative ACE. We recommend that schools systematically screen for ACE, particularly among younger adolescents involved in victimization and perpetration, and develop the infrastructure to increase access to trauma-informed intervention services. Future research priorities and implications are discussed.
Hamilton, Jessica L; Kleiman, Evan M; Rubenstein, Liza M; Stange, Jonathan P; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Peer victimization is a significant risk factor for a range of negative outcomes during adolescence, including depression and anxiety. Recent research has evaluated individual characteristics that heighten the risk of experiencing peer victimization. However, the role of emotional clarity, or the ability to understand one's emotions, in being the target of peer victimization remains unclear. Thus, the present study evaluated whether deficits in emotional clarity increased the risk of experiencing peer victimization, particularly among adolescent girls, which, in turn, contributed to prospective levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. In the present study, 355 early adolescents (ages 12-13; 53% female; 51% African American) who were part of the Adolescent Cognition and Emotion project completed measures of emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline, and measures of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at follow-up. Moderation analyses indicated that deficits in emotional clarity predicted greater peer victimization among adolescent girls, but not adolescent boys. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that deficits in emotional clarity contributed to relational peer victimization, which, in turn, predicted prospective levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms among adolescent girls, but not boys. These findings indicate that deficits in emotional clarity represent a significant risk factor for adolescent girls to experience relational peer victimization, which, in turn, contributed to prospective levels of internalizing symptoms. Thus, prevention programs should target deficits in emotional clarity to prevent peer victimization and subsequent internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls.
Dekker, J.J.M.; Theunissen, J.; Van, R.; Duurkoop, P.; Kikkert, M.
Background. Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a
Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Renaud, Patrice
Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a measure of sexual interests that relies heavily on the stimuli it uses to generate valid results. Ethical considerations surrounding the use of real images in PPG have further limited the content admissible for these stimuli. To palliate this limitation, the current study aimed to combine audio and visual stimuli by incorporating computer-generated characters to create new stimuli capable of accurately classifying sex offenders with child victims, while also increasing the number of valid profiles. Three modalities (audio, visual, and audiovisual) were compared using two groups (15 sex offenders with child victims and 15 non-offenders). Both the new visual and audiovisual stimuli resulted in a 13% increase in the number of valid profiles at 2.5 mm, when compared to the standard audio stimuli. Furthermore, the new audiovisual stimuli generated a 34% increase in penile responses. All three modalities were able to discriminate between the two groups by their responses to the adult and child stimuli. Lastly, sexual interest indices for all three modalities could accurately classify participants in their appropriate groups, as demonstrated by ROC curve analysis (i.e., audio AUC = .81, 95% CI [.60, 1.00]; visual AUC = .84, 95% CI [.66, 1.00], and audiovisual AUC = .83, 95% CI [.63, 1.00]). Results suggest that computer-generated characters allow accurate discrimination of sex offenders with child victims and can be added to already validated stimuli to increase the number of valid profiles. The implications of audiovisual stimuli using computer-generated characters and their possible use in PPG evaluations are also discussed.
Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.
Although behavioral risk factors such as substance use have been hypothesized to increase women's vulnerability to sexual victimization, prospective studies provide mixed empirical support. In the current prospective study, the authors considered substance use, sexual activity, and sexual assertiveness as predictors of sexual victimization from…
Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.
Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Gerardy, Haeli
There is increasing evidence that interpersonal risks and resources can modulate the impact peer victimization has on children's socio-emotional adjustment. The current study contributes to this research by examining links between parents' victimization-related beliefs and children's psychosocial functioning. Data were collected on 190 3rd- and…
van der Werf, Christian; Onderwater, Astrid T.; van Langen, Irene M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.
Relatives of young sudden cardiac death (SCD) victims are at increased risk of carrying a potentially fatal inherited cardiac disease. Hence, it is recommended to perform an autopsy on the victim and to refer his or her relatives to a cardiogenetics clinic for a full evaluation to identify those at
Sourander, Andre; Jensen, Peter; Rönning, John A; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemelä, Solja; Helenius, Hans; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik
To study correlations of childhood bullying and victimization with juvenile criminality. Longitudinal birth cohort study from age 8 years to ages 16 to 20 years. Population-based study from Finland. The sample comprised 2551 boys (86.6% of the original birth cohort) with complete information about bullying and victimization from parents, teachers, and children at age 8 years. Information about criminal offenses from the National Police Register at ages 16 to 20 years. Frequent bullies and those who frequently both bullied and were bullied (8.8% of the sample) were responsible for 33.0% of all juvenile crimes during the 4-year study period. Frequent bully-only status predicted both occasional and repeated offending, whereas bully-victim status predicted repeated offending. Bullying predicted most types of crime (violence, property, drunk driving, and traffic offenses) when controlled with parental education level. However, frequent bullies or victims without a high level of psychiatric symptoms were not at an elevated risk for later criminality. Boys who frequently bully are at risk for later criminality when this condition is accompanied by a high level of psychiatric symptoms. Frequent bullies should be actively screened for psychiatric problems.
Holt, Thomas J; Fitzgerald, Sarah; Bossler, Adam M; Chee, Grace; Ng, Esther
This study utilized routine activity theory to examine the relationships between online behaviors, target suitability, and cyber and mobile phone-based bullying victimization in a nationally representative sample of youth from nine schools across Singapore. Key measures in all three categories-access to technology, online routine behaviors, and target suitability-were significant predictors of both forms of bullying victimization. In particular, females and victims of physical bullying were more likely to experience both forms of victimization. Access to technology and online routine behaviors predicted cyber and mobile phone-based bullying victimization differently. These findings demonstrate that routine activity theory is a viable framework to understand online bullying in non-Western nations, consistent with the existing literature on Western nations. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Much is known about the effect of negative arousal on decision making, but little is known about the effect of positive arousal. In this study, we manipulated positive arousal and measured individual choices under risk using an incentivized task. Participants were randomly assigned to either a low arousal or a high arousal condition and asked to choose between pairs of two-outcome monetary lotteries with the same expected value but different risk in terms of outcome variance. The probability was set at 50% for each lottery. Participants in the high arousal group selected the riskier lottery more often and took more time to make choices than participants in the low arousal group. This finding shows that introducing a pleasant arousing cue as part of the decision context shifts an individual’s preferences toward the risky economic option and away from the safer one.
Ulloa, Emilio C; Hammett, Julia F
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health concern. Previous studies have consistently shown that IPV is tied by to a variety of detrimental consequences for affected individuals, including negative mental health outcomes. However, the differential impact of gender and perpetrator-victim role (i.e., whether an individual is the perpetrator or victim of violence or both) remains largely understudied in the academic literature. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to describe a variety of mental health outcomes and risk behaviors among men and women experiencing no violence, perpetration-only, victimization-only, and bidirectional violence. Data from Waves 3 and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,187) were used. Participants provided information on their perpetrator-victim role and on a variety of factors related to mental health (depression, suicidality, alcohol use, illegal drug use, and relationship satisfaction). For all outcomes, prevalence and severity generally tended to be highest among individuals affected by bidirectional IPV and lowest among individuals not affected by any violence (independent of gender). The present findings highlight that IPV and negative mental health outcomes and risk behaviors should be addressed as co-occurring problems in research, prevention, and treatment. In addition, all gender-role combinations should be addressed to better understand and address all potential effects of IPV. According to the present findings, couples affected by bidirectional violence are at particularly high risk of developing mental health disorders. Thus, policy makers and clinicians should predominantly target couples as well as individuals who are not only the victims but also the perpetrators of IPV and pay particular attention to potential signs of mental health distress these individuals might exhibit. © The Author(s) 2014.
Shasha Li; Guofang Zhai; Shutian Zhou; Chenjing Fan; Yunqing Wu; Chongqiang Ren
.... Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants...
Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane
PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...
Hertz, Marci Feldman; Everett Jones, Sherry; Barrios, Lisa; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Holt, Melissa
Background: Childhood exposure to adverse experiences has been associated with adult asthma, smoking, sexually transmitted disease, obesity, substance use, depression, and sleep disturbances. Conceptualizing bullying as an adverse childhood experience, 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data were used to examine the relationship between…
Bornman, Juan; Nelson Bryen, Diane; Kershaw, Priscilla; Ledwaba, Gloria
People who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) know that silence is not always golden. Persons with disabilities and in particular those with complex communication needs, have a heightened risk of becoming victims of crime, abuse, and neglect. This study looked at the vocabulary needed to disclose or report crime or abuse in South Africa, and also focussed on the development of communication boards for this purpose, in four of the 11 official South African languages (Afrikaans, English, Sepedi, and isiZulu). Thirty-six participants in four language-based focus groups (English, Afrikaans, Sepedi, and isiZulu) were asked to generate a list of possible words they deemed important when wanting to disclose a crime, abuse or neglect. Participants then prioritized the top 55 words. A total of 56 words appeared on two or more of the lists from the four language groups. The board was developed using Picture Communication Symbols (PCS), the most frequently used symbol set in South Africa, according to an electronic mail survey. A discrepancy analysis revealed that these 56 words could be represented by 219 symbols. Symbols were developed for two words (swear, threaten) for which no PCS symbols existed. The process of developing the communication boards described in this paper may be useful to AAC communities in other countries, and the boards can serve as templates for other languages.
Grayson, Joann, Ed.
The documented incidence of sexual abuse of boys is reported. Though prevalence rates varied from different sources, all sources agreed that reported cases reflect only a fraction of the actual prevalence. The paper also discusses characteristics of the abusers, risk factors of victims, the effects of abuse, and the coping styles of the young male…
Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P
at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...
Havenaar, J M; de Wilde, E J; van den Bout, J; Drottz-Sjöberg, B M; van den Brink, W
Several studies have demonstrated that the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 had a strong impact on the subjective health of the inhabitants in the surrounding regions and that the majority of these health complaints appear to be stress-related. An epidemiological survey among the adult population of the Gomel region in Belarus near Chernobyl showed higher rates of self-reported health problems, psychological distress and medical service use in this region than in a comparable unexposed region. This paper presents an analysis of data on cognitive factors that were collected in this study. The findings support the hypothesis that cognitive variables such as risk perception and sense of control play an important role as mediating factors in the explanation of the observed health differences between the exposed and non-exposed regions. A tentative model is presented to further clarify the role of risk perception in the occurrence of non-specific health complaints after such ecological disasters.
Havenaar, J.M. [Utrecht University Hospital, Dept. of Psychiatry (Netherlands); Van Den Bout, J. [Utrecht University, Dept. of Clinical and Health Psychology (Netherlands)
Full text of publication follows: several national and international studies have demonstrated that the accident with the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl in 1986 had a strong impact on the health perception among the inhabitants of the surrounding regions. It has been postulated that psychological factors play an important role in the development of health complaints among these populations, which probably outweighs the role of radiobiological factors (Lee, 1996). The results of a large scale health survey conducted among inhabitants of the Gomel region in Belarus, not for from Chernobyl, have shown higher rates of physical and psychological complaints and higher medical consumption among inhabitants of the exposed region in comparison to the inhabitants of a socio-economically comparable but unexposed region (Havenaar et al. 1997). High rates of self-reported health problems and a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders were especially prominent among mothers with young children and evacuees. In this paper we examine the possible etiological role of risk perceptions and worries related to the nuclear disaster in the exposed and unexposed samples. The findings support the hypothesis that cognitive factors related to the disaster, and especially risk perception, play a significant role in the development of the observed health complaints among the exposed population. A general model is presented to clarify the role of risk perception in the occurrence of non-specific health complaints after real or imaginary exposure to toxic agents in the environment. (authors)
Thomas C. Wilson
Full Text Available Risk management is especially challenging for risks, which cannot be modelled using historical data due to rapid technological, environmental or social changes in an increasingly complex, interconnected world. This article describes and illustrates the Top Risk Assessments and Scenario Analysis approaches which can be used to complement traditional risk modelling in these instances.
King, Dione Moultrie; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Blakey, Joan Marie; Mbizo, Justice
There are many health-risk behaviors that may elevate the risk of adolescents engaging in teenage dating violence. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the health-risk behaviors that are associated with a sample of female juvenile offenders to identify the extent to which those behaviors contribute to dating violence. The survey assessed respondents' health-risk behaviors prior to incarceration, their perceptions of quality of life, post-incarceration expectations, psychosocial factors, and other social determinants. Results indicated youth exposure to dating violence, alcohol, drug, and risky sexual behaviors in the year prior to incarceration. These findings demonstrate the need to address teen dating violence with at-risk adolescents in addition to risky behaviors.
Leadbeater, Bonnie J.
Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents’ peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents’ depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents’ symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein
textabstractPurpose: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods: A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status an...
Barzilay, Shira; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Apter, Alan; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael; Bobes, Julio; Saiz, Pilar; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Banzer, Raphaela; Corcoran, Paul; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Postuvan, Vita; Podlogar, Tina; Sisask, Merike; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta
To examine risk and protective factors moderating the associations between three types of bullying victimization (physical, verbal, and relational bullying) with suicide ideation/attempts in a large representative sample of European adolescents. We analyzed cross-sectional data on 11,110 students (mean age = 14.9, standard deviation = .89) recruited from 168 schools in 10 European Union countries involved in the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study. A self-report questionnaire was used to measure victimization types, depression, anxiety, parental and peer support, and suicide ideation and attempts. For each outcome, we applied hierarchical nonlinear models controlling for sociodemographics. Prevalence of victimization was 9.4% physical, 36.1% verbal, and 33.0% relational. Boys were more likely to be physically and verbally victimized, whereas girls were more prone to relational victimization. Physical victimization was associated with suicide ideation, and relational victimization was associated with suicide attempts. Other associations between victimization and suicidality (ideation/attempts) were identified through analysis of interactions with additional risk and protective factors. Specifically, verbal victimization was associated with suicide ideation among adolescents with depression who perceived low parental support. Similarly, low peer support increased the associations between verbal victimization and suicide ideation. Verbal victimization was associated with suicide attempts among adolescents with anxiety who perceived low parental support. Findings support the development of prevention strategies for adolescent victims of bullying who may be at elevated risk for suicide ideation/behavior, by taking into account gender, the type of bullying, symptomatology, and availability of interpersonal support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Shariska S. Petersen
Full Text Available We describe a patient with Class C diabetes who presented for nonstress testing at 36 weeks and 4 days of gestation with nonreassuring fetal heart tones (NRFHT and oligohydramnios. Upon delivery, thrombosis of the umbilical cord was grossly noted. Pathological analysis of the placenta revealed chorangiosis, vascular congestion, and 40% occlusion of the umbilical vein. Chorangiosis is a vascular change of the placenta that involves the terminal chorionic villi. It has been proposed to result from longstanding, low-grade hypoxia in the placental tissue and has been associated with such conditions such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, and hypertensive conditions in pregnancy. To characterize chorangiosis and its associated obstetric outcomes we identified 61 cases of “chorangiosis” on placental pathology at Henry Ford Hospital from 2010 to 2015. Five of these cases were omitted due to lack of complete records. Among the 56 cases, the cesarean section rate was 51%, indicated in most cases for nonreassuring fetal status. Thus, we suggest that chorangiosis, a marker of chronic hypoxia, is associated with increased rates of cesarean sections for nonreassuring fetal status because of long standing hypoxia coupled with the stress of labor.
Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra
As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children’s own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3,000 6th grade students (52% female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type—reciprocal, desired, and undesired—and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends’ victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children’s own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends’ victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority. PMID:27272516
Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra
As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children's own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3000 6th grade students (52 % female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type-reciprocal, desired, and undesired-and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends' victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children's own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends' victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority.
Veldkamp, Sabine A M; van Bergen, Elsje; de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike
Peer bullying and victimization are a widespread phenomenon among school-age children and can have detrimental effects on the development of children. To examine whether having a close companion during childhood increases or decreases risk of victimization and bullying, this study compared twins to singleton children. A large group of twins (n = 9,909) were included who were compared to their related non-twin siblings (n = 1,534) aged 7-12 from the Netherlands Twin Register, thus creating optimal matching between twins and non-twins. Bullying and victimization were each based on a four-item scale filled out by their teachers. Prevalence rates for either bullying or victimization did not differ between twins and singletons. In total, in the past couple of months, 36% of children bullied peers moderately to severely, and 35% suffered moderately to severely from victimization. Boys were more likely to bully and were more prone to becoming a victim than girls. The most notable finding is that female twin pairs placed together in the same classroom did not bully more often, but were victimized less often, thus pointing to a protective effect of having a close companion in the classroom.
Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina; Arch, Mila
To determine the extent of sexual victimization in four groups of Spanish adolescents based on their own reports. An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted. Sexual victimization was assessed by seven questions included in the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. The samples were composed of 1,105 adolescents (mean age [M]=14.52, standard deviation [SD]=1.76) from seven secondary schools; 149 adolescents (M=14.28; SD=1.45) from 14 child and adolescent mental health centers; 129 adolescents (M=14.59, SD=1.62) institutionalized in 18 long-term (78.3%) and short-term (21.7%) residential centers belonging to the child protection system; and 101 adolescents (M=16.08, SD=0.99) recruited from three detention centers (77.2%) and five open regime teams or follow-up services for court orders for minors not requiring loss of freedom (22.8%). The extent of lifetime sexual victimization ranged from 14.7% of the adolescents in the community sample to 23.5% of youths attended in mental health services, 35.6% of youths involved in the juvenile justice system, and 36.4% of children protected by the child welfare system. Most of the victims were female, the only exception being the group of male victims from the juvenile justice system. Sexual victimization of children is widespread in Spain and its distribution differs depending on the group of children under study. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
García-Moya, Irene; Suominen, Sakari; Moreno, Carmen
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization and its impact on physical and psychological complaints in a representative sample of adolescents and to explore the role of sense of coherence (SOC) in victimization prevalence and consequences. A representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 7580, mean age = 15.41) was selected as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Bullying victimization, physical and psychological symptoms, and SOC were measured, and comparisons were made between strong- and weak-SOC adolescents regarding their likelihood of being a victim of bullying and the negative effects of bullying victimization on their health. Weak-SOC adolescents were significantly more likely to suffer from bullying victimization regardless of type (nonphysical vs physical and nonphysical) or means (traditional vs cyberbullying). In addition, bullying victimization showed significant increasing effects on weak-SOC adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms whereas in strong-SOC adolescents it was not significantly associated with increases in physical complaints and its effects on psychological complaints seemed to be weaker. Weak-SOC adolescents seem to be at higher risk of becoming bullying victims and victimization experiences appear to have increased negative effects on them when compared to strong-SOC students. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Purpose. The association between multiple sclerosis (MS and fracture risk has been reported, but results of previous studies remain controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MS and fracture risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Method. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MS and fracture risk. The pooled risk ratios (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results. A significant association between MS and fracture risk was found. This result remained statistically significant when the adjusted RRs were combined. Subgroup analysis stratified by the site of fracture suggested significant associations between MS and tibia fracture risk, femur fracture risk, hip fracture risk, pelvis fracture risk, vertebrae fracture risk, and humerus fracture risk. In the subgroup analysis by gender, female MS patients had increased fracture risk. When stratified by history of drug use, use of antidepressants, hypnotics/anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, and glucocorticoids increased the risk of fracture risk in MS patients. Conclusions. This meta-analysis demonstrated that MS was significantly associated with fracture risk.
Pham, Tammy; Adesman, Andrew
In recent years, there has been increased recognition that the experiences of youth who have endured bullying cannot be ignored or dismissed as harmless acts by 'kids being kids'. The present article reviews several key risks and consequences of bullying for adolescent victims. Bullying victimization has been linked with a number of adverse health and social outcomes, including mental health issues, weapon-carrying, substance abuse, academic problems, and other adverse consequences - some of which may persist into adulthood. Recent findings on cyberbullying, in particular, highlight the real-life consequences of virtual victimization. Pediatricians play a critical role in identifying and supporting victims of bullying and counseling parents about surveillance and intervention strategies.
Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K
Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to associ...
Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Yang, Jian; Finucane, Hilary K.; Gusev, Alexander; Lindström, Sara; Ripke, Stephan; Genovese, Giulio; Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Do, Ron; Hayeck, Tristan; Won, Hong-Hee; Kathiresan, Sekar; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos; Tamimi, Rulla; Stahl, Eli; Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Belbin, Gillian; Kenny, Eimear E.; Schierup, Mikkel H.; de Jager, Philip; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; McCarroll, Steve; Daly, Mark; Purcell, Shaun; Chasman, Daniel; Neale, Benjamin; Goddard, Michael; Visscher, Peter M.; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodrguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; Grove, Jakob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julia, Antonio; Kahn, Rene S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kahler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lnnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietilinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Sderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tonu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jonsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Hunter, David J.; Adank, Muriel; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baglietto, Laura; Berndt, Sonja; Blomquist, Carl; Canzian, Federico; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Dahmen, Norbert; Silva, Isabel Dos Santos; Easton, Douglas; Eliassen, A. Heather; Figueroa, Jonine; Fletcher, Olivia; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gibson, Lorna; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hazra, Aditi; Hein, Rebecca; Henderson, Brian E.; Hofman, Albert; Hopper, John L.; Irwanto, Astrid; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Lichtner, Peter; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Meindl, Alfons; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Peeters, Petra H.; Peto, Julian; Prentice, Ross L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Sánchez, María José; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Travis, Ruth; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang, Zhaoming; Whittemore, Alice S.; Yang, Rose; Zheng, Wei
Polygenic risk scores have shown great promise in predicting complex disease risk and will become more accurate as training sample sizes increase. The standard approach for calculating risk scores involves linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based marker pruning and applying a p value threshold to
Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.
This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…
Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A
The purpose of this analysis was (1) to provide the rates of dating violence victimization among a national sample of Latino adolescents, (2) to determine the degree to which different forms of dating violence victimization co-occurred for this sample, and (3) to determine how much dating violence victimization overlapped with other forms of non-partner-perpetrated victimization. This analysis used data from the Dating Violence Among Latinos Study, which surveyed 1,525 Latino adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years about past-year dating violence and non-partner-perpetrated victimization. We calculated victimization rates and relative risk ratios to evaluate the co-occurrence among different forms of dating violence victimization as well as the co-occurrence of dating violence and other forms of victimization. Results show elevated rates of dating violence victimization compared with previous studies, which is primarily accounted for by psychological dating violence. The rate of dating violence appears to precipitously increase starting around ages 13 and 14 years and is consistently higher for boys. Each type of dating violence was significantly associated with other forms of dating violence (e.g., physical and psychological). Dating violence was significantly associated with experiencing conventional crime, peer or sibling victimization, and nonpartner sexual victimization as well as being a polyvictim. The results support the importance of early prevention efforts with Latino youth and addressing dating violence with both sexes. Furthermore, dating violence should be seen as a potential risk marker for youth who are experiencing multiple forms of victimization. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Levine, Debra Siegel; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Blow, Adrian J; Marchiondo, Christopher; Walters, Heather; Valenstein, Marcia
National Guard (NG) soldiers returning from deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan were surveyed at 6 and 12 months following their return (N = 970). The overall prevalence of suicide risk at 6 and 12 months following their return was assessed, as were changes in suicide risk among soldiers initially at high or low risk. Factors associated with changes in risk were assessed. The percentage of NG soldiers with high suicide risk increased from 6.8% at 6 months to 9.2% at 12 months (odds ratio = 1.7, p = .02). In the 882 soldiers initially at low risk, 5.9% (52/882) became high risk at 12 months; in the 64 soldiers initially at high risk, 46.9% (30/64) became low risk at 12 months. Initial levels of depressive symptoms were predictive of changing to high risk; this association appeared to be partially explained by soldier reports of increased search in the meaning in life and higher levels of perceived stress. Because suicide risk increases over the first 12 months, continued risk assessments during this time period should be considered. Supporting soldiers to find meaning in their life after deployment and enhancing their capacity to cope with perceived stress may help prevent increases in suicide risk over time. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.
Full Text Available This study was mainly intended to investigate the effects of the income and age of individuals on their risk of becoming victims of physical assault, theft, robbery and attempted theft or robbery. Specifically, we were looking for evidence for a nonlinear relationship between these variables and victimization risk. Data from a national victimization survey were used to estimate victimization probability models. We found that, except for robbery and physical assault, the relationship between personal income and victimization risk has an inverted-U shape. We also found an inverted U-shape relationship between the age of individuals and victimization risk for the four types of crimes analyzed.
Linnet, Jakob; Pedersen, Anders Sune
completion in gambling disorder. We compared 48 gambling disorder sufferers with a 56% completion rate (21 non-completers and 27 completers). Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that waiting time from initial contact to the first session with a therapist was a significant predictor of risk...... of attrition: longer waiting times were associated with increased risk of attrition. Age, gender, or comorbidity was not associated with an increased risk of attrition. These data suggest that gambling disorder sufferers benefit from fast access to treatment, and that longer waiting time increases the risk...
Khalid, Usman; Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar
AIM: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of aortic valve stenosis (AS) also includes an inflammatory component. We therefore investigated the risk of AS in patients with psoriasis compared...... with mild and severe disease, respectively. CONCLUSION: In a nationwide cohort, psoriasis was associated with a disease severity-dependent increased risk of AS. The mechanisms underlying this novel finding require further study....
Minimal prelabour prophylaxis, poor adherence in the month prior to delivery, elevated maternal viral load at delivery, spontaneous preterm labour with prolonged rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis are simple clinical criteria that identify increased intra-partum transmission risk. In these increased-risk scenarios, ...
Introduction: The incidence of obesity has risen over the past several decades and in spite of advancement in modern medicine, it remains a risk factor for maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the association between obesity (increased body mass index) and increased risk of preeclampsia. The possible ...
Hetzel, Melanie D.; McCanne, Thomas R.
Objective: Previous research has indicated that women who experience childhood physical abuse or childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adult victimization. Recently, peritraumatic dissociation (PD) has been suggested as another possible risk factor for PTSD and adult victimization. The purpose of…
Full Text Available The article describes the main causes of falling into slavery, forms of slave labour, as well as moral-psychological properties and characteristics of potential victims of trafficking. Noted risk factors leading to victimization of the person and increase the possibility of becoming an object for criminal groups specializing in this kind of crime. The number of victims of international trafficking ranges from 600 to 800 thousand people a year, and when you consider human trafficking within the individual countries, the total number of victims ranges from 2 to 4 million people. 80% of trafficked people are women and children, of which 70% are sold to other countries for sexual exploitation. According to the International organization for migration (International Organization of Migration annually only in the European markets of prostitution sold is not less than 500 thousand women. Among the personal factors that affect the increase in the number of such crimes, it is necessary to indicate family trouble, which manifests itself, primarily, to neglect, loss of relationships with family and parents, or in the absence of moral and material support from existing family and friends.
Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.
Kuhns, Joseph B; Wilson, David B; Maguire, Edward R; Ainsworth, Stephanie A; Clodfelter, Tammatha A
ABSTRACT Aim To synthesize the results of marijuana, cocaine and opiate drug toxicology studies of homicide victims and examine variation in results across person and setting characteristics. Methods A meta-analysis of 18 independent studies identified from an extensive review of 239 published articles that met the inclusion criteria of reporting marijuana, cocaine and/or opiate toxicology test results for homicide victims. A total of 28 868 toxicology test results derived from 30 482 homicide victims across five countries were examined. Results On average, 6% of homicide victims tested positive for marijuana, 11% tested positive for cocaine, and 5% tested positive for opiates. The proportion of homicide victims testing positive for illicit drugs has increased over time. Age had a strong curvilinear relationship with toxicology test results, but gender differences were not apparent. Hispanic and African American homicide victims were more likely to test positive for cocaine; Caucasians were most likely to test positive for opiates. Cocaine use appeared to be related to increased risk of death from a firearm and was a greater risk factor for violent victimization in the United States than in Newfoundland and Scandinavia. Conclusion There are relatively few studies of illicit drug toxicology reports from homicide victims that allow for cross-cultural comparisons. This study provides a basis for comparing future local toxicology test results to estimates from existing research.
Baldry, A.C.; Winkel, F.W.
Suicidal cognition is defined here as the combination of thinking about committing suicide and engaging in self-harm and is considered to indicate maladjustment following an extreme internalized reaction to negative life events. Victimization at home and at school might lead some youth to suicidal
Baldry, A.C.; Winkel, F.W.
Suicidal cognition is defined here as the combination of thinking about committing suicide and engaging in self-harm and is considered to indicate maladjustment following an extreme internalized reaction to negative life events. Victimization at home and at school might lead some youth to suicidal
R. Bannink (Rienke); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); F. de Waart (Frouwkje); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractPurpose: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods: A
Baldry, Anna C.; Winkel, Frans Willem
Suicidal cognition is defined here as the combination of thinking about committing suicide and engaging in self-harm and is considered to indicate maladjustment following an extreme internalized reaction to negative life events. Victimization at home and at school might lead some youth to suicidal cognition. The present study aimed to examine…
Peer victimization is a serious social problem that can negatively affect a child's psychosocial development and school adjustment, and may have lasting effects for victims. Previous studies on peer victimization have suggested that children with disabilities (CWD) are likely to be more frequent targets of peer victimization. This longitudinal…
Hugeux, P; Barouti, H
Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.
Chen, QiQi; Lo, Camilla K M; Zhu, Yuhong; Cheung, Anne; Chan, Ko Ling; Ip, Patrick
The sustained increase in their use of social networking facilitates the development of adolescents but comes with the risk of cyberbullying, which creates new challenges in regard to adolescent protection. Past evidence shows that family victimization may play an essential role in the way adolescents learn cyberbullying behaviors. Yet, research on the co-occurrence of family victimization and cyberbullying is limited. This study aims to investigate the associations between cyberbullying and family victimization among adolescents, and to examine the health correlates of cyberbullying and family poly-victimization. A large sample of 18,341 students, aged 15-17, from six cities in China, collected between 2009 and 2010 is employed in the present study, which investigated the association between various kinds of family victimization and adolescent cyberbullying. Data analysis was conducted in 2017. In-law conflict, intimate partner violence, elder abuse and neglect, and child maltreatment were associated with a higher possibility of children becoming internet victims. Parents' divorce and separation, low family income, mother's low level of education, and father's unemployment were all associated with cyberbullying victimization. Cyber victimization was positively correlated to symptoms of PTSD and depression, self-harm, and other physical and mental health variables. Possible explanations for the relationships found in this study are discussed and implications for future research and services are provided. Proactive screening for family poly-victimization and cyberbullying is suggested. Schools are highly recommended to cooperate with parents to promote cyber safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Jaclyn M; Patel, Pankaj C; Raver, Jana L
Given increased interest in whether targets' behaviors at work are related to their victimization, we investigated employees' job performance level as a precipitating factor for being victimized by peers in one's work group. Drawing on rational choice theory and the victim precipitation model, we argue that perpetrators take into consideration the risks of aggressing against particular targets, such that high performers tend to experience covert forms of victimization from peers, whereas low performers tend to experience overt forms of victimization. We further contend that the motivation to punish performance deviants will be higher when performance differentials are salient, such that the effects of job performance on covert and overt victimization will be exacerbated by group performance polarization, yet mitigated when the target has high equity sensitivity (benevolence). Finally, we investigate whether victimization is associated with future performance impairments. Results from data collected at 3 time points from 576 individuals in 62 work groups largely support the proposed model. The findings suggest that job performance is a precipitating factor to covert victimization for high performers and overt victimization for low performers in the workplace with implications for subsequent performance.
Stapinski, Lexine A; Araya, Ricardo; Heron, Jon; Montgomery, Alan A; Stallard, Paul
Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has the potential for long-lasting effects on the well-being of victims. To date, research has focused on the consequences of peer victimization during childhood but neglected adolescence. Peer relationships and approval become increasingly important during adolescence; thus, peer victimization at this age may have a damaging psychological impact. Participants were 5030 adolescents aged 11-16 recruited from secondary schools in the UK. Self-report measures of victimization and symptoms of anxiety and depression were administered on three occasions over a 12-month period. Latent growth models examined concurrent and prospective victimization-related elevations in anxiety and depression symptoms above individual-specific growth trajectories. Peer victimization was associated with a concurrent elevation of 0.64 and 0.56 standard deviations in depression and anxiety scores, respectively. There was an independent delayed effect, with additional elevations in depression and anxiety (0.28 and 0.25 standard deviations) six months later. These concurrent and prospective associations were independent of expected symptom trajectories informed by individual risk factors. Adolescent peer victimization was associated with immediate and delayed elevations in anxiety and depression. Early intervention aimed at identifying and supporting victimized adolescents may prevent the development of these disorders.
Schry, Amie R; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W
We sought to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Women (Time 1: n = 574; Time 2: n = 88) who reported consuming alcohol at least once during the assessment timeframe participated. Social anxiety, alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, and sexual victimization were assessed twice, approximately two months apart. Logistic regressions were used to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization at both time points. Longitudinally, women high in social anxiety were approximately three times more likely to endorse unwanted alcohol-related sexual experiences compared to women with low to moderate social anxiety. This study suggests social anxiety, a modifiable construct, increases risk for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Implications for clinicians and risk-reduction program developers are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kim, Christi; Baer, Lea; Zhu, Xiaolei
Treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent bevacizumab, a humanized mAb that neutralizes vascular endothelial growth factor, can lead to proteinuria and renal damage. The risk factors and clinical outcomes of renal adverse events are not well understood. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized, controlled trials to assess the overall risk for severe proteinuria with bevacizumab. We analyzed data from 16 studies comprising 12,268 patients with a variety of tumors. The incidence of high-grade (grade 3 or 4) proteinuria with bevacizumab was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.3%). Compared with chemotherapy alone, bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy significantly increased the risk for high-grade proteinuria (relative risk 4.79; 95% CI 2.71 to 8.46) and nephrotic syndrome (relative risk 7.78; 95% CI 1.80 to 33.62); higher dosages of bevacizumab associated with increased risk for proteinuria. Regarding tumor type, renal cell carcinoma associated with the highest risk (cumulative incidence 10.2%). We did not detect a significant difference between platinum- and non–platinum-based concurrent chemotherapy with regard to risk for high-grade proteinuria (P = 0.39). In conclusion, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy significantly increases the risk for high-grade proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome. PMID:20538785
Schmeink, C.E.; Lenselink, C.H.; Bekkers, R.L.M.
A recently published meta-analysis and a large cohort study showed independently that use of oral contraceptives (OC) leads to an increased relative risk (RR) of cervical cancer. This RR increased with the duration of OC use and was 1.90 after 5 years or more (95% CI: 1.69-2.13). The increased RR
Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Barros, Fernando C; Matijasevich, Alicia
Maternal depression impacts on several detrimental outcomes during a child's life course, and could increase their risk of victimization. This longitudinal study examined the association between antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization at 11 years. We included 3,441 11-year-old adolescents from the 2004 Pelotas Cohort Study. Antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression data were assessed during the follow-up waves. Bullying victimization was self-reported by the adolescents. We used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for the association between maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization. The most prevalent type of bullying was verbal victimization (37.9%). We observed a positive association between antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression and physical bullying victimization. Maternal mood symptoms during pregnancy were associated with physical (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.11-1.53), verbal (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.12-1.49), and any victimization (OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.05-1.41). Severe current maternal depression was associated with physical (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.10-1.62), social manipulation (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.08-1.53), attacks on property (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.08-1.57) and any victimization (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.12-1.56). Regarding maternal depression trajectories, the "chronic-high" group was associated with higher risk of social manipulation, attacks on property and any victimization, than the "low" group. Our results strengthen the evidence of association between maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization, and physical victimization appears to be the main component. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to elucidate the theoretical pathways for this longitudinal association. © 2017 Wiley
Egeberg, Alexander; Mallbris, Lotus; Hilmar Gislason, Gunnar
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and migraine are common conditions with potential overlap of pathophysiological mechanisms. Both these diseases have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk but little is known about their interplay. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the link between psoriasis, ...
Schacter, Hannah L; White, Samantha J; Chang, Vickie Y; Juvonen, Jaana
This study examines the role of characterological self-blame as a unique risk factor associated with other known risk factors (depression and its behavioral and social correlates) for continued victimization across the 1st year of middle school. Relying on a large, ethnically diverse sample of 1,698 young adolescents (M(age) = 11.57, SD = .39; 55% female), self-report assessments in the fall and spring included perceptions of victim status, depressive symptoms, friendships, aggression, and responses to a hypothetical victimization vignette assessing both appraisals (characterological self-blame) and behavioral reactions (helpless responding). In addition to depression, characterological self-blame emerged as the most consistent unique risk factor for subsequent victimization. Mediation analysis suggested that the continuity of victimization between fall and spring could be partially explained by increases in characterological self-blame and depressive symptoms. In addition, cross-lagged panel analyses indicated reciprocal relations between peer victimization and characterological self-blame, suggesting cyclical processes. The study findings suggest that attribution retraining in the beginning of middle school might help prevent escalating risk for continued peer victimization.
Objective: Young people who are victims of, or witnesses to, aggression are at increased risk of developing a psychological disorder and behaving aggressively themselves. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of exposure to aggression in a sample of 1 770 students, aged 15–26 years recruited from technical ...
This study describes the truancy and disciplinary problems of high school bullying victims in the USA. Analyses are based on data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, a nationally representative sample of 10th graders (students aged 14-15) in the USA. Being bullied is found to be positively associated with increased risk of being…
Long, Millie D.; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S.; Kappelman, Michael D.
Background & Aims Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be at increased risk for infectious complications. We aimed to determine the risk of pneumonia in IBD and how biologic and immunosuppressive medications affect this risk. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort and a nested case-control study using administrative data from IMS Health Inc, LifeLink™ Health Plan Claims Database. In the cohort, IBD patients were matched to 4 individuals without IBD. Pneumonia risk was evaluated by incidence rate ratio (IRR) and by adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In the nested case-control analysis, 4856 IBD patients with pneumonia were matched to up to 4 IBD patients without pneumonia by incidence density sampling. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine associations between medications and pneumonia. Results The cohort included 50,932 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 56,403 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 1,269 with unspecified IBD; matched to 434,416 individuals without IBD. The IBD cohort had an increased pneumonia risk when compared to non-IBD (IRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.75-1.88). In adjusted Cox analysis, pneumonia risk remained increased for the IBD vs. non-IBD cohort (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.49-1.60), with increased risk in both CD (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.62-1.80) and UC (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.34-1.48). In the nested case-control analysis, use of biologic medications (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.52), corticosteroids (OR 3.62, 95% CI 3.30-3.98) and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.25) in the preceding 120 days were significantly associated with pneumonia. Conclusions Patients with IBD are at increased risk for pneumonia. Use of corticosteroids particularly increases pneumonia risk. PMID:23295276
Dormond, Megan; Gutierrez, Ramiro L; Porter, Chad K
Giardia lamblia is a common parasitic cause of infectious gastroenteritis in the United States and the world and may be linked to an increased risk of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We sought to assess the risk of several chronic GI disorders following Giardia infection among active duty US military personnel. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study in which active duty military personnel with documented G. lamblia infection were assessed for the subsequent risk of developing a chronic GI disorder including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Post-giardia chronic GI disorder risk was compared to risk in uninfected personnel matched on several demographic characteristics and medical encounter information. Data were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System and exposures (1998-2009) with outcomes identified based on documented medical encounters with specific medical billing codes. Modified Poisson regression was used to evaluate the relationship between G. lamblia infection and chronic GI disorders. A total of 80 Giardia cases were identified for an estimated incidence of 0.55 cases per 100,000 person-years. Cases were matched to 294 unexposed subjects. After adjusting for important covariates, there was an increased risk of IBS (relative risk: 2.1, p = 0.03) associated with antecedent Giardia infection. These data add to a growing body of literature and demonstrate an increased risk of IBS after infection with G. lamblia.
de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene
in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of micronutrient deficiencies and local prevalence of parasitic infections. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01706419........6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...
Does Identification With Rwanda Increase Reconciliation Sentiments Between Genocide Survivors and Non-Victims? The Mediating Roles of Perceived Intergroup Similarity and Self-Esteem During Commemorations
Full Text Available A questionnaire survey (N = 247 investigated the influence of identification with the Rwandan nation on reconciliation sentiments between members of the survivor and of the non-victim groups of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Results showed that, whereas the two groups did not differ in their level of identification with the nation, members of the non-victim group were more willing to reconcile than members of the survivor group. Perceived intergroup similarity mediated the effect of national identification on reconciliation sentiment for both groups, but this effect was stronger among non-victims. Finally, self-esteem during commemorations also mediated this effect, but only among non-victims. We discuss the importance of people’s motivation to reconcile with out-group members in post-genocidal contexts in light of the common in-group identity model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000 as well as the needs-based model of intergroup reconciliation (Nadler & Schnabel, 2008.
Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.
The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of
Dale, Håvard; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir
of primary surgery, and most notably in the first 3 months. The risk of revision due to infection increased in all 4 countries. Risk factors for revision due to infection were male sex, hybrid fixation, cement without antibiotics, and THA performed due to inflammatory disease, hip fracture, or femoral head......Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods...... explain this increase. We believe that there has been an actual increase in the incidence of prosthetic joint infections after THA....
Rosen, Lisa H; Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Gentsch, Joanna K; Wharton, Michelle E; Rahdar, Ahrareh
This study examined self-reports of social victimization and parent reports of adjustment for a sample followed from fourth through seventh grades. Different patterns of social victimization experiences were identified; of the 153 students (79 girls) with complete data, 24% reported chronic social victimization, 23% reported transient experiences of social victimization, and 53% reported being socially victimized at no more than one time point. We examined whether students who experienced persistent and periodic social victimization were at greater risk for internalizing problems than nonvictims. Persistently victimized children demonstrated continuously elevated levels of internalizing problems. Children who were not originally victimized by social aggression but became victimized with time did not demonstrate higher levels of internalizing problems than did nonvictims. Findings were mixed for those who escaped social victimization during this period.
The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students
McLaughlin, Laura Pierce
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…
Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.
Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M
for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received......BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend
Di Benedetto Rita
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between coeliac disease (CD and neoplasms has been long established, but few data are available about the risk factors. The aim of this paper is to estimate the risk of developing a neoplasm among non diagnosed coeliac patients and to evaluate if this risk correlates with the age of patients at diagnosis of coeliac disease. Methods The study population consists of patients (n = 1968 diagnosed with CD at 20 Italian gastroenterology referral Centers between 1st January 1982 and 31st March 2005. Results The SIR for all cancers resulted to be 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0–1.7 p Conclusion Coeliac patients have an increased risk of developing cancer in relation to the age of diagnosis of CD. This risk results higher for malignancies of the gastro-intestinal sites. An accurate screening for tumors should be performed in patients diagnosed with CD in adulthood and in advancing age.
Peguero, Anthony A
There is a growing body of research that suggests parallels between assimilation and increased adolescent violence, which is often referred to as the "immigrant paradox" in the United States. Few studies explore how theories, such as routine activity and lifestyle, could explain the relationship between assimilation and increased violence. This study explores whether and how the adolescent associations between routines, lifestyles, and adolescent school-based victimization vary across immigration generations. Data are drawn from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, which is a nationally representative sample of tenth graders. This study focuses on a subsample consisting of 9,870 first (N = 1,170, 12%), second (N = 1,540, 16%), and third-plus (N = 1,117, 73%) generation public school students (N = 5,050; 51% female) in 580 public schools for this analysis of routine activity, lifestyle, and school-based victimization across immigration generations. Findings do indicate important nuances related to immigration in the conceptual links between routine activity, lifestyle, and adolescent victimization. For instance, engagement in school-based sport activities is a potential risk factor for first and second generation adolescents but is found to be a potential insulating factor against violent victimization for third-plus generation adolescents. The implications of the relationships between routines, lifestyles, and violence across immigration generations are discussed more generally.
Evins, A Eden; Green, Alan I; Kane, John M; Murray, Robin M
As more US states and other countries consider legalizing marijuana, clinicians need to know the possible effects of this drug. Research has shown a connection between marijuana use and an increased risk for schizophrenia in young people who are vulnerable to developing psychosis. An international panel of experts addresses topics such as risk factors for schizophrenia, the potency and effects of cannabis use on adolescents, the effects of concurrent drug use with cannabis on schizophrenia risk, and current attitudes toward marijuana. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use....... METHODS: A community-based case-control study was performed, with 1310 cases of SCA of the ARREST study and 5793 age, sex and SCA-date matched non-SCA controls from the PHARMO database. Only incident SCA cases, age older than 40 years, that resulted from unequivocal cardiac causes...
Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; Sutton, Chloe; Axas, Nicholas; Repetti, Leanne
Objective: To examine the prevalence of bullying victimization among adolescents referred for urgent psychiatric consultation, to study the association between bullying victimization and suicidality, and to examine the relation between different types of bullying and suicidality. Method: A retrospective chart review was conducted for all adolescents referred to a hospital-based urgent consultation clinic. Our study sample consisted of adolescents with a history of bullying victimization. The Research Ethics Board of Queen’s University provided approval. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS (IBM SPSS Inc, Armonk, NY). Chi-square tests were used for sex, suicidal ideation, history of physical and sexual abuse, and time and type of bullying, and an independent sample t test was used for age. Results: The prevalence of bullying victimization was 48.5% (182 of 375). There was a significant association between being bullied and suicidal ideation (P = 0.01), and between sex and suicidal ideation (P ≤ 0.001). Victims of cyberbullying reported more suicidal ideation than those who experienced physical or verbal bullying (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Bullying victimization, especially cyberbullying, is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation among adolescents referred for psychiatric risk assessment. The detailed history of the type and duration of bullying experienced by the victims should be considered when conducting a psychiatric risk assessment. PMID:26720189
Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; Sutton, Chloe; Axas, Nicholas; Repetti, Leanne
To examine the prevalence of bullying victimization among adolescents referred for urgent psychiatric consultation, to study the association between bullying victimization and suicidality, and to examine the relation between different types of bullying and suicidality. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all adolescents referred to a hospital-based urgent consultation clinic. Our study sample consisted of adolescents with a history of bullying victimization. The Research Ethics Board of Queen's University provided approval. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS (IBM SPSS Inc, Armonk, NY). Chi-square tests were used for sex, suicidal ideation, history of physical and sexual abuse, and time and type of bullying, and an independent sample t test was used for age. The prevalence of bullying victimization was 48.5% (182 of 375). There was a significant association between being bullied and suicidal ideation (P = 0.01), and between sex and suicidal ideation (P ≤ 0.001). Victims of cyberbullying reported more suicidal ideation than those who experienced physical or verbal bullying (P = 0.04). Bullying victimization, especially cyberbullying, is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation among adolescents referred for psychiatric risk assessment. The detailed history of the type and duration of bullying experienced by the victims should be considered when conducting a psychiatric risk assessment.
Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A
We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Barak, Yoram; Aizenberg, Dov; Szor, Henry; Swartz, Marnina; Maor, Rachel; Knobler, Haim Y
Suicide rates are higher in elderly persons than in those at other phase of the life-cycle. The majority of World War II (WWII) veterans and Holocaust survivors still define their war experiences as being the "most significant stressor" of their lives. Aging of survivors is frequently associated with depression, reactivation of traumatic syndromes, physical disorders, loss, and psychological distress, possibly increasing the risk of suicide. The aim of the present study was to investigate, among a large cohort of elderly Holocaust survivors, whether their WWII experiences confer an increased risk of suicidal behavior. All medical records of elderly patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Israel during a 5-year period were retrospectively evaluated. Suicidal patients were compared with patients who had not attempted suicide. Of 921 eligible patients, 374 were Holocaust survivors; 135 (14.6%) had attempted suicide in the month before admission. Ninety Holocaust survivors (24%) had attempted suicide, versus 45 of the 502 patients (8.2%) with no WWII experience. The risk of attempted suicide among Holocaust survivors was significantly increased. Although these findings are from a highly selected sample, we suggest that aging Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of attempting suicide. The growth of the elderly population, of whom many had had traumatic life experiences, emphasizes the need to implement preventive strategies so that suicidal risk may be contained.
Kelly, Erin V; Newton, Nicola C; Stapinski, Lexine A; Slade, Tim; Barrett, Emma L; Conrod, Patricia J; Teesson, Maree
Adolescence is a vulnerable time for both substance use and bullying involvement; however, there is limited research on substance use among adolescent victims of bullying. This study aimed to examine concurrent and prospective associations between bullying and substance use, differentiating between passive-victims, bully-victims and 'pure' bullies. Associations between bullying involvement and substance use at baseline and 24 months post-baseline were examined in a cohort of adolescents in Australia. Bullying victims were divided into passive-victims (those who get bullied and do not bully others) and bully-victims (those who both get bullied and bully others). Perpetrators of bullying were divided into 'pure' bullies (those who bully others but do not get bullied), and bully-victims (as above). Outcomes examined were past six month use of alcohol (any drinking; risky drinking), tobacco, and cannabis. While there was no evidence of an association between bullying victimization and/or perpetration and substance use at baseline, there was evidence of an association between bullying and substance use 24 months post-baseline. Specifically, there was evidence of increased odds of risky drinking and cannabis use for the bully-victim group. Bully-victim status at age 13 was associated with substance use at age 15, controlling for concurrent bullying involvement at age 15. Bully-victims are a particularly high-risk group that could benefit from targeted substance use preventive interventions. Reducing bullying is of great importance in reducing substance use and other harms among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L
Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk.
Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Boivin, Michel; Arseneault, Louise; Renaud, Johanne; Perret, Léa C.; Turecki, Gustavo; Michel, Gregory; Salla, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Côté, Sylvana M.
BACKGROUND: Exposure to peer victimization is relatively common. However, little is known about its developmental course and its effect on impairment associated with mental illnesses. We aimed to identify groups of children following differential trajectories of peer victimization from ages 6 to 13 years and to examine predictive associations of these trajectories with mental health in adolescence. METHODS: Participants were members of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, a prospective cohort of 2120 children born in 1997/98 who were followed until age 15 years. We included 1363 participants with self-reported victimization from ages 6 to 13 years and data available on their mental health status at 15 years. RESULTS: We identified 3 trajectories of peer victimization. The 2 prevailing groups were participants with little or moderate exposure to victimization (441/1685 [26.2%] and 1000/1685 [59.3%], respectively); the third group (244 [14.5%]) had been chronically exposed to the most severe and long-lasting levels of victimization. The most severely victimized individuals had greater odds of reporting debilitating depressive or dysthymic symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–5.17), debilitating generalized anxiety problems (OR 3.27, CI 1.64–6.51) and suicidality (OR 3.46, CI 1.53–7.81) at 15 years than those exposed to the lowest levels of victimization, after adjustment for sex, childhood mental health, family hardship and victimization perpetration. The association with suicidality remained significant after controlling for concurrent symptoms of depression or dysthymia and generalized anxiety problems. INTERPRETATION: Adolescents who were most severely victimized by peers had an increased risk of experiencing severe symptoms consistent with mental health problems. Given that peer victimization trajectories are established early on, interventions to reduce the risk of being victimized should start before enrolment
Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese
In recent years, an increasing number of flood hazards has shown to the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union the importance of flood risk management strategies in order to reduce losses and to protect the environment and the citizens. Exposure to floods as well as flood vulnerability might increase across Europe due to the ongoing economic development in many EU countries. Thus even without taking climate change into account an increase of flood disasters in Europe might be foreseeable. These circumstances have produced a reaction in the European Commission, and a Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks was issued as one of the three components of the European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management. Floods have the potential to jeopardise economic development, above all due to an increase of human activities in floodplains and the reduction of natural water retention by land use activities. As a result, an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events is expected. Therefore, concentrated action is needed at the European level to avoid severe impacts on human life and property. In order to have an effective tool available for gathering information, as well as a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood risk mitigation and management, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of flood risk maps which show the potential adverse consequences associated with different flood scenarios. So far, hazard and risk maps are compiled in terms of a top-down linear approach: planning authorities take the responsibility to create and implement these maps on different national and local scales, and the general public will only be informed about the outcomes (EU Floods Directive, Article 10). For the flood risk management plans, however, an "active involvement of interested parties" is required, which means at least some kind of multilateral
Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Odgers, Candice L.; Fisher, Helen L.
Background: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children’s risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children’s mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Results: Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16–2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15–2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Conclusions: Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms
Chang, Ling-Yin; Wu, Wen-Chi; Wu, Chi-Chen; Lin, Linen Nymphas; Yen, Lee-Lan; Chang, Hsing-Yi
Peer victimization in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Growing evidence exists for negative consequences of peer victimization, but research has mostly been short term and little is known about the mechanisms that moderate and mediate the impacts of peer victimization on subsequent antisocial behavior. The current study intended to examine the longitudinal relationship between peer victimization in adolescence and antisocial behavior in young adulthood and to determine whether sleep problems influence this relationship. In total, 2006 adolescents participated in a prospective study from 2009 to 2013. The moderating role of sleep problems was examined by testing the significance of the interaction between peer victimization and sleep problems. The mediating role of sleep problems was tested by using bootstrapping mediational analyses. All analyses were conducted using SAS 9.3 software. We found that peer victimization during adolescence was positively and significantly associated with antisocial behavior in young adulthood (β = 0.10, p peer victimization first increased levels of sleep problems, which in turn elevated the risk of antisocial behavior (indirect effect: 0.01, 95% bootstrap confidence interval: 0.004, 0.021). These findings imply that sleep problems may operate as a potential mechanism through which peer victimization during adolescence leads to increases in antisocial behavior in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention programs that target sleep problems may yield benefits for decreasing antisocial behavior in adolescents who have been victimized by peers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cooley, John L; Fite, Paula J; Pederson, Casey A
The current 3-wave study examined bidirectional associations between peer victimization and functions of aggression across informants over a 1-year period in middle childhood, with attention to potential gender differences. Participants included 198 children (51% girls) in the third and fourth grades and their homeroom teachers. Peer victimization was assessed using both child- and teacher-reports, and teachers provided ratings of reactive and proactive aggression. Cross-classified multilevel cross-lagged models indicated that child-reports, but not teacher-reports, of peer victimization predicted higher levels of reactive aggression within and across academic years. Further, reactive aggression predicted subsequent increases in child- and teacher-reports of peer victimization across each wave of data. Several gender differences, particularly in the crossed paths between proactive aggression and peer victimization, also emerged. Whereas peer victimization was found to partially account for the stability of reactive aggression over time, reactive aggression did not account for the stability of peer victimization. Taken together with previous research, the current findings suggest that child-reports of peer victimization may help identify youth who are risk for exhibiting increased reactive aggression over time. Further, they highlight the need to target reactively aggressive behavior for the prevention of peer victimization in middle childhood.
Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Feng, Joyce Yen; Feng, Jui-Ying; Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Huang, Soar Ching-Yu; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin
This study aims to examine the prevalence of multiple types of child victimization and the effects of multiple types of victimization on children's mental health and behavior in Taiwan. The study also examines the child-protection rate and its correlates among children experiencing various types of victimization. This study collected data with a self-report questionnaire from a national proportionately stratified sample of 6,233 fourth-grade students covering every city and county in Taiwan in 2014. After calculating the 1-year prevalence of child victimization, the study found that bullying was the most prevalent (71%), followed by physical neglect (66%), psychological violence (43%), inter-parental violence (28%), community violence (22%), physical abuse (21%), and sexual violence (9%). As the number of victimization types increased, children were more likely to report greater posttraumatic symptoms, psychiatric symptoms, suicide ideation, self-harm thoughts, and violent behaviors. Gender, neonatal status, parental marital status, and other family risks were significantly associated with elevated incidences of the victimization types. Only 20.6% of the children who had experienced all seven types of victimization had received child protective services. A child was more likely to receive child protective services if he or she had experienced sexual violence, community violence, inter-parental violence exposure, higher family risks, higher suicidal ideation, or living in a single-parent or separated family. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the cumulative effects and the harmful effects that children's experience of multiple types of victimization can have on the children's mental health and behavior. The present findings also raise alarms regarding the severity of under-serving in child-victimization cases. These results underscore the importance of assessing, identifying, and helping children with multiple victimization experiences.
Karvonen A.; Rintamäki P.; Jokela J.; Valtonen E. T.
Global warming may impose severe risks for aquatic animal health if increasing water temperature leads to an increase in the incidence of parasitic diseases. Essentially this could take place through a temperature driven effect on the epidemiology of the disease. For example higher temperature may boost the rate of disease spread through positive effects on parasite fitness in a weakened host. Increased temperature may also lengthen the transmission season leading to higher total prevalence o...
Full Text Available Nearly 50% of patients suffering inferior myocardial infarction will have complications or distinguishing features associated with an increased mortality. This study aimed to identify dominant risk factors related to re-occurrence of acute coronary events in patients with inferior myocardial infarction. This historical cohort included patients with inferior myocardial infarction who received fibrinolytic therapy at emergency department of National Cardiovascular Center Harapan Kita, Jakarta during 2001 to 2004 and was followed-up for two years. Patients with previous myocardial infarction, left bundle branch block, ventricular rhythm, and ventricular pacing were excluded. QRS distortion is ratio between J-point and R wave more than 50% at 2 or more inferior leads. Re-occurrence of acute coronary events is incident of myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris. Of 181 subjects with inferior AMI, there were 21 (11.6% incidents of acute coronary event. Those who had positive than negative QRS distortion had almost three-fold increased risk for re-occurrence of acute coronary events [adjusted relative risk (RRa 2.88; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.05 – 7.90]. In term of TIMI risk score, those with higher than lower risk score had 6.7 times higher risk to be re-occurrence of acute coronary events (RRa = 6.66; 95% CI = 1.94 – 22.92. However, those who had than did not have successful fibrinolysis had 57% lower risk to be re-occurrence of acute coronary event (RRa = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.18 – 1.05; P = 0.065. Re-occurrence acute coronary events were related to QRS distortion, TIMI risk score, and successful fibrinolysis. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:240-4 Keywords: QRS distortion, fibrinolysis, inferior myocardial infarction
Simonsen, Dennis F; Farkas, Dóra K; Horsburgh, Charles R; Thomsen, Reimar W; Sørensen, Henrik T
Cancer may increase risk of active tuberculosis but evidence is sparse. We therefore examined tuberculosis risk in patients with incident cancer using Danish nationwide medical databases. We conducted a matched follow-up study comparing risk of active tuberculosis in cancer-exposed individuals to that in a general population comparison cohort, matched on gender, age, and country of origin, in different follow-up intervals using Cox regression. We identified 290,944 patients with incident cancer and 871,147 matched comparison cohort members during 1 January, 2004-30 November, 2013. After adjusting for comorbidities, the overall adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for tuberculosis among cancer patients was 2.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99-3.10). The highest tuberculosis risks were observed following cancers of the aerodigestive tract (aHR = 8.12; 95% CI: 4.33-15.22), tobacco-related cancers (aHR = 5.01; 95% CI: 3.37-7.44), and hematological cancers (aHR = 4.88; 95% CI: 2.27-10.48). Tuberculosis risk was highly elevated within the first year after cancer diagnosis (aHR = 4.14; 95% CI: 2.88-5.96), with a 6.78-fold increased aHR for cancer patients receiving cytostatics or radiotherapy. Beyond five years of observation, the overall aHR for tuberculosis remained at 2.66 (95% CI: 1.22-5.81). Cancer is a clinical predictor for increased risk of active tuberculosis, probably related to decreased infection barriers, immunosuppression, and shared risk factors. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hawkins, Kara M; Sergio, Lauren E
Recent evidence suggests that visuomotor behaviors may be disrupted in the very early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we propose that using kinematic measures under conditions that place demands on visual-spatial and cognitive-motor processing may provide an effective behavioral means to detect subtle changes associated with AD risk. To this end, we have tested 22 young adults (mean age = 26.4 ± 4.1) and 22 older adults (mean age = 64.3 ± 10.1) at low AD, and 22 older adults (mean age = 67.7 ± 11.3) at high AD risk (i.e., strong family history or diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment). Kinematic measures were acquired on four visuomotor transformation tasks (standard, feedback reversal, plane dissociated, and plane dissociated + feedback reversal) using a dual-touchscreen tablet. Comparing participants at increased AD risk with both young and old healthy control groups revealed significant performance disruptions in at-risk individuals as task demands increased. Furthermore, we were able to discriminate between individuals at high and low AD risk with a classification accuracy of 86.4% (sensitivity: 81.8%, specificity: 90.9%). We suggest that the impairments observed in individuals at increased AD risk may reflect inherent brain alteration and/or early neuropathology disrupting the reciprocal communication between hippocampal, parietal, and frontal brain regions required to successfully prepare and update complex reaching movements. Such impairment has the potential to affect activities of daily living, and may serve as a sensitive measure of functional ability in at-risk adults.
Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rajaraman, Preetha; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Aleman, Berthe M P; Andersson, Michael; Curtis, Rochelle E; Dores, Graça M; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hall, Per; Holowaty, Eric J; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Langmark, Frøydis; Lynch, Charles F; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Morton, Lindsay M; Fossa, Sophie D; Travis, Lois B
Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated with a 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-7.8) increased risk. The OR increased linearly by 0.12 per Gy to the pancreas (P-trendcancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small, should be considered when radiotherapy with exposure to the pancreas is considered for newly diagnosed patients. Additional data are needed on the role of chemotherapy.
Derogar, Maryam; Hull, Mark A; Kant, Prashant; Östlund, Magdalena; Lu, Yunxia; Lagergren, Jesper
The purpose was to determine whether obesity surgery is associated with a long-term increased risk of colorectal cancer. Long-term cancer risk after obesity surgery is not well characterized. Preliminary epidemiological observations and human tissue biomarker studies recently suggested an increased risk of colorectal cancer after obesity surgery. A nationwide retrospective register-based cohort study in Sweden was conducted in 1980-2009. The long-term risk of colorectal cancer in patients who underwent obesity surgery, and in an obese no surgery cohort, was compared with that of the age-, sex- and calendar year-matched general background population between 1980 and 2009. Obese individuals were stratified into an obesity surgery cohort and an obese no surgery cohort. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR), with 95% confidence interval (CI), was calculated. Of 77,111 obese patients, 15,095 constituted the obesity surgery cohort and 62,016 constituted the obese no surgery cohort. In the obesity surgery cohort, we observed 70 patients with colorectal cancer, rendering an overall SIR of 1.60 (95% CI 1.25-2.02). The SIR for colorectal cancer increased with length of time after surgery, with a SIR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.48-2.64) after 10 years or more. In contrast, the overall SIR in the obese no surgery cohort (containing 373 colorectal cancers) was 1.26 (95% CI 1.14-1.40) and remained stable with increasing follow-up time. Obesity surgery seems to be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer over time. These findings would prompt evaluation of colonoscopy surveillance for the increasingly large population who undergo obesity surgery.
Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.
In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…
Patients with chronic pancreatitis may be at an increased risk of low bone density because of malabsorption of vitamin D and calcium, poor diet, pain, alcoholism, and smoking. We investigated the rates of osteoporosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis compared to matched controls.
Rotberg, Iris C.
This article examines a wide array of research on the link between school choice programs and student segregation and draws implications for the Obama Administration's policy promoting the national expansion of charter schools. The research demonstrates how the proliferation of charter schools risks increasing current levels of segregation…
Thompson, Jody A.; Sempier, Tracie; Swann, LaDon
As the number of people moving to the Gulf Coast increases, so does the risk of exposure to floods, hurricanes, and other storm-related events. In an effort to assist communities in preparing for future storm events, the Coastal Community Resilience Index was created. The end result is for communities to take actions to address the weaknesses they…
Prist, Paula Ribeiro; Uriarte, María; Fernandes, Katia; Metzger, Jean Paul
Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC). Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%). Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5), and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks obtained here can be
Paula Ribeiro Prist
Full Text Available Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC. Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%. Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5, and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks
Ménard, Kim S; Cox, Amanda K
Using the National Crime Victimization Survey 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement (NCVS-SVS) and guided by Greenberg and Ruback's social influence model, this study examines the effects of individual (e.g., severity, sex, victim-offender relationship) and contextual (e.g., location) factors on stalking victimization risk, victim labeling and help seeking, and victim and third-party police contacts. Logistic regression results suggest individual and contextual characteristics matter. Consistent with prior research and the theoretical model, the positive effects of severity and sex (female) were significant across all dependent variables, whereas the interaction effect of victim-offender relationship and location held only for third-party police contacts. © The Author(s) 2015.
Tasci Bozbas, Gulnur; Sendur, Omer Faruk; Aydemir, Ali Hakan
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of primary knee osteoarthritis on the risk of falling. One hundred participants (50 with knee osteoarthritis and 50 healthy controls) were included in this study. Primary knee osteoarthritis was diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Patients who were grade 2 or 3 by Kellgren-Lawrence criteria according to weight-bearing knee radiographs were included in this study. The risk of falling was evaluated by the interactive balance and coordination device both in the osteoarthritis and control groups. The functional status and pain were evaluated with respectively Lequesne Index and Visual Analogue Scale. No statistically significant differences were found between the group of primary knee osteoarthritis and control in terms of age, BMI, and gender. The median falling index was 52 in the group with knee OA, whereas it was 31 in the control group. It was determined that primary knee osteoarthritis increased the risk of falling significantly and grade 3 primary knee osteoarthritis was statistically significantly higher than grade 2 (p 0.05). Falling is among the important causes of mortality and morbidity in advanced age. Therefore, assessment of risk factors for falling and the strategies to prevent it are important. Primary knee osteoarthritis is one of the risk factors associated with falling. Therefore, medical approaches, proprioception training, balance-gait training, muscle strengthening exercises, and arrangements to prevent domestic injurious falling should be planned to reduce the risk of falling in the presence of primary knee osteoarthritis.
Full Text Available Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programmes have improved maternalhealth outcomes and reduced the incidence of paediatric HIV, resulting in improved childhealth and survival. Nevertheless, high-risk vertical exposures remain common and areresponsible for a high proportion of transmissions. In the absence of antiretrovirals (ARVs,an 8- to 12-hour labour has approximately the same 15% risk of transmission as 18 monthsof mixed feeding. The intensity of transmission risk is highest during labour and delivery;however, the brevity of this intra-partum period lends itself to post-exposure interventions toreduce such risk. There is good evidence that infant post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP reducesintra-partum transmission even in the absence of maternal prophylaxis. Recent reports suggestthat infant combination ARV prophylaxis (cARP is more efficient at reducing intra-partumtransmission than a single agent in situations of minimal pre-labour prophylaxis. Guidelinesfrom the developed world have incorporated infant cARP for increased-risk scenarios. Incontrast, recent guidelines for low-resource settings have rightfully focused on reducingpostnatal transmission to preserve the benefits of breastfeeding, but have largely ignored thepotential of augmented infant PEP for reducing intra-partum transmissions. Minimal prelabourprophylaxis, poor adherence in the month prior to delivery, elevated maternal viralload at delivery, spontaneous preterm labour with prolonged rupture of membranes andchorioamnionitis are simple clinical criteria that identify increased intra-partum transmissionrisk. In these increased-risk scenarios, transmission frequency may be halved by combiningnevirapine and zidovudine as a form of boosted infant PEP. This strategy may be important toreduce intra-partum transmissions when PMTCT is suboptimal.
Barnes, Kerri T; McDowell, Bradley D; Button, Anna; Smith, Brian J; Lynch, Charles F; Gupta, Amit
To validate the association between obesity and penile cancer at a population level, we conducted a matched case-control study linking the Iowa Department of Motor Vehicles Drivers' License Database (DLD) with cancer surveillance data collected by the State Health Registry of Iowa (SHRI). All men diagnosed with invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma from 1985 to 2010 were identified by SHRI. Two hundred sixty-six cancer cases and 816 cancer-free male controls, selected from the Iowa DLD, were matched within 5-year age and calendar year strata. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported height and weight from the DLD. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between BMI and the risk of developing invasive penile cancer. Obesity was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing penile cancer. For every five-unit increase in BMI the risk of invasive penile cancer increased by 53 % (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.29-1.81, p obesity and higher risk of invasive penile cancer and advanced cancer stage at diagnosis in a hospital-based retrospective study. This population-based study confirms an association between obesity and invasive penile cancer.
CASE/CONTROL SELECTION: Cases consisted of individuals who had histologically confirmed intracranial meningioma form the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, North Carolina and 6 counties in the state of California. The control group were selected using random-digit-dialing and matched to cases by 5-year age interval, sex, and state of residence. Information was collected from consenting participants by telephone interview. The sample that was used in this analysis included 1433 cases and 1350 controls. Descriptive statistics were used to examine associations between the risk of meningioma and independent covariates. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the odds of meningioma associated with risk factors. The authors reported an odds ratio of 2.0 (95%CI 1.4-2.9), meaning patients with meningioma (cases) had double the odds of reporting ever having a bitewing x-ray as compared with non-disease controls. Individuals who reported receiving bitewing x-rays on a yearly or more frequent basis had an elevated odds as age increased. An increased risk of meningioma also was associated with panorex films taken at a young age. Exposure to some dental x-rays in the past, especially when radiation exposure was greater than it is currently, is associated with increased risk of meningioma. As with other sources of ionizing radiation, limiting its use may be a benefit to patients.
Meloy, J Reid; Boyd, Cynthia
Demographic, clinical, and forensic data were gathered in an archival study of 82 female stalkers from the United States, Canada, and Australia. Female stalkers were predominantly single, heterosexual, educated individuals in their mid 30s who had pursued their victims for more than a year. Major mental disorder and personality disorder were suggested, especially borderline personality disorder. They usually threatened violence, and if they did threaten, were more likely to be violent. Frequency of interpersonal violence was 25 percent, but there was limited use of weapons, and injuries were minor. Stalking victims were most likely to be slightly older male acquaintances; but if the victim was a prior sexual intimate of the female stalker, her risk of being violent toward him exceeded 50 percent. Unlike male stalkers who often pursue their victims to restore intimacy, these female stalkers often pursued their victims to establish intimacy. Common emotions and motivations included anger, obsessional thoughts, rage at abandonment, loneliness, dependency, jealousy, and perceived betrayal. Results are interpreted from a clinical and risk management perspective.
D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Barnes, Dionne; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L
Little is known about the transition to adulthood for adolescent females and young women who are impoverished and homeless. Co-occurrence of drug use and abuse, HIV risk, and victimization is notable among homeless women, highlighting the need for comprehensive interventions. Unfortunately, evidence-based prevention approaches addressing these inter-related problems among impoverished women transitioning into adulthood are lacking. To address this gap, we designed an innovative prevention program by utilizing open- and closed-ended interview data from impoverished women (n = 20), focus groups with community experts and providers (2 groups; n = 9), and a theoretical framework to direct the research. Information provided by our focus groups and interviews with women supported our theoretical framework and highlighted the importance of addressing normative information, providing skills training, and utilizing a non-confrontational approach when discussing these sensitive issues.
Steadman, Henry J; Monahan, John; Pinals, Debra A; Vesselinov, Roumen; Robbins, Pamela Clark
Highly publicized incidents in which people with apparent mental illnesses use guns to victimize strangers have important implications for public views of people with mental illnesses and the formation of mental health and gun policy. The study aimed to provide more data about this topic. MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study data were analyzed to determine the prevalence of violence by 951 patients after discharge from a psychiatric hospital, including gun violence, violence toward strangers, and gun violence toward strangers. Two percent of patients committed a violent act involving a gun, 6% committed a violent act involving a stranger, and 1% committed a violent act involving both a gun and a stranger. When public perceptions and policies regarding mental illness are shaped by highly publicized but infrequent instances of gun violence toward strangers, they are unlikely to help people with mental illnesses or to improve public safety.
Hellmuth, S G; Pedersen, L H; Miltoft, C B
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and neurodevelopmental disorders in euploid children. METHODS: This study included 222 505 euploid children who had undergone routine first-trimester screening during fetal life. Children were divided...... spectrum disorders (ASD), cerebral palsy, epilepsy and febrile seizures was obtained from national patient registries. RESULTS: There was no excess risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among euploid children with first-trimester NT 95(th) -99(th) percentile. For children with NT > 99(th) percentile...... in the risk of cerebral palsy (OR, 1.91 (95% CI, 0.61-5.95), 0.47%), epilepsy (OR, 1.51 (95% CI, 0.63-3.66), 0.78%) or febrile seizures (OR, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.44-1.16), 2.65%). CONCLUSIONS: In a large unselected cohort of euploid children, there was no increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among those...
Kalayasiri, Rasmon; Gelernter, Joel; Farrer, Lindsay; Weiss, Roger; Brady, Kathleen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Kranzler, Henry R.; Malison, Robert T.
Cannabis can produce and/or exacerbate psychotic symptoms in vulnerable individuals. Early exposure to cannabis, particularly in combination with genetic factors, increases the risk of a subsequent, primary, psychotic disorder. Because paranoia is a common feature of stimulant abuse and cocaine dependent individuals frequently endorse a history of cannabis abuse, we examined whether early cannabis exposure, in conjunction with polymorphic variation in the catechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT Val158Met), influences the risk for cocaine-induced paranoia (CIP). Methods Cannabis-use history was obtained in 1140 cocaine-dependent individuals from a family-based (affected sibling pair) study using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA). Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations analyses were used to examine the role of adolescent-onset cannabis use (≤ 15 yrs of age) on CIP risk, both controlling for previously implicated CIP risk factors and familial relationships, and considering potential interactions with COMT Val158Met genotype. Results Cocaine-dependent individuals who endorsed CIP had significantly higher rates of adolescent-onset cannabis use than those without CIP (62.2% vs. 50.2%; χ2 = 15.2, df = 1, p < 0.0001), a finding that remained after controlling for sibling correlations and other risk factors. There were no effects of COMT genotype or genotype by early cannabis onset interactions. A modest (OR = 1.4) and nearly significant (p = 0.053) effect of CIP status in probands on CIP status in siblings was also noted. Conclusions Adolescent-onset cannabis use increases the risk of CIP in cocaine dependent individuals. COMT genotype and its interaction with early cannabis exposure did not emerge as significant predictors of CIP. In addition, trait vulnerability to CIP may also be familial in nature. PMID:19944543
van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger
The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.
McFarlane, Judith; Malecha, Ann; Gist, Julia; Watson, Kathy; Batten, Elizabeth; Hall, Iva; Smith, Sheila
In order to establish the frequency of substance use, following and attributed to sexual assault, and describe the danger for femicide and suicidality for women physically and sexually abused compared to physically-abused only women, a personal interview of 148 African-American, Hispanic, and white English and Spanish-speaking abused women was completed. Women who reported more than one sexual assault were 3.5 (95% CI, 0.9, 13.4) times more likely to report beginning or increasing substance use compared to women who reported only one sexual assault. Sexually assaulted women reported significantly (p=.002) more risk factors for femicide compared to physically- abused only women. Specific to suicide, women reporting sexual assault were 5.3 (95% CI, 1.3, 21.5) times more likely to report threatening or attempted suicide within a 90-day period compared to physically-abused only women. The health assessment and intervention of intimate partner violence must extend beyond injury to include behavior risk sequelae of substance abuse and suicidality.
Full Text Available The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.
Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long
The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.
Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Marsh, Stuart; Campus, Paola
Extreme geohazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Exposure of human assets to geohazards has increased dramatically in recent decades, and the sensitivity of the built environment and the embedded socio-economic fabric have changed. We are putting the urban environment, including megacities, in harm's way. Paradoxically, innovation during recent decades, in particular, urban innovation, has increased the disaster risk and coupled this risk to the sustainability crisis. Only more innovation can reduce disaster risk and lead us out of the sustainability crisis. Extreme geohazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis) that occurred regularly throughout the last few millennia mostly did not cause major disasters because population density was low and the built environment was not sprawling into hazardous areas to the same extent as today. Similar extreme events today would cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. The Geohazards Community of Practice of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) with support from the European Science Foundation is preparing a white paper assessing the contemporary disaster risks associated with extreme geohazards and developing a vision for science and society to engage in deliberations addressing this risk (see http://www.geohazcop.org/projects/extgeowp). Risk awareness and monitoring is highly uneven across the world, and this creates two kinds of problems. Firstly, potential hazards are much more closely monitored in wealthy countries than in the developing world. But the largest hazards are global in nature, and it is critical to get as much forewarning as possible to develop an effective response. The disasters and near-misses of the past show that adherence to scientific
Johnson Oluwole Ayodele
Full Text Available Badagry is the first community to receive the Christian religion in Nigeria. For this, every good reason exists to suppose that its coming into early contact with the missionaries should have caused the Ogu people to acquire a healthier understanding of fair play in the context of widowhood practices. Regrettably, they seem to respond more slowly to change in their attitudes to widows. Thus, despite the overwhelming presence of Christian relics in the ancient town of Badagry, traditional customs such as wife inheritance and widowhood rites have continued to appear significantly associated with violence against which women are not well-protected. “Gender Victimization: A Study of Widowhood Practices” among Ogu People of Lagos is the focus of this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for the study. Thus, five in-depth interviews and three focus group discussion instruments were used to collect primary data, which were used to complement quantitative data. Although quantitative data were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, qualitative data were cleaned, reorganized into themes and analyzed. The study found that much as the Ogu people of Lagos acknowledge the position of the scriptures on society’s non-criminal relation with widows, they still believe that their culture comfortably drives the greater proportion of their widow-friendly interactions. This study suggests that the adoption of cultural best practices in handling women and their peculiar issues will tone down violence in customary widowhood practices and enable women who lost their husbands in circumstances beyond their controls access community-based support.
Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang
Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Svrakic, Dragan M; Freedland, Kenneth E; Chrusciel, Timothy; Balasubramanian, Sumitra; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lawler, Elizabeth V; Lustman, Patrick J
Prescription opioid analgesic use has quintupled recently. Evidence linking opioid use with depression emanates from animal models and studies of persons with co-occurring substance use and major depression. Little is known about depressogenic effects of opioid use in other populations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prescription opioids are associated with increased risk of diagnosed depression. Retrospective cohort study, new user design. Medical record data from 49,770 US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system patients with no recent (24-month) history of opioid use or a diagnosis of depression in 1999 and 2000. Propensity scores were used to control for bias by indication, and the data were weighted to balance the distribution of covariates by duration of incident opioid exposure. Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for painful conditions were used to estimate the association between duration of prescription opioid use and the subsequent risk of development of depression between 2001 and 2007. Of 49,770 patients who were prescribed an opioid analgesic, 91 % had a prescription for 180 days. Compared to patients whose prescription was for opioid prescription increased (HR = 1.25; 95 % CI: 1.05-1.46 for 90-180 days, and HR = 1.51; 95 % CI:1.31-1.74 for > 180 days). In this sample of veterans with no recent (24-month) history of depression or opioid analgesic use, the risk of development of depression increased as the duration of opioid analgesic exposure increased. The potential for depressogenic effect should be considered in risk-benefit discussions, and patients initiating opioid treatment should be monitored for development of depression.
Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Swain, Daniel L.; Touma, Danielle
California ranks first in the United States in population, economic activity, and agricultural value. The state is currently experiencing a record-setting drought, which has led to acute water shortages, groundwater overdraft, critically low streamflow, and enhanced wildfire risk. Our analyses show that California has historically been more likely to experience drought if precipitation deficits co-occur with warm conditions and that such confluences have increased in recent decades, leading t...
This podcast describes research done in Ghana examining a correlation between type 2 diabetes and a possible increased risk for malaria infection in adults. Dr. Manoj Menon, a medical officer in the Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria in the Center for Global Health, discusses questions the study raises. Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases; Center for Global Health. Date Released: 9/23/2010.
Simopoulos, Artemis P.
In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145
Artemis P. Simopoulos
Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.
Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja
This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second, and third year of university, separated by 12-month intervals. Sexual assault victimization was assessed at Time 1 (T1) since the age of 14 and at Time 2 (T2) and Time 3 (T3) for the last 12 months. Depression and sexual self-esteem were measured at each wave. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel analyses, controlling for individual differences in depression and sexual self-esteem, showed that sexual assault at T1 predicted depression and lower sexual self-esteem at T2, and depression and lower self-esteem at T2 predicted sexual assault victimization at T3. In addition, significant paths were found from T1 depression to T2 sexual assault victimization and from T2 sexual assault victimization to depression at T3. Sexual victimization at T1 was indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3 via depression at T2. Both depression and sexual self-esteem at T1 were indirectly linked to sexual victimization at T3. The paths did not differ significantly between men and women. Sexual assault victimization was shown to be a risk factor for both depression as a general mental health indicator and lowered sexual self-esteem as a specific outcome in the domain of sexuality. Moreover, depression and sexual self-esteem increased the vulnerability for sexual assault victimization, which has implications for prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Coughlan, B; Powell, D; Higgins, M F
Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be "never events" and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved - the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims). If the perceived expectation of patients on all clinicians is that of perfection, then clinicians may suffer the consequences of adverse outcomes in isolation and silence. More recently identification and discussion on the phenomenon of the second victim has become a popular research topic. This review aimed to study not only the phenomenon of second victim in general medical care but to also concentrate on maternity care where the expectation of perfection may be argued to be greater. Risk factors, prevalence and effect of second victims were identified from a thorough search of the literature on the topic. The review focuses on the recent research of the effect on maternity staff of adverse outcomes and discusses topical issues of resilience, disclosure, support systems as well as Learning from Excellence. It is now well documented that when staff members are supported in their disclosure of errors this domino effect is less traumatic. It is the responsibility of everyone working in healthcare to support all the victims of an error, as an ethical duty and to have a supportive culture of disclosure. In addition, balance can be provided by developing a culture of learning from excellence as well as from errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Holfeld, Brett; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena
With increasing frequency of Internet use among adolescents, there are growing concerns about their risk for becoming attached to these forms of communication and increased vulnerability for negative online experiences, including cyber victimization. The effect of these experiences on adolescent mental health is not well understood. In this study, we examine how Internet attachment is related to anxiety and depression and assess the mediating effect of cyber victimization on these associations. Participants included 1,151 middle school students (51.4 percent males) aged 10 to 16 (M = 12.7, SD = 0.93). Structural equation models show that greater Internet attachment was associated with more cyber victimization and greater symptoms of anxiety and depression. Cyber victimization mediated the associations between Internet attachment and anxiety and between Internet attachment and depression. Implications for online awareness efforts are discussed.
Miele, Catherine H; Schwartz, Alan R; Gilman, Robert H; Pham, Luu; Wise, Robert A; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Jun, Jonathan C; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Miranda, J Jaime; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William
Miele, Catherine H., Alan R. Schwartz, Robert H. Gilman, Luu Pham, Robert A. Wise, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Jonathan C. Jun, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, J. Jaime Miranda, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and William Checkley. Increased cardiometabolic risk and worsening hypoxemia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:93-100, 2016.-Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While excessive erythrocytosis is associated with cardiovascular complications, it is unclear how worsening hypoxemia of any degree affects cardiometabolic risk factors in high-altitude populations. We studied the relationship between daytime resting oxyhemoglobin saturation and cardiometabolic risk factors in adult participants living in Puno, Peru (3825 m above sea level). We used multivariable logistic regression models to study the relationship between having a lower oxyhemoglobin saturation and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Nine hundred and fifty-four participants (mean age 55 years, 52% male) had information available on pulse oximetry and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Average oxyhemoglobin saturation was 90% (interquartile range 88%-92%) and 43 (4.5%) had excessive erythrocytosis. Older age, decreased height-adjusted lung function, and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with having an oxyhemoglobin saturation ≤85%. When adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, having excessive erythrocytosis, and site, we found that each 5% decrease in oxyhemoglobin saturation was associated with a higher adjusted odds of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.72, p 2 mass units (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.00-1.67, p < 0.05), hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.09-2.51, p < 0.04), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ≥3 mg/L (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.96, p < 0.01). In high-altitude populations in Puno, Peru, a higher BMI and lower pulmonary function were
Full Text Available The 2011 Fukushima disaster led to increases in multiple risks (e.g., lifestyle diseases and radiation exposure and fear among the public. Here, we assessed the additional risks of cancer caused by radiation and diabetes related to the disaster and the cost-effectiveness of countermeasures against these conditions. Our study included residents of the cities of Minamisoma and Soma (10-40 km and 35-50 km north of the Fukushima Daiichi (N° 1 Nuclear Power Station, respectively. We used the loss of life expectancy (LLE as an indicator to compare risks between radiation exposure and diabetes. We also estimated the cost-effectiveness of radiation-related countermeasures, including restricted food distribution, decontamination, and whole-body counter tests and interventions. Metformin therapy was selected as a representative management for diabetes. The diabetes-related LLEs among residents were 4.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.8 ×10-2 years for the whole population and 8.0 (2.7-13.2 ×10-2 years for 40s to 70s in a scenario that considered the additional incidence of diabetes during the first 10 years. The cancer-related LLEs caused by lifetime exposure to radiation were 0.69 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.61-0.79 ×10-2 years for the whole population and 0.24 (0.20-0.29 ×10-2 years for 40s to 70s. The diabetes-related LLEs among residents in the above-mentioned scenario were 5.9-fold and 33-fold higher than those attributed to average radiation among the whole population and among the 40s to 70s age groups, respectively. The costs per life-years saved of the radiation countermeasures (i.e., restricted food distribution, decontamination, and whole-body counter tests and interventions were >1 to >4 orders of magnitude higher than those of general heath checkups and conventional management for diabetes. Our findings indicate that countermeasures to mitigate diabetes are warranted. Policy-makers' and individuals' understanding of multiple risks after any
Wang, I J; Wen, H J; Chiang, T L; Lin, S J; Guo, Y L
Little is known about the effect of postnatal maternal psychologic problems on the development of childhood atopic disorders. To assess the association between early life maternal psychologic problems and atopic dermatitis (AD) in children in a national birth cohort. We used multistage, stratified systematic sampling to recruit 24,200 mother-newborn pairs from the Taiwan national birth registration. Maternal psychologic problems and potential confounders were gathered by the standard questionnaire at 6 months old. At 3 years of age, information about the development of AD was assessed by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood via home interviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association of postnatal maternal psychologic problems (postpartum depression (PPD) and maternal mental health index) and AD. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed AD was 10.5%. PPD increased the risk of subsequent physician-diagnosed AD in children after adjusting for potential confounders and other maternal mental health index (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.21-1.66). We observed that the risk of AD associated with PPD was not confounded by other social demographic factors such as maternal AD, maternal education, family income, breastfeeding, day care, and number of siblings. Postpartum depression increased the risk of childhood AD even when other maternal mental health index and social demographic factors are considered. Early intervention of PPD might be helpful for AD prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hsu, Chao-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hsu, Chung Y; Kao, Chia-Hung
Splenectomy may be necessary to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with thrombocytopenia; however, whether performing a splenectomy on patients without SLE increases the subsequent risk of SLE remains unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association between splenectomy and SLE. We conducted a cohort study by using data from the Taiwan National Health Institute Research Database to identify 10,298 patients with received a splenectomy between 2000 and 2006 and 41,192 participants without received a splenectomy who were selected by frequency matched based on sex, age, and the index year. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of developing SLE associated with splenectomy compared with patients who did not receive a splenectomy. During the study period, the overall incidence density rate of SLE was higher in the splenectomy cohort than in the non-splenectomy cohort (adjusted HR 10.55; 95 % CI 50.55-20.05). The incidence density rates of SLE in women and men who received a splenectomy were higher than those of patients who did not receive a splenectomy. Non-traumatic splenectomy increases the subsequent risk of SLE. The risk of SLE should be considered before performing a splenectomy, particularly in women and younger patients.
Maas, M; Dam-Deisz, W D C; van Roon, A M; Takumi, K; van der Giessen, J W B
The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk map model predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococcosis patients in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. This study was designed to determine trends in the prevalence and worm burden of E. multilocularis in foxes in a popular recreational area in the southern part of Limburg to assess the risk of infection for humans and to study the prevalence of E. multilocularis in dogs in the adjacent city of Maastricht. Thirty-seven hunted red foxes were tested by the intestinal scraping technique and nested PCR on colon content. Additionally, 142 fecal samples of domestic dogs from Maastricht were analyzed by qPCR for the presence of E. multilocularis. In foxes, a significantly increased prevalence of 59% (95% confidence interval 43-74%) was found, compared to the prevalence of 11% (95% CI 7-18%) in 2005-2006. Average worm burden increased to 37 worms per fox, the highest since the first detection, but consistent with the prediction about the parasite population for this region. Updated prediction on the number of AE cases did not lead to an increase in previous estimates of human AE cases up to 2018. No dogs in the city of Maastricht tested positive, but results of questionnaires showed that deworming schemes were inadequate, especially in dogs that were considered at risk for infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J.F.; Cederkvist, L
AIM: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. METHODS: Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage...... on the association between childhood cancer and antidepressant use indicated no modifying effect. CONCLUSION: Childhood cancer survivors should be followed-up for depression. Our results indicate an increasing need for follow-up especially in survivors treated by more recent, intensive anticancer treatment....... to the National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. RESULTS: Overall, childhood cancer...
Whitton, Sarah W; Newcomb, Michael E; Messinger, Adam M; Byck, Gayle; Mustanski, Brian
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, little is known regarding its developmental patterns, risk factors, or health-related consequences. We examined IPV victimization in an ethnically diverse community-based convenience sample of 248 LGBT youth (aged 16-20 at study outset) who provided six waves of data across a 5-year period. Results from multilevel models indicated high, stable rates of IPV victimization across this developmental period (ages 16-25 years) that differed between demographic groups. Overall, 45.2% of LGBT youth were physically abused and 16.9% were sexually victimized by a dating partner during the study. Odds of physical victimization were 76% higher for female than for male LGBT youth, 2.46 times higher for transgender than for cisgender youth, and 2 to 4 times higher for racial-ethnic minorities than for White youth. The prevalence of physical IPV declined with age for White youth but remained stable for racial-ethnic minorities. Odds of sexual victimization were 3.42 times higher for transgender than for cisgender youth, 75% higher for bisexual or questioning than for gay or lesbian youth, and increased more with age for male than female participants. Within-person analyses indicated that odds of physical IPV were higher at times when youth reported more sexual partners, more marijuana use, and lower social support; odds of sexual IPV were higher at times when youth reported more sexual partners and more LGBT-related victimization. In prospective analyses, sexual IPV predicted increased psychological distress; both IPV types marginally predicted increased marijuana use. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Yang, Hwai-I; Wang, Chih-Hao; Jen, Chin-Lan; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei; Liu, Chun-Jen; You, San-Lin; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chien-Jen
The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and cerebrovascular disease remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the risk of lethal cerebrovascular diseases associated with chronic HCV infection. In this community-based prospective cohort study, 23 665 residents (aged 30 to 65 years) were enrolled in 1991 to 1992. They were personally interviewed using structured questionnaires and provided blood samples for various serological and biochemical tests at study entry. Serum HCV RNA level and HCV genotype were tested for participants seropositive for antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV). Deaths from cerebrovascular disease during follow-up were ascertained by computerized linkage with National Death Certification profiles from 1991 to 2008 (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision 430 to 438). Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio with 95% CI was estimated for each risk predictor. There were 255 cerebrovascular deaths during 382 011 person-years of follow-up. The cumulative risk of cerebrovascular deaths was 1.0% and 2.7% for seronegatives and seropositives of anti-HCV, respectively (P<0.001). The hazard ratio (95% CI) of cerebrovascular death was 2.18 (1.50 to 3.16) for anti-HCV seropositives after adjustment for several conventional risk factors of cerebrovascular disease. Compared with participants seronegative for anti-HCV as the referent, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) was 1.40 (0.62 to 3.16), 2.36 (1.42 to 3.93), and 2.82 (1.25 to 6.37), respectively, for anti-HCV-seropositive participants with undetectable, low, and high serum levels of HCV RNA (P<0.001 for trend). However, no significant association was observed between HCV genotype and cerebrovascular death. Chronic HCV infection is an independent risk predictor of cerebrovascular deaths showing a biological gradient of cerebrovascular mortality with increasing serum HCV RNA level.
L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Humar, Atul; Payne, Clare; Kumar, Deepali
Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database. Only consented donors were included. Donors were categorized as IRDs according to Health Canada/Canadian Standards Association (CSA) criteria. A total of 494 potential donors were identified, of which 92 (18.6%) were IRDs. Of these, at least one organ was transplanted from 76 (82.6%). Risk factors for IRDs included injection drug user (IDU) (12%), men having sex with men (MSM) (7%), commercial sex worker (CSW) (4%), and incarceration (24%). Fifty-nine percent (253/429) of IRD organs were utilized. The most frequently used organ was kidney, followed by liver. Median number of organs recovered per IRD was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5). Nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed in 18.5% (17/92) of IRDs. Reasons for NAT were IDU (n = 2), MSM (n = 2), CSW (n = 2), and previous incarceration (n = 7). Organ utilization from donors that had NAT was similar to donors who did not (94% vs 80%, P = .29). Follow-up NAT was done in infectious risk from such organs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane
Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Folkes, Stephanie E F; Hilton, N Zoe; Harris, Grant T
Use of weapons is a risk factor for domestic violence severity, especially lethality. It is not clear, however, whether access to firearms itself increases assault severity, or whether it is characteristic of a subgroup of offenders who are more likely to commit severe and repeated domestic assault. This reanalysis of 1,421 police reports of domestic violence by men found that 6% used a weapon during the assault and 8% had access to firearms. We expected that firearm use would be rare compared to other weapons and that actual weapon use rather than firearm access would increase the severity of domestic assaults. Firearm access was associated with assault severity, but this was mostly attributable to use of nonfirearm weapons. Weapon use was associated with older age, lower education, and relationship history as well as to assault severity. Victims were most concerned about future assaults following threats and actual injuries. Although firearm access and weapon use were related to actuarial risk of domestic violence recidivism, neither predicted the occurrence or severity of recidivism. We conclude that, consistent with previous research in the United States and Canada, firearm use in domestic violence is uncommon even among offenders with known firearm access. Weapon use is characteristic of a subgroup of offenders who commit more severe domestic violence, and seizure of weapons may be an effective intervention.
Catone, Gennaro; Marotta, Roberta; Pisano, Simone; Lennox, Belinda; Carotenuto, Marco; Gritti, Antonella; Pascotto, Antonio; Broome, Matthew R
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are common in the general population and increase the risk of psychotic disorders. Adolescents are a high-risk group of this condition. Stressful events, such as bullying, have a role in the onset of PLEs. This study has several aims: (1) to assess PLEs in adolescents seeking help from a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service, (2) to assess the association of PLEs with specific bullying victimization and (3) to assess difference in PLEs and victimizations by sex and age. Participants were help-seeking (HS) adolescents initially screened for PLEs. They completed an assessment including characteristics of PLEs and bullying victimization. We paid particular attention to different kinds of PLEs and victimization. In total, 50 PLE-positive adolescents screened from 324 HS adolescents (15.4%) constituted the sample. Paranoia and verbal bullying were the PLEs and form of victimization most represented, respectively. Verbal bullying was strongly associated with paranoia (odds ratio (OR): 4.40, confidence interval (CI): 2.8-5.9, p bullying with grandiosity. Verbal bullying was also associated with psychotic negative symptoms, but controlling for emotional symptoms and other victimization led to a reduction in the effect. Men were more involved in physical victimization and experienced grandiosity; on the contrary, late adolescents were most involved in social victimization and negative psychotic symptoms Conclusion: PLEs are relevant in HS adolescents. Bullying victimization interacts with the onset of these phenomena. In particular, verbal bullying predicted paranoia onset significantly.
Jess, Tine; Gamborg, Michael; Matzen, Peter
, time of follow-up, and observed to expected cancer rates. STATA meta-analysis software was used to perform overall pooled risk estimates (standardized incidence ratio (SIR), observed/expected) and meta-regression analyses of the influence of specific variables on SIR. RESULTS: Six papers fulfilled......-analysis of population-based data on intestinal cancer risk in CD. METHODS: The MEDLINE search engine and abstracts from international conferences were searched for the relevant literature by use of explicit search criteria. All papers fulfilling the strict inclusion criteria were scrutinized for data on population size...... the inclusion criteria and reported SIRs of colorectal cancer (CRC) in CD varying from 0.9 to 2.2. The pooled SIR for CRC was significantly increased (SIR, 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5), as was the risk for colon cancer separately (SIR, 2.5; 95% CI 1.7-3.5). Regarding small bowel cancer, five studies reported SIRs...
Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; O'Grady, Kevin E.
Background Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Methods Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from one large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was measured with DSM-IV criteria. Results After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%wt of students were classified as “low-frequency” energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%wt as “high-frequency” users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both non-users (AOR=2.40, 95% CI=1.27-4.56, p=.007) and low-frequency users (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.10, 3.14, p=.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from non-users on their risk for alcohol dependence. Conclusions Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. PMID:21073486
Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E
Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Full Text Available Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population. Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.
Ustrup, Amalie S; Ulrik, Charlotte S
Asthma has traditionally been regarded as a contraindication to self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving, although large numbers of patients with asthma dive. The aim of the review is to provide an update on current knowledge on potential disease-related hazards in SCUBA divers with asthma. Systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Seven studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review (comprising a total of 560 subjects). Five studies reported an increased risk for developing diving-related injuries in divers with asthma, based on case reports (n = 1), case history combined with objective assessment (n = 1), and dives and/or simulated dives (n = 3). The remaining studies (n = 2) were based on self-reported diving habits in divers suffering from asthma, obtained from anonymous questionnaires in diving magazines, reported no diving-related injuries among respondents. Due to limited evidence it is difficult to draw valid conclusions, but there are indications that recreational divers with asthma may be at increased risk for diving-related injuries compared to non-asthmatic divers. However, it is of at most importance to obtain further evidence from large-scale, well-designed studies.
Hammer, Anne; Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid C
Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary (GCT) is a rare neoplasm. The tumor often secretes estrogens and then presents at an earlier stage due to hormone-related symptoms. GCT women are at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, but there is only limited information about GCTs and potential association to other hormone-related neoplasms such as breast cancer. We conducted a retrospective follow-up study on 163 women with GCT. Medical records and histological sections were reviewed and a search in the pathology registry performed. Eight [95% confidence interval (CI); 3.4-15.8] GCT women were diagnosed with a breast neoplasm; one with Paget's disease of the nipple and seven with breast carcinoma. Based on calculations using incidence rates on breast cancer among Danish women, we would have expected 2.5 cases of breast cancer. The odds ratio was 3.3 (95% CI, 1.6-6.6), suggesting an increased risk of breast cancer in GCT women. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Papachristos, Andrew V; Wildeman, Christopher
We estimated the association of an individual's exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood's population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one's odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities.
Shiri, Rahman; Euro, Ulla; Heliövaara, Markku; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Karppinen, Jaro; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Raitakari, Olli T; Solovieva, Svetlana; Yang, Xiaolin; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Lallukka, Tea
The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of lifestyle risk factors on the risk of hospitalization for sciatica and to determine whether overweight or obesity modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on hospitalization for sciatica. We included 4 Finnish prospective cohort studies (Health 2000 Survey, Mobile Clinic Survey, Helsinki Health Study, and Young Finns Study) consisting of 34,589 participants and 1259 hospitalizations for sciatica during 12 to 30 years of follow-up. Sciatica was based on hospital discharge register data. We conducted a random-effects individual participant data meta-analysis. After adjustment for confounding factors, current smoking at baseline increased the risk of subsequent hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-56%), whereas past smokers were no longer at increased risk. Obesity defined by body mass index increased the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 36% (95% CI 7%-74%), and abdominal obesity defined by waist circumference increased the risk by 41% (95% CI 3%-93%). Walking or cycling to work reduced the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% CI 4%-53%), and the effect was independent of body weight and other leisure activities, while other types of leisure activities did not have a statistically significant effect. Smoking and obesity increase the risk of hospitalization for sciatica, whereas walking or cycling to work protects against hospitalization for sciatica. Walking and cycling can be recommended for the prevention of sciatica in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Rohde, Percy A.
Men are more often victims of events like car accidents or (violent) crimes than women with the sole exception of sexual assault. Based on the theory of sexual selection, it has been argued that these sex differences in both perpetration and victimization rates can be attributed to sex differences
Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.
Castro, Felipe A; Liu, Xiangdong; Försti, Asta; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Koshiol, Jill; Hemminki, Kari
Some autoimmune diseases are associated with increased risk of liver cancer. However, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of autoimmune diseases among patients who develop different subtypes of hepatobiliary cancer. We examined the association between autoimmune diseases and cancers of the liver and biliary tract in the Swedish population. We analyzed data from national datasets at the Center for Primary Health Care Research (Lund University, Sweden). Data on patients with autoimmune disorders were retrieved from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register, from 1964 through 2008; 33 diseases were evaluated. Hepatobiliary cancer cases were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and hazard ratios for incident cancers and deaths from hepatobiliary cancers. Among 402,462 patients with autoimmune disorders, 582 were diagnosed with primary liver cancer, 330 with gallbladder cancer, 115 with extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and 43 with ampulla of Vater cancers. We identified 14 autoimmune conditions that were significantly associated with increased risk of primary liver cancer (overall SIR [any autoimmune disease], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-2.3), 5 conditions associated with gallbladder cancer (overall SIR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4), and 3 associated with extrahepatic bile duct cancer (overall SIR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9). The autoimmune disorders with the strongest association with primary liver cancer were primary biliary cirrhosis (SIR, 39.5; 95% CI, 28.2-53.8) and autoimmune hepatitis (SIR, 29.0; 95% CI, 9.1-68.2); ulcerative colitis was strongly associated with extrahepatic bile duct cancer (SIR, 5.6; 95% CI, 3.6-8.4). Celiac disease, Crohn's disease, systemic sclerosis, and ulcerative colitis were associated with at least 2 types of cancer. Increased hazard ratios were observed only for patients with biliary tract cancer who had been hospitalized for autoimmune conditions. In a study of the Swedish
Zacho, Jeppe; Benfield, Thomas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne
population cohort, including 3592 in whom infectious disease developed, and another 60 896 individuals from a cross-sectional general population study, of whom 13 332 developed infectious disease; 55% were women, and the mean age was 57 years. Hospital diagnoses of infections in 1977-2010 were based....... RESULTS: Individuals with CRP >3 mg/L had 1.2 and 1.7 times increased risk of infectious disease, in the prospective general population cohort and the cross-sectional general population study, respectively, compared with individuals with CRP
Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (METHODS: In a cohort study, 1,202 deliveries among.......72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study...
Full Text Available Objectives: Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT, as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed.Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented vascular trauma (VT (N=1,545 was analyzedand further subdivided into those suffering from Terror-related Vascular Trauma (TVT and Non-Terror related Vascular Trauma (NTVT. Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment.Results: Out of 2,446 terror related trauma admissions 243 sustained TVT (9.9% compared to 1302 VT patients from Non Terror trauma (1.1%. TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. ICU admissions and hospitallength of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS>16 and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly more lower extremity injuries.Conclusion: Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.
Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi
Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT), as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed. A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented VT (N = 1,545) was analyzed and further subdivided into those suffering from terror-related vascular trauma (TVT) and non-terror-related vascular trauma (NTVT). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment. Out of 2,446 terror-related trauma admissions, 243 sustained TVT (9.9%) compared to 1302 VT patients from non-terror trauma (1.1%). TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. Intensive care unit admissions and hospital length of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS ≥ 16) and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly much lower extremity injuries. Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.
-inflammatory drugs might be associated with a significantly lower risk. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of an overall association between diabetes and thyroid cancer, but patients with diabetes duration <5 years have a significantly lower risk. Sulfonylurea may increase the risk of thyroid cancer.
Jin, Sheng Chih; Benitez, Bruno A; Karch, Celeste M; Cooper, Breanna; Skorupa, Tara; Carrell, David; Norton, Joanne B; Hsu, Simon; Harari, Oscar; Cai, Yefei; Bertelsen, Sarah; Goate, Alison M; Cruchaga, Carlos
The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid 2 (TREM2) is an immune phagocytic receptor expressed on brain microglia known to trigger phagocytosis and regulate the inflammatory response. Homozygous mutations in TREM2 cause Nasu-Hakola disease, a rare recessive form of dementia. A heterozygous TREM2 variant, p.R47H, was recently shown to increase Alzheimer''s disease (AD) risk. We hypothesized that if TREM2 is truly an AD risk gene, there would be additional rare variants in TREM2 that substantially affect AD risk. To test this hypothesis, we performed pooled sequencing of TREM2 coding regions in 2082 AD cases and 1648 cognitively normal elderly controls of European American descent. We identified 16 non-synonymous variants, six of which were not identified in previous AD studies. Two variants, p.R47H [P = 9.17 × 10(-4), odds ratio (OR) = 2.63 (1.44-4.81)] and p.R62H [P = 2.36 × 10(-4), OR = 2.36 (1.47-3.80)] were significantly associated with disease risk in single-variant analyses. Gene-based tests demonstrate variants in TREM2 are genome-wide significantly associated with AD [PSKAT-O = 5.37 × 10(-7); OR = 2.55 (1.80-3.67)]. The association of TREM2 variants with AD is still highly significant after excluding p.R47H [PSKAT-O = 7.72 × 10(-5); OR = 2.47 (1.62-3.87)], indicating that additional TREM2 variants affect AD risk. Genotyping in available family members of probands suggested that p.R47H (P = 4.65 × 10(-2)) and p.R62H (P = 6.87 × 10(-3)) were more frequently seen in AD cases versus controls within these families. Gel electrophoresis analysis confirms that at least three TREM2 transcripts are expressed in human brains, including one encoding a soluble form of TREM2. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
This dissertation explores how transnational marriage migration processes are viewed and interpreted by foreign spouses from economically weak countries who are currently residing in Germany. It identifies and examines possible risks that migration through the family reunification route could pose
Vanwesenbeeck, I; de Graaf, R; van Zessen, G; Straver, C J; Visser, J H
Professional HIV risk taking (nonconsistent condom use with clients) of female prostitutes in The Netherlands is addressed within the context of (early) experiences with abuse, well-being, coping behavior, job satisfaction, and financial need. Data were gathered from 127 female prostitutes on condom use, financial need, and professional attitude, and on experiences with violence and abuse, physical complaints, psychosocial problems, and coping responses. Violent traumatic experiences were found to relate to more severe complaints and problems, and a higher frequency of emotion-focused coping strategies. A risk-taking protection style (as opposed to consistent condom use and selective risk taking) appeared to be associated with more severe experiences with violence, both in childhood and in adult life, with more frequent dissociation as a coping behavior, and with more psychosomatic complaints. Of all the relationships found, more severe experiences with violence on the job were most strongly related to a higher professional HIV risk.
Runions, Kevin C
The role of reactive aggression in the development of peer victimization remains unclear due in part to a failure to account for confounding problems of behavioural undercontrol (e.g., hyperactivity). As well, the school social context has rarely been examined to see whether these risks are mediated by relationships with teachers. This study tests the prospective relations between reactive aggression, hyperactivity, victimization, and teacher-child (T-C) relationship, to determine whether conflict mediates the relationships between externalizing problems and victimization. A sample of 1,114 Australian students were followed from pre-kindergarten through first grade. Cross-lagged path analyses were conducted, with comparison of gender-moderating models and autocorrelation models. Full-information maximum likelihood was deployed to account for missingness. Best fitting models found that the relationship of early externalizing problems to later victimization was mediated by T-C conflict. No evidence of victimization increasing externalizing problems nor gender differences were observed. T-C conflict in kindergarten predicted subsequent increases in victimization, reactive aggression, and hyperactivity. Understanding the processes whereby externalizing problems confer risk of victimization involves understanding the whole social context of classrooms, including relationships with teachers. Finer-grained research is needed to better understand how peer dynamics may be influenced by observation of T-C relationships. Pre-service teacher education needs to ensure a focus on the potential social impact of teacher's relationships with students. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Indonesia (Riskesdas 2007. Analysis was carried out among 18-60 years old subjects. Criteria for prehypertension refers to Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Pressure, USA (JNC 7, whereas the overweight and obesity criteria refer to the Western Pacific Region of WHO (WPRO 2000. Results: Of the total 2884 subjects, consisted of 57.6% prehypertension and 42.4% normal blood pressure. Overweight than normal BMI subjects had 15% higher risk of prehypertension [adjusted relative risk (RRa=1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI=1.06-1.24], while obese than normal subjects had 25% increase risk of prehypertension (RRa=1.25; 95% CI=1; 16-1.34. Furthermore, those who had high than normal level of LDL had 11% more prehypertension risk (RRa=1.11; 95% CI=0.99-1.24. Conclusion: Higher body mass index, and higher LDL may increase prehypertension risk. Monitoring of body weight and LDL level control routinely recommended. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:21-7
Deepak Prakash Borde
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Safe airway management is the cornerstone of contemporary anaesthesia practice, and difficult intubation (DI remains a major cause of anaesthetic morbidity and mortality. The surgical category, particularly cardiac surgery as a risk factor for DI has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis whether cardiac surgical patients are at increased risk of DI. Methods: During the study, 627 patients (329 cardiac and 298 non-cardiac surgical were enrolled. Pre-operative demographic and other variables associated with DI were assessed. Patients with Cormack Lehane grade III and IV or use of bougie in Cormack grade II were defined as DI. The incidence of anticipated and unanticipated DI was assessed. Factors associated with DI were described using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The overall incidence of DI was 122/627 (19.46%. The incidence of DI was higher in cardiac surgery patients (24% as compared to non-cardiac surgery patients (14.4% P = 0.002. On multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with DI were greater age, male sex, higher Mallampati grade, and anticipated DI, but not cardiac surgery. The incidence of unanticipated DI was 48.1% and 53.4% in cardiac and non-cardiac surgery patients, respectively. Conclusion: Although there was a higher incidence of DI in cardiac surgical patients, cardiac surgery is not an independent risk factor for DI. Rather, other factors play more important role. About half of the DI both in cardiac and non-cardiac surgeries were unanticipated.
Butler, Lesley M.; Wong, Alvin S.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.
Consumption of dairy products, the primary source of calcium in Western diets, has been found to be positively associated with prostate cancer. In an Asian diet, non-dairy foods are the major contributors of calcium. Thus, a study of dietary calcium and prostate cancer in Asians can better inform on whether calcium, as opposed to other dairy components is responsible for the dairy foods-prostate cancer association. We examined calcium intake and prostate cancer risk among 27,293 men of the Singapore Chinese Health Study that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2007, 298 incident prostate cancer cases had been diagnosed among the cohort members. Diet was assessed at baseline with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. It is hypothesized that there is greater net absorption of calcium in smaller individuals. Therefore, the calcium-prostate cancer association was also assessed in stratified analyses by median body mass index (BMI). Vegetables were the largest contributor of daily calcium intake in the study population. Overall, we observed a modest, statistically nonsignificant 25% increase in prostate cancer risk for the 4th (median = 659 mg/day) versus 1st (median=211 mg/day) quartiles of calcium intake after adjustment for potential confounders. The association became considerably stronger and achieved statistical significance (hazard ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.34; P for trend=0.01) for men with below median (22.9 kg/m2) BMI. Dietary calcium may be a risk factor for prostate cancer even at relatively low intake. PMID:20516117
Karvonen, Anssi; Rintamäki, Päivi; Jokela, Jukka; Valtonen, E Tellervo
Global warming may impose severe risks for aquatic animal health if increasing water temperature leads to an increase in the incidence of parasitic diseases. Essentially, this could take place through a temperature-driven effect on the epidemiology of the disease. For example, higher temperature may boost the rate of disease spread through positive effects on parasite fitness in a weakened host. Increased temperature may also lengthen the transmission season leading to higher total prevalence of infection and more widespread epidemics. However, to date, general understanding of these relationships is limited due to scarcity of long-term empirical data. Here, we present one of the first long-term multi-pathogen data sets on the occurrence of pathogenic bacterial and parasitic infections in relation to increasing temperatures in aquatic systems. We analyse a time-series of disease dynamics on two fish farms in northern Finland from 1986 to 2006. We first demonstrate that the annual mean water temperature increased significantly on both farms over the study period and that the increase was most pronounced in the late summer (July-September). Second, we show that the prevalence of infection (i.e. proportion of fish tanks infected each year) increased with temperature. Interestingly, this pattern was observed in some of the diseases (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Flavobacterium columnare), whereas in the other diseases, the pattern was the opposite (Ichthyobodo necator) or absent (Chilodonella spp.). These results demonstrate the effect of increasing water temperature on aquatic disease dynamics, but also emphasise the importance of the biology of each disease, as well as the role of local conditions, in determining the direction and magnitude of these effects. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haemig, Paul D; Sjöstedt de Luna, S; Grafström, A; Lithner, Stefan; Lundkvist, Åke; Waldenström, Jonas; Kindberg, Jonas; Stedt, Johan; Olsén, Björn
Over the past quarter century, the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has increased in most European nations. However, the number of humans stricken by the disease varies from year to year. A method for predicting major increases and decreases is needed. We assembled a 25-y database (1984-2008) of the number of human TBE victims and wildlife and climate data for the Stockholm region of Sweden, and used it to create easy-to-use mathematical models that predict increases and decreases in the number of humans stricken by TBE. Our best model, which uses December precipitation and mink (Neovison vison, formerly Mustela vison) bagging figures, successfully predicted every major increase or decrease in TBE during the past quarter century, with a minimum of false alarms. However, this model was not efficient in predicting small increases and decreases. Predictions from our models can be used to determine when preventive and adaptive programmes should be implemented. For example, in years when the frequency of TBE in humans is predicted to be high, vector control could be intensified where infested ticks have a higher probability of encountering humans, such as at playgrounds, bathing lakes, barbecue areas and camping facilities. Because our models use only wildlife and climate data, they can be used even when the human population is vaccinated. Another advantage is that because our models employ data from previously-established databases, no additional funding for surveillance is required.
Pandey, Ghanshyam N.; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Ren, Xinguo; Fareed, Jawed; Hoppensteadt, Debra A.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Conley, Robert R.; Dwivedi, Yogesh
Teenage suicide is a major public health concern, but its neurobiology is not well understood. Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in stress and in the pathophysiology of depression—two major risk factors for suicide. Cytokines are increased in the serum of patients with depression and suicidal behavior; however, it is not clear if similar abnormality in cytokines occurs in brains of suicide victims. We therefore measured the gene and protein expression levels of proinflammatory ...
Greenhalgh, David G; Bridges, Peggy; Coombs, Elena; Chapyak, Debbie; Doyle, William; O'Mara, Michael S; Palmieri, Tina L
Prepackaged soups are a frequent cause of burn injury. We hypothesize that package design increases the risk for burn injury by affecting container stability. All pediatric scald burns caused by soup, between June 1997 and August 2004, were reviewed for burn and patient characteristics. Instant or "ready-to-eat" soups also were purchased. Safety statements and recommendations as to use of the microwave oven were documented. The height and the areas of the base and top were compared to the angle that a container would tip over on to its side. During the study period, 99 admissions and 80 outpatients were treated for burns caused by soup. Although the burn size was small (mean 5% TBSA) 22 patients required grafting. Of 13 different soups, 11 required the addition of hot water, and 2 were prepackaged for eating out of the container. Twelve containers had round bases and were tall and narrow, with one being shorter and rectangular. The measurements that correlated with the ease of tipping over were the base area, top area, and the ratio of height/base area. The most significant contributor to the ease of tipping over was height. Instant soups are packaged in containers that tend to be tall with a narrow base that predisposes them to being knocked over and spilled. Simple redesigning of instant soup packaging with a wider base and shorter height, along with the requirement for warnings about the risks of burns would reduce the frequency of soup burns.
Helry L. Candido
Full Text Available Living donor liver donation (LDLD is an alternative to cadaveric liver donation. We aimed at identifying risk factors and developing a score for prediction of postoperative complications (POCs after LDLD in donors. This is a retrospective cohort study in 688 donors between June 1995 and February 2014 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, in São Paulo, Brazil. Primary outcome was POC graded ≥III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Left lateral segment (LLS, left lobe (LL, and right lobe resections (RL were conducted in 492 (71.4%, 109 (15.8%, and 87 (12.6% donors, respectively. In total, 43 (6.2% developed POCs, which were more common after RL than LLS and LL (14/87 (16.1% versus 23/492 (4.5% and 6/109 (5.5%, resp., p<0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that RL resection (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.01; p=0.008, smoking status (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.35 to 7.56; p=0.012, and blood transfusion (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.45 to 6.84; p=0.004 were independently associated with POCs. RL resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, and smoking were associated with increased risk for POCs in donors.
Van Dyk, Tori R; Nelson, Timothy D
Involvement in peer victimization has been associated with numerous negative consequences, including poor physical health. The purpose of this study is to improve on previous research evaluating the victimization-health relationship by examining the health (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], medical service utilization) of both victims and aggressors and examining individual variation in this relationship through the moderating effect of pessimism. The sample included 125 ethnically diverse youth aged 8-11 years recruited from a low-income medical practice. Child-report of involvement in peer victimization and pessimism was assessed along with parent-report of HRQoL. 2-year medical service utilization was extracted from medical records. Although not all hypotheses were supported, victims and aggressors were found to be at increased risk for certain poor health outcomes, which were exacerbated by high levels of pessimism. Findings expand on research into peer victimization and health and provide important implications for identification, prevention, and intervention strategies with at-risk youth.
de Jong, Rinke; Dennison, Susan
In this paper we employed a prospective design to examine the effect of child sexual abuse (CSA) on life-course offending by comparing victims to both their siblings and random controls in the Netherlands. Information on victimization was gathered from court files and on offending from official criminal records. We found that victims of CSA were more at risk of offending than random controls, but so were their siblings. Only female victims were more likely to offend than their own siblings. The increased risk for offending was not specifically found for sexual offenses, instead it was found for various types of offenses. The found difference between female victims and siblings held true for abuse perpetrated by someone outside the family. We therefore conclude that family and environmental factors are the most important to explain offending among male CSA victims, while these factors alone are not enough to explain the effect of CSA on offending for females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gururajan, Anand; Manning, Elizabeth E; Klug, Maren; van den Buuse, Maarten
There is considerable evidence to suggest that the abuse of illicit drugs, particularly cannabis and methamphetamine, has aetiological roles in the pathogenesis of psychosis and schizophrenia. Factors that may increase susceptibility to the propsychotic effects of these drugs include the age at which the abuse starts as well as family history of genetic polymorphisms relevant to the pathophysiology of this disorder. However, the neurobiological mechanisms involved in drug abuse-associated psychosis remain largely unclear. This paper presents an overview of the available evidence, including clinical, animal model, and molecular studies, with a focus on brain regions and neurotransmitters systems, such as dopamine and glutamate, previously implicated in psychosis. It is clear that further studies are urgently needed to provide a greater insight into the mechanisms that mediate the long-term and neurodevelopmental effects of cannabis and methamphetamine. A dialogue between basic science and clinical research may help to identify at-risk individuals and novel pathways for treatment and prevention.
van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul; Tanilon, Jenny
Peer victimization is related to an increased chance of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts using meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for articles from 1910 to 2013. The search terms were bully*, teas*, victim*, mobbing, ragging, and harassment in combination with the term suic*. Of the 491 studies identified, 34 reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation, with a total of 284,375 participants. Nine studies reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicide attempts, with a total of 70,102 participants. STUDY SELECTION Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported an effect size on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempt in children or adolescents. Two observers independently coded the effect sizes from the articles. Data were pooled using a random effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This study focused on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Peer victimization was hypothesized to be related to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS Peer victimization was found to be related to both suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 2.10-2.37]) and suicide attempts (2.55 [1.95 -3.34]) among children and adolescents. Analyses indicated that these results were not attributable to publication bias. Results were not moderated by sex, age, or study quality. Cyberbullying was more strongly related to suicidal ideation compared with traditional bullying. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Peer victimization is a risk factor for child and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Schools should use evidence-based practices to reduce bullying.
Rostagno, Marcos H
All farm animals will experience some level of stress during their lives. Stress reduces the fitness of an animal, which can be expressed through failure to achieve production performance standards, or through disease and death. Stress in farm animals can also have detrimental effects on the quality of food products. However, although a common assumption of a potential effect of stress on food safety exists, little is actually known about how this interaction may occur. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge of the potential impact of stress in farm animals on food safety risk. Colonization of farm animals by enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, and their subsequent dissemination into the human food chain are a major public health and economic concern for the food industries. This review shows that there is increasing evidence to demonstrate that stress can have a significant deleterious effect on food safety through a variety of potential mechanisms. However, as the impact of stress is difficult to precisely determine, it is imperative that the issue receives more research attention in the interests of optimizing animal welfare and minimizing losses in product yield and quality, as well as to food safety risks to consumers. While there is some evidence linking stress with pathogen carriage and shedding in farm animals, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Understanding when pathogen loads on the farm are the highest or when animals are most susceptible to infection will help identifying times when intervention strategies for pathogen control may be most effective, and consequently, increase the safety of food of animal origin.
Englebrecht, Christine M; Reyns, Bradford W
Research suggests that a significant portion of victims of interpersonal violence do not acknowledge or label their experience as a criminal victimization. Studies exploring unacknowledged victimizations have found that individuals are more likely to acknowledge victimization when the experience meets certain, often stereotypical criteria. This study addressed this issue by integrating literature on victim acknowledgment and stalking victimization to identify correlates of victimization acknowledgment among stalking victims. Data were drawn from the 2006 stalking supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the sample included both female and male victims of stalking. Findings revealed support for a "classic stalking script," which included a reliance on stereotypical types of stalking behavior (i.e., being spied on) that were shown to increase acknowledgment for victims of stalking. Results also described gender based correlates of victimization acknowledgment.
Istfan, Nawfal W; Anderson, Wendy A; Apovian, Caroline M; Hess, Donald T; Forse, R Armour
Weight loss improves the cardiovascular and metabolic risk associated with obesity. However, insufficient data are available about the health effects of weight gain, separate from the obesity itself. We sought to determine whether the changes in body weight before open gastric bypass surgery (OGB) would have a significant effect on the immediate perioperative hospital course. A retrospective chart review of 100 consecutive patients was performed to examine the effects of co-morbidities and body weight changes in the immediate preoperative period on the hospital length of stay and the rate of admission to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Of our class III obese patients undergoing OGB, 95% had ≥1 co-morbid condition and an overall SICU admission rate of 18%. Compared with the patients with no perioperative SICU admission, the patients admitted to the SICU had a greater degree of insulin resistance (homeostatic model analysis-insulin resistance 10.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.9 ± 0.5, P = .001), greater serum triglyceride levels (225 ± 47 versus 143 ± 8 mg/dL, P = .003), and had gained more weight preoperatively (.52 ± .13 versus .06 ± .06 lb/wk, P = .003). The multivariate analyses showed that preoperative weight gain was a risk factor for a longer length of stay and more SICU admissions lasting ≥3 days, as were a diagnosis of sleep apnea and an elevated serum triglyceride concentration. The results of the present retrospective study suggest that weight gain increases the risk of perioperative SICU admission associated with OGB, independent of the body mass index. Sleep apnea and elevated serum triglyceride levels were also important determinants of perioperative morbidity. In view of the increasing epidemic of obesity and the popularity of bariatric surgical procedures, we propose that additional clinical and metabolic research focusing on the understanding of the complex relationship among obesity, positive energy balance, weight gain, and perioperative
Dishon-Brown, Amanda; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine; Higgins, George E; Logan, T K
Justice-involved women report high rates of victimization across their life span, and these experiences contribute to their involvement in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Within this population, research has identified an overlap among victimization and substance use, a high-risk coping mechanism. Furthermore, research indicates attachment style is related to coping and high-risk behaviors. Research is needed to understand the relationship among these mechanisms as they relate to intimate partner violence (IPV). To address this gap, this study investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, childhood victimization, substance use, and IPV among 406 victimized women on probation/parole. Results of 6 multivariate regression analyses were statistically significant, accounting for 8%-13% of the variance in IPV. Particularly, childhood sexual victimization and negative coping were significant in all analyses. Findings provide practitioners, administrators, and policymakers information about the specific needs of justice-involved women.
Anna K Jönsson
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA. Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72. Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia
Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen
Inflammatory and immune processes can be triggered in vitiligo due to a decreased number of melanocytes and their anti-inflammatory effects. Because of the systemic nature of vitiligo, metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and lipid profile disturbances as well as skin involvement may be observed in vitiligo. To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and vitiligo. Case-control study. The demographic, clinical and laboratory features in the subjects were compared according to presence of vitiligo and metabolic syndrome [patients (n=63) vs. gender-age matched controls (n=65) and metabolic syndrome positive (n=38) vs. negative (n=90)]. A logistic regression analysis was also used. We identified metabolic syndrome in 24 (38.1%) subjects with vitiligo and 14 (21.5%) subjects without vitiligo (p=0.04). Active vitiligo, segmental vitiligo, an increased duration of vitiligo and an increased percentage in the affected body surface area were determined to be independent predictors of metabolic syndrome [activity of vitiligo: p=0.012, OR (95% CI)=64.4 (2.5-1672); type of vitiligo: p=0.007, OR (95% CI)=215.1 (4.3-10725.8); duration of vitiligo: p=0.03, OR (95% CI)=1.4 (1.1-2.0); percentage of affected body surface area: p=0.07, OR (95% CI)=1.2 (0.98-1.5)]. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with vitiligo. The poor clinical features of vitiligo, such as active, extended and segmental vitiligo with an increased duration of time, are independent predictors for developing metabolic syndrome.
Jönsson, Anna K.; Lövborg, Henrik; Lohr, Wolfgang; Ekman, Bertil; Rocklöv, Joacim
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA). Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR) reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR) with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72). Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia. PMID:28737683
Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre
Objectives: (1) Document the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical assault, psychological, physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) in a nationally representative sample. (2) Assess the predictive value of CSA and other characteristics of the respondents and their current partners as potential risk factors for…
Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Goebert, Deborah; Nishimura, Stephanie; Caetano, Raul
Ethnic minority groups such as Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs) and native populations in Hawaii are seldom studied in the area of intimate relationships. Using the 1999 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey, this study examined gender and ethnic differences in experiencing physical dating violence and whether drinking (early initiation, binge…
Wilcox, Holly C; Fullerton, Janice M; Glowinski, Anne L; Benke, Kelly; Kamali, Masoud; Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Stapp, Emma K; Edenberg, Howard J; Roberts, Gloria M P; Ghaziuddin, Neera; Fisher, Carrie; Brucksch, Christine; Frankland, Andrew; Toma, Claudio; Shaw, Alex D; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Miller, Leslie; McInnis, Melvin G; Mitchell, Philip B; Nurnberger, John I
Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions and is associated with high suicide risk. To explore the reasons for this link, this study examined the interaction between traumatic stress and BD polygenic risk score in relation to suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent and young adult offspring and relatives of persons with BD (BD-relatives) compared with adolescent and young adult offspring of individuals without psychiatric disorders (controls). Data were collected from 4 sites in the United States and 1 site in Australia from 2006 through 2012. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare rates of ideation, attempts, and NSSI between BD-relatives (n = 307) and controls (n = 166) and to determine the contribution of demographic factors, traumatic stress exposure, lifetime mood or substance (alcohol/drug) use disorders, and BD polygenic risk score. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and mood and substance use disorders, BD-relatives were at increased risk for suicidal ideation and attempts but not for NSSI. Independent of BD-relative versus control status, demographic factors, or mood and substance use disorders, exposure to trauma within the past year (including bullying, sexual abuse, and domestic violence) was associated with suicide attempts (p = .014), and BD polygenic risk score was marginally associated with attempts (p = .061). Importantly, the interaction between BD polygenic risk score and traumatic event exposures was significantly associated with attempts, independent of demographics, relative versus control status, and mood and substance use disorders (p = .041). BD-relatives are at increased risk for suicide attempts and ideation, especially if they are exposed to trauma and have evidence of increased genetic vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong
This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Campus, Paola
Extreme natural hazards have the potential to cause global disasters and to lead to an escalation of the global sustainability crisis. Floods and droughts pose threats that could reach planetary extent, particularly through secondary economic and social impacts. Earthquakes and tsunamis cause disasters that could exceed the immediate coping capacity of the global economy, particularly in hazardous areas containing megacities, that can be particularly vulnerable to natural hazards if proper emergency protocols and infrastructures are not set in place. Recent events illustrate the destruction extreme hazards can inflict, both directly and indirectly, through domino effects resulting from the interaction with the built environment. Unfortunately, the more humanity learns to cope with relatively frequent (50 to 100 years) natural hazard events, the less concerns remain about the low-probability (one in a few hundred or more years) high-impact events. As a consequence, threats from low-probability extreme floods, droughts, and volcanic eruptions are not appropriately accounted for in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) discussions. With the support of the European Science Foundation (ESF), the Geohazards Community of Practice (GHCP) of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has developed a White Paper (WP) on the risk associated with low-probability, high-impact geohazards. These events are insufficiently addressed in risk management, although their potential impacts are comparable to those of a large asteroid impact, a global pandemic, or an extreme drought. The WP aims to increase awareness of the risk associated with these events as a basis for a comprehensive risk management. Extreme geohazards have occurred regularly throughout the past, but mostly did not cause major disasters because the exposure of human assets to such hazards and the global population density were much lower than today. The most extreme events during the last 2,000 years would cause today unparalleled
Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Swain, Daniel L; Touma, Danielle
California is currently in the midst of a record-setting drought. The drought began in 2012 and now includes the lowest calendar-year and 12-mo precipitation, the highest annual temperature, and the most extreme drought indicators on record. The extremely warm and dry conditions have led to acute water shortages, groundwater overdraft, critically low streamflow, and enhanced wildfire risk. Analyzing historical climate observations from California, we find that precipitation deficits in California were more than twice as likely to yield drought years if they occurred when conditions were warm. We find that although there has not been a substantial change in the probability of either negative or moderately negative precipitation anomalies in recent decades, the occurrence of drought years has been greater in the past two decades than in the preceding century. In addition, the probability that precipitation deficits co-occur with warm conditions and the probability that precipitation deficits produce drought have both increased. Climate model experiments with and without anthropogenic forcings reveal that human activities have increased the probability that dry precipitation years are also warm. Further, a large ensemble of climate model realizations reveals that additional global warming over the next few decades is very likely to create ∼ 100% probability that any annual-scale dry period is also extremely warm. We therefore conclude that anthropogenic warming is increasing the probability of co-occurring warm-dry conditions like those that have created the acute human and ecosystem impacts associated with the "exceptional" 2012-2014 drought in California.
Hong, Jun Sung; Voisin, Dexter R; Cho, Sujung; Smith, Douglas C; Resko, Stella M
Urban African-American youth residing in poorly resourced communities are at a heightened risk of peer victimization, which consequently increases their likelihood of risky behaviors such as substance use. The present study examined whether there was a direct relationship between peer victimization and substance use and whether it was mediated by negative peer norms, internalizing problems, and bullying perpetration. African-American youth (n = 638) completed a self-administered questionnaire on age, biological sex, socioeconomic status, lifetime substance use, peer victimization and bullying perpetration, negative peer norms, and internalizing problems. There were no direct effects between peer victimization and substance use. However, negative peer norms and bullying were both independently associated with substance use, although internalizing problems were not significant. In addition, peer victimization increased the odds of internalizing problems. Social services must be expended in low-income communities to effectively address peer victimization and substance use among urban African-American youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This study aims to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure and examine its impact on operating cash flow of banks listed on the UAE Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange (ADX and Dubai Financial Market (DFM during the period 2003-2016. The authors conducted content analysis of the annual reports to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure. In addition, they used dynamic panel data regressions to analyze the impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks. The results show a low degree of operational risk disclosure for all UAE banks, both Islamic and conventional. In addition, the results show no association between the levels of disclosure of operational risk and cash flow for all banks, conventional and Islamic. Operational risk disclosure of Islamic banks has not been examined by any prior researchers. In addition, this paper examines the potential impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks.
Womack, Julie A; Goulet, Joseph L; Gibert, Cynthia; Brandt, Cynthia; Chang, Chung Chou; Gulanski, Barbara; Fraenkel, Liana; Mattocks, Kristin; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Tate, Janet; Yin, Michael T; Justice, Amy C
HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture. We explored whether or not this increased risk persisted in HIV infected and uninfected men when controlling for traditional fragility fracture risk factors...
Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A
African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.
Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Joinson, Carol; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Lewis, Glyn
Being the victim of peer bullying is associated with increased risk of psychopathology, yet it is not known whether similar experiences of bullying increase risk of psychiatric disorder when the perpetrator is a sibling...
Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn
Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...
Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B
Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.
Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask
Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...
Srotova, Iva; Vlckova, Eva; Dusek, Ladislav; Bednarik, Josef
A-waves, which are observed following the M-wave during motor nerve conduction studies (NCS), are late responses that are frequently found in many types of neurogenic disorders. However, A-waves are also common in healthy individuals, where their significance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether the occurrence of A-waves does in fact represent an increased risk for the future development of changes upon NCS or needle electromyography (EMG) in the corresponding nerve. Nerve conduction studies/needle electromyography findings at control examination were evaluated in relation to the occurrence of initial A-waves in 327 individuals who had undergone repeated NCS/EMG examination and exhibited normal initial findings, with or without the occurrence of A-waves as the only acceptable abnormality. The odds ratio, which reflects the predictive power of the occurrence of A-waves at the initial testing for the development of an abnormality (neuropathy or radiculopathy) at the follow-up examination, ranged from 2.7 ( p = .041) in the tibial nerve and 3.9 ( p = .034) in peroneal one, to 30.0 ( p = .002) in the ulnar nerve. A-waves constitute an initial abnormality in all nerves, and they may be predictive for the future development of broader NCS/EMG abnormalities in the corresponding nerve.
Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Park, Sung Keun; Jung, Ju Young
Microalbuminuria is significantly associated with long-term prognosis in the general population as well as in diabetic patients. It is well known that insulin resistance (IR) can induce microalbuminuria, but an elevated fasting insulin level, which is an early clinical manifestation of IR, as a risk factor for microalbuminuria has not been clarified, so we investigated the association between fasting insulin level and the development of microalbuminuria in a general population. A total of 1,192 non-diabetic Korean men without microalbuminuria in 2005 were followed until 2010. They were categorized into 3 groups according to their fasting insulin levels and monitored for the development of microalbuminuria. The incidence of microalbuminuria was compared among groups, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratios for microalbuminuria according to the fasting insulin levels. During 4,013.0 person-years of follow-up, 51 incident cases of microalbuminuria developed between 2006 and 2010. The incidence of microalbuminuria increased in proportion to the fasting insulin levels (tertile 1: 1.8%, tertile 2: 4.5%, tertile 3: 6.5%, Pfasting insulin levels [tertile 1: reference, tertile 2: 2.44 (1.01-5.89), tertile 3: 3.30 (1.40-7.78), respectively, P for trend 0.013]. Elevated fasting insulin level was associated with the future development of microalbuminuria.
El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Salloum, Abdullah A.; Al Herbish, Abdulah S.; Al Omar, Ahmad A.; Qurachi, Mansour M.
There is a high prevalence of consanguinity and bronchial asthma in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of parental consanguinity on the occurrence of bronchial asthma in children. The study sample was determined by multistage random probability sampling of Saudi households. The families with at least one child with asthma were matched with an equal number of families randomly selected from a list of families with healthy children, the latter families being designated as controls. There were 103 families with children having physician-diagnosed bronchial asthma, matched with an equal number of families with no children with asthma. This resulted in 140 children with bronchial asthma and 295 children from controls. The age and gender distribution of the children with bronchial asthma and children from controls were similar. There were 54/103 (52.4%) and 61/103 (59.2%) cases of positive parental consanguinity in asthmatic children and children from controls respectively (P = 0.40). Analysis of consanguinity status of the parents of children with asthma and parents among controls indicates that 71/140 (51%) of the children with asthma and 163/295 (55.3%) of the children from controls had positive parental overall consanguinity (P = 0.43). The results of this study suggest that parental consanguinity does not increase the risk of bronchial asthma in children. PMID:19561903
El Mouzan Mohammad
Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of consanguinity and bronchial asthma in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of parental consanguinity on the occurrence of bronchial asthma in children. The study sample was determined by multistage random probability sampling of Saudi households. The families with at least one child with asthma were matched with an equal number of families randomly selected from a list of families with healthy children, the latter families being designated as controls. There were 103 families with children having physician-diagnosed bronchial asthma, matched with an equal number of families with no children with asthma. This resulted in 140 children with bronchial asthma and 295 children from controls. The age and gender distribution of the children with bronchial asthma and children from controls were similar. There were 54/103 (52.4% and 61/103 (59.2% cases of positive parental consanguinity in asthmatic children and children from controls respectively ( P = 0.40. Analysis of consanguinity status of the parents of children with asthma and parents among controls indicates that 71/140 (51% of the children with asthma and 163/295 (55.3% of the children from controls had positive parental overall consanguinity ( P = 0.43. The results of this study suggest that parental consanguinity does not increase the risk of bronchial asthma in children.
Shearer, Peter M; Stark, Philip B
The recent elevated rate of large earthquakes has fueled concern that the underlying global rate of earthquake activity has increased, which would have important implications for assessments of seismic hazard and our understanding of how faults interact. We examine the timing of large (magnitude M≥7) earthquakes from 1900 to the present, after removing local clustering related to aftershocks. The global rate of M≥8 earthquakes has been at a record high roughly since 2004, but rates have been almost as high before, and the rate of smaller earthquakes is close to its historical average. Some features of the global catalog are improbable in retrospect, but so are some features of most random sequences--if the features are selected after looking at the data. For a variety of magnitude cutoffs and three statistical tests, the global catalog, with local clusters removed, is not distinguishable from a homogeneous Poisson process. Moreover, no plausible physical mechanism predicts real changes in the underlying global rate of large events. Together these facts suggest that the global risk of large earthquakes is no higher today than it has been in the past.
Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study
Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118
Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents--a matched case-control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study.
DeSmet, Ann; Deforche, Benedicte; Hublet, Anne; Tanghe, Ann; Stremersch, Evi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents' risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age=15.32±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age=15.30±1.73). Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs.
Christopher J. Morris; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.
Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, even after controlling for traditional risk factors. Shift workers frequently undergo circadian misalignment (i.e., misalignment between the endogenous circadian system and 24-h environmental/behavioral cycles). This misalignment has been proposed to explain, in part, why shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of circadian misalignment pe...
Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper
Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...... on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....
Pighin, S; Savadori, L; Bonini, N; Andreozzi, L; Savoldelli, A; Schena, F
The research presented here investigates the interaction between acute exercise, biological sex and risk-taking behavior. The study involved 20 amateur athletes (19-33 years old), 10 males and 10 females, who were asked to undergo subsequent experimental sessions designed to compare their risky behaviors on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) 34 at rest and while exercising at moderate intensity (60% of their maximal aerobic power). Results showed that physical exercise affected male and female participants differently: Whereas males became more risk seeking, females became more risk averse during exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al.  have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al.  have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies
Berg, K L; Shiu, C-S; Msall, M E; Acharya, K
This study aimed to examine the prevalence of victimization among a United States-wide cohort of youth with disabilities (YWD) investigated for maltreatment in the child welfare system (CWS) and their correlation with mental health. Data were drawn from baseline interviews in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national representative survey of youth involved in the CWS. Interviews took place between 2008 and 2009 and included 675 youth, 11-17 years old and residing with biological families across 83 counties nationwide. The sample consisted of 405 females (60.1%) and 270 males (39.9%), mean age = 13.5 years. We identified YWD if they reported one or more physical or neurodevelopmental health condition (n = 247). Reported victimization experiences and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) scores were analysed using weighted regression analyses. One-quarter of YWD in the CWS reported three or more victimizations during the prior year compared with 19% of youth without disabilities. The odds of YWD reporting a one-unit increase in level of victimization was 75% higher (P < 0.05) than youth without disabilities. Prevalence of clinical depression was significantly higher among YWD (14 vs. 5.5%; P < 0.05). Unlike youth without disabilities, the odds of clinical depression were 92% higher for every one-unit increase in victimization among YWD, controlling for covariates (P < 0.05). Of CWS-involved youth who reported three or more victimizations, 24.4% of YWD and 2.2% of non-disabled youth had CDI scores in the clinical range. YWDs in the US CWS are at high risk of experiencing victimization and clinical depression. Our findings suggest that health professionals need to screen CWS-involved YWD for multiple forms of victimization, and develop and implement trauma-informed services that target the mental health sequelae that may jeopardize their independence in adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Boel-Studt, Shamra; Renner, Lynette M
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and child and family-level correlates of direct and indirect victimization by peers among children ages 6-9. Four hundred and twenty-five children were included in the final sample. Data for this study were drawn from the first wave of the Developmental Victimization Survey. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between children's demographics, anxiety, depression, anger, parent-child relationship, and exposure to family violence and children's experience of direct or indirect victimization by peers. The results showed that increased depression scores and exposure to family violence were associated with increased risk for direct and indirect victimization by peers. Black children were more likely to experience direct victimization and less likely to experience indirect victimization compared to White children. Child's race significantly moderated the association between parental criticism and indirect victimization. Child's gender did not significantly moderate these associations. Implications for developmentally specific prevention and intervention approaches that are grounded in a social-ecological framework are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Petersen, Helle Vendel; Nilbert, Mef; Bernstein, Inge
identified and formed the essence of the phenomenon "living with knowledge about risk." Family context influences how experiences and knowledge are interpreted and transformed into thoughts and feelings, which relates to how risk is approached and handled. The constitutions influence each other in a dynamic...... relationship and create a balancing act between anxiety and worry and feelings of being safe and in control....
... This study supports the importance of controlling vascular risk factors like high blood pressure early in life in an effort to prevent ... agreement with previous studies, an analysis of vascular risk factors showed ... or high blood pressure, also called hypertension, had a higher chance of ...
Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper
We investigated the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use on the risk of meningioma in a population-based setting.......We investigated the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use on the risk of meningioma in a population-based setting....
Sherman, Kerry A.; Miller, Suzanne M.; Roussi, Pagona; Taylor, Alan
Purpose Lymphedema affects 20-30% of women following breast cancer treatment. However, even when women are informed, they do not necessarily adhere to recommended lymphedema self-management regimens. Utilizing the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework, we assessed cognitive and emotional factors influencing adherence to lymphedema risk management. Methods Women with breast cancer who had undergone breast and lymph node surgery were recruited through the Fox Chase Cancer Centre breast clinic. Participants (N=103) completed measures of lymphedema-related perceived risk, beliefs and expectancies, distress, self-regulatory ability to manage distress, knowledge, and adherence to risk management behaviors. They then received the American Cancer Society publication “Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know”. Cognitive and affective variables were reassessed at 6- and 12-months post-baseline. Results Maximum likelihood multilevel model analyses indicated that overall adherence increased over time, with significant differences between baseline and 6- and 12- month assessments. Adherence to wearing gloves was significantly lower than that for all other behaviors except electric razor use. Distress significantly decreased, and knowledge significantly increased, over time. Greater knowledge, higher self-efficacy to enact behaviors, lower distress, and higher self-regulatory ability to manage distress were associated with increased adherence. Conclusions Women who understand lymphedema risk management and feel confident in managing this risk are more likely to adhere to recommended strategies. These factors should be rigorously assessed as part of routine care to ensure that women have the self-efficacy to seek treatment and the self-regulatory skills to manage distress, which may undermine attempts to seek medical assistance. PMID:24970542
Sherman, Kerry A; Miller, Suzanne M; Roussi, Pagona; Taylor, Alan
Lymphedema affects 20-30% of women following breast cancer treatment. However, even when women are informed, they do not necessarily adhere to recommended lymphedema self-management regimens. Utilizing the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework, we assessed the cognitive and emotional factors influencing adherence to lymphedema risk management. Women with breast cancer who had undergone breast and lymph node surgery were recruited through the Fox Chase Cancer Center breast clinic. Participants (N = 103) completed measures of lymphedema-related perceived risk, beliefs and expectancies, distress, self-regulatory ability to manage distress, knowledge, and adherence to risk management behaviors. They then received the American Cancer Society publication "Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know." Cognitive and affective variables were reassessed at 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Maximum likelihood multilevel model analyses indicated that overall adherence increased over time, with significant differences between baseline and 6- and 12-month assessments. Adherence to wearing gloves was significantly lower than that for all other behaviors except electric razor use. Distress significantly decreased, and knowledge significantly increased, over time. Greater knowledge, higher self-efficacy to enact behaviors, lower distress, and higher self-regulatory ability to manage distress were associated with increased adherence. Women who understand lymphedema risk management and feel confident in managing this risk are more likely to adhere to recommended strategies. These factors should be rigorously assessed as part of routine care to ensure that women have the self-efficacy to seek treatment and the self-regulatory skills to manage distress, which may undermine attempts to seek medical assistance.
Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Slopen, Natalie; Calzo, Jerel P.; Austin, S. Bryn
Objective: Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with increased risk of caregiver abuse and bullying victimization outside the home, but it is unknown whether as a consequence children who are nonconforming are at higher risk of depressive symptoms. Method: Using data from a large national cohort (N = 10,655), we examined differences…
Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Coates, Aubrey A.; Gaffey, Kathryn J.; Johnson, Carrie F.
An 8-month prospective study examined behavioral, personality, and psychological variables thought to increase vulnerability for college women's experience of rape and verbal sexual coercion. Participants were 276 college women who completed self-report surveys. During 1 academic year, 9.5% of women were raped and 11.7% reported verbal sexual…
Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C
Distraction on cell phones jeopardizes motor-vehicle driver safety, but few studies examine distracted walking. At particular risk are college students, who walk frequently in and near traffic, have increased pedestrian injury rates compared to other age groups, and frequently use cell phones. Using an interactive and immersive virtual environment, two experiments studied the effect of cell phone conversation on distraction of college student pedestrians. In the first, we examined whether pedestrians would display riskier behavior when distracted by a naturalistic cell phone conversation than when undistracted. We also considered whether individual difference factors would moderate the effect of the distraction. In a second experiment, we examined the impact of three forms of distraction on pedestrian safety: (a) engaging in a cell phone conversation, (b) engaging in a cognitively challenging spatial task by phone, and (c) engaging in a cognitively challenging mental arithmetic task by phone. Results revealed that cell phone conversations distracted college pedestrians considerably across all pedestrian safety variables measured, with just one exception. Attention to traffic was not affected by the naturalistic phone conversation in Experiment 1, but was altered by the cognitively-demanding content of some types of conversation in Experiment 2. The content of the conversation did not play a major role in distraction across other variables; both mundane and cognitively complex conversations distracted participants. Moreover, no significant associations between individual difference factors and susceptibility to distraction emerged. Results may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians themselves. Educational campaigns might discourage telephone conversations in pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Román, Gustavo C; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Bongers-Schokking, Jacoba J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
Transient gestational hypothyroxinemia in rodents induces cortical neuronal migration brain lesions resembling those of autism. We investigated the association between maternal hypothyroxinemia (gestational weeks 6-18) and autistic symptoms in children. The mother-and-child cohort of the Generation R Study (Rotterdam, the Netherlands) began prenatal enrollment between 2002 and 2006. At a mean gestational age of 13.4 weeks (standard deviation=1.9, range=5.9-17.9), maternal thyroid function tests (serum thyrotropin [TSH], free thyroxine [fT4], and thyroid peroxidase [TPO] antibodies) were assessed in 5,100 women. We defined severe maternal hypothyroxinemia as fT4children (79%) using the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist and/or the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). We defined a probable autistic child by a PDP score>98th percentile and SRS score in the top 5% of the sample (n=81, 2.0%). Severe maternal hypothyroxinemia (n=136) was associated with an almost 4-fold increase in the odds of having a probable autistic child (adjusted odds ratio=3.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.83-8.20, pchildren of mothers with severe hypothyroxinemia had higher scores of autistic symptoms by age 6 years (adjusted B=0.23, 95% CI=0.03-0.37); SRS results were similar. No risk was found for children of TPO-antibody-positive mothers (n=308). We found a consistent association between severe, early gestation maternal hypothyroxinemia and autistic symptoms in offspring. Findings are concordant with epidemiological, biological, and experimental data on autism. Although these findings cannot establish causality, they open the possibility of preventive interventions. © 2013 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Neurological Association.
Löfgren, Bjarne; Dencker, Magnus; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Karlsson, Magnus K
Most prospective pediatric exercise intervention studies cover fractures. This prospective controlled exercise intervention study therefore followed not only skeletal development but also fracture incidence for 4 years. Fractures were prospectively registered in a cohort of children aged 7 to 9 years, 446 boys and 362 girls in the intervention group (2675 person-years) and 807 boys and 780 girls in the control group (5661 person-years). The intervention included 40 minutes per day of school physical education for 4 years whereas the controls had 60 minutes per week. In a subsample, 73 boys and 48 girls in the intervention and 52 boys and 48 girls in the control group, bone mineral content (g) and bone width (cm) were followed by means of dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry. The rate ratio for fractures was 1.11. In the dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry-measured children, there were no group differences at baseline in age, anthropometrics, or bone traits. The mean annual gain in lumbar spine bone mineral content was 7.0% higher in girls and 3.3% higher in boys and in femoral neck width 1.7% higher in girls and 0.6% higher in boys in the intervention than in the control group. A population-based moderately intense 4-year exercise program in 7- to 9-year-old children increased bone mass and size without affecting the fracture risk.
Tsuang, Debby; Leverenz, James B; Lopez, Oscar L; Hamilton, Ronald L; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A; Buchman, Aron S; Larson, Eric B; Crane, Paul K; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Kramer, Patricia; Woltjer, Randy; Trojanowski, John Q; Weintraub, Daniel; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S; Irwin, David J; Rick, Jacqueline; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Watson, G Stennis; Kukull, Walter; Nelson, Peter T; Jicha, Gregory A; Neltner, Janna H; Galasko, Doug; Masliah, Eliezer; Quinn, Joseph F; Chung, Kathryn A; Yearout, Dora; Mata, Ignacio F; Wan, Jia Y; Edwards, Karen L; Montine, Thomas J; Zabetian, Cyrus P
To test for an association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ϵ4 allele and dementias with synucleinopathy. Genetic case-control association study. Academic research. Autopsied subjects were classified into 5 categories: dementia with high-level Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathologic changes (NCs) but without Lewy body disease (LBD) NCs (AD group; n=244), dementia with LBDNCs and high-level ADNCs (LBD-AD group; n=224), dementia with LBDNCs and no or low levels of ADNCs (pure DLB [pDLB] group; n=91), Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) with no or low levels of ADNCs (n=81), and control group (n=269). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The APOE allele frequencies. RESULTS The APOE ϵ4 allele frequency was significantly higher in the AD (38.1%), LBD-AD (40.6%), pDLB (31.9%), and PDD (19.1%) groups compared with the control group (7.2%; overall χ(2)(4)=185.25; P=5.56 × 10(-39)), and it was higher in the pDLB group than the PDD group (P= .01). In an age-adjusted and sex-adjusted dominant model, ϵ4 was strongly associated with AD (odds ratio, 9.9; 95% CI, 6.4-15.3), LBD-AD (odds ratio, 12.6; 95% CI, 8.1-19.8), pDLB (odds ratio, 6.1; 95% CI, 3.5-10.5), and PDD (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7-5.6). CONCLUSIONS The APOE ϵ4 allele is a strong risk factor across the LBD spectrum and occurs at an increased frequency in pDLB relative to PDD. This suggests that ϵ4 increases the likelihood of presenting with dementia in the context of a pure synucleinopathy. The elevated ϵ4 frequency in the pDLB and PDD groups, in which the overall brain neuritic plaque burden was low, indicates that apoE might contribute to neurodegeneration through mechanisms unrelated to amyloid processing.
Franklin, Cortney A; Menaker, Tasha A
This study used a random community sample of 303 women in romantic relationships to investigate the role of educational and employment status inconsistency and patriarchal family ideology as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, while considering demographic factors and relationship context variables. Sequential multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated a decrease in the odds of IPV victimization for Hispanic women and women who were older as compared with their counterparts. In addition, increased relationship distress, family-of-origin violence, and employment status inconsistency significantly increased the odds of IPV. Clinical intervention strategies and future research directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Thaler, Heinrich W; Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A; van der Cammen, Tischa J M
A common and severe osteoporotic type fracture in older women is a hip fracture. It is not clear whether bone turnover parameters measured in blood can be a useful tool to predict fracture risk in older persons. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between serum vitamin D (25OHD) levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) and hip fractures in older fallers. A single centre, prospective cohort study of bone parameters was carried out in 400 female patients aged > 70 years including 200 with a hip fracture and 200 without fractures, admitted after a fall between January 2005 and December 2007. Serum total osteocalcin levels were significantly lower in the fracture group compared to the non-fracture group (20.4 ng/ml vs 26.1 ng/ml, respectively, p = 0.01). This finding remained significant after exclusion of the patients on bisphosphonates (p = 0.003). There were no significant differences in 25OHD, PTH or CTX levels between the two groups. In the current study there was an association between the presence of a hip fracture and lower total serum osteocalcin concentrations. This could be indicative of low bone turnover osteoporosis in these women. An association for other bone turnover markers was lacking.
Noah S. Diffenbaugh; Daniel L. Swain; Danielle Touma
..., the highest annual temperature, and the most extreme drought indicators on record. The extremely warm and dry conditions have led to acute water shortages, groundwater overdraft, critically low streamflow, and enhanced wildfire risk...
Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Jørgensen, Mads Gustaf; Haugaard, Karen
Introduction Lymphedema is one of the most serious complications following breast cancer treatment. While many risk factors are well described the role of seroma formation has recently produced mixed results. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate if seroma is a risk factor for development of lymphedema...... in one of the largest retrospective cohort studies. Material and methods We included all patients with unilateral breast cancer treated in the period of 2008-2014. Data regarding treatment and breast cancer characteristics were retrieved from the national breast cancer registry. Data regarding lymphedema...... treatment and seroma aspirations were retrieved from local treatment codes. Results In total 1822 patients were included of which 291 developed lymphedema. Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that seroma was an independent risk factor (HR 1.92 CI 1.30-2.85, p= 0.001). Other independent risk factors...
Shepherd, John A; Kerlikowske, Karla
Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk.
Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee
We have identified a strong association between daytime napping and increased mortality risk from respiratory diseases, but little is known about the relationship between daytime napping and respiratory morbidity. Data were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. Participants reported napping habits during 1998-2000 and were followed up for respiratory disease hospital admissions until March 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between daytime napping and respiratory disease incidence risk. The study sample included 10,978 men and women with a mean age of 61.9 years, and a total of 946 incident respiratory disease cases were recorded. After adjustment for age, sex, social class, education, marital status, employment status, nightshift work, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported general health, hypnotic drug use, habitual sleep duration, and preexisting health conditions, daytime napping was associated with an increase in the overall respiratory disease incidence risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.52 for napping napping ≥1 h). This association was more pronounced for lower respiratory diseases, especially for the risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.96 for napping napping ≥1 h, overall p = 0.003). Excessive daytime napping might be a useful marker of future respiratory disease incidence risk. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and help understand potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah
The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.
Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Weinberger, Andrea H
The current meta-analytic review represents the first comprehensive empirical evaluation of the strength of the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and cigarette smoking. Thirty-nine effect sizes, drawn from 31 peer-reviewed publications, determined the existence of a small to medium composite effect size for the victimization-smoking relationship (d = .41, 95% confidence interval = [.35, .47]). Results indicate that victims of IPV are at greater smoking risk than nonvictims. Subsequent moderator analyses indicated that the association between victimization and smoking is moderately stronger among pregnant compared to nonpregnant victims. The strength of the victimization-smoking relationship did not differ by relationship type or ethnicity. More research is needed on the smoking behavior of male victims, victims of psychological violence, and victims who identify as Latino/Latina. It would be useful for professionals working with IPV victims to assess for smoking and incorporate smoking prevention and cessation skills in intervention settings.
Gradus, Jaimie L; Qin, Ping; Lincoln, Alisa K; Miller, Matthew; Lawler, Elizabeth; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L
Although sexual victimization has been associated with suicidal behaviors, its association with completed suicide has not been examined. We investigated this association among Danish women using longitudinal data and a conservative definition of victimization. This population-based case-control study included 476 suicide cases and 12,010 matched controls. Seven cases (1.5%) and 5 controls (0.04%) experienced sexual victimization that was reported to the police and resulted in a conviction. Sexual victimization was associated with a 14-fold increased rate of suicide, controlling for confounders and matching (95% CI: [3.4, 59]). Completed suicide is an important potential outcome of sexual victimization, warranting further examination.
Full Text Available Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N = 4478. We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015. The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p < .001 was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect = −.0066, p = 0.318 and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p = 0.321 were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.
Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees
The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also
Full Text Available In this paper the findings of literature review and explorative empirical research of yoga application in the work with victims of various forms of sufferings is presented. The largest notion of victim is accepted, which encompasses victims of crime, victims of human rights violations (including convicted persons, as well as victims of war, natural disasters and other sufferings. After determination of the notion of victim and yoga, the review and analyses of research findings and direct experiences with the application of yoga in victim support and victimisation prevention worldwide and in Serbia, is done. The author’s research findings as well as personal experiences with the application of yoga in the work with prisoners in prison for women in Pozarevac (Serbia, within the workshops that Victimology Society of Serbia implemented during 2012/2013, are presented as well. In the conclusions, contribution of yoga to holistic approach to victim support as well as important role that yoga may have in prevention of victimisation and criminalisation, is stressed. The importance of yoga for support of prisoners as the part of preparation for re-entry and with the aim to prevent recidivism, as well as to enable their more successful reintegration into the society, is particularly emphasised. The paper is based on the research implemented by the author for the purpose of writing the final essey at the course for yoga instructors on International yoga academy, Yoga Allience of Serbia.
Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…
Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E
We examined evidence that peer victimization in middle childhood is a lead indicator of internalizing behavior problems and diagnostic outcomes during adolescence. This research was conducted as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal investigation. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls). Peer victimization was assessed with a peer nomination inventory that was administered when the average age of the participants was approximately 8.5 years. Internalizing problems were assessed using a behavior problem checklist completed by mothers in 9 consecutive years, and a structured clinical interview was administered to the participants in the summer following high school graduation (10-11 years after the victimization assessment). Peer victimization in middle childhood was correlated with internalizing problems on a bivariate basis through the late years of adolescence. Multilevel analyses also revealed associations between peer victimization and increases in internalizing problems over time. In addition, peer victimization had a modest link to unipolar depressive disorders in late adolescence. Victimization in the peer group during middle childhood appears to be a marker of long-term risk for internalizing behavior problems and unipolar depression.
Andersen, Ingelise; Diderichsen, Finn; Kornerup, Henriette
BACKGROUND: Stress is a consequence of different types of external demands, most of which have been shown to be associated with increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but whether accumulation of stressors over a life-course results in additional risk of IHD remains unknown. This study...... investigates the impact of major life events (MLE) in childhood, adulthood and at work, singly and accumulated, on incident IHD in men and women and examines vital exhaustion (VE) and use of tranquillizers as potential mediators. Material and methods The study includes 8738 participants, 57% women, from...... the third wave of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, who in 1991-93 answered a range of questions on MLE, VE and use of tranquillizers. The participants were followed in a nationwide hospital discharge register until 2007. RESULTS: During follow-up, 653 experienced a first-time incident of IHD. In general...
Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Hansen, Marianne Bang; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond
This study examined relationships between victimization from bullying and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS) after exposure to a terror attack at the workplace. It was hypothesized that (1) victims of bullying report higher and more stable levels of PTSS over time compared to their non-bullied colleagues and (2) that PTSS provides an increased risk of subsequent victimization from bullying. The hypotheses were tested in a two-wave prospective sample comprising 2337 employees from Norwegian governmental ministries who were exposed to the 2011 Oslo terror attack. The two waves of data collection were conducted 10 and 22 months after the terror attack. Hypothesis 1 was partially supported: victims of bullying reported significantly higher levels of PTSS than non-bullied employees at both measurement points, but bullying was not related to the stability in PTSS over time. In support of hypothesis 2, PTSS at 10 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of feeling victimized by bullying 1 year later. The results indicate that victimization from bullying is associated with elevated levels of PTSS in the aftermath of a workplace terror attack, but that bullying does not have any impact on the long-term development of PTSS. PTSS may be a potential antecedent of bullying. These findings suggest that organizations must give high priority to the psychosocial work environment of traumatized employees to prevent further detrimental health consequences.
Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D.; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, Rene
Peer victimization is a common and pervasive experience in childhood and adolescence and is associated with various maladjustment symptoms, including internalizing, externalizing, and somatic problems. This variety suggests that peer victimization is multifinal where exposure to the same risk leads
Kerlikowske, Karla; Gard, Charlotte C; Tice, Jeffrey A; Ziv, Elad; Cummings, Steven R; Miglioretti, Diana L
Risk factors may differentially influence development of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive vs -negative breast cancer. We examined associations with strong, prevalent risk factors by ER subtype. Of 1 279 443 women age 35 to 74 years participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, 14 969 developed ER-positive and 3617 developed ER-negative invasive breast cancer. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression and compared ER subtype hazard ratios at representative ages or by menopausal status using Wald tests. All statistical tests were two-sided. For women age 40 years, compared with no prior biopsy, ER-positive vs ER-negative HRs were 1.53 (95% CI = 1.30 to 1.81) vs 1.26 (95% CI = 0.90 to 1.76) for nonproliferative disease, 1.63 (95% CI = 1.23 to 2.17) vs 1.41 (95% CI = 0.78 to 2.57) for proliferative disease without atypia, and 4.47 (95% CI = 2.88 to 6.96) vs 0.20 (95% CI = 0.02 to 2.51) for proliferative disease with atypia. Benign disease proliferation risk was stronger for ER-positive than ER-negative cancer for women age 35 years (Wald P = .04), age 40 years (Wald P = .04), and age 50 years (Wald P = .06). Among pre/perimenopausal women, body mass index (BMI) had a stronger association with ER-negative than ER-positive cancer (obese II/III vs. normal weight: HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.19 to 1.94; vs 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.36). Increasing BMI similarly increased ER-positive and ER-negative cancer risk among postmenopausal hormone users (Wald P = .15) and nonusers (Wald P = .08). Associations with ER subtype varied by race/ethnicity across all ages (P breast cancer and breast density for specific ages. Strength of risk factor associations differed by ER subtype. Separate risk models for ER subtypes may improve identification of women for targeted prevention strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 33, 2005. Food practices .... LITERATURE REVIEW ... risk raw food items include minced meat and shellfish. Although the ... raw and ready-to-eat food products during storage, or applying the ..... on the usual behaviour of the respondents with “usual”.
Pilkinton, Melinda W.; Robertson, Angela; McCluskey, D. Lee
Driving under the influence of drugs poses risks for traffic safety. Most research attention has been focused on the most prevalent drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs with high abuse potential. The objectives of this study were to determine the types of drugs used by convicted DUI offenders on the day of their…
Andalib, S; Emamhadi, M R; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, S
, childhood, children, neurodevelopment were identified using databases PubMed and PMC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. Cochran's Q statistic-value (Q), degree of freedom (df), and I(2) indices (variation in odds ratio [OR] attributable to heterogeneity) were calculated to analyze the risk...
Volden, Sasia; Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine
Background: There is evidence that both stress and depression have a causal relationship with type 2 diabetes suggesting that vital exhaustion (VE) too could be a risk factor. The association between VE and type 2 diabeteshas, however, not been investigated prospectively. Aim: To prospectively...
Thorlacius, Linnea; Cohen, Arnon D; Gislason, Gunnar H
Patients with skin disorders are considered at a higher risk of depression and anxiety than the background population. Patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) may be particularly affected. We explored the association between HS and depression, anxiety, and completed suicides in the Danish...
Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L
OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...
Boheemen, C. van; Geffen, K. van; Philbert, D.; Bos, M.; Dis, I. van; Strijbis, A.; Bouvy, M.; Dijk, L. van
Background: In 2009, a national standard of care for vascular risk management (VRM) was developed. This standard, which was sent to all general practitioners (GPs), contains requirements for optimal care. One requirement is the formulation of a written individual-care plan which contains an extended
Tomic, Svetlana; Pekic, Vlasta; Popijac, Zeljka; Pucic, Tomislav; Petek, Marta; Kuric, Tihana Gilman; Misevic, Sanja; Kramaric, Ruzica Palic
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are at a higher risk of malnutrition. The prevalence has been estimated to 0-24%, while 3%-60% of PD patients are reported to be at risk of malnutrition. To date, there is no clear explanation for malnutrition in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to analyze factors that influence its appearance. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used to determine normal nutritional status; at risk of malnutrition; and already malnourished status. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts III and IV, Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y scale), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale - eating part (QUIP-RS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) were used to evaluate the factors affecting patient nutritional status. Out of 96 patients, 55,2% were at risk of malnutrition, while 8,3% had already been malnourished. Age, H&Y scale, UPDRS part III, 'off' periods and depression influence negatively on MNA. More patients with 'off' periods were rigor dominant. Thyroid gland hormone therapy was related to malnutrition, while patients with normal nutritional status used ropinirole more often than pramipexole. Factors affecting nutritional status are age, motor symptoms and stage severity, 'off' states, rigidity dominant type with 'off' states, and thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Ropinirole exhibited the possible 'protective' effect against malnutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lin, Wei-Chen; Shen, Cheng-Che; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C
The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome among patients diagnosed with insomnia. We conducted a population-based longitudinal study of a matched cohort with 7,895 participants (1,579 patients with insomnia and 6,316 controls) who were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The patients were observed for a maximum of 10 years to determine the incidence of newly diagnosed myofascial pain syndrome. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with myofascial pain syndrome in patients with insomnia. During the 10-year follow-up period, 182 insomnia patients (14.9 per 1,000 person-years) and 379 controls (7.5 per 1,000 person-years) were diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome. The incidence risk ratio of myofascial pain syndrome between the insomnia and control patients was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67-2.38, P myofascial pain syndrome (95% CI = 1.62-2.31, P myofascial pain syndrome in patients with insomnia. Patients with insomnia had a higher risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome than controls. This study adds to the understanding of the complex relationship between sleep disturbance and pain.
According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.
Kevin M. Swartout
Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.
Fischer, Peter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Guter, Stephanie; Frey, Dieter
Research has consistently shown that aggressive video console and PC games elicit aggressive cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Despite the increasing popularity of racing (driving) games, nothing is known about the psychological impact of this genre. This study investigated whether playing racing games affects cognitions, affect, and behaviors that can promote risk taking in actual road traffic situations. In Study 1, the authors found that the frequency of playing racing games was positively associated with competitive driving, obtrusive driving, and car accidents; a negative association with cautious driving was observed. To determine cause and effect, in Study 2, the authors manipulated whether participants played 1 of 3 racing games or 1 of 3 neutral games. Participants who played a racing game subsequently reported a higher accessibility of cognitions and affect positively associated with risk taking than did participants who played a neutral game. Finally, on a more behavioral level, in Study 3, the authors found that men who played a racing game subsequently took higher risks in computer-simulated critical road traffic situations than did men who played a neutral game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).
Russell, Patricia L.; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine A.
To date few reports have provided direct comparison of psychosocial vulnerability and resources among youth with victimization and perpetration histories. Within a racially diverse, high-risk adolescent sample (n = 849), this study undertakes MANCOVA tests on a multidimensional set of risk and protective factors contrasting youth with histories of 1) neither violent victimization nor perpetration, 2) victimization only , 3) both perpetration only, and 4) both victimization and perpetration. A...
Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjúrður Fróði; Secher, Niels Jørgen
We evaluated the association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and preterm delivery. Women attending routine antenatal care at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from 1989–1991 and 1992–1996 were eligible. We included 18,228 singleton pregnancies in the analyses. We obtained prospective...... information on alcohol intake at 16 and 30 weeks of gestation, other lifestyle factors, maternal characteristics, and obstetrical risk factors from self-administered questionnaires and hospital files. For women with alcohol intake of 1–2, 3–4, 5–9, and >=10 drinks/week the risk ratio (RR) of preterm delivery.......78–7.13) at 30 weeks. Adjustment for smoking habits, caffeine intake, age, height, pre-pregnant weight, marital status, occupational status, education, parity, chronic diseases, previous preterm delivery, mode of initiation of labor, and sex of the child did not change the conclusions, nor did restriction...
Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S
patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated......BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. METHODS: Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer...... with the number of cycles of chemotherapy with alkylating or platinum agents (P=0.057), although only one case was exposed to platinum. CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response relationship exists between radiation to the pancreas and subsequent cancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small...
Lasky, Nicole V.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Henriksen, Caitlin B.; Swan, Suzanne C.
Drugging victimization is an understudied phenomenon. This study examines the relationship between the campus party culture and drugging victimization. Campus party culture has been shown to influence risk of other types of victimization, and there is reason to believe it may also influence drugging victimization. Using three behavioral indicators…
Allen, Jim; De Grip, Andries
Abstract In this paper, we analyze whether technological change induces skill obsolescence and early labour market exit, and to what extent training participation and on-the-job learning reduce these risks. Using panel data on older workers, we find that workers report skill obsolescence more often when learning is a structural characteristic of the job. This perceived skill obsolescence is not related to a higher probability of losing employment. Instead, workers who experience sk...
Ajikumar V Aryangat; John E Gerich
Ajikumar V Aryangat, John E GerichUniversity of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for both the microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the cardiovascular results of large outcomes trials in diabetes and presents new evidence on the role of hyperglycemia, with particular emphasis on postprandial hyperglycemia, in adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabet...
Tucker, Joan S; Ewing, Brett A; Espelage, Dorothy L; Green, Harold D; de la Haye, Kayla; Pollard, Michael S
Homophobic victimization, and specifically name-calling, has been associated with greater psychological distress and alcohol use in adolescents. This longitudinal study examines whether sexual orientation moderates these associations and also differentiates between the effects of name-calling from friends and nonfriends. Results are based on 1,325 students from three Midwestern high schools who completed in-school surveys in 2012 and 2013. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations among homophobic name-calling victimization and changes in anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use one year later, controlling for other forms of victimization and demographics. Homophobic name-calling victimization by friends was not associated with changes in psychological distress or alcohol use among either students who self-identified as heterosexual or those who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). In contrast, homophobic name-calling by nonfriends was associated with increased psychological distress over a one-year period among LGB students and increased drinking among heterosexual students. Homophobic name-calling victimization, specifically from nonfriends, can adversely affect adolescent well-being over time and, thus, is important to address in school-based bullying prevention programs. School staff and parents should be aware that both LGB and heterosexual adolescents are targets of homophobic name-calling but may tend to react to this type of victimization in different ways. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which homophobic victimization increases the risk of psychological distress and alcohol use over time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Giletta, Matteo; Slavich, George M; Rudolph, Karen D; Hastings, Paul D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J
During adolescence, peer victimization is a potent type of social stressor that can confer enduring risk for poor mental and physical health. Given recent research implicating inflammation in promoting a variety of serious mental and physical health problems, this study examined the role that peer victimization and cognitive vulnerability (i.e. negative cognitive styles and hopelessness) play in shaping adolescents' pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to an acute social stressor. Adolescent girls at risk for psychopathology (n = 157; Mage = 14.73 years; SD = 1.38) were exposed to a laboratory-based social stressor before and after which we assessed salivary levels of three key pro-inflammatory cytokines - interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). As hypothesized, adolescents with greater peer victimization exposure exhibited greater increases in IL-6 and IL1-β in response to the laboratory-based social stressor. Moreover, for all three cytokines individually, as well as for a combined latent factor of inflammation, peer victimization predicted enhanced inflammatory responding most strongly for adolescents with high levels of hopelessness. The findings reveal a biological pathway by which peer victimization may interact with cognitive vulnerability to influence health in adolescence. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Paul R. Smokowski
Full Text Available Little is known about bullying in rural areas. The participants in this study included 3,610 racially diverse youth (average age = 12.8 from 28 rural schools who completed the School Success Profile-Plus. Binary logistic regression models were created to predict bullying victimization in the past 12 months, and ordered logistic regression was used to predict school hassles in the past 12 months. Overall, 22.71% of the sample experienced bullying victimization and school victimization rates ranged from 11% to 38%. Risk factors for bullying victimization included younger students and students experiencing depression and anxiety. Being female, Hispanic/Latino or African American, was associated with lower bullying victimization. Thirty-nine percent of the sample reported a high level of school hassles. Younger students and students with higher levels of anxiety and depression were at increased risk for school hassles. Students from larger schools reported high levels of school hassles, while students from schools with more teachers with advanced degrees reported fewer school hassles.
Miler, Krzysztof; Symonowicz, Beata; Godzińska, Ewa J
In social insects behavioral consequences of shortened life expectancy include, among others, increased risk proneness and social withdrawal. We investigated the impact of experimental shortening of life expectancy of foragers of the ant Formica cinerea achieved by their exposure to carbon dioxide on the expression of rescue behavior, risky pro-social behavior, tested by means of two bioassays during which a single worker (rescuer) was confronted with a nestmate (victim) attacked by a predator (antlion larva capture bioassay) or immobilized by an artificial snare (entrapment bioassay). Efficacy of carbon dioxide poisoning in shortening life expectancy was confirmed by the analysis of ant mortality. Rescue behavior observed during behavioral tests involved digging around the victim, transport of the sand covering the victim, pulling the limbs/antennae/mandibles of the victim, direct attack on the antlion (in antlion larva capture tests), and snare biting (in entrapment tests). The rate of occurrence of rescue behavior was lower in ants with shortened life expectancy, but that effect was significant only in the case of the entrapment bioassay. Similarly, only in the case of the entrapment bioassay ants with shortened life expectancy displayed rescue behavior after a longer latency and devoted less time to that behavior than ants from the control groups. Our results demonstrated that in ant workers shortened life expectancy may lead to reduced propensity for rescue behavior, most probably as an element of the social withdrawal syndrome that had already been described in several studies on behavior of moribund ants and honeybees.
Fattah, E A
The study concerned 50 cases occurring throughout Austria between 1950 and 1962 where murder was committed for the purpose of robbing the victim. Fifty-nine convicted killers and 61 victims were involved and 1950 was chosen as the starting point of the research in order to avoid undue influence from the extraordinary factors affecting criminality during and immediately following the Second World War. Cases were consecutive and unselected apart from a very small number excluded through unavailability of their files for legal reasons at the time when the data were collected. Unsuccessful murder attempts were not excluded since there is no difference between crimes actually carried out and those merely attempted as regards criminogenic factors, the pre-criminal situation, the choice of victim, the relationship and interaction between criminal and victim, and the recourse to homicide. However, the inquiry was confined to cases where guilt had been proven because of the aim to study not only the crime and the victim, but also the relationship of the criminal and victim. The latter is obviously not possible where the murderer remains unknown. Accordingly, since the material comprises a large number of cases over a fairly long period (more than a decade) from all over Austria, it is fair to claim that it provides an overview of the criminality of murder with intent to rob, and of the killers and the victims, for an entire country and over a significant epoch.
Mishcheniuk, O Y; Shkarupa, V M; Kostukevich, O M; Neumerzhitcka, L V; Kravchenko, S M; Klymenko, S V
The definition of a contribution of the carriage of the G1691A allele of thecoagulation factor V gene and the G20210A allele of the coagulation factor II gene in the development of thrombosis in Ph negative myeloprolifer ative neoplasms (MPN) patients, who were irradiated in the dose range 0,001 0,99 Gy and who were not. The clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of patients with radiation associated and spontaneous polycythemia vera (PV), essential trombotsytemiya (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) were ana lyzed. The group of radiation associated PV, ET and PMF represented by 35, 10 and 22 patients respectively, and the cohort of spontaneous PV, ET and PMF - 149, 111 and 78 patients respectively. The carriage of any of the two molecular genetic markers of hereditary thrombophilia at spontaneous PMF increases the frequency (3 of 6 vs 8 of 72; p = 0.033) and risk (RR = 6.09; 95 % CI = 1.40-26.43) of thrombosis. The presence of the G1691A allele of the proaccelerin gene in patients with PMF, who were not exposed to ionizing radiation, causes increase the likelihood of venous thrombosis at 10.14 times (95 % CI = 1.67-61.33). At spontaneous and radiation associated Ph negative MPN (in individuals exposed to doses in the range 0,001-0,99 Gy), the higher rate of the occurrence of venous, arterial and any thrombosis was observed in carriers of the G1691A allele the coagulation factor V gene, than in those, whose have the wild type allele. In particular, the G1691A allele of the proaccelerin gene carriers, that are belonged to the group of patients with radiation associated PV, have at 33.33 person years bigger rate of any thrombosis (95 % CI = 0.22-100.00, p = 0.048) and venous vascular events (95 % CI = 12.50-50.00; p = 0.003).In PMF patients with a radiation anamnesis were found the difference (20.00 person years; 95 % CI = 1.51-50.00, p = 0.035) between the ratio of any thrombosis and arterial vascular events, which was calculated for the G1691A allele of
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…
Lavie, Lena; Lavie, Peretz
Sleep apnea syndrome is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and so is cigarette smoking. In both atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated as underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. We investigated oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in 70 non-smoking and smoking patients with sleep apnea. Thirty-five sleep apnea patients aged 20-60 years who smoke 20 or more cigarettes/day and for at least 5 years were individually matched by gender, age (+/-5 years), body mass index (BMI; categorized as, 'normal weight', 'overweight', and 'obese'), sleep apnea severity (categorized as 'mild', 'moderate', and 'severe'), and presence of cardiovascular diseases, with 35 patients who never smoked. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fasting for determination of lipids profile, oxidative stress markers thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, peroxides and paraoxonase-1 and inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Smokers showed significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin and triglycerides and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol than non-smokers. There was a significant interaction effect between smoking and apnea severity on ceruloplasmin and HDL levels. Smokers with severe sleep apnea had the highest level of ceruloplasmin and the lowest level of HDL. There is a synergistic effect between cigarette smoking and sleep apnea on some of the biochemical cardiovascular risk markers. Patients with severe sleep apnea who smoke are at a greater cardiovascular risk than smokers with mild-moderate sleep apnea and patients who do not smoke.
Strickertsson, Jesper A.B.; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel
pathways, and compares the impact of the bacterial alteration of mitochondrial function to that of cancer. Bacterial virulence factors have been demonstrated to induce mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and to modulate DNA repair pathways of the mitochondria. Furthermore, virulence factors can induce...... or impair the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The effect of bacterial targeting of mitochondria is analogous to behavior of mitochondria in a wide array of tumours, and this strongly suggests that mitochondrial targeting of bacteria is a risk factor for carcinogenesis....
Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C
Many experiments have found that participants take more investment risk if they see returns less frequently, see portfolio-level returns (rather than each individual asset's returns), or see long-horizon (rather than one-year) historical return distributions. In contrast, we find that such information aggregation treatments do not affect total equity investment when we make the investment environment more realistic than in prior experiments. Previously documented aggregation effects are not robust to changes in the risky asset's return distribution or the introduction of a multi-day delay between portfolio choice and return realizations.
Ayala, Erin E; Kotary, Brandy; Hetz, Maria
Although research has been conducted on rape myth acceptance (RMA) and other factors associated with attribution formation, researchers have not yet determined how the combination of such factors simultaneously affects levels of victim blame and perpetrator blame. The current investigation recruited 221 students from an all-women's college to examine differences in blame attributions across RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender, and the relationship between the two parties (i.e., stranger vs. acquaintance). Results suggested that RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender account for a significant amount of variance in blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators. In sum, victim blame with female perpetrators was relatively consistent across levels of RMA, but increased substantially for male perpetrators as individuals endorsed higher levels of RMA. Perpetrator blame, however, was highest with male perpetrators when individuals endorsed low levels of RMA and lowest for male perpetrators when individuals endorsed relatively higher levels of RMA. Findings demonstrate the continued influence of RMA on blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators, and the stigma faced by male victims. More research is needed on the differing attributions of male and female victims and perpetrators, as well as differing attributions based on type of relationship. Such research will lead to a better and more thorough understanding of sexual assault and rape. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Previous research has identified a number of variables that constitute potential risk factors for victimization and revictimization. However, it remains unclear which factors are associated not only with childhood or adolescent victimization, but specifically with revictimization. The aim of this study was to determine whether risk recognition ability and other variables previously associated with revictimization are specifically able to differentiate individuals with childhood victimization only from revictimized individuals, and thus to predict revictimization.Participants were N = 85 women aged 21 to 64 years who were interpersonally victimized in childhood or adolescence only, interpersonally revictimized in another period of life, or not victimized. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether risk recognition ability, sensation seeking, self-efficacy, state dissociation, shame, guilt, assertiveness, and attachment anxiety predicted group membership.The logistic regression analysis revealed risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, state dissociation, and self-efficacy as significant predictors of revictimization. The final model accurately classified 82.4% of revictimized, 59.1% of victimized and 93.1% of non-victimized women. The overall classification rate was 80%.This study suggests that risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, self-efficacy, and state dissociation play a key role in revictimization. Increased risk recognition ability after an interpersonal trauma may act as a protective factor against repeated victimization that revictimized individuals may lack. A lack of increased risk recognition ability in combination with higher attachment anxiety, lower self-efficacy, and higher state dissociation may increase the risk of revictimization.
Low, Sabina; Espelage, Dorothy
Community violence exposure results in heightened risk for engaging in and being a victim of interpersonal violence. Despite this robust literature, few studies have specifically examined how the relation between community violence exposure, peer aggression, and victimization is modified by individual, peer, and familial influences (considered jointly). In the current study, we used risk and resiliency theory to examine links between community violence exposure and peer aggression and victimization. Impulsivity and parental monitoring were examined as potential moderators of the link between community violence exposure and outcomes, both directly and indirectly via deviant behavior. Survey data on bullying involvement, fighting, deviancy, parental monitoring, and impulsivity were collected on 3 occasions over an 18-month period among a large cohort of adolescents (N = 1,232) in 5th-7th grades. Structural equation modeling suggests that for both male and female adolescents, impulsivity exacerbates the effects of community violence exposure by increasing involvement in deviant behavior. Parental monitoring buffered the effects of community violence exposure on perpetration and victimization (for males and female adolescents) via reduced involvement in deviant behavior. Findings suggest that impulsivity and parental monitoring are implicated in modifying the effects of community violence exposure on both victimization and perpetration through deviancy, although deviancy is not as potent of a predictor for victimization. Thus, prevention efforts would seem to be optimally targeted at multiple ecological levels, including parental involvement and peer networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Weber, B L; Nathanson, K L
Much effort in recent years has been focused on understanding the factors that contribute to breast cancer risk. Two major susceptibility alleles, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified, and the prevalence and penetrance of mutations in these genes have been studied extensively. However, this work highlights the fact that only a small proportion of breast cancer is due to mutations in the genes. Evidence for additional high penetrance genes exists, but it is becoming clear that an understanding of multiple lower penetrance alleles will be necessary to fully define breast cancer risk. Work in this area has focused on the analysis of polymorphisms of potential functional significance in several classes of genes, including those involved in carcinogen metabolism, oestrogen metabolite biosynthesis, steroid hormone receptor activation and DNA damage response. These studies are reviewed and a strategy to use modification of breast cancer penetrance in families with known mutations in BRCA1 as a means of identifying additional low penetrance, or modifier, genes is discussed.
Hoang V Lam
Full Text Available We presented a risk assessment model to distinguish between type 1 diabetes (T1D affected and unaffected siblings using only three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes. In addition we calculated the heritability from genome-wide identity-by-descent (IBD sharing between full siblings. We analyzed 1,253 pairs of affected individuals and their unaffected siblings (750 pairs from a discovery set and 503 pairs from a validation set from the T1D Genetics Consortium (T1DGC, applying a logistic regression to analyze the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve (AUC. To calculate the heritability of T1D we used the Haseman-Elston regression analysis of the squared difference between the phenotypes of the pairs of siblings on the estimate of their genome-wide IBD proportion. The model with only 3 SNPs achieving an AUC of 0.75 in both datasets outperformed the model using the presence of the high-risk DR3/4 HLA genotype, namely AUC of 0.60. The heritability on the liability scale of T1D was approximately from 0.53 to 0.92, close to the results obtained from twin studies, ranging from 0.4 to 0.88.
Mansour, Hader; Fathi, Warda; Klei, Lambertus; Wood, Joel; Chowdari, Kodavali; Watson, Annie; Eissa, Ahmed; Elassy, Mai; Ali, Ibtihal; Salah, Hala; Yassin, Amal; Tobar, Salwa; El-Boraie, Hala; Gaafar, Hanan; Ibrahim, Nahed E; Kandil, Kareem; El-Bahaei, Wafaa; El-Boraie, Osama; Alatrouny, Mohamed; El-Chennawi, Farha; Devlin, Bernie; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L
Consanguinity has been suggested as a risk factor for psychoses in some Middle Eastern countries, but adequate control data are unavailable. Our recent studies in Egypt have shown elevated parental consanguinity rates among patients with bipolar I disorder (BP1), compared with controls. We have now extended our analyses to schizophrenia (SZ) in the same population. A case-control study was conducted at Mansoura University Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt (SZ, n=75; controls, n=126, and their available parents). The prevalence of consanguinity was estimated from family history data ('self report'), followed by DNA analysis using short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs, n=63) ('DNA-based' rates). Self-reported consanguinity was significantly elevated among the patients (SZ: 46.6%, controls: 19.8%, OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.88, 6.64; p=0.000058, 1 d.f.). These differences were confirmed using DNA-based estimates for coefficients of inbreeding (inbreeding coefficients as means+/-standard error, cases: 0.058+/-0.007, controls: 0.022+/-0.003). Consanguinity rates are significantly elevated among Egyptian SZ patients in the Nile delta region. The associations are similar to those observed with BP1 in our earlier study. If replicated, the substantial risk associated with consanguinity raises public health concerns. They may also pave the way for gene mapping studies. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Ojeda, Adriana Vargas; FitzGerald, David; Ojeda, Victoria D
Law enforcement can shape HIV risk behaviours and undermine strategies aimed at curbing HIV infection. Little is known about factors that increase vulnerability to police victimization in Mexico. This study identifies correlates of police or army victimization (i.e., harassment or assault) in the past 6 months among patients seeking care at a free clinic in Tijuana, Mexico. From January to May 2013, 601 patients attending a binational student-run free clinic completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Eligible participants were: (1) ≥18 years old; (2) seeking care at the clinic; and (3) spoke Spanish or English. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with police/army victimization in the past 6 months. More than one-third (38%) of participants reported victimization by police/army officials in the past 6 months in Tijuana. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, males (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.68; 95% CI: 2.19-6.19), tattooed persons (AOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04-2.33) and those who injected drugs in the past 6 months (AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.29-3.43) were significantly more likely to report past 6-month police/army victimization. Recent feelings of rejection (AOR: 3.80; 95% CI: 2.47-5.85) and being denied employment (AOR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.50-3.32) were also independently associated with police/army victimization. Structural interventions aimed at reducing stigma against vulnerable populations and increasing social incorporation may aid in reducing victimization events by police/army in Tijuana. Police education and training to reduce abusive policing practices may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Hosseini, Zeynab; Raayat, Alireza
The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. Conclusions: To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens.
Deleuran, Thomas; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Overgaard, Søren
OBJECTIVE: Chronic synovial inflammation causes primary osteoarthritis, but it is unknown whether chronic systemic inflammation does, too. Patients with cirrhosis have chronic systemic inflammation and therefore we examined the association between cirrhosis and primary osteoarthritis of the hip...... and knee. METHODS: In Danish healthcare databases we identified all residents over 60 years diagnosed with cirrhosis in 1994-2011, and for each of them we sampled five age- and gender-matched reference persons from the general population. We excluded everyone with risk factors for secondary osteoarthritis...... and computed incidence rates of primary osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. We used stratified Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios of primary osteoarthritis for cirrhosis patients vs. reference persons in strata defined by gender, age, cirrhosis etiology, and ascites vs. no ascites. We also computed...
Full Text Available This retrospective cohort study aimed to examine the relationship between herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO and the subsequent risk of dementia using a population-based database. We retrieved the study sample from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The study group included 846 patients with HZO, and the comparison group included 2538 patients without HZO. Each patient was individually followed for a 5-year period to identify those patients who subsequently received a diagnosis of dementia. We performed a Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for dementia during the follow-up period between patients with HZO and comparison patients. The respective incidence rates of dementia per 1000 person-years were 10.15 (95% CI: 7.22~13.87 and 3.61 (95% CI: 2.61~4.89 for patients with HZO and comparison patients. The Cox proportional analysis showed that the crude HR of dementia during the 5-year follow-up period was 2.83 (95% CI: 1.83-4.37 for patients with HZO than comparison patients. After adjusting for patients' characteristics and comorbidities, HZO patients were still at a 2.97-fold greater risk than comparison patients for developing dementia. Furthermore, we found that of sampled male patients, the crude HR of dementia for patients with HZO was as high as 3.35 (95% CI = 1.79-6.28 compared to comparison patients. This study demonstrated an association between HZO and dementia. Clinicians must be alert to suspect dementia in patients with cognitive impairment who had prior HZO.
Wang, Y; Hollis-Hansen, K; Ren, X; Qiu, Y; Qu, W
Obesity has become a global epidemic and threat to public health. A good understanding of the causes can help attenuate the risk and spread. Environmental pollutants may have contributed to the rising global obesity rates. Some research reported associations between chemical pollutants and obesity, but findings are mixed. This study systematically examined associations between chemical pollutants and obesity in human subjects. Systematic review of relevant studies published between 1 January 1995 and 1 June 2016 by searching PubMed and MEDLINE®. Thirty-five cross-sectional (n = 17) and cohort studies (n = 18) were identified that reported on associations between pollutants and obesity measures. Of them, 16 studies (45.71%) reported a positive association; none reported a sole inverse association; three (8.57%) reported a null association only; six (17.14%) reported both a positive and null association; seven (20.00%) reported a positive and inverse association; and three studies (8.57%) reported all associations (positive, inverse and null). Most studies examined the association between multiple different pollutants, different levels of concentration and in subsamples, which results in mixed results. Thirty-three studies reported at least one positive association between obesity and chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, biphenyl A, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and more. Certain chemicals, such as biphenyl A, were more likely to have high ORs ranging from 1.0 to 3.0, whereas highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls were more likely to have negative ORs. Effects of chemicals on the endocrine system and obesity might vary by substance, exposure level, measure of adiposity and subject characteristics (e.g. sex and age). Accumulated evidences show positive associations between pollutants and obesity in humans. Future large, long-term, follow-up studies are needed to assess impact of chemical pollutants on obesity
Nan, Yanrong; Li, Hongmei
This study aimed to investigate the association between the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and premature delivery susceptibility. With matched age and gender, 108 premature delivery pregnant women as cases and 108 healthy pregnant women as controls were recruited in this case-control study. The cases and controls had same gestational weeks. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was adopted to analyze C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the participants. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analysis were conducted by Haploview software. The differences for frequencies of gene type, allele and haplotypes in cases and controls were tested by chi-square test. The relevant risk of premature delivery was represented by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). TT gene type frequency of C677T polymorphsim was higher in cases than the controls (P=0.004, OR=3.077, 95% CI=1.469-6.447), so was allele T (P=0.002, OR=1.853, 95% CI=1.265-2.716). Whereas, CC gene type of A1298C polymorphism had a lower distribution in cases than the controls (P=0.008, OR=0.095, 95% CI=0.012-0.775), so was allele C (P=0.047, OR=0.610, 95% CI=0.384-0.970). Haplotype analysis and linkage disequilibrium test conducted on the alleles of two polymorphisms in MTHFR gene, we discovered that haplotype T-A had a higher distribution in cases, which indicated that susceptible haplotype T-A was the candidate factor for premature delivery. Gene type TT of MTHFR C677T polymorphism might make premature delivery risk rise while gene type CC of A1298C polymorphism might have protective influence on premature delivery.
Kaitlyn N. Ryan
Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.
Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.
Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…
Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily
Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…
This study investigated psychosocial predictors of involvement of women as victims of human trafficking using. This descriptive study had four independent variables- “coping strategies”, “self-esteem” “risk taking attitude” and “social support”. The dependent variable was involvement of women as victims of trafficking in ...
Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H
The current study examined the natural trajectories of alcohol use among women as they transitioned from high school to college, considering changes in drinking for students at initially different levels of drinking. We examined the hypothesis that the association between college drinking and sexual victimization would be stronger for women with less high school drinking experience. Female, college-bound, high school seniors were recruited from the community at the time of graduation (N = 437). Alcohol consumption and sexual victimization were assessed at the time of high school graduation (Time 0 [T0]) and at the end of the first (T1) and second (T2) semesters of college. Abstainers and light drinkers increased alcohol consumption from T0 to T1; however, consumption by those already engaging in heavy episodic drinking remained stable. Consumption did not increase for any group from T1 to T2. As expected, maximum consumption in college was strongly associated with experiencing incapacitated rape or other sexual victimization during the same semester; however, prior drinking experience did not moderate the relationship. Occasions of heavy drinking in college are a significant risk factor for sexual victimization for both experienced and inexperienced drinkers. Findings point toward universal prevention, ideally before college entry, as a strategy for reducing heavy episodic drinking and hence, college sexual victimization.
Fragility fractures are common and are associated with a substantial burden for patients and the healthcare system. Hip fractures in particular are associated with increased morbidity, institutionalisation, and even mortality with a mortality rate between 20-30% in the first year. This burden is
Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.
Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained. PMID:28317835
Ahlf, E H
Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.
Maier, Christoph; Gockel, Hans-Helmut; Gruhn, Kai; Krumova, Elena K; Edel, Marc-Andreas
Despite some other known psychiatric adverse effects, ziconotide is recommended for intrathecal pain treatment with a good efficacy and safety. Although some hints in previous studies are apparent, a higher suicidality has not been accepted as a treatment risk of ziconotide treatment by the investigators in the former randomized controlled trials so far. We present two cases supporting the suspicion of ziconotide-induced suicidality. Both showed no depressive symptoms at the time of treatment initiation. One patient performed suicide under low-dose (cumulative dosage: 779μg) 4 weeks after the onset of intrathecal ziconotide treatment despite sufficient pain relief. Another female patient with a history of depression, but free of symptoms under antidepressive medication since more than 15 years, developed severe suicidal ideation 2 months after ziconotide treatment (cumulative dosage: about 2900μg) with rapid recovery after drug discontinuation. The patient, who has completed suicide, had earlier given rise to discuss a potential depressive disorder, however, this diagnosis was scrapped, but the second patient had a clear history of depression. These cases substantiate the suspicion of a causal relationship between ziconotide and suicidality even in symptom-free patients with a history of depression. Therefore, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation is unavoidable before and during ziconotide treatment. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kjeldgaard, Jette; Cohn, Marianne T; Casey, Pat G; Hill, Colin; Ingmer, Hanne
Fermented sausages, although presumed safe for consumption, sometimes cause serious bacterial infections in humans that may be deadly. Not much is known about why and when this is the case. We tested the hypothesis that residual veterinary antibiotics in meat can disrupt the fermentation process, giving pathogenic bacteria a chance to survive and multiply. We found that six commercially available starter cultures were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics, namely, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and erythromycin. In meat, statutorily tolerable levels of oxytetracycline and erythromycin inhibited fermentation performance of three and five of the six starter cultures, respectively. In model sausages, the disruption of meat fermentation enhanced survival of the pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium compared to successful fermentations. Our work reveals an overlooked risk associated with the presence of veterinary drugs in meat. Antibiotics have for a long time been used as growth promoters in farm animals, and while they are banned as such in Europe, their clinical use in farm animals still accounts for the majority of consumption. Here, we examined how acceptable levels of antibiotics in meat influence fermentation. Our results show that commonly used bacterial starter cultures are sensitive to residual antibiotics at or near statutorily tolerable levels, and as a result, processed sausages may indeed contain high levels of pathogens. Our findings provide a possible explanation for outbreaks and disease cases associated with consumption of fermented sausages and offer yet another argument for limiting the use of antimicrobials in farm animals.
Poulsen, Pernille; Grunnet, Louise G; Pilgaard, Kasper
OBJECTIVE: Genetic susceptibility, low birth weight (LBW), and aging are key etiological factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. LBW is common among twins. It is unknown whether twin status per se is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, and valid concordance rates of type 2 diabetes....... In addition, type 2 diabetes incidence cases in twins (n = 626) and singletons (n = 553) were identified through the National Diabetes Register. RESULTS: Twins were more abdominally obese, insulin resistant, and glucose intolerant, as evidenced by a higher A1C (%) (means +/- SD) (MZ: 6.0 +/- 1.0, DZ: 5.......8 +/- 0.7, C: 5.6 +/- 0.3, P = 0.004) and 120-min post-oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose levels (in mmol/l) (MZ: 8.6 +/- 4.6, DZ: 8.4 +/- 3.9, C: 6.8 +/- 2.4, P = 0.003) compared with singletons. Importantly, twins had a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (MZ: 17.5% [95% CI 14.4-20.6], DZ: 15...
Artemis P. Simopoulos
In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...
Banny, Adrienne M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Crick, Nicki R.
Child maltreatment, peer victimization, and a polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) were examined as predictors of depressive symptomatology. Children (M age = 11.26, SD = 1.65), including 156 maltreated and 145 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided DNA samples and self-reports of relational peer victimization, overt peer victimization, and depressive symptoms. Path analysis showed that relational and overt victimization mediated the association between child maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Bootstrapping procedures were used to test moderated mediation and demonstrated that genotype moderated the indirect effects of relational and overt victimization on child depressive symptoms, such that victimized children with the l/l variation were at an increased risk for depressive symptoms compared to victimized children carrying an s allele. Results highlight the utility of examining process models that incorporate biological and psychological factors contributing to the development of depressive symptomatology, and provide direction toward understanding and promoting resilience among high risk youth from a multiple levels of analysis approach. PMID:23880379
Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Objective Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally-oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially-diverse community sample of adolescents. We expanded on past research by examining hopelessness as a mediator of the relationships between these interpersonal stressors and symptoms. Method Participants included 225 adolescents (55% African-American; 59% female; Mean age = 12.84 years) who completed measures at baseline (Time 1) and two follow-up assessments (Times 2 and 3). Symptoms of depression and anxiety (social, physical, total) were assessed at Time 1 and Time 3, while intervening emotional maltreatment, peer victimization, and hopelessness were assessed at Time 2. Results Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that emotional abuse was a nonspecific predictor of increases in both depressive symptoms and symptoms of social, physical, and total anxiety, whereas relationally-oriented peer victimization predicted depressive symptoms specifically. Emotional neglect did not predict increases in depressive or anxiety symptoms. In addition, hopelessness mediated the relationships between emotional abuse and increases in symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest that emotional abuse and relationally-oriented peer victimization are interpersonal stressors that are relevant to the development of internalizing symptoms in adolescence, and that hopelessness may be one mechanism through which emotional abuse contributes to an increased risk of depression and social anxiety. PMID:23534812
Hamilton, Jessica L; Shapero, Benjamin G; Stange, Jonathan P; Hamlat, Elissa J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We expanded on past research by examining hopelessness as a mediator of the relationships between these interpersonal stressors and symptoms. Participants included 225 adolescents (55% African American; 59% female; M age = 12.84 years) who completed measures at baseline (Time 1) and two follow-up assessments (Times 2 and 3). Symptoms of depression and anxiety (social, physical, total) were assessed at Time 1 and Time 3, whereas intervening emotional maltreatment, peer victimization, and hopelessness were assessed at Time 2. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that emotional abuse was a nonspecific predictor of increases in both depressive symptoms and symptoms of social, physical, and total anxiety, whereas relationally oriented peer victimization predicted depressive symptoms specifically. Emotional neglect did not predict increases in depressive or anxiety symptoms. In addition, hopelessness mediated the relationships between emotional abuse and increases in symptoms of depression and social anxiety. These findings suggest that emotional abuse and relationally oriented peer victimization are interpersonal stressors that are relevant to the development of internalizing symptoms in adolescence and that hopelessness may be one mechanism through which emotional abuse contributes to an increased risk of depression and social anxiety.
Burke, Marshall B; Miguel, Edward; Satyanath, Shanker; Dykema, John A; Lobell, David B
Armed conflict within nations has had disastrous humanitarian consequences throughout much of the world. Here we undertake the first comprehensive examination of the potential impact of global climate change on armed conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. We find strong historical linkages between civil war and temperature in Africa, with warmer years leading to significant increases in the likelihood of war. When combined with climate model projections of future temperature trends, this historical response to temperature suggests a roughly 54% increase in armed conflict incidence by 2030, or an additional 393,000 battle deaths if future wars are as deadly as recent wars. Our results suggest an urgent need to reform African governments' and foreign aid donors' policies to deal with rising temperatures.
Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Ren, Xinguo; Fareed, Jawed; Hoppensteadt, Debra A; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Dwivedi, Yogesh
Teenage suicide is a major public health concern, but its neurobiology is not well understood. Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in stress and in the pathophysiology of depression-two major risk factors for suicide. Cytokines are increased in the serum of patients with depression and suicidal behavior; however, it is not clear if similar abnormality in cytokines occurs in brains of suicide victims. We therefore measured the gene and protein expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 24 teenage suicide victims and 24 matched normal control subjects. Our results show that the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly increased in Brodmann area 10 (BA-10) of suicide victims compared with normal control subjects. These results suggest an important role for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and that proinflammatory cytokines may be an appropriate target for developing therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Erica; Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Modi, Rusha; Vu, Michelle; Shahedi, Kamyar; Shah, Rena; Atia, Mary; Kurzbard, Nicole; Sheen, Victoria; Agarwal, Nikhil; Kaneshiro, Marc; Yen, Linnette; Hodgkins, Paul; Erder, M Haim; Spiegel, Brennan
Individuals with diverticulosis frequently also have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but there are no longitudinal data to associate acute diverticulitis with subsequent IBS, functional bowel disorders, or related emotional distress. In patients with postinfectious IBS, gastrointestinal disorders cause long-term symptoms, so we investigated whether diverticulitis might lead to IBS. We compared the incidence of IBS and functional bowel and related affective disorders among patients with diverticulitis. We performed a retrospective study of patients followed up for an average of 6.3 years at a Veteran's Administration medical center. Patients with diverticulitis were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes, selected for the analysis based on chart review (cases, n = 1102), and matched with patients without diverticulosis (controls, n = 1102). We excluded patients with prior IBS, functional bowel, or mood disorders. We then identified patients who were diagnosed with IBS or functional bowel disorders after the diverticulitis attack, and controls who developed these disorders during the study period. We also collected information on mood disorders, analyzed survival times, and calculated adjusted hazard ratios. Cases were 4.7-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with IBS (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-14.0; P = .006), 2.4-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with a functional bowel disorder (95% CI, 1.6-3.6; P diverticulitis could be at risk for later development of IBS and functional bowel disorders. We propose calling this disorder postdiverticulitis IBS. Diverticulitis appears to predispose patients to long-term gastrointestinal and emotional symptoms after resolution of inflammation; in this way, postdiverticulitis IBS is similar to postinfectious IBS. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:22747880
Jansen, Pauline W; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, Jan; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning
Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5-6 years. One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.
Jansen Pauline W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.
Rantala, Johanna; Platten, Ulla; Lindgren, Gunilla; Nilsson, Bo; Arver, Brita; Lindblom, Annika; Brandberg, Yvonne
Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12.The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants.The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations.The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in population. Difference in risk perception for children
Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12. The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. Methods The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Results Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants. The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations. The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in
Adolescent cannabis use has been shown in many studies to increase the risk of later psychosis. Childhood trauma is associated with both substance misuse and risk for psychosis. In this study our aim was to investigate whether there is a significant interaction between cannabis use and childhood trauma in increasing the risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms during adolescence.
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.
The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation
Tersmette, A. C.; Giardiello, F. M.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tersmette, K. W.; Ohara, K.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Tytgat, G. N.
Geographical differences may exist in the risk of gastric stump cancer. Therefore, we performed meta-analysis of literature reports in Japan (n = 3), the USA (n = 4), and Europe (n = 20) on the risk of postgastrectomy cancer. The weighted mean relative risk of stump cancer in Japan was 0.28, 95%
Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Coleman, Sharon M; Lira, Marlene C; Hadland, Scott E; Cooper, Susanna E; Heeren, Timothy C; Swahn, Monica H
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the alcohol policy environment and alcohol involvement in homicide victims in the United States, overall and by sociodemographic groups. To characterize the alcohol policy environment, the presence, efficacy, and degree of implementation of 29 alcohol policies were used to determine Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores by state and year. Data about homicide victims from 17 states from 2003 to 2012 were obtained from the National Violent Death Reporting System. APS scores were used as lagged exposure variables in generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to predict the individual-level odds of alcohol involvement (i.e., blood alcohol concentration [BAC] > 0.00% vs. = 0.00% and BAC ≥ 0.08% vs. ≤ 0.079%) among homicide victims. A 10 percentage point increase in APS score (representing a more restrictive policy environment) was associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide with BAC greater than 0.00% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.89, 95% CI [0.82, 0.99]) and BAC of 0.08% or more (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.82, 1.02]). In stratified analyses of homicide victims, more restrictive policy environments were significantly protective of alcohol involvement at both BAC levels among those who were female, ages 21-29 years, Hispanic, unmarried, victims of firearm homicides, and victims of homicides related to intimate partner violence. More restrictive alcohol policy environments were associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide victimization overall and among groups at high risk of homicide. Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising homicide prevention strategy.
Wilsem, Johan Arend van
This book deals with the distribution of criminal victimization across social groups and spatial areas. Why do certain kinds of people run higher risk of victimization than others? Why do spatial units, such as neighborhoods, cities and countries, differ in their rates of victimization? The present
Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a problem worldwide and occupation is an important risk factor. In the last decade, 55 200 deaths in the US were attributed to occupational risk factors. Objective: To determine if toxic metal exposure was associated with suicide risk among Paducah gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP workers. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM was used to determine metal exposure likelihood. Uranium exposure was also assessed by urinalysis. All suicide/self-injury International Classification for Disease (ICD codes were used to identify suicides. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR, odds ratios (OR, and hazard ratios (HR were used to estimate suicide risk. Results: PGDP suicide victims typically were younger white men. Within exposure likelihood categories, several suicide SMRs were typically elevated for several metals. Only beryllium exposure likelihood was associated with an increased HR. Uranium urine concentration was associated with an elevated suicide risk after stratification by urinalysis frequency. Conclusion: Suicide risk is associated with uranium exposure.
Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.
Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…
Fox, Claire L; Boulton, Michael J
Previous research, primarily in North America, has found that submissive and nonassertive behaviors are associated with peer victimization during childhood. A limitation of this work has been the failure to examine the relationships between such behaviors and different types of peer victimization. To overcome this weakness, we developed an inventory to assess the bidirectional longitudinal associations between three different types of victimization and submissive/nonassertive social behavior. The inventory was completed by 449 children aged 9 to 11 years at two time points over the course of an academic year. The inventory generated self-report scores and peer nominations. A robust finding was that submissive/nonassertive social behavior predicted an increase in social exclusion only. In examining the other direction of the relationship, we found that only social exclusion predicted changes in submissive/nonassertive social behavior over time. The findings advance our understanding of the social skills deficits that put children at risk for peer victimization, and of the implications of victimization for the development of submissive/nonassertive social skills problems.
Choo, Wan-Yuen; Dunne, Michael P; Marret, Mary J; Fleming, Marylou; Wong, Yut-Lin
There has been little community-based research regarding multiple-type victimization experiences of young people in Asia, and none in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, explore gender differences, as well as describe typical perpetrators and family and social risk factors among Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1,870 students was conducted in 20 randomly selected secondary schools in Selangor state (mean age: 16 years; 58.8% female). The questionnaire included items on individual, family, and social background and different types of victimization experiences in childhood. Emotional and physical types of victimization were most common. A significant proportion of adolescents (22.1%) were exposed to more than one type, with 3% reporting all four types. Compared with females, males reported more physical, emotional, and sexual victimization. The excess of sexual victimization among boys was due to higher exposure to noncontact events, whereas prevalence of forced intercourse was equal for both genders (3.0%). Although adult male perpetrators predominate, female adults and peers of both genders also contribute substantially. Low quality of parent-child relationships and poor school and neighborhood environments had the strongest associations with victimization. Family structure (parental divorce, presence of step-parent or single parent, or household size), parental drug use, and rural/urban location were not influential in this sample. This study extends the analysis of multiple-type victimization to a Malaysian population. Although some personal, familial, and social factors correlate with those found in western nations, there are cross-cultural differences, especially with regard to the nature of sexual violence based on gender and the influence of family structure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Cuccaro, Paula M; Peskin, Melissa F; Elliott, Marc N; Coker, Tumaini R; Mrug, Sylvie; Davies, Susan L; Schuster, Mark A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver. Children were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups: victim only, aggressor only, victim-aggressor, and neither victim nor aggressor at each time point using validated measures. Multinomial, multilevel mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship among periods of homelessness and longitudinal victimization, aggression, and victim aggression compared to children who were nonvictims and nonaggressors. Results suggest that children who experienced family homelessness were more likely than domiciled children to report aggression and victim aggression but not victimization only. Multivariate analyses suggested that even brief periods of homelessness were positively associated with aggression and victim aggression (relative to neither) compared to children who were never homeless. Furthermore, childhood victimization and victim aggression significantly decreased from 5th grade to 10th grade while aggression significantly increased in 10th grade. Children who experienced family homelessness for brief periods of time were significantly more likely to be a victim-aggressor or aggressor compared to those who were never homeless. Prevention efforts should target housing security and other important factors that may reduce children's likelihood of aggression and associated victimization. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wirth, Kathleen E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Silverman, Jay G.; Murray, Megan B.
Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332
Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup
Lucea, Marguerite B; Hindin, Michelle J; Kub, Joan; Campbell, Jacquelyn C
A person's ability to minimize HIV risk is embedded in a complex, multidimensional context. In this study, we tested a model of how relationship power impacts IPV victimization, which in turn impacts HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed data from 474 young adult women (aged 15-31) in Cebu Province, Philippines, using structural equation modeling, and demonstrated good fit for the models. High relationship power is directly associated with increased IPV victimization, and IPV victimization is positively associated with increased HIV risk. We highlight in this article the complex dynamics to consider in HIV risk prevention among these young women.
Jansen, P.W.; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, J; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning
Background: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods
P.W. Jansen (Pauline); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); J. van der Ende (Jan); R. Veenstra (René)