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Sample records for victimization face-to-face interviews

  1. Item Nonresponse in Face-to-Face Interviews with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haunberger Sigrid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined item nonresponse and its respondent and interviewer correlates by means of a population-based, panel survey of children aged 8 to 11 who were surveyed using standardised, face-to-face interviews. Using multilevel, logistic analyses with cross-level interactions, this article aims to examine which effects of item nonresponse are subject to children as respondents or to the interviewers and the interview setting. Depending on the type of question, we found different effects for respondent and interviewer variables, as well as interaction effects between child age/interviewer age as well as child gender/interviewer gender. However, interviewer variance is for the most part not significant.

  2. 20 CFR 266.6 - Information to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. 266.6 Section 266.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. Before the Board selects a... listed in § 266.4 of this part. An employee of the Board may also conduct a face-to-face interview with...

  3. The effect of face-to-face interviewing on personality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgert, Luisa; Kroh, Martin; Richter, David

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of nationally representative surveys in the social sciences and economics have implemented the Big Five model of personality. While many personality inventories were originally developed in the context of self-administered questionnaires, they are often used by large surveys in face-to-face interview settings instead. Drawing on an experimental research design, we studied the effect of this switch in the method of data collection on measurement invariance...

  4. Effects of telephone versus face-to-face interview modes on reports of alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, T K; Midanik, L T; Rogers, J D

    2000-02-01

    In order to assess the effects of survey modality on alcohol consumption estimates, data from two surveys using different interview modes (face-to-face and telephone) were compared on several alcohol measures. Face-to-face survey data were drawn from the 1990 National Alcohol Survey, while the telephone data came from the 1990 Warning Labels Survey. Both surveys used a probability sampling of the US adult general population in the 48 contiguous states. Measures of alcohol use derived from an identical "graduated frequencies" series included estimates of any drinking in the past 12 months, overall volume, and heavy (5+) drinking days. Abstention rates did not differ by survey mode, nor did distributions of alcohol consumption by volume and reported frequency of drinking five or more drinks in a day. Multiple regression models including demographic-mode interaction terms were used to examine how mode effects might differ across demographic subgroups. Lower income respondents were under-represented in the telephone sample, and were associated with lower reports of volume and 5+ days, compared to respondents in the face-to-face mode. The results suggest that although there are few differences in alcohol consumption estimates by interview mode, telephone samples may need to be supplemented or estimates adjusted by income level in order to attain equivalent results.

  5. Time-tradeoff values and standard-gamble utilities assessed during telephone interviews versus face-to-face interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijck, Esther; Bosch, JL; Hunink, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare time-tradeoff values and standard-gamble utilities obtained during telephone interviews with those obtained through face-to-face interviews. Sixty-five patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease completed both interviews. One week prior to the

  6. Effect of Interviewer's Eyeglasses on Compliance with a Face-to-Face Survey Request and Perception of the Interviewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Martin, Angélique

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that people photographed wearing eyeglasses were perceived more positively as to intelligence and honesty. However, the effect of wearing glasses on behavior and in real face-to-face relationships has never been examined. In two studies, interviewers wearing or not wearing eyeglasses were instructed to ask people in the…

  7. Interviewing When You’re Not Face-To-Face: The Use of Email Interviews in a Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Bowden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As Internet usage becomes more commonplace, researchers are beginning to explore the use of email interviews. Email interviews have a unique set of tools, advantages, and limitations, and are not meant to be blind reproductions of traditional face-to-face interview techniques. Email interviews should be implemented when: 1 researchers can justify email interviews are useful to a research project; 2 there is evidence that the target population will be open to email interviewing as a form of data collection; and 3 the justification of the email interview supports the researchers’ theoretical perspective. The objective of this study was to develop an email interviewing methodology. As with other forms of qualitative interviewing, it is important that the researcher: 1 identifies constraints; 2 adequately prepares for the interview; 3 establishes rapport; 4 asks appropriate questions; 5 actively listens; and 6 ends the email interview appropriately.

  8. Differences in Coping Strategies for Public and Private Face-to-Face and Cyber Victimization among Adolescents in Six Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F.; Yanagida, Takuya; Ševcíková, Anna; Aoyama, Ikuko; Dedková, Lenka; Machácková, Hana; Li, Zheng; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; Bayraktar, Fatih; Soudi, Shruti; Lei, Li; Shu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of publicity (private versus public) and medium (face-to-face versus cyber) in adolescents' coping strategies for hypothetical victimization, while also considering culture. Participants were adolescents from China, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, India, Japan, and the United States. The study also…

  9. Cell Phone and Face-to-Face Interview Responses in Population-Based Surveys: How Do They Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Ziyad; Ghandour, Lilian; Ghandour, Blanche; Mokdad, Ali H.; Sibai, Abla M.

    2015-01-01

    Findings on the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the use of cellular phones vis-à-vis face-to-face interviews in investigating health behaviors and conditions are presented for a national epidemiological sample from Lebanon. Using self-reported responses on identical questions, percentage agreement, ? statistics, and McNemar's test were used…

  10. 12 CFR 221.115 - Accepting a purpose statement through the mail without benefit of face-to-face interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accepting a purpose statement through the mail without benefit of face-to-face interview. 221.115 Section 221.115 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... near future, participations in securities purchase plans, list of unpaid debts, and present income...

  11. Differences in Attributions for Public and Private Face-to-face and Cyber Victimization Among Adolescents in China, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, India, Japan, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F; Yanagida, Takuya; Aoyama, Ikuko; Dědková, Lenka; Li, Zheng; Kamble, Shanmukh V; Bayraktar, Fatih; Ševčíková, Anna; Soudi, Shruti; Macháčková, Hana; Lei, Li; Shu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate gender and cultural differences in the attributions used to determine causality for hypothetical public and private face-to-face and cyber victimization scenarios among 3,432 adolescents (age range = 11-15 years; 49% girls) from China, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, India, Japan, and the United States, while accounting for their individualism and collectivism. Adolescents completed a questionnaire on cultural values and read four hypothetical victimization scenarios, including public face-to-face victimization, public cyber victimization, private face-to-face victimization, and private cyber victimization. After reading the scenarios, they rated different attributions (i.e., self-blame, aggressor-blame, joking, normative, conflict) according to how strongly they believed the attributions explained why victimization occurred. Overall, adolescents reported that they would utilize the attributions of self-blame, aggressor-blame, and normative more for public forms of victimization and face-to-face victimization than for private forms of victimization and cyber victimization. Differences were found according to gender and country of origin as well. Such findings underscore the importance of delineating between different forms of victimization when examining adolescents' attributions.

  12. Understanding the Correlates of Face-to-Face and Cyberbullying Victimization Among U.S. Adolescents: A Social-Ecological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Lee, Jungup; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hunter, Simon C; Patton, Desmond Upton; Rivers, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Using a national sample of 7,533 U.S. adolescents in grades 6-10, this study compares the social-ecological correlates of face-to-face and cyberbullying victimization. Results indicate that younger age, male sex, hours spent on social media, family socioeconomic status (SES; individual context), parental monitoring (family context), positive feelings about school, and perceived peer support in school (school context) were negatively associated with both forms of victimization. European American race, Hispanic/Latino race (individual), and family satisfaction (family context) were all significantly associated with less face-to-face victimization only, and school pressure (school context) was significantly associated with more face-to-face bullying. Peer groups accepted by parents (family context) were related to less cyberbullying victimization, and calling/texting friends were related to more cyberbullying victimization. Research and practice implications are discussed.

  13. The Effect of Interviewer Experience, Attitudes, Personality and Skills on Respondent Co-operation with Face-to-Face Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Jäckle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of interviewers' experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills in determining survey co-operation, conditional on contact. We take the perspective that these characteristics influence interviewers' behaviour and hence influence the doorstep interaction between interviewer and sample member. Previous studies of the association between doorstep behaviour and co-operation have not directly addressed the role of personality traits and inter-personal skills and most have been based on small samples of interviewers. We use a large sample of 842 face-to-face interviewers working for a major survey institute and analyse co-operation outcomes for over 100,000 cases contacted by those interviewers over a 13-month period. We find evidence of effects of experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills on co-operation rates. Several of the effects of attitudes and inter-personal skills are explained by differences in experience, though some independent effects remain. The role of attitudes, personality and skills seems to be greatest for the least experienced interviewers.

  14. Assessing knowledge of human papillomavirus and collecting data on sexual behavior: computer assisted telephone versus face to face interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland Suzanne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education campaigns seeking to raise awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV and promoting HPV vaccination depend on accurate surveys of public awareness and knowledge of HPV and related sexual behavior. However, the most recent population-based studies have relied largely on computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI as opposed to face to face interviews (FTFI. It is currently unknown how these survey modes differ, and in particular whether they attract similar demographics and therefore lead to similar overall findings. Methods A comprehensive survey of HPV awareness and knowledge, including sexual behavior, was conducted among 3,045 Singaporean men and women, half of whom participated via CATI, the other half via FTFI. Results Overall levels of awareness and knowledge of HPV differed between CATI and FTFI, attributable in part to demographic variations between these survey modes. Although disclosure of sexual behavior was greater when using CATI, few differences between survey modes were found in the actual information disclosed. Conclusion Although CATI is a cheaper, faster alternative to FTFI and people appear more willing to provide information about sexual behavior when surveyed using CATI, thorough assessments of HPV awareness and knowledge depend on multiple survey modes.

  15. [Impact of disabling chronic pain: results of a cross-sectional population study with face-to-face interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Leon, Andrés; Cantero-Braojos, Miguel Ángel

    2017-11-16

    To assess the impact of disabling chronic pain (DCP) on quality of life, work, consumption of medication and usage of health services. Cross-sectional population study with face-to-face interview. Andalusian Health Survey (2011 edition). 6,507 people over the age of 16 (p=q=0.5; confidence level=95%; sampling error=1.49, design effect=1.52). Not applicable. Dependent variable: DCP: population limited in their activity by any of the CP specified in the survey. quality of life, absence from work, consumption of medication and utilization of health services. Compared to a population without CP, DCP impact is 6 points less on the mental quality of life and 12 points on the physical one, medication consumption is triple, health services utilization is almost double, and long absence from work is triple. On the other hand, a population with nondisabling chronic pain (nDCP) presents similar results to a population without CP. We have considered DCP as another CP category because of its huge impact, as is shown in our study, on the study variables. On the contrary, the population with nDCP does not obtain significant impact differences when compared to the population without CP. Therefore, we believe that Primary Care and Public Health should lead different prevention strategies for DCP as well as for the identification of the nDCP population to decrease its possible deterioration towards DCP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Computer-Assisted, Self-Interviewing (CASI Compared to Face-to-Face Interviewing (FTFI with Open-Ended, Non-Sensitive Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fairweather PhD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results from research on cultural models, and assesses the effects of computers on data quality by comparing open-ended questions asked in two formats—face-to-face interviewing (FTFI and computer-assisted, self-interviewing (CASI. We expected that for our non-sensitive topic, FTFI would generate fuller and richer accounts because the interviewer could facilitate the interview process. Although the interviewer indeed facilitated these interviews, which resulted in more words in less time, the number of underlying themes found within the texts for each interview mode was the same, thus resulting in the same models of national culture and innovation being built for each mode. Our results, although based on an imperfect research design, suggest that CASI can be beneficial when using open-ended questions because CASI is easy to administer, capable of reaching more efficiently a large sample, and able to avoid the need to transcribe the recorded responses.

  17. Self-report of tobacco use status: comparison of paper-based questionnaire, online questionnaire, and direct face-to-face interview--implications for meaningful use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Mark W; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Hays, J Taylor; Newcomb, Richard D; Molella, Robin G; Cha, Stephen S; Hagen, Philip T

    2014-06-01

    Identifying tobacco use status is essential to address use and provide resources to help patients quit. Being able to collect this information in an electronic format will become increasingly important, as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has included the assessment of tobacco use as part of its Stage 1 Meaningful Use criteria. The objective was to compare the accuracy of online vs. paper assessment methods to ascertain cigarette smoking status using a face-to-face structured interview as the gold standard. This was a retrospective analysis of a stratified opportunity sample of consecutive patients, reporting in 2010 for a periodic health evaluation, who completed either a scannable paper-based form or an online questionnaire and underwent a standardized rooming interview. Compared with face-to-face structured interview, the overall observed agreement and kappa coefficient for both methods combined (paper and online) were 97.7% and 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.86) . For the online form they were 97.4% and 0.61 (95% CI 0.33-0.90), and for the paper form they were 97.9% and 0.75 (95% CI 0.54-0.96). There was no statistically significant difference in agreement between the online and paper-based methods (P=0.76) compared with a face-to-face structured interview. Online assessment of tobacco use status is as accurate as a paper questionnaire, and both methods have greater than 97% observed agreement with a face-to-face structured interview. The use of online assessment of tobacco use status has several advantages and more widespread use should be explored.

  18. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Symmetry and Mathematics: Pioneering Insights into the Structure of Physics. Urjit A Yajnik. Face to Face Volume 20 Issue 3 March 2015 pp 264-276. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 1. Do We Learn to See? Torsten Wiesel Prasanna Venkhatesh Venkataramani. Face to Face Volume 16 Issue 1 January 2011 pp 88-99. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Science is Not a Zero-Sum Game. Devendra Mani. Face to Face Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 471-477. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0471-0477. Author Affiliations.

  1. From Face-to-Face to Paired Oral Proficiency Interviews: The Nut Is yet to Be Cracked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Parviz; Bagherkazemi, Marzieh

    2011-01-01

    The pressing need for English oral communication skills in multifarious contexts today is compelling impetus behind the large number of studies done on oral proficiency interviewing. Moreover, given the recently articulated concerns with the fairness and social dimension of such interviews, parallel concerns have been raised as to how most fairly…

  2. Face-to-face individual counseling and online group motivational interviewing in improving oral health: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; McGrath, Colman; Ho, Samuel Mun-Yin

    2015-09-18

    Motivational interviewing (MI) has great potential in changing health-related behaviors. In addition to delivery in face-to-face individual counseling, MI can be delivered through online groups, a method that is particularly appealing to adolescents and may offer several benefits. This randomized controlled trial compares the effectiveness of prevailing health education (HE), face-to-face individual MI and online group MI in improving adolescents' oral health behaviors (diet and toothbrushing) and in preventing dental caries and periodontal diseases. In each of Hong Kong's main districts (Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories), three secondary schools will be recruited and randomly assigned to three groups (HE, face-to-face individual MI, and online group MI). A total of 495 adolescents (aged 12 to 13 years) with unfavorable oral health behaviors ("snacking twice or more a day" and/or "brushing teeth less than twice a day") will be recruited: 165 in each group. Two dental hygienists will be trained to deliver the interventions. HE will be provided through an oral health talk. Participants in the "face-to-face individual MI" group will join a one-on-one counseling session. For "online group MI," participants will form groups of 6 to 8 and join a synchronous text-based online counseling session. At baseline and after 6, 12 and 24 months, clinical outcomes (caries increment and gingival health) and oral health self-efficacy and behaviors (toothbrushing and snacking) will be recorded through an oral examination and a questionnaire, respectively. Effectiveness of the interventions will be evaluated and compared. The primary outcomes will be the "number of new carious surfaces" and "gingival bleeding score" (% of surfaces with gingival bleeding). The secondary outcomes will be changes in oral health self-efficacy and behaviors (toothbrushing and snacking frequencies). A preliminary economic evaluation and a process evaluation will be included to analyze the

  3. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1% prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5% made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs.

  4. Assessment of HIV-related risky behaviour: a comparative study of face-to-face interviews and polling booth surveys in the general population of Cotonou, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhanzin, Luc; Diabaté, Souleymane; Minani, Isaac; Lowndes, Catherine M; Boily, Marie-Claude; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Anagonou, Séverin; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Buvé, Anne; Alary, Michel

    2013-11-01

    During the 2008 HIV prevalence survey carried out in the general population of Cotonou, Benin, face-to-face interviews (FTFI) were used to assess risky behaviours for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We compared sexual behaviours reported in FTFI with those reported in polling booth surveys (PBS) carried out in parallel in an independent random sample of the same population. In PBS, respondents grouped by gender and marital status answered simple questions by putting tokens with question numbers in a green box (affirmative answers) or a red box (negative answers). Both boxes were placed inside a private booth. For each group and question, data were gathered together by type of answer. The structured and gender-specific FTFI guided by trained interviewers included all questions asked during PBS. Pearson χ2 or Fisher's exact test was used to compare FTFI and PBS according to affirmative answers. Overall, respondents reported more stigmatised behaviours in PBS than in FTFI: the proportions of married women and men who reported ever having had commercial sex were 17.4% and 41.6% in PBS versus 1.8% and 19.6% in FTFI, respectively. The corresponding proportions among unmarried women and men were 16.1% and 25.5% in PBS versus 3.9% and 13.0% in FTFI, respectively. The proportion of married women who reported having had extramarital sex since marriage was 23.6% in PBS versus 4.6% in FTFI. PBS are suitable to monitor reliable HIV/STI risk behaviours. Their use should be expanded in behavioural surveillance.

  5. Assessment of HIV related risky behaviour: a comparative study of face-to-face interviews and Polling Booth Surveys in the general population of Cotonou, Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    BÉHANZIN, Luc; DIABATÉ, Souleymane; MINANI, Isaac; LOWNDES, Catherine M.; BOILY, Marie-Claude; LABBÉ, Annie-Claude; ANAGONOU, Séverin; ZANNOU, Djimon Marcel; BUVÉ, Anne; ALARY, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives During the 2008 HIV prevalence survey carried out in the general population of Cotonou, Benin, face-to-face interviews (FTFI) were used to assess risky behaviours for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We compared sexual behaviours reported in FTFI with those reported in polling booth surveys (PBS) carried out in parallel in an independent random sample of the same population. Methods In PBS, respondents grouped by gender and marital status answered simple questions by putting tokens with question numbers in a green box (affirmative answers) or a red box (negative answers). Both boxes were placed inside a private booth. For each group and question, data were gathered together by type of answer. The structured and gender-specific FTFI guided by trained interviewers included all questions asked during the PBS.. Pearson chi-square or Fisher’s exact test were used to compare FTFI and PBS according to affirmative answers. Results Overall, respondents reported more stigmatized behaviours in PBS than in FTFI: the proportions of both married women and men who reported ever having had commercial sex were 17.4% and 41.6% in PBS versus 1.8% and 19.6% in FTFI, respectively. The corresponding proportions among unmarried women and men were 16.1% and 25.5% in PBS versus 3.9% and 13.0% in FTFI, respectively. The proportion of married women who reported having had extramarital sex since marriage was 23.6% in PBS versus 4.6% in FTFI. Conclusion Polling booth surveys are suitable to monitor reliable HIV/STI risk behaviours. Their use should be expanded in behavioural surveillance. PMID:23723251

  6. Stakeholders' perspectives on access-to-medicines policy and research priorities in Latin America and the Caribbean: face-to-face and web-based interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Thiago Botelho; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2014-06-25

    This study aims to rank policy concerns and policy-related research issues in order to identify policy and research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in low- and middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as perceived by policy makers, researchers, NGO and international organization representatives, as part of a global prioritization exercise. Data collection, conducted between January and May 2011, involved face-to-face interviews in El Salvador, Colombia, Dominican Republic, and Suriname, and an e-mail survey with key-stakeholders. Respondents were asked to choose the five most relevant criteria for research prioritization and to score policy/research items according to the degree to which they represented current policies, desired policies, current research topics, and/or desired research topics. Mean scores and summary rankings were obtained. Linear regressions were performed to contrast rankings concerning current and desired policies (policy gaps), and current and desired research (research gaps). Relevance, feasibility, and research utilization were the top ranked criteria for prioritizing research. Technical capacity, research and development for new drugs, and responsiveness, were the main policy gaps. Quality assurance, staff technical capacity, price regulation, out-of-pocket payments, and cost containment policies, were the main research gaps. There was high level of coherence between current and desired policies: coefficients of determination (R2) varied from 0.46 (Health system structure; r = 0.68, P metrics approaches, contributing to priority setting methodology development, with country and regional level stakeholder participation. Stakeholders received feedback with the results, and we hope to have contributed to the discussion and implementation of ATM research and policy priorities in LAC.

  7. Face to Face Communications in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  8. ACASI and Face-to-Face Interviews Yield Inconsistent Estimates of Domestic Violence among Women in India: The Samata Health Study 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Sujit D.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Subbiah, Kalyani; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2011-01-01

    Background: Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) are increasingly used in health research to improve the accuracy of data on sensitive behaviors. However, evidence is limited on its use among low-income populations in countries like India and for measurement of sensitive issues such as domestic violence. Method: We compared reports of…

  9. Conflict or Concert? Extending the Simmelian Triad to Account for Positive Third Party Presence in Face-to-Face Interviews with People Living with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Low

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of sociologists and other researchers have focused on the role of third parties since Simmel’s seminal conceptualization of the social organization of the triad. However, less attention has been given to third party presence in qualitative interviews, despite the fact that third party participation in interviews with people with chronic illness and/or disability occurs frequently. Here too it is assumed that third party presence promotes conflict, ignoring the role of third parties as facilitators who enable informants to articulate their perspectives. Therefore, I focus on Simmel’s concept of the triad, concluding that the role of facilitator must be added to the types he describes.

  10. Comparison of audio computer assisted self-interview and face-to-face interview methods in eliciting HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men and men who inject drugs in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Sylvia; Obianwu, Otibho; Eluwa, George; Vu, Lung; Oginni, Ayo; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Bashorun, Adebobola; Idogho, Omokhudu; Karlyn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p = 0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p = 0.05) and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p≤0.001) than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.6) and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6-166.0). MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2-8.9) and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2-3.9) in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02-2.5). The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies that reduce HIV transmission.

  11. Comparison of audio computer assisted self-interview and face-to-face interview methods in eliciting HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men and men who inject drugs in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Adebajo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Face-to-face (FTF interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM and men who inject drugs (MWID. However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. METHODS: This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. RESULTS: MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p = 0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p = 0.05 and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p≤0.001 than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.6 and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6-166.0. MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2-8.9 and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2-3.9 in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02-2.5. CONCLUSION: The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies

  12. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  13. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2013-04-01

    Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.

  14. [Interviewing victims of sexual crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Catarina

    2007-01-01

    The approach to victims of sexual crimes is of special complexity due to the nature of this kind of crime, the impact of victimization and the specificity of judicial investigation procedures. The absence of physical evidence and the secrecy that characterizes the majority of sexual victimization cases frequently lead the victim's story to be used as one of few proof elements. Given the importance of the information supplied by the victim in the criminal inquiry, it is essential to create strategies to optimise the interview process, not only to preserve evidence, but also to prevent a secondary victimization process. This review discusses in a brief manner the extent to which information given by victims can be considered relevant forensic evidence, and then presents the methodological guidelines for interview that should be used in this type of expertise.

  15. [Comparison between methods as polling booth survey and face-to-face interview in understanding the high-risk behavior among HIV-positive clients of female sex workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peili; Zhou, Chu; Zhou, Yang; Ren, Xianlong; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Junshi; Deng, Xiaojun; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou

    2015-04-01

    Face-to-face interview (FTFI) and polling booth survey (PBS) were applied to compare the high risk behavior among HIV-positive clients of female sex workers (CFSWs). This study was conducted in antiretroviral therapy (ART) out-patients centers in Hengyang city, where clients who had been informed on their HIV-positive status for 6 months or longer were recruited. FTFI was first used to tackle on 8 sensitive questions related to sexual behavior, followed by PBS to poke on the same questions. Results from FTFI and PBS were then compared. Compared with FIFI, results in the PBS showed higher proportion of participants who reported "having had history of sexually transmitted diseases before knowing that they were infected with HIV" (40.6% vs. 24.2%) but lower proportions on "frequency of having sex with regular sexual partner less than 4 times per month" and "using condoms consistently with regular sexual partners in past 6 months (44.4% vs. 63.0%)". There were no significant differences in the remaining 5 questions shown in the results from the two methods. HIV-positive CFSWs continued to practice unsafe sexual behaviors after knowing their HIV related status. Compared with FTFI, PBS seemed to have revealed higher proportion of unsafe sex behaviors, so as to generated more reliable data. While comparing with PBS, the traditional FTFI might have underestimated the risk behaviors among those HIV-positive CFSWs.

  16. Methods to increase reporting of childhood sexual abuse in surveys: the sensitivity and specificity of face-to-face interviews versus a sealed envelope method in Ugandan primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Anna Louise; Knight, Louise; Franҫa-Junior, Ivan; Allen, Elizabeth; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M

    2017-02-23

    Underreporting of childhood sexual abuse is a major barrier to obtaining reliable prevalence estimates. We tested the sensitivity and specificity of the face-to-face-interview (FTFI) method by comparing the number of disclosures of forced sex against a more confidential mode of data collection, the sealed-envelope method (SEM). We also report on characteristics of individuals associated with non-disclosure in FTFIs. Secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014, with n = 3843 children attending primary school in Luwero District, Uganda. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated, and mixed effects logistic regression models tested factors associated with disclosure in one or both modes. In the FTFI, 1.1% (n = 42) of children reported ever experiencing forced sex, compared to 7.0% (n = 268) in the SEM. The FTFI method demonstrated low sensitivity (13.1%, 95%CI 9.3-17.7%) and high specificity (99.8%, 95%CI 99.6-99.9%) in detecting cases of forced sex, when compared to the SEM. Boys were less likely than girls to disclose in the FTFI, however there was no difference in prevalence by sex using the SEM (aOR = 0.91, 95%CI 0.7-1.2; P = 0.532). Disclosing experience of other forms of sexual violence was associated with experience of forced sex for both modes of disclosure. The SEM method was superior to FTFIs in identifying cases of forced sex amongst primary school children, particularly for boys. Reporting of other forms of sexual violence in FTFIs may indicate experience of forced sex. Future survey research, and efforts to estimate prevalence of sexual violence, should make use of more confidential disclosure methods to detect childhood sexual abuse.

  17. Face to Face Wise Decisions Under Uncertainty

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Face to Face. This section features conversations with personalities related to science, highlighting the factors and circumstances that guided them in making the career choice to be a scientist. Wise Decisions Under Uncertainty. C R Rao talks to B V Rajarama Bhat. Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao is a living legend known ...

  18. Face to Face Turning A New Leaf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Face to Face. Thissectionfeaturesconversationswithpersonalitiesrelated to science, highlighting the factors and circumstances that guided them in making the career choice to be a scientist. Turning A New Leaf. H Y Mohan Ram talks to Sujata Varadarajan. Prof. H Y Mohan Ram is a man of myriad interests and talents and is ...

  19. Face to Face Mulling Over Mathematics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    FACE-TO-FACE . While mathematics appears to many as an obscure subject dissociated with real life issues, no one can deny its pure and exacting nature. It is my feeling that mathematicians (especially those working in pure mathematics) view numbers differently from the rest of us. This difference is not determined.

  20. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  1. Stepwise strategy to improve Cervical Cancer Screening Adherence (SCAN-CC): automated text messages, phone calls and face-to-face interviews: protocol of a population-based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino-Machado, João; Mendes, Romeu; Moreira, Amélia; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-10-05

    Screening is highly effective for cervical cancer prevention and control. Population-based screening programmes are widely implemented in high-income countries, although adherence is often low. In Portugal, just over half of the women adhere to cervical cancer screening, contributing for greater mortality rates than in other European countries. The most effective adherence raising strategies are based on patient reminders, small/mass media and face-to-face educational programmes, but sequential interventions targeting the general population have seldom been evaluated. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a stepwise approach, with increasing complexity and cost, to improve adherence to organised cervical cancer screening: step 1a-customised text message invitation; step 1b-customised automated phone call invitation; step 2-secretary phone call; step 3-family health professional phone call and face-to-face appointment. A population-based randomised controlled trial will be implemented in Portuguese urban and rural areas. Women eligible for cervical cancer screening will be randomised (1:1) to intervention and control. In the intervention group, women will be invited for screening through text messages, automated phone calls, manual phone calls and health professional appointments, to be applied sequentially to participants remaining non-adherent after each step. Control will be the standard of care (written letter). The primary outcome is the proportion of women adherent to screening after step 1 or sequences of steps from 1 to 3. The secondary outcomes are: proportion of women screened after each step (1a, 2 and 3); proportion of text messages/phone calls delivered; proportion of women previously screened in a private health institution who change to organised screening. The intervention and control groups will be compared based on intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Northern Health

  2. Stepwise strategy to improve Cervical Cancer Screening Adherence (SCAN-CC): automated text messages, phone calls and face-to-face interviews: protocol of a population-based randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Romeu; Moreira, Amélia; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Screening is highly effective for cervical cancer prevention and control. Population-based screening programmes are widely implemented in high-income countries, although adherence is often low. In Portugal, just over half of the women adhere to cervical cancer screening, contributing for greater mortality rates than in other European countries. The most effective adherence raising strategies are based on patient reminders, small/mass media and face-to-face educational programmes, but sequential interventions targeting the general population have seldom been evaluated. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a stepwise approach, with increasing complexity and cost, to improve adherence to organised cervical cancer screening: step 1a—customised text message invitation; step 1b—customised automated phone call invitation; step 2—secretary phone call; step 3—family health professional phone call and face-to-face appointment. Methods A population-based randomised controlled trial will be implemented in Portuguese urban and rural areas. Women eligible for cervical cancer screening will be randomised (1:1) to intervention and control. In the intervention group, women will be invited for screening through text messages, automated phone calls, manual phone calls and health professional appointments, to be applied sequentially to participants remaining non-adherent after each step. Control will be the standard of care (written letter). The primary outcome is the proportion of women adherent to screening after step 1 or sequences of steps from 1 to 3. The secondary outcomes are: proportion of women screened after each step (1a, 2 and 3); proportion of text messages/phone calls delivered; proportion of women previously screened in a private health institution who change to organised screening. The intervention and control groups will be compared based on intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Ethics and dissemination The study was

  3. Blending MOOCs in Face-to-Face Teaching and Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Gynther, Karsten; Gundersen, Peter Bukovica

    2016-01-01

    of hours allotted for lecturers to meet existing demands. In order to design solutions to this challenge, this study collaborated with three educators and their 73 students in a teacher training faculty in Denmark, where Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are already produced and available for teaching...... inspired by grounded theory. The paper will categorise former design experiments with MOOCs in blended settings, and, using design workshops and interviews with educators as our point of departure, we will sketch and discuss various models for blending MOOCs with face-to-face teaching and supporting...

  4. Telehealth is Face-to-Face Service Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    CASON, JANA

    2017-01-01

    The Commentary contests the increasingly outdated and narrow use of the terminology ?face-to-face? (often abbreviated as F2F) to connote clinical interactions in which both the client and the practitioner are physically present in the same room or space. An expanded definition is necessary because when delivered synchronously via videoconferencing, telehealth also provides face-to-face services (i.e., the practitioner and the client view each other?s faces). Terminology that uses face-to-face...

  5. Buzz: face-to-face contact and the urban economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Storper; Venables, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features; it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and develop formal economic models of two of them. Face-to-face is particular...

  6. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2012-11-07

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.

  7. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamat, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  8. Linguistic analysis of face-to-face interviews with patients with an explicit request for euthanasia, their closest relatives, and their attending physicians: the use of modal verbs in Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieltjens, Sylvain M; Heynderickx, Priscilla C; Dees, Marianne K; Vissers, Kris C

    2014-04-01

    The literature, field research, and daily practice stress the need for adequate communication in palliative care. Although language is of the utmost importance in communication, linguistic analysis of end-of-life discussions is scarce. Our aim is 2-fold: We want to determine what the use of 4 significant Dutch modal verbs expressing volition, obligation, possibility, and permission reveals about the concept of unbearable suffering and about physicians' communicative style. We quantitatively (TextStat) and qualitatively (bottom-up approach) analyzed the use of the modal verbs in 15 interviews, with patients requesting euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide, their physicians, and their closest relatives. An essential element of unbearable suffering is the patient's incapacity to perform certain tasks. Further, the physician's preference for particular modal verbs reveals whether his attitude toward patients is more or less patronizing and more or less appreciative. Linguistic analysis can help medical professionals to better understand their communicative skills, styles, and approach to patients in end-of-life situations. We have shown how linguistic analysis can contribute to a better understanding of physician-patient interaction. Moreover, we have illustrated the usefulness of interdisciplinary research in the medical domain. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Face-to-Face Activities in Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette

    While blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching, research on blended learning has primarily focused on the role of technology and the opportunities it creates for engaging students. Less focus has been put on face-to-face activities in blended learning. This paper argues that it ......While blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching, research on blended learning has primarily focused on the role of technology and the opportunities it creates for engaging students. Less focus has been put on face-to-face activities in blended learning. This paper argues...... that it is not only the online activities in blended learning that provide new opportunities for rethinking pedagogy in higher education, it is also imperative to reconsider the face-to-face activities when part of the learning is provided online. Based on a review of blended learning in business and management...... education, we identify what forms of teaching and learning are suggested to take place face-to-face when other activities are moved online. We draw from the Community of Inquiry framework to analyze how face-to-face activities contribute to a blended learning pedagogy and discuss the implications...

  10. Beliefs about and Intention to Learn a Foreign Language in Face-to-Face and Online Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamami, Munassir

    2018-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigates language learners' intention to attend a class and learn a foreign language in face-to-face and online settings using Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB). The data were collected using interviews, questionnaires, and treatments with participants in two groups: a face-to-face language learning (FLL) group…

  11. Face to Face Excerpt of the Interview with Mathew Sands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    —like Born and. Sommerfeld and so on—really pull his knowledge together and make it accessible in a pedagogical way. This is your chance to make a big impact.” And he seemed to catch on to that idea and was interested. He got interested.

  12. Telehealth is Face-to-Face Service Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The Commentary contests the increasingly outdated and narrow use of the terminology 'face-to-face' (often abbreviated as F2F) to connote clinical interactions in which both the client and the practitioner are physically present in the same room or space. An expanded definition is necessary because when delivered synchronously via videoconferencing, telehealth also provides face-to-face services (i.e., the practitioner and the client view each other's faces). Terminology that uses face-to-face to connote only in-person care is limiting and perpetuates language that is out of line with progressive US regulatory language and broad interpretation within existing regulatory language. It is this author's hope that this commentary will raise awareness of the important policy implications associated with this seemingly minor distinction in terminology and impact the lingering misapplication of the term, face-to-face.

  13. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J; Dai, B; Peng, D; Zhu, C; Liu, L; Lu, C

    2012-01-01

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...

  14. Finding Hope in the Face-to-Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgoose, Jennifer Y. C.; Edgoose, Julian M.

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to look into the face of a patient who looks back? Face-to-face encounters are at the heart of the patient-clinician relationship but their singular significance is often lost amid the demands of today’s high-tech, metric-driven health care systems. Using the framework provided by the philosopher and Holocaust survivor Emmanuel Levinas, the authors explore the unique responsibility and potential for hope found only in face-to-face encounters. Revisiting this most fundamental attribute of medicine is likely our greatest chance to reclaim who we are as clinicians and why we do what we do. PMID:28483894

  15. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  16. Assessing Students Perceptions on Intensive Face to Face in Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensive face to face has been going on as a strategy to blend learning in diploma in primary teachers‟ education at OUT. However, at The Open University of Tanzania there has been no study that has investigated whether students find it useful or not. Therefore, this study assessed students‟ perception on Intensive Face ...

  17. Developing Leadership Skills: Online versus Face-to-Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergh, David; Lennon, Kate

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present final results from an exploratory research project that aimed to compare and contrast the effectiveness of different delivery modes (especially online as opposed to face-to-face) when developing leadership skills in established managers. Design/methodology/approach: This study sought to identify whether…

  18. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents which perform a random walk in a two dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  19. Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface ...

  20. Elektronická komunikace vs. komunikace face to face

    OpenAIRE

    Pipková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with new forms of communication particularly electronic ones. The main goal is to distinguish electronic communication from face to face communication in a way that differs from traditional media theories. By using examples of the most important medium in electronic communication, Internet, it is shown that nowadays we have such forms of electronic communication that surpass the traditional classification of oral/written communication, immediate/mediate communication, face t...

  1. Alternatives to the face-to-face consultation in general practice: focused ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Helen; Brant, Heather; Ziebland, Sue; Bikker, Annemieke; Campbell, John; Gibson, Andy; McKinstry, Brian; Porqueddu, Tania; Salisbury, Chris

    2018-01-29

    NHS policy encourages general practices to introduce alternatives to the face-to-face consultation, such as telephone, email, e-consultation systems, or internet video. Most have been slow to adopt these, citing concerns about workload. This project builds on previous research by focusing on the experiences of patients and practitioners who have used one or more of these alternatives. To understand how, under what conditions, for which patients, and in what ways, alternatives to face-to-face consultations present benefits and challenges to patients and practitioners in general practice. Focused ethnographic case studies took place in eight UK general practices between June 2015 and March 2016. Non-participant observation, informal conversations with staff, and semi-structured interviews with staff and patients were conducted. Practice documents and protocols were reviewed. Data were analysed through charting and the 'one sheet of paper' mind-map method to identify the line of argument in each thematic report. Case study practices had different rationales for offering alternatives to the face-to-face consultation. Beliefs varied about which patients and health issues were suitable. Co-workers were often unaware of each other's practice; for example, practice policies for use of e-consultations systems with patients were not known about or followed. Patients reported benefits including convenience and access. Staff and some patients regarded the face-to-face consultation as the ideal. Experience of implementing alternatives to the face-to-face consultation suggests that changes in patient access and staff workload may be both modest and gradual. Practices planning to implement them should consider carefully their reasons for doing so and involve the whole practice team. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.

  2. Individual face-to-face tutorials: the value in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Martina

    The individual, face-to-face tutorial is one means by which academic support can be provided to students in higher education. This mode of tutorial support has been deemed effective but it can be considered labour-intensive, which is a concern in the UK with the recession currently impacting on higher education institutions. Nevertheless, with increasing student fees come higher student expectations. With all UK pre-registration nursing study programmes at degree level and with the emphasis on widening access, students may require additional academic support to ensure success. This study aimed to examine the value of individual, face-to-face tutorials for academic support in nurse education. A descriptive and exploratory design was used, mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. The survey approach employed a web-based, self-completion questionnaire, which was distributed to lecturers and pre-registration student nurses in a UK university. Following analysis of the questionnaire results, students were invited to attend a group interview. Findings highlighted the importance of individual, face-to-face tutorials with qualitative data supplying detailed accounts regarding their value.

  3. Computer-mediated and face-to-face communication in metastatic cancer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhauer, Ruvanee P

    2014-08-01

    To compare the experiences of women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in computer-mediated and face-to-face support groups. Interviews from 18 women with MBC, who were currently in computer-mediated support groups (CMSGs), were examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The CMSGs were in an asynchronous mailing list format; women communicated exclusively via email. All the women were also, or had previously been, in a face-to-face support group (FTFG). CMSGs had both advantages and drawbacks, relative to face-to-face groups (FTFGs), for this population. Themes examined included convenience, level of support, intimacy, ease of expression, range of information, and dealing with debilitation and dying. CMSGs may provide a sense of control and a greater level of support. Intimacy may take longer to develop in a CMSG, but women may have more opportunities to get to know each other. CMSGs may be helpful while adjusting to a diagnosis of MBC, because women can receive support without being overwhelmed by physical evidence of disability in others or exposure to discussions about dying before they are ready. However, the absence of nonverbal cues in CMSGs also led to avoidance of topics related to death and dying when women were ready to face them. Agendas for discussion, the presence of a facilitator or more time in CMSGs may attenuate this problem. The findings were discussed in light of prevailing research and theories about computer-mediated communication. They have implications for designing CMSGs for this population.

  4. Spatial layout and face-to-face interaction in offices—a study of the mechanisms of spatial effects on face-to-face interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbub Rashid; Kevin Kampschroer; Jean Wineman; Craig Zimring

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report a study that uses space-syntax theories and techniques to develop a model explaining how spatial layouts, through their effects on movement and visible copresence, may affect face-to-face interaction in offices. Though several previous space-syntax studies have shown that spatial layouts have significant effects on movement and face-to-face interaction in offices, none has investigated the relations among movement, visible copresence, and face-to-face interaction in of...

  5. Developmental Changes in Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Birth to 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated development of face-to-face communication in infants between 1 and 14 weeks old and their mothers. Found a curvilinear development of early face-to-face communication, with increases occurring between weeks 4 and 9. When placed on a sofa, infants' face-to-face communication was longer than when they were held. Girls spent a longer…

  6. Effects of Cyberprogram 2.0 on "face-to-face" bullying, cyberbullying, and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    The considerable prevalence of cyberbullying and its noxious effects on all those concerned reveals the need for programs to prevent and/or intervene in this type of violence. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Cyberprogram 2.0 on "face-to-face" bullying, cyberbullying, and empathy. A sample of 176 adolescents of the Basque Country (Spain), aged between 13 and 15 years, who studied Compulsory Secondary Education, was used. Of them, 93 were randomly assigned to the experimental condition, and 83 to the control condition. The study used a pretest-posttest repeated measures design with a control group. Before and after the program, two assessment instruments were administered. The results confirmed that the program significantly stimulated: (a) a decrease in the amount of bullying and cyberbullying behaviors suffered and/or carried out (level of victimization, perpetration, aggressive-victimization); and (b) an increase in the capacity for empathy. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 to prevent and reduce bullying and cyberbullying. The discussion analyzes aspects of the program that may account for the significant intervention effects.

  7. A tele-oncology model replacing face-to-face specialist cancer care: perspectives of patients in North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Sabe; Kelly, Jenny; Evans, Rebecca; Larkins, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    We explored the experiences of patients using the Townsville Tele-oncology clinic, where most patients are no longer seen face-to-face. All medical oncology patients who received services via telehealth at the Townsville Cancer Centre in 2012 were invited to participate in an interview. None refused. Thirty two patients were interviewed by telephone and three via videoconference at their local health service facility. Data analysis identified five major themes (quality of the consultation; communication and relationships; familiarity with technology and initial fears; local services and support; and lack of coordination of services between the local rural hospital and the major regional hospital) and each major theme included a number of sub-themes. Most patients interviewed (69%) had not seen their oncology specialist face-to-face, but 86% of them found the video-consultation to be of high quality and were extremely satisfied with the interaction. The acceptance of teleconsultation appeared to be linked to the patients' trust with their local health system and staff. Overall, the tele-oncology model that replaced face-to-face care in North Queensland was accepted and welcomed by patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. An Investigation of Online and Face-to-Face Communication in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Gabriela; Green, Kellie; Rahman, Aliyah; Epp, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated an online office hour and a face-to-face recitation for similarities and differences. The online office hour and face-to-face recitation were a part of general chemistry courses taught at different universities. The courses covered the same material at the same level. The results of the investigation revealed…

  9. Can Face-to-Face Mobilization Boost Student Voter Turnout? Results of a Campus Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David; Lachelier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    American colleges and universities have an expanding role to play in nurturing political engagement as more youth attend college. Given low voter turnout among college students yet growing experimental evidence that face-to-face mobilization can boost turnout, the experiment reported in this article examined the impact of a face-to-face college…

  10. The Structure of Face-To-Face Casual Conversation Among the Akans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The social act of conversation passes through routine procedures before it is achieved. This paper tries to find out the structure of face-to-face casual conversation openings and closings among the Akans. It also seeks to juxtapose the structure of face-to-face conversation to that of telephone conversation as proposed by ...

  11. the structure of face-to-face casual conversation among the akans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Felix Kpogo and Kofi Busia Abrefa. Abstract. The social act of conversation passes through routine procedures before it is achieved. This paper tries to find out the structure of face-to-face casual conversation openings and closings among the Akans. It also seeks to juxtapose the structure of face-to-face conversation to that ...

  12. The Use of Computer-Mediated Communication To Enhance Subsequent Face-to-Face Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Bishop-Clark, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduate students that assessed the effects of synchronous (Internet chat) and asynchronous (Internet discussion board) computer-mediated communication on subsequent face-to-face discussions. Results showed that face-to-face discussions preceded by computer-mediated communication were perceived to be more enjoyable.…

  13. Face to Face or E-Learning in Turkish EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to understand e-learners and face to face learners' views towards learning English through e-learning in vocational higher school context and to determine the role of academic achievement and gender in e-learning and face to face learning. This study was conducted at a state-run university in 2012-2013 academic year…

  14. A Comparison of Face-to-Face and Groupware Meeting Approaches on a Collaborative Writing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Heidi R.; Moses, Duane R.

    1992-01-01

    Twelve groups of business students met face to face to complete a report; 10 groups used groupware (computerized decision support system). Overall report quality did not differ, although groupware users needed more time. Appearance and appropriate format were rated higher for the face-to-face group, and students found this method easier, faster,…

  15. Comparing Student Outcomes in Blended and Face-to-Face Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study of student outcomes in a pair of matched courses, one taught face-to-face and one taught in a blended format, in which students completed most of the work online but met several times face-to-face. Learning objectives, course content, and pedagogical approaches were identical but the mode of instruction was…

  16. Examining the Roles of the Facilitator in Online and Face-to-Face PD Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gina; Johnson, Heather; Vath, Richard; Kubitskey, Beth; Fishman, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Online teacher professional development has become an alternative to face-to-face professional development. Such a shift from face-to-face to online professional development, however, brings new challenges for professional development facilitators, whose roles are crucial in orchestrating teacher learning. This paper is motivated by the need to…

  17. Moodle: A Way for Blending VLE and Face-to-Face Instruction in the ELT Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilin, Gulden

    2013-01-01

    This classroom research explores the probable consequences of a blended Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYLs) course comprised of Moodle applications and face to face instruction in the English Language Teaching (ELT) context. Contrary to previous face to face only procedure, the course was divided into two segments: traditional classroom…

  18. Interpersonal similarity between body movements in face-to-face communication in daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Higo

    Full Text Available Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results

  19. Interpersonal similarity between body movements in face-to-face communication in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Naoki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Minemura, Juichi; Xu, Bujie; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ogata, Taiki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results confirm an

  20. Interpersonal Similarity between Body Movements in Face-To-Face Communication in Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Naoki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Minemura, Juichi; Xu, Bujie; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ogata, Taiki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results confirm an

  1. Lost in Translation: Adapting a Face-to-Face Course Into an Online Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzig, Melissa J

    2015-09-01

    Online education has grown dramatically over the past decade. Instructors who teach face-to-face courses are being called on to adapt their courses to the online environment. Many instructors do not have sufficient training to be able to effectively move courses to an online format. This commentary discusses the growth of online learning, common challenges faced by instructors adapting courses from face-to-face to online, and best practices for translating face-to-face courses into online learning opportunities. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Contrasting Internet and Face-to-Face Focus Groups for Children with Chronic Health Conditions: Outcomes and Participant Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nicholas PhD

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the authors examined Internet-mediated qualitative data collection methods among a sample of children with chronic health conditions. Specifically, focus groups via Internet technology were contrasted to traditional face-to-face focus groups. Internet focus groups consisted of asynchronous text-based chat rooms lasting a total of one week in duration. Participants comprised 23 children with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, or cystic fibrosis, who were assigned to either an Internet or face-to-face focus group. Focus group analysis and follow-up participant interviews identified a range of content outcomes and processes as well as participant experiences and preferences. Findings yielded differences in terms of the volume and nature of online and face-to-face data, and participants' affinity to focus group modality appeared to reflect differences in participant expectations for social engagement and interaction. This study identifies both benefits and limitations of asynchronous, text-based online focus groups. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

  3. Face-to-Face and Online Networks: College Students' Experiences in a Weight-Loss Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Gina; Weibel, Nadir; Pina, Laura; Griswold, William G; Fowler, James H; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Gallo, Linda C; Hollan, James; Patrick, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how college students participating in a 2-year randomized controlled trial (Project SMART: Social and Mobile Approach to Reduce Weight; N = 404) engaged their social networks and used social and mobile technologies to try and lose weight. Participants in the present study (n = 20 treatment, n = 18 control) were approached after a measurement visit and administered semi-structured interviews. Interviews were analyzed using principles from grounded theory. Treatment group participants appreciated the timely support provided by the study and the integration of content across multiple technologies. Participants in both groups reported using non-study-designed apps to help them lose weight, and many participants knew one another outside of the study. Individuals talked about weight-loss goals with their friends face to face and felt accountable to follow through with their intentions. Although seeing others' success online motivated many, there was a range of perceived acceptability in talking about personal health-related information on social media. The findings from this qualitative study can inform intervention trials using social and mobile technologies to promote weight loss. For example, weight-loss trials should measure participants' use of direct-to-consumer technologies and interconnectivity so that treatment effects can be isolated and cross-contamination accounted for.

  4. Web-Face-to-Face Mixed-Mode Design in a Longitudinal Survey: Effects on Participation Rates, Sample Composition, and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Annamaria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential mixed-mode designs are increasingly considered as an alternative to interviewer-administered data collection, allowing researchers to take advantage of the benefits of each mode. We assess the effects of the introduction of a sequential web-face-to-face mixed-mode design over three waves of a longitudinal survey in which members were previously interviewed face-to-face. Findings are reported from a large-scale randomised experiment carried out on the UK Household Longitudinal Study. No differences are found between the mixed-mode design and face-to-face design in terms of cumulative response rates and only minimal differences in terms of sample composition. On the other hand, potential cost savings are evident.

  5. Guidelines for Conducting a Victim-Sensitive Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Melanie J; Jaffe, Alan M; Vander Linden, Rachael S

    2015-01-01

    Victim sensitive interviews allow the adult investigator to gather vital facts from a child. Within these interviews, the investigator is provided with an opportunity to elicit responses from the child regarding allegations that have taken place. These allegations often have many origins and may involve sexual impropriety, abuse, taunting, and torture of a physical nature, verbal nature, or both. The purpose of this article is to provide standardized guidelines that can assist individuals from various occupational fields in conducting victim sensitive interviews. The standardized guidelines provided offer an assemblage of general principles that have consistently appeared within literature as well as in manuals provided by various jurisdictions. These guidelines refer to a practice of conduct that is recommended; however, variance with implementation is allowed. It is assumed that the reader brings a level of clinical experience to the material provided in this article.

  6. Mixing Online and Face-to-Face Therapy: How to Benefit From Blended Care in Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Jobke; van der Vaart, Rosalie; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2016-02-09

    Blended care, a combination of online and face-to-face therapy, is increasingly being applied in mental health care to obtain optimal benefit from the advantages these two treatment modalities have. Promising results have been reported, but a variety in descriptions and ways of operationalizing blended care exists. Currently, what type of "blend" works for whom, and why, is unclear. Furthermore, a rationale for setting up blended care is often lacking. In this viewpoint paper, we describe postulates for blended care and provide an instrument (Fit for Blended Care) that aims to assist therapists and patients whether and how to set up blended care treatment. A review of the literature, two focus groups (n=5 and n=5), interviews with therapists (n=14), and interviews with clients (n=2) were conducted to develop postulates of eHealth and blended care and an instrument to assist therapists and clients in setting up optimal blended care. Important postulates for blended care are the notion that both treatment modalities should complement each other and that set up of blended treatment should be based on shared decision making between patient and therapist. The "Fit for Blended Care" instrument is presented which addresses the following relevant themes: possible barriers to receiving blended treatment such as the risk of crisis, issues in communication (at a distance), as well as possible facilitators such as social support. More research into the reasons why and for whom blended care works is needed. To benefit from blended care, face-to-face and online care should be combined in such way that the potentials of both treatment modalities are used optimally, depending on patient abilities, needs, and preferences. To facilitate the process of setting up a personalized blended treatment, the Fit for Blended Care instrument can be used. By applying this approach in research and practice, more insight into the working mechanisms and optimal (personal) "blends" of online and

  7. Males Are Not as Active as Females in Online Discussion: Gender Differences in Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the gender difference in students' perceived discussion strategies in face-to-face and online asynchronous contexts. A survey of 363 university students and follow-up interviews of 20 participants was conducted to examine any gender differences within each context and between the two contexts. The Discussion Strategies Scale…

  8. An exploration into pedagogic frailty: Transitioning from face-to-face to online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Niculescu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogic frailty and concept mapping can simultaneously encourage personal and organisational change by supporting critical reflection and resilience. These ideas are nascent within higher education institutions and currently, at the University of Surrey, are only developed through face-to-face sessions. This revealed the need for a scalable intervention which engages academics with the discourse on introspective and professional development practices. In response, we have created the design for a blended programme of online foundation for concept mapping leading to face-to-face workshops to explore the pedagogic frailty model. This paper will discuss some significant challenges arising from transitioning self-reflective practices from face-to-face to online spaces. In the process, we will consider ways in which learning design can take the learner context into account.

  9. Preferences for Online and/or Face-to-Face Counseling among University Students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah P. Wong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, online counseling is considered to be a cost-effective and highly accessible method of providing basic counseling and mental health services. To examine the potential of online delivery as a way of increasing overall usage of services, this study looked at students’ attitudes toward and likelihood of using both online and/or face-to-face counseling. A survey was conducted with 409 students from six universities in Malaysia participating. Approximately 35% of participants reported that they would be likely to utilize online counseling services but would be unlikely to participate in face-to-face counseling. Based on these results, it is suggested that offering online counseling, in addition to face-to-face services, could be an effective way for many university counseling centers to increase the utilization of their services and thus better serve their communities.

  10. Teaching Time Investment: Does Online Really Take More Time than Face-to-Face?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Van de Vord

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enrollments in online programs are growing, increasing demand for online courses. The perception that teaching online takes more time than teaching face-to-face creates concerns related to faculty workload. To date, the research on teaching time does not provide a clear answer as to the accuracy of this perception. This study was designed to investigate which aspects, if any, are more time consuming for instructors teaching in the online environment. Time logs were kept by four online instructors (eight classes and six on-campus instructors (six classes through six weeks of the 15-week semester. Results indicated that, overall, face-to-face teaching required more time per student, but certain aspects of online teaching take considerably more time per student than in the face-to-face classroom.

  11. Informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state reflected in prefrontal cortex activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichiro eWatanabe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress with wearable sensors has enabled researchers to capture face-to-face interactions quantitatively and given great insight into human dynamics. One attractive field for applying such sensors is the workplace, where the relationship between the face-to-face behaviors of employees and the productivity of the organization has been investigated. One interesting result of previous studies showed that informal face-to-face interaction among employees, captured by wearable sensors that the employees wore, significantly affects their performance. However, the mechanism behind this relationship has not yet been adequately explained, though experiences at the job scene might qualitatively support the finding. We hypothesized that informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state, which in turn affects the task performance. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the change of mood state before and after break time for two groups of participants, one that spent their breaks alone and one that spent them with other participants, by administering questionnaires and taking brain activity measurements. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested a significant relationship between mood state and brain activity. Here, we show that face-to-face interaction during breaks significantly improved mood state, which was measured by Profiles of Mood States (POMS.We also observed that the verbal WM task performance of participants who did not have face-to-face interaction during breaks decreased significantly. In this paper, we discuss how the change of mood state was evidenced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC activity accompanied by working memory (WM tasks measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS.

  12. A COMPARISON OF STUDENT VIEWS ON WEB-BASED AND FACE-TO-FACE HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Nihat SAD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe and compare the perceptions of web-based distance education students and campus-based face-to-face students about the quality of education provided in their programs with regard to variables including gender, marital-status, and employment status. A baseline descriptive survey design and complementary ex post facto design were used in this study. A total of 536 students studying at two higher education institutions participated in the study. “Student Program Assessment Scale [SPAS]” was developed and used to assess web-based and face-to-face students’ perceptions about the quality of education in their programs. The results showed that web-based students were most positive about lifelong learning opportunities provided in their distance programs, followed by learning-teaching procedures, abilities to access and share resources, and lastly chances of cooperation and socialization. Face-to-face students were almost neutral in all aspects and, compared to web-based students, they were significantly less positive about lifelong learning opportunities (large effect size, learning-teaching procedures (medium effect size, and abilities to access and share resources (small effect size provided by their programs. Face-to-face and web-based learners were similarly and moderately positive about the cooperation and socialization opportunities provided in their programs. Gender, marital status and employment were found to cause no differences in practical sense on perceptions of web-based and face-to-face students. Distance education; web-based education; face-to-face education; higher education, curriculum evaluation.

  13. Assessing Student Satisfaction with Face-to-Face Synchronous Distance Education in a Dental Hygiene Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Lory A; Boyd, Linda D; Perry, Kristeen R; Dominick, Christine

    2017-03-01

    As universities and colleges seek to reach more students in efficient ways, the use of synchronous distance education (SDE) can be an alternative to traditional classrooms. This study focused on face-to-face SDE, in which classrooms equipped with interactive synchronous technologies allow students in both classrooms and the professor to synchronously see and hear one another. The aims of the study were to aid educators in understanding student concerns, determine whether face-to face SDE was sacrificing overall student satisfaction, and investigate whether satisfaction improved as the program matured. This mixed-methods study utilized a convenience sample of two cohorts of dental hygiene students (n=122) in one program: Cohort 1, which graduated in 2014 as the first class to experience face-to-face SDE; and Cohort 2, which graduated in 2015. The response rate for the two cohorts was 95%. Perceptions of face-to-face SDE versus traditional classroom experiences and characteristics of face-to-face SDE were measured using pre- and post-program surveys. The results showed no difference in student perceptions and expectations pre-course vs. post-course, although Cohort 2 had a more positive perception of SDE than did Cohort 1 (p<0.001). Perceptions of characteristics related to the classroom setting and instructor satisfaction were overall positive (p<0.001). The qualitative data suggested that technological support and faculty familiarity with SDE were substantial influences on students' satisfaction. Overall, there was no significant difference in satisfaction with face-to-face SDE when students compared it to their previous classroom experiences.

  14. Comparison of Face-to-Face and Web Surveys on the Topic of Homosexual Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingnan; Wang, Yichen

    2016-06-01

    Although academic research on homosexuality relies heavily on survey data, there has been limited study of the survey method of asking relevant questions. This study examines the effect of survey mode on responses to questions about homosexual rights. We find significant mode effects among heterosexual respondents, who are more likely to support equal access to employment, military service, adoption, and marriage for homosexual people in face-to-face surveys than in Web surveys. They are also more likely to choose to not respond when face-to-face than online. Homosexual respondents do not show mode effects for either substantive responses or item nonresponse rate.

  15. Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim

    2018-01-01

    During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlisted, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about...... the relative efficacy of ICBT as compared to face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 1418 participants, guided ICBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions were directly compared to face-to-face CBT within the same trial. Out of the 2078...

  16. The Body That Speaks: Recombining Bodies and Speech Sources in Unscripted Face-to-Face Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Alex; Corti, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human) with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1) the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person's body, and (2) the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body. These two methods are distinct in being able to parse the unique influence of the human body when combined with various speech sources. We also introduce a new framework for conceptualizing the body's role in communication, distinguishing three levels: self's perspective on the body, other's perspective on the body, and self's perspective of other's perspective on the body. Within each level the cyranoid and echoborg methodologies make important research questions tractable. By conceptualizing and synthesizing these methods, we outline a novel paradigm of research on the role of the body in unscripted face-to-face communication.

  17. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for…

  18. Collaborative Dialogue in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication and Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has documented that collaborative dialogue promotes L2 learning in both face-to-face (F2F) and synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) modalities. However, relatively little research has explored modality effects on collaborative dialogue. Thus, motivated by sociocultual theory, this study examines how F2F compares…

  19. In Pursuit of Ethical Research: Studying Hybrid Communities Using Online and Face-to-Face Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busher, Hugh; James, Nalita

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid communities using online and face-to-face communications to construct their practices are increasingly part of everyday life amongst people who have easy access to the internet. Researching these communities raises a number of challenges for researchers in the pursuit of ethical research. The paper begins by exploring what is understood by…

  20. To Whom It May Concern - Addressee Identification in Face-to-Face Meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with automatic addressee identification in face-to-face meetings. The first part of the thesis is devoted to gaining theoretical insights into addressing based on the outcomes of the research in conversational and interaction analysis. The multimodal nature of addressing as

  1. The Body That Speaks: Recombining Bodies and Speech Sources in Unscripted Face-to-Face Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gillespie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1 the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person’s body, and (2 the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body. These two methods are distinct in being able to parse the unique influence of the human body when combined with various speech sources. We also introduce a new framework for conceptualizing the body’s role in communication, distinguishing three levels: self’s perspective on the body, other’s perspective on the body, and self’s perspective of other’s perspective on the body. Within each level the cyranoid and echoborg methodologies make important research questions tractable. By conceptualizing and synthesizing these methods, we outline a novel paradigm of research on the role of the body in unscripted face-to-face communication.

  2. 6th Annual Earth System Grid Federation Face to Face Conference Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    The Sixth Annual Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), a global consortium of international government agencies, institutions, and companies dedicated to the creation, management, analysis, and distribution of extreme-scale scientific data, was held December 5–9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  3. Pattern Discovery for the Design of Face-to-Face Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Maria Francisca; Nussbaum, Miguel; Marshall, Guillermo; Lagos, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology of discovering social action patterns in collaborative learning activities for use in improving activity design, and in particular for restructuring existing designs involving face-to-face social actions to enhance their social dynamics and thus better ensure the achievement of a specified aim. An activity in this…

  4. A Phenomenological Study of Teamwork in Online and Face-to-Face Student Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafian, Marzieh; O'Neill, D. Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Team-based projects are widely used in both traditional face-to-face and online programs in higher education. To date, the teamwork experiences of students in each modality have been documented primarily through evaluative research conducted over short spans of time and limited by a priori frameworks. The literature also reflects a lack of…

  5. Internet Communication versus Face-to-Face Interaction in Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul S. N.; Leung, Louis; Lo, Venhwei; Xiong, Chengyu; Wu, Tingjun

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the role of the Internet in quality of life (QoL). Specifically, it examines the question of whether Internet communication serves, like face-to-face interactions, to enhance quality of life. It is hypothesized that the use of the Internet for interpersonal communication can improve quality of life among Internet…

  6. Predicting Outcome of Face-to-Face and Telephone Counselling for Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Chouliara, Zoe; Power, Kevin; Kilfedder, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of outcome of counselling, using mean change scores of three outcome measures, at treatment completion and at 4-months follow-up, in a randomised trial of face-to-face (n = 30) versus telephone counselling (n = 30) for occupational stress. Factors associated with treatment outcome were…

  7. Face to Face MicroRNAs: Tiny Genetic Switches in Our Genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Face to Face. This section features conversations with personalities related to science, highlighting the factors and circumstances that guided them in making the career choice to be a scientist. MicroRNAs: Tiny Genetic Switches in Our Genome. Gary Ruvkun talks to Venkatesan Sundaresan. Gary Ruvkun is a winner of the ...

  8. Face-to-face interaction of multisolitons in spin-1/2 quantum plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the face-to-face collision between multisolitons in spin-1/2 quantum plasma. It is studied in the framework of the model proposed by Marklund et al in {\\it Phys. Rev.} E 76, 067401 (2007). This studyis done with the help of the extended Poincare–Lighthill–Kno (PLK) method. The extended PLK method is also ...

  9. Face to Face Leading a Full Life in Two Worlds – Arts and Science!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Face to Face. This section features conversations with personalities related to science, highlighting the factors and circumstances that guided them in making the career choice to be a scientist. Leading a Full Life in Two Worlds – Arts and Science! Roald Hoffmann talks to K L Sebastian. KLS: Your very early childhood was ...

  10. Pair Interactions and Mode of Communication: Comparing Face-to-Face and Computer Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lan Liana; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Storch, Neomy

    2010-01-01

    In today's second language classrooms, students are often asked to work in pairs or small groups. Such collaboration can take place face-to-face, but now more often via computer mediated communication. This paper reports on a study which investigated the effect of the medium of communication on the nature of pair interaction. The study involved…

  11. Electronic and face-to-face communication in maintaining social relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, T.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Although the spectacular spread of wired and wireless communication technologies such as the Internet and mobile phone have been discussed extensively in the academic literature, knowledge of the interactions among face-to-face (F2F) and electronic communication modes and their implications for

  12. Public Speaking Anxiety: Comparing Face-to-Face and Web-Based Speeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Scott; Larson, James

    2013-01-01

    This study is to determine whether or not students have a different level of anxiety between giving a speech to a group of people in a traditional face-to-face classroom setting to a speech given to an audience (visible on a projected screen) into a camera using distance or web-based technology. The study included approximately 70 students.…

  13. Student Outcomes in Economics Principles: Online vs. Face-to-Face Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Kathryn; Weinandt, Mandie; Carr, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at the performance of students in an online and face-to-face section of economic principles with the same instructor. After controlling for the bias of students selecting the online section and observable characteristics, we did not find any statistical difference in the exam performance of students across delivery modes of the…

  14. Face-to-face Tobacco Sales: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-30

    This podcast reviews new federal tobacco product regulations that require retailers to sell cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products in a face-to-face exchange.  Created: 9/30/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 9/30/2010.

  15. Learners' Willingness to Communicate in Face-to-Face versus Oral Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Íñigo; Flores, Alayne

    2014-01-01

    The present study had two main goals: to explore performance differences in a task-based environment between face-to-face (FTF) and oral computer-mediated communication (OCMC) groups, and to investigate the relationship between trait-like willingness to communicate (WTC) and performance in the FTF and OCMC groups. Students from two intact…

  16. Learning Opportunities in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication and Face-to-Face Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yeong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) and face-to-face (F2F) oral interaction influence the way in which learners collaborate in language learning and how they solve their communicative problems. The findings suggest that output modality may affect how learners produce language, attend to linguistic forms,…

  17. Developing Face-to-Face Argumentation Skills: Does Arguing on the Computer Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanou, Kalypso

    2013-01-01

    Arguing on the computer was used as a method to promote development of face-to-face argumentation skills in middle schoolers. In the study presented, sixth graders engaged in electronic dialogues with peers on a controversial topic and in some reflective activities based on transcriptions of the dialogues. Although participants initially exhibited…

  18. Respondent Incentives in a National Face-to-Face Survey: Do They Affect Response Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauenhorst, Thomas; Blohm, Michael; Koch, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Respondent incentives are a popular instrument to achieve higher response rates in surveys. However, the use of incentives is still a controversial topic in the methodological literature with regard to the possible reduction or increase in response quality. We conducted an experiment in a large-scale German face-to-face study in which the…

  19. A Comparison of Organizational Structure and Pedagogical Approach: Online versus Face-to-Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines online versus face-to-face organizational structure and pedagogy in terms of education and the teaching and learning process. The author distinguishes several important terms related to distance/online/e-learning, virtual learning and brick-and-mortar learning interactions and concepts such as asynchronous and synchronous…

  20. An Interactive Mobile Lecturing Model: Enhancing Student Engagement with Face-to-Face Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyinbode, Olutayo; Ng'ambi, Dick; Bagula, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Although use of podcasts and vodcasts are increasingly becoming popular in higher education, their use is usually unidirectional and therefore replicates the transmission mode of traditional face-to-face lectures. In this paper, the authors propose a tool, MOBILect, a mobile lecturing tool that enables users to comment on lecture vodcasts using…

  1. Comparing face-to-face, synchronous, and asynchronous learning: postgraduate dental resident preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Marc; Julliard, Kell N; Rodriguez, Tobias E

    2014-06-01

    The Department of Dental Medicine of Lutheran Medical Center has developed an asynchronous online curriculum consisting of prerecorded PowerPoint presentations with audio explanations. The focus of this study was to evaluate if the new asynchronous format satisfied the educational needs of the residents compared to traditional lecture (face-to-face) and synchronous (distance learning) formats. Lectures were delivered to 219 dental residents employing face-to-face and synchronous formats, as well as the new asynchronous format; 169 (77 percent) participated in the study. Outcomes were assessed with pretests, posttests, and individual lecture surveys. Results found the residents preferred face-to-face and asynchronous formats to the synchronous format in terms of effectiveness and clarity of presentations. This preference was directly related to the residents' perception of how well the technology worked in each format. The residents also rated the quality of student-instructor and student-student interactions in the synchronous and asynchronous formats significantly higher after taking the lecture series than they did before taking it. However, they rated the face-to-face format as significantly more conducive to student-instructor and student-student interaction. While the study found technology had a major impact on the efficacy of this curricular model, the results suggest that the asynchronous format can be an effective way to teach a postgraduate course.

  2. Online vs. Face-to-Face Delivery of Information Technology Courses: Students' Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Said

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates students’ assessment of on-line vs face-to-face delivery of lecture-based information technology courses. The study used end-of-course surveys to examine students’ ratings of five course quality indicators: Course Organization, Assessment and Grading Procedures, Instructor Performance, Positive Learning Experience, and Perceived Success. The study analyzed five semesters of students’ ratings and found no significant differences in the overall ratings of the course quality indicators between the on-line and face-to-face courses. There were differences between the overall ratings of the course quality indicators, with instructor performance and course organization receiving the highest ratings. More importantly, there was a significant interaction between the course quality indicators and the course structure. Examination of this interaction indicated that the course organization, the assessment and grading procedures, and the students’ perceived success in the course, were higher in on-line courses, while instructor performance was better in face-to-face courses. These findings suggest different ways to improve both the on-line and face-to-face courses. Finally, the most surprising outcome was that students perceived greater success in on-line courses. However, this result needs further exploration in future studies.

  3. Comparative Effectiveness and Student Choice for Online and Face-to-Face Classwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemetz, Patricia Louise; Eager, Wendy M.; Limpaphayom, Wanthanee

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined learning and task choices made by students when the same interactive course design was used online and face-to-face. A survey was administered in an operations management course covering both conceptual and quantitative topics. Course grades were compared and correlations were measured to determine relevant relationships.…

  4. Fostering participation in learning networks by using reward systems and face-to-face meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Tattersall, Colin; Burgos, Daniel; Brouns, Francis; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Hummel, H. G. K., Tattersall, C., Burgos, D., Brouns, F. M. R., & Koper, E. J. R. (Submitted). Fostering participation in learning networks by using reward systems and face-to-face meetings. In Proceedings of ICALT 2006 Conference. July 5-7, Kerkrade, The Netherlands

  5. Grade Performance of Face-to-Face versus Online Agricultural Economics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Gina A.; Makus, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Online course offerings have been growing at a rapid pace in post-secondary education. An ordered probit model is estimated to analyze the effects of online vs. face-to-face course format in achieving specific letter grades. An upper-division agricultural economics course taught over 9 years using both formats is used for the analysis. For a…

  6. Teaching Time Investment: Does Online Really Take More Time than Face-to-Face?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vord, Rebecca; Pogue, Korolyn

    2012-01-01

    Enrollments in online programs are growing, increasing demand for online courses. The perception that teaching online takes more time than teaching face-to-face creates concerns related to faculty workload. To date, the research on teaching time does not provide a clear answer as to the accuracy of this perception. This study was designed to…

  7. On-Line vs. Face-to-Face Delivery of Information Technology Courses: Students' Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hazem; Kirgis, Lauren; Verkamp, Brian; Johnson, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates students' assessment of on-line vs face-to-face delivery of lecture-based information technology courses. The study used end-of-course surveys to examine students' ratings of five course quality indicators: Course Organization, Assessment and Grading Procedures, Instructor Performance, Positive Learning Experience, and…

  8. Learning Gains in Introductory Astronomy: Online Can Be as Good as Face-to-Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margoniner, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Universities and even high schools are moving more and more to online instruction as a cost-effective way to reach more students with fewer resources. This naturally raises the question: Can online learning be effective? (The question is not "Is online learning effective?" because just like face-to-face instruction, online instruction…

  9. Science Self-Efficacy of Preservice Teachers in Face-to-Face versus Blended Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaggs, Christine M.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Henry, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental mixed methods concurrent design, this study measured the science self-efficacy of pre-service elementary teachers before and after a survey of science content course. Further, this course was delivered in two different formats: face-to-face and hybrid (approximately 50% online), and compared pre-and post-science…

  10. Blended versus Face-to-Face: Evidence from a Graduate Corporate Finance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjoto, Maretno Agus

    2017-01-01

    The author compared students' perceptions of prelecture videos replacing face-to-face (F2F) classes in blended and F2F graduate corporate finance classes. Using 176 anonymous survey responses from eight F2F and two blended classes during the 2014-2016 year, the author found that students in the blended classes had a greater belief that prelecture…

  11. Affinities, Seeing and Feeling Like Family: Exploring Why Children Value Face-to-Face Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Hayley

    2012-01-01

    This article examines face-to-face contact as a way in which children practise, imagine and constitute their closest relationships. Based on the findings of a qualitative school-based study, the article shows that children regard "seeing" as a family and relational practice that enables them to feel connected to and develop affinities…

  12. Time Usage during Face-to-Face and Synchronous Distance Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Evelyn K.; Whitaker, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared face-to-face and videoconference private music lessons of one saxophone and two tuba students. One value of this study is the magnitude of the data analysis. More than 28,800 frames of digital video and verbatim scripts of all lessons were analyzed for time spent engaged in sequential patterns of instruction, performance, focus…

  13. Extensive Reading in the EFL Classroom: Benefits of a Face-to-Face Collaboration Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is an approach to language education that has shown great promise for foreign language learners to acquire language; however, implementation reveals difficulty in maintaining student motivation to read over long periods of time. This study investigates students' experience of face-to-face talk about books in an extensive reading…

  14. Academic Help-Seeking in Online and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Randa A.; Sowan, Azizeh K.; Nassar, Yahya H.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares actual help-seeking frequencies across online and face-to-face learning environments. It also examines strategies enacted by nursing students when they faced academic difficulties, reasons for help-seeking avoidance, and the relationship between the frequency of asking questions and achievement. Participants were nursing…

  15. Attitudes of Middle School Students: Learning Online Compared to Face to Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clayton; Rule, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Education in an online setting is an increasingly popular method of instruction. Previous studies comparing college or high school student performance in online and face-to-face courses found, in most cases, similar achievement between conditions. However, research is lacking regarding middle school students' academic performance and attitudes…

  16. Increasing Students' Perceived Sociopolitical Empowerment through Online and Face-to-Face Community Psychology Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescato, Donata; Solimeno, Andrea; Mebane, Minou Ella; Tomai, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Community psychology theorists underline the importance of promoting sociopolitical empowerment, but few studies have been conducted on the evaluation of the efficacy of empowering programs among university students. The authors report two studies: the first, with 216 psychology majors, compared the efficacy of face-to-face and online community…

  17. Determinants of engagement in face-to-face and online patient support groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, C.F.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Taal, Erik; Smit, Willem M.; Bernelot Moens, Hein J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although peer-to-peer contact might empower patients in various ways, studies show that only a few patients actually engage in support groups. Objective: The objective of our study was to explore factors that facilitate or impede engagement in face-to-face and online peer support, using

  18. Comparing Face-To-Face and Asynchronous Online Communication as Mechanisms for Critical Reflective Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Susan; Douglas, Tracy; Kember, David

    2017-01-01

    Two mechanisms for engaging in critical reflective dialogue are discussed and compared: face-to-face meetings and asynchronous online discussion. The context is an umbrella action research project, with over 20 participants, which aimed to improve practices in online teaching and contribute to the development of graduate attributes. The article…

  19. Student Learning and Instructor Investment in Online and Face-to-Face Natural Resources Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuellner, Melissa R.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial growth in online education in the United States has prompted questions on the levels of student learning and satisfaction achieved and the amount of instructor time investment required in the online environment compared to the face-to-face (F2F) environment. To date, very few have studied these measurements in science courses, and none…

  20. Characteristics of Problem Drinkers in E-therapy versus Face-to-Face Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Huurne, E.D. ter; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client–therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. Objective: To

  1. Face-to-Face Contact in Blended Learning for Intercultural Education: The Role of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Roger; Rickard, Angela; Reilly, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    In societies experiencing or emerging from conflict, teachers often deliver educational programmes designed to build community cohesion. We report on research which examined teachers' views of the implementation of a programme involving both face-to-face and online contact between pupils. Findings suggest that this blended approach is highly…

  2. Characteristics of problem drinkers in e-therapy versus face-to-face treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Huurne, E.D. Ter; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client-therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. OBJECTIVE: To

  3. COMPARISON OF NOVICE PROGRAMMERS’ PERFORMANCES: Blended Versus Face-To-Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal CAKIROGLU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of blended learning on novices’ understandings of the introductory programming. A quasi-experimental design with participants of preservice computer and instructional technologies teachers, one control group (CG, N =64 and one experimental group (EG, N=61 who received the course 11 weeks. While face-to-face courses were taught face-to-face in classroom and in lab, blended courses were conducted in synchronous and asynchronous settings and also in lab sessions. The pretest, posttest and delayed tests were used to collect data. The participants in two groups were separated into three categories (poor, average and good according to the pretest results. The results of the study showed that blended and face-to-face courses have statistically similar effects on academic achievements among the three categories. However the delayed test results showed that, face-to-face courses were more effective on permanence than blended courses. Thus, considering the main goal of the introductory programming courses as enhancing students in the second category progress into the third, the organization of blended courses had to be revisited. Nevertheless, this study supported the idea that “Crucial challenges may exist on teaching some subjects via blended learning, which include intensive cognitive processes and some new approaches are needed to enhance permanence”.

  4. Student Performance in Online and Face-to-Face Microeconomics: Evidence from Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medcalfe, Simon

    2009-01-01

    There have been few studies comparing student performance in online and face-to-face economics courses. Those studies that have been undertaken have concentrated on traditional students (18- to 22-year-olds). This paper examines student outcomes in an undergraduate course in microeconomics taught to non-traditional students (average age is 33…

  5. Two Peas in a Pod? A Comparison of Face-to-Face and Web Based Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Gale; Cryan, JohnRobert; Teclehaimanot, Berhane

    2007-01-01

    This study compared student learning outcomes and student perceptions of and satisfaction with the learning process between two sections of the same class--a web-based section and a traditional face-to-face (f2f) section. Using a quasi-experimental design, students were randomly assigned to the two course sections. Group equivalency was…

  6. The Body That Speaks: Recombining Bodies and Speech Sources in Unscripted Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Alex; Corti, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human) with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1) the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person's body, and (2) the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body. These two methods are distinct in being able to parse the unique influence of the human body when combined with various speech sources. We also introduce a new framework for conceptualizing the body's role in communication, distinguishing three levels: self's perspective on the body, other's perspective on the body, and self's perspective of other's perspective on the body. Within each level the cyranoid and echoborg methodologies make important research questions tractable. By conceptualizing and synthesizing these methods, we outline a novel paradigm of research on the role of the body in unscripted face-to-face communication. PMID:27660616

  7. Teleconference versus Face-to-Face Scientific Peer Review of Grant Application: Effects on Review Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Stephen A.; Carpenter, Afton S.; Glisson, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Teleconferencing as a setting for scientific peer review is an attractive option for funding agencies, given the substantial environmental and cost savings. Despite this, there is a paucity of published data validating teleconference-based peer review compared to the face-to-face process. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective analysis of scientific peer review data to investigate whether review setting has an effect on review process and outcome measures. We analyzed reviewer scoring data from a research program that had recently modified the review setting from face-to-face to a teleconference format with minimal changes to the overall review procedures. This analysis included approximately 1600 applications over a 4-year period: two years of face-to-face panel meetings compared to two years of teleconference meetings. The average overall scientific merit scores, score distribution, standard deviations and reviewer inter-rater reliability statistics were measured, as well as reviewer demographics and length of time discussing applications. The data indicate that few differences are evident between face-to-face and teleconference settings with regard to average overall scientific merit score, scoring distribution, standard deviation, reviewer demographics or inter-rater reliability. However, some difference was found in the discussion time. These findings suggest that most review outcome measures are unaffected by review setting, which would support the trend of using teleconference reviews rather than face-to-face meetings. However, further studies are needed to assess any correlations among discussion time, application funding and the productivity of funded research projects. PMID:23951223

  8. Effect of the Medicare face-to-face visit requirement on hospice utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Joan; Harris, Pam; Green, Dena; Craig, Teresa; Casarett, David J

    2013-02-01

    Although many patients enter hospice close to death, some enroll for more than six months. In 2011 the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) required that these long-stay patients receive a face-to-face visit by a physician or nurse practitioner to ensure that they continue to meet eligibility criteria. This study proposed to determine whether the face-to-face visit requirement increased the rate at which patients were decertified from hospice. The study was a retrospective cohort study in six U.S. hospices. Decertification from hospice within 10 months of enrollment was measured. Of 23,638 patients, 11,788 (49.9%) would have been affected by the face-to-face requirement. In bivariate analysis, there was a significant decrease in the decertification rate after the requirement was implemented-371/11,788 (3.2%) versus 578/11,850 (4.9%); odds ration (OR): 0.63; 95% CI 0.55-0.72; p<0.001. In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for changes in patient characteristics and clustered by hospice, there was still a reduction in decertifications-3.4% versus 5.2%; OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.47-0.97; p=0.034. Although the impact of the face-to-face requirement varied among hospices, all hospices had a decrease in decertification rates (absolute adjusted reduction between 1.4% and 3.6%). The face-to-face requirement may decrease hospice discharges, contrary to its intention.

  9. Teleconference versus face-to-face scientific peer review of grant application: effects on review outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Gallo

    Full Text Available Teleconferencing as a setting for scientific peer review is an attractive option for funding agencies, given the substantial environmental and cost savings. Despite this, there is a paucity of published data validating teleconference-based peer review compared to the face-to-face process. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective analysis of scientific peer review data to investigate whether review setting has an effect on review process and outcome measures. We analyzed reviewer scoring data from a research program that had recently modified the review setting from face-to-face to a teleconference format with minimal changes to the overall review procedures. This analysis included approximately 1600 applications over a 4-year period: two years of face-to-face panel meetings compared to two years of teleconference meetings. The average overall scientific merit scores, score distribution, standard deviations and reviewer inter-rater reliability statistics were measured, as well as reviewer demographics and length of time discussing applications. The data indicate that few differences are evident between face-to-face and teleconference settings with regard to average overall scientific merit score, scoring distribution, standard deviation, reviewer demographics or inter-rater reliability. However, some difference was found in the discussion time. These findings suggest that most review outcome measures are unaffected by review setting, which would support the trend of using teleconference reviews rather than face-to-face meetings. However, further studies are needed to assess any correlations among discussion time, application funding and the productivity of funded research projects.

  10. Panel workload assessment in US primary care: accounting for non-face-to-face panel management activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Brian; Tuan, Wen-Jan; White, Jennifer; Schumacher, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of primary care provider (PCP) workload is an important consideration in establishing optimal PCP panel size. However, no widely acceptable measure of PCP workload exists that incorporates the effort involved with both non-face-to-face patient care activities and face-to-face encounters. Accounting for this gap is critical given the increase in non-face-to-face PCP activities that has accompanied electronic health records (EHRs) (eg, electronic messaging). Our goal was to provide a comprehensive assessment of perceived PCP workload, accounting for aspects of both face-to-face and non-face-to-face encounters. Internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatric PCPs completed a self-administered survey about the perceived workload involved with face-to-face and non-face-to-face panel management activities as well as the perceived challenge associated with caring for patients with particular biomedical, demographic, and psychosocial characteristics (n = 185). Survey results were combined with EHR data at the individual patient and PCP service levels to assess PCP panel workload, accounting for face-to-face and non-face-to-face utilization. Of the multiple face-to-face and non-face-to-face activities associated with routine primary care, PCPs considered hospital admissions, obstetric care, hospital discharges, and new patient preventive health visits to be greater workload than non-face-to-face activities such as telephone calls, electronic communication, generating letters, and medication refills. Total workload within PCP panels at the individual patient level varied by overall health status, and the total workload of non-face-to-face panel management activities associated with routine primary care was greater than the total workload associated with face-to-face encounters regardless of health status. We used PCP survey results coupled with EHR data to assess PCP workload associated with both face-to-face as well as non-face-to-face panel management

  11. Face-to-face versus remote and web 2.0 interventions for promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Justin; Thorogood, Margaret; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Foster, Charles

    2013-09-30

    Face-to-face interventions for promoting physical activity (PA) are continuing to be popular as remote and web 2.0 approaches rapidly emerge, but we are unsure which approach is more effective at achieving long term sustained change. To compare the effectiveness of face-to-face versus remote and web 2.0 interventions for PA promotion in community dwelling adults (aged 16 years and above). We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and some other databases (from earliest dates available to October 2012). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised trials that compared face-to-face versus remote and web 2.0 PA interventions for community dwelling adults. We included studies if they compared an intervention that was principally delivered face-to-face to an intervention that had principally remote and web 2.0 methods. To assess behavioural change over time, the included studies had a minimum of 12 months follow-up from the start of the intervention to the final results. We excluded studies that had more than a 20% loss to follow-up if they did not apply an intention-to-treat analysis. At least two review authors independently assessed the quality of each study and extracted the data. Non-English language papers were reviewed with the assistance of an interpreter who was an epidemiologist. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for continuous measures of cardio-respiratory fitness. One study recruiting 225 apparently healthy adults met the inclusion criteria. This study took place in a high-income country. From 27,299 hits, the full texts of 193 papers were retrieved for examination against the inclusion criteria. However, there was only one paper that met the inclusion criteria. This study reported the effect of a PA intervention on cardio-respiratory fitness. There were no reported data

  12. Randomized trial comparing computer-delivered and face-to-face personalized feedback interventions for high-risk drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Leffingwell, Thad R; Mignogna, Joe; Mignogna, Melissa R; Weaver, Cameron C; Cooney, Nathaniel J; Claborn, Kasey R

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) using identical feedback and motivational interviewing strategies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems to two control conditions among a sample of high-risk drinking college students. Students (N = 152) were randomly assigned to a computer-delivered PFI with a video interviewer, a face-to-face PFI with a live interviewer, a comprehensive assessment condition, or a minimal assessment-only condition. At 10 weeks posttreatment, the face-to-face PFI significantly reduced weekly drinking quantity and peak and typical blood alcohol concentration compared with the comprehensive assessment and minimal assessment-only conditions (d values ranged from 0.32 to 0.61). No significant between-group differences were evidenced for the computer-delivered PFI condition, although effect sizes were comparable to other college drinking studies using computer-delivered interventions (d values ranged from 0.20 to 0.27). Results provide further support for the use of a face-to-face PFI to help reduce college students' alcohol consumption and suggest that a video interviewer in the context of a computer-delivered PFI is likely a helpful but not necessarily a complete substitute for a live interviewer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A model for production, perception, and acquisition of actions in face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Bernd J; Kopp, Stefan; Lowit, Anja

    2010-08-01

    The concept of action as basic motor control unit for goal-directed movement behavior has been used primarily for private or non-communicative actions like walking, reaching, or grasping. In this paper, literature is reviewed indicating that this concept can also be used in all domains of face-to-face communication like speech, co-verbal facial expression, and co-verbal gesturing. Three domain-specific types of actions, i.e. speech actions, facial actions, and hand-arm actions, are defined in this paper and a model is proposed that elucidates the underlying biological mechanisms of action production, action perception, and action acquisition in all domains of face-to-face communication. This model can be used as theoretical framework for empirical analysis or simulation with embodied conversational agents, and thus for advanced human-computer interaction technologies.

  14. Interplay between telecommunications and face-to-face interactions: a study using mobile phone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Francesco; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D; Ratti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyze one year of anonymized telecommunications data for over one million customers from a large European cellphone operator, and we investigate the relationship between people's calls and their physical location. We discover that more than 90% of users who have called each other have also shared the same space (cell tower), even if they live far apart. Moreover, we find that close to 70% of users who call each other frequently (at least once per month on average) have shared the same space at the same time--an instance that we call co-location. Co-locations appear indicative of coordination calls, which occur just before face-to-face meetings. Their number is highly predictable based on the amount of calls between two users and the distance between their home locations--suggesting a new way to quantify the interplay between telecommunications and face-to-face interactions.

  15. Internet versus face-to-face therapy: emotional self-disclosure issues for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Vickie L; Griffin, Mary Quinn; Wykle, May L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare differences in emotional self-disclosure between young adult Internet users who prefer face-to-face therapy to those who prefer Internet therapy. A convenience sample of 328 was recruited from Facebook to complete an online survey. A total of 263 preferred face-to-face therapy (F2FT) while 65 preferred Internet therapy (IT). Significant differences were found with the F2FT group willing to disclose emotions of depression, jealously, anxiety, and fear to a therapist more frequently than the IT group. The majority reported a preference for F2FT over IT. Recommendations for future professional practice and research are included.

  16. Comparing face-to-face and online qualitative research with people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnot, Anneliese; Hill, Sophie; Summers, Michael; Taylor, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We compared face-to-face focus groups and an online forum in qualitative research with people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and family members. Although the merits and challenges of online qualitative research have been considered by others, there is limited literature directly comparing these two data collection methods for people with disability or chronic illness. Twenty-seven people participated in one of four focus groups and 33 people took part in an online forum. Demographic and MS-related characteristics were similar between the two groups, with a slight nonsignificant trend toward nonmetropolitan residence in online forum participants. There was a high level of overlap in the themes generated between groups. Participant responses in the online forum were more succinct and on-topic, yet in the focus groups interaction was greater. Online qualitative research methods can facilitate research participation for people with chronic illness or disability, yielding generally comparable information to that gathered via face-to-face methods.

  17. Interplay between telecommunications and face-to-face interactions: a study using mobile phone data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calabrese

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze one year of anonymized telecommunications data for over one million customers from a large European cellphone operator, and we investigate the relationship between people's calls and their physical location. We discover that more than 90% of users who have called each other have also shared the same space (cell tower, even if they live far apart. Moreover, we find that close to 70% of users who call each other frequently (at least once per month on average have shared the same space at the same time--an instance that we call co-location. Co-locations appear indicative of coordination calls, which occur just before face-to-face meetings. Their number is highly predictable based on the amount of calls between two users and the distance between their home locations--suggesting a new way to quantify the interplay between telecommunications and face-to-face interactions.

  18. Interplay between Telecommunications and Face-to-Face Interactions: A Study Using Mobile Phone Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Francesco; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D.; Ratti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyze one year of anonymized telecommunications data for over one million customers from a large European cellphone operator, and we investigate the relationship between people's calls and their physical location. We discover that more than 90% of users who have called each other have also shared the same space (cell tower), even if they live far apart. Moreover, we find that close to 70% of users who call each other frequently (at least once per month on average) have shared the same space at the same time - an instance that we call co-location. Co-locations appear indicative of coordination calls, which occur just before face-to-face meetings. Their number is highly predictable based on the amount of calls between two users and the distance between their home locations - suggesting a new way to quantify the interplay between telecommunications and face-to-face interactions. PMID:21765888

  19. Unilateral face-to-face communication in ultimatum bargaining : A video experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Carsten; Zultan, Ro?i

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that face-to-face communication induces cooperation. The experiment disentangles communication and social effect (replication of Roth, 1995) and examines the components of the social effect with the help of unilateral communication. Results suggest that separate processes, both of a strategic and of an affective-social nature may induce cooperative outcomes in ultimatum bargaining with pre-play communication, depending on the communication protocol. Unilateral communic...

  20. Interpersonal Similarity between Body Movements in Face-To-Face Communication in Daily Life

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Higo; Ken-ichiro Ogawa; Juichi Minemura; Bujie Xu; Takayuki Nozawa; Taiki Ogata; Koji Ara; Kazuo Yano; Yoshihiro Miyake

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures dur...

  1. Electronic and face-to-face communication in maintaining social relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Tillema, T; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Although the spectacular spread of wired and wireless communication technologies such as the Internet and mobile phone have been discussed extensively in the academic literature, knowledge of the interactions among face-to-face (F2F) and electronic communication modes and their implications for travel behavior is rather limited. The same is true for knowledge about factors influencing the choice for these types of communication. Using survey data collected among 662 respondents, this paper ai...

  2. Face-to-face Tobacco Sales: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-30

    PSA to help raise retailers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations related to the sale of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to people under 18 and the requirement to sell products face-to-face.  Created: 9/30/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 9/30/2010.

  3. Beyond guidelines: Discretionary practice in face-to-face triage nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Lars E. F.

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic data from a Norwegian emergency primary care clinic (EPCC) to explore nurses’ discretionary application of guidelines. Specifically, it analyses nurses’ discretionary use of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) when performing face-to-face triage, that is, assessing the urgency of patients’ complaints. The analysis shows how nurses assessed patients at odds with MTS prescriptions by collecting supplementary data, engaging in differential diagnostic and holisti...

  4. Autistic traits and brain activation during face-to-face conversations in typically developed adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Suda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviours. The severity of these characteristics is posited to lie on a continuum that extends into the general population. Brain substrates underlying ASD have been investigated through functional neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, fMRI has methodological constraints for studying brain mechanisms during social interactions (for example, noise, lying on a gantry during the procedure, etc.. In this study, we investigated whether variations in autism spectrum traits are associated with changes in patterns of brain activation in typically developed adults. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, a recently developed functional neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light, to monitor brain activation in a natural setting that is suitable for studying brain functions during social interactions. METHODOLOGY: We monitored regional cerebral blood volume changes using a 52-channel NIRS apparatus over the prefrontal cortex (PFC and superior temporal sulcus (STS, 2 areas implicated in social cognition and the pathology of ASD, in 28 typically developed participants (14 male and 14 female during face-to-face conversations. This task was designed to resemble a realistic social situation. We examined the correlations of these changes with autistic traits assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both the PFC and STS were significantly activated during face-to-face conversations. AQ scores were negatively correlated with regional cerebral blood volume increases in the left STS during face-to-face conversations, especially in males. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate successful monitoring of brain function during realistic social interactions by NIRS as well as lesser brain activation in the left STS during face-to-face

  5. Virtual clinics in glaucoma care: face-to-face versus remote decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jonathan; Puertas, Renata; Kotecha, Aachal; Foster, Paul J; Barton, Keith

    2017-07-01

    To examine the agreement in clinical decisions of glaucoma status made in a virtual glaucoma clinic with those made during a face-to-face consultation. A trained nurse and technicians entered data prospectively for 204 patients into a proforma. A subsequent face-to-face clinical assessment was completed by either a glaucoma consultant or fellow. Proformas were reviewed remotely by one of two additional glaucoma consultants, and 12 months later, by the clinicians who had undertaken the original clinical examination. The interobserver and intraobserver decision-making agreements of virtual assessment versus standard care were calculated. We identified adverse disagreement between face-to-face and virtual review in 7/204 (3.4%, 95% CI 0.9% to 5.9%) patients, where virtual review failed to predict a need to accelerated follow-up identified in face-to-face review. Misclassification events were rare, occurring in 1.9% (95% CI 0.3% to 3.8%) of assessments. Interobserver κ (95% CI) showed only fair agreement (0.24 (0.04 to 0.43)); this improved to moderate agreement when only consultant decisions were compared against each other (κ=0.41 (0.16 to 0.65)). The intraobserver agreement κ (95% CI) for the consultant was 0.274 (0.073 to 0.476), and that for the fellow was 0.264 (0.031 to 0.497). The low rate of adverse misclassification, combined with the slowly progressive nature of most glaucoma, and the fact that patients will all be regularly reassessed, suggests that virtual clinics offer a safe, logistically viable option for selected patients with glaucoma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. BLENDED LEARNING: STUDENT PERCEPTION OF FACE-TO-FACE AND ONLINE EFL LESSONS

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda M. Wright

    2017-01-01

    With the ever-increasing development of technology, online teaching is more readily accepted as a viable component in teaching and learning, and blended learning, the combining of online and face-to-face learning, is becoming commonplace in many higher education institutions. Blended learning is, particularly in developing countries, in its early stages and not without its challenges. Asynchronous online lessons are currently still more prevalent in many areas of South-East Asia, perhaps due ...

  7. [Health and humanization Diploma: the value of reflection and face to face learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gutiérrez, Javiera; Magliozzi, Pietro; Torres, Patricio; Soto, Mauricio; Walker, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    In a rapidly changing culture like ours, with emphasis on productivity, there is a strong need to find the meaning of health care work using learning instances that privilege reflection and face to face contact with others. The Diploma in Health and Humanization (DSH), was developed as an interdisciplinary space for training on issues related to humanization. To analyze the experience of DSH aiming to identify the elements that students considered key factors for the success of the program. We conducted a focus group with DSH graduates, identifying factors associated with satisfaction. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two independent reviewers. DSH graduates valued a safe space, personal interaction, dialogue and respect as learning tools of the DSH. They also appreciates the opportunity to have emotional interactions among students and between them and the teacher as well as the opportunity to share personal stories and their own search for meaning. DSH is a learning experience in which their graduates value the ability to think about their vocation and the affective interaction with peers and teachers. We hope to contribute to the development of face to face courses in the area of humanization. Face to face methodology is an excellent teaching technique for contents related to the meaning of work, and more specifically, to a group of learners that require affective communication and a personal connection of their work with their own values and beliefs.

  8. Producing Irony in Adolescence: A Comparison Between Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguert Marc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature suggests that irony production expands in the developmental period of adolescence. We aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating two channels: face-to-face and computer-mediated communication (CMC. Corpora were collected by asking seventh and 11th graders to freely discuss some general topics (e.g., music, either face-to-face or on online forums. Results showed that 6.2% of the 11th graders’ productions were ironic utterances, compared with just 2.5% of the seventh graders’ productions, confirming the major development of irony production in adolescence. Results also showed that adolescents produced more ironic utterances in CMC than face-to-face. The analysis suggested that irony use is a strategy for increasing in-group solidarity and compensating for the distance intrinsic to CMC, as it was mostly inclusive and well-marked on forums. The present study also confirmed previous studies showing that irony is compatible with CMC.

  9. Guided Online or Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia: A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancee, Jaap; van Straten, Annemieke; Morina, Nexhmedin; Kaldo, Viktor; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of guided online and individual face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) to a wait-list condition. A randomized controlled trial comparing three conditions: guided online; face-to-face; wait-list. Posttest measurements were administered to all conditions, along with 3- and 6-mo follow-up assessments to the online and face-to-face conditions. Ninety media-recruited participants meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for insomnia were randomly allocated to either guided online CBT-I (n = 30), individual face-to-face CBT-I (n = 30), or wait-list (n = 30). At post-assessment, the online (Cohen d = 1.2) and face-to-face (Cohen d = 2.3) intervention groups showed significantly larger treatment effects than the wait-list group on insomnia severity (insomnia severity index). Large treatment effects were also found for the sleep diary estimates (except for total sleep time), and anxiety and depression measures (for depression only in the face-to-face condition). Face-to-face treatment yielded a statistically larger treatment effect (Cohen d = 0.9) on insomnia severity than the online condition at all time points. In addition, a moderate differential effect size favoring face-to-face treatment emerged at the 3- and 6-mo follow-up on all sleep diary estimates. Face-to-face treatment further outperformed online treatment on depression and anxiety outcomes. These data show superior performance of face-to-face treatment relative to online treatment. Yet, our results also suggest that online treatment may offer a potentially cost-effective alternative to and complement face-to-face treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01955850. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 13. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Janneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library were searched for studies published before October 2010. Fifty studies were included and assessed on methodological quality. Twenty-eight studies reported significantly favorable health outcomes following communication-related BCTs. In these studies, 'behavioral counseling' was most frequently used (15 times), followed by motivational interviewing (eight times), education and advice (both seven times). Physicians and nurses seem equally capable of providing face-to-face communication-related BCTs in primary care. Behavioral counseling, motivational interviewing, education and advice all seem effective communication-related BCTs. However, BCTs were also found in less successful studies. Furthermore, based on existing literature, one primary care profession does not seem better equipped than the other to provide face-to-face communication-related BCTs. There is evidence that behavioral counseling, motivational interviewing, education and advice can be used as effective communication-related BCTs by physicians and nurses. However, further research is needed to examine the underlying working mechanisms of communication-related BCTs, and whether they meet the requirements of patients and primary care providers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of the Placement and Quality of Face-to-Face Meetings in a Hybrid Distance Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, William; Koppel, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    As online and hybrid courses are becoming a wide-spread option for higher education, researchers are exploring various delivery methods. Hybrid courses involve blending two modes of interaction--both face-to-face as well as online. The exact distribution and timing of face-to-face meetings verse online delivery is a question that instructors have…

  12. The Collaborative Language Learning Attributes of Cyber Face-to-Face Interaction: The Perspectives of the Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degrees of collaborative language learning that were supported in cyber face-to-face interaction. The concept of "cyber face-to-face" is used here to encapsulate the kind of environment in which a combination of real-time oral/aural, visual, and text-based interaction happens simultaneously via the various…

  13. Guided online or face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia: A randomized wait-list controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; van Straten, A.; Morina, N.; Kaldo, V.; Kamphuis, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy of guided online and individual face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) to a wait-list condition. Methods: A randomized controlled trial comparing three conditions: guided online; face-to-face; wait-list. Posttest measurements were

  14. An Analysis Comparing Student Knowledge Acquisition in a Traditional Face-to-Face Classroom to a Hybrid Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    A problem exists regarding supportive evidence to determine the differences in student knowledge acquisition at the secondary level between a traditional face-to-face classroom and a hybrid course. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare student knowledge acquisition in a face-to-face traditional classroom, where direct…

  15. Development of ODL in a Newly Industrialized Country according to Face-to-Face Contact, ICT, and E-Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marinda van Zyl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of unqualified and under-qualified in-service teachers are holding back socio-economical development in South Africa, a newly industrialized country. Open and distance learning (ODL provides an innovative strategy and praxis for developing and newly industrialized countries to reach their educational and socio-economical objectives through professional development and training. In order to examine factors which affect the success of ODL offered by the North-West University in South Africa, a qualitative and quantitative research approach is used. Factors examined include face-to-face classroom contact, the implementation and use of ICTs, and e-readiness. The relationships between these factors are also discussed. A questionnaire was administered to 87 teacher-students in four Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE programs to collect quantitative data regarding aspects of their classes and the e-readiness of students. This data was qualitatively elaborated upon by three semi-structured, open-ended focus-group interviews. Besides descriptive statistics, Spearman’s rank-order correlations (r were determined between variables pertaining to negative feelings towards face-to-face classroom contact, ODL as students’ choice of delivery mode, and students’ positive attitude towards information and communication technology (ICT. Combined quantitative and qualitative findings were used to evaluate the effectiveness of contact classes as well as the e-readiness of students towards the attainment of ODL development Phase D. This phase refers to UNESCO’s description of ICT implementation, integration, and use. Relationships (Spearman’s rank-order correlations between ODL, as teacher-students’ choice of educational delivery mode, and aspects of their e-readiness suggest that the e-readiness of teacher-students is implicit to their choice of ODL as educational delivery mode for professional development.

  16. Childhood fever management program for Korean pediatric nurses: A comparison between blended and face-to-face learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Sun; Kim, Jin Sun

    2014-01-01

    A blended learning can be a useful learning strategy to improve the quality of fever and fever management education for pediatric nurses. This study compared the effects of a blended and face-to-face learning program on pediatric nurses' childhood fever management, using theory of planned behavior. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. A fever management education program using blended learning (combining face-to-face and online learning components) was offered to 30 pediatric nurses, and 29 pediatric nurses received face-to-face education. Learning outcomes did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, learners' satisfaction was higher for the blended learning program than the face-to-face learning program. A blended learning pediatric fever management program was as effective as a traditional face-to-face learning program. Therefore, a blended learning pediatric fever management-learning program could be a useful and flexible learning method for pediatric nurses.

  17. BLENDED LEARNING: STUDENT PERCEPTION OF FACE-TO-FACE AND ONLINE EFL LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M. Wright

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing development of technology, online teaching is more readily accepted as a viable component in teaching and learning, and blended learning, the combining of online and face-to-face learning, is becoming commonplace in many higher education institutions. Blended learning is, particularly in developing countries, in its early stages and not without its challenges. Asynchronous online lessons are currently still more prevalent in many areas of South-East Asia, perhaps due to potential difficulty in obtaining strong Internet connections, which may deter educators from synchronous options. Technological media have the potential to broaden the scope of resources available in teaching and to enhance the language learning experience. Although research to date shows some focus on blended learning, literature on distance online teaching seems more prevalent. This study exposed 112 Malaysian undergraduate EFL students' responses to an online lesson as part of an English grammar course, and investigates common student perceptions of the online lesson as compared with face-to-face lessons. Questionnaires using qualitative (Likert scale questions and quantitative (open-ended questions approaches provided data for content analysis to determine common student perceptions, with particular reference to motivation and interest. In general, more students associated in-class lessons with higher motivation and more interest, due to better understanding, valued classroom interaction with the lecturer and peers, and input from the lecturer. Students preferring the online lesson cited speed and convenience of study and flexibility of time and place of study as reasons for their choice. Skilful implementation of online lessons can enhance a language course but should not undermine the value of face-to-face instruction with EFL teachers.

  18. Children Can Learn New Facts Equally Well From Interactive Media Versus Face to Face Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Kristine; Ghrear, Siba; Li, Vivian; Haddock, Taeh; Coleman, Patrick; Birch, Susan A J

    2016-01-01

    Today's children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children's learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children's rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male) completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition (n = 43) or the Interactive Media condition (n = 43). In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition) or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition). In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children's memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children's rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results for children's learning

  19. Adolescents' technology and face-to-face time use predict objective sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Royette; Heissel, Jennifer A; Sladek, Michael R; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined both within- and between-person associations between adolescents' time use (technology-based activities and face-to-face interactions with friends and family) and sleep behaviors. We also assessed whether age moderated associations between adolescents' time use with friends and family and sleep. Adolescents wore an actigraph monitor and completed brief evening surveys daily for 3 consecutive days. Adolescents (N=71; mean age=14.50 years old, SD=1.84; 43.7% female) were recruited from 3 public high schools in the Midwest. We assessed 8 technology-based activities (eg, texting, working on a computer), as well as time spent engaged in face-to-face interactions with friends and family, via questions on adolescents' evening surveys. Actigraph monitors assessed 3 sleep behaviors: sleep latency, sleep hours, and sleep efficiency. Hierarchical linear models indicated that texting and working on the computer were associated with shorter sleep, whereas time spent talking on the phone predicted longer sleep. Time spent with friends predicted shorter sleep latencies, while family time predicted longer sleep latencies. Age moderated the association between time spent with friends and sleep efficiency, as well as between family time and sleep efficiency. Specifically, longer time spent interacting with friends was associated with higher sleep efficiency but only among younger adolescents. Furthermore, longer family time was associated with higher sleep efficiency but only for older adolescents. Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of regulating adolescents' technology use and improving opportunities for face-to-face interactions with friends, particularly for younger adolescents. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An evaluation of remote communication versus face-to-face in clinical dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N; Lazalde, O Martínez; Stokes, C; Romano, D

    2012-03-23

    Distance learning and internet-based delivery of educational content are becoming very popular as an alternative to real face-to-face delivery. Clinical-based discussions still remain greatly face-to-face despite the advancement of remote communication and internet sharing technology. In this study we have compared three communication modalities between a learner and educator: audio and video using voice over internet protocol (VoIP) alone [AV]; audio and video VoIP with the addition of a three dimensional virtual artefact [AV3D] and physical face-to-face [FTF]. Clinical case discussions based on fictitious patients were held between a 'learner' and an 'expert' using the three communication modalities. The learner presented a clinical scenario to the experts, with the aid of a prop (partially dentate cast, digitised for AV3D), to obtain advice on the management of the clinical case. Each communication modality was tested in timed exercises in a random order among one of three experts (senior clinical restorative staff) and a learner (from a cohort of 15 senior clinical undergraduate students) all from the School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield. All learners and experts used each communication modality in turn with no prior training. Video recording and structured analysis were used to ascertain learner behaviour and levels of interactivity. Evaluation questionnaires were completed by experts and learners immediately after the experiment to ascertain effectiveness of information exchange and barriers/facilitators to communication. The video recordings showed that students were more relaxed with AV and AV3D than FTF (p = 0.01). The evaluation questionnaires showed that students felt they could provide (p = 0.03) and obtain (p = 0.003) more information using the FTF modality, followed by AV and then AV3D. Experts also ranked FTF better than AV and AV3D for providing (p = 0.012) and obtaining (p = 0) information to/from the expert. Physical face-to-face

  1. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina

    2014-03-10

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories "physical activity", "media" and "older adults". The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n=11), compared to internet (n=3) and other media (n=2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n=10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n=6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One

  2. Online versus Face-to-Face: Students’ Preferences for College Course Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, John T.; Henneberry, Shida R.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to determine: 1) students’ preferences for college course attributes; and 2) how the amount of course attribute information impacts enrollment. Results indicate students had the highest preferences for face-to-face (F2F) courses offered late morning and early afternoon and two to three days per week. Students selected online over F2F courses depending on course makeup; for example, course topic, online course design technology, and when the F2F version wa...

  3. Development and initial evaluation of an Internet-based support system for face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Kristoffer N T; Skagius Ruiz, Erica; Gervind, Elisabet; Dahlin, Mats; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-12-10

    Evidence-based psychological treatments, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been found to be effective in treating several anxiety and mood disorders. Nevertheless, issues regarding adherence are common, such as poor patient compliance on homework assignments and therapists' drifting from strictly evidence-based CBT. The development of Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) has been intensive in the past decade and results show that guided ICBT can be as effective as face-to-face CBT but also indicate a need to integrate the two forms of CBT delivery. In this study, we developed and tested a new treatment format in which ICBT and face-to-face therapy were blended. We designed a support system accessible via the Internet (using a computer or an Apple iPad) for patients and therapists delivering CBT face-to-face. The support system included basic CBT components and a library of interventions gathered from existing ICBT manuals. The study involved 15 patients with mild to moderate anxiety or depression (or both). Eight therapists conducted the treatments. All participants were interviewed after the nine-week intervention. Further, patients provided self-reports on clinical measures pre- and post-trial, as well as at a 12-month follow-up. A reduction was found in symptom scores across all measures. The reliable change index ranged from 60% to 87% for depression and anxiety. Large effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranging from 1.62 (CI 95% 0.59-2.66) to 2.43 (CI 95% 1.12-3.74) were found. There were no missing data and no treatment dropouts. In addition, the results had been maintained at the 12-month follow-up. Qualitative interviews revealed that the users perceived the support system as beneficial. The results suggest that modern information technology can effectively blend with face-to-face treatments and be used to facilitate communication and structure in therapy, thus reducing therapist drift.

  4. The Use of Technology for Phone and Face-to-Face Communication After Total Laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childes, Jana M; Palmer, Andrew D; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Graville, Donna J

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and experiences of individuals who use technology to support telephone or face-to-face communication after total laryngectomy. An online questionnaire was used to identify potential participants. Seventeen individuals met inclusion criteria and participated in an in-depth survey. They were compared with a reference group matched for age, gender, and time postsurgery who did not use these technologies. Open-ended responses were summarized. Compared with the matched reference group, individuals who used technology to support verbal communication had undergone more aggressive cancer treatment and used more communication methods. They were less likely to use an alaryngeal speech method, had greater difficulty over the telephone, and used more repair strategies in face-to-face communication. The 2 groups did not differ significantly in the frequency or success of their communication, however. Open-ended responses revealed great variety with regard to their reasons, purposes, and timing of technology use. There is a subset of individuals using technology to support verbal communication very successfully after laryngectomy. Usage was not limited to those who were unable to communicate verbally and often continued long after the initial postoperative period in many settings, for various purposes, and in combination with other methods of communication.

  5. Promoting Face-to-Face Dialogue for Community Engagement in a Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruby, Lynn S; Canales, Mary K; Ferguson, Evelyn; Gregory, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Health researchers in urban centers recognize the need to engage with inner-city community-based organizations. Funding for face-to-face engagement is often limited because most work done by agencies and academics now focuses on the use of digital technology. Purpose This article presents reflections from a grant project aimed at establishing community engagement between academic health researchers and interdisciplinary inner-city community health and social service providers. Method This study utilized a community-based participatory action approach. This study included a 1-day collaborative meeting to promote academic-agency engagement. During this meeting, the research participants brainstormed research priorities and used colored stickers to rank them. The research team met the following day to debrief the meeting and to begin analyzing the data together. Results The findings from this project have stimulated dialogue among the agency partners and project team researchers with respect to current collaborations, services provided, and research priorities. Although digital or virtual meetings have their place, fostering community engagement through a face-to-face meeting proved invaluable to the participants. Conclusions The success of this Canadian Institutes of Health Research-funded project demonstrates the value of academic-agency partnership, the positive aspects of gathering community, and engagement in better meeting the research needs of inner-city organizations.

  6. Activating social strategies: Face-to-face interaction in technology-mediated citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Francesco; Laut, Jeffrey; Nov, Oded; Giustiniano, Luca; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    The use of crowds in research activities by public and private organizations is growing under different forms. Citizen science is a popular means of engaging the general public in research activities led by professional scientists. By involving a large number of amateur scientists, citizen science enables distributed data collection and analysis on a scale that would be otherwise difficult and costly to achieve. While advancements in information technology in the past few decades have fostered the growth of citizen science through online participation, several projects continue to fail due to limited participation. Such web-based projects may isolate the citizen scientists from the researchers. By adopting the perspective of social strategy, we investigate within a measure-manipulate-measure experiment if motivations to participate in a citizen science project can be positively influenced by a face-to-face interaction with the scientists leading the project. Such an interaction provides the participants with the possibility of asking questions on the spot and obtaining a detailed explanation of the citizen science project, its scientific merit, and environmental relevance. Social and cultural factors that moderate the effect brought about by face-to-face interactions on the motivations are also dissected and analyzed. Our findings provide an exploratory insight into a means for motivating crowds to participate in online environmental monitoring projects, also offering possible selection criteria of target audience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DISCOURSE AND PARTICIPATION IN ESL FACE-TO-FACE AND WRITTEN ELECTRONIC CONFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fitze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a comparative investigation of face-to-face and written electronic conferences. The participants were advanced English as a second language (hereafter: ESL students. The two types of conferences were compared in terms of textual features and participation. There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of words that students produced in an equivalent amount of time in the two types of conferences. The discourse in written electronic conferences displayed greater lexical range, and students in these conferences produced more discourse demonstrating interactive competence. The statistically significant finding of increased lexical range in written electronic conferences persisted even when the interactive discourse was eliminated from the conference transcripts and the transcripts were reanalyzed. This finding suggests that, during written electronic conferences, students were better able to use and practice a wider range of vocabulary related to the topics. For one of the groups, participation in written electronic conferences was more balanced among students, while for the other group participation was about equally balanced regardless of the conference setting. This last finding came as a surprise and points to a need for further research into variables that might mediate balanced participation in face-to-face and written electronic conferences.

  8. Remote versus face-to-face check-ups for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Kayleigh M; Cates, Christopher J

    2016-04-18

    Asthma remains a significant cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality. Regular check-ups with a healthcare professional are essential to monitor symptoms and adjust medication.Health services worldwide are considering telephone and internet technologies as a way to manage the rising number of people with asthma and other long-term health conditions. This may serve to improve health and reduce the burden on emergency and inpatient services. Remote check-ups may represent an unobtrusive and efficient way of maintaining contact with patients, but it is uncertain whether conducting check-ups in this way is effective or whether it may have unexpected negative consequences. To assess the safety and efficacy of conducting asthma check-ups remotely versus usual face-to-face consultations. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Review Group Specialised Register (CAGR) up to 24 November 2015. We also searched www.clinicaltrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal, reference lists of other reviews and contacted trial authors for additional information. We included parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults or children with asthma that compared remote check-ups conducted using any form of technology versus standard face-to-face consultations. We excluded studies that used automated telehealth interventions that did not include personalised contact with a health professional. We included studies reported as full-text articles, as abstracts only and unpublished data. Two review authors screened the literature search results and independently extracted risk of bias and numerical data. We resolved any disagreements by consensus, and we contacted study authors for missing information.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios (ORs) using study participants as the unit of analysis, and continuous data as mean differences using the random-effects models. We rated all outcomes using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and

  9. Face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jessica; Synnot, Anneliese; Ryan, Rebecca; Hill, Sophie; Horey, Dell; Willis, Natalie; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla

    2013-05-31

    Childhood vaccination (also described as immunisation) is an important and effective way to reduce childhood illness and death. However, there are many children who do not receive the recommended vaccines because their parents do not know why vaccination is important, do not understand how, where or when to get their children vaccinated, disagree with vaccination as a public health measure, or have concerns about vaccine safety.Face to face interventions to inform or educate parents about routine childhood vaccination may improve vaccination rates and parental knowledge or understanding of vaccination. Such interventions may describe or explain the practical and logistical factors associated with vaccination, and enable parents to understand the meaning and relevance of vaccination for their family or community. To assess the effects of face to face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination on immunisation uptake and parental knowledge. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1946 to July 2012); EMBASE + Embase Classic (OvidSP) (1947 to July 2012); CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1981 to July 2012); PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1806 to July 2012); Global Health (CAB) (1910 to July 2012); Global Health Library (WHO) (searched July 2012); Google Scholar (searched September 2012), ISI Web of Science (searched September 2012) and reference lists of relevant articles. We searched for ongoing trials in The International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (searched August 2012) and for grey literature in The Grey Literature Report and OpenGrey (searched August 2012). We also contacted authors of included studies and experts in the field. There were no language or date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs evaluating the effects of face to face interventions delivered to individual parents or groups of parents to inform or educate

  10. Children can learn new facts equally well from interactive media versus face to face instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Kwok

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children’s learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children’s rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition (n = 43 or the Interactive Media condition (n = 43. In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition. In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children’s memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children’s rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results

  11. Exploring face-to-face and Web-based pedagogy in undergraduate natural resource sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbabaliye, Theogene

    Little has been published about Internet instruction compared to traditional classroom teaching in undergraduate natural resource science (NRS) education. This study hypothesized associations between teaching environments (face-to-face only (FF), Web only (WE), mixed mode (MI)); and teaching philosophy, practices, and perceived course outcomes. A questionnaire was sent to 142 faculty members with experience teaching in these environments in Western US. Sixty percent responded. Data were analyzed using factor analysis and multivariate statistics. Only statistically significant differences are presented. Most respondents were male (68%) 50-59 years old (80%) and tenured (74%). Overall, Web-based instruction was not seen as equivalent to face to face instruction. Adoption of the Internet for teaching was beyond critical mass. Most faculty members ranked their ability to use the Internet as average (27%) or expert (22%). Faculty rarely perceived students' learning experience in a WE course as "better" than FF. Web-based courses were not usually required of majors in the offering department. Faculty age, gender and experience are significant variables in use of some teaching practices. Faculty members who used the Internet favored a constructivist teaching philosophy, while FF and MI instruction tended towards a behaviorist philosophy. Respondents' most frequent teaching practices addressed connections, collaboration, meaning making, and learner autonomy. Collaborative teaching strategies were seldom used in Web-based instruction relative to FF. Learning assessments focused on learner interactions, efforts (individual or groups), and recall. The latter assessment was used less on the Web. Respondents viewed effective teaching in all teaching environments as achieving competency and application of knowledge. Personal experience, resource availability, and feedback were the most important influences on teaching. Resource availability constrained Internet instruction most

  12. A randomised controlled trial comparing computer-assisted with face-to-face sexual history taking in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, R L; Chen, M Y; Pitts, M K; Ginige, S; Slaney, M; Fairley, C K

    2007-02-01

    To compare computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) with routine face-to-face interview (FTFI) for sexual history taking from patients in a clinical setting. A randomised controlled trial was undertaken at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in 2005. New, walk-in patients triaged into the centre were eligible for the study. Those who consented to the study were randomly allocated (initially at a ratio of 2:1, then 1:1) to either CASI or FTFI. Those randomised to CASI also subsequently undertook FTFI. During the study period, of 713 patients approached, 611 agreed to participate in the study; 356 were randomised to FTFI and 255 to CASI. Overall, the responses to questioning using CASI and FTFI were similar except that women undertaking the CASI reported a significantly higher median number of male partners for the preceding 12 months (3 v 2, p = 0.05) and the CASI participants reported previous hepatitis B vaccination more often (50% v 37%, p = 0.01). Most participants found the CASI either easy (31; 13%) or very easy (193; 82%) to complete; 83 (35%) were comfortable and 121 (51%) were very comfortable with it. CASI may be a reliable, efficient and highly acceptable method for the screening of sexual risk in clinical sexual health settings and could be used routinely to improve the efficiency of clinical services.

  13. Face-to-face or not-to-face: A technology preference for communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-11-01

    This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication.

  14. Training versus Education: eLearning, Hybrid, and Face-to-Face Modalities - a Participatory Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Blair

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Is training education or is education training? Universities and organizations treat training and education synonymously, but it is worth exploring the differences. Universities are scrambling to standardize a preferred delivery method of education and training. With the blended modalities of eLearning, face-to-face, and hybrid learning, the educational delivery seems to be equalizing. The disruptive shift with technology in education or training is complicated by the expectations of our millennial, Gen Y, and Gen Z students. As an added pressure at the university level, even more importantly, the expectation of the administration and the accrediting bodies keep changing the 'play book' on requirements. Given the ever changing complexities of today's paradigm-shift in education and learning, we explored the complexities of navigating the delivery methods to achieve educational goals in higher education or training goals in corporate America.

  15. Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlisted, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about the rela......During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlisted, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about...... articles screened, a total of 20 studies met all inclusion criteria. Results showed a pooled effect size at post-treatment of Hedges g = .05 (95% CI, -.09 to .20), indicating that ICBT and face-to-face treatment produced equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall...

  16. Face-to-face interaction of multisolitons in spin-1/2 quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik; Choudhury, Sourav; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Wong, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the face-to-face collision between multisolitons in spin-1/2 quantum plasma. It is studied in the framework of the model proposed by Marklund et al in Phys. Rev. E 76, 067401 (2007). This study is done with the help of the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kno (PLK) method. The extended PLK method is also used to obtain two Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations and the phase shifts and trajectories during the head-on collision of multisolitons. The collision-induced phase shifts (trajectory changes) are also obtained. The effects of the Zeeman energy, total mass density of the charged plasma particles, speed of the wave and the ratio of the sound speed to Alfvén speed on the phase shifts are studied. It is observed that the phase shifts are significantly affected by all these parameters.

  17. An evaluation of face-to-face mentoring vs. electronic mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Gregg A.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a variety of mentoring methods on students' attitudes toward science, academic performance and retention of classroom science material. Subjects for the research were seventy-one biology students at Brevard Community College located in Cocoa, Florida. Two NASA mentors provided real world applications of academic concepts being learned in an introductory biology class. The mentors worked with one class via videoconferencing and with another class in a face-to-face mode. A third class served as a control group. The study took place in the fall, 2001. Results indicated students' attitudes toward science changed over time, with the mentored classes having the higher interest scores on four of five interest subscales. The electronically mentored class had the highest mean on three of the five interest subscales. Student performance was also positively affected in the mentored classes. No significant increased retention of assigned science material was found.

  18. Online Scientific Dissemination of Knowledge Blended with Face-to-Face Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend

    2013-01-01

    with limitations and potentials. However, selecting online communication media as a dissemination tool for a community comes with a challenge – among other things it risks creating a learning divide between fast and slow learners. According to the theoretical framework “Diffusion of Innovation”[1] innovation...... is experienced differently throughout a society due to fast and slow adopters. Blending online learning with face-to-face experience will strengthen the learning curve among the targeted users and ensure a faster dissemination of knowledge and thus learning to the entire community....... between the seed scientists, seed consultants, and the seed growers, and the requirements for a knowledge website for learning new seed science. This paper describes the specification requirements set for the required website including taxonomized hierarchical meta-tagging, RSS, legal matters, together...

  19. [Electronically or face to face - quicker and more facile services for the client].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Risto; Jousimaa, Jukkapekka

    2015-01-01

    While many services have moved or are moving to the Net, the standard of activity of the healthcare still continues to be based on booking an appointment and face-to-face consultation. Electronic services may solve the availability problem in basic healthcare. The client and the producer of a health service can meet electronically both synchronically at the same time and non-synchronically, i.e. through communicating at a time that is best suited for each. The asymmetry of information changes when the patient and the professional have access to the same information. The expansion of virtual services presents a challenge to our training, which is based on a chain advancing from anamnesis to status, investigations and treatment plan.

  20. Quality of Interactions in Face-to-Face and Hybrid Career Development Courses: An Exploration of Students' Perceptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siu-Man Raymond Ting; Laura M. Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper reports on an exploratory study in which the perceptions of students in a hybrid career development and counseling class were compared to those of students in a face-to-face offering of the same class...

  1. How 'blended' is blended learning?: students' perceptions of issues around the integration of online and face-to-face learning in a Continuing Professional Development (CPD) health care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, Margaret; Young, Pat; Lockyer, Lesley; Moule, Pam

    2011-11-01

    This paper explores students' perceptions of blended learning modules delivered in a Continuing Professional Development (CPD) health care context in the UK. 'Blended learning' is the term used to describe a hybrid model of learning where traditional face-to-face teaching approaches and newer electronic learning activities and resources are utilised together. A new model of CPD for health care practitioners based on a blended learning approach was developed at a university in the south west of England. As part of the evaluation of the new modules, a qualitative study was conducted, in which 17 students who had experienced the modules were interviewed by telephone. Three main themes emerged from the interviews relating to the 'blended' nature of the blended learning modules. These were i) issues around the opportunities for discussion of online materials face-to-face; ii) issues of what material should be online versus face-to-face and iii) balancing online and face-to-face components. Teaching staff engaged in the development of blended learning courses need to pay particular attention to the ways in which they develop and integrate online and face-to-face materials. More attention needs to be paid to allowing opportunity for students to come together to create a 'community of inquiry'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. All you need is Facebook friends? Associations between online and face-to-face friendships and health

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Maria Luisa; Marques, Sibila; Muiños, Gabriel; Camilo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    WOS:000392847900002 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) Positive social relations are known to have a beneficial impact on health, however, little is known about the links of health with online relationships. In this study, we compare face-to-face and virtual friendships in their association with health. By building on previous results of studies conducted on the well-being of college students, we expect to find stronger associations of face-to-face friendships with health than of those establis...

  3. Is internet-based CBT for panic disorder and agoraphobia as effective as face-to-face CBT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiropoulos, Litza A; Klein, Britt; Austin, David W; Gilson, Kathryn; Pier, Ciaran; Mitchell, Joanna; Ciechomski, Lisa

    2008-12-01

    This study compared Panic Online (PO), an internet-based CBT intervention, to best-practice face-to-face CBT for people with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Eighty-six people with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder were recruited from Victoria, Australia. Participants were randomly assigned to either PO (n=46) or best practice face-to-face CBT (n=40). Effects of the internet-based CBT program were found to be comparable to those of face-to-face CBT. Both interventions produced significant reductions in panic disorder and agoraphobia clinician severity ratings, self reported panic disorder severity and panic attack frequency, measures of depression, anxiety, stress and panic related cognitions, and displayed improvements in quality of life. Participants rated both treatment conditions as equally credible and satisfying. Participants in the face-to-face CBT treatment group cited higher enjoyment with communicating with their therapist. Consistent with this, therapists' ratings for compliance to treatment and understanding of the CBT material was higher in the face-to-face CBT treatment group. PO required significantly less therapist time than the face-to-face CBT condition.

  4. Cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome in adults: face to face versus telephone treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Mary; Andiappan, Manoharan; Chalder, Trudie

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has shown that face to face cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). However, some patients are unable to travel to the hospital for a number of reasons. The aim of this study was to assess whether face to face CBT was more effective than telephone CBT (with face to face assessment and discharge appointment) for patients with CFS. Patients aged 18-65 were recruited from consecutive referrals to the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Research and Treatment Unit at The South London and Maudsley NHS Trust in London. Participants were randomly allocated to either face to face CBT or telephone CBT by a departmental administrator. Blinding of participants and care givers was inappropriate for this trial. A parallel-groups randomised controlled trial was used to compare the two treatments. The primary outcomes were physical functioning and fatigue. Significant improvements in the primary outcomes of physical functioning and fatigue occurred and were maintained to one year follow-up after discharge from treatment. Improvements in social adjustment and global outcome were noted and patient satisfaction was similar in both groups. Results from this study indicate that telephone CBT with two face to face appointments is a mild to moderately effective treatment for CFS and may be offered to patients where face to face treatment is not a viable option. Despite these encouraging conclusions, dropout was relatively high and therapists should be aware of this potential problem.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of blended vs. face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy for severe anxiety disorders: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romijn, Geke; Riper, Heleen; Kok, Robin; Donker, Tara; Goorden, Maartje; van Roijen, Leona Hakkaart; Kooistra, Lisa; van Balkom, Anton; Koning, Jeroen

    2015-12-12

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, and are associated with poor quality of life and substantial economic burden. Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment to reduce anxiety symptoms, but is also costly and labour intensive. Cost-effectiveness could possibly be improved by delivering cognitive behavioural therapy in a blended format, where face-to-face sessions are partially replaced by online sessions. The aim of this trial is to determine the cost-effectiveness of blended cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with anxiety disorders, i.e. panic disorder, social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder, in specialized mental health care settings compared to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy. In this paper, we present the study protocol. It is hypothesized that blended cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders is clinically as effective as face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy, but that intervention costs may be reduced. We thus hypothesize that blended cognitive behavioural therapy is more cost-effective than face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy. In a randomised controlled equivalence trial 156 patients will be included (n = 78 in blended cognitive behavioural therapy, n = 78 in face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy) based on a power of 0.80, calculated by using a formula to estimate the power of a cost-effectiveness analysis: [Formula: see text]. Measurements will take place at baseline, midway treatment (7 weeks), immediately after treatment (15 weeks) and 12-month follow-up. At baseline a diagnostic interview will be administered. Primary clinical outcomes are changes in anxiety symptom severity as measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated to obtain the costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) measured by the EQ-5D (5-level version). Health-economic outcomes will be explored from a societal and health care

  6. Face-to-face transfer of wafer-scale graphene films

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    Gao, Libo; Ni, Guang-Xin; Liu, Yanpeng; Liu, Bo; Castro Neto, Antonio H.; Loh, Kian Ping

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted worldwide interest since its experimental discovery, but the preparation of large-area, continuous graphene film on SiO2/Si wafers, free from growth-related morphological defects or transfer-induced cracks and folds, remains a formidable challenge. Growth of graphene by chemical vapour deposition on Cu foils has emerged as a powerful technique owing to its compatibility with industrial-scale roll-to-roll technology. However, the polycrystalline nature and microscopic roughness of Cu foils means that such roll-to-roll transferred films are not devoid of cracks and folds. High-fidelity transfer or direct growth of high-quality graphene films on arbitrary substrates is needed to enable wide-ranging applications in photonics or electronics, which include devices such as optoelectronic modulators, transistors, on-chip biosensors and tunnelling barriers. The direct growth of graphene film on an insulating substrate, such as a SiO2/Si wafer, would be useful for this purpose, but current research efforts remain grounded at the proof-of-concept stage, where only discontinuous, nanometre-sized islands can be obtained. Here we develop a face-to-face transfer method for wafer-scale graphene films that is so far the only known way to accomplish both the growth and transfer steps on one wafer. This spontaneous transfer method relies on nascent gas bubbles and capillary bridges between the graphene film and the underlying substrate during etching of the metal catalyst, which is analogous to the method used by tree frogs to remain attached to submerged leaves. In contrast to the previous wet or dry transfer results, the face-to-face transfer does not have to be done by hand and is compatible with any size and shape of substrate; this approach also enjoys the benefit of a much reduced density of transfer defects compared with the conventional transfer method. Most importantly, the direct growth and spontaneous attachment of graphene on the underlying

  7. Blended CBT versus face-to-face CBT: a randomised non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Kim; Andersen, Tonny E; Riper, Heleen; Kleiboer, Annet A M; Roessler, Kirsten K

    2016-12-05

    Internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) has been demonstrated to be cost- and clinically effective. There is a need, however, for increased therapist contact for some patient groups. Combining iCBT with traditional face-to-face (ftf) consultations in a blended format (B-CBT) may produce a new treatment format with multiple benefits from both traditional CBT and iCBT such as individual adaptation, lower costs than traditional therapy, wide geographical and temporal availability, and possibly lower threshold to implementation. The primary aim of the present study is to compare directly the clinical effectiveness of B-CBT with face-to-face CBT for adult major depressive disorder. The study is designed as a two arm randomised controlled non-inferiority trial comparing blended CBT for adult depression with treatment as usual (TAU). In the blended condition six sessions of ftf CBT is alternated with six to eight online modules (NoDep). TAU is defined as 12 sessions of ftf CBT. The primary outcome is symptomatic change of depressive symptoms on the patient-health questionnaire (PHQ-9). Additionally, the study will include an economic evaluation. All participants must be 18 years of age or older and meet the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders 4th edition. Participants are randomised on an individual level by a researcher not involved in the project. The primary outcome is analysed by regressing the three-month follow-up PHQ-9 data on the baseline PHQ-9 score and a treatment group indicator using ancova. A sample size of 130 in two balanced groups will yield a power of at least 80% to detect standardised mean differences above 0.5 on a normally distributed variable. This study design will compare B-CBT and ftf CBT in a concise and direct manner with only a minimal of the variance explained by differences in therapeutic content. On the other hand, while situated in routine care

  8. A Face-to-Face Professional Development Model to Enhance Teaching of Online Research Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Walden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To help students navigate the digital environment, teachers not only need access to the right technology tools but they must also engage in pedagogically sound, high-quality professional development. For teachers, quality professional development can mean the difference between merely using technology tools and creating transformative change in the classroom. For students — especially those with learning disabilities (SWLDs — having well-prepared teachers can mean the difference between passive listening and active learning. This report discusses implementation and impact of a face-to-face professional development model designed to enhance teachers’ implementation of a web-based curriculum (the SOAR Student Toolkit for teaching online research strategies to all students (both general education students and SWLDs in the middle school classroom. Fifteen teachers and 446 students participated in this study. Data were gathered from three school-based implementations across two academic years. Results indicate that teachers found that the face-to-face professional development was of high quality (100%, the pace and format was appropriate (93%, and sufficient practice and feedback were provided (100%. All teachers said the professional development supported their professional growth in providing differentiated instruction for all students and integrating technology into their instruction. About half of the students agreed or strongly agreed that they were very happy with the use of the SOAR Student Toolkit, found it easy to use, believed it helped them learn online research strategies, and thought it was a good way to teach. Most students said they would use the SOAR Student Toolkit for future research projects at least sometimes. Students who learned the SOAR Student Toolkit from trained teachers improved scores an average of 29.2 percentage points on performance-based assessments, from 31.3% (SD = 22.1 at pretest to 60.5% (SD = 23.0 at

  9. Blending Face-to-Face and Internet-Based Interventions for the Treatment of Mental Disorders in Adults: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Doris; Eichert, Hans-Christoph; Riper, Heleen; Ebert, David Daniel

    2017-09-15

    Many studies have provided evidence for the effectiveness of Internet-based stand-alone interventions for mental disorders. A newer form of intervention combines the strengths of face-to-face (f2f) and Internet approaches (blended interventions). The aim of this review was to provide an overview of (1) the different formats of blended treatments for adults, (2) the stage of treatment in which these are applied, (3) their objective in combining face-to-face and Internet-based approaches, and (4) their effectiveness. Studies on blended concepts were identified through systematic searches in the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and PubMed databases. Keywords included terms indicating face-to-face interventions ("inpatient," "outpatient," "face-to-face," or "residential treatment"), which were combined with terms indicating Internet treatment ("internet," "online," or "web") and terms indicating mental disorders ("mental health," "depression," "anxiety," or "substance abuse"). We focused on three of the most common mental disorders (depression, anxiety, and substance abuse). We identified 64 publications describing 44 studies, 27 of which were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results suggest that, compared with stand-alone face-to-face therapy, blended therapy may save clinician time, lead to lower dropout rates and greater abstinence rates of patients with substance abuse, or help maintain initially achieved changes within psychotherapy in the long-term effects of inpatient therapy. However, there is a lack of comparative outcome studies investigating the superiority of the outcomes of blended treatments in comparison with classic face-to-face or Internet-based treatments, as well as of studies identifying the optimal ratio of face-to-face and Internet sessions. Several studies have shown that, for common mental health disorders, blended interventions are feasible and can be more effective compared with no treatment controls. However, more RCTs on effectiveness and

  10. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Elmus G; Tarwater, Patrick M; Lee, Vaughan H

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology instruction model with four face-to-face classes that supplemented online recorded lectures was used. One instructor delivered the lectures face-to-face in 2007 and by online videos in 2008-2009, while a second instructor provided the supplemental face-to-face classes in 2008-2009. The same embryology learning objectives and selected examination questions were used for each of the three years. This allowed direct comparison of learning outcomes, as measured by examination performance, for students receiving only face-to-face embryology instruction versus the hybrid approach. Comparison of the face-to-face lectures to the hybrid approach showed no difference in overall class performance on embryology questions that were used all three years. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the delivery method on the examination scores for bottom quartile students. Students completed an end-of-course survey to assess their opinions. They rated the two forms of delivery similarly on a six-point Likert scale and reported that face-to-face lectures have the advantage of allowing them to interact with the instructor, whereas online lectures could be paused, replayed, and viewed at any time. These experiences suggest the need for well-designed prospective studies to determine whether online lectures can be used to enhance the efficacy of embryology instruction. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Dynamics of Forensic Interviews with Suspected Abuse Victims Who Do Not Disclose Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Irit; Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Horowitz, Dvora

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to explore structural differences between forensic interviews in which children made allegations and those in which children did not make allegations. Methodology: Fifty forensic interviews of 4- to 13-year-old suspected victims of abuse who did not disclose abuse during the interview were compared with…

  12. Expected Consequences of Disclosure Revealed in Investigative Interviews with Suspected Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Brubacher, Sonja P.; Lamb, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored the expected consequences of disclosure discussed by 204 5- to 13-year-old suspected victims of child sexual abuse during the course of investigative interviews conducted using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol. Expected consequences were mentioned in nearly half of all interviews, with older children and those…

  13. Supplemental Instruction Online: As Effective as the Traditional Face-to-Face Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizer, Suzanne E.; Schultz, P. W.; Bray, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a well-recognized model of academic assistance with a history of empirical evidence demonstrating increases in student grades and decreases in failure rates across many higher education institutions. However, as college students become more accustomed to learning in online venues, what is not known is whether an SI program offered online could benefit students similarly to SI sessions that occur in face-to-face settings. The in-person (traditional) SI program at California State University San Marcos has demonstrated increases in grades and lower fail rates for courses being supported in science and math. Students enrolled in four biology courses who participated in online SI received increases in academic performance similar to the students in the courses who attended traditional SI. Both the online and traditional SI participating students had higher course grades and lower fail rates as compared to students who did not participate in either form of SI. Self-selection, as measured by past cumulative college grade point average, did not differ between students who attended either form of SI or who did not attend. Student perceptions of online SI were generally positive and appeared to offer an alternative path to receive this valuable academic assistance for some students. Overall, results are promising that the highly effective traditional model can be translated to an online environment.

  14. Shape and size effects in π-π interactions: face-to-face dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaoyang

    2011-01-15

    The shape and size effects in π–π interactions of face-to-face dimers are discussed, by taking three typical groups of π-systems with different shapes (wave-linear, WL; ladder-shaped, LS; and regular-hexagonal, RH) and sizes (2 to 216 π-electrons) as samples, and carrying out a series of static scanning forcefield calculations. These effects are: (1) for differently shaped π-systems with a same quantity of π-electrons, the denser π-electrons lead to the stronger π–π interactions; (2) the interaction orientation, such as the interplanar distance, is controlled by not only van der Waals (vdW) but also electrostatic potential, even though the former is much stronger and has more contributions to total interaction energy than the latter. Furthermore, these interplanar distances are in a range determined by only monomer shapes, i.e., 3.6–4.1 Å for WL, 3.5–3.7 Å for LS, and 3.4–3.7 Å for RH; (3) a centroid-centroid distance corresponding to the global lowest vdW potential point of a dimer with two identical monomers is only determined by the monomer shape, i.e., 3.6, 3.5, and 3.4 Å, for WL, LS, and RH, respectively; (4) rotation will change the interaction energy when both two monomers with big sizes and low symmetries, and vice versa.

  15. Psychophysiological effects of emotional dissonance in a face-to-face service interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Henrik; Rohrmann, Sonja; Zapf, Dieter; Hodapp, Volker

    2010-07-01

    Current research demonstrates that requirements to express emotions which are not genuinely felt in the particular situation (emotional dissonance) are associated with negative long and short-term effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate: (a) the psychophysiological short-term effects of emotional dissonance in a face-to-face service interaction and (b) the moderating role of gender and neuroticism. In total, 32 women and 27 men were instructed to play the role of a service employee, who had to interact with an angry and rude customer. Half of the sample was given information that the organization expected them to be friendly (emotional dissonance), the other half was told they were expected to act naturally and show their genuine feelings (no emotional dissonance). Subjective and behavioral responses revealed that participants in the "friendly" condition modulated their emotional expressions to a greater extent than those in the "naturally" condition. Participants in the "friendly" condition showed stronger systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analyses yielded that gender and neuroticism partly moderated the association between emotional dissonance and participants' psychophysiological response.

  16. Virtual collaboration: face-to-face versus videoconference, audioconference, and computer-mediated communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainfan, Lynne; Davis, Paul K.

    2004-08-01

    As we increase our reliance on mediated communication, it is important to be aware the media's influence on group processes and outcomes. A review of 40+ years of research shows that all media-videoconference, audioconference, and computer-mediated communication--change the context of the communication to some extent, reducing cues used to regulate and understand conversation, indicate participants' power and status, and move the group towards agreement. Text-based computer-mediated communication, the "leanest" medum, reduces status effects, domination, and consensus. This has been shown useful in broadening the range of inputs and ideas. However, it has also been shown to increase polarization, deindividuation, and disinhibition, and the time to reach a conclusion. For decision-making tasks, computer-mediated communication can increase choice shift and the likelihood of more risky or extreme decisions. In both videoconference and audioconference, participants cooperate less with linked collaborators, and shift their opinions toward extreme options, compared with face-to-face collaboration. In videoconference and audioconference, local coalitions can form where participants tend to agree more with those in the same room than those on the other end of the line. There is also a tendency in audioconference to disagree with those on the other end of the phone. This paper is a summary of a much more extensive forthcoming report; it reviews the research literature and proposes strategies to leverage the benefits of mediated communication while mitigating its adverse effects.

  17. Staying Connected: Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Communication in College Students' Dating Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Andrea M; O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the features, depth, and quality of communication in heterosexual dating relationships that include computer-mediated communication (CMC). This study examined these features as well as CMC's potential to facilitate self-disclosure and information-seeking. It also evaluated whether partner CMC interactions play a role in partner intimacy and communication quality. Young adults (N = 359; 18-24) attending postsecondary education institutions completed an online survey about their CMC use. To be included in the study, all participants were in established dating relationships at the time of the study and reported daily communication with their partner. CMC was linked to partners' disclosure of nonintimate information. This personal self-disclosure was linked positively to relationship intimacy and communication quality, beyond contributions from face-to-face interactions. Breadth (not depth) of self-disclosure and positively valenced interactions, in particular, proved key to understanding greater levels of intimacy in dating relationships and better communication quality as a function of CMC. CMC provides opportunities for partners to stay connected and to improve the overall quality of their intimacy and communication.

  18. Beyond guidelines: discretionary practice in face-to-face triage nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Lars E F

    2017-09-01

    This article draws on ethnographic data from a Norwegian emergency primary care clinic (EPCC) to explore nurses' discretionary application of guidelines. Specifically, it analyses nurses' discretionary use of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) when performing face-to-face triage, that is, assessing the urgency of patients' complaints. The analysis shows how nurses assessed patients at odds with MTS prescriptions by collecting supplementary data, engaging in differential diagnostic and holistic reasoning, relying on emotion and intuition, and allowing colleagues and patients to influence their reasoning. The findings also show how nurses' reasoning led them to override guidelines both overtly and covertly. Based on this evidence, it is argued that nurses' assessments relied more on internalised 'triage mindlines' than on codified triage guidelines, although the MTS did function as a support system, checklist and system for supervisory control. The study complements existing research on standardisation in nursing by providing an in-depth analysis of nurses' methods for navigating guidelines and by detailing how deviations from those guidelines spring from their clinical reasoning. The challenges of imposing a managerial logic on professional labour are also highlighted, which is of particular relevance in light of the drive towards standardisation in modern healthcare. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  19. A Comparison of Organizational Structure and Pedagogical Approach: Online versus Face-to-face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan A. McFarlane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines online versus face-to-face organizational structure and pedagogy in terms of education and the teaching and learning process. The author distinguishes several important terms related to distance/online/e-learning, virtual learning and brick-and-mortar learning interactions and concepts such as asynchronous and synchronous interactions, etc, before deliberating on perceived differences in organizational structure and pedagogical approaches of virtual and brick-and-mortar schools by examining organizational structure, knowledge and pedagogical theories, ideas, and constructs. The roles of mission, vision, and other considerations that contribute to differences between virtual and brick-and-mortar schools are examined. The appropriateness of structure and pedagogy as related to variables such as class size, span of control, and several other factors is discussed. The benefits and drawbacks of both virtual and brick-and-mortar schools are assessed in terms of perceived effectiveness and relation to perceived organizational structural and pedagogical differences before the author presents an informed response to the major thesis of this paper based on pertinent literature and the foregone discussion. After recognizing prevailing practices with regard to organizational structure and pedagogy, and given the pertinent role of technology and several influencing factors such as leadership, and curriculum, among other factors in virtual and brick-and-mortar schools, several recommendations are presented for improving the teaching-learning process.

  20. Using Online Video Lectures to Enrich Traditional Face-to-Face Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C. Makarem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available University educators need to meet changing needs of the digital generation by integrating technology through online content delivery. Despite the many advantages of online education, a large number of university professors are reluctant to make the transition from traditional-face-to-face lectures to online delivery, mainly due to the time, cost, and technical competence requirements to make this transition, in addition to the lack of beliefs in the legitimacy of online education. This article demonstrates the use of online video lectures to adapt traditional university courses to a blended format. The study is implemented for a School of Business Marketing course. We illustrate a cost-effective and timeefficient way for faculty members to record and share online video lectures with limited training and technical support. Using a student sample from two sections of the same marketing course, the study findings support the use of online video lectures as an effective way to free class time for learner-centred activities, without sacrificing student performance outcomes or course satisfaction.

  1. [The Internet:an alternative to face-to-face training for teachers in remote locations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Suzanne; Minguet, Cassian

    2008-08-01

    For some family medicine supervisors working in rural and remote areas, access to face-to-face training is problematic. They need distance training programs designed specifically for them. To study the advantages, disadvantages, and feasibility of a training program for these supervisors that is delivered over the Internet. This was a pilot project for international on-line training consisting of a platform of courses and a collaborative type of Web conferencing that ran for 2 hours each week for 5 weeks. The training focused on the acquisition of teaching skills and the use of information and communications technology, and included discussions on topics related to practising and teaching in rural areas. Such a program is feasible and economical. The main difficulties are recruiting participants, keeping them in the program, and the amount of time spent on development and supervision. Participants who persevered reported high levels of satisfaction. The content of this type of training, barriers to participation, and the role of distance education in rural supervisor training programs remain to be explored.

  2. All You Need Is Facebook Friends? Associations between Online and Face-to-Face Friendships and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria Luisa; Marques, Sibila; Muiños, Gabriel; Camilo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Positive social relations are known to have a beneficial impact on health, however, little is known about the links of health with online relationships. In this study, we compare face-to-face and virtual friendships in their association with health. By building on previous results of studies conducted on the well-being of college students, we expect to find stronger associations of face-to-face friendships with health than of those established through Facebook. Furthermore, we expect to test the mediating role of social capital variables in this process. Two large-scale studies conducted in community samples (Study 1 = 350 urban residents; Study 2 = 803 urban and rural residents) showed that the number and quality of face-to-face friendships were directly associated with self-reported health status, however, the same did not occur with Facebook friendships. Moreover, the association of face-to-face friendships with health was totally mediated by bonding (mostly) but also bridging social capital. These results, replicated in both studies, were found controlling for confounding variables such as age, gender, education, living alone, self-esteem, and socioeconomic status. This pattern of results emphasizes the gains of face-to-face over online friendships for individuals’ health status in community samples. PMID:28194125

  3. All You Need Is Facebook Friends? Associations between Online and Face-to-Face Friendships and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria Luisa; Marques, Sibila; Muiños, Gabriel; Camilo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Positive social relations are known to have a beneficial impact on health, however, little is known about the links of health with online relationships. In this study, we compare face-to-face and virtual friendships in their association with health. By building on previous results of studies conducted on the well-being of college students, we expect to find stronger associations of face-to-face friendships with health than of those established through Facebook. Furthermore, we expect to test the mediating role of social capital variables in this process. Two large-scale studies conducted in community samples (Study 1 = 350 urban residents; Study 2 = 803 urban and rural residents) showed that the number and quality of face-to-face friendships were directly associated with self-reported health status, however, the same did not occur with Facebook friendships. Moreover, the association of face-to-face friendships with health was totally mediated by bonding (mostly) but also bridging social capital. These results, replicated in both studies, were found controlling for confounding variables such as age, gender, education, living alone, self-esteem, and socioeconomic status. This pattern of results emphasizes the gains of face-to-face over online friendships for individuals' health status in community samples.

  4. Physical activity indicators in adults from a state capital in the South of Brazil: a comparison between telephone and face-to-face surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovâni Firpo Del Duca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare estimates of prevalence of physical activity indicators and associated sociodemographic factors obtained from telephone and face-to-face interviews with adults. Data from a cross-sectional populationbased survey of adults living in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil was compared to data collected through the telephonic system VIGITEL. There was no significant difference between the results from telephone interviews (n = 1,475 and face-to-face interviews (n = 1,720 with respect to prevalence of sufficient leisure time physical activity (19.3% versus 15.5%, respectively, sufficient leisure time and/or commuting physical activity (35.1% versus 29.1%, respectively and physical inactivity (16.2% versus 12.6%, respectively. Some differences were observed with respect to the sociodemographic factors associated with leisure time and/or commuting physical activity and physical inactivity. The two techniques yielded generally similar results with respect to prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated to physical activity indicators.

  5. Investigating Face-to-Face Peer Interaction Patterns in a Collaborative Web Discovery Task: The Bene?ts of a Shared Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C-W.; Lee, C-C.; Liu, C-C.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computers are now increasingly applied to facilitate face-to-face collaborative learning. However, the factors affecting face-to-face peer interactions are complex as they involve rich communication media. In particular, non-verbal interactions are necessary to convey critical communication messages in face-to-face communication. Through…

  6. Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and anonymous real-time team competition in a networked gaming learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Han, Chialing; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates the impact of anonymous, computerized, synchronized team competition on students' motivation, satisfaction, and interpersonal relationships. Sixty-eight fourth-graders participated in this study. A synchronous gaming learning system was developed to have dyads compete against each other in answering multiple-choice questions set in accordance with the school curriculum in two conditions (face-to-face and anonymous). The results showed that students who were exposed to the anonymous team competition condition responded significantly more positively than those in the face-to-face condition in terms of motivation and satisfaction at the 0.050 and 0.056 levels respectively. Although further studies regarding the effects of anonymous interaction in a networked gaming learning environment are imperative, the positive effects detected in this preliminary study indicate that anonymity is a viable feature for mitigating the negative effects that competition may inflict on motivation and satisfaction as reported in traditional face-to-face environments.

  7. Face-to-face or Face-to-screen? Undergraduates’ opinions and test performance in classroom versus online learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenagh eKemp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students’ experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates’ preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online versus in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 71 at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion.

  8. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion.

  9. A randomised controlled trial of face to face versus pure online self-help cognitive behavioural treatment for perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Sarah J; van Noort, Emily; Chee, Abby; Kane, Robert T; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey D

    2014-12-01

    Previous research has shown cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) to be effective in reducing perfectionism. The present study investigated the efficacy of two formats of CBT for perfectionism (CBT-P), face-to-face and pure online self-help, in reducing perfectionism and associated psychological symptoms. Participants were randomly allocated to face-to-face CBT-P (n = 18), pure online self-help CBT-P (n = 16), or a waitlist control period (n = 18). There was no significant change for the waitlist group on any of the outcome measures at the end of treatment. Both the face-to-face and pure online self-help groups reported significant reductions at the end of treatment for the perfectionism variables which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. The face-to-face group also reported significant reductions over this time in depression, anxiety, and stress, and a significant pre-post increase in self-esteem, all of which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. In contrast, the pure online self-help group showed no significant changes on these outcomes. The face-to-face group was statistically superior to the pure online self-help group at follow-up on the perfectionism measures, concern over mistakes and personal standards. The results show promising evidence for CBT for perfectionism, especially when offered face to face, where sustained benefit across a broad range of outcomes can be expected. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Online intravenous pump emulator: As effective as face-to-face simulation for training nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Victoria R; Moloney, Clint; Bowtell, Leslie; Terry, Peter C

    2016-05-01

    The expansion of online education for nursing students has created the challenge of finding innovative ways to teach clinical skills. An online intravenous pump emulator (IVPE) modelled on actual IV pumps used in clinical healthcare settings was developed to facilitate online education delivery. The objectives of the study were to implement the online IVPE and evaluate student learning outcomes and perceptions of device use. A mixed method, quasi-experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at a regional university in Queensland, Australia. Participants were 179 first year nursing students enrolled in a medications course, ranging in age from 18 to 44years, of whom 150 were female. Participants were assigned to one of three groups and trained in the use of IV infusion pumps. Group 1 (n=57) were trained online using the IVPE (ONL); Group 2 (n=73) were trained on-campus using an actual IV pump (ONC); Group 3 (n=49) were trained both on-campus using the actual IV pump and online using the IVPE (ONL+ONC). Competence in using the actual IV pump was assessed for all participants at the conclusion of the training period. No significant differences in learning outcomes, measured by assessment scores out of 80 points, were found between the ONL (M=65.5±9.2) and ONC (M=62.0±14.8; p>.05) groups. Significantly better learning outcomes were evident for the ONL+ONC group (M=68.7±4.9) compared to the ONC group (pstudents became more competent in the skill of preparing and administrating IV infusions when face-to-face and online learning were combined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A; Chen, Henian

    2016-04-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for communication modalities of attention, affect, orientation, touch, and composite facial-visual engagement. Time-series approaches generated self- and interactive contingency estimates in each modality. Evidence supporting the following principles was obtained: (a) Significant moment-to-moment predictability within each partner (self-contingency) and between the partners (interactive contingency) characterizes mother-infant communication. (b) Interactive contingency is organized by a bidirectional, but asymmetrical, process: Maternal contingent coordination with infant is higher than infant contingent coordination with mother. (c) Self-contingency organizes communication to a far greater extent than interactive contingency. (d) Self- and interactive contingency processes are not separate; each affects the other in communication modalities of facial affect, facial-visual engagement, and orientation. Each person's self-organization exists in a dynamic, homoeostatic (negative feedback) balance with the degree to which the person coordinates with the partner. For example, those individuals who are less facially stable are likely to coordinate more strongly with the partner's facial affect and vice versa. Our findings support the concept that the dyad is a fundamental unit of analysis in the investigation of early interaction. Moreover, an individual's self-contingency is influenced by the way the individual coordinates with the partner. Our results imply that it is not appropriate to conceptualize interactive processes without simultaneously accounting for dynamically interrelated self-organizing processes. (c) 2016 APA, all

  12. Measures of fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with, complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions: A systematic review of measure quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Holly; Spector, Aimee; Tombor, Ildiko; Michie, Susan

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the effectiveness of complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions requires high-quality measures to assess fidelity of delivery and engagement. This systematic review aimed to (1) identify the types of measures used to monitor fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with, complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions and (2) describe the reporting of psychometric and implementation qualities. Electronic databases were searched, systematic reviews and reference lists were hand-searched, and 21 experts were contacted to identify articles. Studies that quantitatively measured fidelity of delivery of, and/or engagement with, a complex, face-to-face health behaviour change intervention for adults were included. Data on interventions, measures, and psychometric and implementation qualities were extracted and synthesized using narrative analysis. Sixty-six studies were included: 24 measured both fidelity of delivery and engagement, 20 measured fidelity of delivery, and 22 measured engagement. Measures of fidelity of delivery included observation (n = 17; 38.6%), self-report (n = 15; 34%), quantitatively rated qualitative interviews (n = 1; 2.3%), or multiple measures (n = 11; 25%). Measures of engagement included self-report (n = 18; 39.1%), intervention records (n = 11; 24%), or multiple measures (n = 17; 37%). Fifty-one studies (77%) reported at least one psychometric or implementation quality; 49 studies (74.2%) reported at least one psychometric quality, and 17 studies (25.8%) reported at least one implementation quality. Fewer than half of the reviewed studies measured both fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions. More studies reported psychometric qualities than implementation qualities. Interpretation of intervention outcomes from fidelity of delivery and engagement measurements may be limited due to a lack of reporting of psychometric and

  13. Online or face-to-face instruction? A qualitative study on the electrocardiogram course at the University of Ulm to examine why students choose a particular format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Keis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the introduction of the e-learning electrocardiogram (ECG course ‘ECG Online’ into the curriculum at the University of Ulm, a small but relatively constant number of students have decided not to participate in the online course but to attend the face-to-face course, although the content of both courses is identical. The present study examined why students prefer one format or the other. Methods In a qualitative research approach, ten medical students were questioned in a guided interview. At the time of the survey the interviewees were enrolled in the 7th to 10th semesters. Among the respondents, 2 had participated only in the face-to-face ECG course, 4 only in the online version and 4 in both the face-to-face and the online course. Results Interestingly, the very factors associated with e-learning – and always praised as advantages of it – are viewed critically by the students. Thus, although the 24-h access to learning content was consistently evaluated positively, the unlimited availability (lack of expiry date was not seen as conducive to learning. The lack of fixed time constraints and the attendant lack of pressure were important reasons why some of the students had discontinued the online course prematurely. A similar distinction was seen in the flexibility of location for e-learning, because the very obligation to be physically present on a particular day at a fixed time led to a higher degree of commitment to courses and a willingness to actually attend the course until the end. In addition, if the content has a high degree of perceived professional relevance face-to-face courses are preferred because they offer the possibility of direct interaction. Conclusions Even though the small sample size limits the generalisability of the results, our findings indicate that when developing online courses students’ needs could be better met if measures were included to strengthen extrinsic and intrinsic

  14. Online or face-to-face instruction? A qualitative study on the electrocardiogram course at the University of Ulm to examine why students choose a particular format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keis, Oliver; Grab, Claudia; Schneider, Achim; Öchsner, Wolfgang

    2017-11-09

    Since the introduction of the e-learning electrocardiogram (ECG) course 'ECG Online' into the curriculum at the University of Ulm, a small but relatively constant number of students have decided not to participate in the online course but to attend the face-to-face course, although the content of both courses is identical. The present study examined why students prefer one format or the other. In a qualitative research approach, ten medical students were questioned in a guided interview. At the time of the survey the interviewees were enrolled in the 7th to 10th semesters. Among the respondents, 2 had participated only in the face-to-face ECG course, 4 only in the online version and 4 in both the face-to-face and the online course. Interestingly, the very factors associated with e-learning - and always praised as advantages of it - are viewed critically by the students. Thus, although the 24-h access to learning content was consistently evaluated positively, the unlimited availability (lack of expiry date) was not seen as conducive to learning. The lack of fixed time constraints and the attendant lack of pressure were important reasons why some of the students had discontinued the online course prematurely. A similar distinction was seen in the flexibility of location for e-learning, because the very obligation to be physically present on a particular day at a fixed time led to a higher degree of commitment to courses and a willingness to actually attend the course until the end. In addition, if the content has a high degree of perceived professional relevance face-to-face courses are preferred because they offer the possibility of direct interaction. Even though the small sample size limits the generalisability of the results, our findings indicate that when developing online courses students' needs could be better met if measures were included to strengthen extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and formats were favoured that enable students to have a minimum level

  15. Content and Processes in Problem-Based Learning: A Comparison of Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromso, H. I.; Grottum, P.; Lycke, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in problem-based learning. One line of research has been to introduce synchronous, or simultaneous, communication attempting to create text-based digital real-time interaction. Compared with face-to-face (F2F) communication, CMC may be a poorer medium…

  16. Interdyad Differences in Early Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Real-Time Dynamics and Developmental Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A microgenetic research design with a multiple case study method and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses was used to investigate interdyad differences in real-time dynamics and developmental change processes in mother-infant face-to-face communication over the first 3 months of life. Weekly observations of 24 mother-infant dyads…

  17. On the passage of time : Temporal differences in video-mediated and face-to-face interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R. van der; Paashuis, R.M.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines team work over time in video-mediated non-collocated and traditional face-to-face same-room teams. In a longitudinal between-groups design, 22 three-person teams were tested in 4 1-h test sessions at 2-week intervals. A paper-folding task was designed for the experiment that had

  18. The Effects of Age and Gender on Student Achievement in Face-To-Face and Online College Algebra Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amro, Hanan Jamal; Mundy, Marie-Anne; Kupczynski, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Demand for online learning has increased in recent years due to the convenience of course delivery. However, some students appear to have difficulties with online education resulting in lack of completion. The study utilized a quantitative approach with archival data. The factors of achievement and demographics were compared for face-to-face and…

  19. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

  20. Effectiveness of integrating case studies in online and face-to-face instruction of pathophysiology: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Suha M; Asi, Yara M; Hamed, Kastro M

    2013-06-01

    Due to growing demand from students and facilitated by innovations in educational technology, institutions of higher learning are increasingly offering online courses. Subjects in the hard sciences, such as pathophysiology, have traditionally been taught in the face-to-face format, but growing demand for preclinical science courses has compelled educators to incorporate online components into their classes to promote comprehension. Learning tools such as case studies are being integrated into such courses to aid in student interaction, engagement, and critical thinking skills. Careful assessment of pedagogical techniques is essential; hence, this study aimed to evaluate and compare student perceptions of the use of case studies in face-to-face and fully online pathophysiology classes. A series of case studies was incorporated into the curriculum of a pathophysiology class for both class modes (online and face to face). At the end of the semester, students filled out a survey assessing the effectiveness of the case studies. Both groups offered positive responses about the incorporation of case studies in the curriculum of the pathophysiology class. This study supports the argument that with proper use of innovative teaching tools, such as case studies, online pathophysiology classes can foster a sense of community and interaction that is typically only seen with face-to-face classes, based on student responses. Students also indicated that regardless of class teaching modality, use of case studies facilitates student learning and comprehension as well as prepares them for their future careers in health fields.

  1. Making the Jump to Hybrid Space: Employing Face-to-Face and Online Modalities in a Special Event Planning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Every quarter at California State University East Bay, a special event-planning course is offered in a hybrid format (face-to-face and online) and uses interactive Problem-Based Learning (PBL) activities designed to challenge and inspire intellectual growth. The PLB method is different in that students are not only receivers of knowledge but are…

  2. Missed Opportunities for Science Learning: Unacknowledged Unscientific Arguments in Asynchronous Online and Face-To-Face Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis-Duehl, Kristine; Idsardi, Robert; Humphrey, Eve A.; Gougis, Rebekka Darner

    2018-01-01

    We explored the scientific argumentation that occurs among university biology students during an argumentation task implemented in two environments: face-to-face in a classroom and online in an asynchronous discussion. We observed 10 student groups, each composed of three students. Our analysis focused on how students respond to their peers'…

  3. Is the Medium Really the Message? A Comparison of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Focus Group Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori

    2013-01-01

    With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…

  4. Performance Gaps between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Differences across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Jaggars, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a dataset containing nearly 500,000 courses taken by over 40,000 community and technical college students in Washington State, this study examines the performance gap between online and face-to-face courses and how the size of that gap differs across student subgroups and academic subject areas. While all types of students in the study…

  5. An Investigation of Teaching and Learning: Using Course Management Software (CMS) in a Typical Face-to-Face Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell-Ihlow, Marcia M.

    2009-01-01

    The Provost at a small liberal arts college in upstate New York requested that a new college committee investigate the feasibility of creating and offering blended courses along with the typical face-to-face courses and the fully online courses. An instructional design model is used to discuss and analyze one faculty member's journey through the…

  6. Missed Opportunities for Science Learning: Unacknowledged Unscientific Arguments in Asynchronous Online and Face-to-Face Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis-Duehl, Kristine; Idsardi, Robert; Humphrey, Eve A.; Gougis, Rebekka Darner

    2017-08-01

    We explored the scientific argumentation that occurs among university biology students during an argumentation task implemented in two environments: face-to-face in a classroom and online in an asynchronous discussion. We observed 10 student groups, each composed of three students. Our analysis focused on how students respond to their peers' unscientific arguments, which we define as assertions, hypotheses, propositions, or explanations that are inaccurate or incomplete from a scientific perspective. Unscientific arguments provide opportunities for productive dissent, scientific argumentation, and conceptual development of scientifically desirable conceptions. We found that students did not respond to the majority of unscientific arguments in both environments. Challenges to unscientific arguments were expressed as a question or through explanation, although the latter was more common online than face-to-face. Students demonstrated significantly more epistemic distancing in the face-to-face environment than the online environment. We discuss the differences in discourse observed in both environments and teaching implications. We also provide direction for future research seeking to address the challenges of engaging students in productive scientific argumentation in both face-to-face and online environments.

  7. Measurement and visualization of face-to-face interaction among community-dwelling older adults using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Kouhei; Yaguchi, Takaharu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tani, Hideaki; Tozuka, Keisuke; Kondo, Narihiko; Okada, Shuichi

    2017-10-01

    A number of interventions have been undertaken to develop and promote social networks among community-dwelling older adults. However, it has been difficult to examine the effects of these interventions, because of problems in assessing interactions. The present study was designed to quantitatively measure and visualize face-to-face interactions among elderly participants in an exercise program. We also examined relationships among interactional variables, personality and interest in community involvement, including interactions with the local community. Older adults living in the same community were recruited to participate in an exercise program that consisted of four sessions. We collected data on face-to-face interactions of the participants by using a wearable sensor technology device. Network analysis identified the communication networks of participants in the exercise program, as well as changes in these networks. Additionally, there were significant correlations between the number of people involved in face-to-face interactions and changes in both interest in community involvement and interactions with local community residents, as well as personality traits, including agreeableness. Social networks in the community are essential for solving problems caused by the aging society. We showed the possible applications of face-to-face interactional data for identifying core participants having many interactions, and isolated participants having only a few interactions within the community. Such data would be useful for carrying out efficient interventions for increasing participants' involvement with their community. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1752-1758. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Online and Face-to-Face Language Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Oral Proficiency in Introductory Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Burke Moneypenny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary resistance to online foreign language teaching often involves questions of spoken mastery of second language. In order to address this concern, this research comparatively assesses undergraduate students’ oral proficiency in online and face-to-face Spanish classes, while taking into account students’ previous second language experience. The sample consisted of 90 undergraduate students, both online and face-to-face, who completed the Versant test at the end of the two semester sequence of Introductory Spanish. The Versant test assessed pronunciation, vocabulary, sentence formation, and fluency as factors of oral proficiency and calculated an overall oral proficiency score. T-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to determine whether there were any significant differences between online and face-to-face students’ proficiency scores. The results indicate that there were no statistically significant differences in oral proficiency at the introductory level between students who completed Spanish online and those that participated in face-to-face courses.

  9. Online and Face-to-Face Language Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Oral Proficiency in Introductory Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneypenny, Dianne Burke; Aldrich, Rosalie S.

    2016-01-01

    The primary resistance to online foreign language teaching often involves questions of spoken mastery of second language. In order to address this concern, this research comparatively assesses undergraduate students' oral proficiency in online and face-to-face Spanish classes, while taking into account students' previous second language…

  10. Seeing through the Screen: Is Evaluative Feedback Communicated More Effectively in Face-to-Face or Computer-Mediated Exchanges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Brenda G.; Vorauer, Jacquie D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that examined how the use of computer mediated communication affected the transmission of performance and interpersonal appraisal information. Examined whether interpersonal judgments obtained through face-to-face communication resulted in greater positivity, but compromised accuracy, relative to…

  11. Monetary Valuations of University Course Delivery: The Case for Face-to-Face Learning Activities in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Ross; Kerr, Rosy; Brown, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    Student preferences for delivery options were obtained within a monetary framework by asking students to purchase their ideal course structure. Results show that accounting students prefer to spend more on tutorials but purchase less lecture time; the difference due to the higher cost of tutorials compared to lectures. Face-to-face classes were…

  12. Online versus Face-to-Face Accounting Education: A Comparison of CPA Exam Outcomes across Matched Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Programmatic-level comparisons are made between the certified public accountant (CPA) exam outcomes of two types of accounting programs: online or distance accounting programs and face-to-face or classroom accounting programs. After matching programs from each group on student selectivity at admission, the two types of programs are compared on CPA…

  13. Effectiveness of Integrating Case Studies in Online and Face-to-Face Instruction of Pathophysiology: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Suha M.; Asi, Yara M.; Hamed, Kastro M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to growing demand from students and facilitated by innovations in educational technology, institutions of higher learning are increasingly offering online courses. Subjects in the hard sciences, such as pathophysiology, have traditionally been taught in the face-to-face format, but growing demand for preclinical science courses has compelled…

  14. The Nature of Negotiations in Face-to-Face versus Computer-Mediated Communication in Pair Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhshad, Amir; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Storch, Neomy

    2016-01-01

    The Interaction Approach argues that negotiation for meaning and form is conducive to second language development. To date, most of the research on negotiations has been either in face-to-face (FTF) or text-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) modes. Very few studies have compared the nature of negotiations across the modes.…

  15. Marketing Learning Communities to Generation Z: The Importance of Face-to-Face Interaction in a Digitally Driven World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Julia; Zobac, Stephanie R.; Spillane, Allison; Thomas, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to identify the marketing strategies utilized by Learning Community (LC) administrators at two large, public, four-year research universities in the Midwest. The use of digital media coupled with face-to-face interaction is identified as an effective method of marketing LCs to the newest population of incoming college students,…

  16. Enhancing Discussions in the Asynchronous Online Classroom: The Lack of Face-to-Face Interaction Does Not Lessen the Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Lenaghan, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses educators' concerns about using asynchronous online discussions in lieu of face-to-face discussions. Drawing from research on asynchronous online education and Bloom's taxonomy, the authors introduce the system of "original examples" and "value-added comments" that they have developed to promote engaging and meaningful…

  17. 76 FR 55835 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc.), how can minors' exposure to tobacco product advertising... Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and... to the regulation of non-face-to-face sale and distribution of tobacco products and the advertising...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of blended vs. face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy for severe anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romijn, Geke; Riper, Heleen; Kok, Robin

    2015-01-01

    .e. panic disorder, social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder, in specialized mental health care settings compared to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy. In this paper, we present the study protocol. It is hypothesized that blended cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders...

  19. A Retrospective Look at Replacing Face-to-Face Embryology Instruction with Online Lectures in a Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Elmus G.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Lee, Vaughan H.

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology…

  20. More breast cancer patients prefer BRCA-mutation testing without prior face-to-face genetic counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, A.S.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Spruijt, L.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Brunner, H.G.; Prins, J.B.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, most breast cancer (BC) patients receive face-to-face genetic counseling (DNA-intake) prior to BRCA-mutation testing, with generic information regarding hereditary BC and BRCA-mutation testing. This prospective study evaluated a novel format: replacing the intake consultation with

  1. Integrating Blog and Face-to-Face Instruction into an ESP Course: English for Hospitality and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ru-Chu

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid growth of international trade and globalization, English language has been emphasized in Asia countries, thus professionals with a good command of English has become essential and important. This study aimed to establish a blended model combining face-to-face (F2F) instruction for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course: English…

  2. Blending Synchronous Face-to-Face and Computer-Supported Cooperative Learning in a Hybrid Doctoral Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseth, Cary; Akcaoglu, Mete; Zellner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Online education is often assumed to be synonymous with asynchronous instruction, existing apart from or supplementary to face-to-face instruction in traditional bricks-and-mortar classrooms. However, expanding access to computer-mediated communication technologies now make new models possible, including distance learners synchronous online…

  3. Video Chat vs. Face-to-Face Recasts, Learners' Interpretations and L2 Development: A Case of Persian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two modes of corrective feedback, namely, face-to-face recasts and computer-mediated recasts during video-conferencing on Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' second language (L2) development. Moreover, the accuracy of the learners' interpretations of recasts in the two modalities was…

  4. The Effects of Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Peer Review on EFL Writers' Comments and Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the use of face-to-face and computer-mediated peer review in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing course to examine how different interaction modes affect comment categories, students' revisions, and their perceptions of peer feedback. The participants were an intact class of 13 students at a Taiwanese university.…

  5. A Large Sample Comparison of Grade Based Student Learning Outcomes in Online vs. Face-to-Face Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Joseph K.; Jacquemin, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of grade based learning outcomes between online and face-to-face course formats have become essential because the number of online courses, online programs and institutional student enrollments have seen rapid growth in recent years. Overall, online education is largely viewed by education professionals as being equivalent to…

  6. Clinicians' perspectives of therapeutic alliance in face-to-face and telepractice speech-language pathology sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Anneka; Hines, Monique; Lincoln, Michelle

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the face validity of a measure of therapeutic alliance for paediatric speech-language pathology and to determine whether a difference exists in therapeutic alliance reported by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) conducting face-to-face sessions, compared with telepractice SLPs or in their ratings of confidence with technology. SLPs conducting telepractice (n = 14) or face-to-face therapy (n = 18) completed an online survey which included the Therapeutic Alliance Scales for Children - Revised (TASC-r) (Therapist Form) to rate clinicians' perceptions of rapport with up to three clients. Participants also reported their overall perception of rapport with each client and their comfort with technology. There was a strong correlation between TASC-r total scores and overall ratings of rapport, providing preliminary evidence of TASC-r face validity. There was no significant difference between TASC-r scores for telepractice and face-to-face therapy (p = 0.961), nor face-to-face and telepractice SLPs' confidence with familiar (p = 0.414) or unfamiliar technology (p = 0.780). The TASC-r may be a promising tool for measuring therapeutic alliance in speech-language pathology. Telepractice does not appear to have a negative effect on rapport between SLPs and paediatric clients. Future research is required to identify how SLPs develop rapport in telepractice.

  7. MBTI Personality Type and Other Factors that Relate to Preference for Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Online college classes are being offered at a rate that far exceeds the growth of overall higher education classes. However, much can still be learned about how to create a better online classroom environment by determining why a large percentage of students continue to prefer face-to-face classes. One factor among many that may have an influence…

  8. How Mode of Delivery Affects Comprehension of an Operations Management Simulation: Online vs Face-to-Face Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jason M.; Ellegood, William A.; Solomon, Stanislaus; Baker, Jerrine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to understand how mode of delivery, online versus face-to-face, affects comprehension when teaching operations management concepts via a simulation. Conceptually, the aim is to identify factors that influence the students' ability to learn and retain new concepts. Design/methodology/approach: Leveraging Littlefield…

  9. Influence of face-to-face meetings on virtual community activity: the case of Learning Network for Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Hummel, Hans; Tattersall, Colin; Brouns, Francis; Kurvers, Hub; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Burgos, D., Hummel, H., Tattersall, C., Brouns, F., Kurvers, H., & Koper, R. (2006). Influence of face-to-face meetings on virtual community activity: the case of Learning Network for Learning Design. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Web Based Communities 2006. February, 16-18,2006, San

  10. Effectiveness of online and face-to-face fatigue self-management programmes for adults with neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Setareh; Packer, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of a face-to-face and an online fatigue self-management programme and to compare these to two control groups (information-only and no-intervention) in a sample of adults (n = 115) with neurological conditions reporting extreme fatigue. Non-equivalent pre-test post-test control group design using the Fatigue Impact Scale, Personal Wellbeing Index and Activity Card Sort as primary outcome measures. Participants in the two intervention groups and the information-only group showed clinically significant improvements in fatigue over time (p < 0.05). When compared to the no-intervention group, face-to-face participants showed significantly greater improvement in overall and cognitive fatigue, while participants in the online group showed significant improvement in self-efficacy and stress. Participation in either the online or face-to-face programme appears to result in improved self-management, however, with different potency depending on outcomes. The improvement in the online information only group further complicates the understanding of the results. With few other comparisons of online and face-to-face self-management protocols available, further research is needed to understand differential impacts which may be related to the delivery format, the rural versus urban split of participants or other unknown factors.

  11. Missed Opportunities for Science Learning: Unacknowledged Unscientific Arguments in Asynchronous Online and Face-to-Face Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis-Duehl, Kristine; Idsardi, Robert; Humphrey, Eve A.; Gougis, Rebekka Darner

    2018-02-01

    We explored the scientific argumentation that occurs among university biology students during an argumentation task implemented in two environments: face-to-face in a classroom and online in an asynchronous discussion. We observed 10 student groups, each composed of three students. Our analysis focused on how students respond to their peers' unscientific arguments, which we define as assertions, hypotheses, propositions, or explanations that are inaccurate or incomplete from a scientific perspective. Unscientific arguments provide opportunities for productive dissent, scientific argumentation, and conceptual development of scientifically desirable conceptions. We found that students did not respond to the majority of unscientific arguments in both environments. Challenges to unscientific arguments were expressed as a question or through explanation, although the latter was more common online than face-to-face. Students demonstrated significantly more epistemic distancing in the face-to-face environment than the online environment. We discuss the differences in discourse observed in both environments and teaching implications. We also provide direction for future research seeking to address the challenges of engaging students in productive scientific argumentation in both face-to-face and online environments.

  12. Accuracy of Answers Provided by Digital/Face-to-Face Reference Services in Japanese Public Libraries and Q & A Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Keita; To, Haruna; Hara, Atsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We asked the same 60 questions using DRS (digital reference services) in Japanese public libraries, face-to-face reference services and Q & A (question and answer) sites. It was found that: (1) The correct answer ratio of DRS is higher than that of Q & A sites; (2) DRS takes longer to provide answers as compared to Q & A sites; and (3)…

  13. Patterns of Physics Reasoning in Face-to-Face and Online Forum Collaboration around a Digital Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eaton, Grant; Clark, Douglas B.; Smith, Blaine E.

    2015-01-01

    Students playing digital learning games in the classroom rarely play alone, even in digital games that are ostensibly "single-player" games. This study explores the patterns of physics reasoning that emerge in face-to-face and online forum collaboration while students play a physics-focused educational game in their classroom. We…

  14. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  15. An Online Premium? Characteristics and Performance of Online versus Face-to-Face Students in Principles of Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendir, Seife

    2016-01-01

    The author uses data from two Principles of Microeconomics courses to examine differences in characteristics and performance of online versus face-to-face students. The analysis indicates that even in a traditional institution, the two delivery modes may be serving students with distinctly different backgrounds and characteristics. In terms of…

  16. Applying the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Student Perceptions, Behaviours and Success Online and Face-to-Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, Agi; Lange, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    This study compares student perceptions, learning behaviours and success in online and face-to-face versions of a Principles of Microeconomics course. It follows a Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) approach by using a cycle of empirical analysis, reflection and action to improve the learning experience for students. The online course…

  17. Emotion perception accuracy and bias in face-to-face versus cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea; Nowicki, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the association of traditional and cyber forms of bullying and victimization with emotion perception accuracy and emotion perception bias. Four basic emotions were considered (i.e., happiness, sadness, anger, and fear); 526 middle school students (280 females; M age = 12.58 years, SD = 1.16 years) were recruited, and emotionality was controlled. Results indicated no significant findings for girls. Boys with higher levels of traditional bullying did not show any deficit in perception accuracy of emotions, but they were prone to identify happiness and fear in faces when a different emotion was expressed; in addition, male cyberbullying was related to greater accuracy in recognizing fear. In terms of the victims, cyber victims had a global problem in recognizing emotions and a specific problem in processing anger and fear. It was concluded that emotion perception accuracy and bias were associated with bullying and victimization for boys not only in traditional settings but also in the electronic ones. Implications of these findings for possible intervention are discussed.

  18. Efficacy of face-to-face versus self-guided treatments for disordered gambling: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslar, Martina; Leibetseder, Max; Muench, Hannah M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims In the light of growing traditional and novel forms of gambling, the treatment of disordered gambling is gaining increasing importance and practical relevance. Most studies have examined face-to-face treatments. Although trials implementing self-guided treatments have recently been conducted, these options have not yet been systematically examined. The primary objective of this meta-analysis, therefore, was to analyze the efficacy of all types of psychological face-to-face and self-guided treatments. Methods A multilevel literature search yielded 27 randomized controlled studies totaling 3,879 participants to provide a comprehensive comparative evaluation of the short- and long-term efficacies of face-to-face and self-guided treatments for disordered gambling. Results As expected, the results revealed significantly higher effect sizes for face-to-face treatments (16 studies with Hedges’s g ranging from 0.67 to 1.15) as compared with self-guided treatments (11 studies with Hedges’s g ranging from 0.12 to 0.30) regarding the reduction of problematic gambling behavior. The intensity of treatment moderated the therapy effect, particularly for self-guided treatments. Discussion and Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis favor face-to-face treatments over self-guided treatments for the reduction of disordered gambling. Although the findings broaden the scope of knowledge about psychological treatment modalities for disordered gambling, further research is needed to identify the reasons for these differences with the goal to optimize the treatment for this disabling condition. PMID:28662618

  19. A retrospective analysis of the effect of discussion in teleconference and face-to-face scientific peer-review panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Afton S; Sullivan, Joanne H; Deshmukh, Arati; Glisson, Scott R; Gallo, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Objective With the use of teleconferencing for grant peer-review panels increasing, further studies are necessary to determine the efficacy of the teleconference setting compared to the traditional onsite/face-to-face setting. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of discussion, namely changes in application scoring premeeting and postdiscussion, in these settings. We also investigated other parameters, including the magnitude of score shifts and application discussion time in face-to-face and teleconference review settings. Design The investigation involved a retrospective, quantitative analysis of premeeting and postdiscussion scores and discussion times for teleconference and face-to-face review panels. The analysis included 260 and 212 application score data points and 212 and 171 discussion time data points for the face-to-face and teleconference settings, respectively. Results The effect of discussion was found to be small, on average, in both settings. However, discussion was found to be important for at least 10% of applications, regardless of setting, with these applications moving over a potential funding line in either direction (fundable to unfundable or vice versa). Small differences were uncovered relating to the effect of discussion between settings, including a decrease in the magnitude of the effect in the teleconference panels as compared to face-to-face. Discussion time (despite teleconferences having shorter discussions) was observed to have little influence on the magnitude of the effect of discussion. Additionally, panel discussion was found to often result in a poorer score (as opposed to an improvement) when compared to reviewer premeeting scores. This was true regardless of setting or assigned reviewer type (primary or secondary reviewer). Conclusions Subtle differences were observed between settings, potentially due to reduced engagement in teleconferences. Overall, further research is required on the psychology of

  20. Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Johansson, Karin; Uddling, Jonas; Hursti, Timo

    2017-01-26

    Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients' behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02895308 . Retrospectively registered 30 August 2016.

  1. Comparison of a Smartphone-Based Photographic Method with Face-to-Face Caries Assessment: A Mobile Teledentistry Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed; Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Huang, Boyen; Shiikha, Julia; Kruger, Estie; Bunt, Stuart; Tennant, Marc

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of a mobile teledentistry approach using a smartphone camera for remote screening of dental caries. An image acquisition Android App was created to facilitate the acquisition and transmission of dental images to a store-and-forward based telemedicine server. One hundred participants who were attending routine checkups at dental clinics were enrolled in 2014. Following a face-to-face oral screening by a screener (dentist), images of patients' teeth were obtained using a smartphone camera. These images, along with patient information, were then transmitted from the Android App to the server through the Internet for later independent assessment by two charters (off-site dentists). The assessments of these charters were then compared to the benchmark face-to-face caries assessment. Sensitivity values for the photographic method when compared to the benchmark face-to-face caries assessment were moderate, and ranged from 60% to 63%. Weighted kappa (K) as a measure of intragrader agreement for the photographic assessment was estimated as almost perfect (K = 0.84). The intergrader agreement for the photographic method compared to the face-to-face caries assessment ranged from moderate to substantial (K = 0.54-0.66). Despite some limitations, the mobile teledentistry approach has shown the potential to detect occlusal caries from photographs taken by a smartphone camera with an acceptable diagnostic performance compared to traditional face-to-face screening. This study suggests that telemedicine and cellular phone technology can be combined to create an inexpensive and reliable screening tool.

  2. 'What is it like to have ME?': the discursive construction of ME in computer-mediated communication and face-to-face interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Jennifer; Widdicombe, Sue; McKinlay, Andy

    2007-01-01

    ME (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis) or CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome) is a debilitating illness for which no cause or medical tests have been identified. Debates over its nature have generated interest from qualitative researchers. However, participants are difficult to recruit because of the nature of their condition. Therefore, this study explores the utility of the internet as a means of eliciting accounts. We analyse data from focus groups and the internet in order to ascertain the extent to which previous research findings apply to the internet domain. Interviews were conducted among 49 members of internet groups (38 chatline, 11 personal) and 7 members of two face-to-face support groups. Discourse analysis of descriptions and accounts of ME or CFS revealed similar devices and interactional concerns in both internet and face-to-face communication. Participants constructed their condition as serious, enigmatic and not psychological. These functioned to deflect problematic assumptions about ME or CFS and to manage their accountability for the illness and its effects.

  3. Explicative factors of face-to-face harassment and cyberbullying in a sample of primary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Cristina M; Romera Félix, Eva M; Ortega Ruiz, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a co-occurrence between bullying and cyberbullying in relation to certain variables that describe and explain them. The present study aims to examine the differential influence of individual and contextual variables on perception of the role played in the involvement in both phenomena. Participants were 1278 schoolchildren (47.7 % girls) of primary education, aged 10 to 14 years ( M =11.11, SD = 0.75). Logistic regression analysis indicated that social adjustment, normative adjustment, disruptiveness, gender, and self-esteem explain a substantial part of the involvement in both violent phenomena as victims, aggressors, and bully/victims. The results are discussed regarding the weight that must attributed to individual versus contextual factors, concluding that the explicative weight of the immediate social elements and educational context may make the difference.

  4. Coping and Sexual Harassment: How Victims Cope across Multiple Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew

    2018-02-01

    The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.

  5. Translating Face-to-Face Experiential Learning to Video for a Web-Based Communication Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila R. Lax

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultural, legal and ethical aspects of medical practice in Canada can be problematic for International Medical Graduates (IMGs to access and learn. The professional behaviours that depend on effective communication often challenge IMGs as they attempt to enter the Canadian medical system. The Communication and Cultural Competence Program provides a complex interactive web-based environment in which IMGs can learn and practice skills required to navigate these specific elements of medical practice. The educational design of this web site is based on the theory of knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2003. This paper examines how video simulation is used on the web site to support this design. Experiential simulation pedagogy, typically used in high-fidelity face-to-face encounters, is analyzed. Strategies to translate this pedagogy to an e-learning format to operationalize authentic knowledge building are described. Commentaries replace live facilitation and a communication tool, the Observation Guide, allows learners to participate in the simulation. This examination provides insight into the complexity involved in creating on-line resources that extend beyond clinical content repositories, illustrating the potential for web-based programs to provide reflective and recursive learning. A wide skill set with a broad base of support was necessary to create a virtual environment with depth and authenticity. Translating the process from live simulation to a mid-fidelity digital video format allowed for deeper understanding of how the unique skills of experienced simulators impact the educational process. This multi-dimensional e-learning platform has potential for teaching complex skills in medical programs.Les médecins diplômés à l’étranger (MDE peuvent avoir des difficultés à accéder aux aspects culturels, légaux et éthiques de la pratique médicale au Canada et à les apprendre. Les comportements professionnels qui d

  6. Cost-effectiveness of blended vs. face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy for severe anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romijn, Geke; Riper, Heleen; Kok, Robin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, and are associated with poor quality of life and substantial economic burden. Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment to reduce anxiety symptoms, but is also costly and labour intensive. Cost......-effectiveness could possibly be improved by delivering cognitive behavioural therapy in a blended format, where face-to-face sessions are partially replaced by online sessions. The aim of this trial is to determine the cost-effectiveness of blended cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with anxiety disorders, i.......e. panic disorder, social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder, in specialized mental health care settings compared to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy. In this paper, we present the study protocol. It is hypothesized that blended cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders...

  7. The Nature of Elementary Science Teachers' Experiences with Synchronous Online, Asynchronous Online and Face-to-Face Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amanda M.

    This study investigated the nature of instructional coaching interactions in three formats: online synchronous, online asynchronous, and face-to-face. Knight's (2007) Seven Partnership Principles of Instructional Coaching were used as a framework to analyze and compare the coaching interactions between coach and teacher to determine whether online coaching may be a viable option to provide support for the teachers unprepared to teach the new science standards. Some previous research has suggested that online communication can result in deeper personal interactions (Walther, 1996), while other studies suggest that interactions are more natural and easier in formats that are more similar to face-to-face interactions (Kock, 2005). The findings of this study support the media naturalness theory (Kock, 2005) and suggest that collaboration may be especially difficult in asynchronous online communication. Although differences were noted in the actual interactions, teacher perception remained fairly consistently positive across the three formats. Research beyond this exploratory study is needed to make findings generalizable.

  8. Infidelity in Dating Relationships: Gender-Specific Correlates of Face-to-Face and Online Extradyadic Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alexandra; Pereira, Marco; Andrade, Rita; Dattilio, Frank M; Narciso, Isabel; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific correlates of face-to-face and online extradyadic involvement (EDI) in dating relationships. The sample consisted of 561 women (M age = 23.19 years) and 222 men (M age = 23.97 years), all of whom reported being in an exclusive dating relationship for an average of 35 months. Participants completed the following self-report measures: Extradyadic Behavior Inventory, Attitudes toward Infidelity Scale, and Investment Model Scale. During the current relationship, men were more likely than women to report engagement in face-to-face physical/sexual EDI (23.4 vs. 15.5 %) and online sexual EDI (15.3 vs. 4.6 %). Both men and women with a history of infidelity in a prior relationship were more likely to engage in EDI. More positive attitudes toward infidelity, lower relationship satisfaction, lower commitment, and higher quality of alternatives were significantly associated with EDI, regardless of gender. Women reporting infidelity of a partner in a prior relationship were more likely to engage in face-to-face and online emotional EDI; a longer relationship and a younger age at the first sexual encounter were significant correlates of the engagement in face-to-face emotional EDI. Women with higher education were approximately three times more likely to engage in online sexual EDI. Although men and women are converging in terms of overall EDI, men still report higher engagement in physical/sexual extradyadic behaviors, and the correlates of sexual and emotional EDI vary according to gender. This study contributes to a comprehensive approach of factors influencing the likelihood of EDI and encourages future research in this area.

  9. Emmanuel Levinas & Paulo Freire: The Ethics of Responsibility for the Face-to-Face Interaction in the Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Margarita Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is a reflection on the ethics of education on the net as a contribution to the face-to-face interaction in the virtual world. We think the ethics is a result of a process of responsible interchange with others. Two important thinkers of the last few decades, Emmanuel Levinas e Paulo Freire contribute each one with one's…

  10. Intercultural communication and adolescent learners: a corpus-based approach to online and face-to-face interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yen-Liang

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on a corpus analysis of samples of online and face-to-face intercultural communication among a group of British and Taiwanese adolescents, with the aim of exploring the particular lexical, grammatical and discourse features of the online and spoken discourse from three perspectives: a keyness approach, a discourse analytical perspective and a multi-word sequence perspective. Keyness approach brings together three levels of keyness analysis: keywords, semantic domains and pa...

  11. Face-to-face instruction combined with online resources improves retention of clinical skills among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Victoria R; Terry, Peter C; Moloney, Clint; Bowtell, Les

    2018-02-01

    There is growing evidence that online resources used to develop clinical skills among students in the healthcare professions can produce equivalent learning outcomes to traditional face-to-face training methods. Whether clinical competence is retained equally well for online and face-to-face training methods is not yet established. The objective of the study was to compare retention of competence in using an IV infusion pump among nursing students trained in its use using three different protocols. A quasi-experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at a regional university in Queensland, Australia. Participants were 102 first year nursing students (female=89, male=13) enrolled in a medications course, ranging in age from 18 to 44years. Three groups of participants were trained in the use of an IV infusion pump and competence was assessed following a 26-week period of no access to the pump. Group 1 participants (ONL; n=34) were trained online using an Intravenous Pump Emulator (IVPE); Group 2 participants (ONC; n=38) were trained on campus using an actual IV pump in a traditional face-to-face setting; Group 3 participants (ONL+ONC; n=30) were trained both on campus using the actual IV pump and online using the IVPE. As hypothesised, no significant differences in learning outcomes, measured by assessment scores out of 80 points, were found between the ONL (M=68.7±5.9) and ONC (M=65.5±11.5; p>0.05) groups. The ONL+ONC group recorded the highest mean assessment score (M=70.0±5.0) and completed the assessment task significantly faster (pnursing students retained clinical competence in preparing and administrating IV infusions better when face-to-face and online learning were combined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mutual friends' social support and self-disclosure in face-to-face and instant messenger communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepte, Sabine; Masur, Philipp K; Scharkow, Michael

    2017-11-03

    In the present study, we investigated long-term effects of self-disclosure on social support in face-to-face and instant messenger (IM) communication between mutual friends. Using a representative sample of 583 German IM users, we explored whether self-disclosure and positive experiences with regard to social support would dynamically interact in the form of a reinforcing spiral across three measurement occasions. If mutual friends self-disclose today, will they receive more social support 6 months later? In turn, will this affect their willingness to self-disclose another 6 months later? We further analyzed spill-over effects from face-to-face to IM communication and vice versa. We found that self-disclosure predicted social support and vice versa in IM communication, but not in face-to-face communication. In light of these results, the impact of IM communication on how individuals maneuver friendships through the interplay between self-disclosure and social support are discussed.

  13. A randomized trial of face-to-face counselling versus telephone counselling versus bibliotherapy for occupational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilfedder, Catherine; Power, Kevin; Karatzias, Thanos; McCafferty, Aileen; Niven, Karen; Chouliara, Zoë; Galloway, Lisa; Sharp, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and acceptability of three interventions for occupational stress. A total of 90 National Health Service employees were randomized to face-to-face counselling or telephone counselling or bibliotherapy. Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention and 4-month follow-up. Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were used to evaluate intervention outcomes. An intention-to-treat analyses was performed. Repeated measures analysis revealed significant time effects on all measures with the exception of CORE Risk. No significant group effects were detected on all outcome measures. No time by group significant interaction effects were detected on any of the outcome measures with the exception of CORE Functioning and GHQ total. With regard to acceptability of interventions, participants expressed a preference for face-to-face counselling over the other two modalities. Overall, it was concluded that the three intervention groups are equally effective. Given that bibliotherapy is the least costly of the three, results from the present study might be considered in relation to a stepped care approach to occupational stress management with bibliotherapy as the first line of intervention, followed by telephone and face-to-face counselling as required.

  14. Repeated Interviews with Children Who Are the Alleged Victims of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the effects of repeated retrievals in the course of forensic investigations with children who are the alleged victims of sexual abuse. Method: Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development protocol, 56 children participated in a first free-recall interview that was followed by…

  15. Motivation Conditions in a Foreign Language Reading Comprehension Course Offering Both a Web-Based Modality and a Face-to-Face Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lopera Medina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivation plays an important in role in education. Based on the ten macro-strategies proposed by Dörnyei and Csizér (1998, this article analyzes the motivation conditions in a foreign language reading comprehension course using both a web-based modality and a face-to-face modality. A case study was implemented as the primary research method, and five instruments were used to gather data: observations, a teacher’s diary, focus groups, questionnaires, and in-depth interviews. The use of teaching aids, mastery gains in reading, proper presentation of tasks, and lack of humor were among the similarities found in the courses. In contrast, constant motivation, technical support, interactions among students, anxiety, and a high number of exercises constituted some of the differences between the modalities.

  16. Reading Comprehension in Face-to-Face and Web-Based Modalities: Graduate Students’ Use of Reading and Language Learning Strategies in EFL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alberto Arismendi Gomez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in Colombia have explored and compared students’ reading comprehension processes in EFL, in different modalities ofinstruction. This article reports on some findings of a larger study in which two groups of graduate Law students took a reading comprehensioncourse in English, delivered in two different modalities of instruction: face-to-face and web-based. Both courses were served by an English teacherfrom the School of Languages at Universidad de Antioquia. The data gathered from class observations, in-depth interviews, questionnaires, tests,the teacher’s journal and data records in the platform provided insights about the students’ use of reading and language learning strategies inboth modalities. Findings suggest that students applied the reading strategies explicitly taught during the courses and some language learningstrategies for which they did not receive any instruction.

  17. Internal consistency and measurement equivalence of the cannabis screening questions on the paper-and-pencil face-to-face ASSIST versus the online instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Monney, Grégoire; Nallet, Audrey; Khan, Riaz; Zullino, Daniele; Etter, Jean-François

    2015-03-08

    Validated Internet-based screening tools for cannabis use and abuse are needed. The present study aimed to establish equivalence between the previously validated Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) as a paper-and-pencil (PaP)-administered questionnaire and its online use. Two groups of cannabis users took part in this study and the results were analyzed using structural equation modeling. One group consisted of 150 participants and was assessed with the ASSIST PaP questionnaire in a face-to-face interview (the PaP group). They were recruited from three settings: a primary health care outpatient clinic, a general psychiatric facility, and an ambulatory specialized addiction treatment facility. The other group (the Web group) comprised 1382 persons who answered the online version of the same questionnaire. This sample was drawn from people who naturalistically visited a website dedicated to helping people with cannabis addiction. The internal consistency was good for the online questionnaire (0.74) and high for the already validated PaP questionnaire (0.91). The Web group, however, had higher scores on cannabis use than did the PaP group. The results show support for configural invariance, meaning that the one-factor structure was preserved across groups, although measurement equivalence between these two survey modes was not achieved. However, when the Web group was split into two random subsamples, measurement invariance was demonstrated between them by cross-validation. Measurement equivalence was not achieved between the two survey modes. Nonetheless, subanalyses of the Web group demonstrated that the cannabis screening questions of the ASSIST can be used for online screening. Differences in ASSIST scores between samples may be due to the sensitive nature of the information surveyed, with possible underreporting in face-to-face interviews, or to the different characteristics of the Web group because of the specialized nature of the

  18. Economic modelling of telehealth substitution of face-to-face specialist outpatient consultations for Queensland correctional facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Monica; Caffery, Liam J; Scuffham, Paul A; Smith, Anthony C

    2017-11-28

    Objective The provision of healthcare services to inmates in correctional facilities is costly and resource-intensive. This study aimed to estimate the costs of transporting prisoners from 11 Queensland correctional facilities to the Princess Alexandra Hospital Secure Unit (PAHSU) in Brisbane for non-urgent specialist outpatient consultations and identify the cost consequences that would result from the substitution of face-to-face visits with telehealth consultations.Methods A 12-month retrospective review of patient activity at the PAHSU was conducted to obtain the number of transfers per correctional facility. The total cost of transfers was calculated with estimates for transport vehicle costs and correctional staff escort wages, per diem and accommodation costs. A cost model was developed to estimate the potential cost savings from substituting face-to-face consultations with telehealth consultations. A sensitivity analysis on the cost variables was conducted. Costs are reported from a government funding perspective and presented in 2016 Australian dollars (A$).Results There were 3539 inmate appointments from July 2015 to June 2016 at the PAHSU, primarily for imaging, general practice, and orthopaedics. Telehealth may result in cost savings from negligible to A$969731, depending on the proportion, and travel distance, of face-to-face consultations substituted by telehealth. Wages of correctional staff were found to be the most sensitive variable.Conclusions Under the modelled conditions, telehealth may reduce the cost of providing specialist outpatient consultations to prisoners in Queensland correctional facilities. Telehealth may improve the timeliness of services to a traditionally underserved population.What is known about the topic? Specialist medical services are located in only a few metropolitan centres across Australia, which requires some populations to travel long distances to attend appointments. Some face-to-face specialist outpatient

  19. Randomized controlled trial of an internet-based versus face-to-face dyspnea self-management program for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Q; Donesky-Cuenco, DorAnne; Wolpin, Seth; Reinke, Lynn F; Benditt, Joshua O; Paul, Steven M; Carrieri-Kohlman, Virginia

    2008-04-16

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) continue to experience dyspnea with activities of daily living (ADL) despite optimal medical management. Information and communication technologies may facilitate collaborative symptom management and could potentially increase the reach of such interventions to those who are unable to attend face-to-face pulmonary rehabilitation or self-management programs. The purpose of this randomized study was to test the efficacy of two 6-month dyspnea self-management programs, Internet-based (eDSMP) and face-to-face (fDSMP), on dyspnea with ADL in people living with COPD. We randomly assigned 50 participants with moderate to severe COPD who were current Internet users to either the eDSMP (n = 26) or fDSMP (n = 24) group. The content of the two programs was similar, focusing on education, skills training, and ongoing support for dyspnea self-management, including independent exercise. The only difference was the mode (Internet/personal digital assistant [PDA] or face-to-face) in which the education sessions, reinforcement contacts, and peer interactions took place. Participants returned to one of two academic clinical sites for evaluation at 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome of dyspnea with ADL was measured with the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes of exercise behavior, exercise performance, COPD exacerbations, and mediators, such as self-efficacy and social support, were also measured. A satisfaction survey was administered and a semistructured exit interview was conducted at the final visit. The study was stopped early due to multiple technical challenges with the eDSMP, but follow-up was completed on all enrolled participants. Data were available for 39 participants who completed the study (female: 44%; age: 69.5 +/- 8.5 years; percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 49.6 +/- 17.0%). The fDSMP and eDSMP showed similar clinically meaningful changes in dyspnea with ADL from baseline to

  20. Assessing the value of structured protocols for forensic interviews of alleged child abuse victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Y; Hershkowitz, I; Lamb, M E; Sternberg, K J; Esplin, P W; Horowitz, D

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a structured interview protocol (NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol) operationalizing universally recommended guidelines for forensic interviews. The NICHD Investigative Protocol was designed to maximize the amount of information obtained using recall memory probes, which are likely to elicit more accurate information than recognition memory probes. Forensic investigators were trained to use the NICHD protocol while conducting feedback-monitored simulation interviews. The utility of the protocol was then evaluated by comparing 55 protocol interviews with 50 prior interviews by the same investigators, matched with respect to characteristics likely to affect the richness of the children's accounts. The comparison was based on an analysis of the investigators' utterance types, distribution, and timing, as well as quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the information produced. As predicted, protocol interviews contained more open-ended prompts overall as well as before the first option-posing utterance than non-protocol interviews did. More details were obtained using open-ended invitations and fewer were obtained using focused questions in protocol interviews than in non-protocol interviews, although the total number of details elicited did not differ significantly. In both conditions, older children provided more details than younger children did. The findings confirmed that implementation of professionally recommended practices affected the behavior of interviewers in both the pre-substantive and substantive phases of their interviews and enhanced the quality (i.e., likely accuracy) of information elicited from alleged victims.

  1. The Role of Focus Group Venue: A Comparative Study of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Video-Based Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothberg, June E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the equivalence or non-inferiority for comparisons of telephone focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, Internet video-based focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, and Internet video-based focus group venue to telephone focus group venue. Research questions examined the…

  2. Comparisons of Internet-Based and Face-to-Face Learning Systems Based on "Equivalency of Experiences" According to Students' Academic Achievements and Satisfactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Sercin; Simsek, Nurettin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether "equivalent learning experiences" ensure equivalency, in the Internet-based and face-to-face interaction methods on learning results and student satisfaction. In the experimental process of this study, the effect of the Internet-based and face-to-face learning on the equivalency in…

  3. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  4. Comparative Study on the Performance of Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSE) Students in Educational Technology Using Blended Learning Strategy and Traditional Face-to-Face Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Arnold R.

    2017-01-01

    Technology offers various tools of improving the teaching -- learning process. It revolutionizes teaching from traditional face-to-face to distance and online learning. This study described and compared the performance of BSE II students in educational technology using the traditional face-to-face classroom interaction and the blended learning…

  5. Testing the Benefits of Blended Education: Using Social Technology to Foster Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing in Face-to-Face LIS Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.; Copeland, Andrea J.; Zach, Lisl

    2013-01-01

    Blended education, which mixes elements of face-to-face and online educational delivery, can occur at the activity, course, program, or administrative level. This study examined the use of student blogs to test the benefits of course-level blended educational delivery for LIS students enrolled in a face-to-face course. Data collected from…

  6. The Effects of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Discussion on Computer Engineering Majors' Performance on the Karnaugh Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yen-Chu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the different effects of web-based and face-to-face discussion on computer engineering majors' performance using the Karnaugh map in digital logic design. Pretest and posttest scores for two treatment groups (web-based discussion and face-to-face discussion) and a control group were compared and subjected to covariance…

  7. The Relation between Academic Procrastination of University Students and Their Assignment and Exam Performances: The Situation in Distance and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, M. Betul

    2017-01-01

    The relation between assignment and exam performances of the university students and their academic procrastination behaviors in distance and face-to-face learning environments was investigated in this study. Empirical research carried out both in face-to-face and online environments have generally shown a negative correlation between academic…

  8. Beyond the Net Generation Debate: A Comparison of Digital Learners in Face-to-Face and Virtual Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Gros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, an important debate has arisen about the characteristics of today’s students due to their intensive experience as users of ICT. The main belief is that frequent use of technologies in everyday life implies that competent users are able to transfer their digital skills to learning activities. However, empirical studies developed in different countries reveal similar results suggesting that the “digital native” label does not provide evidence of a better use of technology to support learning. The debate has to go beyond the characteristics of the new generation and focus on the implications of being a learner in a digitalised world. This paper is based on the hypothesis that the use of technology to support learning is not related to whether a student belongs to the Net Generation, but that it is mainly influenced by the teaching model.The study compares behaviour and preferences towards ICT use in two groups of university students: face-to-face students and online students. A questionnaire was applied to a sample of students from five universities with different characteristics (one offers online education and four offer face-to-face education with LMS teaching support.Findings suggest that although access to and use of ICT is widespread, the influence of teaching methodology is very decisive. For academic purposes, students seem to respond to the requirements of their courses, programmes, and universities. There is a clear relationship between students’ perception of usefulness regarding certain ICT resources and their teachers’ suggested uses of technologies. The most highly rated technologies correspond with those proposed by teachers. The study shows that the educational model (face-to-face or online has a stronger influence on students’ perception of usefulness regarding ICT support for learning than the fact of being a digital native.

  9. Online versus face-to-face pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Simon; DeVos, Ruth; North, Malcolm; Chauhan, Anoop; Green, Ben; Brown, Thomas; Cornelius, Victoria; Wilkinson, Tom

    2017-07-17

    To obtain evidence whether the online pulmonary rehabilitation(PR) programme 'my-PR' is non-inferior to a conventional face-to-face PR in improving physical performance and symptom scores in patients with COPD. A two-arm parallel single-blind, randomised controlled trial. The online arm carried out pulmonary rehabilitation in their own homes and the face to face arm in a local rehabilitation facility. 90 patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), modified Medical Research Council score of 2 or greater referred for pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), randomised in a 2:1 ratio to online (n=64) or face-to-face PR (n=26). Participants unable to use an internet-enabled device at home were excluded. Coprimary outcomes were 6 min walk distance test and the COPD assessment test (CAT) score at completion of the programme. A 6-week PR programme organised either as group sessions in a local rehabilitation facility, or online PR via log in and access to 'myPR'. The adjusted mean difference for the 6 min walk test (6MWT) between groups for the intention-to-treat (ITT) population was 23.8 m with the lower 95% CI well above the non-inferiority threshold of -40.5 m at -4.5 m with an upper 95% CI of +52.2 m. This result was consistent in the per-protocol (PP) population with a mean adjusted difference of 15 m (-13.7 to 43.8). The CAT score difference in the ITT was -1.0 in favour of the online intervention with the upper 95% CI well below the non-inferiority threshold of 1.8 at 0.86 and the lower 95% CI of -2.9. The PP analysis was consistent with the ITT. PR is an evidenced-based and guideline-mandated intervention for patients with COPD with functional limitation. A 6-week programme of online-supported PR was non-inferior to a conventional model delivered in face-to-face sessions in terms of effects on 6MWT distance, and symptom scores and was safe and well tolerated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  10. Focus on Citizens: Public Engagement with Online and Face-to-Face Participation—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Garau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to focus on how an integrated system based on Information Communication Technology (ICT and face-to-face communication can increase participation in order to have a positive effect on quality of life, plans and decisions, and to discuss the many benefits which web-based public participation can bring to the planning process through a set of improvements to relations, quality and structure of cities in general and in this case example specifically. With the development of a transparent support system for collaborative decision-making processes, it is possible to identify a strategy for addressing gaps to reach collaborative decisions.

  11. Design and Methods for a Comparative Effectiveness Pilot Study: Virtual World vs. Face-to-Face Diabetes Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Milagros C; Heyden, Robin; Mejilla, Roanne; Rizzo Depaoli, Maria; Veerappa, Chetty; Wiecha, John M

    2012-12-17

    Type 2 diabetes (diabetes) is a serious threat to public health in the United States and disproportionally affects many racial/ethnic minority groups, including African Americans. Limited access to treatment and high attrition rates further contribute to health disparities in diabetes-related morbidity and mortality among minorities. Greater opportunities for increasing access and decreasing barriers to treatment are needed. Technology-based interventions have potential for accomplishing this goal but evidence of feasibility and potential effectiveness is lacking, especially for populations that traditionally have limited educational attainment and low computer literacy. This paper describes the design and methods of a pilot randomized clinical trial that will compare the feasibility and potential efficacy of delivering a diabetes self-management intervention via a virtual world vs. a face-to-face format. Study participants (n=100) will be African American women with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes recruited from primary care practices and affiliated health centers at a large safety net hospital in Massachusetts. Participants will be randomized into a virtual world-based (VW) intervention condition or a face-to-face control condition. Both conditions provide the same theory-based curriculum and equivalent exposure to the self-management program (eight group sessions), and both will be delivered by a single intervention team (a dietitian and a diabetes educator). Assessments will be conducted at baseline and 4 months. Feasibility will be determined by evaluating the degree to which participants engage in the VW-based intervention compared to face to face (number of sessions completed). Potential efficacy will be determined by comparing change in physiological (glycemic control) and behavioral (self-reported dietary intake, physical activity, blood glucose self-monitoring, and medication adherence) outcomes between the experimental and control groups. The primary

  12. Online versus face-to-face biology: A comparison of student transactional distance, approach to learning, and knowledge outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Mary Erin

    Community colleges are among many other institutions increasing course offerings online, but there is still some concern about the quality of online learning. Educator concerns, a lack of empirical evidence on biology courses offered online, and the need for an equal opportunity for education support the need for clarification of the quality of distance education in biology, especially in the community college setting. Student attitudes, approaches to learning, and performance should all be studied in order to formulate a better evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of online courses (Svirko & Mellanby, 2008). The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in student perceptions of transactional distance, approaches to learning, and student learning outcomes in online versus face-to-face community college introductory biology courses. The results of this investigation indicate that some aspects of transactional distance did affect the participants' desires for deep learning approaches. Also, except for perceptions of student interaction and collaboration, the online and face-to-face course experiences and outcomes seemed similar.

  13. Live face-to-face interaction during fMRI: a new tool for social cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Dodell-Feder, David; Pearrow, Mark J; Mavros, Penelope L; Kleiner, Mario; Gabrieli, John D E; Saxe, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Cooperative social interaction is critical for human social development and learning. Despite the importance of social interaction, previous neuroimaging studies lack two fundamental components of everyday face-to-face interactions: contingent responding and joint attention. In the current studies, functional MRI data were collected while participants interacted with a human experimenter face-to-face via live video feed as they engaged in simple cooperative games. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in a live interaction with the experimenter ("Live") or watched a video of the same interaction ("Recorded"). During the "Live" interaction, as compared to the Recorded conditions, greater activation was seen in brain regions involved in social cognition and reward, including the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right superior temporal sulcus (rSTS), ventral striatum, and amygdala. Experiment 2 isolated joint attention, a critical component of social interaction. Participants either followed the gaze of the live experimenter to a shared target of attention ("Joint Attention") or found the target of attention alone while the experimenter was visible but not sharing attention ("Solo Attention"). The right temporoparietal junction and right posterior STS were differentially recruited during Joint, as compared to Solo, attention. These findings suggest the rpSTS and rTPJ are key regions for both social interaction and joint attention. This method of allowing online, contingent social interactions in the scanner could open up new avenues of research in social cognitive neuroscience, both in typical and atypical populations. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A blended learning approach to teaching basic pharmacokinetics and the significance of face-to-face interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edginton, Andrea; Holbrook, Jane

    2010-06-15

    To assess pharmacy students' attitudes towards a blended-learning pharmacokinetics course. Narrated visual presentations and animations that illustrated kinetic processes and guided students through the use of software programs used for calculations were created. Other learning techniques used included online self-assessment quizzes, practice problem sets, and weekly face-to-face problem-solving tutorials. A precourse questionnaire to assess students' level of enthusiasm towards the blended-learning course and to solicit any concerns they had was administered at the beginning of the course. A postcourse questionnaire that included the same 4 Likert-scale items from the precourse questionnaire and follow-up open-ended questions was administered. Individual changes in level of enthusiasm were compared for individuals who completed both the precourse and postcourse questionnaire. Students' concerns about the blended method of learning had decreased postcourse while their enthusiasm for the benefits of blended learning had increased. Students' initial concerns about the blended learning experience were focused on their ability to communicate with the instructor about the online components, but shifted to their own time management skills at the end of the course. Face-to-face interactions with each other and with the instructor were more highly rated than online interactions in this course.

  15. Interdyad differences in early mother-infant face-to-face communication: real-time dynamics and developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2013-12-01

    A microgenetic research design with a multiple case study method and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses was used to investigate interdyad differences in real-time dynamics and developmental change processes in mother-infant face-to-face communication over the first 3 months of life. Weekly observations of 24 mother-infant dyads with analyses performed dyad by dyad showed that most dyads go through 2 qualitatively different developmental phases of early face-to-face communication: After a phase of mutual attentiveness, mutual engagement begins in Weeks 7-8, with infant smiling and cooing bidirectionally linked with maternal mirroring. This gives rise to sequences of positive feedback that, by the 3rd month, dynamically stabilizes into innovative play routines. However, when there is a lack of bidirectional positive feedback between infant and maternal behaviors, and a lack of permeability of the early communicative patterns to incorporate innovations, the development of the mutual engagement phase is compromised. The findings contribute both to theories of relationship change processes and to clinical work with at-risk mother-infant interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Time for a Change: College Students' Preference for Technology-Mediated Versus Face-to-Face Help for Emotional Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Anita; Sun, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Even with recent advances in psychological treatments and mobile technology, online computerized therapy is not yet popular. College students, with ubiquitous access to technology, experiencing high distress, and often nontreatment seekers, could be an important area for online treatment dissemination. Finding ways to reach out to college students by offering psychological interventions through technology, devices, and applications they often use, might increase their engagement in treatment. This study evaluates college students' reported willingness to seek help for emotional distress through novel delivery mediums, to play computer games for learning emotional coping skills, and to disclose personal information online. We also evaluated the role of ethnicity and level of emotional distress in help-seeking patterns. A survey exploring our domains of interest and the Mental Health Inventory ([MHI] as mental health index) were completed by 572 students (mean age 18.7 years, predominantly Asian American, female, and freshmen in college). More participants expressed preference for online versus face-to-face professional help. We found no relationship between MHI and help-seeking preference. A third of participants were likely to disclose at least as much information online as face-to-face. Ownership of mobile technology was pervasive. Asian Americans were more likely to be nontreatment seekers than Caucasians. Most participants were interested in serious games for emotional distress. Our results suggest that college students are very open to creative ways of receiving emotional help such as playing games and seeking emotional help online, suggesting a need for online evidence-based treatments.

  17. Face to Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungfalk, Michael; Rossen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    Blended learning in education is the combination of face‐to‐face seminars and on‐line work based on the internet. We have investigated which factors that we found were important in designing and conducting face‐to‐face seminars in order to facilitate learning processes in the periods of on...

  18. Co-Animation of and Resistance to the Construction of Witness, Victim, and Perpetrator Identities in Forensic Interviews with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Sharon K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the interrelated identities of witness, victim, and perpetrator are co-constructed in forensic interviews occurring after allegations of child sexual abuse are made. Work related to issues of power in the area of forensic interviews with children tends to focus on coerciveness, and interviewers have power relative to…

  19. Comparing Social Isolation Effects on Students Attrition in Online Versus Face-to-Face Courses in Computer Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the effect of social isolation on students enrolled in online courses versus students enrolled in on campus courses (called in this paper Face-to-Face or F2F. Grade data was collected from one online section and two F2F sections of a computer literacy course that was recently taught by one of the authors of this study. The same instructor taught all sections thereby providing a controlled comparison between the two forms of teaching (F2F and online. This paper first introduces the plan and the limitation of this study. It provides a literature review and notes the trend of social isolation found in online courses. This paper then presents a summary of the collected data; and offers a conclusion based on the collected data.

  20. Application of network properties and signal strength to identify face-to-face links in an electronic dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Sekara, Vedran

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how people interact and socialize is important in many contexts, from disease control to urban planning. Datasets that capture this specific aspect of human life have increased in size and availability over the last few years. We have yet to understand, however, to what extent such electronic datasets may serve as a valid proxy for real life face-to-face interactions. For an observational dataset, gathered by mobile phones, we attack the problem of identifying transient and non-important links, as well as how to highlight important interactions. Using the Bluetooth signal strength parameter to distinguish between observations, we demonstrate that weak links, compared to strong links, have a lower probability of being observed at later times, while such links--on average--also have lower link-weights and a lower probability of sharing an online friendship. Further, the role of link-strength is investigated in relation to social network properties.

  1. Online and face-to-face role-play simulations in promoting social work students’ argumentative problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Vapalahti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a teaching experiment in which social work students (n=38 practiced problem solving through argumentative tasks. A teaching experiment was carried out at a Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences in Finland in connection with a course concerning preventative work against alcohol- and drug abuse. This quasi- experimental study investigated whether role-play simulation conducted either online (15 students or face-to-face (14 students improved students’ problem solving on social issues. As a pre-test, the students wrote an essay after having watched a dramatization of problematic cases on elderly people’s use of alcohol. The students also attended lectures (30 x 45 min on the effect of substance abuse and preventive work, and after the role-play simulation they wrote another essay (post-test. Nine controls wrote an essay without participating in the role-play simulation. Lastly, the students filled out feedback questionnaires.

  2. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  3. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the 'traditional' unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  4. CBT4BN: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Chat and Face-to-Face Group Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie C.; Watson, Hunna J.; Hofmeier, Sara M.; Levine, Michele D.; Hamer, Robert M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Runfola, Cristin D.; Peat, Christine M.; Shapiro, Jennifer R.; Zimmer, Benjamin; Moessner, Markus; Kordy, Hans; Marcus, Marsha D.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the first-line evidence-based psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa (BN), most individuals seeking treatment do not have access to this specialized intervention. We compared an Internet-based manualized version of CBT group therapy for BN conducted via a therapeutic chat group (CBT4BN) to the same treatment conducted via a traditional face-to-face group therapy (CBTF2F). Method In a two-site, randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial, we tested the hypothesis that CBT4BN would not be inferior to CBTF2F. One hundred forty-nine adult patients with BN (2.6% males) received up to 16 sessions of group CBT over 20 weeks in either CBT4BN or CBTF2F and outcomes were compared at the end of treatment and 12-month follow-up. Results At the end of treatment, CBT4BN was inferior to CBTF2F in producing abstinence from binge eating and purging and in leading to reductions in the frequency of binge eating and purging. However, by 12-month follow-up, CBT4BN was mostly not inferior to CBTF2F. Participants in the CBT4BN condition, but not CBTF2F, continued to reduce their binge-eating and purging frequency from end of treatment to 12-month follow-up. Conclusions CBT delivered online in a group chat format appears to be an efficacious treatment for BN although the trajectory of recovery may be slower than face-to-face group therapy. Online chat groups may increase accessibility of treatment and represent a cost-effective approach to service delivery. However, barriers in service delivery such as state-specific license and ethical guidelines for online therapists need to be addressed. PMID:27883997

  5. Does distance e-learning work? A comparison between distance and face-to-face learners using e-learning materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara de Freitas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares continual assessment data, intake numbers, retention numbers and final examination grades of a mixed cohort of face-to-face and distance learners against similar data from previous years where e-learning materials were not used in order to test whether e-learning materials can support the same quality and quantity of teaching and learning for both face-to-face and distance learners. The results for this cohort of learners demonstrate that: (i distance e-learners score as well and sometimes better than face-to-face learners; (ii face-to-face student numbers have increased; (iii overall, student retention and student attendance have been maintained; (iv final examination results have been maintained or in some cases improved; (v lecturer workload was high, but not unmanageable, and it is clear how manageability can be improved.

  6. Mobilizing homeless youth for HIV prevention: a social network analysis of the acceptability of a face-to-face and online social networking intervention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Barman Adhikari, Anamika; Milburn, Norweeta G

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth.Seven peer leaders (PLs...

  7. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice.

  8. Abstract for ECVP 2015 Symposium: Observer Effects on Eye Movement Research "Temporal dynamics of social attention in face-to-face situations"

    OpenAIRE

    Freeth, M.; Vablas, A.

    2015-01-01

    In face to face eye-tracking studies, researchers often use total fixation times on areas of interest to assess social attention. However, other measures can also be used to investigate potentially more subtle differences in social attention strategy. Eye-tracking data from a face to face interaction study will be presented which aimed to assess potential differences in social attention strategy between individuals who were classified as being high or low in autistic traits. No differences in...

  9. If You Build It, Will They Come? Patterns of Internet-Based and Face-To-Face Participation in a Parenting Program for Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jennifer L; Rudi, Jessie H; Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila K

    2016-01-01

    Background Some evidence suggests parents are drawn to media-based interventions over face-to-face interventions, but little is known about the factors associated with parents’ use of Internet-based or Internet-enhanced programs, especially among military families. Research is needed to understand characteristics of parents who may be most likely to use online components or attend face-to-face meetings in order to ensure maximum engagement. Objective In this study, we examined characteristics that predict various patterns of Internet use and face-to-face attendance in a parenting program designed for military families. Methods An ecological framework guided analysis of differences in patterns of Internet-based use and face-to-face attendance by parents’ demographic characteristics (gender, education, employment, and child age), incentives offered, and number of months the parent was deployed. We reported differences in the total number of online components completed over the 14 modules, total number of face-to-face sessions attended, and the use of different types of online components accessed (videos, downloadable handouts, mindfulness exercises, knowledge checks, and downloadable summaries). Then, we computed multinomial logistic regression accounting for nestedness (parents within families) to examine associations between demographic, programmatic, and military-related characteristics and patterns of engagement (use of online components and attendance at face-to-face sessions). Results Just over half (52.2%, 193/370) of the participants used the online components at least once, and the majority of participants (73.2%, 271/370) attended at least 1 face-to-face session. An examination of different patterns of participation revealed that compared with those who participated primarily in face-to-face sessions, parents who participated online but had little face-to-face participation were more likely to have received incentives than those who did not (95% CI 1

  10. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  11. A psychosocial comparison of computer-mediated and face-to-face language use among severely disturbed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, D P

    1987-01-01

    This study analyzes the content of communications among 18 severely disturbed adolescents. Interactions were recorded from two sources: computer-based "conferences" for the group, and small group face-to-face sessions which addressed similar topics. The purpose was to determine whether there are important differences in indications of psychological state, interpersonal interest, and expressive style. The research was significant, given the strong attraction of computers to many adolescents and the paucity of research on social-psychological effects of this technology. A content analysis based on a total sample of 10,224 words was performed using the Harvard IV Psychosociological Dictionary. Results indicated that computer-mediated communication was more expressive of feelings and made more frequent mention of interpersonal issues. Further, it displayed a more positive object-relations stance, was less negative in expressive style, and appeared to diminish certain traditional gender differences in group communication. These findings suggest that the computer may have an interesting adjunct role to play in reducing communication deficits commonly observed in severely disturbed adolescent clinical populations.

  12. Agreement Between Face-to-Face and Free Software Video Analysis for Assessing Hamstring Flexibility in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral-Muñoz, José A; Esteban-Moreno, Bernabé; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cobo, Manuel J; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of agreement between face-to-face hamstring flexibility measurements and free software video analysis in adolescents. Reduced hamstring flexibility is common in adolescents (75% of boys and 35% of girls aged 10). The length of the hamstring muscle has an important role in both the effectiveness and the efficiency of basic human movements, and reduced hamstring flexibility is related to various musculoskeletal conditions. There are various approaches to measuring hamstring flexibility with high reliability; the most commonly used approaches in the scientific literature are the sit-and-reach test, hip joint angle (HJA), and active knee extension. The assessment of hamstring flexibility using video analysis could help with adolescent flexibility follow-up. Fifty-four adolescents from a local school participated in a descriptive study of repeated measures using a crossover design. Active knee extension and HJA were measured with an inclinometer and were simultaneously recorded with a video camera. Each video was downloaded to a computer and subsequently analyzed using Kinovea 0.8.15, a free software application for movement analysis. All outcome measures showed reliability estimates with α > 0.90. The lowest reliability was obtained for HJA (α = 0.91). The preliminary findings support the use of a free software tool for assessing hamstring flexibility, offering health professionals a useful tool for adolescent flexibility follow-up.

  13. CBT4BN versus CBTF2F: Comparison of Online versus Face-To-FaceTreatment for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulik, Cynthia M.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Zerwas, Stephanie; Levine, Michele D.; Hofmeier, Sara; Trace, Sara E.; Hamer, Robert M.; Zimmer, Benjamin; Moessner, Markus; Kordy, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is currently the “gold standard” for treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN), and is effective for approximately 40–60% of individuals receiving treatment; however, the majority of individuals in need of care do not have access to CBT. New strategies for service delivery of CBT and for maximizing maintenance of treatment benefits are critical for improving our ability to treat BN. This clinical trial is comparing an Internet-based version of CBT (CBT4BN) in which group intervention is conducted via therapeutic chat group with traditional group CBT (CBTF2F) for BN conducted via face-to-face therapy group. The purpose of the trial is to determine whether manualized CBT delivered via the Internet is not inferior to the gold standard of manualized group CBT. In this two-site randomized controlled trial, powered for non-inferiority analyses, 180 individuals with BN are being randomized to either CBT4BN or CBTF2F. We hypothesize that CBT4BN will not be inferior to CBTF2F and that participants will value the convenience of an online intervention. If not inferior, CBT4BN may be a cost-effective approach to service delivery for individuals requiring treatment for BN. PMID:22659072

  14. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lopez-Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone. The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . . and about the virtues of the people around them.

  15. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  16. Socially-induced placebo analgesia: a comparison of a pre-recorded versus live face-to-face observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T.; Siess, F.; Colloca, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been shown that live, face-to-face social observation induces marked placebo analgesia. Despite the phenomenal growth of video sharing platforms, the potential analgesic effects of video based social observation are largely unknown. This study compared video based and live social observation induced placebo analgesia and whether there was a similar relationship between analgesic responses and empathy traits for both conditions. Methods Here we compared placebo analgesia in four groups: social observation through a video (SOV Group), social observation in person (SOP Group), verbal suggestion alone (VS Group) and a natural history group (NH Group). The SOV and SOP groups underwent a placebo treatment and painful stimuli following respectively a video based and live observation of a demonstrator showing analgesic effects when the painful stimuli were paired to a green light but not a red light. The VS group received painful stimuli after they had been verbally instructed to expect less pain after the green light. The NH group received painful stimuli, but was told nothing about the meaning of the lights. Individual pain reports and empathy traits were measured. Results We found that video based observation induced substantial placebo analgesic responses that were of similar magnitude to live observation. Notably, the analgesic scores were strongly correlated with empathetic concern in the live observation group but not in the video replay group. Conclusions These findings add evidence that placebo analgesia can be induced by social observation and that empathy interacts with these effects in a context-dependent manner. PMID:24347563

  17. How do medium naturalness and personality traits shape academic achievement and perceived learning? An experimental study of face-to-face and synchronous e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Blau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This controlled experiment examined how academic achievement and cognitive, emotional and social aspects of perceived learning are affected by the level of medium naturalness (face-to-face, one-way and two-way videoconferencing and by learners’ personality traits (extroversion–introversion and emotional stability–neuroticism. The Media Naturalness Theory explains the degree of medium naturalness by comparing its characteristics to face-to-face communication, considered to be the most natural form of communication. A total of 76 participants were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: face-to-face, one-way and two-way videoconferencing. E-learning conditions were conducted through Zoom videoconferencing, which enables natural and spontaneous communication. Findings shed light on the trade-off involved in media naturalness: one-way videoconferencing, the less natural learning condition, enhanced the cognitive aspect of perceived learning but compromised the emotional and social aspects. Regarding the impact of personality, neurotic students tended to enjoy and succeed more in face-to-face learning, whereas emotionally stable students enjoyed and succeeded in all of the learning conditions. Extroverts tended to enjoy more natural learning environments but had lower achievements in these conditions. In accordance with the ‘poor get richer’ principle, introverts enjoyed environments with a low level of medium naturalness. However, they remained focused and had higher achievements in the face-to-face learning.

  18. Communication competence, social support, and depression among college students: a model of facebook and face-to-face support network influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin B; Rosenberg, Jenny; Egbert, Nicole; Ploeger, Nicole A; Bernard, Daniel R; King, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the social networking site Facebook and face-to-face support networks on depression among (N = 361) college students. The authors used the Relational Health Communication Competence Model as a framework for examining the influence of communication competence on social support network satisfaction and depression. Moreover, they examined the influence of interpersonal and social integrative motives as exogenous variables. On the basis of previous work, the authors propose and test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling. The results indicated empirical support for the model, with interpersonal motives predicting increased face-to-face and computer-mediated competence, increased social support satisfaction with face-to-face and Facebook support, and lower depression scores. The implications of the findings for theory, key limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. The comparison of road safety survey answers between web-panel and face-to-face; Dutch results of SARTRE-4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenbeld, C; de Craen, S

    2013-09-01

    In the Netherlands, a comparison of an online and a face-to-face sample of car drivers was made to study differences on a number of selected questions from the SARTRE-4 road safety survey. Contrary to expectations, there was no indication that online respondents were more likely to come from higher educated or more privileged social groups. Confirming earlier research, the results indicated that online respondents were less inclined to give socially desirable answers and were less inclined to use more extreme ratings in their opinions about measures. Contrary to expectations, face-to-face respondents did not tend to give more positive answers in judgment of road safety measures. Weighting to make samples comparable on gender, age, and education had almost no effect on outcomes. The implications for a transition from face-to-face survey to online panel method are discussed. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effectiveness of web-based and face-to-face continuing education methods on nurses' knowledge about AIDS: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghani Hamid

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about web-based education outcomes in comparison with a face-to-face format can help researchers and tutors prepare and deliver future web-based or face-to-face courses more efficiently. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of web-based and face-to-face continuing education methods in improving nurses' knowledge about AIDS. Methods A quasi-experimental method was used with a pre-test and post-test design. In this study 140 nurses with BSc degrees were chosen through a random sampling method and divided into a web-based and a face-to-face group by random allocation. For the former group the intervention consisted of a web-based course on AIDS; the latter received a 3-hour lecture course on the same subject. At the beginning and end of the course in both groups, the nurses' knowledge was measured by a questionnaire. Pre- and post-test scores were compared within and between the groups. Results The results show that there was no significant difference between the groups in either the pre-test (t(138 = -1.7, p = 0.096 nor the post-test (t(138 = -1.4, p = 0.163 scores in the knowledge test. However, there was a significant difference in the pre-test and post-test scores within each group (web-based, t(69 = 26, p t(69 = 24.3, p Conclusion The web-based method seems to be as effective as the face-to-face method in the continuing education of nurses. Therefore, the web-based method is recommended, as complementary to the face-to-face method, for designing and delivering some topics of continuing education programs for nurses.

  1. A comparison of face to face and video-based education on attitude related to diet and fluids: Adherence in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Hasanzadeh, Farzaneh; Shamsoddini, Somayyeh; Emamimoghadam, Zahra; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

    2012-07-01

    Adherence to diet and fluids is the cornerstone of patients undergoing hemodialysis. By informing hemodialysis patients we can help them have a proper diet and reduce mortality and complications of toxins. Face to face education is one of the most common methods of training in health care system. But advantages of video- based education are being simple and cost-effective, although this method is virtual. Seventy-five hemodialysis patients were divided randomly into face to face and video-based education groups. A training manual was designed based on Orem's self-care model. Content of training manual was same in both the groups. In the face to face group, 2 educational sessions were accomplished during dialysis with a 1-week time interval. In the video-based education group, a produced film, separated to 2 episodes was presented during dialysis with a 1-week time interval. An Attitude questionnaire was completed as a pretest and at the end of weeks 2 and 4. SPSS software version 11.5 was used for analysis. Attitudes about fluid and diet adherence at the end of weeks 2 and 4 are not significantly different in face to face or video-based education groups. The patients' attitude had a significant difference in face to face group between the 3 study phases (pre-, 2, and 4 weeks postintervention). The same results were obtained in 3 phases of video-based education group. Our findings showed that video-based education could be as effective as face to face method. It is recommended that more investment be devoted to video-based education.

  2. Virtual versus face-to-face clinical simulation in relation to student knowledge, anxiety, and self-confidence in maternal-newborn nursing: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, Shelley; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna

    2016-10-01

    Clinical simulations can provide students with realistic clinical learning environments to increase their knowledge, self-confidence, and decrease their anxiety prior to entering clinical practice settings. To compare the effectiveness of two maternal newborn clinical simulation scenarios; virtual clinical simulation and face-to-face high fidelity manikin simulation. Randomized pretest-posttest design. A public research university in Canada. Fifty-six third year Bachelor of Science in Nursing students. Participants were randomized to either face-to-face or virtual clinical simulation and then to dyads for completion of two clinical simulations. Measures included: (1) Nursing Anxiety and Self-Confidence with Clinical Decision Making Scale (NASC-CDM) (White, 2011), (2) knowledge pretest and post-test related to preeclampsia and group B strep, and (3) Simulation Completion Questionnaire. Before and after each simulation students completed a knowledge test and the NASC-CDM and the Simulation Completion Questionnaire at study completion. There were no statistically significant differences in student knowledge and self-confidence between face-to-face and virtual clinical simulations. Anxiety scores were higher for students in the virtual clinical simulation than for those in the face-to-face simulation. Students' self-reported preference was face-to-face citing the similarities to practicing in a 'real' situation and the immediate debrief. Students not liking the virtual clinical simulation most often cited technological issues as their rationale. Given the equivalency of knowledge and self-confidence when undergraduate nursing students participate in either maternal newborn clinical scenarios of face-to-face or virtual clinical simulation identified in this trial, it is important to take into the consideration costs and benefits/risks of simulation implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Socially induced placebo analgesia: a comparison of a pre-recorded versus live face-to-face observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T; Siess, F; Colloca, L

    2014-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that live, face-to-face social observation induces marked placebo analgesia. Despite the phenomenal growth of video sharing platforms, the potential analgesic effects of video-based social observation are largely unknown. This study compared video-based and live social observation induced placebo analgesia and whether there was a similar relationship between analgesic responses and empathy traits for both conditions. Here, we compared placebo analgesia in four groups: social observation through a video (SOV group), social observation in person (SOP group), verbal suggestion alone (VS group) and a natural history group (NH group). The SOV and SOP groups underwent a placebo treatment and painful stimuli following respectively a video-based and live observation of a demonstrator showing analgesic effects when the painful stimuli were paired to a green light but not a red light. The VS group received painful stimuli after they had been verbally instructed to expect less pain after the green light. The NH group received painful stimuli, but was told nothing about the meaning of the lights. Individual pain reports and empathy traits were measured. We found that video-based observation induced substantial placebo analgesic responses that were of similar magnitude to live observation. Notably, the analgesic scores were strongly correlated with empathetic concern in the live observation group but not in the video replay group. These findings add evidence that placebo analgesia can be induced by social observation and that empathy interacts with these effects in a context-dependent manner. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  4. Hard to "tune in": neural mechanisms of live face-to-face interaction with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Saito, Daisuke N; Koike, Takahiko; Hayashi, Masamichi J; Izuma, Keise; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Ishitobi, Makoto; Omori, Masao; Munesue, Toshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have difficulty in eye contact (EC). This may make it difficult for their partners during face to face communication with them. To elucidate the neural substrates of live inter-subject interaction of ASD patients and normal subjects, we conducted hyper-scanning functional MRI with 21 subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) paired with typically-developed (normal) subjects, and with 19 pairs of normal subjects as a control. Baseline EC was maintained while subjects performed real-time joint-attention task. The task-related effects were modeled out, and inter-individual correlation analysis was performed on the residual time-course data. ASD-Normal pairs were less accurate at detecting gaze direction than Normal-Normal pairs. Performance was impaired both in ASD subjects and in their normal partners. The left occipital pole (OP) activation by gaze processing was reduced in ASD subjects, suggesting that deterioration of eye-cue detection in ASD is related to impairment of early visual processing of gaze. On the other hand, their normal partners showed greater activity in the bilateral occipital cortex and the right prefrontal area, indicating a compensatory workload. Inter-brain coherence in the right IFG that was observed in the Normal-Normal pairs (Saito et al., 2010) during EC diminished in ASD-Normal pairs. Intra-brain functional connectivity between the right IFG and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) in normal subjects paired with ASD subjects was reduced compared with in Normal-Normal pairs. This functional connectivity was positively correlated with performance of the normal partners on the eye-cue detection. Considering the integrative role of the right STS in gaze processing, inter-subject synchronization during EC may be a prerequisite for eye cue detection by the normal partner.

  5. A truly human interface: Interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eCorti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots become hybrid agents (echoborgs capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot’s chance of passing but did increase interrogators’ ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg neither sensed nor suspected a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human-computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence.

  6. [Non-face-to-face sleep improvement program in a workplace: bibliotherapy with and without behavioral self-control procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yoshiko; Kunitsuka, Kouko; Taniyama, Katsuko; Hayashi, Chikako; Tanaka, Minori; Sato, Chifumi

    2010-01-01

    Sleep hygiene education has been important health issue in the health promotion and the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. A feasible and effective method is necessary for population approach. To evaluate the effects of a non-face-to-face brief behavioral program for a sleep improvement in workplaces. Research design was a cluster control trial. Three hundred and thirty participants were allocated to the bibliotherapy group (BTG; n=130) or self-control group (SCG; n=200). Two groups were recruited from separated local sections of a Japanese company each other. There was no eligibility criteria and the intervention was open to every worker in the workplaces. All participants received a self-help booklet and information on recent topics of insomnia-related health problems. SCG participants set several behaviors for habit improvement and monitored those behaviors for 4 wk additionally. The replies to the questionnaire showed that almost all of them had any sleep disturbances. A total of 158 participants in SCG (79%) and a total of 106 participants in BTG (82%) responded to the post questionnaire. Sleep parameters of pre and post questionnaires were compared between SCG and BTG. Overall, sleep onset latency was reduced and sleep efficiency was improved. The significant changes were found in only SCG. Re-analysis of pre and post 3-days' sleep diaries showed that the subjects in both group improved significantly in the main variables (total sleep time, number of awakenings, time spent awake, sleep efficiency). Sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and daytime sleepiness improved significantly in only SCG. These results suggest that an additional target setting and self-monitoring could promote the effectiveness for sleep improvement of a bibliotherapy.

  7. A truly human interface: interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents ("echoborgs") capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people's experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot's chance of passing but did increase interrogators' ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg did not sense a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human-computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence.

  8. A truly human interface: interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents (“echoborgs”) capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot’s chance of passing but did increase interrogators’ ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg did not sense a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human–computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence. PMID:26042066

  9. Comparing Biology Grades Based on Instructional Delivery and Instructor at a Community College: Face-to-Face Course Versus Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Amanda H.

    Through distance learning, the community college system has been able to serve more students by providing educational opportunities to students who would otherwise be unable to attend college. The community college of focus in the study increased its online enrollments and online course offerings due to the growth of overall enrollment. The need and purpose of the study is to address if there is a difference in students' grades between face-to-face and online biology related courses and if there are differences in grades between face-to-face and online biology courses taught by different instructors and the same instructor. The study also addresses if online course delivery is a viable method to educate students in biology-related fields. The study spanned 14 semesters between spring 2006 and summer 2011. Data were collected for 6,619 students. For each student, demographic information, cumulative grade point average, ACT, and data on course performance were gathered. Student data were gathered from General Biology I, Microbiology of Human Pathogens, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, and Human Anatomy and Physiology II courses. Univariate analysis of variance, linear regression, and descriptive analysis were used to analyze the data and determine which variables significantly impacted grade achievement for face-to-face and online students in biology classes. The findings from the study showed that course type, face-to-face or online, was significant for Microbiology of Human Pathogens and Human Anatomy and Physiology I, both upper level courses. Teachers were significant for General Biology I, a lower level course, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, and Human Anatomy and Physiology II. However, in every class, there were teachers who had significant differences within their courses between their face-to-face and online courses. This study will allow information to be concluded about the relationship between the students' final grades and class type, face-to-face or

  10. A comparison of bibliotherapy and face-to-face group therapy for children with anxiety disorders: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Kristian Bech; Thastum, Mikael

    (James, James, Cowdrey, Soler & Choke, 2015), more studies of less intensive treatment formats are still warranted. Bibliotherapy is a low cost therapy with minimal therapist assistance, which in a few studies have been shown to result in favorable outcomes compared to waitlist and outcomes comparable...... to face-to-face treatment (e.g. Lyneham & Rapee, 2006, Cobham, 2012). The aim of the current study was to examine the efficacy of therapist supported group bibliotherapy compared to face-to-face group treatment using a randomized controlled design....

  11. A Virtual World Versus Face-to-Face Intervention Format to Promote Diabetes Self-Management Among African American Women: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Milagros C; Heyden, Robin; Mejilla, Roanne; Capelson, Roberta; Chalmers, Karen A; Rizzo DePaoli, Maria; Veerappa, Chetty; Wiecha, John M

    2014-10-24

    Virtual world environments have the potential to increase access to diabetes self-management interventions and may lower cost. We tested the feasibility and comparative effectiveness of a virtual world versus a face-to-face diabetes self-management group intervention. We recruited African American women with type 2 diabetes to participate in an 8-week diabetes self-management program adapted from Power to Prevent, a behavior-change in-person group program for African Americans with diabetes or pre-diabetes. The program is social cognitive theory-guided, evidence-based, and culturally tailored. Participants were randomized to participate in the program via virtual world (Second Life) or face-to-face, both delivered by a single intervention team. Blinded assessors conducted in-person clinical (HbA1c), behavioral, and psychosocial measurements at baseline and 4-month follow-up. Pre-post differences within and between intervention groups were assessed using t tests and chi-square tests (two-sided and intention-to-treat analyses for all comparisons). Participants (N=89) were an average of 52 years old (SD 10), 60% had ≤high school, 82% had household incomes face-to-face, virtual world was slightly superior for total activity, light activity, and inactivity (P=.05, P=.07, and P=.025, respectively). HbA1c reduction was significant within face-to-face (-0.46, P=02) but not within virtual world (-0.31, P=.19), although there were no significant between group differences in HbA1c (P=.52). In both groups, 14% fewer patients had post-intervention HbA1c ≥9% (virtual world P=.014; face-to-face P=.002), with no significant between group difference (P=.493). Compared to virtual world, face-to-face was marginally superior for reducing depression symptoms (P=.051). The virtual world intervention costs were US $1117 versus US $931 for

  12. The health and well-being of children and young people who are looked after: Findings from a face-to-face survey in Glasgow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Sharon; Jopling, Michael

    2017-09-11

    Evidence suggests children and young people who are looked after (LACYP) may have poorer health outcomes than children and young people in the general population, particularly in relation to mental health. This paper discusses findings from a survey of the health and well-being of LACYP in Glasgow. A structured questionnaire used in the 2010 Glasgow Schools Survey (GSS) was adapted and administered in face-to-face interviews with 130 young people aged 11-18 in 2014-2015 to investigate various aspects of health and well-being including physical activity, diet and sleep, smoking, alcohol and drugs, health feelings and worries, behaviours, attitudes and expectations. LACYP were more likely to report that they had tried drugs, slightly more likely to have scores indicating a high level of difficulties on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and less likely to report that they ate fruit and vegetables, used active transport methods to get to school and expected to go on to further or higher education; however, reported rates of physical activity, smoking and drinking were similar. LACYP were less likely to report that they had engaged in antisocial behaviour, truancy or bullying or been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, less likely to worry or have low self-esteem, and more likely to rate their health positively. There were some variations according to placement type. The findings of this study present a more positive picture of the health and well-being of LACYP in Glasgow than might have been expected but should be treated with caution due to small sample size. Further research is needed to identify differences in relation to placement type and to determine whether being looked after might be associated with improved health and well-being outcomes for some children and young people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Economic evaluation of a telephone- and face-to-face-delivered counseling intervention for smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nadine; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian; Max, Wendy; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Evers, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of two smoking cessation counseling interventions differing in their modality for patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease from a societal perspective. In a randomized controlled trial conducted in Dutch hospital wards, cardiac patients who smoked prior to admission were allocated to usual care (n = 245), telephone counseling (n = 223) or face-to-face counseling (n = 157). The counseling interventions lasted for 3 months and were complemented by nicotine patches. Baseline histories were obtained, and interviews took place 6 months after hospitalization to assess self-reported smoking status and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per quitter and cost-utility ratios per QALY were calculated and presented in acceptability curves. Uncertainty was accounted for by sensitivity analysis. Using continued abstinence as the outcome measure showed that telephone counseling had the highest probability of being cost-effective. Face-to-to-face counseling was also more cost-effective than usual care. No significant improvements and differences in QALYs between the three conditions were found. Varying costs and effect estimations revealed that the results of the primary analyses were robust. Assuming a willingness-to-pay of €20,000 per abstinent patient, telephone counseling would be a highly cost-effective smoking cessation intervention assisting cardiac patients to quit. However, the lack of consensus concerning the willingness-to-pay per quitter impedes drawing firm conclusions. Moreover, studies with extended follow-up periods are needed to capture late relapses and possible differences in QALYs.

  14. Calibrated prevalence of disabling chronic pain according to different approaches: a face-to-face cross-sectional population-based study in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, Andrés; Rueda, María; Cantero-Braojos, Miguel

    2017-01-30

    To calculate the prevalence of disabling chronic pain (DCP) and to offer a more representative and accurate estimation by applying different calibration techniques. 2011 Andalusian Health Survey, a cross-sectional population survey based on face-to-face home interviews. 6507 people aged 16 years or older and living in Andalusia, Spain. Design weights, linear calibration based on marginals and on crossings, and model-assisted calibration were used to estimate the prevalence and variance of DCP, for the whole sample and for the domains of sex and age groups (16-44; 45-64; +65). Calibration variables were sex, age groups and educational level. In the whole sample, DCP prevalence calibration reduced by more than 5.2% and 8.2% the estimated prevalences and variances, respectively, obtained with the design weights. Regarding the domains, prevalence reductions are from 33% to 1%, and variance reductions are from 0.2% to 1%. Model-assisted calibration is the best technique to estimate DCP prevalence for the whole population and crossing calibration for their domains, although with almost no differences compared to marginal calibration. The validity and accuracy of estimations of DCP prevalence are improved by calibration adjustments. Model-assisted calibrated prevalence of DCP is 10.78% for the whole population, being at least 2-fold higher in women in all age groups. The results and methodology developed could be useful in clinical and population-based studies on chronic pain and disability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Effectiveness of Web-based versus face-to-face delivery of education in prescription of falls-prevention exercise to health professionals: randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Haas, Romi; Keating, Jennifer L; Molloy, Elizabeth; Jolly, Brian; Sims, Jane; Morgan, Prue; Haines, Terry

    2011-12-22

    Exercise is an effective intervention for the prevention of falls; however, some forms of exercises have been shown to be more effective than others. There is a need to identify effective and efficient methods for training health professionals in exercise prescription for falls prevention. The objective of our study was to compare two approaches for training clinicians in prescribing exercise to prevent falls. This study was a head-to-head randomized trial design. Participants were physiotherapists, occupational therapists, nurses, and exercise physiologists working in Victoria, Australia. Participants randomly assigned to one group received face-to-face traditional education using a 1-day seminar format with additional video and written support material. The other participants received Web-based delivery of the equivalent educational material over a 4-week period with remote tutor facilitation. Outcomes were measured across levels 1 to 3 of Kirkpatrick's hierarchy of educational outcomes, including attendance, adherence, satisfaction, knowledge, and self-reported change in practice. Of the 166 participants initially recruited, there was gradual attrition from randomization to participation in the trial (n = 67 Web-based, n = 68 face-to-face), to completion of the educational content (n = 44 Web-based, n = 50 face-to-face), to completion of the posteducation examinations (n = 43 Web-based, n = 49 face-to-face). Participant satisfaction was not significantly different between the intervention groups: mean (SD) satisfaction with content and relevance of course material was 25.73 (5.14) in the Web-based and 26.11 (5.41) in the face-to-face group; linear regression P = .75; and mean (SD) satisfaction with course facilitation and support was 11.61 (2.00) in the Web-based and 12.08 (1.54) in the face-to-face group; linear regression P = .25. Knowledge test results were comparable between the Web-based and face-to-face groups: median (interquartile range [IQR]) for the

  16. Comparative effectiveness of cognitive therapies delivered face-to-face or over the telephone: an observational study using propensity methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Hammond

    Full Text Available To compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of face-to-face (FTF with over-the-telephone (OTT delivery of low intensity cognitive behavioural therapy.Observational study following SROBE guidelines. Selection effects were controlled using propensity scores. Non-inferiority comparisons assessed effectiveness.IAPT (improving access to psychological therapies services in the East of England.39,227 adults referred to IAPT services. Propensity score strata included 4,106 individuals; 147 pairs participated in 1:1 matching.Two or more sessions of computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT.Patient-reported outcomes: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 for depression; Generalised Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7; Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS. Differences between groups were summarised as standardised effect sizes (ES, adjusted mean differences and minimally important difference for PHQ-9. Cost per session for OTT was compared with FTF.Analysis of covariance controlling for number of assessments, provider site, and baseline PHQ-9, GAD-7 and WSAS indicated statistically significantly greater reductions in scores for OTT treatment with moderate (PHQ-9: ES: 0.14; GAD-7: ES: 0.10 or small (WSAS: ES: 0.03 effect sizes. Non-inferiority in favour of OTT treatment for symptom severity persisted as small to moderate effects for all but individuals with the highest symptom severity. In the most stringent comparison, the one-to-one propensity matching, adjusted mean differences in treatment outcomes indicated non-inferiority between OTT versus FTF treatments for PHQ-9 and GAD-7, whereas the evidence was moderate for WSAS. The per-session cost for OTT was 36.2% lower than FTF.The clinical effectiveness of low intensity CBT-based interventions delivered OTT was not inferior to those delivered FTF except for people with more severe illness where FTF was superior. This provides evidence for better targeting of therapy, efficiencies for patients

  17. Conversational Argumentation in Decision Making: Chinese and U.S. Participants in Face-to-Face and Instant-Messaging Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Craig O.; Setlock, Leslie D.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates cultural and communication medium effects on conversational argumentation in a decision-making context. Chinese and U.S. participants worked in pairs on two decision-making tasks via face-to-face (FtF) and instant messaging (IM). The analyses showed that Chinese participants tended to engage in potentially more complex…

  18. In-person contact begets calling and texting: interpersonal motives for cell phone use, face-to-face interaction, and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Borae; Park, Namkee

    2010-12-01

    This study examined how cell-phone use is related to interpersonal motives for using cell phones, face-to-face communication, and loneliness. A survey of 232 college students who owned a cell phone revealed that affection and inclusion were relatively strong motivations for using voice calls and text messaging, and that interpersonal motives were positively related to the amount of cell-phone use, including calling and texting. The amount of face-to-face interaction was positively associated with the participants' cell-phone use and their interpersonal motives for using cell phones: the more the participants engaged in face-to-face interaction with other people, the higher their motives were and the more frequent cell-phone use was. Loneliness did not have a direct relation to cell-phone use. Instead, the participants with higher levels of loneliness were less likely to engage in face-to-face social interaction, which led them to use cell phones less and to be less motivated to use cell phones for interpersonal purposes.

  19. Face-to-face and electronic communications in maintaining social networks : the influence of geographical and relational distance and of information content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Taede; Dijst, Martin; Schwanen, Tim

    Using data collected among 742 respondents, this article aims at gaining greater insight into (i) the interaction between face-to-face (F2F) and electronic contacts, (ii) the influence of information content and relational distance on the communication mode/service choice and (iii) the influence of

  20. Instruments to Explore Blended Learning: Modifying a Method to Analyse Online Communication for the Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leng, Bas A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Donkers, H. H. L. M.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the complex practice of today's blended learning, educators need to be able to evaluate both online and face-to-face communication in order to get the full picture of what is going on in blended learning scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of a practical instrument for analysing face-to-face…

  1. Attitudes toward Face-to-Face and Online Counseling: Roles of Self-Concealment, Openness to Experience, Loss of Face, Stigma, and Disclosure Expectations among Korean College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathje, Geoff J.; Kim, Eunha; Rau, Ellen; Bassiouny, Muhammad Adam; Kim, Taehoon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined attitudes toward face-to-face (f2f) and online counseling among 228 Korean college students. In addition, it tested a hypothesized model proposing that general propensities (i.e., self-concealment, openness to experience, and loss of face) would influence counseling-specific expectations (i.e., self-stigma and disclosure…

  2. The Design and Implementation of a Holistic Training Model for Language Teacher Education in a Cyber Face-to-Face Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Chen, Nian-Shing; Levy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This study reports a qualitative investigation that examines the design and implementation of a holistic teacher training model in a cyber face-to-face language learning context. To this end, this study first proposes an e-training model called the Practice, Reflection and Collaboration (PRC) model, and discusses the rationale and theoretical…

  3. Blended Learning Model on Hands-On Approach for In-Service Secondary School Teachers: Combination of E-Learning and Face-to-Face Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vinh-Thang; Nakamori, Yoshiteru; Ho, Tu-Bao; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a blended learning model on hands-on approach for in-service secondary school teachers using a quasi-experimental design. A 24-h teacher-training course using the blended learning model was administered to 117 teachers, while face-to-face instruction was given to 60 teachers. The…

  4. Beyond the Therapeutic Hour: An Exploratory Pilot Study of Using Technology to Enhance Alliance and Engagement within Face-to-Face Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Penelope; Simpson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and investigate the capacity for a novel, technologically advanced system (goACT) to enhance face-to-face psychotherapy. Specifically, we explore the capacity for goACT to enhance therapeutic alliance (TA) and engagement, and reduce distress. Using a mixed-methods, multiple-baseline design we present the first study to…

  5. Going the Distance Part 2: Five Ways of Teaching an Extension Course: Elive, Blackboard, Teleconference, Correspondence, and Face-to-Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Heidi B.; Hanna, Virgene; Spiers, Kent; Kienenberger, Donavan

    2014-01-01

    Remote and widely dispersed clientele in Alaska create a need for effective distance-delivery programs. Extension agents often travel via small airplane, snow machine, or boat to teach face-to-face classes in off-road communities. Effective and more cost-efficient delivery methods are needed. We taught a course for beginning farmers residing…

  6. The introduction of a choice to learn pre-symptomatic DNA test results for BRCA or Lynch syndrome either face-to-face or by letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorwinden, J. S.; Jaspers, J. P. C.; ter Beest, J. G.; Kievit, Y.; Sijmons, R. H.; Oosterwijk, J. C.

    In predictive DNA testing for hereditary cancer, test results should traditionally be disclosed face-to-face. Increasingly, however, counselees ask to receive their test result at home by letter. To compare the quality of genetic counselling in the traditional way to a procedure in which counselees

  7. Faculty and Student Perceptions of Academic Cheating and the Influence of Achievement Motivation with Online and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Sheree Christine

    2013-01-01

    There are many components contributing to academically dishonest behaviors and with improvements in technology, methods for cheating have expanded to web-based classrooms. This study focuses on academically dishonest behaviors in online and face-to-face (F2F) course formats in an attempt to better understand the impact of cheating in these two…

  8. Comparison of a Targeted Intervention Program Delivered Face-to-Face and by Personal Videoconferencing for Primary and Middle School Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestel, Eugénie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes part of a mixed-methods study comparing the effectiveness of an individual, conceptual instruction based, tuition program delivered face-to-face and by personal videoconferencing (PVC) for 30 upper primary and middle school students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLDs). The experimental intervention targeted number…

  9. College Student Effort Expenditure in Online versus Face-to-Face Courses: The Role of Gender, Team Learning Orientation, and Sense of Classroom Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Cho, YoonJung; Mathew, Susan; Worth, Sheri

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the differential impact of sense of classroom community on effort in online versus face-to-face courses while controlling for potential effects of gender and team learning orientation. The interaction effects from ANOVA results suggested a gender difference across the two course delivery formats, with male students expending…

  10. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL

  11. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients’ lifestyle behavior. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL

  12. Learner Outcomes and Satisfaction: A Comparison of Live Video-Streamed Instruction, Satellite Broadcast Instruction, and Face-to-Face Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdous, M'hammed; Yoshimura, Miki

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the final grade and satisfaction level differences among students taking specific courses using three different methods: face-to-face in class, via satellite broadcasting at remote sites, and via live video-streaming at home or at work. In each case, the same course was taught by the same instructor in all three delivery…

  13. A Predictive Study of Learner Satisfaction and Outcomes in Face-to-Face, Satellite Broadcast, and Live Video-Streaming Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdous, M'hammed; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the predictive relationships among delivery mode (DM), self-perceived learner-to-teacher interaction, self-rated computer skill, prior distance learning experience, and learners' satisfaction and outcomes. Participants were enrolled in courses which used three different DMs: face-to-face, satellite broadcasting,…

  14. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or reading between the lines? Theory of Mind predicts collective intelligence equally well online and face-to-face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, David; Woolley, Anita Williams; Jing, Lisa X; Chabris, Christopher F; Malone, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called "collective intelligence") predicted a group's performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members' ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called "Theory of Mind" or "ToM"). Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to "read" the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test), it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1) a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2) surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states.

  15. Comparing Learning Outcomes of Video-Based E-Learning with Face-to-Face Lectures of Agricultural Engineering Courses in Korean Agricultural High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Youl; Kim, Soo-Wook; Cha, Seung-Bong; Nam, Min-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of e-learning by comparing the learning outcomes in conventional face-to-face lectures and e-learning methods. Two video-based e-learning contents were developed based on the rapid prototyping model and loaded onto the learning management system (LMS), which was available at http://www.greenehrd.com.…

  16. A Qualitative Case Study Comparing a Computer-Mediated Delivery System to a Face-to-Face Mediated Delivery System for Teaching Creative Writing Fiction Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Mindy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to compare the pedagogical and affective efficiency and efficacy of creative prose fiction writing workshops taught via asynchronous computer-mediated online distance education with creative prose fiction writing workshops taught face-to-face in order to better understand their operational pedagogy and…

  17. Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Using Computer-Based and Face-to-Face Personal Hygiene Training Methods in Food Processing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…

  18. Comparing Online and Face-to-Face Student Counselling: What Therapeutic Goals Are Identifed and What Are the Implications for Educational Providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Terry; Ersahin, Zehra; Sefi, Aaron; Hebron, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Online counselling is increasingly being used as an alternative to face-to-face student counselling. Using an exploratory mixed methods design, this project investigated the practice by examining the types of therapeutic goals that 11- to 25-year-olds identify online in routine practice. These goals were then compared to goals identified in…

  19. Strengthening the Conversation in Blended and Face-to-Face Courses: Connecting Online and In-Person Learning with Crossover Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrow, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    There is currently strong and widespread support among university administrators for blended learning at the college level, or courses that incorporate some degree of online instruction. As instructors are called on to incorporate online and face-to-face elements into their instruction, they face the critical question of how to intentionally…

  20. Graduate Student Attitudes toward Different Instructional Approaches within Face-to-Face, Online, and Blended Learning Environments in a Public Four-Year Institution of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotich, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This study compared graduate student attitudes toward different instructional approaches within online, blended, and face-to-face courses in a public institution of higher learning. The participants completed an online survey questionnaire that was designed by the researcher using 4 learning theories in education: behavioral, cognitive,…

  1. The effect of preoperative nutritional face-to-face counseling about child's fasting on parental knowledge, preoperative need-for-information, and anxiety, in pediatric ambulatory tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, Seija; Kinnunen, Ilpo; Suominen, Tarja; Antila, Heikki; Vahlberg, Tero; Grenman, Reidar; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to define how preoperative nutritional face-to-face counseling on child's fasting affects parental knowledge, preoperative need-for-information, and anxiety, in pediatric ambulatory tonsillectomy. The participants in the prospective, randomly allocated study were parents (intervention 62/control 62) with children (4-10 years) admitted for ambulatory tonsillectomy. Data were collected by the knowledge test designed for the study and with The Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS). The intervention group was invited to a preoperative visit to receive written and verbal face-to-face counseling. They were initiated into the child's active preoperative nutrition. The parents of the control group received current information without face-to-face counseling. The parents followed the instructions. Their knowledge about the child's fast increased (p=0.003), and need-for-information and anxiety decreased (ppreoperative face-to-face counseling with written information improves parental knowledge about the child's fasting and active preoperative nutrition, and relieves their need-for-information and anxiety. The primary responsibility remains with the health care professionals when the active preoperative nutrition of the child and counseling on it are introduced into nursing practice. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or reading between the lines? Theory of Mind predicts collective intelligence equally well online and face-to-face.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Engel

    Full Text Available Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called "collective intelligence" predicted a group's performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members' ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called "Theory of Mind" or "ToM". Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to "read" the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test, it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1 a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2 surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states.

  3. Topicality and the Structure of Interactive Talk in Face-to-Face Seminar Discussions: Implications for Research in Distributed Learning Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Will; Hall, Andy; Callery, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the structure of topic movement within face-to-face postgraduate university seminar discussion forums through a conversation analytic approach. The analysis of 12 audio recordings of seminars showed that in spite of clear differences in the management style of sessions by seminar leaders there were important consistencies in…

  4. Impact on Clinical Behavior of Face-to-Face Continuing Medical Education Blended with Online Spaced Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Timothy; Long, Andrea; Chopra, Sanjiv; Kerfoot, B. Price

    2011-01-01

    Background: Spaced education (SE) is a novel, evidence-based form of online learning. We investigated whether an SE program following a face-to-face continuing medical education (CME) course could enhance the course's impact on providers' clinical behaviors. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted from March 2009 to April 2010,…

  5. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  6. Assessment of Oral Skills: A Comparison of Scores Obtained through Audio Recording to Those Obtained through Face-to-Face Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Mohana K; Goon, Cecilia

    1993-01-01

    The oral performance of a sample of 87 undergraduates was evaluated first in a face-to-face setting and then through audio recordings of that same performance. Results confirm that effectiveness in oral communication clearly is not dependent on words and sounds alone but that paralinguistic and extralinguistic data also play a significant role.…

  7. The comparison of road safety survey answers between web-panel and face-to-face : Dutch results of SARTRE-4 survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C. & Craen, S. de

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a comparison of an online and a face-to-face sample of car drivers was made to study differences on a number of selected questions from the SARTRE-4 road safety survey. Contrary to expectations, there was no indication that online respondents were more likely to come from higher

  8. Acceptance of Cloud Services in Face-to-Face Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: A Comparison between Single-User Mode and Multi-User Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Sui; Huang, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Face-to-face computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) was used extensively to facilitate learning in classrooms. Cloud services not only allow a single user to edit a document, but they also enable multiple users to simultaneously edit a shared document. However, few researchers have compared student acceptance of such services in…

  9. Parent Education for Dialogic Reading during Shared Storybook Reading: Multiple Case Study of Online and Face-to-Face Delivery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschorner, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a parent education program on the frequency of shared storybook reading and dialogic reading techniques. Additionally, the contextual factors that influenced the outcomes of the program were explored. Seventeen parents completed a nine-week face-to-face parent education program and fifteen parents completed a…

  10. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy with and without an initial face-to-face psychoeducation session for social anxiety disorder: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Nordmo

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Notwithstanding limitations due to the small sample size, the findings indicate that guided ICBT is an effective treatment for students with SAD. Adding an initial face-to-face PE session to the guided ICBT did not lead to enhanced outcomes in the present study.

  11. Firefighter Training in Sweden: From Face-to-Face Learning in Training Grounds to Distance Learning--A Challenge for Exercise Instructors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When distance learning supported by digital technologies was introduced in firefighter training in Sweden some years ago, training exercise instructors accustomed to face-to-face teaching in the field had to adapt their professional roles to an electronic landscape with a number of new opportunities and constraints. Based on activity theory and…

  12. Physical and digital proximity: emerging ways of health care in face-to-face and telemonitoring of heart-failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of telehealth-care technologies profoundly changes existing practices of care. This paper aims to enhance our understanding of these changes by providing a comparative study of health-care services for heart-failure patients based on face-to-face contacts in a policlinic (department

  13. Analysis of Student Perceptions of the Psychosocial Learning Environment in Online and Face-to-Face Career and Technical Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Diane L.; Kosloski, Michael F., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed student perceptions of the psychosocial learning environment in online and face-to-face career and technical education courses, and used survey data from a school district in Washington state. A Mann-Whitney "U" test was used to measure variability and compare the mean scores for a series of psychosocial learning…

  14. Brief Report: Patterns of Eye Movements in Face to Face Conversation Are Associated with Autistic Traits--Evidence from a Student Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabalas, Andrius; Freeth, Megan

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated whether the amount of autistic traits shown by an individual is associated with viewing behaviour during a face-to-face interaction. The eye movements of 36 neurotypical university students were recorded using a mobile eye-tracking device. High amounts of autistic traits were neither associated with reduced looking…

  15. The working alliance in a randomized controlled trial comparing online with face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preschl Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous efficacy studies in recent years have found internet-based interventions for depression to be effective, there has been scant consideration of therapeutic process factors in the online setting. In face-to face therapy, the quality of the working alliance explains variance in treatment outcome. However, little is yet known about the impact of the working alliance in internet-based interventions, particularly as compared with face-to-face therapy. Methods This study explored the working alliance between client and therapist in the middle and at the end of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for depression. The participants were randomized to an internet-based treatment group (n = 25 or face-to-face group (n = 28. Both groups received the same cognitive behavioral therapy over an 8-week timeframe. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI post-treatment and the Working Alliance Inventory at mid- and post- treatment. Therapists completed the therapist version of the Working Alliance Inventory at post-treatment. Results With the exception of therapists' ratings of the tasks subscale, which were significantly higher in the online group, the two groups' ratings of the working alliance did not differ significantly. Further, significant correlations were found between clients' ratings of the working alliance and therapy outcome at post-treatment in the online group and at both mid- and post-treatment in the face-to-face group. Correlation analysis revealed that the working alliance ratings did not significantly predict the BDI residual gain score in either group. Conclusions Contrary to what might have been expected, the working alliance in the online group was comparable to that in the face-to-face group. However, the results showed no significant relations between the BDI residual gain score and the working alliance ratings in either group. Trial registration ACTRN12611000563965

  16. Study protocol for a non-inferiority trial of a blended smoking cessation treatment versus face-to-face treatment (LiveSmokefree-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Siemer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation can significantly reduce the risk of developing smoking-related diseases. Several face-to-face and web-based treatments have shown to be effective. Blending of web-based and face-to-face treatment is expected to improve smoking cessation treatment. The primary objective of this study is to compare the prolonged abstinence rate of the blended smoking cessation treatment with the face-to-face treatment. Secondary objectives are to assess the benefits of blended treatment in terms of cost effectiveness and patient satisfaction, and to identify mechanisms underlying successful smoking cessation. Methods/Design This study will be a single-center randomized controlled non-inferiority-trial with parallel group design. Patients (n = 344 will be randomly assigned to either the blended or the face-to-face group. Both treatments will consist of ten sessions with equal content held within 6 months. In the blended treatment five out of ten sessions will be delivered online. The treatments will cover the majority of behavior change techniques that are evidence-based within smoking cessation counseling. All face-to-face sessions in both treatments will take place at the outpatient smoking cessation clinic of a hospital. The primary outcome parameter will be biochemically validated prolonged abstinence at 15 months from the start of the smoking cessation treatment. Discussion This RCT will be the first study to examine the effectiveness of a blended smoking cessation treatment. It will also be the first study to explore patient satisfaction, adherence, cost-effectiveness, and the clinically relevant influencing factors of a blended smoking cessation treatment. The findings of this RCT are expected to substantially strengthen the base of evidence available to inform the development and delivery of smoking cessation treatment. Trial registration Nederlands Trialregister NTR5113 . Registered 24 March 2015.

  17. Dynamics of verbal interaction between interviewer and child in interviews with alleged victims of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Julia; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2006-04-01

    A number (n = 27) of investigative interviews with children were analyzed with a view to explore the verbal dynamics between interviewer and child. Different types of interviewer utterances and child responses were defined, and the interrelationships between these were explored. The effectiveness of different interviewer utterances in eliciting information from children as well as the type of utterance the interviewer used to follow up an informative answer by the child were investigated. Option-posing and suggestive utterances made up for more than 50% of interviewer utterances, the proportion of invitations being only 2%. Invitations and directive utterances were associated with an increase in informative responses by the child, the adverse being true for option-posing and suggestive utterances. Interestingly, even after the child had provided an informative answer, interviewers continued to rely on focused and leading interviewing methods--in spite of a slight improvement in interviewing behavior.

  18. Comparison of face-to-face versus email guided self-help for binge eating: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Luck, Amy; Burrows, Alison; Boughton, Nicky

    2014-05-22

    Guided self-help is a recommended first-step treatment for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and atypical variants of these disorders. Further research is needed to compare guided self-help that is delivered face-to-face versus via email. This clinical trial uses a randomised, controlled design to investigate the effectiveness of providing guided self-help either face-to-face or via e-mail, also using a delayed treatment control condition. At least 17 individuals are required per group, giving a minimum N of 51. Symptom outcomes will be assessed and estimates of cost-effectiveness made. Results are proposed to be disseminated locally and internationally (through submission to conferences and peer-reviewed journals), and will hopefully inform local service provision. The trial has been approved by an ethics review board and was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01832792 on 9 April 2013.

  19. Can We Talk through a Robot as Face-to-face?Long-Term Fieldwork Using Teleoperated Robot for Seniors with Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiko Kuwamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a case study on fieldwork in a group home for the elderly with dementia using a teleoperated robot called Telenoid. We compared Telenoid-mediated and face-to-face conditions with three residents with Alzheimer's disease (AD. The result indicates that two of the three residents with moderate AD showed a positive reaction to Telenoid. Both became less nervous while communicating with Telenoid from the time they were first introduced to it. Moreover, they started to use more body gestures in the face-to-face condition and more physical interactions in the Telenoid-mediated condition. In this work, we present all the results and discuss the possibilities of using Telenoid as a tool to provide opportunities for seniors to communicate over the long term.

  20. Can We Talk through a Robot As if Face-to-Face? Long-Term Fieldwork Using Teleoperated Robot for Seniors with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwamura, Kaiko; Nishio, Shuichi; Sato, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a case study on fieldwork in a group home for the elderly with dementia using a teleoperated robot called Telenoid. We compared Telenoid-mediated and face-to-face conditions with three residents with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The result indicates that two of the three residents with moderate AD showed a positive reaction to Telenoid. Both became less nervous while communicating with Telenoid from the time they were first introduced to it. Moreover, they started to use more body gestures in the face-to-face condition and more physical interactions in the Telenoid-mediated condition. In this work, we present all the results and discuss the possibilities of using Telenoid as a tool to provide opportunities for seniors to communicate over the long term.

  1. Linking an Integrative Behavior Model to Elements of Environmental Campaigns: An Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication and Posters against Littering

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Hansmann; Nora Steimer

    2015-01-01

    Diverse elements of anti-littering campaigns may be effective at addressing different causes of littering. Therefore, a complementary approach combining various elements is needed to ensure the behavioral effectiveness of corresponding campaigns. The present study investigates personal, problem-centered face-to-face conversations compared to three different types of anti-littering posters (witty, authoritarian, environmentally oriented). In total, N = 147 persons participated in the questionn...

  2. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or Reading between the Lines? Theory of Mind Predicts Collective Intelligence Equally Well Online and Face-To-Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, David; Woolley, Anita Williams; Jing, Lisa X.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Malone, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called “collective intelligence”) predicted a group’s performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members’ ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called “Theory of Mind” or “ToM”). Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to “read” the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test), it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1) a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2) surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states. PMID:25514387

  3. Teaching medical students exposure therapy for phobia/panic - randomized, controlled comparison of face-to-face tutorial in small groups vs. solo computer instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Michael; Marks, Isaac M

    2002-05-01

    To compare the teaching value of one session of computer-guided solo instruction in exposure therapy for phobias with that of one face-to-face small-group tutorial. Non-blind, randomized, controlled study. King's College Hospital Medical School, London. Thirty-seven third-year medical students and 11 behaviour therapists. Seventy-five true/false multiple choice questions relating to (b) below answered at pre- and post-teaching by students and just once by behaviour therapists to obtain 'expert' scores; pre- and post-teaching ratings of interest in behaviour therapy and post-teaching ratings of educational and enjoyment value. EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS: (a) All students had a 20-minute group lecture on basic concepts and historical aspects just before randomization to: (b) 90 min of either solo computer or group face-to-face tutorial teaching. Computer instruction used a short version of 'FearFighter'- a self-help computer system for people suffering from phobias. Solo computer instruction taught exposure therapy principles effectively but improved multiple choice question scores marginally less than did small-group tutorial teaching. Tutorial teaching required 5 times more teacher time but led to knowledge scores that did not differ significantly from those of behaviour therapists. Students clearly rated face-to-face small-group tutorial teaching as more enjoyable. The knowledge gain from a solo computer session resembled that from a small-group face-to-face tutorial, and required far less teacher time, but was less enjoyable. Enjoyment might rise if the computer session was group-oriented and aimed at students rather than patients. In general computer teaching might be best used to complement rather than replace conventional teaching.

  4. Student Preferences and Performance in Online and Face-to-Face Classes Using Myers-Briggs Indicator: A Longitudinal Quasi-Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seta Boghikian-Whitby; Yehia Mortagy

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study investigated students’ cognitive personality type using the Myers-Briggs personality Type Indicator (MBTI) in Internet-based Online and Face-to-Face (F2F) modalities. A total of 1154 students enrolled in 28 Online and 32 F2F sections taught concurrently over a period of fourteen years. The study measured whether the sample is similar to the national average percentage frequency of all 16 different personality types; whether specific personality ty...

  5. Acceptability of psychological treatment to Chinese- and Caucasian-Australians: Internet treatment reduces barriers but face-to-face care is preferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Isabella; Sharpe, Louise; Li, Stephen; Hunt, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Internet treatments have the potential to improve access, especially for cultural groups who face considerable treatment barriers. This study explored the perceived barriers and likelihood of using Internet and face-to-face treatments for depression among Chinese and Caucasian Australian participants. Three-hundred ninety-five (289 Chinese, 106 Caucasian) primary care patients completed a questionnaire about depression history, previous help-seeking, perceived barriers to Internet and face-to-face treatment, and likelihood of using either treatment for depressive symptoms. Internet treatment reduced perceived barriers (including stigma, lack of motivation, concerns of bringing up upsetting feelings, time constraints, transport difficulties, and cost) for both groups to a similar degree, except for time constraints. There were heightened concerns about the helpfulness, suitability, and confidentiality of Internet treatments. Chinese participants and individuals with a probable depression history reported increased perceived barriers across treatments. Both Chinese and Caucasian groups preferred face-to-face treatment across depression severity. However, when age was controlled, there were no significant concerns about Internet treatment, and face-to-face treatment was only preferred for severe depression. Only 12 % of the entire sample refused to try Internet treatment for depression. Endorsement of perceived Internet treatment barriers (including concerns of bringing up upsetting feelings, that treatment would be unhelpful or unsuitable, lack of motivation, cost, cultural sensitivity, and confidentiality) reduced the likelihood to try Internet treatments. Internet treatment reduced perceived treatment barriers across groups, with encouraging support for Internet treatment as an acceptable form of receiving help. Negative concerns about Internet treatment need to be addressed to encourage use.

  6. Education Innovation: Case Studies in e-Learning and Face-to-Face Teaching in Higher Education: What is the Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, J. A.

    Education innovation is here to stay. This chapter gives the results of a study of the application of information and communication technology to advanced teaching and learning activities. It is strategically important that the technology opens up new ways of teaching and learning. The purpose of this chapter is firstly to identify the typical advanced teaching and learning activities/functions that can be applied in e-Learning and face-to-face teaching and learning. Case studies were selected from a group of teachers who have already been involved in both teaching modes for some years and thus have experience in blended teaching and learning. A number of teaching activities/functions were seen as positive in their application in the e-Learning situation. Those that stand out are peer review and collaboration, promotion of reflection and stimulation of critical and creative thinking, team teaching, promotion of discovery/extension of knowledge, and problematization of the curriculum. In face-to-face teaching and learning, inviting engagement, how to come to know, involving metaphors and analogies, teaching that connects to learning, inspire change, promote understanding, and others stand out. As seen by the teachers in the case studies, both e-Learning and face-to-face teaching and learning are seen as complementary to each other. We define this view as blended teaching and learning.

  7. Linking an Integrative Behavior Model to Elements of Environmental Campaigns: An Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication and Posters against Littering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hansmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse elements of anti-littering campaigns may be effective at addressing different causes of littering. Therefore, a complementary approach combining various elements is needed to ensure the behavioral effectiveness of corresponding campaigns. The present study investigates personal, problem-centered face-to-face conversations compared to three different types of anti-littering posters (witty, authoritarian, environmentally oriented. In total, N = 147 persons participated in the questionnaire-based survey. Pictures of the three anti-littering posters were presented to all respondents, but only 82 of them additionally took part in problem-centered face-to-face conversations. Participants of the latter condition liked the conversations significantly more and judged them more effective for reducing littering than each of the three posters. Intentions for future behavior also improved more in the condition with face-to-face communications than in the reference condition in which only the anti-littering posters were presented. Regarding the posters, it was found that the witty and the environmentally-oriented poster were liked more and judged to be more effective by the respondents than the authoritarian poster. Findings are discussed in relation to the design of campaigns, which combine elements with reference to an integrative behavior model covering a broad range of factors, including processes of justifications, habit formation and reactance.

  8. Associations between Infant Behaviors during the Face-To-Face Still-Face Paradigm and Oppositional Defiant and Callous-Unemotional Behaviors in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicholas J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Propper, Cathi B; Willoughby, Michael T; Rehder, Pete D; Moore, Ginger A; Cox, Martha J

    2016-11-01

    Deficits in social orienting (i.e., gazing toward caregivers) during dyadic interactions and reactivity to stressful stimuli have been identified as behavioral correlates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors in older children. The goal of the current study was to investigate infants' mother-directed gaze and reactivity during the face-to-face and still-face episodes of the face-to-face stillface paradigm performed at 6 months in the prediction of ODD and CU behaviors in early childhood. Using data from the Durham Child Health and Development study (n = 206), hierarchical regression analyses revealed that infants' negative reactivity during the still-face episode and mother-directed gaze during the face-to-face episode predicted fewer ODD behaviors in early childhood. Examination of interaction effects suggested that mother-directed gaze attenuated the negative relation between reactivity and ODD and CU behaviors in early childhood. The current study is one of the first to extend downward the investigation of ODD and CU behaviors into infancy.

  9. Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael

    2012-03-01

    An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Online vs. face-to-face discussion in a Web-based research methods course for postgraduate nursing students: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Malcolm; Gibson, Will; Hall, Andy; Richards, David; Callery, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Web-based technologies are increasingly being used to create modes of online learning for nurses but their effect has not been assessed in nurse education. Assess whether participation in face-to-face discussion seminars or online asynchronous discussion groups had different effects on educational attainment in a web-based course. Non-randomised or quasi-experimental design with two groups-students choosing to have face-to-face discussion seminars and students choosing to have online discussions. The Core Methods module of a postgraduate research methods course. All 114 students participating in the first 2 yr during which the course teaching material was delivered online. Assignment mark for Core Methods course module. Background details of the students, their choices of modules and assignment marks were collected as part of the routine course administration. Students' online activities were identified using the student tracking facility within WebCT. Regression models were fitted to explore the association between available explanatory variables and assignment mark. Students choosing online discussions had a higher Core Methods assignment mark (mean 60.8/100) than students choosing face-to-face discussions (54.4); the difference was statistically significant (t=3.13, df=102, p=0.002), although this ignores confounding variables. Among online discussion students, assignment mark was significantly correlated with the numbers of discussion messages read (Kendall's tau(b)=0.22, p=0.050) and posted (Kendall's tau(b)=0.27, p=0.017); among face-to-face discussion students, it was significantly associated with the number of non-discussion hits in WebCT (Kendall's tau(b)=0.19, p=0.036). In regression analysis, choice of discussion method, whether an M.Phil./Ph.D. student, number of non-discussion hits in WebCT, number of online discussion messages read and number posted were associated with assignment mark at the 5% level of significance when taken singly; in combination

  11. Online nephrology course replacing a face to face course in nursing schools' bachelor's program: a prospective, controlled trial, in four Israeli nursing schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Gad; Balik, Chaya; Hovav, Boaz; Mayer, Amit; Rozani, Violetta; Damary, Isana; Golan-Hadari, Dita; Kalishek, Shoshana; Khaikin, Rut

    2013-12-01

    Online learning is growing rapidly worldwide, especially in the health related sectors such as medicine and nursing. Our trial wished to measure the objective (i.e. final exam results, courseware usage patterns) and subjective (satisfaction) efficiency of online vs. face-to-face learning in a prospective, controlled trial, a first of its kind in Israel. The trial tested a blended online course, teaching introduction to clinical nephrology. The course was filmed and edited into a learning platform to fit computer based learning. 90 nursing students, from 4 bachelor's nursing programs in Israel participated in the study. The intervention group included 32 students who studied using the online course, accompanied by 3 frontal meetings dealing with technical and content issues. The reference group included 58 students from 3 nursing programs, studying in a traditional face-to-face course. The final exam results were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the reference group (9.6 ± 2.57 vs. 8.4 ± 2.72; plearning process and 97% thought the teaching method contributed to the learning process. The average usage of the online course was 4:10h vs. 14 academic hours (10:30 h) in the traditional course. The daily usage habits of the courseware were also followed, indicating that most learning took place between 12 PM and 1 AM, peaking between 5 PM and 7 PM, and dipping between 3 AM and 10 AM. The online course had higher efficiency compared to the traditional face-to-face course. The subjective feedback of the intervention group proves high satisfaction with online learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of student performance in human development classes using three different modes of delivery: Online, face-to-face, and combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsow, Susan Christensen

    1999-11-01

    The problem. The dual purposes of this research were to determine if there is a difference in student performance in three Human Development classes when the modes of delivery are different and to analyze student perceptions of using Web-based learning as all or part of their course experience. Procedures. Data for this study were collected from three Human Development courses taught at Drake University. Grades from five essays, projects, and overall grades were used in the three classes and analyzed using a single factor analysis of variance to determine if there was a significant difference. Content analysis was used on the evaluation comments of the participants in the online and combined classes to determine their perceptions of Web-based learning. Findings. The single factor analysis of variance measuring student performance showed no significant difference among the online, face-to-face, and combined scores at the .05 level of significance, however, the difference was significant at the .06. The content analysis of the online and combined course showed the three major strengths of learning totally or partly online to be increased comfort in using the computer, the quality of the overall experience, and convenience in terms of increased access to educational opportunities. The barriers included lack of human interaction and access to the professor. Conclusions. The study indicates that Web-based learning is a viable option for postsecondary educational delivery in terms of student performance and learning. On the average, performance is at least as good as performance in traditional face-to-face classrooms. Improved performance, however, is contingent on adequate access to equipment, faculty skill in teaching using a new mode of delivery, and the personality of the student. The convenient access to educational opportunities and becoming more comfortable with technology are benefits that were important to these two groups. Web-based learning is not for everyone

  13. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Blended Versus Face-to-Face Delivery of Evidence-Based Medicine to Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Nicklen, Peter; Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ooi, Ying Ying; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-07-21

    Blended learning describes a combination of teaching methods, often utilizing digital technologies. Research suggests that learner outcomes can be improved through some blended learning formats. However, the cost-effectiveness of delivering blended learning is unclear. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of a face-to-face learning and blended learning approach for evidence-based medicine training within a medical program. The economic evaluation was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the evidence-based medicine (EBM) competency of medical students who participated in two different modes of education delivery. In the traditional face-to-face method, students received ten 2-hour classes. In the blended learning approach, students received the same total face-to-face hours but with different activities and additional online and mobile learning. Online activities utilized YouTube and a library guide indexing electronic databases, guides, and books. Mobile learning involved self-directed interactions with patients in their regular clinical placements. The attribution and differentiation of costs between the interventions within the RCT was measured in conjunction with measured outcomes of effectiveness. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated comparing the ongoing operation costs of each method with the level of EBM proficiency achieved. Present value analysis was used to calculate the break-even point considering the transition cost and the difference in ongoing operation cost. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio indicated that it costs 24% less to educate a student to the same level of EBM competency via the blended learning approach used in the study, when excluding transition costs. The sunk cost of approximately AUD $40,000 to transition to the blended model exceeds any savings from using the approach within the first year of its implementation; however, a break-even point is achieved within its

  14. Blended vs. face-to-face cognitive behavioural treatment for major depression in specialized mental health care: study protocol of a randomized controlled cost-effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lisa C; Wiersma, Jenneke E; Ruwaard, Jeroen; van Oppen, Patricia; Smit, Filip; Lokkerbol, Joran; Cuijpers, Pim; Riper, Heleen

    2014-10-18

    Depression is a prevalent disorder, associated with a high disease burden and substantial societal, economic and personal costs. Cognitive behavioural treatment has been shown to provide adequate treatment for depression. By offering this treatment in a blended format, in which online and face-to-face treatment are combined, it might be possible to reduce the number of costly face-to-face sessions required to deliver the treatment protocol. This could improve the cost-effectiveness of treatment, while maintaining clinical effects. This protocol describes the design of a pilot study for the evaluation of the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of blended cognitive behavioural therapy for patients with major depressive disorder in specialized outpatient mental health care. In a randomized controlled trial design, adult patients with major depressive disorder are allocated to either blended cognitive behavioural treatment or traditional face-to-face cognitive behavioural treatment (treatment as usual). We aim to recruit one hundred and fifty patients. Blended treatment will consist of ten face-to-face and nine online sessions provided alternately on a weekly basis. Traditional cognitive behavioural treatment will consist of twenty weekly sessions. Costs and effects are measured at baseline and after 10, 20 and 30 weeks. Evaluations are directed at cost-effectiveness (with depression severity and diagnostic status as outcomes), and cost-utility (with costs per quality adjusted life year, QALY, as outcome). Costs will encompass health care uptake costs and productivity losses due to absence from work and lower levels of efficiency while at work. Other measures of interest are mastery, working alliance, treatment preference at baseline, depressive cognitions, treatment satisfaction and system usability. The results of this pilot study will provide an initial insight into the feasibility and acceptability of blended cognitive behavioural treatment in terms

  15. Determinants of self-rated health in an Irish deprived suburban population – a cross sectional face-to-face household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine D. Darker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH is amongst the most frequently assessed health perceptions in epidemiological research. While there is a growing understanding of the role of SRH, a paradigm model has yet to be widely accepted with recent studies concluding that further work is required in determining whether there are important predictors of SRH yet to be highlighted. The aim of this paper is to determine what health and non-health related factors were associated with SRH in a suburban deprived population in Dublin, Ireland. Methods A cross sectional face-to-face household survey was conducted. Sampling consisted of random cluster sampling in 13 electoral divisions, with a sampling frame of 420 houses. Demographic information relating to the primary carer was collected. Health status of the primary carer was measured through SRH. Household level data included the presence or absence of persons with a chronic disease, persons who smoked, persons with a disability and healthcare utilisation of general practitioner and hospital level services. A logistic regression model was utilised in the analysis whereby the odds of primary carers with poor SRH were compared to the odds of carers with good SRH taking health and non-health related factors into account. Results Of the 420 households invited to participate a total of 343 were interviewed (81.6 % response rate. Nearly half of the primary carers indicated their health as being ‘good’ (n = 158/342; 46.2 %. Adjusting for the effects of other factors, the odds of primary carers with second level education were increased for having poor SRH in comparison to the odds of those with third level education (OR 3.96, 95 % CI (1.44, 11.63. The odds of primary carers who were renting from the Council were increased for having poor SRH compared to the odds for those who owned their own property (OR 3.09, 95 % CI (1.31, 7.62. The odds of primary carers that were unemployed (OR 3.91, 95 % CI 1

  16. Blended learning on medication administration for new nurses: integration of e-learning and face-to-face instruction in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Young Hee; Kwon, In Gak; Ryu, Eunjung

    2008-11-01

    This study analyzed the effects of a blended learning program on medication administration by new nurses using a non-equivalent groups design. A medication education program using blended learning (including e-learning) was administered to 26 new nurses, while face-to-face instruction in the classroom was given to 24 new nurses. The following dependent variables were compared: degree of knowledge of medication, self-efficacy of medication administration, medication-administration ability, and satisfaction with the learning program. The experimental, blended learning group showed a significantly higher level of knowledge of medication and satisfaction with the comprehensiveness of their medication learning, but the self-efficacy of medication administration, medication-administration ability, and other items related to their learning satisfaction did not differ significantly from that in the control group. These results suggest that blended learning integrating e-learning and face-to-face instruction in the classroom is useful for enhancing medication knowledge. An e-learning program can reduce the lecturing time and cost of repeated topics such as medication, suggesting that it can be an effective component in nurse education programs.

  17. Comparing young people's experience of technology-delivered v. face-to-face mindfulness and relaxation: two-armed qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, Conall; Cooney, Patricia; Coyle, David; O'Reilly, Gary

    2017-04-01

    BackgroundThe current popularity of mindfulness-based practices has coincided with the increase in access to mobile technology. This has led to many mindfulness apps and programs becoming available, some specifically for children. However, little is known about the experience of engaging with mindfulness through these mediums.AimsTo explore children's experience of mindfulness delivered both face-to-face and through a computer game to highlight any differences or similarities.MethodA two-armed qualitative focus groups design was used to explore children's experiences. The first arm offered mindfulness exercises in a traditional face-to-face setting with guided meditations. The second arm offered mindfulness exercises through a computer game avatar.ResultsThemes of relaxation, engagement, awareness, thinking, practice and directing attention emerged from both arms of focus groups. Subthematic codes highlight key differences as well as similarities in the experience of mindfulness.ConclusionsThese results indicate that mindfulness delivered via technology can offer a rich experience. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  18. A Virtual Understanding: The Reference Interview and Question Negotiation in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw, Joseph E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the reference interview in the digital library environment. Compares and contrasts traditional face-to-face reference interviews with electronic interviews; and presents suggestions for effective electronic interviewing, including the importance of good written communication skills. (Author/LRW)

  19. Accuracy of investigators' verbatim notes of their forensic interviews with alleged child abuse victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M E; Orbach, Y; Sternberg, K J; Hershkowitz, I; Horowitz, D

    2000-12-01

    Verbatim contemporaneous accounts of 20 investigative interviews were compared with audiotaped recordings thereof. More than half (57%) of the interviewers' utterances along with 25% of the incident-relevant details provided by the children were not reported in the "verbatim" notes. The structure of the interviews was also represented inaccurately in these accounts. Fewer than half (44%) of the details provided by the children were attributed to the correct eliciting utterance type. Investigators systematically misattributed details to more open rather than more focused prompts. These results underscore the superiority of electronic recording when the content and structure of investigative interviews must be preserved.

  20. Gruppenleistungen beim Review von Multiple-Choice-Fragen - Ein Vergleich von face-to-face und virtuellen Gruppen mit und ohne Moderation [Review of multiple-choice-questions and group performance - A comparison of face-to-face and virtual groups with and without facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs are often used in exams of medical education and need careful quality management for example by the application of review committees. This study investigates whether groups communicating virtually by email are similar to face-to-face groups concerning their review process performance and whether a facilitator has positive effects.Methods: 16 small groups of students were examined, which had to evaluate and correct MCQs under four different conditions. In the second part of the investigation the changed questions were given to a new random sample for the judgement of the item quality.Results: There was no significant influence of the variables “form of review committee” and “facilitation”. However, face-to-face and virtual groups clearly differed in the required treatment times. The test condition “face to face without facilitation” was generally valued most positively concerning taking over responsibility, approach to work, sense of well-being, motivation and concentration on the task.Discussion: Face-to-face and virtual groups are equally effective in the review of MCQs but differ concerning their efficiency. The application of electronic review seems to be possible but is hardly recommendable because of the long process time and technical problems.[german] Einleitung: Multiple-Choice-Fragen (MCF werden in vielen Prüfungen der medizinischen Ausbildung verwendet und bedürfen aus diesem Grund einer sorgfältigen Qualitätssicherung, beispielsweise durch den Einsatz von Review-Komitees. Anhand der vorliegenden empirischen Studie soll erforscht werden, ob virtuell per E-Mail kommunizierende Review-Komitees vergleichbar sind mit face-to-face Review-Komitees hinsichtlich ihrer Leistung beim Review-Prozess und ob sich Moderation positiv auswirkt.Methodik: 16 Kleingruppen von Psychologie-Studenten hatten die Aufgabe unter vier verschiedenen Versuchsbedingungen MCF zu bewerten und zu

  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy in depressed primary care patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use: effect of telephone-administered vs. face-to-face treatment – A secondary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Ho, Joyce; Cai, Xuan; Vinogradov, Sophia; Batki, Steven L.; Mohr, David C.

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis of a larger study compared adherence to telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT) vs. face-to-face CBT and depression outcomes in depressed primary care patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use. To our knowledge, T-CBT has never been directly compared to face-to-face CBT in such a sample of primary care patients. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to face-to-face CBT or T-CBT for depression. Participants receiving T-CBT (n = 50) and...

  2. Police Interviews with Child Sexual Abuse Victims: Patterns of Reporting, Avoidance and Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Lina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated 27 sexually abused children's reports about abuse given in the context of police interviews. All abuse cases had been verified (with, e.g., photographs or video films), proving that abuse had occurred. Method: The interviews with the children were analyzed regarding amount and type of information reported,…

  3. Interview with Srinivasa Varadhan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. Interview with Srinivasa Varadhan. S Varadhan R Sujatha. Face to Face Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 903-912. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0903-0912 ...

  4. What is the role of online support from the perspective of facilitators of face-to-face support groups? A multi-method study of the use of breast cancer online communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jacqueline L; Katz, Joel; Ferris, Lorraine E; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2013-12-01

    To explore the role of online communities from the perspective of breast cancer survivors who are facilitators of face-to-face support groups. Seventy-three attendees (73% response rate) of a Canadian support group-training program completed a questionnaire examining when and why they used online communities. A purposive sample of 12 respondents was interviewed on how they used them in comparison to traditional supportive care. Survey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and interview transcripts using a descriptive interpretive approach. Online communities were used by 31.5%, mostly during treatment (73.9%), daily or weekly (91.3%), primarily for information (91.3%) and symptom management (69.6%) and less for emotional support (47.8%). Reasons for non-use were lack of need (48.0%), self-efficacy (30.0%), trust (24.0%), and awareness (20.0%). Respondents used online communities to address unmet needs during periods of stress and uncertainty. A multi-theory framework helps to explain the conditions influencing their use. Online communities have the potential to fill gaps in supportive care by addressing the unmet needs of a subgroup of breast cancer survivors. Further research is required among typical cancer survivors. Online communities could play an important role as a supplemental resource for a sub-group of breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Data on face-to-face contacts in an office building suggests a low-cost vaccination strategy based on community linkers

    CERN Document Server

    Génois, Mathieu; Fournet, Julie; Panisson, André; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Barrat, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Empirical data on contacts between individuals in social contexts play an important role in the information of models describing human behavior and how epidemics spread in populations. Here, we analyze data on face-to-face contacts collected in an office building. The statistical properties of contacts are similar to other social situations, but important differences are observed in the contact network structure. In particular, the contact network is strongly shaped by the organization of the offices in departments, which has consequences in the design of accurate agent-based models of epidemic spread. We then consider the contact network as a potential substrate for infectious disease spread and show that its sparsity tends to prevent outbreaks of fast-spreading epidemics. Moreover, we define three typical behaviors according to the fraction $f$ of links each individual shares outside its own department: residents, wanderers and linkers. Linkers ($f\\sim 50%$) act as bridges in the network and have large betw...

  6. Look who’s talking: Pre-verbal infants’ perception of face-to-face and back-to-back social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie Augusti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Four-, 6-, and 11-month old infants were presented with movies in which two adult actors conversed about everyday events, either by facing each other or looking in opposite directions. Infants from 6 months of age made more gaze shifts between the actors, in accordance with the flow of conversation, when the actors were facing each other. A second experiment demonstrated that gaze following alone did not cause this difference. Instead the results are consistent with a social cognitive interpretation, suggesting that infants perceive the difference between face-to-face and back-to-back conversations and that they prefer to attend to a typical pattern of social interaction from 6 months of age.

  7. Affective facial expression in sub-clinically depressed and non-depressed mothers during contingent and non-contingent face-to-face interactions with their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Skotheim, Siv; Høie, Kjartan; Markhus, Maria Wik; Kjellevold, Marian; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Berle, Jan Øystein; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2017-08-01

    Depression in the postpartum period involves feelings of sadness, anxiety and irritability, and attenuated feelings of pleasure and comfort with the infant. Even mild- to- moderate symptoms of depression seem to have an impact on caregivers affective availability and contingent responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate non-depressed and sub-clinically depressed mothers interest and affective expression during contingent and non-contingent face-to-face interaction with their infant. The study utilized a double video (DV) set-up. The mother and the infant were presented with live real-time video sequences, which allowed for mutually responsive interaction between the mother and the infant (Live contingent sequences), or replay sequences where the interaction was set out of phase (Replay non-contingent sequences). The DV set-up consisted of five sequences: Live1-Replay1-Live2-Replay2-Live3. Based on their scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the mothers were divided into a non-depressed and a sub-clinically depressed group (EPDS score≥6). A three-way split-plot ANOVA showed that the sub-clinically depressed mothers displayed the same amount of positive and negative facial affect independent of the quality of the interaction with the infants. The non-depressed mothers displayed more positive facial affect during the non-contingent than the contingent interaction sequences, while there was no such effect for negative facial affect. The results indicate that sub-clinically level depressive symptoms influence the mothers' affective facial expression during early face-to-face interaction with their infants. One of the clinical implications is to consider even sub-clinical depressive symptoms as a risk factor for mother-infant relationship disturbances. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of dropout in face-to-face and internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J; Levine, Michele D; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Hamer, Robert M; Crosby, Ross D; Sprecher, Caroline S; O'Brien, Amy; Zimmer, Benjamin; Hofmeier, Sara M; Kordy, Hans; Moessner, Markus; Peat, Christine M; Runfola, Cristin D; Marcus, Marsha D; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-05-01

    We sought to identify predictors and moderators of failure to engage (i.e., pretreatment attrition) and dropout in both Internet-based and traditional face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa. We also sought to determine if Internet-based treatment reduced failure to engage and dropout. Participants (N = 191, 98% female) were randomized to Internet-based CBT (CBT4BN) or traditional face-to-face group CBT (CBTF2F). Sociodemographics, clinical history, eating disorder severity, comorbid psychopathology, health status and quality of life, personality and temperament, and treatment-related factors were investigated as predictors. Failure to engage was associated with lower perceived treatment credibility and expectancy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.97) and body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.18). Dropout was predicted by not having a college degree (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.81), novelty seeking (HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03), previous CBT experience (HR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.71), and randomization to the individual's nonpreferred treatment format (HR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.96). Those most at risk of failure to engage had a higher BMI and perceived treatment as less credible and less likely to succeed. Dropout was associated with less education, higher novelty seeking, previous CBT experience, and a mismatch between preferred and assigned treatment. Contrary to expectations, Internet-based CBT did not reduce failure to engage or dropout. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:569-577). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Remote-online case-based learning: A comparison of remote-online and face-to-face, case-based learning - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, Peter; Keating, Jenny L; Paynter, Sophie; Storr, Michael; Maloney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) is an educational approach where students work in small, collaborative groups to solve problems. Computer assisted learning (CAL) is the implementation of computer technology in education. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a remote-online CBL (RO-CBL) with traditional face-to-face CBL on learning the outcomes of undergraduate physiotherapy students. Participants were randomized to either the control (face-to-face CBL) or to the CAL intervention (RO-CBL). The entire 3rd year physiotherapy cohort (n = 41) at Monash University, Victoria, Australia, were invited to participate in the randomized controlled trial. Outcomes included a postintervention multiple-choice test evaluating the knowledge gained from the CBL, a self-assessment of learning based on examinable learning objectives and student satisfaction with the CBL. In addition, a focus group was conducted investigating perceptions and responses to the online format. Thirty-eight students (control n = 19, intervention n = 19) participated in two CBL sessions and completed the outcome assessments. CBL median scores for the postintervention multiple-choice test were comparable (Wilcoxon rank sum P = 0.61) (median/10 [range] intervention group: 9 [8-10] control group: 10 [7-10]). Of the 15 examinable learning objectives, eight were significantly in favor of the control group, suggesting a greater perceived depth of learning. Eighty-four percent of students (16/19) disagreed with the statement "I enjoyed the method of CBL delivery." Key themes identified from the focus group included risks associated with the implementation of, challenges of communicating in, and flexibility offered, by web-based programs. RO-CBL appears to provide students with a comparable learning experience to traditional CBL. Procedural and infrastructure factors need to be addressed in future studies to counter student dissatisfaction and decreased perceived depth of learning.

  10. The impact of web-based and face-to-face simulation on patient deterioration and patient safety: protocol for a multi-site multi-method design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon J; Kinsman, Leigh; Chung, Catherine; Cant, Robyn; Boyle, Jayne; Bull, Loretta; Cameron, Amanda; Connell, Cliff; Kim, Jeong-Ah; McInnes, Denise; McKay, Angela; Nankervis, Katrina; Penz, Erika; Rotter, Thomas

    2016-09-07

    There are international concerns in relation to the management of patient deterioration which has led to a body of evidence known as the 'failure to rescue' literature. Nursing staff are known to miss cues of deterioration and often fail to call for assistance. Medical Emergency Teams (Rapid Response Teams) do improve the management of acutely deteriorating patients, but first responders need the requisite skills to impact on patient safety. In this study we aim to address these issues in a mixed methods interventional trial with the objective of measuring and comparing the cost and clinical impact of face-to-face and web-based simulation programs on the management of patient deterioration and related patient outcomes. The education programs, known as 'FIRST(2)ACT', have been found to have an impact on education and will be tested in four hospitals in the State of Victoria, Australia. Nursing staff will be trained in primary (the first 8 min) responses to emergencies in two medical wards using a face-to-face approach and in two medical wards using a web-based version FIRST(2)ACTWeb. The impact of these interventions will be determined through quantitative and qualitative approaches, cost analyses and patient notes review (time series analyses) to measure quality of care and patient outcomes. In this 18 month study it is hypothesised that both simulation programs will improve the detection and management of deteriorating patients but that the web-based program will have lower total costs. The study will also add to our overall understanding of the utility of simulation approaches in the preparation of nurses working in hospital wards. (ACTRN12616000468426, retrospectively registered 8.4.2016).

  11. Stepped Care Versus Direct Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgreen, Tine; Haug, Thomas; Öst, Lars-Göran; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Kvale, Gerd; Tangen, Tone; Heiervang, Einar; Havik, Odd E

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) stepped care model (psychoeducation, guided Internet treatment, and face-to-face CBT) compared with direct face-to-face (FtF) CBT. Patients with panic disorder or social anxiety disorder were randomized to either stepped care (n=85) or direct FtF CBT (n=88). Recovery was defined as meeting two of the following three criteria: loss of diagnosis, below cut-off for self-reported symptoms, and functional improvement. No significant differences in intention-to-treat recovery rates were identified between stepped care (40.0%) and direct FtF CBT (43.2%). The majority of the patients who recovered in the stepped care did so at the less therapist-demanding steps (26/34, 76.5%). Moderate to large within-groups effect sizes were identified at posttreatment and 1-year follow-up. The attrition rates were high: 41.2% in the stepped care condition and 27.3% in the direct FtF CBT condition. These findings indicate that the outcome of a stepped care model for anxiety disorders is comparable to that of direct FtF CBT. The rates of improvement at the two less therapist-demanding steps indicate that stepped care models might be useful for increasing patients' access to evidence-based psychological treatments for anxiety disorders. However, attrition in the stepped care condition was high, and research regarding the factors that can improve adherence should be prioritized. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. THE FORENSIC INTERVIEW: OBTAINING COGNITIVE INDICIA IN CHILDREN WHO ARE THE ALLEGED VICTIMS OF SEXUAL ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Muñoz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics surrounding child sexual abuse (CSA, which is committed in secret without witnesses or corroborating physical evidence, make it difficult to prosecute. The analysis and assessment of the cognitive indicia (memory trace thus becomes the primary documentary evidence on which the judge relies. The forensic interview is the instrument by which the forensic psychologist obtains the cognitive indicia for further analysis and assessment with regards to credibility. The present article warns of the potential interviewer biases and procedural errors that can contaminate the child’s narrative production, and proposes a design for the forensic interview process that aims to facilitate the evaluator’s task and minimize the potential biases. The need is emphasized for the evaluator to have knowledge and specialized training in this technique.

  13. Predictors of Response to Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With High-Intensity Face-to-Face Therapist Guidance for Depression: A Bayesian Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høifødt, Ragnhild Sørensen; Mittner, Matthias; Lillevoll, Kjersti; Katla, Susanne Kvam; Kolstrup, Nils; Eisemann, Martin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Waterloo, Knut

    2015-09-02

    Several studies have demonstrated the effect of guided Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for depression. However, ICBT is not suitable for all depressed patients and there is a considerable level of nonresponse. Research on predictors and moderators of outcome in ICBT is inconclusive. This paper explored predictors of response to an intervention combining the Web-based program MoodGYM and face-to-face therapist guidance in a sample of primary care patients with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Participants (N=106) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited from primary care and randomly allocated to a treatment condition or to a delayed treatment condition. The intervention included the Norwegian version of the MoodGYM program, face-to-face guidance from a psychologist, and reminder emails. In this paper, data from the treatment phase of the 2 groups was merged to increase the sample size (n=82). Outcome was improvement in depressive symptoms during treatment as assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Predictors included demographic variables, severity variables (eg, number of depressive episodes and pretreatment depression and anxiety severity), cognitive variables (eg, dysfunctional thinking), module completion, and treatment expectancy and motivation. Using Bayesian analysis, predictors of response were explored with a latent-class approach and by analyzing whether predictors affected the slope of response. A 2-class model distinguished well between responders (74%, 61/82) and nonresponders (26%, 21/82). Our results indicate that having had more depressive episodes, being married or cohabiting, and scoring higher on a measure of life satisfaction had high odds for positively affecting the probability of response. Higher levels of dysfunctional thinking had high odds for a negative effect on the probability of responding. Prediction of the slope of response yielded largely similar results. Bayes factors indicated

  14. Effect of Face-to-face Education, Problem-based Learning, and Goldstein Systematic Training Model on Quality of Life and Fatigue among Caregivers of Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Reza; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Baraz, Shahram; Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Chan, Yiong H

    2017-01-01

    Education is a fundamental component for patients with diabetes to achieve good glycemic control. In addition, selecting the appropriate method of education is one of the most effective factors in the quality of life. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of face-to-face education, problem-based learning, and Goldstein systematic training model on the quality of life (QOL) and fatigue among caregivers of patients with diabetes. This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Hajar Hospital (Shahrekord, Iran) in 2012. The study subjects consisted of 105 family caregivers of patients with diabetes. The participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (35 caregivers in each group). For each group, 5-h training sessions were held separately. QOL and fatigue were evaluated immediately before and after the intervention, and after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of intervention. There was a significant increase in QOL for all the three groups. Both the problem-based learning and the Goldstein method showed desirable QOL improvement over time. The desired educational intervention for fatigue reduction during the 4-month post-intervention period was the Goldstein method. A significant reduction was observed in fatigue in all three groups after the intervention (P training model improve the QOL of caregivers of patients with diabetes. In addition, the Goldstein systematic training model had the greatest effect on the reduction of fatigue within 4 months of the intervention.

  15. A comparison of characteristics of patients seen in a tertiary hospital diabetes telehealth service versus specialist face-to-face outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anish; Gray, Leonard C; Fatehi, Farhad; Darssan, Darsy; Bird, Dominique; Bennetts, Denise; Russell, Anthony W

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to describe patient-related characteristics of those attending the diabetes telehealth service delivered from a tertiary hospital and compare these with the characteristics of patients attending face-to-face visits at the same hospital's diabetes outpatient service. This analysis could inform diabetes telehealth service improvements. To our knowledge, there has been no prior evaluation of a diabetes telehealth service in Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted as part of the Australian National Diabetes Audit in May 2016 for all patients attending the diabetes telehealth service and diabetes outpatient service. The diabetes telehealth service was serving a greater proportion of females, indigenous people and patients with a longer mean duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in the diabetes telehealth service group had a higher average glycated haemoglobin of 9.1% (76 mmol/mol) vs 8.1% (65 mmol/mol) in the diabetes outpatient service group. The diabetes telehealth service had more people with initial visits; had higher self-reported smoking rates in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients; and had adequate access to allied health supports as recommended for diabetes management. Diabetes telehealth service patients had more complex diabetes as evidenced by a higher proportion of indigenous clients, higher glycated haemoglobin and longer mean duration of diabetes.

  16. Fe-TPP coordination network with metalloporphyrinic neutral radicals and face-to-face and edge-to-face π-π stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo-Marijuan, Arkaitz; Barandika, Gotzone; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren Karmele; Lezama, Luis; Arriortua, María Isabel

    2013-07-15

    Compound ([FeTPPbipy](•))n (TPP = meso-tetraphenylporphyrin and bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine) is the first example of a Fe-TPP-bipy coordination network, and it consists of 1D polymers packed through face-to-face and edge-to-face π-π interactions. The compound has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, IR, Mössbauer, UV-visible, and EPR spectroscopies, thermogravimetry, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and quantum-mechanical density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations. The chemical formula for this compound can be confusing because it is compatible with Fe(II) and TPP(2-) anions. However, the spectroscopic and magnetic properties of this compound are consistent with the presence of low-spin Fe(III) ions and [FeTPPbipy](•) neutral radicals. These radicals are proposed to be formed by the reduction of metalloporphyrin, and the quantum-mechanical calculations are consistent with the fact that the acquired electrons are located on the phenyl groups of TPP.

  17. Tablet and Face-to-Face Hybrid Professional Development: Providing Earth Systems Science Educators Authentic Research Opportunities through The GLOBE Program at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, K.; Branch, B. D.; Smith, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program (www.globe.gov). GLOBE's vision promotes and supports students, teachers and scientists to collaborate on inquiry-based authentic science investigations of the environment and the Earth system working in close partnership with NASA, NOAA and NSF Earth System Science Projects (ESSP's) in study and research about the dynamics of Earth's environment. GLOBE Partners conduct face-to-face Professional Development in more than 110 countries, providing authentic scientific research experience in five investigation areas: atmosphere, earth as a system, hydrology, land cover, and soil. This presentation will provide a sample for a new framework of Professional Development that was implemented in July 2013 at Purdue University lead by Mr. Steven Smith who has tested GLOBE training materials for future training. The presentation will demonstrate how institutions can provide educators authentic scientific research opportunities through various components, including: - Carrying out authentic research investigations - Learning how to enter their authentic research data into the GLOBE database and visualize it on the GLOBE website - Learn how to access to NASA's Earth System Science resources via GLOBE's new online 'e-Training Program' - Exploring the connections of their soil protocol measurements and the history of the soil in their area through iPad soils app - LIDAR data exposure, Hydrology data exposure

  18. Haven't we met somewhere before? The effects of a brief Internet introduction on social anxiety in a subsequent face to face interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovitzky, Omer; Anholt, Gideon E; Lipsitz, Joshua D

    2012-05-01

    Social anxiety occurs in a range of social situations, the salience of which is influenced by prevailing modes of social contact. The emergence of computer mediated communication (CMC), buoyed by the recent explosion of social networks, has changed the way many people make and maintain social contacts. We randomly assigned 30 socially anxious and 30 low social anxiety participants to a brief internet chat introduction or a control internet surfing condition followed by a standardized face to face (FTF) interaction. We hypothesized that for socially anxious participants the chat introduction would reduce anxiety of and preference to avoid the subsequent FTF interaction. Results supported hypotheses for most indices. Findings suggest that, at least for the common situation in which internet chat precedes FTF interaction with the same person, such contact may reduce social anxiety. It is not known whether this decrease would generalize to FTF contact in other contexts. It is suggested that CMC might be construed as a particularly useful form of safety behavior that may help in the allocation of attentional resources to process new information relevant for disconfirmation of negative beliefs maintaining social anxiety. Potential clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Face-to-face Education, Problem-based Learning, and Goldstein Systematic Training Model on Quality of Life and Fatigue among Caregivers of Patients with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Reza; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Baraz, Shahram; Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Chan, Yiong H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Education is a fundamental component for patients with diabetes to achieve good glycemic control. In addition, selecting the appropriate method of education is one of the most effective factors in the quality of life. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of face-to-face education, problem-based learning, and Goldstein systematic training model on the quality of life (QOL) and fatigue among caregivers of patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Hajar Hospital (Shahrekord, Iran) in 2012. The study subjects consisted of 105 family caregivers of patients with diabetes. The participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (35 caregivers in each group). For each group, 5-h training sessions were held separately. QOL and fatigue were evaluated immediately before and after the intervention, and after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of intervention. Results: There was a significant increase in QOL for all the three groups. Both the problem-based learning and the Goldstein method showed desirable QOL improvement over time. The desired educational intervention for fatigue reduction during the 4-month post-intervention period was the Goldstein method. A significant reduction was observed in fatigue in all three groups after the intervention (P problem-based learning and Goldstein systematic training model improve the QOL of caregivers of patients with diabetes. In addition, the Goldstein systematic training model had the greatest effect on the reduction of fatigue within 4 months of the intervention. PMID:28706545

  20. Student Preferences and Performance in Online and Face-to-Face Classes Using Myers-Briggs Indicator: A Longitudinal Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seta Boghikian-Whitby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study investigated students’ cognitive personality type using the Myers-Briggs personality Type Indicator (MBTI in Internet-based Online and Face-to-Face (F2F modalities. A total of 1154 students enrolled in 28 Online and 32 F2F sections taught concurrently over a period of fourteen years. The study measured whether the sample is similar to the national average percentage frequency of all 16 different personality types; whether specific personality type students preferred a specific modality of instructions and if this preference changed over time; whether learning occurred in both class modalities; and whether specific personality type students learned more from a specific modality. Data was analyzed using regression, t-test, frequency, and Chi-Squared. The study concluded that data used in the study was similar to the national statistics; that no major differences in preference occurred over time; and that learning did occur in all modalities, with more statistically significant learning found in the Online modality versus F2F for Sensing, Thinking, and Perceiving types. Finally, Sensing and Thinking (ST and Sensing and Perceiving (SP group types learned significantly more in Online modality versus F2F.

  1. 'Intimate mothering publics': comparing face-to-face support groups and Internet use for women seeking information and advice in the transition to first-time motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sophia Alice

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to an understanding of the changing nature of support and information-seeking practices for women in the transition to first-time motherhood. In the context of increasing digitalisation, the significance of new virtual spaces for parenting is discussed. The paper demonstrates how women seek out alternative forms of expertise (specifically, non-medical expertise) and social support. The author argues for the importance of 'intimate mothering publics' through which women gather experiential information and practical support. These publics can act as a space for women to 'test' or legitimise their new identity as a mother. Intimate mothering publics are particularly useful for thinking about the meaning-making practices and learning experiences that occur during intimate online and face-to-face interactions. A variety of types of online support may be used during pregnancy. Surreptitious support in particular involves users invisibly receiving advice, information and reassurance that might otherwise be lacking. Access to intimate mothering publics is motivated by a number of factors, including feelings of community or acceptance, the desire to be a good mother or parent, emotional support and the need for practical and experiential advice.

  2. Face-to-Face Sharing with Strangers and Altruistic Punishment of Acquaintances for Strangers: Young Adolescents Exhibit Greater Altruism than Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Yang, Yue; Wang, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred 22 young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment are related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms, respectively. PMID:27752246

  3. Face-to-Face Sharing with Strangers and Altruistic Punishment of Acquaintances for Strangers: Young Adolescents Exhibit Greater Altruism than Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Yang, Yue; Wang, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred 22 young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment are related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms, respectively.

  4. Face-to-face sharing with strangers and altruistic punishment of acquaintances for strangers: Young adolescents exhibit greater altruism than adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred twenty-two young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment is related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms respectively.

  5. RE-SEARCHING SECONDARY TEACHER TRAINEES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND FACE-TO-FACE MODE: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta GARG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and socio-economic status. Distance trainees outperformed the on-campus trainees on their preference for left-hemispheric styles of learning and thinking, budgeting time, learning motivation, overall study habits, academic motivation, attitude towards education, work methods, interpersonal relations, and on their perception about relevance of course content of theory papers in B.Ed., but on-campus trainees outperformed distance trainees on preference for right-hemispheric learning styles, need for achievement, motivation for sports, attitude towards teaching profession, child-centered practices, teachers, overall attitude towards teaching along with their perception for development of teaching skills and attitude, personality development during B.Ed. course. In academic performance distance trainees lag behind the on-campus trainee in their marks in theory papers, skills in teaching and in aggregate.

  6. Theoretical Investigation of Electrophilic Transannular Addition Reactions of Bromine to Face-to-Face (Juxtaposed) Double Bonds in Strained Polycyclic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasoglu, Rza

    2017-06-01

    Transannular electrophilic addition reaction of halogens to face-to-face(juxtaposed) double bonded strained alkenes were theoretically investigated. General rules that allow us to stipulate the factors that direct the main steps of the energy hypersurface of reactions as well as the products were established. Direction of the reaction flow is determined by direction of intramolecular skeletal isomerisation of cyclic-bridged halogenium cation and isomerisation takes place to create a more stable skeletal structure. Stability of resultant skeletal structure is determined by the number of σ bonds between isolated double bonds of the alkene and bonding-type of double bonds (N- and U-type). When the number of σ bonds between double bonds of the alkene is three (m = 3), the reaction takes place to predominantly give an N-type product, and when four (m = 4), N- and U-type products are formed. Structure and stability of cation intermediates (bridged, N- and U-type cations) of electrophilic addition reaction of homohipostrofen molecule, whose double bonds were linked by three σ bonds, with bromine were investigated by DFT methods in detail. Also the addition reaction of endo,endo-tetracyclo[6.2.2.23,6.02,7]tetradeca-4,9-dien molecule, whose double bonds were linked by four σ bonds, with bromine were investigated by quantum chemistry.

  7. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend

    Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekte...... disciplin gennem en præsentation af dets syv stadier, hvor forfatterne klæder læseren fagligt på til at planlægge og foretage interviews....

  8. Potential of criminological research in evaluation of victim-focused policy and legislation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefunková Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For effective victim-focused legislation, evidence-based knowledge is essential, thus making criminological research of great importance. Victimization surveys represent a globally recognized type of criminological investigation. Although they are primarily focused on measuring the dark figure of crime, they can also provide a broad spectrum of information on victimization-related issues. The latest victimization survey was carried out in the Czech Republic by the Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention in 2013. Through face to face interviews, victimization was explored through eight selected offences in the period of 12 months prior the survey. The representative sample included 3000 respondents 15 years of age and older. The next round is planned for 2017. Since 2013, a new Act no. 45/2013 Coll., on Victims of Crime has come into effect in the Czech Republic. This paper will discuss how victimization surveys can enrich the knowledge on victimization-related issues and how they can help in the evaluation of criminal policy.

  9. ACT Internet-based vs face-to-face? A randomized controlled trial of two ways to deliver Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depressive symptoms: an 18-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Päivi; Granlund, Anna; Siltanen, Sari; Ahonen, Suvi; Vitikainen, Minna; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate two interventions based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for depressive symptoms: A face-to-face treatment (ACT group) was compared to a guided self-help treatment delivered via the Internet consisting of two assessment sessions (pre and post) and an ACT-based Internet program (iACT). Outpatients experiencing at least mild depressive symptoms were randomized to either approach. The iACT treatment group received access to an ACT-based Internet program and supportive web-based contact over a period of 6 weeks. The face-to-face group received ACT-based treatment once a week over the same period of time. In both groups, the results showed a significant effect on depression symptomatology, and general wellbeing after treatment and at the 18-month follow-up. However, the data indicated that the iACT group changed differently regarding depressive symptoms and wellbeing as compared to the face-to face ACT group. Results showed large pre-treatment to 18-month follow-up within-group effect sizes for all symptom measures in the iACT treatment group (1.59-2.08), and for most outcome measures in the face-to-face ACT group (1.12-1.37). This non-inferiority study provides evidence that guided Internet-delivered ACT intervention can be as effective as ACT-based face-to-face treatment for outpatients reporting depressive symptoms, and it may offer some advantages over a face-to-face intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hard to tune in: neural mechanisms of live face-to-face interaction in individuals with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki C Tanabe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD are known to have difficulty with eye contact. This might make it difficult for partners to communicate with them face-to-face. To elucidate the neural substrates of live inter-subject interactions of ASD patients and typically-developed (normal subjects, we conducted hyper-scanning functional MRI with 21 subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD paired with normal subjects, and with 19 pairs of normal subjects as a control. Baseline eye contact was maintained while subjects performed a real-time joint-attention task. The task-related effects were modeled out, and inter-individual correlation analysis was performed on the residual time-course data. ASD–Normal pairs were less accurate at detecting gaze direction than Normal–Normal pairs. Performance was impaired both in ASD subjects and in their normal partners. The left occipital pole activation caused by gaze processing was reduced in ASD subjects, suggesting that deterioration of eye-cue detection in ASD is related to impairment of early visual processing of gaze. By contrast, their normal partners showed greater activity in the bilateral occipital cortex and the right prefrontal area, indicating a compensatory workload. Inter-brain coherence in the right IFG reported previously in Normal–Normal pairs during eye contact was diminished in ASD–Normal pairs. Intra-brain functional connectivity between the right IFG and right superior temporal sulcus (STS in normal subjects paired with ASD subjects was reduced compared with in Normal–Normal pairs. This functional connectivity was positively correlated with performance of normal partners in eye-cue detection. Considering the integrative role of the right STS in gaze processing, inter-subject synchronization during eye contact might be a prerequisite for eye-cue detection by the normal partner.

  11. Combining Recurrence Analysis and Automatic Movement Extraction from Video Recordings to Study Behavioral Coupling in Face-to-Face Parent-Child Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Pérez, David; Leonardi, Giuseppe; Niedźwiecka, Alicja; Radkowska, Alicja; Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Tomalski, Przemysław

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of parent-child interactions is crucial for the understanding of early human development. Manual coding of interactions is a time-consuming task, which is a limitation in many projects. This becomes especially demanding if a frame-by-frame categorization of movement needs to be achieved. To overcome this, we present a computational approach for studying movement coupling in natural settings, which is a combination of a state-of-the-art automatic tracker, Tracking-Learning-Detection (TLD), and nonlinear time-series analysis, Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQA). We investigated the use of TLD to extract and automatically classify movement of each partner from 21 video recordings of interactions, where 5.5-month-old infants and mothers engaged in free play in laboratory settings. As a proof of concept, we focused on those face-to-face episodes, where the mother animated an object in front of the infant, in order to measure the coordination between the infants' head movement and the mothers' hand movement. We also tested the feasibility of using such movement data to study behavioral coupling between partners with CRQA. We demonstrate that movement can be extracted automatically from standard definition video recordings and used in subsequent CRQA to quantify the coupling between movement of the parent and the infant. Finally, we assess the quality of this coupling using an extension of CRQA called anisotropic CRQA and show asymmetric dynamics between the movement of the parent and the infant. When combined these methods allow automatic coding and classification of behaviors, which results in a more efficient manner of analyzing movements than manual coding.

  12. Advantages of asynchronous online focus groups and face-to-face focus groups as perceived by child, adolescent and adult participants: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaanswijk, Marieke; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-10-24

    Online focus groups (OFGs) are increasingly used as a method of data collection. Although their advantages for research have repeatedly been described, participants' opinions about OFGs have seldom been studied. We investigated OFG participants' preference for participation in an OFG or a face-to-face focus group (FTF), as well as their perceptions of the advantages of both methods. We also investigated whether any differences exist between the perceptions of child, adolescent, and adult participants. Participants' opinions were studied by means of a questionnaire completed by 284 persons (aged 8-72 years) after their participation in one of 50 OFGs. The OFGs were conducted between December 2005 and December 2013 as part of 19 separate studies. Chi square tests with p advantages of OFGs and FTFs between children, adolescents and adults. The most important advantage of OFGs as perceived by OFG participants was the possibility to participate at a moment most convenient to them. Adolescents and adults (90.5% and 95.9%) more often reported this as an advantage than children did (30.8%, p advantages of OFGs as a research method. Whereas respondents generally value the convenience of participating at their own time and place, the anonymity of OFGs and the increased ease to discuss personal issues were mentioned less often as advantages by the participants. An aspect that may need more attention when conducting an OFG, is the absence of a fluid discussion, which is, according to our respondents, easier to achieve in an FTF. This underlines the importance of the moderator in enabling a constructive discussion.

  13. The Joint Development of Traditional Bullying and Victimization with Cyber Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.; Kljakovic, Moja; Scheib, Emma; Notter, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11-16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school,…

  14. Victimization and substance use disorders in a national sample of heterosexual and sexual minority women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    Context There is consensus in the research literature that substance use disparities exist among sexual minority women and men; however, few studies have examined risk factors that may contribute to these disparities. Aims To compare reports of life-time victimization experiences in a US national sample of adult heterosexual and sexual minority women and men and to examine the relationships between victimization experiences and past-year substance use disorders. Design, participants, measurements The secondary data analyses used 2004–05 (wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data collected in structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews in the United States. Substance use disorders (SUDs) were defined according to DSM-IV criteria and included past-year alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug abuse and drug dependence. The sample consisted of 34 653 adults aged 20 years and older; approximately 2% of the respondents self-identified as sexual minority (lesbian, gay or bisexual). Findings Results showed strong associations between victimization and any past-year SUDs and confirmed findings from several previous studies indicating that, compared with heterosexuals, sexual minority women and men are at heightened risk for life-time victimization. However, prevalence of the seven victimization experiences and the degree of association between individual victimization experiences and SUDs varied substantially across sexual minority subgroups. The childhood victimization variables—especially childhood neglect—showed the strongest and most consistent associations with SUDs. Odds of SUDs were generally higher among both female and male respondents, regardless of sexual identity, who reported multiple (two or more) victimization experiences than among those who reported no life-time victimization, suggesting a possible cumulative effect of multiple victimization experiences. Conclusions Higher rates of life-time victimization

  15. Sampling and coverage issues of telephone surveys used for collecting health information in Australia: results from a face-to-face survey from 1999 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grande Eleonora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the trend of "mobile only" households, and households that have a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the telephone directory, and to describe these groups by various socio-demographic and health indicators. Method Representative face-to-face population health surveys of South Australians, aged 15 years and over, were conducted in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008 (n = 14285, response rates = 51.9% to 70.6%. Self-reported information on mobile phone ownership and usage (1999 to 2008 and listings in White Pages telephone directory (2006 to 2008, and landline telephone connection and listings in the White Pages (1999 to 2008, was provided by participants. Additional information was collected on self-reported health conditions and health-related risk behaviours. Results Mobile only households have been steadily increasing from 1.4% in 1999 to 8.7% in 2008. In terms of sampling frame for telephone surveys, 68.7% of South Australian households in 2008 had at least a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the White Pages (73.8% in 2006; 71.5% in 2007. The proportion of mobile only households was highest among young people, unemployed, people who were separated, divorced or never married, low income households, low SES areas, rural areas, current smokers, current asthma or people in the normal weight range. The proportion with landlines or mobiles telephone numbers listed in the White Pages telephone directory was highest among older people, married or in a defacto relationship or widowed, low SES areas, rural areas, people classified as overweight, or those diagnosed with arthritis or osteoporosis. Conclusion The rate of mobile only households has been increasing in Australia and is following worldwide trends, but has not reached the high levels seen internationally (12% to 52%. In general, the impact of mobile telephones on current sampling frames (exclusion or non-listing of mobile only households or not

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare e-Feedback Versus "Standard" Face-to-Face Verbal Feedback to Improve the Acquisition of Procedural Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, Wissam; Elsharif, Mohamed; Anderson, Melanie; Chan, Phillip; Beard, Jonathan; Nawaz, Shah

    Constructive feedback plays an important role in learning during surgical training. Standard feedback is usually given verbally following direct observation of the procedure by a trained assessor. However, such feedback requires the physical presence of expert faculty members who are usually busy and time-constrained by clinical commitments. We aim to evaluate electronic feedback (e-feedback) after video observation of surgical suturing in comparison with standard face-to-face verbal feedback. A prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing e-feedback with standard verbal feedback was carried out in February 2015 using a validated pro formas for assessment. The study participants were 38 undergraduate medical students from the University of Sheffield, UK. They were recorded on video performing the procedural skill, completed a self-evaluation form, and received e-feedback on the same day (group 1); observed directly by an assessor, invited to provide verbal self-reflection, and then received standard verbal feedback (group 2). In both groups, the feedback was provided after performing the procedure. The participants returned 2 days later and performed the same skill again. Poststudy questionnaire was used to assess the acceptability of each feedback among the participants. Overall, 19 students in group 1 and 18 students in group 2 completed the study. Although there was a significant improvement in the overall mean score on the second performance of the task for all participants (first performance mean 11.59, second performance mean 15.95; p ≤ 0.0001), there was no difference in the overall mean improvement score between group 1 and group 2 (4.74 and 3.94, respectively; p = 0.49). The mean overall scores for the e-feedback group at baseline recorded by 2 independent investigators showed good agreement (mean overall scores of 12.84 and 11.89; Cronbach α = 0.86). Poststudy questionnaire demonstrated that both e-feedback and standard verbal feedback

  17. A comparative study of teaching clinical guideline for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in two ways: face-to-face and workshop training on the knowledge and practice of nurses in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Majid; Sabetian, Golnar; Ra'ofi, Shahin; Roudgari, Amir; Feizi, Monireh

    2015-04-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most popular nosocomial infections in the intensive care units and the nurse's role in preventing it is very important. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two methods of face to face training and work- shop clinical guidelines in prevention of VAP. In this experimental randomized clinical trial, the knowledge and practice of nurses in ICUs were studied in two groups: face to face training (35 nurses) and workshops (40 nurses) by using clinical guidelines in prevention of VAP in one of the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The level of knowledge and practice in each group was assessed by self-report questionnaire, knowledge questionnaire and also direct observation of practice, before and after training. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, paired t-test, independent t-test, McNemar test, Fisher's exact, sign and Chi-square test, using SPSS 14. This study demonstrated that both methods of face to face training and workshop were very effective. The incidence of inappropriate pressure of cuff in the tracheal tubes and tracheostomy tubes was significantly reduced after training (p=0.001). But, by comparison of these two methods and the relationship between the variables revealed that no significant difference was found between the two groups of face to face training and workshop. Training the nurses is highly effective in preventing VAP, particularly for appropriate cuff pressure, suctioning and disinfecting hands.

  18. Virtually the Same: A Comparison of STEM Students' Content Knowledge, Course Performance, and Motivation to Learn in Virtual and Face-to-Face Introductory Biology Laboratories. Research and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Amber J.; Butler, Malcolm B.

    2017-01-01

    Biology I is a required course for many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors and is often their first college-level laboratory experience. The replacement of the traditional face-to-face laboratory experience with virtual laboratories could influence students' content knowledge, motivation to learn biology, and overall…

  19. Is the web a promising tool for data collection in developing countries? An analysis of the sample bias of 10 web and face-to-face surveys from Africa, Asia, and South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Steinmetz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the sample composition biases of web surveys have been discussed extensively for developed countries, studies for developing countries are scarce. This article helps to fill that gap by comparing similar non-probability-based web surveys (WEB) and probability-based face-to-face (F2F) surveys

  20. Support and reluctance in the pre-substantive phase of alleged child abuse victim investigative interviews: revised versus standard NICHD protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Elizabeth C; Hershkowitz, Irit; Lamb, Michael E; Blasbalg, Uri; Winstanley, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Children's unwillingness to report abuse places them at risk for re-victimization, and interviewers who do not respond sensitively to that unwillingness may increase the likelihood that victims will not disclose abuse. Interviewer support and children's reluctance were examined on a turn-by-turn basis using sequential analyses in 199 forensic interviews of 3- to 13-year-olds who alleged maltreatment. Half of the children were interviewed using the Revised Protocol that emphasized rapport-building (RP), the others using the Standard National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Protocol (SP). When using the RP, interviewers provided proportionally more support than when using the SP, but even when using the RP they did not specifically provide support when children expressed reluctance. The RP promoted immediate cooperation when reluctant utterances were met with support, however, suggesting that supportive statements were valuable. The findings enhance our understanding of children's willingness to participate in investigative interviews and the means through which interviewers can foster the comfort and well-being of young witnesses. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Randomized trial of the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological multidisciplinary face-to-face treatment program on daily function compared to a telephone-based treatment program in patients with generalized osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, N; Hoogeboom, T J; Kersten, C C; den Broeder, A A; Vlieland, T P M Vliet; van den Ende, C H M

    2015-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological multidisciplinary face-to-face self-management treatment program with a telephone-based program on daily function in patients with generalized osteoarthritis (GOA). A pragmatic single-blind randomized clinical superiority trial involving 147 patients clinically diagnosed with GOA, randomly allocated to either a 6 week non-pharmacological multidisciplinary face-to-face treatment program comprising seven group sessions or a 6 week telephone-based treatment program comprising two group sessions combined with four telephone contacts. Both programs aimed to improve daily function and to enhance self-management to control the disease. The programs critically differed in mode of delivery and intensity. Daily function (primary outcome) and secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6, 26 and 52 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear or logistic multilevel regression models corrected for baseline, sex and group-wise treatment. No differences in effectiveness between both treatment programs were observed on the primary outcome (group difference (95% CI): -0.03 (-0.14, 0.07)) or on secondary outcome measures, except for a larger improvement in pain in the face-to-face treatment group (group difference (95% CI): 1.61 (0.01, 3.21)). Within groups, significant improvements were observed on several domains, especially in the face-to-face group. However, these benefits are relatively small and unlikely to be of clinical importance. We found no differences in treatment effect between patients with GOA who followed a non-pharmacological multidisciplinary face-to-face self-management program and those who received a telephone-delivered program. Besides, our findings demonstrated limited benefits of a self-management program for individuals with GOA. Dutch Trial Register trial number: NTR2137. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Face-to-face stacks of trinuclear gold(I) trihalides with benzene, hexafluorobenzene, and borazine: impact of aromaticity on stacking interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipis, Athanassios C; Stalikas, Alexandros V

    2013-01-18

    The interplay of electrostatics, charge transfer, and dispersion forces contributing to the interaction energies in 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 binary stacks of the c-Au(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) (X = F, Cl, Br, I) clusters with benzene, hexafluorobenzene, or borazine were investigated by employing a multitude of electronic structure computational techniques. The molecular and electronic structures, stabilities, bonding features, and magnetotropicity of [c-Au(3)(μ(2)-X)(3)](n)(L)(m) (X = halide; L = C(6)H(6), C(6)F(6), B(3)N(3)H(6); n, m ≤ 2) columnar binary stacks have been investigated by DFT calculations employing the M05-2X functional. The novel binary stacks could be considered as the building blocks of extended columnar supramolecular assemblies formulated as {[c-Au(3)(μ(2)-X)(3)](C(6)H(6))}(∞), {[c-Au(3)(μ(2)-X)(3)](2)(C(6)F(6))}(∞), and {[c-Au(3)(μ(2)-X)(3)](B(3)N(3)H(6))(2)}(∞). In all binary stacks, with a few exceptions, the plane of the alternating c-Au(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) and L (C(6)H(6), C(6)F(6), B(3)N(3)H(6)) stacking participants adopt an almost parallel face-to-face (pff) orientation. The observed trends in the intermolecular distances R in the [c-Au(3)(μ(2)-X)(3)](n)(L)(m) (X = halide; L = C(6)H(6), C(6)F(6), B(3)N(3)H(6); n, m ≤ 2) columnar binary stacks are explained by the diverse intermolecular interactions characterizing the stacks, since the three ligands L and the c-Au(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) cyclic trinuclear clusters (CTCs) exhibit diverse physical properties being important determinants of the intermolecular interactions (consisting of covalent, electrostatic, and dispersion forces). The properties considered are the zz tensor components of quadrupole moment, Q(zz), polarizability, α(zz), nucleus-independent chemical shift, NICS(zz)(1), along with the molecular electrostatic potential, MEP(0), and surface area (S). Energy decomposition analysis (EDA) at the revPBE-D3/TZ2P level revealed that the dominant term in the stacking interactions arises mainly

  3. Developing the Cyber Victimization Experiences and Cyberbullying Behaviors Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.

  4. Psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts among adolescents victimized by school bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Young Rong; Park, Jae Hong

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional school-based study to investigate psychiatric disorders and suicide risk among adolescents victimized by bullying. The study was designed in two stages. In the screening stage, 33,038 middle school students were screened for psychopathology. Next, in the face-to-face interview stage, 1196 participants were assessed for psychiatric disorders using a structured diagnostic instrument. We also collected information about the participants' experiences of bullying and history of suicidal ideation/attempts. The results indicate that adolescents with a history of bullying victimization were more likely to be diagnosed with depression and psychosis than those without such a history. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that bullying victimization was significantly associated with suicide attempts even after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression and psychosis. Bullying victimization is a risk factor for depression, psychosis, and suicide ideation and attempts. The findings warrant an early intervention and suicide prevention program for victimized students and anti-bullying policies in schools.

  5. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Grande, Eleonora; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Campostrini, Stefano; Taylor, Anne W

    2016-04-18

    Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually), included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013). Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013) and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB) of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013): directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD) sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Telephone (landline and mobile) coverage in South Australia is very high (97%). Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4%), rising from 89.7% in 2006 to 96.3% in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431% over the eight year period from 5.2% in 2006 to 27.6% in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of -0.077) in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a mental health condition for both telephone samples. Current

  6. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dal Grande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Methods Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually, included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013. Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013 and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013: directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Results Telephone (landline and mobile coverage in South Australia is very high (97 %. Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4 %, rising from 89.7 % in 2006 to 96.3 % in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431 % over the eight year period from 5.2 % in 2006 to 27.6 % in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of −0.077 in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a

  7. Assessing the Effectiveness of the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol when Interviewing French-Speaking Alleged Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; Lamb, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the flexibly structured NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol for child sexual abuse (CSA) investigative interviews by police officers and mental health workers in Quebec. The NICHD Protocol was designed to operationalize "best practice" guidelines and to help forensic…

  8. A comparative study of teaching clinical guideline for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in two ways: face-to-face and workshop training on the knowledge and practice of nurses in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID YAZDANI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is one of the most popular nosocomial infections in the intensive care units and the nurse’s role in preventing it is very important. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two methods of face to face training and work- shop clinical guidelines in prevention of VAP. Methods: In this experimental randomized clinical trial, the knowledge and practice of nurses in ICUs were studied in two groups: face to face training (35 nurses and workshops (40 nurses by using clinical guidelines in prevention of VAP in one of the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The level of knowledge and practice in each group was assessed by selfreport questionnaire, knowledge questionnaire and also direct observation of practice, before and after training. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, paired t-test, independent t-test, McNemar test, Fisher’s exact, sign and Chi-square test, using SPSS 14. Results: This study demonstrated that both methods of face to face training and workshop were very effective. The incidence of inappropriate pressure of cuff in the tracheal tubes and tracheostomy tubes was significantly reduced after training (p=0.001. But, by comparison of these two methods and the relationship between the variables revealed that no significant difference was found between the two groups of face to face training and workshop. Conclusion: Training the nurses is highly effective in preventing VAP, particularly for appropriate cuff pressure, suctioning and disinfecting hands.

  9. Feasibility of an online and a face-to-face version of a self-management program for young adults with a rheumatic disease: experiences of young adults and peer leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on the self-efficacy theory, an online and a face-to-face self-management programs ‘Challenge your Arthritis’ for young adults with a rheumatic disease have recently been developed. These two courses are led by young peer leaders. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of the online and face-to-face self-management program. Methods Feasibility was evaluated on items of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, user-acceptance, and adherence to both programs in young adults and peer leaders. Additional analyses of interactions on the e-Health applications, discussion board and chat board, were conducted. Results Twenty-two young adults with a diagnosed rheumatic disease participated in the study: 12 young adults followed the online program and 10 followed the face-to-face program. Both programs appeared to be feasible, especially in dealing with problems in daily life, and the participants indicated the time investment as ‘worthwhile’. In using the online program, no technical problems occurred. Participants found the program easy to use, user friendly, and liked the ‘look and feel’ of the program. Conclusions Both the online and the face-to-face versions of a self-management program. ‘Challenge your arthritis’ were found to be feasible and well appreciated by young adults with a rheumatic disease. Because these programs are likely to be a practical aid to health practices, a randomized controlled study to investigate the effects on patient outcomes is planned. PMID:24666817

  10. Exploring individual differences in online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions in case of impending mental health problems: The role of adult attachment, perceived social support, psychological distress and self-stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Apolinário-Hagen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though common mental health problems such as depression are a global burden calling for efficient prevention strategies, still many distressed individuals face hurdles to access public mental healthcare. Thus, computerized Internet-based psychological services have been suggested as viable approach to overcome barriers, such as self-stigma, and to inform the access to professional support on a large scale. However, little research has targeted predictors of online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Objective: This study aimed at determining whether associations between attachment insecurity and the willingness to seek online versus face-to-face counselling in case of impending emotional problems are mediated by both perceived social support and psychological distress and moderated by self-stigma. Methods: Data was collected from 301 adults from the German-speaking general population (age: M = 34.42, SD = 11.23; range: 18 - 65 years; 72.1% female through an anonymous online survey. Determinants of seeking help were assessed with the self-report measures Experiences in Close Relationship-Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, ENRICHD-Social Support Inventory and an adapted version of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire (i.e. case vignette. Mediation analyses were performed with the SPSS-macro PROCESS by Hayes. Results: About half of the sample indicated being not aware of online counselling. As expected, insecure attachment was associated with less perceived social support and increased psychological distress. Mediational analyses revealed negative relationships between both attachment avoidance and self-stigma with face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Moreover, the relationship between attachment anxiety and the willingness to seek face-to-face counselling was mediated by social support. In contrast, none of the predictors of online counselling was statistically significant. Conclusions: Overall, this study identified

  11. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of

  12. Twenty Minutes to Impress: Keys to a Successful Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougaw, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    An interview is a multifaceted and complex process that begins long before and can end many days after the actual face-to-face interview. The process can be quite intimidating for recent graduates or young teachers with little job search experience. This article offers suggestions that can demystify the interview process and provide an opportunity…

  13. Excerpt of the Interview with Mathew Sands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Excerpt of the Interview with Mathew Sands. Mathew Sands Finn Aaserud. Face to Face Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 881-885. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Comparison of Effect of Two Methods of Face-to-Face Education and Distance Education (via Short Message Service on Amount of Following Remedial Diet in Patients Suffering From Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background A large amount of money is allocated to hypertension in terms of remedial and care costs, but fighting against this disease begins with education. Objectives This study has been conducted with the aim of comparing the effect of two methods: face-to-face education and distance education (via short message service [SMS] on amount of following remedial diet in patients suffering from hypertension. Patients and Methods In this clinical trial study, 72 patients who were suffering from hypertension participated. They were selected by the purposeful sampling from three hospitals in Abadan city, Iran. Each of the three groups were similar in terms of age, gender, level of education, marital status, and duration of suffering from hypertension. The first group was under face-to-face education for eight sessions of 30 minutes; the second group under distance education (via SMS; and the third group did not receive any education as they were the control group. The tools used for collecting data involved three questionnaires (demographic data [two parts], following medicinal diet (three parts: MMAS-3, therapeutic lifestyle changes, and dietary approach to stop hypertension, and evaluating the amount of patients’ awareness about their disease. This study applied descriptive and deductive statistics with SPSS Version 20 for statistical analysis. Results The results showed that the mean of examined realms, after interference in both the face-to-face and the distance education groups, had a significant statistical difference with the before-interference mean (P = 0.0001. Inter-group comparison between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and awareness realms showed that there was a significant statistical difference between the face-to-face education group compared with the control group (P < 0.05. However, in other realms, no significant statistical difference was observed between the two educational groups (P < 0.05. Conclusions Having access to

  15. Face-to-face versus telephone delivery of the Green Prescription for Māori and New Zealand Europeans with type-2 diabetes mellitus: influence on participation and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret; Cairns, Simeon; Simmons, David; Rush, Elaine

    2017-11-10

    In Aotearoa/New Zealand, the proportion of Māori who participate in the national Green Prescription lifestyle programme is lower than for New Zealand Europeans. We compared the uptake and effectiveness of two modes of Green Prescription delivery: face-to-face and telephone among both Māori and New Zealand Europeans. Sixty-eight Māori and 70 New Zealand Europeans with type-2 diabetes participated in this six-month randomised trial of the two modes of delivery. Recruitment integrated an explicitly Māori culturally sensitive approach. All participants received lifestyle intervention. Anthropometry, blood lipids and glycated haemoglobin were measured before and after the intervention. The face-to-face approach (first meeting) yielded 100% uptake into the programme among both Māori and New Zealand Europeans. At six months there were overall reductions in weight (1.8; [95 CI%, 0.6, 2.9kg]), waist circumference (3.7 [2.6, 4.8cm]), and total cholesterol (0.6 [0.3, 0.9mmol/l]) and glycated haemoglobin (3.1 [-0.2, 6.7mmol/mol]). There were no significant differences by mode of delivery, ethnicity or gender. The Green Prescription programme resulted in small but clinically favourable improvements in health outcomes for type-2 diabetes patients, regardless of the mode of delivery for both Māori and New Zealand Europeans.

  16. Impact of crime victimization on initial presentation to an early intervention for psychosis service and 18-month outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L; Roberts, Anna; Day, Fern; Reynolds, Nicky; Iacoponi, Eduardo; Garety, Philippa A; Craig, Thomas K J; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia; Power, Paddy

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the clinical and social correlates of a lifetime history of crime victimization among first-episode psychosis patients at entry to an Early Intervention Service and following 18 months of specialist care. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 149 individuals who presented to an Early Intervention Service for the first time with psychosis in the London borough of Lambeth, UK. A range of demographic and clinical measures were completed including self-reported history of victimization along with the type of crime and its subjective effect on the patient. Clinical and functional outcomes at 18-month follow up were ascertained from clinical case notes by a psychiatrist. A large proportion of patients (n = 64, 43%) reported a history of crime victimization. This was associated with significantly higher levels of depression and substance misuse at initial presentation. Being a victim of a crime was not significantly associated with poorer clinical or functional outcomes after 18 months of specialist care. However, non-significant differences were found for those who reported crime victimization in terms of their increased use of illegal substances or having assaulted someone else during the follow-up period. Past experience of being a victim of crime appears to be common in patients presenting for the first time with psychosis and is associated with increased likelihood of comorbidity. Thus, Early Intervention Services should consider screening for past victimization and be prepared to deal with comorbid problems. The impact of crime victimization on clinical and functional outcomes requires investigation over a longer period of time. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Face to Face The Challenge Of Thor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    think that it's a great advantage because I think the leadership positions would be driven by technological capability of the country. Also, we should create opportunities for students to be able to go through what I call the holistic experience. You learn not just the knowledge part of it but also the skill part of it, which is done ...

  18. Face to Face: Place and Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Harrison

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses specifically on three poems: ‘The Driver’, ‘The Slope’ and ‘Incident at Galore Hill’ and the relationship between poetry and place. In trying to prepare the ground for a philosophy which can deal with what he terms the ‘phenomenal field’, Merleau- Ponty spends a number of pages early in The Phenomenology of Perception clarifying what he sees as the limits and traps of several narrowly psychological approaches to perception. Such psychologies set up the observed world as a transcendent domain which maps consciousness as if it were somehow separated out from the world, as if, to employ his phrase, there are two different ‘modes’ of being. In this paper I explore the relations between inside and outside and the perceiver and the perceived as well sensory experience in relation to poetry, in conjuction with discussions of Merleau-Ponty's philosophies.

  19. Face-to-face with the reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel SÎMBOTEANU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the founding of the Academy in 1993, not only the initial and ongoing training of public administration personnel has been initiated, but scientific research has also begun in the field of public administration. In order to facilitate this process, along with other activities, at the initiative of the first rector, the late Mihail Platon, the methodical-scientific journal "Public Administration", was also founded, the first issue.

  20. European Cinema : Face to Face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Onder invloed van de rivaliteit met Hollywood en de val van de muur in 1989 vond er in de jaren '90 in veel West-Europese landen een levendig debat plaats over de toekomst van de nationale filmtradities. Van het bestaan van zich onderscheidende 'nationale' stijlen, zoals bijvoorbeeld neo-realisme,

  1. City face to face with nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, Hendro; Dewi, Mahargyantari P.

    2017-11-01

    Within the perspective of environmental psychology, there are some forms of earth destruction such as global warming, deforestation, pollution, and species extinction. These have been caused by the massive growth of population that inevitably means more housingis needed while at the same time, agricultural land for food production has been shrinking. Nisbet, Zelenski, and Murphy (2009) proposed that personal relationships with nature may provide some insight into the way people treat the environment. In other words, disconnection from the natural world may be contributing to our planet's destruction. In addition, Koger and Winter (2011) proposed green urban planning and green buildings as solution not only for overcoming the destruction, but also they are useful to reduce stress. Wilson (1984) pioneered the term "biophilia" to refer to a fundamental hypothesized, genetically based human need and propensity to affiliate with "life and lifelike processes." Studies have shown, for example, that even minimal connection with nature—such as looking at it through a window—can promote the healing of hospitalized patients; can increase health in the workplace; and can reduce the frequency of illness in prisons. In hundreds of other studies, interaction with pets has shown a wide range of benefits forclinical patients—from adults with Alzheimer's disease to children with autism—as well as for people within the general population (Kahn, Severson, & Ruckert, 2009). This paper is an attempt to collect data regarding the efforts of cities today in adapting to nature, such as Barcelona which tried to control the bird population with contraception;Austin city coexists with bats; dozens of cities in the US which conform with bees and honey, and Masdar city that is designed along with its nature.

  2. Functional status of fracture victims four years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Leung, Aaron; Liang, Qiu; Yang, Xiaotian; Li, Cheng; Yang, Lin; Linda Lindorff, Chengqi He

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the functional status of fracture victims 4 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. A total of 374 fracture victims who were admitted to the rehabilitation department of 5 municipal hospitals in the hardest hit areas in 2008 were interviewed face to face in 2012. Functional assessments, including muscle strength, range of motion, pain, activities of daily living and working status, were conducted. Approximately one-third (33.2%) of the fracture victims had decreased muscle strength and 29.4% had limited range of motion. Among the 55.3% of subjects who still experienced pain, the proportions of mild, moderate and severe pain were 65.7%, 28.5% and 5.8%, respectively. The majority (83.4%) of fracture victims were independent in caring for themselves. However, 1.6% of subjects were highly dependent or totally dependent. Single-fracture victims had better muscle strength, range of motion, pain and independence than those with multiple fractures. The degrees of pain, muscle strength and dependency were worse in the older age group, and better in those with a higher level of education. In addition 17.1% were jobless and 22.2% received economic support mainly from family members. The mean unemployment rate was significantly higher and the annual household income (USD 3,086 (standard deviation 1,985) was lower than in the general population in rural Sichuan province. The prevalence of functional disorders, including pain, limited range of motion, decreased muscle strength and dependency in activities of daily living, remained high among fracture victims 4 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. Unemployment rate was high and annual household income was low in this population.

  3. The impact of professional isolation on teleworker job performance and turnover intentions: does time spent teleworking, interacting face-to-face, or having access to communication-enhancing technology matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy D; Veiga, John F; Dino, Richard N

    2008-11-01

    Although the teleworking literature continues to raise concerns regarding the adverse consequences of professional isolation, researchers have not examined its impact on work outcomes. Consequently, the authors first examine professional isolation's direct impact on job performance and turnover intentions among teleworkers and then investigate the contingent role of 3 salient work-mode-related factors. Survey data from a matched sample of 261 professional-level teleworkers and their managers revealed that professional isolation negatively impacts job performance and, contrary to expectations, reduces turnover intentions. Moreover, professional isolation's impact on these work outcomes is increased by the amount of time spent teleworking, whereas more face-to-face interactions and access to communication-enhancing technology tend to decrease its impact. On the basis of these findings, an agenda for future research on professional isolation is offered that takes into account telework's growing popularity as a work modality.

  4. La comunicación y la asertividad del discurso durante las interacciones grupales presenciales y por computadora Communication and assertiveness on the discourse during face-to-face and computer-mediated group interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Noemí Terroni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se reportan los resultados del análisis reticular en la comunicación, y los puntajes de la asertividad del discurso de los partipantes de pequeños grupos que resuelven una tarea de recuperación de memoria (La guerra de los fantasmas, Bartlett, 1932. El diseño es cuasiexperimental y los 90 participantes alumnos de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, debieron reconstruir la misma en forma grupal colaborativa. Los sujetos fueron asignados aleatoriamente a los grupos y a las dos condiciones (grupos cara a cara y mediados por computadora. Se registraron las interacciones presenciales mediante video filmaciones y las electrónicas quedaron almacenadas en el canal de chat. En general, la asertividad del discurso y la comunicación presentaron asociaciones significativas, con algunas diferencias según el canal comunicacional empleado. Se discuten estos resultados con relación al tipo de tarea y a las restricciones de los medios electrónicos.This work reports the results of reticular analysis in communication, and the scores from the discourse assertiveness of the participants of small groups who solve a recall memory task (The war of the ghosts, Bartlett, 1932. The design is a quasi-experimental one and the 90 subjects, students from Mar del Plata University had to reconstruct the same story in collaborative groups. The subjects were assigned in an aleatory way, to both conditions (face to face and computer-mediated groups. The subjects' interactions in face-to-face communication groups were recorded in video films and the electronic ones were stored in the chat channel. In general, the discourse assertiveness and the communication presented significant associations, with some differences according to the communication channel used. These results are discussed about the type of task and the restrictions of the electronic media.

  5. MO-DE-BRA-05: EUTEMPE-RX: Combining E-Learning and Face-To-Face Training to Build Expert Knowledge, Skills and Competences for Medical Physicists in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, H [University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van Peteghem, N; Creten, S [KU Leuven, Leuven, Vlaams Brabant (Belgium); Mackenzie, A [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); Vano, E [San Carlos University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Borowski, M [Klinikum Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Christofides, S [Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus); Caruana, C [University of Malta, Msida (Malta)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In 2013, the EURATOM authorities of the European Commission decided to support the Horizon2020 project submission ‘EUTEMPE-RX’ that aimed for a new set of course modules to train medical physicists in diagnostic and interventional radiology to expert level with small group deep learning. Each module would consist of 2 phases: an e-learning and a face-to-face phase, each phase requiring typically 40h of participant time. Methods: The European Federation (EFOMP) and 13 European partners, all of them selected for their excellent scientific and/or educational skills, led the 12 course modules. A quality manual ensured the quality of course content and organization. Educational workshops familiarized the teachers with e-learning techniques and methods for assessment. Content was set in accordance with the EC document RP174 that lists learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skills and competences (KSCs) for different specialties and levels of medical physics. Surveys for stake holder satisfaction were prepared. Results: Today the course modules are being realized. The modules cover most of the KSCs in RP174 document. Teachers have challenged the participants with unique tasks: case studies in medical physics leadership, Monte Carlo simulation of a complete x-ray imaging chain, development of a task specific QA protocol, compilation of optimization plans, simulation tasks with anthropomorphic breast models, etc. Participants undertook practical sessions in modern hospitals and visited a synchrotron facility, a calibration lab, screening organizations, etc. Feedback form quality surveys was very positive and constructive. A sustainability plan has been worked out. Conclusion: The modules have enabled the participants to develop their KSCs and cope with challenges in medical physics. The sustainability plan will be implemented to continue the unique combined e-learning and face to face training at high level training in diagnostic and interventional radiology

  6. Separating Interviewer and Sampling-Point Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Schnell; Frauke Kreuter

    2003-01-01

    "Data used in nationwide face-to-face surveys are almost always collected in multistage cluster samples. The relative homogeneity of the clusters selected in this way can lead to design effects at the sampling stage. Interviewers can further homogenize answers within the small geographic clusters that form the sampling points. The study presented here was designed to distinguish between interviewer effects and sampling-point effects using interpenetrated samples for conducting ...

  7. Combined Learning (face-to-face/virtual and the Development of Written Communication Skills El aprendizaje combinado y el desarrollo de las habilidades requeridas para la comunicación escrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ligia Solano Córdoba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of the research project El aprendizaje combinado (presencial y no presencial apoyado por el uso de internet  y su utilidad para el desarrollo de las habilidades de expresión escrita [The Use of Combined Learning (face-to-face and virtual in Developing Written Expression Skills] conducted in 2011-2012 with the support of the Office of the Vice-President for Research of the Costa Rica Institute of Technology. This research-action study was focused on exploring and systematizing the contribution of combined learning activities (bimodal courses to develop written expression skills. Didactic strategies were designed to use forums, wikis, blogs, bibliography managers, concept mapping software, as well as online spelling checkers and dictionaries as means to promote the use of written language in relevant contexts. The total study population included eighty-one students from the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rica Institute of Technology, and thirteen faculty members (ten were higher education teachers, three were teachers of the Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica working with students from the 7th to the 11th grades, and there was a teacher working in both contexts. The outcomes of the project were evaluated through the analysis of products selected, panel discussions with the participant teachers, interviews to the participant population, and the analysis of the researcher’s project journals.  This study concludes that combined learning contributes to improving written expression skills, since it involves the development of skills and competencies to accomplish different tasks related to the access of knowledge on a specific topic to be developed in writing, text planning, text production, proofreading and dissemination of the final product. Recibido 15 de abril de 2013 • Corregido 20 de mayo de 2013 • Aceptado 19 de junio de 2013Este artículo resume los resultados del proyecto de

  8. Effect of Internet-Based Guided Self-help vs Individual Face-to-Face Treatment on Full or Subsyndromal Binge Eating Disorder in Overweight or Obese Patients: The INTERBED Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zwaan, Martina; Herpertz, Stephan; Zipfel, Stephan; Svaldi, Jennifer; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Schmidt, Frauke; Mayr, Andreas; Lam, Tony; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-10-01

    Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the criterion standard for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED), most individuals do not have access to this specialized treatment. To evaluate the efficacy of internet-based guided self-help (GSH-I) compared with traditional, individual face-to-face CBT. The Internet and Binge Eating Disorder (INTERBED) study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, noninferiority clinical trial (treatment duration, 4 months; follow-ups, 6 months and 1.5 years). A volunteer sample of 178 adult outpatients with full or subsyndromal BED were recruited from 7 university-based outpatient clinics from August 1, 2010, through December 31, 2011; final follow-up assessment was in April 2014. Data analysis was performed from November 30, 2014, to May 27, 2015. Participants received 20 individual face-to-face CBT sessions of 50 minutes each or sequentially completed 11 internet modules and had weekly email contacts. The primary outcome was the difference in the number of days with objective binge eating episodes (OBEs) during the previous 28 days between baseline and end of treatment. Secondary outcomes included OBEs at follow-ups, eating disorder and general psychopathologic findings, body mass index, and quality of life. A total of 586 patients were screened, 178 were randomized, and 169 had at least one postbaseline assessment and constituted the modified intention-to-treat analysis group (mean [SD] age, 43.2 [12.3] years; 148 [87.6%] female); the 1.5-year follow-up was available in 116 patients. The confirmatory analysis using the per-protocol sample (n = 153) failed to show noninferiority of GSH-I (adjusted effect, 1.47; 95% CI, -0.01 to 2.91; P = .05). Using the modified intention-to-treat sample, GSH-I was inferior to CBT in reducing OBE days at the end of treatment (adjusted effect, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.17-3.05; P = .03). Exploratory longitudinal analyses also showed the superiority of CBT over GSH-I by the 6-month

  9. A randomised controlled study of the effectiveness of breathing retraining exercises taught by a physiotherapist either by instructional DVD or in face-to-face sessions in the management of asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mike; Bruton, Anne; Little, Paul; Holgate, Stephen; Lee, Amanda; Yardley, Lucy; George, Steve; Raftery, James; Versnel, Jennifer; Price, David; Pavord, Ian; Djukanovic, Ratko; Moore, Michael; Kirby, Sarah; Yao, Guiqing; Zhu, Shihua; Arden-Close, Emily; Thiruvothiyur, Manimekalai; Webley, Frances; Stafford-Watson, Mark; Dixon, Elizabeth; Taylor, Lynda

    2017-09-01

    Asthma control is suboptimal, resulting in quality of life (QoL) impairment and costs. Breathing retraining exercises have evidence of effectiveness as adjuvant treatment, but are infrequently used. To transfer the contents of a brief (three-session) physiotherapist-delivered breathing retraining programme to a digital versatile disc (DVD) and booklet format; to compare the effectiveness of the self-guided intervention with that of 'face-to-face' physiotherapy and usual care for QoL and other asthma-related outcomes; to perform a health economic assessment of both interventions; and to perform a process evaluation using quantitative and qualitative methods. Parallel-group three-arm randomised controlled trial. General practice surgeries in the UK. In total, 655 adults currently receiving asthma treatment with impaired asthma-related QoL were randomly allocated to the DVD (n = 261), physiotherapist (n = 132) and control (usual care) (n = 262) arms in a 2 : 1 : 2 ratio. It was not possible to blind participants but data collection and analysis were performed blinded. Physiotherapy-based breathing retraining delivered through three 'face-to-face' respiratory physiotherapist sessions or a self-guided programme (DVD plus our theory-based behaviour change booklet) developed by the research team, with a control of usual care. The primary outcome measure was asthma-specific QoL, measured using the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Secondary outcomes included asthma symptom control [Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ)], psychological state [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)], hyperventilation symptoms (Nijmegen questionnaire), generic QoL [EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D)], assessments of airway physiology (spirometry) and inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide) and health resource use and costs. Assessments were carried out at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months post randomisation. Patient engagement and experience were also assessed using

  10. A three-group study, internet-based, face-to-face based and standard- management after acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD – choosing the most efficient and cost-effective treatment: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bring Annika

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of Whiplash Associated Disorders is one of the most complicated challenges with high expenses for the health care system and society. There are still no general guidelines or scientific documentation to unequivocally support any single treatment for acute care following whiplash injury. The main purpose of this study is to try a new behavioural medicine intervention strategy at acute phase aimed to reduce the number of patients who have persistent problems after the whiplash injury. The goal is also to identify which of three different interventions that is most cost-effective for patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders. In this study we are controlling for two factors. First, the effect of behavioural medicine approach is compared with standard care. Second, the manner in which the behavioural medicine treatment is administered, Internet or face-to-face, is evaluated in it's effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, prospective, experimental three-group study with analyses of cost-effectiveness up to two-years follow-up. Internet – based programme and face-to-face group treatment programme are compared to standard-treatment only. Patient follow-ups take place three, six, twelve and 24 months, that is, short-term as well as long-term effects are evaluated. Patients will be enrolled via the emergency ward during the first week after the accident. Discussion This new self-help management will concentrate to those psychosocial factors that are shown to be predictive in long-term problems in Whiplash Associated Disorders, i.e. the importance of self-efficacy, fear of movement, and the significance of catastrophizing as a coping strategy for restoring and sustaining activities of daily life. Within the framework of this project, we will develop, broaden and evaluate current physical therapy treatment methods for acute Whiplash Associated Disorders. The project will

  11. A Web-based Tutorial May Produce the Same Cognitive Outcomes as Face to Face Instruction. A review of: Beile, Penny M. and David N. Boote. “Does the Medium Matter?: A Comparison of a Web-Based Tutorial with Face-to-Face Library Instruction on Education Students’ Self-Efficacy Levels and Learning Outcomes.” Research Strategies 20 (2004: 57-68.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Needham

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether library skills self-efficacy levels and learning outcomes of postgraduate education students varied with different instructional delivery methods, specifically Web-based or face to face. Design – Pre- and post-intervention survey comparing three groups receiving different types of instruction. Setting – Department of Educational Studies at a large U.S. urban university. Subjects – Forty-nine masters, doctoral, and certificate-seeking education students enrolled in one of three sections of a research methods course. There were 40 female and 9 male students. Methods – Immediately before receiving library instruction, the three student groups were asked to complete a library skills selfefficacy questionnaire, comprising 30 items designed to measure students’ perceptions of their ability to successfully perform library research. They also completed a library skills test, consisting of 20 multiple choice questions, designed to assess conceptual knowledge, knowledge of database searching, and institution-specific knowledge. The intervention groups were: • Group 1 (Sixteen students – an oncampus class that received a face to face instruction session comprised of a 70-minute demonstration of key library databases followed by an activity that allowed students to practice their skills. • Group 2 (Nineteen students – an on-campus class that received a Web-based tutorial comprised of four interactive modules, requiring an average 80 minutes to complete. • Group 3 (Nineteen students - a Web-based class that received the same Web-based tutorial as Group 2. The survey and test were repeated six weeks after the instruction. Main results – Both self‐efficacy scores and library skills test scores increased for all three groups post‐intervention. Average self-efficacy levels increased from a mean of 68.88 (SD=19.92 to a mean of 91.90 (SD=16.24; library skills scores increased from an average score of 58

  12. 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools Face-to-Face Meeting Report December 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-02-21

    The climate and weather data science community gathered December 3–5, 2013, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in Livermore, California, for the third annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Face-to-Face (F2F) Meeting, which was hosted by the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the European Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling, and the Australian Department of Education. Both ESGF and UV-CDAT are global collaborations designed to develop a new generation of open-source software infrastructure that provides distributed access and analysis to observed and simulated data from the climate and weather communities. The tools and infrastructure developed under these international multi-agency collaborations are critical to understanding extreme weather conditions and long-term climate change, while the F2F meetings help to build a stronger climate and weather data science community and stronger federated software infrastructure. The 2013 F2F meeting determined requirements for existing and impending national and international community projects; enhancements needed for data distribution, analysis, and visualization infrastructure; and standards and resources needed for better collaborations.

  13. The experiences of parents who report youth bullying victimization to school officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James R; Aalsma, Matthew C; Ott, Mary A

    2013-02-01

    Current research offers a limited understanding of parental experiences when reporting bullying to school officials. This research examines the experiences of middle-school parents as they took steps to protect their bullied youth. The qualitative tradition of interpretive phenomenology was used to provide in-depth analysis of the phenomena. A criterion-based, purposeful sample of 11 parents was interviewed face-to-face with subsequent phone call follow-ups. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and coded. MAX qda software was used for data coding. In analyzing the interviews, paradigm cases, themes, and patterns were identified. Three parent stages were found: discovering, reporting, and living with the aftermath. In the discovery stage, parents reported using advice-giving in hopes of protecting their youth. As parents noticed negative psychosocial symptoms in their youth escalate, they shifted their focus to reporting the bullying to school officials. All but one parent experienced ongoing resistance from school officials in fully engaging the bullying problem. In the aftermath, 10 of the 11 parents were left with two choices: remove their youth from the school or let the victimization continue. One paradigm case illustrates how a school official met parental expectations of protection. This study highlights a parental sense of ambiguity of school officials' roles and procedures related to school reporting and intervention. The results of this study have implications in the development and use of school-wide bullying protocols and parental advocacy.

  14. How can young women be encouraged to attend cervical cancer screening? Suggestions from face-to-face and internet focus group discussions with 30-year-old women in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Karin; Tishelman, Carol; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Törnberg, Sven; Levál, Amy; Widmark, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    cervical cancer screening (CCS) using Pap-smears has been carried out for decades and is still an essential tool for secondary cancer prevention. Focus has traditionally been on what hinders women's attendance, instead of researching this issue from a positive standpoint, i.e. what factors encourage women to take a Pap-smear? In this article, we therefore explore issues that 30-year-old women have addressed as encouraging CCS attendance, with particular focus on aspects susceptible to intervention. through the population-based cervical cancer screening (PCCSP) registry in Stockholm, Sweden, a stratified random sampling technique was used to recruit women from the same birth cohort with varied CCS histories and results. Nine face-to-face focus groups discussions (FGDs) and 30 internet-based FGDs were conducted with a total of 138 women aged 30. Qualitative analysis was inspired by interpretative description, to generate clinically relevant and useful data. in general, these women expressed positive views about the PCCSP as an existing service, regardless of screening history. They described a wide range of factors encompassing the entire screening trajectory from invitation through follow-up which could motivate young women to CCS participation, including social marketing. Many of the suggestions related to individualization of the PCCSP, as well as a need to understand the relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical cancer. [corrected these results are discussed in terms of the inherent tension between population-based public health initiatives and individually-oriented health care provision. Many suggestions given are already incorporated into the existing Stockholm-Gotland screening program, although this information may not reach women who need it. New research should test whether systematic information on HPV may provide a missing link in motivating young women to attend CCS, and which of their suggestions can serve to increase CCS

  15. An interview study of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thon, R.; Vondeling, H.; Lassen, J.; Hansen, A.K.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2009-01-01

    An interview study was carried out with the aim of clarifying the reasons for the limited use of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice (GMM) and identifying issues hindering its implementation. A total of 15 users of GMM participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews,

  16. An interview study of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thon, R.; Vondeling, Hindrik; Lassen, J.; Hansen, A.K.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2009-01-01

    An interview study was carried out with the aim of clarifying the reasons for the limited use of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice (GMM) and identifying issues hindering its implementation. A total of 15 users of GMM participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews,

  17. Experience of violence perpetration and victimization in alcohol-dependent patients hospitalized for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Catherine; Hispard, Eric; Chariot, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Alcohol use has long been associated with aggression. However, no causal relationship has been established. Few data are available on both expressed and received violence in problem drinkers or alcohol-dependent patients. This study examined the link between acute alcohol use in dependent drinkers and their experience of violent acts as assailants or victims. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 100 unselected heavy drinkers, admitted to hospital for planned alcohol withdrawal. Questions were directed to: (1) socio-economic status, (2) history of alcohol use, (3) family life, (4) professional events, (5) lifetime experiences of physical and psychological harm, as author or as victim, and (6) other addictive behaviors. Violence was considered when the patient considered it to be related to alcohol intake. A total of 69 males and 31 females participated in the study. Forty-six patients (46%, 32 men [46%], 14 women [45%]) reported to be victims of violent acts while they were under the influence of alcohol. Twenty-five patients (25%, 18 men [26%] and 7 women [23%]) reported to be the author of physical or sexual assaults, or thefts or robberies under the influence of alcohol. Insults to strangers were reported by 21 patients (21%, 18 men [26%], 3 women [10%]). Thirty-five patients (35%, 23 men [32%], 13 women [42%]) were detained in police custody while intoxicated. In this study, received and expressed violence related to alcohol consumption was a common finding, one side of which can be evaluated through interview of hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. La difficile articulation du présentiel et de la distance dans le cadre d'un cours hybride en master Bridging face-to-face and distance communication in a blended learning Master's degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Soubrié

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available La mise en place de cours qui alternent le face-à-face et la distance sont loin d'être monnaie courante. Si l'on en croit (Charlier et al., 2004, les premiers dispositifs de ce type seraient apparus en France aux alentours de 1997, alors qu'ils étaient pressentis comme une réponse possible au tout à distance. Les potentialités de ces dispositifs en termes d'innovation pédagogique commencent cependant à être mises en avant, notamment dans un ouvrage récent paru aux Etats-Unis (Graham, 2006. Deux questions se posent alors : quels avantages présente chacune des modalités de formation et comment faire en sorte qu'elles soient complémentaires. C'est à ces questions que j'essaie de répondre dans cet article à partir d'une expérience d'hybridation d'un cours de première année de master de sciences du langage intitulé : "technologies de l'information et de la communication pour l'enseignement / apprentissage du FLE".Classes combining face to face and distance teaching are far from being widespread. According to (Charlier et al., 2004, the first environments of this kind have appeared in France around 1997, as they were perceived as a possible alternative to distance teaching exclusively. In terms of pedagogic innovation however, the potentialities of these environments begin to be emphasised, in particular in a recent book published in the United States (Graham, 2006. Two issues must then be considered: what are the respective advantages of these two training modes and how can we make them complementary. In this article, I will try to answer these questions, through the analysis of an experimental hybrid module being offered on the first year of the Masters: "Information technology and communication for teaching/learning of French as a foreign language".

  19. Motivation Conditions in a Foreign Language Reading Comprehension Course Offering Both a Web-Based Modality and a Face-to-Face Modality (Las condiciones de motivación en un curso de comprensión de lectura en lengua extranjera (LE) ofrecido tanto en la modalidad presencial como en la modalidad a distancia en la web)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera Medina, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Motivation plays an important in role in education. Based on the ten macro-strategies proposed by Dörnyei and Csizér (1998), this article analyzes the motivation conditions in a foreign language reading comprehension course using both a web-based modality and a face-to-face modality. A case study was implemented as the primary research method, and…

  20. Brief Report: Telephone Administration of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised--Reliability and Suitability for Use in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-King, Jessica; Cohen, Ira L.; Penning, Henderika; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised is one of the "gold standard" diagnostic tools for autism spectrum disorders. It is traditionally administered face-to-face. Cost and geographical concerns constrain the employment of the ADI-R for large-scale research projects. The telephone interview is a reasonable alternative, but has not yet been…