Haynes, Stacy Hoskins
Despite numerous reforms designed to integrate the needs and concerns of crime victims into the criminal justice system, which include expanding programs for compensation and restitution, providing counseling and other services to victims, and increasing victims' involvement in the criminal justice process, critics have argued that these reforms…
Dorsch, Andrea; Keane, Susan P.
Two steps in the social information process model were assessed for socially accepted and rejected children by verbal responses to stories embedded in computer games. Attributions of intent and aggressive problem solutions were correlated with contextual factors (interpersonal context, outcome of game, and story type) and with sex and social…
P. Darnihamedani (Pourya)
markdownabstractThis thesis is concerned with entrepreneurship in general, and innovative entrepreneurship in particular. It contributes to three main developments in the field of entrepreneurship: sub-groups of entrepreneurs, the role of start-up motivations and the role of contextual factors in
Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine
-seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts...
Kuijpers, Karlijn F.; Van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Winkel, Frans Willem
Research has reported that not only characteristics of the perpetrator but also characteristics of the victim influence risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). This would suggest that prevention of repeat abuse could benefit from a focus on both perpetrator and victim characteristics. Knowledge on factors that are within victims' sphere of…
Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political, and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy. PMID:20301020
Michalakis, Konstantinos; Caridakis, George
With the emergence of the Internet of Things, new services in healthcare will be available and existing systems will be integrated in the IoT framework, providing automated medical supervision and efficient medical treatment. Context awareness plays a critical role in realizing the vision of the IoT, providing rich contextual information that can help the system act more efficiently. Since context in healthcare has its unique characteristics, it is necessary to define an appropriate context aware framework for healthcare IoT applications. We identify this context as perceived in healthcare applications and describe the context aware procedures. We also present an architecture that connects the sensors that measure biometric data with the sensory networks of the environment and the various IoT middleware that reside in the geographical area. Finally, we discuss the challenges for the realization of this vision.
Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...
ABSTRACT. Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of ...
Walsh, Robert; Wyatt, Mark
Teachers in various contexts worldwide are sometimes unfairly criticized for not putting teaching methods developed for the well-resourced classrooms of Western countries into practice. Factors such as the teachers' "misconceptualizations" of "imported" methods, including Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), are often blamed,…
Hofmann, K.; Balog, K.; Bogers, T.; de Rijke, M.
Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a
Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo,Claudio; Malta,Deborah
Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school contex...
Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han
21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.
Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua
Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ye Seul Choi; Up Lim
This study empirically explores the relationship between innovation performance and the internal and contextual factors driving technological innovation in manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs...
Bolanle A. Olaniran
Full Text Available We live in a digital world or digital era. Hence, People will argue that not only do information communication technologies (ICTs make e-health possible but rather that it is an innovation advance whose time has come. Notwithstanding, e-health while hoping to create well needed improvement in health care, it is rife with certain challenges which are not limited to e-health literacy. However, this paper looks specifically at e-health literacy. The paper, in particular overviews e-health while addressing the impacts of key contextual factors that impacts e-health and e-health literacy regarding the propensity to adopt and use e-health in LEDCs.
Galán, Iñaki; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Mata, Nelva; Gandarillas, Ana; Cantero, José Luis; Durbán, María
Despite regulations, tobacco consumption in schools is still very common. The objective was to evaluate the relationship of personal, family, and school-level contextual factors with smoking on school premises. A representative survey was undertaken of students in the 4th year of secondary education in the Madrid region (Spain), including 79 schools and 3,622 individuals. The student questionnaire gathered information about personal and family variables. The contextual factors were type of school, perception of compliance with the law, smoking policy, existence of complaints against smoking, and undertaking of educational activities regarding smoking. Analysis was carried out in the smoking population (n = 1,179) using multilevel logistic regression models. During the last 30 days, 50.6% of smokers had smoked on school premises. Having a father with a university education (in comparison with fathers who have not attained any educational level) reduces this probability (odds ratio [OR]: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.96), whereas smoking a larger number of cigarettes (p probability is reduced when there is no parental permission to smoke (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-1.01) and is lower both in nonsubsidized private schools (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67) and in state subsidized private schools (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.09-0.34) than in public schools. A very low level of educational attainment by the father, smoking a higher number of cigarettes, as well as illicit drug consumption, low academic achievement, having parental permission to smoke, and attending public schools are all related to a higher probability of smoking on school premises.
Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.
Karimi, S.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, T.; Chizari, M.; Mulder, M.
Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if
Fulmer, Gavin W.; Lee, Iris C. H.; Tan, Kelvin H. K.
We present a multi-level model of contextual factors that may influence teachers' assessment practices, and use this model in a selected review of existing literature on teachers' assessment knowledge, views and conceptions with respect to these contextual factors. Adapting Kozma's model, we distinguish three levels of influence on teachers'…
Vanderkruik, Rachel; McPherson, Marianne E.
Evaluating initiatives implemented across multiple settings can elucidate how various contextual factors may influence both implementation and outcomes. Understanding context is especially critical when the same program has varying levels of success across settings. We present a framework for evaluating contextual factors affecting an initiative…
Lo, Feng-En; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Lee, Ming-Been; Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Yang, Chih-Chien
Indigenous populations suffer from disparities in socioeconomic resources and health status. One approach to addressing these disparities is by targeting modifiable risk factors such as leisure physical activity (LPA). This study investigated and compared factors related to LPA among urbanized indigenous and nonindigenous adolescent students. This cross-sectional survey comprised fifth to ninth grade indigenous and nonindigenous students (n = 733). The nonindigenous students were matched with indigenous students on sex and academic achievement and used as a reference group. Data were collected through telephone interviews using structured questionnaires. Major items included: demographic characteristics; average time spent watching television per bout; participation in LPA; and stress and depression experiences. With the exception of the duration of television watching per bout, Chi-square and independent t tests demonstrated that there were no significant differences between indigenous and nonindigenous adolescents in the selected LPA-related factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis including terms investigating interaction between ethnicity and the contextual factors included in this study indicated that the following factors were correlated with LPA participation: age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.94], male sex (OR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.19-2.61), total hours spent watching television in the past 2 weeks (OR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.63-0.99), life satisfaction (OR = 2.25, 95%CI = 1.04-4.90), and exercise enjoyment (OR = 3.40, 95%CI = 1.71-6.74). However, neither indigenous status (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.19-5.79) nor any of the interaction terms reached the significant level. No significant ethnic differences were found in LPA participation. LPA was significantly correlated with age, male sex, total time spent watching television, life satisfaction, and enjoyment of exercise. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Although there has been an increase in Performance Management (PM literature over the years arguing that PM perceptions are likely to be a function of PM process components and contextual factors, the actual relationship between the contextual factors and employee satisfaction of PM remains little explored. Extending previous research, this study examines relationships between contextual factors and employees’ PM satisfaction. Derived from the literature, these contextual factors are motivation and empowerment of employees, role conflict, role ambiguity, perceived or- ganisational support, procedural justice and distributive justice. Seven directional hypotheses are tested accordingly through a series of regression analyses. This article finds that these contextual factors, with the exception of role conflict, are directly predictive of enhanced employees’ PM satis- faction at the Thai state enterprise.
Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei
Persistent maternal smoking during pregnancy, reduction or cessation during pregnancy, and smoking initiation or resumption postpartum impel further research to understand these behavioral patterns and opportunities for intervention. We investigated heterogenous longitudinal patterns of smoking quantity to determine if these patterns vary across three maternal age groups, and whether the influence of individual and contextual risk factors varies by maternal age. Separate general growth mixture models were estimated for mothers ages 15-25, 26-35, and 36+, allowing different empirical patterns of an ordinal measure of smoking behavior at six time points, from preconception through child entry to kindergarten. We identify five classes for mothers ages 15-25, four classes for ages 26-35, and three classes for ages 36+. Each age group presents classes of nonsmokers and persistent heavy smokers. Intermediate to these ends of the spectrum, each age group exhibited its own smoking classes characterized by the extent of pregnancy smoking reductions and postpartum behavior. In all three age groups, class membership can be distinguished by individual sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Co-resident smokers predicted nearly all smoking classifications across age groups, and selected neighborhood characteristics predicted classification of younger (15-25) and older (36+) mothers. The design, timing, and delivery of smoking prevention and cessation services, for women seeking to become pregnant and for women presenting for prenatal or pediatric care, are best guided by individual characteristics, particularly maternal age, preconception alcohol consumption, and postpartum depression, but neighborhood characteristics merit further attention for mothers at different ages.
Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard
Young Black men (YBM), aged 13 to 24 years, face a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI acquisition among YBM is due to incorrect and inconsistent condom use and is exacerbated by multiple sexual partners. Sexual and reproductive health is influenced by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social determinants that contribute to increased risk for STI acquisition. However, there are key social determinants of sexual health that play a major role in adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors: gender norms, environment, peers, and families as well as a desire to impregnate a woman. Associations between contextual factors (risky environmental context, desire to impregnate a woman, and peer norms supportive of unsafe sex) and sexual risk behaviors were examined among a sample of YBM attending adolescent health clinics. This study used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial ( N = 702). Parental monitoring was also examined as an effect modifier of those associations. Sexual risk behaviors were the frequency of condomless vaginal sex, number of sexual partners within the previous 2 months, and lifetime number of sexual partners. Mean age was 19.7. In the adjusted model, peer norms was the only significant predictor for all sexual risk outcomes ( p effect modifier for the perceived peer norms and lifetime sexual partners association ( p = .053) where the effect of peer norms on lifetime sexual partners was lower for participants with higher levels of perceived parental monitoring.
Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber
The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…
Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison
The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…
Azeredo, CM; Levy, RB; Araya, R.; Menezes,PR
Abstract Background Few studies have been carried out in low- middle-income countries assessing contextual characteristics associated with bullying. This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. Methods ...
Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah
Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13–15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents. PMID:21471139
Finger, Monika E; Boonen, Annelies; Woodworth, Thasia G; Escorpizo, Reuben; Christensen, Robin; Nielsen, Sabrina M; Leong, Amye L; Scholte Voshaar, Marieke; Flurey, Caroline A; Milman, Nataliya; Verstappen, Suzanne M; Alten, Rieke; Guillemin, Francis; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter S; March, Lyn M; Furst, Daniel E; Pohl, Christoph
The importance of contextual factors (CF) for appropriate patient-specific care is widely acknowledged. However, evidence in clinical trials on how CF influence outcomes remains sparse. The 2014 Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Handbook introduced the role of CF in outcome assessment and defined them as "potential confounders and/or effect modifiers of outcomes in randomized controlled trials." Subsequently, the CF Methods Group (CFMG) was formed to develop guidance on how to address CF in clinical trials. First, the CFMG conducted an e-mail survey of OMERACT working groups (WG) to analyze how they had addressed CF in outcome measurement so far. The results facilitated an informed discussion at the OMERACT 2016 CFMG Special Interest Group (SIG) session, with the aim of gaining preliminary consensus regarding an operational definition of CF and to make a first selection of potentially relevant CF. The survey revealed that the WG had mostly used the OMERACT Handbook and/or the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) definition. However, significant heterogeneity was found in the methods used to identify, refine, and categorize CF candidates. The SIG participants agreed on using the ICF as a framework along with the OMERACT Handbook definition. A list with 28 variables was collected including person-related factors and physical and social environments. Recommendations from the SIG guided the CFMG to formulate 3 preliminary projects on how to identify and analyze CF. New methods are urgently needed to assist researchers to identify and characterize CF that significantly influence the interpretation of results in clinical trials. The CFMG defined first steps to develop further guidance.
Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Araya, Ricardo; Menezes, Paulo Rossi
.... This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents...
Binns-Calvey, Amy E; Malhiot, Alex; Kostovich, Carol T; LaVela, Sherri L; Stroupe, Kevin; Gerber, Ben S; Burkhart, Lisa; Weiner, Saul J; Weaver, Frances M
"Patient context" indicates patient circumstances and characteristics or states that are essential to address when planning patient care. Specific patient "contextual factors," if overlooked, result in an inappropriate plan of care, a medical error termed a "contextual error." The myriad contextual factors that constitute patient context have been grouped into broad domains to create a taxonomy of challenges to consider when planning care. This study sought to validate a previously identified list of contextual domains. This qualitative study used directed content analysis. In 2014, 19 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) providers (84% female) and 49 patients (86% male) from two VA medical centers and four outpatient clinics in the Chicago area participated in semistructured interviews and focus groups. Topics included patient-specific, community, and resource-related factors that affect patients' abilities to manage their care. Transcripts were analyzed with a previously identified list of contextual domains as a framework. Analysis of responses revealed that patients and providers identified the same 10 domains previously published, plus 3 additional ones. Based on comments made by patients and providers, the authors created a revised list of 12 domains from themes that emerged. Six pertain to patient circumstances such as access to care and financial situation, and 6 to patient characteristics/states including skills, abilities, and knowledge. Contextual factors in patients' lives may be essential to address for effective care planning. The rubric developed can serve as a "contextual differential" for clinicians to consider when addressing challenges patients face when planning their care.
Brown, Henry Shelton; Yarnell, Lisa M
Studies of neighborhood context on health behavior have not considered that the health benefits of context may be 'capitalized' into, or included in, higher housing values. This study examines the associations of better neighborhood context with neighborhood housing values. We use the third wave of Add Health (2000-2001) to estimate the association of neighborhood contextual variables and housing values first across then within income types. This is a census block group-level analysis. We find that neighborhood context, especially access to fruit and vegetable outlets, is capitalized into, or associated with, higher housing values. Fast food and convenience store access are associated with lower housing values. Capitalization differs by income quartile of the neighborhood. Even those in the poorest neighborhoods value access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and those in the wealthier neighborhoods value activity resources. All neighborhood incomes types place negative value on fast food access and convenience store access. Access to health-related contextual attributes is capitalized into higher housing prices. Access to fresh fruits and vegetables is valued in neighborhoods of all income levels. Modeling these associations by neighborhood income levels helps explain the mixed results in the literature on the built environment in terms of linking health outcomes to access.
Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line
Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors...... (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints.......% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together...
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.
Klinger, Don A.; Rogers, W. Todd; Anderson, John O.; Poth, Cheryl; Calman, Ruth
This study identified student and school-level factors associated with student achievement on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT), an examination that includes a student questionnaire examining home literacy practices. Linked student and school contextual data enabled the use of hierarchical linear modeling to complete the analyses…
Chen, Jie; Mortensen, Karoline; Bloodworth, Robin
Patient activation has been considered as a "blockbuster drug of the century." Patients with mental disorders are less activated compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Low activation due to mental disorders can affect the efficiency of treatment of other comorbidities. Contextual factors are significantly associated with…
Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Fouad, Nadya A.
This study investigated the influence of two contextual factors, parental involvement and perceived career barriers, on math/science goals. Using social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), a path model was tested to investigate hypothesized relationships between math- and science-related efficacy beliefs (i.e., task and…
Choe, Jong-Min; Lee, Jinjoo
Reports on a study of accounting information systems that explored the interactions among influence factors (e.g., user participation in the development process, top management support, capability of information systems personnel, and existence of steering committees), contextual variables (e.g., organizational structure and task characteristics),…
Rivera Cuayahuitl, Eliphelet; Pérez Carranza, Celso
While much has been written about the use of instructional materials in the field of language education, very few studies have actually studied the impact of the context in the use of materials in teachers' practices. This work shows the findings of a study about the contextual factors that a group of experienced Mexican teachers believe shaped…
Stahlman, Shauna; Hirz, Alanna E; Stirland, Ali; Guerry, Sarah; Gorbach, Pamina M; Javanbakht, Marjan
Our objectives were to describe women's reasons for engaging in anal intercourse (AI), contextual factors surrounding AI, and how these vary by current rectal sexually transmitted infection (STI) status, and to assess women's knowledge and concerns about rectal infections. Between January 2011 and June 2013, we conducted semistructured, qualitative interviews among 40 women attending public sexually transmitted disease clinics in Los Angeles County, California. Women were eligible if they were at least 18 years of age, reported AI in the past 90 days, and were tested for rectal Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Interviews, which were guided by the theory of gender and power, were transcribed and coded to explore contextual factors surrounding AI. On average, participants reported having 3 AI partners in their lifetime and most (n = 30) reported being in a serious relationship with a main/regular sex partner at the time of the interview. Motivations for engaging in AI and feelings about AI varied by rectal STI status. Women with a rectal STI more prominently conveyed the idea that AI was intended to please their sexual partner, whereas those who did not have a rectal STI reported AI more as a way to increase intimacy and personal sexual gratification. Almost all women (regardless of rectal STI status) reported limited to no knowledge about the risk of rectal STIs. Among women, risk of acquiring rectal STIs may vary by reason for engaging in unprotected AI as well as other contextual factors. Providers should consider addressing these contextual factors to reduce risk.
Walker, Lorraine O; Mackert, Michael S; Ahn, Jisoo; Vaughan, Misha W; Sterling, Bobbie S; Guy, Sarah; Hendrickson, Sherry
Guided by the Uses and Gratifications approach, to examine mothers' use and preference of e-Health media, and associated contextual factors. Cross-sectional survey of 165 mothers (White, African-American, and Hispanic) from a stratified random sample. Use of online media about mother-baby care; favorite websites about motherhood and best-liked features of Web sites; channel preferences (Web site, postal mail, text) for receiving three types of health information; and contextual factors, e.g., education. Media use ranged from 96% for health information searches about babies to 46% for YouTube viewing about mother-baby topics. Contextual factors, such as education, were associated with media use. Babycenter was the most frequently reported favorite Web site and rich, relevant information was the best-liked feature. Across three health topics (weight, stress/depression, parenting) mothers preferred receiving information by Web site, followed by postal mail and least by text messaging (χ2 statistics, p used e-Health related media, but use was associated with contextual factors. In public health efforts to reach new mothers, partnering with mother-favored Web sites, focusing on audience-relevant media, and adopting attributes of successful sites are recommended strategies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dorner, Daniel G.; Gorman, G. E.
Introduction: Laos is used as a case study of how factors such as culture and indigenous knowledge must be considered to plan for information literacy education that is culturally and contextually appropriate. Method: Data were obtained from observations during visits to four Lao schools and from interviews with fourteen teachers at these schools.…
The research aims at exploring how macro and micro contextual factors have influenced on the construction of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' identity in education reform contexts in Chile based on sociocultural theories. Grounded theory was used in the methodological design to analyse and categorize data utilizing the ATLAS.ti…
Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.
This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…
Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R.; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya
Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and…
Lopez, Omar; Krockover, Cheri
This study contributes to the literature by examining in more detail the correlations among contextual factors defined by the teachers' technical confidence, lesson planning skills, and the extent of IWB usage in mathematics classroom discourse. The sample for the current study consisted of 134 elementary school teachers in grades K-5 using…
Heerkens, Yvonne F; de Brouwer, Carin P M; Engels, Josephine A; van der Gulden, Joost W J; Kant, IJmert
Many work-related items are not included in the current classification of environmental factors from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Furthermore, personal factors are not classified and the ICF only provides a very limited list of examples. These facts make the ICF less useful for occupational health care and for research in the field of occupation and health. The objective of this discussion paper is to introduce an elaboration of contextual factors, focussing on factors that influence work participation. During the last 12 years, we developed two concept lists from the bottom up. These lists are based on our experiences in teaching and research, suggestions from students and other researchers, and factors found in the literature. In the fall of 2015 a scoping literature review was done to check for missing factors in these two concept lists. An elaboration of contextual factors, consisting of a list of work-related environmental factors and a list of personal factors. Important contextual factors that influence work participation are identified. Researchers, teachers, students, occupational and insurance physicians, allied health care professionals, employers, employees, and policy makers are invited to use the elaboration and to make suggestions for improvement. The elaboration and the suggestions received can be used in the ICF revision process. The development of an ICF ontology must be given priority, to give room to this elaboration, which will increase the applicability of the ICF and enable mapping with other terminologies and classifications.
Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine if individual and contextual levels of work environment factors predict return to work (RTW). METHODS: Baseline data from 52 workplaces was linked to a national absence register. Four hundred twenty-eight persons with more than 2 weeks...... of sickness absence during a 2-year period were identified. Follow up was 1 year to examine three RTW outcomes. Multilevel logistic and Poisson regression models were used. RESULTS: At the individual level, significant associations were found between one psychosocial and four physical factors and RTW within 4...... weeks. Two physical factors predicted RTW within 1 year. Two psychosocial and two physical factors significantly prolonged duration of sickness absence. No significant contextual level risk factors were found. CONCLUSION: At the individual level, both the psychosocial and physical work environment...
Tariman, J. D.; Berry, D. L.; Cochrane, B.; Doorenbos, A.; Schepp, K.
Purpose/Objectives To review physician, patient, and contextual factors that affect treatment decision-making in older adults diagnosed with cancer and relate these factors to theoretical models of decision-making. Data Sources PubMed (1966-April 2010), PsycINFO (1967-April 2010) and CINAHL (1982-April 2010) databases were searched to access relevant medical, psychological and nursing literature. Data Synthesis Physician factors in treatment decisions include physician personal beliefs and values, expertise, practice type, perception of lowered life expectancy, medical factors, power, and communication style. Patient factors include personal beliefs and values, ethnicity, decisional control preferences, previous health-related experience, perception of the decision-making process, and personal factors. Contextual factors include availability of caregiver, lack of insurance, poor financial status, and geographical barrier. The interplay of physician, patient, and contextual factors are not well understood. Existing models of decision-making are not sufficient to explicate TDM process in older adults diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions Clinical studies in older adult patient population using a longitudinal and prospective design are needed to examine real-time interplay of patient, physician, and contextual factors and to better understand how these divergent factors influenced actual treatment decisions. Implications for Nursing Oncology nurses can advocate for a patient’s autonomy during TDM by coaching them to seek evidence-based discussion of various treatment options, benefits and risks assessments, and truthful discussion of the probability of success for each treatment option from their physicians. Oncology nurses must promote an informed treatment decisions that are consistent with a patient’s personal preference and values within the limits of the patient’s personal contexts. PMID:22201670
Karimi, Saeid; Biemans, Harm J A; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, Thomas; Chizari, Mohammad; Mulder, Martin
Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if the model of EI applies in a developing country, namely Iran. We also set out to identify the most relevant factors for EI within this developing country context. Do distal predictors of EI including personality factors (i.e. need for achievement, risk taking and locus of control) and contextual factors (i.e. perceived barriers and support) significantly relate to EI via proximal predictors including motivational factors (i.e. attitudes towards entrepreneurship and perceived behavioural control [PBC])? Data were collected on 331 students from 7 public universities. The findings support the TPB for EI in Iran. All three motivational factors related to EI, but PBC showed the strongest association, which is different than in developed country contexts. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. All three personality characteristics indirectly related to EI via the proximal attitudes towards entrepreneurship and PBC. Perceived contextual support and barriers indirectly related to EI via proximal PBC while perceived barriers also directly related to EI. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
IVÓN PAOLA GUEVARA MARÍN
Full Text Available This study was aimed at testing a proposal relating contextual and emotional factors to prosocial and problematicbehaviors in adolescence. This proposal is based on ecological contextual models dealing with the influence ofmultiple factors on the explanation of psychological phenomena. The study was done on a sample of 239 nuclearfamilies with at least one son aged between 12 and 18 years old. The results showed that the main predictor ofprosocial behavior is the emotional factor, whereas for the psychological disadjustment behavior it is a proximal factor.It was also found that sympathy mediates both the relation between inductive discipline and the prosocial behavior,and the relation between acceptance and this adjustment behavior in adolescence.
California Neighborhoods Data System 16 TABLE 2. Distribution of sociodemographic , neighborhood, and hospital characteristics among prostate cancer...N=567) N % N % N % N % Sociodemographic Characteristics Age អ 16 3.00% 7 3.40% 22 3.90% 45 3.40% 50-59 144...localized disease, this association was largely explained by prostate cancer risk factors as well as certain neighborhood characteristics , specifically
Dunn, C. Ryan
Grief is a natural condition resulting from human loss. It is also a variable process through which aggrieved persons pass and by which a variety of personal and contextual factors can impact the both the breadth and depth. Concordantly, grief resulting from the loss of a spouse is one of the most difficult psychological and social issues through which someone can pass. Among the variety of factors associated with conjugal grief, loss that occurs outside the normative pattern of life events h...
Hsiang-Han Huang; Tzu-Han Sun; Chia-I Lin; Yi-Ru Chen
BackgroundMastery motivation is the driving force behind children’s desire to explore the surrounding world and their comprehensive development. However, disease factors may lower a child’s motivation and hamper development. The aim of this review is to examine mastery motivation in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of contextual factors on mastery motivation.MethodsSix electronic databases were searched (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PsycINFO, Medline, and Airiti Li...
Huang, Hsiang-han; Sun, Tzu-Han; Lin, Chia-I; Chen, Yi-Ru
Background Mastery motivation is the driving force behind children’s desire to explore the surrounding world and their comprehensive development. However, disease factors may lower a child’s motivation and hamper development. The aim of this review is to examine mastery motivation in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of contextual factors on mastery motivation. Methods Six electronic databases were searched (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PsycINFO, Medline, and Airiti...
Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Giatti, Luana; Malta, Deborah; Barreto, Sandhi M
There are few studies about the influence of the context on sexual behavior among adolescents in developing countries, such as Brazil. Adolescent pregnancy and the high incidence of sexually transmitted disease (STDs) among Brazilian youngsters are a public health problem. The object of this study was to investigate whether factors from family and school contexts are associated with sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents. This study used data from 60,973 adolescent participants in the National Survey of School Health. The response variable was sexual behavior, described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected sexual intercourse, had unprotected sexual intercourse). The explanatory variables were grouped into sociodemographic characteristics, number of risk behavior factors (regular use of alcohol, smoking, and experimenting with illicit drugs), and family and school context. Variables associated with having protected and unprotected sexual relations in each context were identified by means of multinomial logistic regression. The reference was "never had sexual intercourse." Approximately one fourth of adolescents have already had sexual intercourse, most frequently boys. Among the adolescents who declared sexual initiation, the most part had their first sexual relation with age of 13 years or younger. Almost 21% did not use protection the last time they had sex. The greater the number of risk factors involved, the higher the incidence of protected and unprotected sex. In the family context, living with only one or with neither parent and low parental supervision increased the frequency of protected and unprotected sex. Never eating meals with the parents augmented the incidence of unprotected sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.60). In the school context, students from private schools were less likely to have had protected and unprotected sex (OR, 0.58 and 0.68). Not receiving instructions at school about pregnancy prevention increased the
Lee, Christine M; Patrick, Megan E; Geisner, Irene Markman; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Mittmann, Angela; Zimmerman, Lindsey
The purpose of the present paper was to examine the extent to which college students underestimate the quantity of alcohol they will consume during Spring Break (SB), and whether individual, interpersonal, and contextual factors may be related to underestimation of SB drinking and drinking consequences. College students participated in web-based surveys prior to and after SB (N=603; 57% women). Overall, results indicated that individual factors (being male, being a member of a fraternity or sorority, previously experiencing more alcohol-related consequences, and intending to drink less during SB), interpersonal factors (reporting friends encourage getting drunk), and contextual factors (going on a SB trip with friends and receiving drinks from others) predicted underestimating peak drinks consumed during SB. Underestimating the peak number of drinks to be consumed on SB was associated with experiencing a greater number of alcohol-related consequences. Targeted interventions designed specifically to focus on underestimation of college student drinking and the impact of SB contextual and interpersonal factors may be an important area of study to reduce negative consequences of alcohol use during SB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calvo, Manuel G; Meseguer, Enrique
The independent and the combined influence of word length, word frequency, and contextual predictability on eye movements in reading was examined across processing stages under two priming-context conditions. Length, frequency, and predictability were used as predictors in multiple regression analyses, with parafoveal, early, late, and spillover eye movement measures as the dependent variables. There were specific effects of: (a) length, both on where to look (how likely a word was fixated and in which location) and how long to fixate, across all processing stages; (b) frequency, on how long to fixate a word, but not on where to look, at an early processing stage; and (c) predictability, both on how likely a word was fixated and for how long, in late processing stages. The source of influence for predictability was related to global rather than to local contextual priming. The contribution of word length was independent of contextual source. These results are relevant to determine both the time course of the influence of visual, lexical, and contextual factors on eye movements in reading, and which main component of eye movements, that is, location or duration, is affected.
Full Text Available To create unique and appropriate learning opportunities and environments and to nurture the development of creative thinking abilities among learners are some of the demands for creative thinking currently expected of teachers globally and also in South Africa. Creative thinking in academic context assumes, among other things, the ability to generate a variety of original ideas, to see different viewpoints and elaborate on ideas. We report on the findings of a quantitative pilot investigation by means of experimental research utilizing an ex post facto design to determine the status quo regarding the creative thinking abilities of a hetrogeneous group of 207 pre-service teachers studying at a South African university, using the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA and a Partial Least Squares (PLS exploration into the relationship between contextual factors and the students' creative thinking abilities. Strong correlations were found among a variety of contextual factors such as the type of school model and culture and creative thinking abilities and also between specific contextual factors such as the choice of role model and socio economic and acculturation factors and certain creative thinking abilities. This research explores a largely unknown field, namely, the creative thinking abilities of a group of South African pre-service teachers of different cultural groups and creates an awareness of the need for the development of creative thinking abilities among these prospective teachers.
Ye Seul Choi
Full Text Available This study empirically explores the relationship between innovation performance and the internal and contextual factors driving technological innovation in manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in metropolitan areas of Korea using structural equation modeling (SEM. Our analysis is based on firm-level data from the Korean Innovation Survey conducted by the Science and Technology Policy Institute in 2012. According to the results, SMEs’ innovation capacity was positively related to technological innovation performance, and SMEs’ skills and technology acquisition is a contextual factor that positively influences their innovation performance. In this process, SMEs’ innovation capacity is a partial mediator between skills and technology acquisition and SMEs’ technological innovation performance. Moreover, the results show that the relationship between government and public policies and SMEs’ innovation performance is mediated by SMEs’ internal innovation capacity. The results imply that both skills and technology acquisition and government and public policies are important contextual factors can increase SMEs’ innovation performance. Based on the results, this study provides implications for policy makers in terms of the policies that provide both direct and support roles in fostering and sustaining innovation, which drives regional economic growth and development.
Claudia Renata dos Santos Barros
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Knowing the reasons for seeking HIV testing is central for HIV prevention. Despite the availability of free HIV counseling and testing in Brazil, coverage remains lacking. Methods: Survey of 4,760 respondents from urban areas was analyzed. Individual-level variables included sociodemographic characteristics; sexual and reproductive health; HIV/AIDS treatment knowledge and beliefs; being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS; and holding discriminatory ideas about people living with HIV. Contextual-level variables included the Human Development Index (HDI of the municipality; prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and availability of local HIV counseling and testing (CT services. The dependent variable was client-initiated testing. Multilevel Poisson regression models with random intercepts were used to assess associated factors. Results: Common individual-level variables among men and women included being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS and age; whereas discordant variables included those related to sexual and reproductive health and experiencing sexual violence. Among contextual-level factors, availability of CT services was variable associated with client-initiated testing among women only. The contextual-level variable “HDI of the municipality” was associated with client-initiated testing among women. Conclusion: Thus, marked gender differences in HIV testing were found, with a lack of HIV testing among married women and heterosexual men, groups that do not spontaneously seek testing.
G. S. Kotze
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide insight into the personal characteristics and family backgrounds that South African grade 6 learners bring to the learning process as well as how they interact with the resources and practices that characterise the schools they attend. The research method is historiographic, offering insights into current conditions. An analysis of content is done through examining evidence gathered from an international project. Gender, socio-economic groupings and other major aspects associated with differences in mathematics achievement among learners and schools are addressed. An overall picture of contextual factors that may impact on mathematics achievement is presented. Although the essential conclusions of the investigation are largely straightforward, valuable contextual information emerged that may have implications for mathematics education within the context of South Africa as a developing country.
Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Sordo, Luis; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Puigcorbé, Susanna; Barrio, Gregorio; Brugal, M Teresa; Belza, María José J; Espelt, Albert
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of binge drinking by regions in Spain and assess the effect of individual and contextual factors related to this drinking pattern in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with data from the 2014 Spanish School Survey on Drug Use (ESTUDES) in students aged 14-18 years (N = 34,259). The outcome was binge drinking in adolescents during the last 30 days. Individual independent variables were socioeconomic variables and variables related to access to alcohol and its availability. Contextual variables consisted of adult alcohol consumption, public policies on alcohol, and socioeconomic factors. Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were estimated, obtaining prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals. The results showed that the prevalence of youth binge drinking by region of residence was similar for both sexes (r = 0.72). At the individual level, binge drinking was mainly associated with the perception of easy access to alcohol (PR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23-1.55), consumption in open areas [(PR: 3.82; 95% CI: 3.44-4.24) < once a month and (PR: 6.57; 95% CI: 5.85-7.37) ≥ once a month], at least one parent allowing alcohol consumption (PR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.37-1.47), and receiving >30 euros weekly (PR :1.51; 95% CI: 1.37-1.67). Contextual variables were not associated with youth binge drinking when individual variables were considered. In conclusion, youth binge drinking was associated with individual variables related to high alcohol accessibility and availability, regardless of contextual variables. These variables explained the variability in binge drinking among Spanish regions.
Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Scammon, Debra L; Waitzman, Norman J; Cronholm, Peter F; Halladay, Jacqueline R; Driscoll, David L; Solberg, Leif I; Hsu, Clarissa; Tai-Seale, Ming; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Shih, Sarah C; Fetters, Michael D; Wise, Christopher G; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Hauser, Diane; McMullen, Carmit K; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Tirodkar, Manasi A; Schmidt, Laura; Donahue, Katrina E; Parchman, Michael L; Stange, Kurt C
We aimed to advance the internal and external validity of research by sharing our empirical experience and recommendations for systematically reporting contextual factors. Fourteen teams conducting research on primary care practice transformation retrospectively considered contextual factors important to interpreting their findings (internal validity) and transporting or reinventing their findings in other settings/situations (external validity). Each team provided a table or list of important contextual factors and interpretive text included as appendices to the articles in this supplement. Team members identified the most important contextual factors for their studies. We grouped the findings thematically and developed recommendations for reporting context. The most important contextual factors sorted into 5 domains: (1) the practice setting, (2) the larger organization, (3) the external environment, (4) implementation pathway, and (5) the motivation for implementation. To understand context, investigators recommend (1) engaging diverse perspectives and data sources, (2) considering multiple levels, (3) evaluating history and evolution over time, (4) looking at formal and informal systems and culture, and (5) assessing the (often nonlinear) interactions between contextual factors and both the process and outcome of studies. We include a template with tabular and interpretive elements to help study teams engage research participants in reporting relevant context. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of identifying and reporting contextual factors. Involving diverse stakeholders in assessing context at multiple stages of the research process, examining their association with outcomes, and consistently reporting critical contextual factors are important challenges for a field interested in improving the internal and external validity and impact of health care research.
McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Schuwirth, Lambert; Artino, Anthony R; Yepes-Rios, Ana Monica; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J
The impact of context on the complex process of clinical reasoning is not well understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework and videos to provide the same contextual "stimulus" to all participants, we examined the relationship between specific contextual factors on diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning accuracy in board certified internists versus resident physicians. Each participant viewed three videotaped clinical encounters portraying common diagnoses in internal medicine. We explicitly modified the context to assess its impact on performance (patient and physician contextual factors). Patient contextual factors, including English as a second language and emotional volatility, were portrayed in the videos. Physician participant contextual factors were self-rated sleepiness and burnout.. The accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning was compared with covariates using Fisher Exact, Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman Rho's correlations as appropriate. Fifteen board certified internists and 10 resident physicians participated from 2013 to 2014. Accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning did not differ between groups despite residents reporting significantly higher rates of sleepiness (mean rank 20.45 vs 8.03, U = 0.5, p diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning, although related, may not be interchangeable. This raises important questions about the impact that contextual factors have on clinical reasoning and provides insight into how clinical reasoning processes in more authentic settings may be explained by situated cognition theory.
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sadeghian, Efat; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Crowley, Maureen
Background: Consideration of patient autonomy is an essential element in individualized, patient-centered, ethical care. Internal and external factors associated with patient autonomy are related to culture and it is not clear what they are in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore contextual factors affecting the autonomy of patients in Iranian hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study using conventional content analysis methods. Thirty-four participants (23 patients, 9 nurses, and 2 doctors) from three Iranian teaching hospitals, selected using purposive sampling, participated in semi-structured interviews. Unstructured observation and filed notes were other methods for data collection. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis and analyzed using the MAXQDA-10 software. Results: Five categories and sixteen subcategories were identified. The five main categories related to patient autonomy were: Intrapersonal factors, physical health status, supportive family and friends, communication style, and organizational constraints. Conclusions: In summary, this study uncovered contextual factors that the care team, managers, and planners in the health field should target in order to improve patient autonomy in Iranian hospitals. PMID:27186203
Chen, Hsin-Jen; Wang, Youfa
Little is known about the dynamics of the food outlet distributions associated with local contextual factors in the U.S. This study examines the changes in food stores/services at the 5-digit Zip Code Tabulated Area (ZCTA5) level in the U.S., and assesses contextual factors associated with the changes. Data from 27,878 ZCTA5s in the contiguous United States without an extreme change in the number of 6 types of food stores/services (supermarkets, small-size grocery stores, convenience stores, fresh/specialty food markets, carry-out restaurants, and full-service restaurants) were used. ZCTA5s' contextual factors were from the 2000 Census. Numbers of food stores/services were derived from the Census Business Pattern databases. Linear regression models assessed contextual factors' influences (racial/ethnic compositions, poverty rate, urbanization level, and foreign-born population%) on 1-year changes in food stores/services during 2000-2001, adjusted for population size, total business change, and census regions. Small-size grocery stores and fresh/specialty food markets increased more and convenience stores decreased more in Hispanic-predominant than other areas. Among supermarket-free places, new supermarkets were less likely to be introduced into black-predominant than white-predominant areas (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30-0.92). However, among areas without the following type of store at baseline, supermarket (OR = 0.48 (0.33-0.70)), small-size grocery stores (OR = 1.32 (1.08-1.62)), and fresh/specialty food markets (OR = 0.70 (0.53-0.92)) were less likely to be introduced into areas of low foreign-born population than into areas of high foreign-born population. Higher poverty rate was associated with a greater decrease in supermarket, a less decrease in small-size grocery stores, and a less increase in carry-out restaurants (all p for trends <0.001). Urban areas experienced more increases in full-service and carry-out restaurants than
Tan, Hwee Hoon; Tan, Min Li
The present study integrates the literature on social loafing and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The authors examined the roles of personality, motives, and contextual factors in influencing the work behaviors of OCB and social loafing. In a sample of 341 individuals working in project groups, with data collected over 3 time periods, the authors found that conscientiousness was negatively related to social loafing. They also found the known positive relation of OCB with conscientiousness. Felt responsibility was negatively related to social loafing. The authors found no significant relations between social loafing and OCB motives.
Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gohari, Mahmodreza; Noruzi, Alireza
Physicians' adoption seems to be a significant issue when comprehensive implementation of Electronic Medical Records (EMR) is considered. This study was conducted to determine the organizational contextual factors affecting physicians' adoption of EMR. This was a descriptive-analytical study in which a sample of 330 physicians working in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences was selected. Physicians' attitudes toward EMRs' adoption have been assessed by a conceptual path model of Technology Acceptance model (TAM) and organizational context variables. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS16 using regression analysis. The final model was tested by structural equation modeling (SEM) and represented by SPSS-AMOS, structural equation modeling software. The results suggest that modified proposed conceptual path model explains about 56% of the variance of EMRs' adoption. The findings also evidenced that perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), management support; physicians' involvement, physicians' autonomy, and the doctor-patient relationship have direct and significant effect on physicians' attitudes toward EMRs' adoption. However, training showed to have no significant effect on PU and PEOU. The present study acknowledged that considerable part of physicians' attitude toward EMRs' adoption is controlled by organizational contextual factors. These factors should be subsequently the major concern of health organizations and health policy makers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Chavez-Yenter, Daniel
Minorities comprise more than one third of the U.S., and research on the correlates and causes of depression, anxiety, and other mental illnesses have yielded mixed results in minority groups necessitating an understanding of causes and correlates of health. Thus, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between minority status, contextual factors, and lifetime Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Logistic regression models were implemented, comparing immigrants to their American-born counterparts as well as to American-born Whites. Foreign-born Afro-Caribbeans exhibited lower rates of lifetime GAD. A lower percentage of foreign-born minorities met the criteria for GAD as compared to their American-born counterparts, and all racial and ethnic groups met the criteria for lifetime GAD at a lower rate as compared to American-born Whites. By using theory proactively and including contextual factors, this multi-faceted approach to health disparities research yielded findings which both supported historic beliefs but created opportunities for supplemental research looking at immigrants and GAD. Key findings were that health lifestyle choices and exposure to discrimination significantly affected the chance of having GAD. Nativity was protective; however, its effect was ameliorated by exposure to discrimination or engagement in alcohol abuse. Thus, this study offers practical insight into environmental factors for clinicians caring for racial and ethnic minorities diagnosed with GAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simons, Lori; Klichine, Stephanie; Lantz, Valerie; Ascolese, Laura; Deihl, Stephanie; Schatz, Brian; Wright, Latoya
This article summarizes results from a survey on social-contextual risk factors and drinking and polydrug use among 317 undergraduate college students. Retrospective alcohol use was a primary predictor for prospective heavy alcohol use and drinking game participation was a primary predictor for prospective alcohol occurrences, while social-contextual factors were primary predictors for prospective drug use. Primary and secondary predictors differed for prospective alcohol severity, alcohol frequency and drug use, suggesting that there are specific risk factors associated with each type of drinking and drug-using pattern. There were also significant differences in monthly over-the-counter medication, prescription medication and drug use among students who participated in drinking games, collegiate sports, and Greek organizations. These results suggest that students who have experimented with alcohol and drug use prior to entering college may be more likely to engage in social and recreational activities where alcohol and drugs are available; therefore college prevention programs should focus on increasing alternative activities to deter alcohol and drug use.
Driscoll, David L; Dotterrer, Bruce; Collins, David; Ogilvie, Kristen; Grube, Joel; Johnson, Knowlton
Abuse of harmful legal products that can be inhaled or ingested is a serious and growing problem in many rural Alaskan communities, and particularly so among preteens. This study analyses data collected during baseline measurements of a 5-year NIH/NIDA-funded study entitled A Community Trial to Prevent Youth's Abuse of Harmful Legal Products in Alaska. Youth in 8 communities located throughout the state participated in a survey during the fall of 2009 to measure the prevalence and availability of harmful legal products (n=697). The goal of the analysis presented here is to compare the contextual factors of inhalant users and non-users in rural Alaskan communities. As reported in national surveys of substance use among youth, participants in this study indicated using alcohol more than any other substance. Inhalants were the second-most common substance abused, higher than either cigarettes or marijuana. Lifetime use varied among demographic factors such as age, gender and ethnicity as well as contextual factors including academic performance, parent employment, household living situation and income. When compared to non-users, significantly larger proportions of participants reporting lifetime inhalant use indicated easy availability of inhalants in their home, school and retail outlets. Users were also significantly more likely than non-users to have consumed alcohol. Results of this study may inform the development of effective interventions in other rural communities.
David L. Driscoll
Full Text Available Background: Abuse of harmful legal products that can be inhaled or ingested is a serious and growing problem in many rural Alaskan communities, and particularly so among preteens. Methods: This study analyses data collected during baseline measurements of a 5-year NIH/NIDA-funded study entitled A Community Trial to Prevent Youth's Abuse of Harmful Legal Products in Alaska. Youth in 8 communities located throughout the state participated in a survey during the fall of 2009 to measure the prevalence and availability of harmful legal products (n=697. The goal of the analysis presented here is to compare the contextual factors of inhalant users and non-users in rural Alaskan communities. Results: As reported in national surveys of substance use among youth, participants in this study indicated using alcohol more than any other substance. Inhalants were the second-most common substance abused, higher than either cigarettes or marijuana. Lifetime use varied among demographic factors such as age, gender and ethnicity as well as contextual factors including academic performance, parent employment, household living situation and income. When compared to non-users, significantly larger proportions of participants reporting lifetime inhalant use indicated easy availability of inhalants in their home, school and retail outlets. Users were also significantly more likely than non-users to have consumed alcohol. Conclusion: Results of this study may inform the development of effective interventions in other rural communities.
Herrick, Amy; Kuhns, Lisa; Kinsky, Suzanne; Johnson, Amy; Garofalo, Rob
Young sexual minority women are at risk for negative sexual health outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, yet little is known about these risks. We examined factors that may influence sexual risk from a psychosocial and contextual perspective. Analyses were conducted to examine within group relationships between sexual behaviors, negative outcomes, and related factors in a sample of young sexual minority women. Participants (N = 131) were young (mean = 19.8) and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity (57% non-White). Sex under the influence, having multiple partners, and having unprotected sex were common behaviors, and pregnancy (20%) and sexually transmitted infection (12%) were common outcomes. Risk behaviors were associated with age, alcohol abuse, and older partners. Results support the need for further research to understand how these factors contribute to risk in order to target risk reduction programs for this population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of context on the complex process of clinical reasoning is not well understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework and videos to provide the same contextual “stimulus” to all participants, we examined the relationship between specific contextual factors on diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning accuracy in board certified internists versus resident physicians. Methods Each participant viewed three videotaped clinical encounters portraying common diagnoses in internal medicine. We explicitly modified the context to assess its impact on performance (patient and physician contextual factors. Patient contextual factors, including English as a second language and emotional volatility, were portrayed in the videos. Physician participant contextual factors were self-rated sleepiness and burnout.. The accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning was compared with covariates using Fisher Exact, Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman Rho’s correlations as appropriate. Results Fifteen board certified internists and 10 resident physicians participated from 2013 to 2014. Accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning did not differ between groups despite residents reporting significantly higher rates of sleepiness (mean rank 20.45 vs 8.03, U = 0.5, p < .001 and burnout (mean rank 20.50 vs 8.00, U = 0.0, p < .001. Accuracy of diagnosis and treatment were uncorrelated (r = 0.17, p = .65. In both groups, the proportion scoring correct responses for treatment was higher than the proportion scoring correct responses for diagnosis. Conclusions This study underscores that specific contextual factors appear to impact clinical reasoning performance. Further, the processes of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning, although related, may not be interchangeable. This raises important questions about the impact that contextual factors have on clinical reasoning and provides insight into how clinical
Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Chance-Larsen, Ken
Exercise is widely regarded as an effective intervention for symptomatic rotator cuff tendinopathy but the prescription is diverse and the important components of such programmes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to systematically review the contextual factors and prescription parameters of published exercise programmes for rotator cuff tendinopathy, to generate recommendations based on current evidence. An electronic search of AMED, CiNAHL, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PEDro and SPORTDiscus was undertaken from their inception to June 2014 and supplemented by hand searching. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of exercise in participants with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Included studies were appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and synthesized narratively. Fourteen studies were included, and suggested that exercise programmes are widely applicable and can be successfully designed by physiotherapists with varying experience; whether the exercise is completed at home or within a clinic setting does not appear to matter and neither does pain production or pain avoidance during exercise; inclusion of some level of resistance does seem to matter although the optimal level is unclear, the optimal number of repetitions is also unclear but higher repetitions might confer superior outcomes; three sets of exercise are preferable to two or one set but the optimal frequency is unknown; most programmes should demonstrate clinically significant outcomes by 12 weeks. This systematic review has offered preliminary guidance in relation to contextual factors and prescription parameters to aid development and application of exercise programmes for rotator cuff tendinopathy.
Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Araya, Ricardo; Menezes, Paulo Rossi
Few studies have been carried out in low- middle-income countries assessing contextual characteristics associated with bullying. This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. 59,348 students from 1,453 schools and 26 state capitals and the Federal District participated in the National Survey of School Health among 9th Grade Students (PeNSE, 2009). We performed multilevel logistic regression in a three level model (individual, school and city). The 30-day prevalence of verbal bullying among these students was 14.2%. We found that 1.8% and 0.3% of the total variance in bullying occurred at school-level and city-level, respectively, and 97.9% at individual-level. At city-level, all factors included failed to demonstrate a significant association with bullying (p bullying than public schools (OR = 1.17, CI 1.04-1.31). At individual-level, male gender, younger age, not living with both parents, exposed to domestic violence, under or overweight were all associated with bullying. All socioeconomic indicators assessed contributed little to explain the variance in bullying at individual, school or city-level. Population subgroups at risk identified according to their individual profile could be targeted in future interventions in Brazil.
Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hyde, Luke W
A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on 'limited prosocial emotions' (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10-12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10-12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10-12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10-12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment.
Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J; Naughton, Geraldine; Cole, Michael H; Johnston, Rich D; Dawson, Brian
Given the recent growth of the professional status among multiple female football codes, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of contextual factors on activity profiles and pacing strategies in female Australian football players. Thirty-five female Australian football players participated in this study. Global positioning system analysis was completed over one competitive season. Matches were separated into eight 10-minute periods. Greater distances were covered during the first half irrespective of playing position (ES = 0.39-0.50, Likelihood ≥90%). Throughout a number of periods half-backs (defensive players) covered greater distances during losses (ES ≥0.74, Likelihood ≥92%) and against Top 3 opponents (ES ≥1.0, Likelihood ≥ 97%). Midfielders and half-backs covered greater distances (ES ≥ 0.49, Likelihood ≥89%) in the final match period in winning compared with losing matches. A reduction in player work-rate is evident during the second half of matches. The influence of contextual factors varied across positional groups. However, it is clear coaches could use player rotation both early in the match in an attempt to delay the effect of fatigue and more frequently during the second half to increase running intensity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Programs to encourage smokers to quit smoking tobacco have been implemented worldwide and are generally viewed as an effective public health intervention program. However, few studies have examined the social factors that influence a smoker’s intention to quit smoking. This study investigated the socio-contextual factors that are associated with the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in South Korea. Methods Data were obtained from a 2014 nationally representative panel that examined the influences of mass media on the health of the Korean population. Members of this panel were recruited using a mixed-method sampling and a combination of random digit dial and address-based sampling designs. Survey questions were based on those used in previous studies that assessed the effects of social context, including mass media and social capital, on health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of the answers of 313 male smokers were undertaken. Results Male smokers who participated in community-based activities were 2.45 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–6.82. In addition, male smokers who participated in informal social gathering networks were 2.38 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % CI: 1.11–5.10. Moreover, male smokers with high smartphone use were 1.93 times more likely than smokers with low smartphone use to intend to quit smoking within one year (95 % CI: 1.07–3.46. Conclusions A supportive environment that enables male smokers to access beneficial health information and that encourages them to quit smoking is necessary for a stop-smoking program to be effective. The result of this study contribute to establishing a new smoking control policy by identifying socio-contextual factors related to the intention to quit smoking.
Programs to encourage smokers to quit smoking tobacco have been implemented worldwide and are generally viewed as an effective public health intervention program. However, few studies have examined the social factors that influence a smoker's intention to quit smoking. This study investigated the socio-contextual factors that are associated with the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in South Korea. Data were obtained from a 2014 nationally representative panel that examined the influences of mass media on the health of the Korean population. Members of this panel were recruited using a mixed-method sampling and a combination of random digit dial and address-based sampling designs. Survey questions were based on those used in previous studies that assessed the effects of social context, including mass media and social capital, on health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of the answers of 313 male smokers were undertaken. Male smokers who participated in community-based activities were 2.45 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-6.82). In addition, male smokers who participated in informal social gathering networks were 2.38 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % CI: 1.11-5.10). Moreover, male smokers with high smartphone use were 1.93 times more likely than smokers with low smartphone use to intend to quit smoking within one year (95 % CI: 1.07-3.46). A supportive environment that enables male smokers to access beneficial health information and that encourages them to quit smoking is necessary for a stop-smoking program to be effective. The result of this study contribute to establishing a new smoking control policy by identifying socio-contextual factors related to the intention to quit smoking.
Ali Akbar Ahmadi
Full Text Available This research examines contextual, structural and organizational factors, which can facilitate or slow down adoption of innovation in Electronic Banking in the financial Institutions. Three-dimensional model co-structure, co-behavioral, contextual (3C is used in this research. This schema is a logical model in the categories of models and many of concepts, events and organizational phenomena can be examined. Structural factors including type of the organization of institution, work distribution, preparing mobilization of resources and equipment and risk of decision-making sophistication influence on adoption of Electronic Banking. There are four contextual factors, which contribute in adoption of Electronic Banking including goals, strategies, culture and common norms. The five Behavioral Factors, which affect on electronic banking are connections and relations, skills and personal characters of employees, education, job satisfaction and banking work process. By studying the mentioned factors, we have realized that contextual factors plays important role on adoption of electronic Banking by employee and the behavioral and structural factors have minor impacts. The mentioned proposals are methods, which facilitate the adoption of electronic banking in the country.
Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric; Sauer, Carsten
Enhancing cognitive performance with substances--especially prescription drugs--is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances.
Full Text Available Enhancing cognitive performance with substances--especially prescription drugs--is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances.
Rubie-Davies, Christine M; Flint, Annaline; McDonald, Lyn G
There is a plethora of research around student beliefs and their contribution to student outcomes. However, there is less research in relation to teacher beliefs. Teacher factors are important to consider since beliefs mould thoughts and resultant instructional behaviours that, in turn, can contribute to student outcomes. The purpose of this research was to explore relationships between the teacher characteristics of gender and teaching experience, school contextual variables (socio-economic level of school and class level), and three teacher socio-psychological variables: class level teacher expectations, teacher efficacy, and teacher goal orientation. The participants were 68 male and female teachers with varying experience, from schools in a variety of socio-economic areas and from rural and urban locations within New Zealand. Teachers completed a questionnaire containing items related to teacher efficacy and goal orientation in reading. They also completed a teacher expectation survey. Reading achievement data were collected on students. Interrelationships were explored between teacher socio-psychological beliefs and the teacher and school factors included in the study. Mastery-oriented beliefs predicted teacher efficacy for student engagement and classroom management. The socio-economic level of the school and teacher gender predicted teacher efficacy for engagement, classroom management, instructional strategies, and a mastery goal orientation. Being male predicted a performance goal orientation. Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual variables can result in differences in teacher instructional practices and differing classroom climates. Further investigation of these variables is important since differences in teachers contribute to differences in student outcomes. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard
Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions' drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking-social and conformity motives-showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking-enhancement and coping motives-demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future microlongitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
O'Hara, Ross E.; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard
Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions’ drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking—social and conformity motives—showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking—enhancement and coping motives—demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future micro-longitudinal studies. PMID:25546143
Agus Joko Pitoyo
Full Text Available Violence against women is a criminal act. It involves not only in personal domain, but also within social arenas. It could be happened in social life, such as the fact of sexual harassment at work. Through qualitative retrospective cross-sectional methods, the study aimed to explore the contextual factors of sexual harassment which have occurred overseas among women migrant workers from Ponorogo, East Java, Indonesia. Several factors altogether were identi ed as logical elements contributing to the existence of sexual harassment, composed of personal factors, relationship, working environment and structural regulation. The poor mechanism of placing Indonesian workers overseas was also perceived as an exacerbating factor to the presence of the conducts. Sexual harassment was more likely happened for female migrants in young age, low skill, and poor language in host countries. Several kinds of dependencies upon employers, such as administrative dependency, social and economic dependencies, and the existence of con ict at work were identi ed as other precipitating factors to the malpractice.
Brock, Rebecca L; Lawrence, Erika
Recent research indicates that receiving too much support from one's spouse (i.e., overprovision of support) is actually more detrimental to marriage than not receiving enough support. The principal goal of the present study was to develop a novel framework for explaining the pathways through which couples experience overprovision of support in their marriages. Intrapersonal factors (anxious and avoidant attachment), interpersonal factors (conflict management and emotional intimacy), and contextual factors (stress originating outside of the marriage) were assessed during the transition into marriage as potential risk factors for experiencing higher levels of support overprovision during the first 5 years of marriage in a sample of 103 couples using growth curve analytic techniques. To the extent that (a) husbands were higher in avoidant attachment, (b) husbands reported greater chronic role strain, and (c) couples had lower levels of emotional intimacy, support overprovision was greater for both husbands and wives. In addition, emotional intimacy (lower levels) was a partial pathway through which husband avoidant attachment contributed to support overprovision. Finally, factors placing couples at risk for support overprovision in their marriages appear to be distinct from those increasing the risk for support underprovision. The potential for results to inform contemporary marital theories and marital preparation programs is discussed.
Background Little is known about the dynamics of the food outlet distributions associated with local contextual factors in the U.S. This study examines the changes in food stores/services at the 5-digit Zip Code Tabulated Area (ZCTA5) level in the U.S., and assesses contextual factors associated with the changes. Methods Data from 27,878 ZCTA5s in the contiguous United States without an extreme change in the number of 6 types of food stores/services (supermarkets, small-size grocery stores, convenience stores, fresh/specialty food markets, carry-out restaurants, and full-service restaurants) were used. ZCTA5s’ contextual factors were from the 2000 Census. Numbers of food stores/services were derived from the Census Business Pattern databases. Linear regression models assessed contextual factors’ influences (racial/ethnic compositions, poverty rate, urbanization level, and foreign-born population%) on 1-year changes in food stores/services during 2000–2001, adjusted for population size, total business change, and census regions. Results Small-size grocery stores and fresh/specialty food markets increased more and convenience stores decreased more in Hispanic-predominant than other areas. Among supermarket-free places, new supermarkets were less likely to be introduced into black-predominant than white-predominant areas (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30-0.92). However, among areas without the following type of store at baseline, supermarket (OR = 0.48 (0.33-0.70)), small-size grocery stores (OR = 1.32 (1.08-1.62)), and fresh/specialty food markets (OR = 0.70 (0.53-0.92)) were less likely to be introduced into areas of low foreign-born population than into areas of high foreign-born population. Higher poverty rate was associated with a greater decrease in supermarket, a less decrease in small-size grocery stores, and a less increase in carry-out restaurants (all p for trends <0.001). Urban areas experienced more increases in full
In the developing world, little is known about the risk and precipitating factors for abortion, due to a dearth of community-based surveys. Most analyses of determinants of induced abortion consider only a small set of household and individual socio-demographic factors and treat abortion as an isolated outcome, which ignores its relationship with prior reproductive health behaviours and experiences. In this paper, data from a cross-sectional survey of abortion knowledge, attitudes and practices among 2571 currently married women of reproductive age in Rajasthan, India, were used to examine contextual-, household- and individual-level determinants of abortion. Bivariate probit models, which jointly determine the probability of pregnancy and the conditional probability of abortion, were used to reflect the probability of abortion as a result of interrelated and sequential events. Increased socioeconomic status and life-cycle factors were associated with both the probability of pregnancy and with the conditional likelihood of abortion. Women who reported personal networks were also more likely to terminate pregnancies, particularly if their network members purportedly had abortion experience. Community knowledge of sex-selective abortion also exerted a significant positive effect on the propensity to terminate a pregnancy. For rural women only, community beliefs regarding spousal consent requirements pre-abortion were also significantly associated with abortion.
O'Gorman, Eva; Salmon, Nancy; Murphy, Carol-Anne
Early school leaving is an international concern. Previous research indicates that the school context contributes to early school leaving. This systematic review is aimed to gather marginalised young peoples' perceptions concerning contextual factors that contributed to and interfered with their decisions to stay in alternative education.…
Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the influence of contextual factors on information seeking behavior. This survey investigates search tactics used and users’ perceptions of the search results on the Web by postgraduate students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted through a mixed method. Thirty postgraduate students voluntarily participated. The study was carried out in the first semester of the academic year 2012-2013. The data was gathered using two questionnaires and log files recorded with Camtasia Studio software. The findings indicated more than half of the participants (53.3 percent used Google, short queries were more used than long queries, advanced search options were used rarely (23 percent, and the participants view few search result pages. According to the results, the contextual factors significantly influenced the search time, search tactics (including querying and navigating and users’ perceptions of the search results (including ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction and relevance judgment. Navigating tactic was primarily used by the participants. Among different aspects of users’ perceptions of the search results, ease of use and relevance judgments were significantly different based on the contextual factors, whereas scanning, extracting, and confidence were less affected by the contextual factors. The findings suggest practical implications for information retrieval systems designers that can design of systems with better user interface in order to meet the needs of users with different knowledge and skills, in this way it leads in promotion of search process and improvement of search results quality.
Spicer, Justina Judy
using the results for chapters two and three to identify aspects of engagement and learning in science. These findings motivate a set of variables and analytic approach that is undertaken in chapter four. Specifically, the questions how engagement influences experiences in ninth grade science and students' interest in pursuing a career in STEM using the HSLS:09 data. This multifaceted study contributes to the conceptualization of student engagement, and will help bring clarity to the relationship among engagement, context, and long-term outcomes in science. Engagement is more than being on-task or paying attention, but is a condition influenced by many factors including student background, the learning context of the classroom, teacher characteristics, and the features of instruction. Understanding this relationship between engagement and contextual factors is helpful in uncovering teacher actions and instructional activities that may elicit higher engagement in science classes. These findings highlight the importance of science instruction using more cognitively-demanding activities, such as problem-based learning.
Calvo, Manuel G; Meseguer, Enrique
The independent and the combined influence of word length, word frequency, and contextual predictability on eye movements in reading was examined across processing stages under two priming-context conditions...
Raboisson, D; Cahuzac, E; Sans, P; Allaire, G
Dairy cow mortality causes financial loss and is increasing over time; it indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare. To describe the herd-level and contextual factors affecting cow mortality, the French National Bovine Dataset Identification was used to create dairy, beef, or fattening units within farms, for 2005 and 2006. Mortality rate (MO-RA, outcome variable) and most variables were calculated at the unit level, whereas contextual variables were defined at the municipality level [cattle density, inhabitant density, agricultural land always with grass on overall agricultural land (ALWG/OAL)]. The localization (11 dairy production areas, representative of the farming systems) was also included. The statistical analysis was performed with a probit regression model (MO-RA=0 or>0) and with a linear model corrected by the Heckman method for bias sample selection. For 2005 and 2006, 3.8 and 3.7 million dairy cow-years, 101,445 and 96,954 dairy units, and 141,677 and 143,424 deaths were recorded, respectively. Over one-third of the units had no dairy cow mortality in 2005 or 2006. Overall MO-RA was 3.7 and 3.8% for 2005 and 2006, respectively. Restricted MO-RA (farms without death excluded) was 5.8% for 2005 and 2006. The correlation of MO-RA among units between the 2 yr was 0.25. The same effects and close estimate values were reported for 2005 and 2006 with both models. Mortality rate was positively associated with the number of cow-years, having a beef unit in addition to a dairy unit, the proportion of purchased cows, the proportion of first-calving cows, the average calving interval, being a Milk Control Program member, inhabitant density, not being in dairy production area Grand-Ouest, and ALWG/OAL. Negative associations were reported for breed other than Holstein, being a Good Breeding Practices member, having a calving peak in autumn, culling rate, and municipal cattle density. This study reports an average mortality rate for the French dairy cows. It
Gatta, Michela; Miscioscia, Marina; Svanellini, Lorenza; Peraro, Chiara; Simonelli, Alessandra
Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i) comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii) observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii) assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions. 78 families are recruited: 39 families with preterm children (M = 19,8 months, SD = 11,05) and 39 families with full-term children (M = 19,66 months; SD = 13,10). Results show that families with preterm children display a low quality of mother-father-child interactions. After six months, family interactions result is generally stable, except for some LTP-scales reflecting a hard adjustment of parenting style to the evolution of the child. In families with preterm children, the parenting stress seemed to be correlated with the quality of mother-father-child interactions.
Full Text Available Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions. 78 families are recruited: 39 families with preterm children (M = 19,8 months, SD = 11,05 and 39 families with full-term children (M = 19,66 months; SD = 13,10. Results show that families with preterm children display a low quality of mother-father-child interactions. After six months, family interactions result is generally stable, except for some LTP-scales reflecting a hard adjustment of parenting style to the evolution of the child. In families with preterm children, the parenting stress seemed to be correlated with the quality of mother-father-child interactions.
Van Cleemput, Katrien; Vandebosch, Heidi; Pabian, Sara
In this article, we investigated several determinants of bystanders' reactive behaviors when confronted with cyberbullying using self-reported data from 2,333 Flemish 9-16 year olds. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents that had joined in on the cyberbullying were older, had lower levels of empathy and were more likely to have been involved in cyberbullying or traditional bullying as perpetrators. Adolescents who had helped the victim were younger, had higher levels of empathy and were more likely to have been a victim of cyberbullying or traditional bullying in the past months. Adolescents that did nothing when they witnessed cyberbullying, were also older, showed lower levels of empathy and were less likely to have been a victim of traditional bullying. Social anxiety was not related to joining in, helping and remaining passive. In the second part of the analysis, we found that bystanders' passive behavior could be explained in more detail by moral disengagement theory and other contextual factors. In the discussion, the implications of the findings for research on cyberbullying are addressed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Powell, Lisa M; Han, Euna; Chaloupka, Frank J
Adolescents have poor dietary behaviors and high overweight prevalence. Economic contextual factors such as food prices and food store and restaurant availability are hypothesized and increasingly being explored empirically as contributors to the obesity epidemic. Evidence showed that healthful compared with less healthful foods increasingly cost more and that fast food restaurants are increasingly available. In addition, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities have been documented in access to food outlets, particularly chain supermarkets, and such disparities have been shown to be increasing recently. Empirical evidence based on nationally representative U.S. adolescent data revealed that lower fruit and vegetable prices, higher fast food prices, and greater supermarket availability were related to higher fruit and vegetable consumption and lower BMI, in particular for BMI among teens who are overweight or at risk for overweight and who are low- to middle-socioeconomic status. The availability of fast food restaurants was not associated with youth BMI. Overall, this research implies that pricing interventions of taxes on energy-dense foods such as fast food and/or subsidies to healthful foods such as fruits and vegetables and policy efforts to improve access to supermarkets may help to improve adolescent weight outcomes.
Full Text Available BackgroundMastery motivation is the driving force behind children’s desire to explore the surrounding world and their comprehensive development. However, disease factors may lower a child’s motivation and hamper development. The aim of this review is to examine mastery motivation in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP and the impact of contextual factors on mastery motivation.MethodsSix electronic databases were searched (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PsycINFO, Medline, and Airiti Library using the keywords “Activity,” “Cerebral Palsy,” “Preschool,” “Motivation,” “Mastery motivation,” “Gross motor,” and “Toddler.” We reviewed six observational studies and one interventional study for the following features: (1 participants’ characteristics; (2 assessment, observation, and intervention methods; (3 findings.ResultsOf the seven studies, three were individual cohort studies and four were individual case–control studies. There were two types of motivation-related measures, standardized measurements and observations of structured tasks or free play. Three studies showed no significant difference in mastery motivation between children with and those without CP when given mental-age-appropriate tasks of moderate difficulty. However, environmental factors including social experience, family interaction, and caregivers’ perceptions may affect motivation in preschool children with CP.ConclusionCurrent studies on mastery motivation in preschool children with CP are very limited, and the lack of a universal, theory-based definition of mastery motivation and common assessment frameworks makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions on mastery motivation in children with CP. Future studies should investigate mastery motivation with rigorous study designs to identify ideal activities and environments for preschool children with CP.
Huang, Hsiang-Han; Sun, Tzu-Han; Lin, Chia-I; Chen, Yi-Ru
Mastery motivation is the driving force behind children's desire to explore the surrounding world and their comprehensive development. However, disease factors may lower a child's motivation and hamper development. The aim of this review is to examine mastery motivation in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of contextual factors on mastery motivation. Six electronic databases were searched (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PsycINFO, Medline, and Airiti Library) using the keywords "Activity," "Cerebral Palsy," "Preschool," "Motivation," "Mastery motivation," "Gross motor," and "Toddler." We reviewed six observational studies and one interventional study for the following features: (1) participants' characteristics; (2) assessment, observation, and intervention methods; (3) findings. Of the seven studies, three were individual cohort studies and four were individual case-control studies. There were two types of motivation-related measures, standardized measurements and observations of structured tasks or free play. Three studies showed no significant difference in mastery motivation between children with and those without CP when given mental-age-appropriate tasks of moderate difficulty. However, environmental factors including social experience, family interaction, and caregivers' perceptions may affect motivation in preschool children with CP. Current studies on mastery motivation in preschool children with CP are very limited, and the lack of a universal, theory-based definition of mastery motivation and common assessment frameworks makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions on mastery motivation in children with CP. Future studies should investigate mastery motivation with rigorous study designs to identify ideal activities and environments for preschool children with CP.
Bettencourt, Amie F; Farrell, Albert D
Peer victimization is a common problem among adolescents that has been linked to a variety of adjustment problems. Youth involved in peer victimization represent a heterogeneous group who may differ not only in their levels of victimization and perpetration, but also in the factors that influence their behavior. The current study used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups of aggressive and victimized youth, and to examine social-cognitive and environmental factors that differ across these subgroups. Participants were a predominantly African-American (i.e., 68 %) sample of 502 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders (45 % male, Mean age = 12.6 years) attending three urban public middle schools, who completed self-report measures of aggression, victimization, and associated individual and contextual factors. LCA identified four classes of adolescents representing non-victimized aggressors, aggressive-victims, predominantly victimized youth, and well-adjusted youth. Class differences were found on measures of beliefs supporting fighting, beliefs against fighting, perceived effectiveness of inept nonviolent responses to conflict, behavioral intentions to engage in aggressive and nonviolent behavior, self-efficacy for nonviolent behavior, and peer and parental support for aggression and nonviolence. For example, within the two classes of victimized youth, aggressive-victims reported greater intentions to engage in physical aggression and inept nonviolent behavior, and were more likely to agree with beliefs supporting the use of instrumental and reactive aggression, and beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary compared to predominantly victimized youth. These findings emphasize the importance of developing preventive interventions that target the specific needs of distinct subgroups of adolescents.
Conroy, Shannon M; Clarke, Christina A; Yang, Juan; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Park, Song-Yi; Albright, Cheryl L; Hertz, Andrew; Monroe, Kristine R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Marchand, Loïc Le; Wilkens, Lynne R; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Cheng, Iona
Background: While obesity is well-understood to increase breast cancer risk, the role of the neighborhood obesogenic environment, encompassing social and built environment attributes that influence body size, is poorly understood. Methods: Using principal components factor analysis, five composite factors [neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), urban, mixed-land development, unhealthy food environment, parks] on the basis of geospatial data were developed to characterize the obesogenic environment for 48,247 postmenopausal women in the Multiethnic Cohort, residing predominately in Los Angeles County. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the association between neighborhood obesogenic factors and breast cancer risk ( n = 2,341 cases after 17 years of follow-up), adjusting for body mass index (BMI), weight gain since age 21, education, established risk factors, other neighborhood factors, and clustering by block group. Results: Lower nSES was associated with lower breast cancer risk [quintile 1 vs. 5: HR, 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.95], with a more pronounced association observed in Latinos (quintile 1 vs. 5: HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43-0.85). More urban environments were associated with lower breast cancer risk in Japanese Americans (quintile 5 vs. 1: HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.90), and lower mixed-land development was associated with higher breast cancer risk in Latinos (quintile 1 vs. 5: HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.10-1.93). Conclusions: Obesogenic neighborhood environment factors, especially nSES, urbanicity, and mixed-land development, were differentially and independently associated with breast cancer risk in this multiethnic population. Impact: These findings highlight the need for additional studies of the driving contextual aspects of nSES that influence breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 480-9. ©2017 AACR See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population
Roberts, Amelia C; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Zule, William; Burroughs, Angela R
This study examined differences in contextual factors, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and comorbid histories between African-American, out-of-treatment, crack-abusing women who had either a single sexual partner or multiple partners. Bivariate analysis indicated that women with multiple partners were more likely than women with a single partner to be homeless, financially dependent, and to have histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse. Women with multiple partners reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, and more symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In multiple logistic regression analysis, being unemployed, difficult childhood, and number of days of crack use in the previous 30 days, longer crack runs, and more frequent unprotected fellatio were associated with increased odds of having multiple sexual partners. Being married or living as married was associated with decreased odds of having multiple sexual partners. The importance of assessing contextual and historical factors and implications for future research is discussed.
Sulaimon T Adedokun
Full Text Available To examine the independent contribution of individual, community and state-level factors to health care service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria.The study was based on secondary analyses of cross-sectional population-based data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to the data on 6,427 under-five children who used or did not use health care service when they were sick (level 1, nested within 896 communities (level 2 from 37 states (level 3.About one-quarter of the mothers were between 15 and 24 years old and almost half of them did not have formal education (47%. While only 30% of the children utilized health service when they were sick, close to 67% lived in the rural area. In the fully adjusted model, mothers with higher education attainment (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.63; 95% credible interval [CrI] = 1.31-2.03, from rich households (aOR = 1.76; 95% CrI = 1.35-2.25, with access to media (radio, television or magazine (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.08-1.29, and engaging in employment (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.02-1.37 were significantly more likely to have used healthcare services for acute childhood illnesses. On the other hand, women who experienced difficulty getting to health facilities (aOR = 0.87; 95% CrI = 0.75-0.99 were less likely to have used health service for their children.Our findings highlight that utilization of healthcare service for acute childhood illnesses was influenced by not only maternal factors but also community-level factors, suggesting that public health strategies should recognise this complex web of individual composition and contextual composition factors to guide provision of healthcare services. Such interventions could include: increase in female school enrolment, provision of interest-free loans for small and medium scale enterprises, introduction of mobile clinics and establishment of more primary health care
Schüz, Benjamin; Wurm, Susanne; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf; Tesch-Römer, Clemens
Although health behavior theories assume a role of the context in health behavior self-regulation, this role is often weakly specified and rarely examined. The two studies in this article test whether properties of the environment (districts) affect if and how health-related cognitions are translated into physical activity. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the assumed cross-level interactions. Study 1 is a large-scale survey representative of the German adult population (N = 6,201). Gross domestic product (GDP) on the level of administrative districts was used to indicate environmental opportunities and barriers. Study 2 examined cross-level interactions of proximal predictors of physical activity (intentions, action planning, and coping planning) in older adults with multiple illnesses (N = 309), a high-risk group for health deteriorations. Study 1 showed that on the individual level, health attitudes (B = .11) and education (B = .71) were significantly associated with physical activity. GDP moderated the attitudes-behavior relation (B = .01), with higher attitude-behavior relations in districts with higher GDP. Study 2 finds that intention (B = .16), action planning (B = .17), and coping planning (B = .13) significantly predict activity. In addition, district-level GDP significantly moderated the relations between action planning and coping planning, but not intention, on physical activity. Results suggest that the effects of health attitudes and planning on physical activity are moderated by environmental factors. Districts with higher GDP provide better contextual opportunities for the enactment of concrete if-then plans for physical activity. This has implications for both theory and health promotion.
Tariman, Joseph D; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G; Becker, Pamela S; Berry, Donna L
To examine patient perspectives on their personal and contextual factors relevant to TDM. The second aim was to describe physician perspectives on the TDM in older adults (≥60 y.o.) diagnosed with symptomatic MM. Descriptive, cross-sectional. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered. Directed content analysis procedures were used to develop major themes from the patient and physician participant interviews. Themes related to treatment decision making among patient participants include various decisional role preferences; several sources of information related to myeloma; contextual and patient-specific factors influence treatment decisions; negative perceptions related to the treatment decision-making process exist; strong desire to be in remission and to live a longer life; For physician participants, top themes related to decision making were: QOL or survival considerations or simultaneously considerations of treatment effectiveness, QOL and survival; screening patients for eligibility for autologous HSCT; time is a barrier to effective TDM; Various methods were used to assess patient decisional role preferences. Treatment decision making in older adults newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma is influenced by personal, social and contextual factors. Patients must be given the opportunity to choose the best possible treatment within the limits of the patient's personal, social and medical contexts.
Horney, Jennifer A; Carbone, Eric G; Lynch, Molly; Wang, Z Joan; Jones, Terrance; Rose, Dale A
To assess how health department contextual factors influence perceptions of the 15 Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide guidance on organizing preparedness activities. We conducted an online survey and focus group between September 2015 and May 2016 with directors of preparedness programs in state, metropolitan, and territorial jurisdictions funded by CDC's Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) cooperative agreement. The survey collected demographic information and data on contextual factors including leadership, partnerships, organizational structure, resources and structural capacity, and data and evaluation. Seventy-seven percent (48 of 62) of PHEP directors completed the survey and 8 participated in the focus group. Respondents were experienced directors (mean = 10.6 years), and 58% led 7 or more emergency responses. Leadership, partnerships, and access to fiscal and human resources were associated with perception and use of the capabilities. Despite some deficiencies, PHEP awardees believe the capabilities provide useful guidance and a flexible framework for organizing their work. Contextual factors affect perceptions of the capabilities and possibly the effectiveness of their use. Public Health Implications. The capabilities can be used to address challenges in preparedness, including identifying evidence-based practices, developing performance measures, and improving responses.
Carbone, Eric G.; Lynch, Molly; Wang, Z. Joan; Jones, Terrance; Rose, Dale A.
Objectives. To assess how health department contextual factors influence perceptions of the 15 Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide guidance on organizing preparedness activities. Methods. We conducted an online survey and focus group between September 2015 and May 2016 with directors of preparedness programs in state, metropolitan, and territorial jurisdictions funded by CDC’s Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) cooperative agreement. The survey collected demographic information and data on contextual factors including leadership, partnerships, organizational structure, resources and structural capacity, and data and evaluation. Results. Seventy-seven percent (48 of 62) of PHEP directors completed the survey and 8 participated in the focus group. Respondents were experienced directors (mean = 10.6 years), and 58% led 7 or more emergency responses. Leadership, partnerships, and access to fiscal and human resources were associated with perception and use of the capabilities. Conclusions. Despite some deficiencies, PHEP awardees believe the capabilities provide useful guidance and a flexible framework for organizing their work. Contextual factors affect perceptions of the capabilities and possibly the effectiveness of their use. Public Health Implications. The capabilities can be used to address challenges in preparedness, including identifying evidence-based practices, developing performance measures, and improving responses. PMID:28892447
Whitburn, Laura Y; Jones, Lester E; Davey, Mary-Ann; Small, Rhonda
The majority of women experience pain during labour and childbirth, however not all women experience it in the same way. In order to develop a more complete understanding of labour pain, this study aimed to examine women's experiences within the perspective of modern pain science. A more complete understanding of this phenomenon can then guide the development of interventions to enhance women's experiences and potentially reduce their need for pharmacological intervention. A qualitative study was conducted using phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Data were collected from 21 nulliparous women, birthing at one of two large maternity services, through face-to-face interviews and written questionnaires. Data were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. The data from this study suggest that a determining factor of a woman's experience of pain during labour is the meaning she ascribes to it. When women interpret the pain as productive and purposeful, it is associated with positive cognitions and emotions, and they are more likely to feel they can cope. Alternatively, when women interpret the pain as threatening, it is associated with negative cognitions and emotions and they tend to feel they need help from external methods of pain control. The social environment seems particularly important in shaping a woman's pain experience by influencing her interpretation of the context of the pain, and in doing so can change its meaning. The context and social environment are dynamic and can also change throughout labour. A determining factor in a woman's experience of pain during labour is its perceived meaning which can then influence how the woman responds to the pain. The meaning of the pain is shaped by the social environment and other contextual factors within which it is experienced. Focussed promotion of labour pain as a productive and purposeful pain and efforts to empower women to utilise their inner capacity to cope, as well as
The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…
Theule, Jennifer; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria A.; Marton, Imola
We examined parental ADHD symptoms and contextual (parental education, social support, marital status) predictors of parent domain parenting stress (parental distress) as a function of child ADHD symptoms in a sample of 95 parents of 8 to 12 year-old children with and without ADHD. Parents' perceptions of parental distress and social support were…
Vermunt, Jan D.
This study was aimed at clarifying relations between the way students learn and personal, contextual and performance variables. Students from seven different academic disciplines completed the Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS). Besides, data about their age, gender, academic discipline, prior education and exam performance were gathered.…
Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.
High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption
, particularly in relation to squatter settlements. Conclusion Although the literature on neighborhood and health is increasing, little attention has been paid to criteria for demarcating neighborhoods. The proposed method is well-structured, available in open-access software, and easily reproducible, so we expect that new experiments will be conducted to evaluate its potential use in other settings. The method is thus a potentially important contribution to research on intra-urban differentials, particularly concerning contextual factors and their implications for different health outcomes.
Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.; Gunnell, D.J.
) measures of income, marital and employment status were obtained. There were 9011 suicides and 180,220 controls. Individual-level associations with these risk factors were little changed when controlling for contextual effects. In contrast, ecological associations of increased suicide risk with declining......The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk...... (contextual effects) is uncertain. Denmark's Medical Register on Vital Statistics and its Integrated Database for Longitudinal Labour Market Research were used to identify suicides and 20 matched controls per case in 25-60-year-old men and women between 1982 and 1997. Individual and area (municipality...
Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.; Gunnell, D.J.
) measures of income, marital and employment status were obtained. There were 9011 suicides and 180,220 controls. Individual-level associations with these risk factors were little changed when controlling for contextual effects. In contrast, ecological associations of increased suicide risk with declining......The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk...... (contextual effects) is uncertain. Denmark's Medical Register on Vital Statistics and its Integrated Database for Longitudinal Labour Market Research were used to identify suicides and 20 matched controls per case in 25-60-year-old men and women between 1982 and 1997. Individual and area (municipality...
Wright, Virginia; DeWit, David; Miller, Linda
Purpose: To explore International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)-based functional components and contextual factors associated with perceived quality of life (QOL) for youth with chronic conditions from the perspective of youth and parents. Method: Baseline data were obtained from a longitudinal study examining predictors of changes in perceived QOL for youth with chronic conditions. 439 youth aged 11–17 (and one of their parents) completed a questionnaire. Standardized tools were used to measure youth functioning, contextual factors and perceived QOL. Multivariate linear regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic and health information, were conducted to explore correlations among youth functioning/contextual factors and youth and parent perceptions of youth QOL. Results: Significant (p ≤ 0.05) negative correlates with both youth and parent perceptions of youth QOL included pain/other physical symptoms and emotional symptoms. Significant factors positively correlated with youth and parent perceptions of youth QOL included school productivity and spirituality. Other significant positive correlates of youth perspectives were family social support and school belongingness/safety. Family functioning was positively correlated, and youth social anxiety and environmental barriers were negatively correlated, with parent perceptions of youth QOL. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence of factors upon which services aimed at improving perceived QOL of youth with chronic conditions could be based. Implications for Rehabilitation This study supports the utility of clinicians assessing the QOL of youth with chronic conditions in terms of youths' and their families' perspectives. This is the first study to identify key factors that impact perceived QOL at one point in time across a group of youth with chronic conditions, offering clinicians a main starting-point for considering youths' strengths and needs and the
Full Text Available Health committees are a common strategy to foster community participation in health. Efforts to strengthen committees often focus on technical inputs to improve committee form (e.g. representative membership and functioning (e.g. meeting procedures. However, porous and interconnected contextual spheres also mediate committee effectiveness. Using a framework for contextual analysis, we explored the contextual features that facilitated or hindered Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committee (VHSNC functionality in rural north India. We conducted interviews (n = 74, focus groups (n = 18 and observation over 1.5 years. Thematic content analysis enabled the identification and grouping of themes, and detailed exploration of sub-themes. While the intervention succeeded in strengthening committee form and functioning, participant accounts illuminated the different ways in which contextual influences impinged on VHSNC efficacy. Women and marginalized groups navigated social hierarchies that curtailed their ability to assert themselves in the presence of men and powerful local families. These dynamics were not static and unchanging, illustrated by pre-existing cross-caste problem solving, and the committee's creation of opportunities for the careful violation of social norms. Resource and capacity deficits in government services limited opportunities to build relationships between health system actors and committee members and engendered mistrust of government institutions. Fragmented administrative accountability left committee members bearing responsibility for improving local health without access to stakeholders who could support or respond to their efforts. The committee's narrow authority was at odds with widespread community needs, and committee members struggled to involve diverse government services across the health, sanitation, and nutrition sectors. Multiple parallel systems (political decentralization, media and other village groups
Parajuli, Vandana Joshi; Macdonald, Scott; Jimba, Masamine
Nepalese society has diverse ethnic groups that can be categorized based on views toward alcohol. In this study, adolescents from the traditional alcohol nonuser (TANU) and traditional alcohol user (TAU) ethnic groups of Nepal are examined for their: (1) alcohol use behavior and (2) social-contextual factors associated with alcohol use. Based on a self-administered questionnaire of adolescents, alcohol use was reported by 19.4% of TANU (N=544) and 40.1% TAU (N=309). Significant variables in a multivariate analysis of ever using alcohol were parental alcohol use, peer alcohol use, perceived parental approval, and perceived peer approval.
Full Text Available Olaf Timmermans1, Roland Van Linge2, Peter Van Petegem3, Joke Denekens4 1Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Midwifery Science, University of Antwerp, Belgium; 2University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Nursing Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands; 3Institute of Education and Information Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium; 4Department General Practice, University of Antwerp, Belgium Background: The prevalence of team-learning activities in nursing teams is influenced by contextual factors. Although team learning is important for nursing teams to perform, there is a paucity of research exploring the relationship between team-learning activities and contextual factors in nursing teams. The aim of this study was to study the relationship between team learning and contextual factors of the nursing team. Methodology: Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to study the relationship between team learning and five contextual variables. One contextual variable represented the overall environment for learning, and the other four contextual variables characterized basic configurations of organizational characteristics of nursing teams. An interrelation between the contextual variables was expected, so multiple regression models were tested for multicollinearity by regression commonality analysis to detect unique and common contributions of each independent variable. Findings: Results of this study indicate that team-learning activities in nursing teams can be enhanced by contextual factors such as: (1 strengthening stimulation of the psychological safety, (2 openness, (3 shared goals, and (4 an open, external-oriented view. Multiple regressions yielded three models that explain 76%, 81%, and 83% of the variance in team learning. Commonality analyses showed the importance of interrelationships between the contextual factors. Practical implications: Nurses undertake team-learning activities to process information needed to
Walker, Lorraine O; Xie, Bo; Hendrickson, Sherry G; Sterling, Bobbie S
To test the association of behavioral and psychosocial health domains with contextual variables and perceived health in ethnically and economically diverse postpartum women. Mail survey of a stratified random sample. Southwestern community in Texas. Non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic women (N = 168). A questionnaire was sent to a sample of 600 women. The adjusted response rate was 32.8%. The questionnaire covered behavioral (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use) and psychosocial (depression symptoms and body image) health, contextual variables (race/ethnicity, income, perceived stress, and social support), and perceived health. Hypotheses were tested using linear and logistic regression. Body image, dietary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and depression symptoms were all significantly correlated (Spearman ρ = -.15 to .47). Higher income was associated with increased odds of higher alcohol use (more than 1 drink on 1 to 4 days in a 14-day period). African American ethnicity was correlated with less healthy dietary behaviors and Hispanic ethnicity with less physical activity. In multivariable regressions, perceived stress was associated with less healthy dietary behaviors, increased odds of depression, and decreased odds of higher alcohol use, whereas social support was associated with less body image dissatisfaction, more physical activity, and decreased odds of depression. All behavioral and psychosocial domains were significantly correlated with perceived health, with higher alcohol use related to more favorable perceived health. In regressions analyses, perceived stress was a significant contextual predictor of perceived health. Stress and social support had more consistent relationships to behavioral and psychosocial variables than race/ethnicity and income level. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG. The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015 .
Pousada García, Thais; Groba González, Betania; Nieto Rivero, Laura; Pereira Loureiro, Javier; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Pazos Sierra, Alejandro
Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are a group of heterogeneous diseases that show differences in incidence, hereditary, etiology, prognosis, or functional impairments. Wheelchair use (manual or powered) is influenced by several factors, including personal and contextual factors, and comprehensive evaluation of their impact is required in order to optimize prescription and provision of wheelchairs. The authors therefore assessed the influence of wheelchair use on the quality of life (QoL) of 60 participants with NMD using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and a specially developed questionnaire were used to obtain information about contextual factors and participants' activity profile of activities of the participants. The results showed that using a wheelchair has psychosocial benefits, with the main determinants of benefit being type of wheelchair (powered), non-ambulation ability, and independence in mobility. Ensuring a good match between user and assistive technology (AT; e.g., wheelchair), as well as the effectiveness of the particular device, will increase the likelihood that the user will adopt it and use it effectively in daily life. Clinical prescription of AT would be improved by making appropriate use of outcome measures.
Jesús Suárez Rodríguez
Full Text Available The ICT competences of teachers remain a crucial issue for educational development. This work aims to establish a framework to specify the relations of the two elements of competence (technological and pedagogical and analyze the influence of key personal and contextual factors. The data were collected from a questionnaire in a sample of 868 teachers from primary and secondary education in Comunidad Valenciana (Spain. The results show the importance of a multivariate approach to assess the complexity of the problem. They provide an overview of the influences of different personal and contextual factors that go beyond the many contributions based on univariate approaches. This is very relevant to the development of education policies for both programs for endowments as those aimed at teacher training.
Full Text Available This paper looks for an interpretation of the phonetic factors causing consonant lenition and elision to occur through an analysis of intervocalic [j] in Majorcan, a dialect of Catalan spoken in the Mediterranean island of Majorca. Articulatory and acoustic data for several Majorcan Catalan speakers still producing the palatal glide in all word positions and segmental environments show that the consonant is lower and more variable in intervocalic position than word initially and word finally. Lowering is enhanced by the presence of contextual low and mid low front vowels, mostly so if stressed and placed immediately after the palatal glide. Inspection of [VjV] formant trajectories suggests that, in spite of undergoing articulatory reduction, [j] is produced with an independent articulatory gesture; moreover, coarticulatory effects between the palatal glide and the following vowel may render the former phonetic segment perceptually indistinguishable from the latter and thus prone to undergo elision. Strongly lenited variants of intervocalic [j] appear to be receding, and conservative speakers show specially low realizations of the palatal glide which may have been widely spread among the speaking population at the time that the intervocalic consonant underwent systematic elision in some areas of Majorca in the past. These findings are in support of the notion that the lenition and subsequent elision of intervocalic consonants are assisted by contextual and prosodic factors.
Mezmur, Markos; Navaneetham, Kannan; Letamo, Gobopamang; Bariagaber, Hadgu
Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the country. The purpose of this study is to fill this knowledge gap drawing attention to the largely unexplored contextual factors affecting the uptake of skilled attendance at delivery in a nationally representative sample. Data for the study comes from two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted in the year 2005 and 2011. Analysis was done using a two-level multivariable multilevel logistic regression model with data from 14, 242 women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the surveys clustered within 540 (in the year 2005) and 624 (in the year 2011) communities. The results of the study point to multiple levels of measured and unmeasured factors affecting the uptake of skilled delivery care in the country. At community level, place of residence, community level of female education and fertility significantly predict the uptake of skilled delivery care. At individual and household level, maternal age, birth order, maternal education, household wealth and access to media predict the uptake of such service. Thus, there is a need to consider community contexts in the design of maternal health programs and employ multi-sectorial approach to addressing barriers at different levels. For example, improving access and availability of skilled delivery care should eventually enhance the uptake of such services at community level in Ethiopia. At individual level, efforts to promote the uptake of such services should constitute targeted interventions paying special attention to the needs of the youth, the multiparous, the less educated and women in the
Full Text Available Despite evidence that social contexts are key determinants of health, research into factors associated with maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia has often focused on individual and household factors. The downside is that this underestimates the importance of taking contextual factors into account when planning appropriate interventions in promoting safe motherhood in the country. The purpose of this study is to fill this knowledge gap drawing attention to the largely unexplored contextual factors affecting the uptake of skilled attendance at delivery in a nationally representative sample. Data for the study comes from two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS conducted in the year 2005 and 2011. Analysis was done using a two-level multivariable multilevel logistic regression model with data from 14, 242 women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the surveys clustered within 540 (in the year 2005 and 624 (in the year 2011 communities. The results of the study point to multiple levels of measured and unmeasured factors affecting the uptake of skilled delivery care in the country. At community level, place of residence, community level of female education and fertility significantly predict the uptake of skilled delivery care. At individual and household level, maternal age, birth order, maternal education, household wealth and access to media predict the uptake of such service. Thus, there is a need to consider community contexts in the design of maternal health programs and employ multi-sectorial approach to addressing barriers at different levels. For example, improving access and availability of skilled delivery care should eventually enhance the uptake of such services at community level in Ethiopia. At individual level, efforts to promote the uptake of such services should constitute targeted interventions paying special attention to the needs of the youth, the multiparous, the less educated and
Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B
This study examines contextual and community-level characteristics associated with youth access to tobacco through commercial sources in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. The study is based on data from access surveys conducted by four confederate buyers (two men and two women) in 997 tobacco outlets. City demographics, adult smoking prevalence, and measures of tobacco outlet density, local tobacco retailer licencing and cigarette tax were included. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that buyer's actual age, a male clerk and asking young buyers about their age were related to successful cigarette purchases. Buyer's actual age and minimum age signs increased the likelihood that clerks will request an identification (ID). At the community level, a higher percentage of minors, higher education, and a greater percentage of African-Americans were associated with an increased likelihood of a successful purchase. Lower percentage of minors, lower education, lower percentage of African-Americans, and having a local tobacco retailer licencing were associated with the retailer asking for an ID. Additionally, supermarkets charged significantly more for a pack of cigarettes than small markets, whereas, smoke/tobacco shops and drug stores/pharmacies charged less. Higher prices were associated with higher median household income and greater percentage of Hispanics. Findings about community characteristics, however, differed by cigarette brand. This study enhances our understanding of the associations between contextual and community characteristics and youth access to tobacco through commercial sources which can help policymakers to identify and target at-risk communities and outlets to decrease youth access to tobacco.
Martijn P G Broen
Full Text Available In Parkinson's disease (PD, the complex relationship between motor symptoms, affective states, and contextual factors remains to be elucidated. The Experience Sampling Method provides (ESM a novel approach to this issue. Using a mobile device with a special purpose application (app, motor symptoms, affective states and contextual factors are assessed repeatedly at random moments in the flow of daily life, yielding an intensive time series of symptoms and experience. The aim of this study was to study the feasibility of this method.We studied the feasibility of a five-day period of ESM in PD and its ability to objectify diurnal fluctuations in motor symptom severity and their relation with affect and contextual factors in five PD patients with motor fluctuations.Participants achieved a high compliance, with 84% of assessment moments completed without disturbance of daily activities. The utility of the device was rated 8 on a 10-point scale. We were able to capture extensive diurnal fluctuations that were not revealed by routine clinical assessment. In addition, we were able to detect clinically relevant associations between motor symptoms, emotional fluctuations and contextual factors at an intra-individual level.ESM represents a viable and novel approach to elucidate relationships between motor symptoms, affective states and contextual factors at the level of individual subjects. ESM holds promise for clinical practice and scientific research.
Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Pulido, José; Guitart, Anna; González-González, Rocío; Hoyos, Juan; Bravo, María J; Barrio, Gregorio
The effects of adolescent- and parental-birthplace and country-of-origin contextual factors on substance use among adolescents with recent immigrant background (ARIBs) are poorly understood. We aimed to assess these effects and identify the main mediating factors in Spain. Participants were 12,432 ARIBs (≥1 foreign-born parent) and 75,511 autochthonous adolescents from pooled 2006-2010 school surveys. Outcomes were prevalence of use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, stimulants and sedative-hypnotics. ARIBs were classified by adolescent birthplace (Spain/abroad), whether they had mixed-parents (one Spanish-born and one foreign-born), and country-of-origin characteristics. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and percent change expressing disparities in risk were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance. Compared to autochthonous adolescents, foreign-born ARIBs without mixed-parents showed significant aPRs <1 for all substances, which generally approached 1 in Spanish-born ARIBs with mixed-parents. The main factors mediating ARIBs' lower risk were less frequent socialization in leisure environments and less association with peers who use such substances. ARIBs' lower risk depended more on country-of-origin characteristics and not having mixed-parents than being foreign-born. Tobacco, cannabis and stimulant use in ARIBs increased with increasing population use of these substances in the country-of-origin. ARIBs from the non-Muslim-regions had a lower risk of using alcohol and higher risk of using sedative-hypnotics than those from the Muslim-region. Among ARIBs in Spain, parental transmission of norms and values could influence substance use as much as or more than exposure to the Spanish context. Future research should better assess effects of adolescent- and parental-birthplace and country-of-origin contextual factors on substance use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ardila, Carlos Martín; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A
To evaluate the influence of the social context and individual factors on the relationship between oral pain and caries METHODS: Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey in Colombia were collected. A multiple-stage stratified sampling was used. The influence of different factors in oral pain was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 34 843 individuals (individual level) in 32 states and one Capital District (contextual level) were studied. Dental pain was associated with caries in the logistic (odds ratios = 56.2, confidence interval 49.5-63.9) and multilevel (3.342 ± 0.073; P dental pain variance was still significant at individual and contextual levels; interestingly the variation in individual level was smaller (28%) than the variation among states (72%). In addition, individual-level variables explained 80% of the individual-level variance in dental pain, and contextual-level variables explained 35% of the community-level variance. All individual variables, including caries, had a significant association with dental pain. Low gross domestic product (GDP) and human development index (HDI) at contextual level were associated with dental pain. Dental pain associated strongly with caries and other individual factors were also significant, however, contextual factors, specifically low GDP and HDI affect dental pain significantly. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Pérez, Gloria; Ruiz-Muñoz, Dolores; Gotsens, Merce; Cases, Mariona Casals; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
The socioeconomic position of women who have an induced abortion has been explored extensively, but without taking contextual factors into account. The objective was to describe socioeconomic inequalities in the rate of induced abortion in Spain in 2001, jointly evaluating the effects of both regional and individual socioeconomic characteristics. A cross-sectional study using a multilevel approach was carried out among women who were resident in Spain in 2001, considering the hierarchical structure of relevant factors. Analyses were carried out at the individual and regional level. We fit Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted relative risks (aRR) of induced abortion and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The estimated abortion rate was 6.26 per 1000 women aged 20-49 years. Induced abortion was more frequent among younger women (aRR = 1.55 for women aged 20-24 years, compared with those aged 25-34 years) and those with less than primary education (aRR = 2.25 compared with women with university studies). Women residing in regions with lower public spending on non-university education (aRR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.98) and a higher percentage of non-European Union immigrants (aRR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) were also more likely to have had an induced abortion. Socioeconomic inequalities in the practice of induced abortion in Spain exist not only at the individual level but also at the regional level. The prevention of unintended pregnancy should be approached using a global political strategy aimed at changing contextual and individual factors that contribute to unintended pregnancy.
Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Krauss, Ramona C; Wang, Youfa
This paper examined the importance of household and economic contextual factors as determinants of ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 for the years 1997 through 2000 were combined with economic contextual data on food prices, outlet density and median household income. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method was used to examine the factors that could help explain ethnic disparities in BMI. Ethnic differences in household demographic, parental socioeconomic status (SES), and economic contextual factors explained the majority of the male black-white (63%), male Hispanic-white (78%) and female Hispanic-white (62%) BMI gaps but less than one-half of the female black-white BMI gap (44%). We found that adding the economic contextual factors increased the explained portion of the ethnic BMI gap for both female and male adolescents: the economic contextual factors explained 28% and 38% of the black-white and Hispanic-white BMI gaps for males and 13% and 8% of the black-white and Hispanic-white BMI gaps for females, respectively. Parental SES was more important in explaining the Hispanic-white BMI gap than the black-white BMI gap for both genders, whereas neighborhood economic contextual factors were more important in explaining the male BMI gap than the female BMI gap for both black-white and Hispanic-white ethnic disparities. A significantly large portion of the ethnic BMI gap, however, remained unexplained between black and white female adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dr. James Gathungu
Full Text Available This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and businesses locally and abroad; and to empower citizens through access and use of information. Although e-government is a rapidly growing concept in both developing and developed countries very few e-government initiatives progress to maturity. Different countries are faced with different contextual circumstances and environments in the realization of e-government initiatives. This study attempts to address the gap between theory and rhetoric about the potential of e-government and the reality of its application on the ground in Kenya. The study attempts to analyze the philosophy, theories and paradigms of e-government. The development of the commercial concept as a new paradigm in public administration replacing the traditional bureaucratic systems of government is highlighted in the study. A detailed conceptual discussion anchors the study on the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model (EGI basing it on the Kenyan perspective. The study also reviews relevant e-government studies from an international, regional and local perspective anchoring the study on the configuration school of management thought. These discussions are used to develop new insights in view of the emerging issues and their relevance to the public sector in Kenya.
Dr. James Gathungu
Full Text Available This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and businesses locally and abroad; and to empower citizens through access and use of information. Although e-government is a rapidly growing concept in both developing and developed countries very few e-government initiatives progress to maturity. Different countries are faced with different contextual circumstances and environments in the realization of e-government initiatives. This study attempts to address the gap between theory and rhetoric about the potential of e-government and the reality of its application on the ground in Kenya. The study attempts to analyze the philosophy, theories and paradigms of e-government. The development of the commercial concept as a new paradigm in public administration replacing the traditional bureaucratic systems of government is highlighted in the study. A detailed conceptual discussion anchors the study on the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model (EGI basing it on the Kenyan perspective. The study also reviews relevant e-government studies from an international, regional and local perspective anchoring the study on the configuration school of management thought. These discussions are used to develop new insights in view of the emerging issues and their relevance to the public sector in Kenya.
Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
We used a longitudinal twin design to examine selection effects of personality traits at age 11 on high-risk environmental contexts at age 14 and the extent to which these contexts mediated risk for substance abuse at age 17. Socialization at age 11 (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) predicted exposure to contextual risk at age 14. Contextual risk partially mediated the effect of socialization on substance abuse, though socialization also had a direct effect. In contrast, boldness at age 11 (social engagement and assurance, thrill seeking, and stress resilience) also predicted substance abuse directly but was unrelated to contextual risk. There was substantial overlap in the genetic and shared environmental influences on socialization and contextual risk, and genetic risk in socialization contributed to substance abuse indirectly via increased exposure to contextual risk. This suggests that active gene-environment correlations related to individual differences in socialization contributed to an early, high-risk developmental trajectory for adolescent substance abuse. In contrast, boldness appeared to index an independent and direct genetic risk factor for adolescent substance abuse.
Sustaining success in higher education within an ever-changing landscape largely depends on academics' motivation to cope with it. Essentially, this study aims to explore the interpersonal and contextual factors that govern the introduction of blended learning in a Saudi context. A collective case study approach was employed with Self-…
Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren
The present study employed qualitative methods to examine multiple stakeholder perspectives regarding the role of parent and family contextual factors on community child mental health treatment for children with behavior problems. Findings suggest agreement between clinicians and parents on the number, types and importance of parent and family…
Chen, Hsing-Jung; Balan, Sundari; Price, Rumi Kato
Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and…
de Milliano, Cecile
Knowing that by 2020, 175 million children and adolescents are expected to annually be affected by "natural" disasters, this article sets out to explore what factors enable their resilience. It additionally questions to what extent resilience enabling factors are similar across the globe, or
Fleury-Steiner, Ruth E.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Belknap, Joanne; Melton, Heather C.
While a small number of past studies have examined either situational, relational, or systems-level factors that influence battered women's use of either the police, prosecutorial, or court systems, no study to date has examined how these factors each influence women's intentions to reuse these systems. To address this gap, in-person interviews…
Bouquet, Paolo; Giunchiglia, Fausto; Van Harmelen, Frank; Serafini, Luciano; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner
Ontologies are shared models of a domain that encode a view which is common to a set of different parties. Contexts are local models that encode a party's subjective view of a domain. In this paper, we show how ontologies can be contextualized, thus acquiring certain useful properties that a pure
Raahauge, Kirsten Marie
This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...
Gamma, Anna E; Slekiene, Jurgita; von Medeazza, Gregor; Asplund, Fredrik; Cardoso, Placido; Mosler, Hans-Joachim
The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa in December 2013 was the largest Ebola outbreak in history. This study aimed to measure the underlying contextual and psychosocial factors of intentions to perform Ebola prevention behaviours (not touching people who might be suffering from Ebola, reporting suspected cases to the National Ebola Hotline, NEH) in Guinea-Bissau. Geographical location, cross-border market activities, poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions, and burial practices in some communities pose a serious risk in terms of potential EVD outbreak and seriously hamper its prevention in Guinea-Bissau. In July and August 2015, quantitative data from 1369 respondents were gathered by structured face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was based on the psychosocial factors of the RANAS (risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation) model. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression analyses. The most important predictors for the intention to call the NEH were believing that calling the Hotline would help the infected person, perceiving that important members from the household approve of calling the Hotline, thinking that calling the Hotline is something they should do, and believing that it is important to call the Hotline to report a suspected case. For the intention not to touch someone who might be suffering from Ebola, the most important predictors were health knowledge, the perception of risk with regard to touching a person who might be suffering from Ebola, and the belief that they were able not to touch a possibly infected person. Age in years was the only significant contextual predictor for one of the two behavioural intentions, the intention to call the Hotline. It seems that younger people are more likely to use a service like the NEH than older people. Strengths and gaps were identified in the study population in relation to the intention to perform prevention behaviours. These call for innovative
Anna E. Gamma
Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa in December 2013 was the largest Ebola outbreak in history. This study aimed to measure the underlying contextual and psychosocial factors of intentions to perform Ebola prevention behaviours (not touching people who might be suffering from Ebola, reporting suspected cases to the National Ebola Hotline, NEH in Guinea-Bissau. Geographical location, cross-border market activities, poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH conditions, and burial practices in some communities pose a serious risk in terms of potential EVD outbreak and seriously hamper its prevention in Guinea-Bissau. Methods In July and August 2015, quantitative data from 1369 respondents were gathered by structured face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was based on the psychosocial factors of the RANAS (risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation model. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression analyses. Results The most important predictors for the intention to call the NEH were believing that calling the Hotline would help the infected person, perceiving that important members from the household approve of calling the Hotline, thinking that calling the Hotline is something they should do, and believing that it is important to call the Hotline to report a suspected case. For the intention not to touch someone who might be suffering from Ebola, the most important predictors were health knowledge, the perception of risk with regard to touching a person who might be suffering from Ebola, and the belief that they were able not to touch a possibly infected person. Age in years was the only significant contextual predictor for one of the two behavioural intentions, the intention to call the Hotline. It seems that younger people are more likely to use a service like the NEH than older people. Conclusions Strengths and gaps were identified in the study population in relation to the
Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Caspi, Caitlin; Yang, May; Leyva, Bryan; Stoddard, Anne M; Tamers, Sara; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Sorensen, Glorian C
Acculturation may influence health behaviors, yet mechanisms underlying its effect are not well understood. In this study, we describe relationships between acculturation and health behaviors among low-income housing residents, and examine whether these relationships are mediated by social and contextual factors. Residents of 20 low-income housing sites in the Boston metropolitan area completed surveys that assessed acculturative characteristics, social/contextual factors, and health behaviors. A composite acculturation scale was developed using latent class analysis, resulting in four distinct acculturative groups. Path analysis was used to examine interrelationships between acculturation, health behaviors, and social/contextual factors, specifically self-reported social ties, social support, stress, material hardship, and discrimination. Of the 828 respondents, 69% were born outside of the U.S. Less acculturated groups exhibited healthier dietary practices and were less likely to smoke than more acculturated groups. Acculturation had a direct effect on diet and smoking, but not physical activity. Acculturation also showed an indirect effect on diet through its relationship with material hardship. Our finding that material hardship mediated the relationship between acculturation and diet suggests the need to explicate the significant role of financial resources in interventions seeking to promote healthy diets among low-income immigrant groups. Future research should examine these social and contextual mediators using larger, population-based samples, preferably with longitudinal data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Crittenden, Courtney A; Wright, Emily M
In much feminist literature, patriarchy has often been studied as a predictive variable for attitudes toward or acts of violence against women. However, rarely has patriarchy been examined as an outcome across studies. The current study works toward filling this gap by examining several individual-and neighborhood-level factors that might influence patriarchy. Specifically, this research seeks to determine if neighborhood-level attributes related to socioeconomic status, family composition, and demographic information affect patriarchal views after individual-level correlates of patriarchy were controlled. Findings suggest that factors at both the individual- and neighborhood levels, particularly familial characteristics and dynamics, do influence the endorsement of patriarchal views.
Lim, Hyo Jin; Bong, Mimi; Woo, Yeon-Kyung
Background: Among the factors known to influence reading development and performance, attitude toward reading is shown to be particularly critical for developing learners. Reading attitude (McKenna, 1994; McKenna et al., 1995) enhances independent reading, levels of engagement in classroom reading activities, and the amount and variety of topics…
Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…
Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S
Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of postdeployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 postdeployed fathers who served in the National Guard/Reserves. Preintervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model assessing risk and protective factors for an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study using direct parent-child observations of fathers' parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Go, Myung-Hyun; Pollard, Michael S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Kennedy, David P.
This longitudinal study examines individual differences in the tendency to initiate (N = 4,612) and escalate (N = 2,837) smoking when adolescents gain a best friend who smokes. Potential moderating factors include self-esteem, depression, problem behavior, school and family bonds, and household access to cigarettes. In addition to acquiring a…
Bettencourt, Amie F.; Farrell, Albert D.
Peer victimization is a common problem among adolescents that has been linked to a variety of adjustment problems. Youth involved in peer victimization represent a heterogeneous group who may differ not only in their levels of victimization and perpetration, but also in the factors that influence their behavior. The current study used latent class…
Crea, Thomas M.; Crampton, David S.; Knight, Nelson; Paine-Wells, Lisa
In efforts to reform the child welfare system, agency leaders must involve staff at all levels; yet, little research has been done to determine which organizational factors encourage or inhibit staff engagement. Employees from an urban child welfare agency were invited to complete a survey regarding organizational effectiveness and its influence…
Mmari, Kristin; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert W; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Sangowawa, Adesola; Yu, Chunyan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead
This study uses data collected as part of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments study to (1) compare the perceptions of neighborhood-level factors among adolescents across five different urban sites; (2) examine the associations between factors within the physical and social environments; and (3) examine the influence of neighborhood-level factors on two different health outcomes-violence victimization in the past 12 months and ever smoked. Across five urban sites (Baltimore, New Delhi, Johannesburg, Ibadan, and Shanghai), 2,320 adolescents aged 15-19 years completed a survey using audio computer-assisted self-interview technology. To recruit adolescents, each site used a respondent-driven sampling method, which consisted of selecting adolescents as "seeds" to serve as the initial contacts for recruiting the entire adolescent sample. All analyses were conducted with Stata 13.1 statistical software, using complex survey design procedures. To examine associations between neighborhood-level factors and among our two outcomes, violence victimization and ever smoked, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Across sites, there was great variability in how adolescents perceived their neighborhoods. Overall, adolescents from Ibadan and Shanghai held the most positive perceptions about their neighborhoods, whereas adolescents from Baltimore and Johannesburg held the poorest. In New Delhi, despite females having positive perceptions about their safety and sense of social cohesion, they had the highest sense of fear and the poorest perceptions about their physical environment. The study also found that one of the most consistent neighborhood-level factors across sites and outcomes was witnessing community violence, which was significantly associated with smoking among adolescents in New Delhi and Johannesburg and with violence victimization across nearly every site except Baltimore. No other neighborhood-level factor exerted greater influence
London, Laricca; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Song, Minna; Nagirimadugu, Ankita; Luta, Gheorghe; Sheppard, Vanessa B
Latinas are underrepresented in clinical trials despite the rise in Hispanic population. This study examines the factors associated with Latinas' willingness to participate in preventive breast cancer randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Women self-identifying as Latina, over age 40, with no prior history of breast cancer were eligible. Using the Behavior Model for Vulnerable Populations, we administered a survey (n=168) to assess predisposing (e.g., knowledge), enabling (e.g., trust) and need factors (e.g., risk perception). Intention to participate was defined using a lenient (maybe, probably or definitely) and a stringent criterion (probably and definitely). Chi-square tests and logistic regression models examined the associations of predisposing, enabling, and need factors with women's intentions to participate in RCTs. Most participants (74.9%) were monolingual Spanish-speaking immigrants. Most (83.9%) reported willing to participate in clinical trials using the lenient definition (vs. 43.1% under the stringent definition). Using the lenient definition, the odds of willing to participate in RCTs were significantly lower for unmarried women (OR=.25, 95% CI=.08-.79) and those with lower cancer risk perceptions (OR=.20, 95% CI=.06-.63), while being significantly higher for women with lower language acculturation (OR=6.2, 95% CI=1.8-20.9). Using the stringent definition, women who did not endorse a motivation to enroll to help family members (if they had cancer) had significantly lower odds to report intent (OR=.33, 95% CI=.13-.86). Many RCTs may have limited generalizability due to the low representation of minorities. Culturally targeted interventions that address the importance of family for Latinos may ultimately increase their participation in RCTs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard A; Jones, Jamal; Kota, Krishna; Hill, Brandon; Masyn, Katherine E
This study assessed the prevalence of self-reported HIV infection among a community sample of transgender women and identified associated contextual, experiential, and behavioral factors. Ninety-two transgender women completed a self-administered interview. Recruitment occurred through an LGBT service organization, a transgender support group, transgender advocates, and informal communications. Eighty-two percent were African American/Black. Of 83 who knew their status, 60% reported being HIV infected. High rates of childhood sexual abuse (52%), rape (53%), intimate partner violence (56%), and incarceration (57%) were reported. Many did not have health insurance (53%), were not employed full-time nor in school (63%) and had been recently homeless (49%). HIV-infected transgender women as compared to HIV-uninfected transgender women were more likely to be African American/Black ( P = 0.04), and older than 34 years ( P = 0.01), unemployed/not in school ( P discrimination ( P = 0.03), perceived less negative psychosocial impact due to trans status ( P = 0.04) and had greater happiness with their physical appearance ( P = 0.01). HIV-infected transgender women may experience relatively less trans-related stress compared to their HIV-uninfected counterparts. High rates of HIV, trauma, and social marginalization raise concerns for this population and warrant the development of structural and policy-informed interventions.
Santa Maria, Diane; Narendorf, Sarah C; Ha, Yoonsook; Bezette-Flores, Noel
HIV disproportionately affects homeless youth, and interventions to date have had minimal success in reducing sexual risk behaviors in this population. Few qualitative studies have been conducted to provide insight into the influence of homelessness-related factors on sexual risk behaviors. A qualitative study with a quantitative component was conducted with a nonprobability sample of 64 homeless youth aged 14-24; participants were recruited from a variety of venues in Houston between October 2013 and March 2014. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted; thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to HIV risk. Participants were predominantly black (75%), sheltered (67%) and aged 18 or older (77%). Youth discussed how the circumstances of their homelessness and the struggle to meet their immediate needs led to behaviors and experiences that put them at risk for HIV. Three themes emerged: Homeless youth frequently engage in risky sexual behavior, sometimes as a way to cope with stress; they often trade sex, either voluntarily or involuntarily, for such necessities as money or a place to sleep; and many experienced childhood sexual victimization or have been victimized since becoming homeless. Youth also described how stress, stigma and self-reliance contributed to their involvement in HIV risk behaviors. HIV prevention methods that target stress and stigma while respecting youths' self-reliance may help reduce sexual risk behaviors. Further research is needed to determine suitable behavioral change techniques to address these potentially modifiable factors. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Squires, Allison; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram
Research that links macro-level socioeconomic development variables to health care human resources workforce composition is scarce at best. The purpose of this study was to explore the links between nonnursing factors and nursing workforce composition through a secondary, descriptive analysis of year 2000, publicly available national nursing human resources data from Mexico. Building on previous research, the authors conducted multiple robust regression analysis by federal typing of nursing human resources from 31 Mexican states against macro-level socioeconomic development variables. Average education in a state was significantly associated in predicting all types of formally educated nurses in Mexico. Other results suggest that macro-level indicators have a different association with each type of nurse. Context may play a greater role in determining nursing workforce composition than previously thought. Further studies may help to explain differences both within and between countries.
O'Neill, Siobhan; Corry, Colette; McFeeters, Danielle; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan
The circumstances surrounding death by suicide can give us insight into the factors affecting suicide risk in particular regions. This study examined gender and circumstances surrounding death by suicide in Northern Ireland from 2005 to 2011. The study analyzed 1,671 suicides (77% male and 23% female cases) using information contained from the coroner's files on suicides and undetermined deaths. Hanging was the most common method and more than one third of the deceased had prior suicide attempts. There was evidence of alcohol use in 41% of the cases. Only, 61% of cases had recorded adverse events; most had multiple and complex combinations of experiences. Relationship and interpersonal difficulties were the most common category of adverse event (40.3%). However, illness and bereavement, employment /financial crisis, and health problems were also common. One third of those who died by suicide were employed, compared with 50.3% who were not in employment. Just over half (50.1%) were known to have a mental health disorder. The results provide the first profile of deaths by suicide in Northern Ireland. They highlight the need to target people who have difficult life experiences in suicide prevention work, notably men, people with employment, financial and relationship crises, and those with mental disorders.
Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R; Lavigne, John V
The aim of this study was to develop a multiple-level-of-analysis model of preschool attachment security and to determine the processes (direct and indirect) whereby factors from different domains (e.g., stress and parenting) are related to attachment during this period. This study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress, family conflict, caregiver depression symptoms, and parenting on attachment security in a large (N = 796) and diverse sample of 4-year-olds. This study used the 3-Boxes Task to assess aspects of parenting critical to sensitivity in the preschool period, labeling this construct sensitivity/scaffolding. Parent-report questionnaires were used to assess stress, conflict, caregiver depressive symptoms, parent support/engagement, and parent hostility/coercion. Direct observation (3-Boxes Task) was used to assess sensitivity/scaffolding and attachment (Attachment Q-Sort) based on a 2½-3 hour home visit. Results of structural equation modeling indicated a good overall fit for the model. Among the parenting variables, sensitivity/scaffolding had the strongest effect on attachment. Depressive symptoms had both direct and indirect effects (mediated by parenting). The effects of stress and family conflict were mediated by caregiver depression symptoms and parenting. These data show that a developmentally appropriate measure of sensitivity plays a significant role in attachment security in preschoolers. Thus, strategies designed to enhance sensitivity/scaffolding may increase child resilience by enhancing attachment security.
Dixon, Shane Michael; Theberge, Nancy
This article provides an analysis of the evolution of the division of labour in participatory ergonomics (PE) programmes in two worksites. The analysis is based on interviews and field observations in the worksites. In both settings there was meaningful participation by both worker and management members of ergonomic change teams (ECTs) in the hazard assessment and solution identification stages, but as the teams moved to the implementation stage, worker representatives were marginalised and the participatory nature of the programmes was severely curtailed. The removal of workers from the process was the outcome of the interplay among the type of activities pursued in the implementation stage, the skills and knowledge required to carry out those activities, and workers' limited influence in the organisational hierarchies. Findings highlight the salience of the social context in which participatory programmes are located and the importance of examining participatory programmes as they evolve over time. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article contributes to a growing literature on the process and implementation of PE programmes. The article's focus on social and organisational factors that affect the division of labour and attention to the evolution of involvement over time extend current understandings of participation in ergonomics programmes.
Boumans, Christien E; Egger, Jos I M; Bouts, Richard A; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M
Variation in seclusion rates between psychiatric facilities cannot be adequately explained by patient characteristics alone and there is a growing awareness of the influence of 'cultural' and staff factors on the use of seclusion. In this study, staff variables as well as seclusion parameters were investigated during the implementation of an innovation project, against the background of an institutional program to reduce the use of coercive measures. The results demonstrate the impact of confidence within the team, staffing level and communication with the patient on nurses' decisions on seclusion. The importance of the organizational context is further illustrated by the negative effects of organizational instability on nurses' attitudes and decision making with respect to seclusion, and on seclusion rates. A reduction in the use of seclusion was achieved after the implementation of the innovation project; however, during a period of organizational turmoil, the work engagement scores of staff decreased and the use of seclusion increased. The results of this study show the vulnerability of innovations within the continuously changing organizational context of mental health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dunn, Erin C; Masyn, Katherine E; Johnston, William R; Subramanian, S V
Population health scientists increasingly study how contextual-level attributes affect individual health. A major challenge in this domain relates to measurement, i.e., how best to measure and create variables that capture characteristics of individuals and their embedded contexts. This paper presents an illustration of multilevel factor analysis (MLFA), an analytic method that enables researchers to model contextual effects using individual-level data without using derived variables. MLFA uses the shared variance in sets of observed items among individuals within the same context to estimate a measurement model for latent constructs; it does this by decomposing the total sample variance-covariance matrix into within-group (e.g., individual-level) and between-group (e.g., contextual-level) matrices and simultaneously modeling distinct latent factor structures at each level. We illustrate the MLFA method using items capturing collective efficacy, which were self-reported by 2,599 adults in 65 census tracts from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LAFANS). MLFA identified two latent factors at the individual level and one factor at the neighborhood level. Indicators of collective efficacy performed differently at each level. The ability of MLFA to identify different latent factor structures at each level underscores the utility of this analytic tool to model and identify attributes of contexts relevant to health.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Pearson, Carolyn M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Pacanowski, Carly R; Mason, Tyler B; Berner, Laura A; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B
Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is under-explored in adults with obesity. In this study, 50 adults with obesity recorded eating episodes and theoretically-relevant environmental, perceptual, and emotional correlates in the natural environment for 2weeks via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Generalized linear models and mixed models were used to characterize correlates and consequences of EAH vs. non-EAH episodes/tendencies (within-subjects and between-subjects effects, respectively), time of day, and time of day×EAH interactions. Approximately 21% of EMA-recorded eating episodes involved EAH, and 70% of participants reported at least 1 EAH episode. At the within-person level, participants' EAH episodes were associated with greater self-labeled overeating than their non-EAH episodes. At the between-person level, participants who tended to engage in more EAH reported less self-labeled overeating than those who engaged in less EAH. Across EAH and non-EAH episodes, eating in the evening was associated with overeating, expecting eating to be more rewarding, greater alcoholic beverage consumption, eating alone, eating because others are eating, and eating while watching television. Significant EAH×time of day interactions were also observed but the pattern of findings was not consistent. Findings suggest that EAH may be a relevant target for reducing food intake in individuals with obesity given its high prevalence and association with perceptions of overeating, although results should be extended using objective measures of food intake. Associations between evening eating episodes and perceptual and environmental factors should be further explored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Drozdowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowski, Tomasz
Escalating pharmaceutical costs have become a global challenge for both governments and patients. Generic substitution is one way of decreasing these costs. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with patients' choice between generic drugs and innovator drugs. The survey was conducted in June 2013, 1000 people from across Poland were chosen as a representative population sample. The outcome (a preference for generics/a preference for innovator pharmaceuticals/no preference) was modeled by multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for several variables describing patients' sensitivity to selected generic features (price, brand, and country of origin), to third-party opinions about generics (information on generics in the mass media, opinions of health professionals (i.e. physicians, pharmacists), relatives/friends), as well as patients' personal experiences and income per household. The results supported the predictive capacity of most independent variables (except for patient sensitivity to the country of origin and to the information on generics in the mass media), denoting patients' preferences toward generic substitution. Patient sensitivity to recommendations by physicians, generic brand, and household income were the strongest predictors of the choice between generic and innovator pharmaceuticals (P < 0.001). The probability of choosing generics over innovator drugs was significantly higher among respondents with the lowest income levels, in those who were indifferent to generic brand or their physician's opinion, as well as in respondents who were sensitive to recommendations by pharmacists or attached a greater value to a past experience with generics (their own experience or that of relatives/friends). In consideration of the foregoing, awareness-raising campaigns may be recommended, supported by a variety of systemic solutions and tools to encourage generic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phung, Viet-Hai; Essam, Nadya; Asghar, Zahid; Spaight, Anne; Siriwardena, Aloysius N
Clinical leadership and organizational culture are important contextual factors for quality improvement (QI) but the relationship between these and with organizational change is complex and poorly understood. We aimed to explore the relationship between clinical leadership, culture of innovation and clinical engagement in QI within a national ambulance QI Collaborative (QIC). We used a self-administered online questionnaire survey sent to front-line clinicians in all 12 English ambulance services. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of quantitative data and qualitative analysis of free-text responses. There were 2743 (12% of 22 117) responses from 11 of the 12 participating ambulance services. In the 3% of responders that were directly involved with the QIC, leadership behaviour was significantly higher than for those not directly involved. QIC involvement made no significant difference to responders' perceptions of the culture of innovation in their organization, which was generally considered poor. Although uptake of QI methods was low overall, QIC members were significantly more likely to use QI methods, which were also significantly associated with leadership behaviour. Despite a limited organizational culture of innovation, clinical leadership and use of QI methods in ambulance services generally, the QIC achieved its aims to significantly improve pre-hospital care for acute myocardial infarction and stroke. We postulate that this was mediated through an improvement subculture, linked to the QIC, which facilitated large-scale improvement by stimulating leadership and QI methods. Further research is needed to understand success factors for QI in complex health care environments. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Phung, Viet‐Hai; Essam, Nadya; Asghar, Zahid; Spaight, Anne
Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Clinical leadership and organizational culture are important contextual factors for quality improvement (QI) but the relationship between these and with organizational change is complex and poorly understood. We aimed to explore the relationship between clinical leadership, culture of innovation and clinical engagement in QI within a national ambulance QI Collaborative (QIC). Methods We used a self‐administered online questionnaire survey sent to front‐line clinicians in all 12 English ambulance services. We conducted a cross‐sectional analysis of quantitative data and qualitative analysis of free‐text responses. Results There were 2743 (12% of 22 117) responses from 11 of the 12 participating ambulance services. In the 3% of responders that were directly involved with the QIC, leadership behaviour was significantly higher than for those not directly involved. QIC involvement made no significant difference to responders' perceptions of the culture of innovation in their organization, which was generally considered poor. Although uptake of QI methods was low overall, QIC members were significantly more likely to use QI methods, which were also significantly associated with leadership behaviour. Conclusions Despite a limited organizational culture of innovation, clinical leadership and use of QI methods in ambulance services generally, the QIC achieved its aims to significantly improve pre‐hospital care for acute myocardial infarction and stroke. We postulate that this was mediated through an improvement subculture, linked to the QIC, which facilitated large‐scale improvement by stimulating leadership and QI methods. Further research is needed to understand success factors for QI in complex health care environments. PMID:26303398
Tariman, Joseph D; Berry, Donna L; Cochrane, Barbara; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G
To review physician, patient, and contextual factors that affect treatment decision making in older adults diagnosed with cancer, and to relate those factors to theoretical models of decision making. PubMed (1966 to April 2010), PsycINFO (1967 to April 2010) and CINAHL® (1982 to April 2010) databases were searched to access relevant medical, psychological, and nursing literature. Physician factors in treatment decisions included physician's personal beliefs and values, medical expertise, practice type, perception of lowered life expectancy, medical factors, power, and communication style. Patient factors included personal beliefs and values, ethnicity, decisional control preferences, previous health-related experience, perception of the decision-making process, and personal factors. Contextual factors included availability of caregiver, insurance, financial status, and geographical barrier. A diverse group of factors were identified, which are likely to form a unique framework to understand clinical decision making and plan future investigations in older adult patient populations. Using longitudinal and prospective designs to examine the real-time interplay of patient, physician, and contextual factors will enable a better understanding of how those divergent factors influence actual treatment decisions. Oncology nurses can advocate autonomous (patient-driven), shared, or family-controlled treatment decisions, depending on an older patient's decisional role preference. Nurses can support patient autonomy during treatment decision making by coaching patients to engage in discussion of various evidence-based treatment options and a comprehensive discussion of the probability of success for each option with specialist providers. Oncology nurses may be able to promote treatment decisions that are consistent with a patient's personal preferences and values, with strong consideration of the patient's personal contexts.
Full Text Available (1 Background: Differential RPE (dRPE separates scores for breathlessness (RPE-B, leg muscle exertion (RPE-L and technical/cognitive exertion (RPE-T. Limited information for dRPE is available in soccer match play, yet these measurements may help inform practitioners training and recovery strategies. This preliminary study investigated the effects of playing position and contextual factors on elite soccer players’ dRPE. (2 Methods: Thirty-two male English Premier League players recorded dRPE scores 15–30 min post-match for RPE-B, RPE-L, and RPE-T. Data were analysed using linear mixed models, with magnitude-based inferences subsequently applied. (3 Results: Overall, the mean ± SD for the dRPE were 63 ± 23 arbitrary units (au (RPE-B, 67 ± 22 au (RPE-L, and 60 ± 24 au (RPE-T. Full Backs reported substantially higher RPE-B, RPE-L and RPE-T when compared to all other positions. Substantially higher RPE-T scores were reported for matches played against Top teams compared to Bottom (10 au; 90% Confidence Interval 5 to 15 au and Middle (10 au; 4 to 15 au ranked teams. The effects of match result and location on dRPE were not substantial. (4 Conclusions: Positional differences were observed following soccer match play for RPE-B, RPE-L and RPE-T. Full backs had substantially higher dRPE then any other position, with all players reporting increased RPE-T when playing teams at the Top of the league. These findings can help practitioners monitor internal load responses and support the prescription of training and recovery sessions.
Rosé Colom Toldrá
Full Text Available This article analyzes the implications of the acquisition of physical disability on everyday life situations of persons under occupational therapy care using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – ICF, with emphasis on contextual factors. The study included 11 adults and elderly with physical impairments resulting from neurological disorders who were under Occupational Therapy care at the Center for Teaching and Research at the University of Sao Paulo from 2009 to 2010. It’s an exploratory qualitative research conducted through documentary study and semi-structured interview for the administration of the ICF components. Changes in body functions are diverse, both mental and related to movement, and when coupled with contextual factors may result in different levels and types of disabilities, preventing participation in life situations. The analysis of contextual factors helps to identify and relate personal and environmental aspects and their dynamic interaction reflects processes that may cause disability, establishing the ICF as a valuable guide for research and development of rehabilitation practices that consider the different aspects of the reality of a person’s life.
Charles S Wiysonge
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, more than six million children in sub-Saharan Africa did not receive the full series of three doses of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine by one year of age. An evidence-based approach to addressing this burden of un-immunised children requires accurate knowledge of the underlying factors. We therefore developed and tested a model of childhood immunisation that includes individual, community and country-level characteristics. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We conducted multilevel logistic regression analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data for 27,094 children aged 12-23 months, nested within 8,546 communities from 24 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the intra-country and intra-community correlation coefficient implied by the estimated intercept component variance, 21% and 32% of the variance in unimmunised children were attributable to country- and community-level factors respectively. Children born to mothers (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.18 to 1.53 and fathers (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.12 to 1.40 with no formal education were more likely to be unimmunised than those born to parents with secondary or higher education. Children from the poorest households were 36% more likely to be unimmunised than counterparts from the richest households. Maternal access to media significantly reduced the odds of children being unimmunised (OR 0.94, 95%CI 0.94 to 0.99. Mothers with health seeking behaviours were less likely to have unimmunised children (OR 0.56, 95%CI 0.54 to 0.58. However, children from urban areas (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23, communities with high illiteracy rates (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.23, and countries with high fertility rates (OR 4.43, 95% CI 1.04 to 18.92 were more likely to be unimmunised. CONCLUSION: We found that individual and contextual factors were associated with childhood immunisation, suggesting that public health programmes designed to improve coverage of childhood immunisation should address people, and
This qualitative study explores the formation of educational and vocational goals among female first-year engineering students at two community colleges and one four-year institution, as well as contextual influences on this process. Participants' pathways to college are also explored, as well as their pathways into engineering. The findings…
Perales, Josu; Cenoz, Jasone
Examines the effect of individual and contextual variables on the acquisition of Basque by adult learners in the Basque Country. Participants were learners who were attending Basque classes in nine different specialized schools for teaching Basque to adults. Participants completed questionnaires about metalinguistic awareness, anxiety, learning…
Lam, Y. L. Jack; Pang, S. K. Nicholas
Path analyses of information from 780 Hong Kong elementary and 1,197 secondary teachers in the midst of national reforms indicated that internal school conditions (transformational leadership, supportive culture, flexible structure) promoted organizational learning and change. External and contextual conditions provided incentives and motivation…
Kalter Henry D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal death reviews have been utilized in several countries as a means of identifying social and health care quality issues affecting maternal survival. From 2005 to 2009, a standardized community-based maternal death inquiry and response initiative was implemented in eight Indian states with the aim of addressing critical maternal health policy objectives. However, state-specific contextual factors strongly influenced the effort's success. This paper examines the impact and implications of the contextual factors. Methods We identified community, public health systems and governance related contextual factors thought to affect the implementation, utilization and up-scaling of the death inquiry process. Then, according to selected indicators, we documented the contextual factors' presence and their impact on the process' success in helping meet critical maternal health policy objectives in four districts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Based on this assessment, we propose an optimal model for conducting community-based maternal death inquiries in India and similar settings. Results The death inquiry process led to increases in maternal death notification and investigation whether civil society or government took charge of these tasks, stimulated sharing of the findings in multiple settings and contributed to the development of numerous evidence-based local, district and statewide maternal health interventions. NGO inputs were essential where communities, public health systems and governance were weak and boosted effectiveness in stronger settings. Public health systems participation was enabled by responsive and accountable governance. Communities participated most successfully through India's established local governance Panchayat Raj Institutions. In one instance this led to the development of a multi-faceted intervention well-integrated at multiple levels. Conclusions The impact of several contextual
Garner, Pamela W.; Parker, Tameka; Dortch, Marlon K.
The present study examined differences in the victimization-related beliefs of 173 adults (65 early childhood preservice teachers, 62 early childhood in-service teachers, and 46 parents). Additionally, confidence about managing victimization was evaluated as a predictor of proposed responses to negative peer encounters. In-service teachers were…
Nagarajan, Karikalan; Sahay, Seema; Mainkar, Mandar K; Deshpande, Sucheta; Ramesh, Sowmya; Paranjape, Ramesh S
Community mobilization is a participatory intervention strategy used among Female Sex Workers (FSW's) to address HIV risks through behavior change and self empowerment. This study quantitatively measure and differentiate theoretically defined forms of FSW participation's and identify their contextual associated factors. Data was derived from cross-sectional Integrated Bio Behavioral Assessment conducted among FSW's in Andhra Pradesh (AP) (n = 3370), Maharashtra (MH) (n = 3133) and Tamil Nadu (TN) (n = 2140) of India during 2009-2010. Information's about socio-demography, community mobilization and participation experiences were collected. Conceptual model for two contexts of mobilization entailing distinct FSW participations were defined as participation in "collective" and "public" spaces respectively. Bivariate and multiple regression analysis were used. The level of participation in "collective" and "public" spaces was lowest in MH (43.9% & 11.7% respectively), higher in TN (82.2% & 22.5% respectively) and AP (64.7% & 33.1%). Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis highlighted the distinct nature of "participations" through their varied associations with FSW mobilization and background status.In MH, street FSWs showed significantly lower collective participation (36.5%) than brothel FSWs (46.8%) and street FSWs showed higher public participation (16.2%) than brothel FSWs (9.7%). In AP both collective and public participation were significantly high among street FSWs (62.7% and 34.7% respectively) than brothel FSW's (55.2% and 25.4% respectively).Regression analysis showed FSWs with "community identity", were more likely to participate in public spaces in TN and AP (AOR 2.4, 1.5-3.8 & AOR 4.9, CI 2.3-10.7) respectively. FSWs with "collective identity" were more likely to participate in collective spaces in TN, MH and AP (AOR 27.2 CI 13.7-53.9; AOR 7.3, CI 3.8-14.3; AOR 5.7 CI 3-10.9 respectively). FSWs exhibiting "collective agency" were more
Lunde, Carolina; Frisén, Ann; Hwang, Carl Philip
Several studies show that a history of exposure to appearance-related teasing is linked to body dissatisfaction. This study extends those findings by examining the impact of bullying, and other forms of peer victimization, on different aspects of 10-year-old girls' and boys' body esteem. Participants were 960 Swedish 10-year-olds, 515 girls and 445 boys. Principal results show that social exclusion is related to 10-year-olds' evaluations of their general appearance, to evaluations of their weight, and to beliefs about how others perceive their appearance. Furthermore, bullied girls have poorer body esteem in terms of beliefs of how others perceive their appearance than do bullied boys. Appearance teasing was associated with girls' poorer body esteem in terms of general appearance and beliefs of others views of their appearance. For boys, teasing was associated with poorer body esteem on all dimensions. Thus, this study implies that a wider range of peer victimization relates to children's negative self-perceptions than was former known.
Full Text Available When the knowledge gained over centuries has to be presented to students through a 12-15 year study, it has to be abridged and organized elaborately. This process of encapsulating all knowledge into an educational course often results in fragmentation of knowledge and a mental divorce from life. Life knowledge that is reduced to objective principles may be intelligible to the intellect, but is incomprehensible to the imagination, creativity and emotional intelligence, all of which are important to the full development of personality. A study of Economics without the human and social dimensions, industrialization detached from ecology, or science devoid of moral accountability results in problems. Education of each part must be in the context of the whole. Knowing the whole context helps one get the right perspective to address the issue effectively. In the education of the future, the gap between abstract concept and social relevance must be bridged. The following article explores the need for contextual education and the ways in which it can be implemented.
Westmacott, Robin; Hunsley, John; Best, Marlene; Rumstein-McKean, Orly; Schindler, Dwayne
Contextual variables potentially influencing premature termination were examined. Clients (n=83) and therapists (n=35) provided parallel data on early working alliance, psychotherapy termination decision (unilateral vs. mutual), clients' reasons for termination, and barriers to treatment participation. When clients unilaterally ended therapy, therapists were only partially aware of either the extent of clients' perceived improvements or their dissatisfaction. When termination was mutually determined, there were no differences between client and therapist ratings of termination reasons. Although working alliance and barriers to treatment participation were rated as lower in the context of unilateral termination by clients and therapists, all clients rated the early alliance and barriers to treatment more highly than did therapists. Results have implications for understanding premature termination and suggest future research examining the utility of therapist feedback regarding contextual variables in terms of retaining clients in therapy.
Langlais, Philip J
Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have identified many important factors that affect ethical behavior, including individual, contextual, and organizational factors. Surprisingly little research has been conducted to examine the role of these factors in either the development of ethical decision-making skills, or their applicability to ethical issues commonly encountered in research and other scholarly and professional activities. Interdisciplinary approaches combined with research and discipline relevant paradigms should greatly enhance understanding of the individual contextual and organizational factors involved in ethical and unethical research conduct. Such studies will inform and facilitate the development of more effective ethics education programs in the sciences and engineering professions.
Chen, Li-Wu; Xu, Liyan; Yu, Fang; Jacobson, Janelle; Roberts, Sara; Palm, David
This study examined the relationship between county variation in macro contextual variables and the performance of public health practice in regional local health departments (LHDs) in Nebraska. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: County-level data from the US Census Bureau, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services, and the University of Nebraska Medical Center's Health Professions Tracking Services were used to create macro context variables (eg, demographic, geographic, social, economic, population health status). The public health performance data were collected through a mail survey of the directors of regional LHDs in Nebraska in 2008. Public health performance measures were created to indicate LHD's general performance as well as core function specific performance (ie, assessment, assurance, policy development). The coefficients of variation were estimated and used to categorize each regional LHD into either a larger county variation group or a smaller county variation group for each domain of macro context variables. Statistical comparisons of public health performance measures were then made between these 2 groups for each domain. The results suggest that the county variation in macro contextual variables within a regional public health district, in general, is negatively associated with the performance of public health practice in regional LHDs. The regional LHD's performance in specific public health core function (eg, assurance) is negatively associated with the county variation in specific types of macro context factors (eg, geographic factors such as land size and population density). Regional LHDs may design and implement their public health programs on the basis of the type and degree of heterogeneity among the member counties within their jurisdiction. The formation of regional LHDs, if possible, should follow geographic boundaries that minimize the heterogeneity of county composition in terms of macro contextual factors.
Schiamberg, L B; Gans, D
Elder abuse in family settings has increased in recent years for a variety of reasons, including the increasing proportion of older adults in the total population, the related increase in chronic disabling diseases, and the increasing involvement of families in caregiving relationships with elders. Future trends indicate not only continued growth of the older population but suggest, as well, an increased demand for family caregiving which may, in turn, be accompanied by increasing rates of elder abuse. It is important to consider issues associated with such caregiving and elder abuse in families from an ecological perspective as a basis both for framing conceptually relevant and effective prevention strategies as well as for understanding the specific character of the broader issue of the intergenerational nature of the quality of life in an aging society. Using an applied ecological model, the article focuses on the contextual risk factors of elder abuse. Specifically, five levels of environment--microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem--will be utilized to organize and interpret existing research on the risk factors asociated with elder abuse (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1986, 1997). The configuration of the risk factors provides a useful framework for understanding the intergenerational character of the quality of life for older adults, for developing recommendations for empirically-based action research, and for the development of community-based prevention and intervention strategies. The application of a contextual perspective to the development of intervention and prevention programs will be addressed, the latter in relation to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.
Full Text Available Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC and mental health functioning (MHF of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.
Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Falkmer, Marita
Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.
Full Text Available The problems associated with violence during adolescence have been on the rise in recent decades. Many studies have focused only on environmental causes or individual causes of violence, although a combination of both variables would seem to be the best option for prediction. The current study aims to assess the relevance of individual characteristics (personality traits, intelligence, and historical and clinical factors linked to the risk of violence, contextual risk factors and protective factors in explaining antisocial and delinquent behaviors in adolescence by comparing three different samples: a community sample, a sample at risk of social exclusion, and a sample of juvenile offenders. The results show that the samples at risk of social exclusion and the sample of juvenile offenders have a very similar profile in terms of personality traits and intelligence, although they differ from the community sample. However, these two samples do differ in such contextual variables as peer delinquency, poor parental management, community disorganization, or early caregiver disruption.
Holtz, C; Gilliland, J; Thind, A; Wilk, P; Campbell, M K
Health service use may be influenced by multilevel predisposing, enabling, and need factors but is equitable when driven by need. The study's objectives were as follows: (a) to investigate residential context's effect on child health service use and (b) to examine inequity of child health service use by testing for effect measure modification of need factors. The sample of 1,451 children was from a prenatal cohort recruited from London, Ontario, between 2002 and 2004, with follow-up until children were toddler/preschooler-aged. Individual-level data were linked by residential address to neighbourhood contextual-level data sourced from Statistics Canada. Multilevel logistic regression modelled factors associated with child health service use. Interaction terms were included in the model to test for effect measure modification of need factors by predisposing and enabling factors. Contextual-level factors were not associated with child health service use. Maternal parity and nativity to Canada modified the effect of the need factor, paediatric health condition, on health service use. Health condition's effect was lowest in children of Canadian-born mothers with one child only (OR = 1.58, p = .04) and highest in children of Canadian-born mothers with three or more children (OR = 3.52, p service use for subgroups of children whose mothers are of lower parity and not Canadian-born. An understanding of these inequities may inform future healthcare policy and care for paediatric populations. Key Messages A novel method to analytically assess inequity in health service use was explored. The effect of children's health condition on health service use depended on maternal parity and nativity to Canada. Child health service use did not vary by the neighbourhood in which children resided. Healthcare policy could benefit from further investigation of the observed inequities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Van Bavel, Jay J.; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J.; Reinero, Diego A.
In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher’s degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed “hidden moderators”) between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility. PMID:27217556
Biringer, Eva; Davidson, Larry; Sundfør, Bengt; Lier, Haldis Ø; Borg, Marit
Self-help strategies and various contextual factors support recovery. However, more in-depth knowledge is needed about how self-help strategies and supportive environments facilitate the recovery process. To explore what individuals who have recently been referred to a specialist Community Mental Health Center experience as helpful and what they do to help themselves. Ten service users participated in in-depth interviews within a collaborative-reflexive framework. A hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was used. Participants described a variety of helpful strategies and environmental supports. Four relevant main themes were identified: helpful activities, helpful people and places, self-instruction and learning about mental problems and medication and self-medication. The process of recovery is initiated before people become users of mental health services. This study confirms that recovery takes place within the person's daily life context and involves the interplay of contextual factors, such as family, friends, good places, work and other meaningful activities. The coping strategies reported may represent an important focus for attention and clinical intervention.
Full Text Available Stefan Sütterlin,1,2 Lars E Egner,1 Ricardo G Lugo,1 Slawomir Wojniusz2,3 1Section of Psychology, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Division of Surgery and Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital – Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 3Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway Abstract: Creating an optimized health care environment to maximize the probability and magnitude of placebo effects draws on a number of well-researched mechanisms such as the patient's positive expectation toward treatment outcome. Patient-centered communication styles influence expectations and can thus be considered as a form of supplemental treatment. Unconsciously processed contextual triggering and facilitating placebo effects are omnipresent in clinical settings as well as in all other social and physical environments. Contextual cues in both the social and physical domain exert influences on the recipient's emotional state and recreational experiences. While the majority of research focuses on improving the patients' expectations, classical conditioning effects of nonsocial contextual factors have been largely neglected in discussions on practical implementation of placebo-enhancing environments. Built on the empirically well-supported argument that conditioning processes act as a powerful tool to mobilize self-healing resources just as verbally induced expectations do, we argue for a stronger consideration of the effects of permanent, nonsocial and nonverbal environmental contexts. Environmental psychology is a new field of research within the psychological domain and offers a toolbox of opportunities for medical psychological research and health care practitioners to improve the treatment outcomes and benefits of health care environments. Keywords: placebo, expectation, conditioning, environmental psychology
Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin
Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM.
Full Text Available Background Although proven feasible, rapid response services (RRSs to support urgent decision and policymaking are still a fairly new and innovative strategy in several health systems, more especially in low-income countries. There are several information gaps about these RRSs that exist including the factors that make them work in different contexts and in addition what affects their uptake by potential end users. Methods We used a case study employing process evaluation methods to determine what contextual factors affect the utilization of a RRS in Uganda. We held in-depth interviews with researchers, knowledge translation (KT specialists and policy-makers from several research and policy-making institutions in Uganda’s health sector. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis to develop categories and themes about activities and structures under given program components that affected uptake of the service. Results We identified several factors under three themes that have both overlapping relations and also reinforcing loops amplifying each other: Internal factors (those factors that were identified as over which the RRS had full [or almost full] control; external factors (factors over which the service had only partial influence, a second party holds part of this influence; and environmental factors (factors over which the service had no or only remote control if at all. Internal factors were the design of the service and resources available for it, while the external factors were the service’s visibility, integrity and relationships. Environmental factors were political will and health system policy and decision-making infrastructure. Conclusion For health systems practitioners considering RRSs, knowing what factors will affect uptake and therefore modifying them within their contexts is important to ensure efficient use and successful utilization of the mechanisms.
Koduah, Augustina; van Dijk, Han; Agyepong, Irene Akua
Development of health policy is a complex process that does not necessarily follow a particular format and a predictable trajectory. Therefore, agenda setting and selecting of alternatives are critical processes of policy development and can give insights into how and why policies are made. Understanding why some policy issues remain and are maintained whiles others drop off the agenda is an important enquiry. This paper aims to advance understanding of health policy agenda setting and formulation in Ghana, a lower middle-income country, by exploring how and why the maternal (antenatal, delivery and postnatal) fee exemption policy agenda in the health sector has been maintained over the four and half decades since a 'free antenatal care in government facilities' policy was first introduced in October 1963. A mix of historical and contemporary qualitative case studies of nine policy agenda setting and formulation processes was used. Data collection methods involved reviews of archival materials, contemporary records, media content, in-depth interviews, and participant observation. Data was analysed drawing on a combination of policy analysis theories and frameworks. Contextual factors, acting in an interrelating manner, shaped how policy actors acted in a timely manner and closely linked policy content to the intended agenda. Contextual factors that served as bases for the policymaking process were: political ideology, economic crisis, data about health outcomes, historical events, social unrest, change in government, election year, austerity measures, and international agendas. Nkrumah's socialist ideology first set the agenda for free antenatal service in 1963. This policy trajectory taken in 1963 was not reversed by subsequent policy actors because contextual factors and policy actors created a network of influence to maintain this issue on the agenda. Politicians over the years participated in the process to direct and approve the agenda. Donors increasingly
Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.
Larios, Sandra E; Lozada, Remedios; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Roesch, Scott; Staines, Hugo; Orozovich, Prisci; Fraga, Miguel; Amaro, Hortensia; de la Torre, Adela; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L
The present study examined the applicability of the Social Ecological Model for explaining condom use in a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) (N=435) participating in a behavioral intervention to increase condom use in Tijuana, Mexico. Using a multigroup path analysis, we compared women who work in bar settings (n=233) to those who worked on the street (n=202) with regard to an individual factor (self-efficacy), an interpersonal factor (client financial incentives), and a structural factor (condom access). Competing models showed differential impacts of these factors in the two venue-based groups. Having access to condoms was associated with greater self-efficacy and less unprotected sex in women who worked in bars. Among street-based FSWs, having clients offer monetary incentives for unprotected sex was related to greater unprotected sex, while having access to condoms was not. Understanding the contextual factors associated with condom use among subgroups of FSWs has important implications for the development of HIV prevention interventions.
Full Text Available Background: The use of students rating in order to improve faculty teaching has increased during last 25 years, and some universities rate all faculties teaching by students. Purpose: To study the influence of some instructor contextual variables in evaluating faculty teaching such as, gender, age, rank, teaching experience and status of employment of faculty. Methods: The available data from evaluation of 3 semesters (2001, 2002, and 2003 for 91 faculty members of medical basic sciences were analyzed as the dependent variables, the instrument for this study was self administered Likert's type questionnaire which administered in the last session of teaching. The effect of variable like gender, rank, teaching experiences, employment status are examined on evaluation score of faculty .The statistical t-test, Leven's and Pearson correlation were used to analyses the data. Results: Of all participant 67% were men. 5.6%of them aged less than 35, 52.2% of subjects were between 35-50years old and 42.2%were older than 50. Of all faculties 16.6% were full professor, 23.4% associate and 56%were assistant professor.4% of the faculty were instructor. There was no statistical significant association between the mean score and variances of evaluation scores Conclusion: The finding of this study showed there were no statistically differences between the dependent and independents variables. However the weak negative correlation was found between age and teaching experience. It means young and less experienced faculty gets better score in student rating KEYWORDS: FACULTY EVALUATION, STUDENT'S SURVEY
Full Text Available Stochastic fluctuations in gene expression give rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein levels which can potentially cause variability in cellular phenotype. For TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand variability manifests itself as dramatic differences in the time between ligand exposure and the sudden activation of the effector caspases that kill cells. However, the contribution of individual proteins to phenotypic variability has not been explored in detail. In this paper we use feature-based sensitivity analysis as a means to estimate the impact of variation in key apoptosis regulators on variability in the dynamics of cell death. We use Monte Carlo sampling from measured protein concentration distributions in combination with a previously validated ordinary differential equation model of apoptosis to simulate the dynamics of receptor-mediated apoptosis. We find that variation in the concentrations of some proteins matters much more than variation in others and that precisely which proteins matter depends both on the concentrations of other proteins and on whether correlations in protein levels are taken into account. A prediction from simulation that we confirm experimentally is that variability in fate is sensitive to even small increases in the levels of Bcl-2. We also show that sensitivity to Bcl-2 levels is itself sensitive to the levels of interacting proteins. The contextual dependency is implicit in the mathematical formulation of sensitivity, but our data show that it is also important for biologically relevant parameter values. Our work provides a conceptual and practical means to study and understand the impact of cell-to-cell variability in protein expression levels on cell fate using deterministic models and sampling from parameter distributions.
Reis, Olaf; Jung, Petra; Häßler, Frank
Mental Health in Children from Families Seeking Asylum in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 2007-2009 - Personal and Contextual Risk Factors The study presented describes severity and conditions of various psychiatric symptoms in children from families seeking refuge in Germany 2007-2009 and registered in the province of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Mothers of 58 children (aged 12 years on average, 23 girls, 33 boys) answered the items of the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991). First, the burden of disease among refugee children was compared to standard burdens of German children. Second, the extent of symptoms was predicted by person- and context-related factors. Internalizing symptoms were predicted by more proximal factors, such as parental burden of stress and parental education. Externalizing symptoms and social problems were rather predicted by the length of stay in Germany, the reason for migration, the school career and parental education. On one hand, the study underscores the immediate need for intervention among refugee parents and children. On the other hand, structural factors in the country of arrival (length of stay, schooling) play an important role.
Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan
This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.
Ajduković, Marina; Rajter, Miroslav; Rezo, Ines
The study assessed mothers' risk for abusing their children in middle adolescence in relation to individual and contextual factors during the economic crisis in Croatia. Socioeconomic status of mothers, family economic pressure, and mothers' exposure to stress were measured. Special attention was given to the perceived availability of social support as one of protective factors potentially buffering the negative impact of risks of child abuse. The community sample included 746 mothers (Mage = 42.85; SDage = 5.319). The results showed that the risk of child abuse is higher for mothers with lower education, those who perceive themselves as suffering greater family economic hardship, those who have experienced a higher number of stressful events, and those with lower social support. When the mothers perceive a lower availability of social support, the effects of exposure to cumulative risk, namely the combination of socioeconomic status, economic pressure, and exposure to stress, are stronger. Since social support proved to be one of the key protective factors in the relationship between adverse life circumstances and parenting, the development of effective and non-stigmatized interventions aiming to increase social support, positive social relationships, and adequate parenting practices for parents facing economic hardship is an important direction for future family policy measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Scheer, Jillian R.
As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual…
Zhu, Weimo; Boiarskaia, Elena A; Welk, Gregory J; Meredith, Marilu D
Using two major data sets from the Texas Youth Fitness Study, ordinary least squares regression, and hierarchical linear modeling, we examined the impact of hey correlates in school physical education programs and policies on students'fitness status and cross-grade differences. While a number of factors, such as teachers' training/updates, recess time, available physical activity space, a school wellness policy, and fitness testing before administration, were confirmed, these correlates can explain only limited variance. Other aspects, such as socioeconomic status and community confounding factors, were recognized and illustrated. Future studies should include more factors such as these in data collection and analysis.
Babiszewska, Magdalena; Schel, Anne Marijke; Wilke, Claudia; Slocombe, Katie E.
The production of structured and re petitive sounds by striking objects is a behavior found not only in humans, but also in a variety of animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this study we examined individual and social factors that may influence the frequency with which
Many political theorists of multiculturalism (e.g. Joseph Carens, Bhikhu Parekh, James Tully) describe their theories as “contextualist.” But it is unclear what “contextualism” means and what difference it makes for political theory. I use a specific prominent example of a multiculturalist...... discussion, namely Tariq Modood’s argument about “moderate secularism,” as a test case and distinguish between different senses of contextualism. I discuss whether the claim that political theory is contextual in each sense is novel and interesting, and whether contextualism is a distinct feature...... of political theory of multiculturalism. I argue that the forms of contextualism which concern the scope and methodology of political theory are sensible, but not novel or distinctive of multiculturalism. I then discuss the more controversial forms of contextualism, which I call political and theoretical...
José Acacio de Barros
Full Text Available It is well known that in quantum mechanics we cannot always define consistently properties that are context independent. Many approaches exist to describe contextual properties, such as Contextuality by Default (CbD, sheaf theory, topos theory, and non-standard or signed probabilities. In this paper, we propose a treatment of contextual properties that is specific to quantum mechanics, as it relies on the relationship between contextuality and indistinguishability. In particular, we propose that if we assume the ontological thesis that quantum particles or properties can be indistinguishable yet different, no contradiction arising from a Kochen–Specker-type argument appears: when we repeat an experiment, we are in reality performing an experiment measuring a property that is indistinguishable from the first, but not the same. We will discuss how the consequences of this move may help us understand quantum contextuality.
Haine, Denis; Delgado, Hector; Cue, Roger; Sewalem, Asheber; Wade, Kevin; Lacroix, René; Lefebvre, Daniel; Arsenault, Julie; Bouchard, Émile; Dubuc, Jocelyn
Several health disorders, such as milk fever, displaced abomasum, and mastitis, as well as impaired reproductive performance, are known risk factors for the removal of affected cows from a dairy herd. While cow-level risk factors are well documented in the literature, herd-level associations have been less frequently investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cow- and herd-level determinants on variations in culling risk in Québec dairy herds: whether herd influences a cow's culling risk. For this, we assessed the influence of herd membership on cow culling risk according to displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained placenta. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on data from dairy herds in the Province of Québec, Canada, by extracting health information events from the dairy herd health management software used by most Québec dairy producers and their veterinarians. Data were extracted for all lactations starting between January 1st and December 31st, 2010. Using multilevel logistic regression, we analysed a total of 10,529 cows from 201 herds that met the inclusion criteria. Milk fever and displaced abomasum were demonstrated to increase the cow culling risk. A minor general herd effect was found for the culling risk (i.e. an intra-class correlation of 1.0% and median odds ratio [MOR] of 1.20). The proportion of first lactation cows was responsible for this significant, but weak herd effect on individual cow culling risk, after taking into account the cow-level factors. On the other hand, the herd's average milk production was a protective factor. The planning and management of forthcoming replacement animals has to be taken into consideration when assessing cow culling risks and herd culling rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K.; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; DeGarmo, David S.
Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of post-deployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 post-deployed fathers who served in the Army National Guard/Reserves. Pre-intervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After ...
Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K.; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; DeGarmo, David S.
Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of post-deployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 post-deployed fathers who served in the Army National Guard/Reserves. Pre-intervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT) randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and PTSD symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model predicting an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study utilizing direct parent-child observations of father’s parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:26213794
Rao, Nirmala; Cheng, Kai-Ming; Narain, Kirti
This paper considers how state educational policy and other sociocontextual factors influence primary schooling in two large developing countries. In the late 1940s, national statistics for primary school enrolment and other human development indicators were comparable between China and India. Both countries then experienced major political transitions and embraced similar economic development priorities. Half a century later, reports prepared for the 2000 World Education Forum indicate that China had far outperformed India in terms of school enrolment ratios and on indices of the efficiency of primary education. This article considers the reasons for these differences. It discusses the role of the state, educational policy and its implementation, linkages among educational, economic and social policies, cultural belief systems that are relevant to education, classroom teaching and learning, teacher characteristics, and the physical conditions of schools.
Тетяна Олександрівна Левицька
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the substantiation of the use of contextual advertising in Internet marketing as one of the most universal and expedient tools of modern advertising, applied for the first time in 1994, describing the principles of its implementation and the prospects for using it. The shortcomings and advantages of Internet marketing and contextual advertising in particular, its types and technologies, on which it is implemented, the possibilities, as well as the purposes of application, are considered. The main characteristics of contextual advertising, namely its characteristic properties as compared to the other types of Internet marketing, were highlighted. The use of contextual advertising in the search, on partner sites of the advertising network and an example of the report that was received by means of the Yandex.Metrika service have been shown. On the basis of the analysis the use of contextual advertising has been proved and its basic types and methods of measuring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns using deep analytics services have been demonstrated. The factor of the complexity of the configuration process has been singled out, and in this connection, a variant of professional intervention in setting up contextual advertising by specialized agencies has been offered. In the long term, the tools of contextual advertising are to expand. Every year, more and more services are being created for a deeper analysis of statistics, end-to-end analytics, and the improvement of the campaign management interface
Boddi, Valentina; Fanni, Egidia; Castellini, Giovanni; Fisher, Alessandra Daphne; Corona, Giovanni; Maggi, Mario
The deterioration of a couple's relationship has been previously associated with impairment in male sexual function. Besides a couple's dystonic relationship, other stressors can unfavorably influence dyadic intimacy. A largely neglected etiopathogenetic factor affecting couple sexuality is the frustration caused by conflicts within the family. To evaluate the possible associations between male sexual dysfunction (SD) and conflictual relationships within the couple or the family. A consecutive series of 3,975 men, attending the Outpatient Clinic for SD for the first time, was retrospectively studied. Conflicts within the family and within the couple were assessed using two standard questions: "Are there any conflicts at home," and "Do you have a difficult relationship with your partner?" respectively, rating 0 = normal relationships, 1 = occasional quarrels, and 2 = frequent quarrels or always. Several clinical, biochemical, and psychological (Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire) parameters were studied. Among the 3,975 patients studied, we observed a high prevalence of conflicts within the family and within the couple (32% vs. 21.2%). When compared with the rest of the sample, subjects reporting both type of conflicts showed a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities. Hence, all data were adjusted for this parameter and for age. Family and couple conflicts were significantly associated with free floating anxiety, depression symptoms, and with a higher risk of subjective (self-reported) and objective (peak systolic velocity at the penile color Doppler ultrasound determinism of male SD. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Babiszewska, Magdalena; Schel, Anne Marijke; Wilke, Claudia; Slocombe, Katie E
The production of structured and repetitive sounds by striking objects is a behavior found not only in humans, but also in a variety of animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this study we examined individual and social factors that may influence the frequency with which individuals engage in drumming behavior when producing long distance pant hoot vocalizations, and analyzed the temporal structure of those drumming bouts. Male chimpanzees from Budongo Forest, Uganda, drummed significantly more frequently during travel than feeding or resting and older individuals were significantly more likely to produce drumming bouts than younger ones. In contrast, we found no evidence that the presence of estrus females, high ranking males and preferred social partners in the caller's vicinty had an effect on the frequency with which an individual accompanied their pant hoot vocalization with drumming. Through acoustic analyses, we demonstrated that drumming sequences produced with pant hoots may have contained information on individual identity and that qualitatively, there was individual variation in the complexity of the temporal patterns produced. We conclude that drumming patterns may act as individually distinctive long-distance signals that, together with pant hoot vocalizations, function to coordinate the movement and spacing of dispersed individuals within a community, rather than as signals to group members in the immediate audience. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Plummer, Virginia
Evidence-based practice (EBP) in the clinical setting is recognized as an approach that leads to improved patient outcomes. Nurse educators (NEs), clinical coaches (CCs) and nurse specialists are in key positions to promote and facilitate EBP within clinical settings and have opportunities to advance practice. Therefore, it is important to understand their perceptions of factors promoting EBP and perceived barriers in facilitating EBP in clinical settings, before developing educational programmes. This paper reports findings from a study that aimed to explore NEs' , CCs' and nurse specialists' knowledge, skills and attitudes associated with EBP. This study used a questionnaire containing quantitative and a small number of qualitative questions to capture data collected from NEs, CCs and nurse specialists working at a tertiary health-care facility in Victoria, Australia. The questionnaire was distributed to a total of 435 people, of whom 135 responded (31%). Findings revealed that the three senior nurse groups relied heavily on personal experience, organizational policies and protocols as formal sources of knowledge. Furthermore, they had positive attitudes towards EBP. However, participants demonstrated lack of knowledge and skills in appraising and utilizing evidence into practice. They indicated a desire to seek educational opportunities to upskill themselves in the process of EBP. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Harris, Chelsea A; Muller, John-Michael; Shauver, Melissa J; Chung, Kevin C
Patients with tetraplegia consistently rank better use of the upper extremity as their top functional priority. Multiple case series have demonstrated that upper extremity reconstruction (UER) is well-tolerated and can produce substantial functional improvements for appropriate candidates; however, UER remains critically underutilized. The mechanisms that drive differences in provider practice and referral patterns have been studied, but comprehensive examination of the patient factors that influence UER decisions has not been performed for American patients. Nineteen patients with C4-8 cervical spinal injuries were selected using purposive sampling: 9 patients had undergone UER, 10 had not undergone UER. Semistructured interviews were conducted and transcripts evaluated using grounded theory methodology. Our study yielded a conceptual model that describes the characteristics common to all patients who undergo UER. Patients who selected reconstruction proceeded stepwise through a shared sequence of steps: (1) functional dissatisfaction, (2) awareness of UER, and (3) acceptance of surgery. Patients' ability to meet these criteria was determined by 3 checkpoints: how well they coped, their access to information, and the acceptability of surgery. Extremely positive or negative coping prevented patients from moving from the Coping to the Information Checkpoint; thus, they remained unaware of UER and did not undergo surgery. A lack of knowledge regarding reconstruction was the strongest barrier to surgery among our participants. We built a conceptual model that outlines how patients' personal and contextual factors drive their progression to UER. Moving from functional dissatisfaction to understanding that they were candidates for UER was a substantial barrier for participants, particularly those with very high and very low coping skills. To improve utilization for all patients, interventions are needed to increase UER awareness. Standardizing introduction to UER during
Specifically, our integrative model makes connection between individuals' personality factor of openness and the contextual factors. The contextual factors reflect human capital of education and experience, motivational resources representing self-efficacy and initiative and networking behaviour influencing opportunity ...
Full Text Available Children unreached by vaccination are at higher risk of poor health outcomes and India accounts for nearly a quarter of unvaccinated children worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate compositional and contextual determinants of non-receipt of childhood vaccines in India using multilevel modelling.We studied characteristics of unvaccinated children using the District Level Health and Facility Survey 3, a nationally representative probability sample containing 65 617 children aged 12-23 months from 34 Indian states and territories. We developed four-level Bayesian binomial regression models to examine the determinants of non-vaccination. The analysis considered two outcomes: completely unvaccinated (CUV children who had not received any of the eight vaccine doses recommended by India's Universal Immunization Programme, and children who had not received any dose from routine immunisation services (no RI. The no RI category includes CUV children and those who received only polio doses administered via mass campaigns. Overall, 4.83% (95% CI: 4.62-5.06 of children were CUV while 12.01% (11.68-12.35 had received no RI. Individual compositional factors strongly associated with CUV were: non-receipt of tetanus immunisation for mothers during pregnancy (OR = 3.65 [95% CrI: 3.30-4.02], poorest household wealth index (OR = 2.44 [1.81-3.22] no maternal schooling (OR = 2.43 [1.41-4.05] and no paternal schooling (OR = 1.83 [1.30-2.48]. In rural settings, the influence of maternal illiteracy disappeared whereas the role of household wealth index was reinforced. Factors associated with no RI were similar to those for CUV, but effect sizes for individual compositional factors were generally larger. Low maternal education was the strongest risk factor associated with no RI in all models. All multilevel models found significant variability at community, district, and state levels net of compositional factors.Non-vaccination in India
Hand hygiene practices of home visiting community nurses: perceptions, compliance, techniques, and contextual factors of practice using the World Health Organization's "five moments for hand hygiene".
Felembam, Ohood; John, Winsome St; Shaban, Ramon Z
In this observational study, the perceptions, compliance, techniques, and contextual issues of hand hygiene practices among community clinicians (nurses) during 103 hand hygiene opportunities (based on the World Health Organization "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene") in 40 patient care episodes were examined. Compliance with standard hand hygiene practices was generally poor, with many contextual influences making compliance difficult. Clinician preferences and convenience are important considerations in hand hygiene compliance. Improving home-visiting community clinicians' hand hygiene practices requires addressing contextual issues related to the availability of hand hygiene equipment, such as alcohol-based hand rubs, as well as hand hygiene in-service education to update knowledge on hand hygiene for everyday practice in community settings.
Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Warnecke, Richard; Saunders, Stephen; Sullivan, Myrtis
We report results from an experimental study that tested the effectiveness of dissemination interventions to improve implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in maternal and child public health clinics. We additionally examine individual clinic results for contextual explanations not apparent from the experimental findings alone. Twelve…
Alysson Massote Carvalho
variation of caring behavior, indicating their dependence on the contextual factors of the environment.
Specht, M. (2008). Designing Contextualized Learning. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson (Eds.), Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training (2th ed., pp. 101-111). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg 2008: International Handbook on Information Systems Series.
With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…
Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Hansen, Frank Allan
in Danish elementary schools, we present the HyConExplorer, a geospatial hypermedia system supporting project based education and learning outside of the classroom through contextualization of information. More specifically, the HyCon-Explorer provides means for: browsing with your feet, annotating...
Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Bukowski, William M.; Stella-Lopez, Luz; Carmago, Gina; Mayman, Shari B.; Adams, Ryan E.
Multilevel modeling was used to examine contextual variations in the structure of the "self" in a sample of 918 lower- and upper-middle class early adolescents (M age = 10.37 years, SD = 1.19) from a "majority" cultural context (i.e., Barranquilla in the Caribbean region of Colombia) and a "nonmajority" context (i.e.,…
This paper presents a conceptual model of the relationships between individuals' dispositional and contextual factors in opportunity recognition. It argues that most literatures on entrepreneurial opportunity recognition focus on one or two contextual domains, thus ignoring the nature and dynamics of high-tech opportunity ...
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
Read, Jennifer P; Curtin, John J
Context may differentially influence expectancy dimensions, in turn affecting drinking behavior. The present study examined alcohol cue and mood contextual influences on expectancy activation, controlling for more stable self-reported expectancy endorsement. We were particularly interested in the specific effects of negative mood on affect-relevant (tension reduction) expectancies. Regularly drinking undergraduates (N = 140; 64 female) underwent a mood (stress or neutral) induction procedure and then were presented with alcohol or nonalcohol beverage cues. Participants next completed a computerized expectancy response time task (ETASK), and self-report measures of drinking variables. Individual difference analyses generally replicated previous reports on the inverse relationship between alcohol involvement and ETASK response time. However, examination of contextual effects revealed a different pattern of ETASK responding. Participants exposed to alcohol cues were slower to respond to expectancy items than those in the nonalcohol cue condition. Mood and expectancy type moderated this effect; response time after alcohol cues slowed selectively for those in the stress mood condition and only for tension-reduction expectancy items. These data highlight the dimensionality of expectancies that comes into relief when contextual factors are considered. Expectancy response times index both facilitation, when examined in the context of drinking expertise, and interference, in response to motivationally relevant stimuli. Our data also support the specificity of contextual effects on those expectancies that are context relevant (i.e., mood). Further consideration of these contextual effects on dynamic expectancy processes may improve prediction of drinking behavior in real-world settings.
Jul 8, 2016 ... identity – certainly when it answers the questions 'who are we?' and 'what are we called to be and/or do' – it lacks significantly in its missional identity. Contributing factors are mentioned and remedial action is proposed. Recovering core identity, hermeneutical and contextual preaching. Read online:.
Binderup, Lars Grassme
Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is equally...... non-objectivist, but less revisionist, since it takes the semantics of moral discourse at face value, and can also explain all of Brogaard's other linguistic evidence....
Simmons, Andrew W.; Wallman, Joel J.; Pashayan, Hakop; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry
The presence of contextuality in quantum theory was first highlighted by Bell, Kochen and Specker, who discovered that for quantum systems of three or more dimensions, measurements could not be viewed as deterministically revealing pre-existing properties of the system. More precisely, no model can assign deterministic outcomes to the projectors of a quantum measurement in a way that depends only on the projector and not the context (the full set of projectors) in which it appeared, despite the fact that the Born rule probabilities associated with projectors are independent of the context. A more general, operational definition of contextuality introduced by Spekkens, which we will term ‘probabilistic contextuality’, drops the assumption of determinism and allows for operations other than measurements to be considered contextual. Even two-dimensional quantum mechanics can be shown to be contextual under this generalised notion. Probabilistic noncontextuality represents the postulate that elements of an operational theory that cannot be distinguished from each other based on the statistics of arbitrarily many repeated experiments (they give rise to the same operational probabilities) are ontologically identical. In this paper, we introduce a framework that enables us to distinguish between different noncontextuality assumptions in terms of the relationships between the ontological representations of objects in the theory given a certain relation between their operational representations. This framework can be used to motivate and define a ‘possibilistic’ analogue, encapsulating the idea that elements of an operational theory that cannot be unambiguously distinguished operationally can also not be unambiguously distinguished ontologically. We then prove that possibilistic noncontextuality is equivalent to an alternative notion of noncontextuality proposed by Hardy. Finally, we demonstrate that these weaker noncontextuality assumptions are sufficient to prove
Maudy, Septiani Yugni; Suryadi, Didi; Mulyana, Endang
When students learn algebra for the first time, inevitably they are experiencing transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking. Once students could apprehend this essential mathematical knowledge, they are cultivating their ability in solving daily life problems by applying algebra. However, as we dig into this transitional stage, we identified possible students' learning obstacles to be dealt with seriously in order to forestall subsequent hindrance in studying more advance algebra. We come to realize this recurring problem as we undertook the processes of re-personalization and re-contextualization in which we scrutinize the very basic questions: 1) what is variable, linear equation with one variable and their relationship with the arithmetic-algebraic thinking? 2) Why student should learn such concepts? 3) How to teach those concepts to students? By positioning ourselves as a seventh grade student, we address the possibility of children to think arithmetically when confronted with the problems of linear equation with one variable. To help them thinking algebraically, Bruner's modes of representation developed contextually from concrete to abstract were delivered to enhance their interpretation toward the idea of variables. Hence, from the outset we designed the context for student to think symbolically initiated by exploring various symbols that could be contextualized in order to bridge student traversing the arithmetic-algebraic fruitfully.
Fifty-five per cent return to competitive sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis including aspects of physical functioning and contextual factors.
Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E
The aim of this study was to update our original systematic review of return to sport rates following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Electronic databases were searched from April 2010 to November 2013 for articles reporting the number of patients returning to sport following ACL reconstruction surgery. Return to sport rates, physical functioning and contextual data were extracted and combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Data from the original review (articles published up to April 2010) were combined with data from the updated search. Sixty-nine articles, reporting on 7556 participants, were reviewed. On average, 81% of people returned to any sport, 65% returned to their preinjury level of sport and 55% returned to competitive level sport after surgery. Symmetrical hopping performance (d=0.3) and the contextual factors of younger age (d=-0.3), male gender (OR=1.4), playing elite sport (OR=2.5) and having a positive psychological response (d=0.3) favoured returning to the preinjury level sport. Receiving a hamstring tendon autograft favoured returning to competitive level sport (OR=2.4), whereas receiving a patellar tendon autograft favoured returning to the preinjury level sport (OR=1.2). Returning to sport varied according to different physical functioning and contextual factors, which could warrant additional emphasis in postoperative rehabilitation programmes to maximise participation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Jung, Minsoo; Bigman-Galimore, Cabral A; Viswanath, K
We examined relationships between individual-level community participation, two types of contextual effects-community capacity for mobilization and capacity for health communication--and residents' self-reported health status in order to explore the role health communication may play in community building for health. To estimate multi-level effects of the community participation and the two contextual indicators with self-rated health status, we applied hierarchical generalized linear regression to crosssectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for individual- and community-level confounders, the likelihood of having high self-rated health status is significantly higher among those who live in a region with higher community capacity for mobilization, higher health communication capacity at the community level, and higher participation in community groups at the individual-level. Our findings suggest that living in a community characterized by higher levels of communication and mobilization capacity is beneficial to residents' self-rated health status--increasing the odds of high health status by up to 9 %. Thus, building community capacity in mobilization and health communication may help develop better health promotion campaigns.
Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard
Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....
Frans H. van Eemeren
Full Text Available Van Eemeren and Houtlosser observe that Walton’s (and Walton and Krabbe’s notion of ‘dialogue type’ involves a mixture of an empirical notion on a par with a speech event or activity type and a normative notion such as the model of a critical discussion. Then they discuss Walton’s contextual analysis of fallacies as illegitimate dialectical shifts of dialogue types and offer an alternative in which both the empirical and the normative dimension are given their due.
Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Linder, Sandra M; Britt, Thomas W
As part of a larger mixed-methods research project investigating the influence of contextual factors on community reintegration (CR), this qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of injured servicemembers and their perception of how contextual factors influenced their CR. More specifically, this article addresses how the influences of contextual factors differ between injured servicemembers with different levels of CR. Using a phenomenological framework, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine injured, community-dwelling servicemembers with low, moderate, and high levels of CR (three per category). Participants provided in-depth descriptions of the contextual barriers and facilitators of CR. Thematic analysis indicated the importance of social support and personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy, personal motivation) as the primary means for being reintegrated into their homes and communities. Other themes indicated factors that had an indirect but important influence on CR, including adapted sports, recreation, and other social programs; rehabilitation programs and therapists; school, work, and volunteering; and organizations and policies in developing social supports and personal factors. Comparisons between servicemembers indicated participants with low CR described many more contextual barriers and far fewer contextual facilitators to reintegration than those with high CR. Those with moderate CR were unique in that they described many facilitators and barriers to reintegration.
Contextualism denotes a set of ideas about the importance of attention to context. The topic of the article is contextualism in normative political theory/philosophy, in relation to the part of political theory concerned with systematic political argument for normative claims—evaluative claims...
The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools
Background Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), and its four sub-scales, along with measures of educational attainment, individual and contextual socio-economic background factors, as predictors of performance in the first year of medical school training. Methods A prospective study of 4,811 students in 12 UK medical schools taking the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008 as a part of the medical school application, for whom first year medical school examination results were available in 2008 to 2010. Results UKCAT scores and educational attainment measures (General Certificate of Education (GCE): A-levels, and so on; or Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA): Scottish Highers, and so on) were significant predictors of outcome. UKCAT predicted outcome better in female students than male students, and better in mature than non-mature students. Incremental validity of UKCAT taking educational attainment into account was significant, but small. Medical school performance was also affected by sex (male students performing less well), ethnicity (non-White students performing less well), and a contextual measure of secondary schooling, students from secondary schools with greater average attainment at A-level (irrespective of public or private sector) performing less well. Multilevel modeling showed no differences between medical schools in predictive ability of the various measures. UKCAT sub-scales predicted similarly, except that Verbal Reasoning correlated positively with performance on Theory examinations, but negatively with Skills assessments. Conclusions This collaborative study in 12 medical schools shows the power of large-scale studies of medical education for answering previously unanswerable but important questions about medical student selection, education and training. UKCAT has predictive validity as a
The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools.
McManus, I C; Dewberry, Chris; Nicholson, Sandra; Dowell, Jonathan S
Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), and its four sub-scales, along with measures of educational attainment, individual and contextual socio-economic background factors, as predictors of performance in the first year of medical school training. A prospective study of 4,811 students in 12 UK medical schools taking the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008 as a part of the medical school application, for whom first year medical school examination results were available in 2008 to 2010. UKCAT scores and educational attainment measures (General Certificate of Education (GCE): A-levels, and so on; or Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA): Scottish Highers, and so on) were significant predictors of outcome. UKCAT predicted outcome better in female students than male students, and better in mature than non-mature students. Incremental validity of UKCAT taking educational attainment into account was significant, but small. Medical school performance was also affected by sex (male students performing less well), ethnicity (non-White students performing less well), and a contextual measure of secondary schooling, students from secondary schools with greater average attainment at A-level (irrespective of public or private sector) performing less well. Multilevel modeling showed no differences between medical schools in predictive ability of the various measures. UKCAT sub-scales predicted similarly, except that Verbal Reasoning correlated positively with performance on Theory examinations, but negatively with Skills assessments. This collaborative study in 12 medical schools shows the power of large-scale studies of medical education for answering previously unanswerable but important questions about medical student selection, education and training. UKCAT has predictive validity as a predictor of medical school outcome
Søberg, Peder Veng
Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can...... have on reverse knowledge transfer as opposed to their influence on primary knowledge transfer. The study is an in-depth, interview based, multiple case study in Scandinavia and China focusing on R&D transfer to China within two Scandinavia-based MNCs, which are leading within their industries....... A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts...
Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed
A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that the ability of an operational theory to perform communication games is a measure of the degree of preparation contextuality in that theory. For statistics...
Understanding the local context and its possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives for maternal health services in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo: a contextual factor analysis.
Mafuta, Eric M; Hogema, Lisanne; Mambu, Thérèse N M; Kiyimbi, Pontien B; Indebe, Berthys P; Kayembe, Patrick K; De Cock Buning, Tjard; Dieleman, Marjolein A
Social accountability has to be configured according to the context in which it operates. This paper aimed to identify local contextual factors in two health zones in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and discuss their possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives. Data on local socio-cultural characteristics, the governance context, and socio-economic conditions related to social accountability enabling factors were collected in the two health zones using semi-structured interviews and document reviews, and were analyzed using thematic analysis. The contexts of the two health zones were similar and characterized by the existence of several community groups, similarly structured and using similar decision-making processes. They were not involved in the health sector's activities and had no link with the health committee, even though they acknowledged its existence. They were not networked as they focused on their own activities and did not have enough capacity in terms of social mobilization or exerting pressure on public authorities or providers. Women were not perceived as marginalized as they often occupied other positions in the community besides carrying out domestic tasks and participated in community groups. However, they were still subject to the local male dominance culture, which restrains their involvement in decision-making, as they tend to be less educated, unemployed and suffer from a lack of resources or specific skills. The socio-economic context is characterized by subsistence activities and a low employment rate, which limits the community members' incomes and increases their dependence on external support. The governance context was characterized by imperfect implementation of political decentralization. Community groups advocating community rights are identified as "political" and are not welcomed. The community groups seemed not to be interested in the health center's information and had no access
Understanding the local context and its possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives for maternal health services in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo: a contextual factor analysis
Eric M. Mafuta
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social accountability has to be configured according to the context in which it operates. This paper aimed to identify local contextual factors in two health zones in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and discuss their possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives. Methods Data on local socio-cultural characteristics, the governance context, and socio-economic conditions related to social accountability enabling factors were collected in the two health zones using semi-structured interviews and document reviews, and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The contexts of the two health zones were similar and characterized by the existence of several community groups, similarly structured and using similar decision-making processes. They were not involved in the health sector’s activities and had no link with the health committee, even though they acknowledged its existence. They were not networked as they focused on their own activities and did not have enough capacity in terms of social mobilization or exerting pressure on public authorities or providers. Women were not perceived as marginalized as they often occupied other positions in the community besides carrying out domestic tasks and participated in community groups. However, they were still subject to the local male dominance culture, which restrains their involvement in decision-making, as they tend to be less educated, unemployed and suffer from a lack of resources or specific skills. The socio-economic context is characterized by subsistence activities and a low employment rate, which limits the community members’ incomes and increases their dependence on external support. The governance context was characterized by imperfect implementation of political decentralization. Community groups advocating community rights are identified as “political” and are not welcomed. The community groups seemed not to be
Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: analysing the contextual and social network factors influencing the use of sustainability indicators in a health system--a comparative study in Nepal and Somaliland.
Blanchet, Karl; Palmer, Jennifer; Palanchowke, Raju; Boggs, Dorothy; Jama, Ali; Girois, Susan
Health systems strengthening is becoming a key component of development agendas for low-income countries worldwide. Systems thinking emphasizes the role of diverse stakeholders in designing solutions to system problems, including sustainability. The objective of this paper is to compare the definition and use of sustainability indicators developed through the Sustainability Analysis Process in two rehabilitation sectors, one in Nepal and one in Somaliland, and analyse the contextual factors (including the characteristics of system stakeholder networks) influencing the use of sustainability data. Using the Sustainability Analysis Process, participants collectively clarified the boundaries of their respective systems, defined sustainability, and identified sustainability indicators. Baseline indicator data was gathered, where possible, and then researched again 2 years later. As part of the exercise, system stakeholder networks were mapped at baseline and at the 2-year follow-up. We compared stakeholder networks and interrelationships with baseline and 2-year progress toward self-defined sustainability goals. Using in-depth interviews and observations, additional contextual factors affecting the use of sustainability data were identified. Differences in the selection of sustainability indicators selected by local stakeholders from Nepal and Somaliland reflected differences in the governance and structure of the present rehabilitation system. At 2 years, differences in the structure of social networks were more marked. In Nepal, the system stakeholder network had become more dense and decentralized. Financial support by an international organization facilitated advancement toward self-identified sustainability goals. In Somaliland, the small, centralised stakeholder network suffered a critical rupture between the system's two main information brokers due to competing priorities and withdrawal of international support to one of these. Progress toward self
Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Martyr, Anthony; Roberts, Judith; Whitaker, Christopher J; Markova, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Woods, Robert T; Morris, Robin G
Insufficient attention has been paid to the influence of psychological and social factors on discrepancy-based measures of awareness. The present study tested a biopsychosocial model of awareness in early-stage dementia by gathering evidence regarding the relative contributions of neuropsychological, individual psychological and social factors to the level of scoring on measures used to index awareness. Awareness was assessed in relation to memory, activities of daily living and social functioning in 101 individuals with early-stage dementia participating in the Memory Impairment and Dementia Awareness (MIDAS) Study. People with dementia (PwD) and carers also completed measures of individual psychological and social variables, and PwD completed measures of neuropsychological functioning. Scores on discrepancy-based indices of awareness and on the self-ratings and informant ratings contributing to these indices were associated with a range of factors including neuropsychological functioning of PwD, individual traits and dispositions and current affective functioning of PwD, socio-demographic characteristics of PwD and carers, carer well-being and carer perceptions of PwD and of quality of relationship with PwD. Patterns of association varied across domains of functioning. The findings support the relevance of a biopsychosocial approach to understanding the factors that influence unawareness of impairment in dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Elsworth, Gerald R; Nolte, Sandra; Osborne, Richard H
On-going evidence is required to support the validity of inferences about change and group differences in the evaluation of health programs, particularly when self-report scales requiring substantial subjectivity in response generation are used as outcome measures. Following this reasoning, the aim of this study was to replicate the factor structure and investigate the measurement invariance of the latest version of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, a widely used health program evaluation measure. An archived dataset of responses to the most recent version of the English-language Health Education Impact Questionnaire that uses four rather than six response options (N = 3221) was analysed using exploratory structural equation modelling and confirmatory factor analysis appropriate for ordered categorical data. Metric and scalar invariance were studied following recent recommendations in the literature to apply fully invariant unconditional models with minimum constraints necessary for model identification. The original eight-factor structure was replicated and all but one of the scales (Self Monitoring and Insight) was found to consist of unifactorial items with reliability of ⩾0.8 and satisfactory discriminant validity. Configural, metric and scalar invariance were established across pre-test to post-test and population sub-groups (sex, age, education, ethnic background). The results support the high level of interest in the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, particularly for use as a pre-test/post-test measure in experimental studies, other pre-post evaluation designs and system-level monitoring and evaluation.
Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed
A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.
Thompson, Jayne; Kurzyński, Paweł; Lee, Su-Yong; Soeda, Akihito; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir
Our everyday experiences support the hypothesis that physical systems exist independently of the act of observation. Concordant theories are characterized by the objective realism assumption whereby the act of measurement simply reveals preexisting well-defined elements of reality. In stark contrast quantum mechanics portrays a world in which reality loses its objectivity and is in fact created by observation. Quantum contextuality as first discovered by Bell  and Kochen-Specker  captures aspects of this philosophical clash between classical and quantum descriptions of the world. Here we briefly summarize some of the more recent advances in the field of quantum contextuality. We approach quantum contextuality through its close relation to Bell type nonlocal scenarios and highlight some of the rapidly developing tests and experimental implementations.
Allamani, Allaman; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Voller, Fabio
This AMPHORA study's aim was to investigate selected factors potentially affecting changes in consumption of alcoholic beverages in 12 European countries during the 1960s-2008 (an average increase in beer, decreases in wine and spirits, total alcohol drinking decrease). Both time series and artificial neural networks-based analyses were used. Results indicated that selected socio-demographic and economic factors showed an overall major impact on consumption changes; particularly urbanization, increased income, and older mothers' age at their childbirths were significantly associated with consumption increase or decrease, depending on the country. Alcoholic beverage control policies showed an overall minor impact on consumption changes: among them, permissive availability measures were significantly associated with consumption increases, while drinking and driving limits and availability restrictions were correlated with consumption decreases, and alcohol taxation and prices of the alcoholic beverages were not significantly correlated with consumption. Population ageing, older mother's age at childbirths, increased income and increases in female employment, as well as drink driving limitations were associated with the decrease of transport mortality. Study's limitations are noted.
We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....
Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten
Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...
Full Text Available The Pauli groups are ubiquitous in quantum information theory because of their usefulness in describing quantum states and operations and their readily understood symmetry properties. In addition, the most well-understood quantum error correcting codes—stabilizer codes—are built using Pauli operators. The eigenstates of these operators—stabilizer states—display a structure (e.g., mutual orthogonality relationships that has made them useful in examples of multi-qubit non-locality and contextuality. Here, we apply the graph-theoretical contextuality formalism of Cabello, Severini and Winter to sets of stabilizer states, with particular attention to the effect of generalizing two-level qubit systems to odd prime d-level qudit systems. While state-independent contextuality using two-qubit states does not generalize to qudits, we show explicitly how state-dependent contextuality associated with a Bell inequality does generalize. Along the way we note various structural properties of stabilizer states, with respect to their orthogonality relationships, which may be of independent interest.
Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.
In this paper we give an overview of and outlook on research at the intersection of information retrieval (IR) and contextual bandit problems. A critical problem in information retrieval is online learning to rank, where a search engine strives to improve the quality of the ranked result lists it
This paper contains a report of a theoretical investigation of contextual analysis (CA) that ranked this reading strategy as the most complex of four kindred word recognition skills although many current reading programs advance its use in the beginning stages of formal reading instruction. Three propositions are offered: CA holds kinship with the…
In this paper we will consider extensions of a series of Bayesian 2-D contextual classification pocedures proposed by Owen (1984) Hjort & Mohn (1984) and Welch & Salter (1971) and Haslett (1985) to 3 spatial dimensions. It is evident that compared to classical pixelwise classification further...
both criteria users preferences and geographical location criteria. 1 Introduction TREC3 2014 Contextual Suggestion track examines search techniques...Contextual Retrieval Framework We address here the contextual retrieval problem as a multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM ) problem. The difficulty here
Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.
Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...
Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio; Martinez, Hector
Eighteen undergraduates participated in studies designed to examine the factors that produce transfer of contextual functions to novel stimuli in second-order conditional discriminations. In Study 1, participants selected comparison B1 given sample A1 and comparison B2 given sample A2 in a matching-to-sample procedure. Contextual stimuli X1 or X2…
McKenzie, Thomas L.; Crespo, Noe C.; Baquero, Barbara; Elder, John P.
Background: Little is known about children's leisure-time physical activity (PA) at school and how it is associated with contextual variables. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess children's voluntary PA during 3 daily periods and examine modifiable contextual factors. Methods: We conducted SOPLAY (System for Observing Play and…
Learners' self-regulation, which includes motivational variables, is influenced by personal variables within learners themselves, as well as by contextual factors. A great deal of research has focused on personal variables in learners that influence their self-regulated behaviours; yet contextual influences that operate outside of formal schooling…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what
Full Text Available In the field of word recognition and reading, it is commonly assumed that frequently repeated words create more accessible memory traces than infrequently repeated words, thus capturing the word-frequency effect. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that a seemingly related factor, contextual diversity (defined as the number of different contexts [e.g., films] in which a word appears, is a better predictor than word-frequency in word recognition and sentence reading experiments. Recent research has shown that contextual diversity plays an important role when learning new words in a laboratory setting with adult readers. In the current experiment, we directly manipulated contextual diversity in a very ecological scenario: at school, when Grade 3 children were learning words in the classroom. The new words appeared in different contexts/topics (high-contextual diversity or only in one of them (low-contextual diversity. Results showed that words encountered in different contexts were learned and remembered more effectively than those presented in redundant contexts. We discuss the practical (educational [e.g., curriculum design] and theoretical (models of word recognition implications of these findings.
Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Goff, Peter; Miller, Peter M.
Background/Context: Students experiencing homelessness are also often living in poverty and may share many of the same characteristics and experiences with children in low-income housing. Scholars aim to understand the impacts of homelessness above and beyond the effects of poverty, but studies are mixed. Contextual factors--such as the localized…
Song, Bora; Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Ki-Hak
This study observed the effect of contextual factors on vocational identity (VI) level in each VI status, originated by Marcia ("Handbook of adolescent psychology." Wiley, New York, 1980)'s identity status. This is an attempt to integrate status approach and dimension approach of VI development by finding within-status difference of…
A travel time of more than 30 minutes to and from school was also associated with increased rates of injury (RRR = 1.61; CI = 1.13–2.29). Conclusions: Injuries are an important source of morbidity among school-attending adolescents in Dar es Salaam. The findings support more research into the contextual factors that ...
From the survey question: “During the past 7 days, on how many days did you walk or ride a bicycle to and from .... sectional design of the study does not allow for the determination of causal relationships. ... multilevel designs may help to clarify relevant contextual factors that predispose adolescents to injury in the region.
AIDS prevalence in South Africa. In this paper, two models of contextual behavioral risk factors of HIV/AIDS prevalence were developed so that policy makers can be alerted to the key variables in order to help curb the spread of the disease.
Li, Tao; Zeng, Qiang; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong
The Klyachko, Can, Binicioglu, and Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is an important contextuality inequality in three-level system, which has been demonstrated experimentally by using quantum states. Using the path and polarization degrees of freedom of classical optics fields, we have constructed the classical trit (cetrit), tested the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form (Wright's inequality) in this work. The projection measurement has been implemented, the clear violations of the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form have been observed. This means that the contextuality inequality, which is commonly used in test of the conflict between quantum theory and noncontextual realism, may be used as a quantitative tool in classical optical coherence to describe correlation characteristics of the classical fields.
The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...
Full Text Available The contextual concept of science regards a scientific theory as a whole simulation for the mechanism of natural world under the given context. It argues that a scientific theory is to understand the reality only in the sense of intentionality in the process of reality simulation, rather than to describe reality in the sense of one-to-one correspondence. This concept of understanding reality is totally different from that of describing reality. Compared with the realist approaches and the anti-realist approach, the contextual approach has the following advantages: (1 it contributes to bridge the communication between the preachers of scientism and the humanists; (2 it has helped to solve the problem of underdetermination faced by scientific realism; (3 it is relatively easy to understand the correction about the concept and theory; (4 it could reflect the true process of science more properly. Therefore, it is a more promising and convincing new perspective to understand science.
This paper looks at the program for social psychology presented by Floyd Allport in his Social Psychology of 1924. It contextualizes Allport's program in terms of intellectual currents of the time and the views of his teachers at Harvard University, specifically the philosopher Ralph Barton Perry and the psychologists Edwin B. Holt and Hugo Münsterberg. Finally, the paper analyzes responses to Allport's program at the time and later, retrospective responses. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Factores socioeconómicos y contextuales que determinan la actividad reproductiva de las adolescentes en Colombia Socioeconomic and contextual determinants of reproductive activity among adolescent women in Colombia
Carmen Elisa Flórez
quantitative and qualitative research methods, using information generated by a survey of adolescents conducted in 2003. The survey included 550 adolescents in Bogotá and 550 adolescents in Cali, from all socioeconomic strata. To analyze the determinants, discrete-time proportional hazards models were used. For the qualitative study, 72 in-depth interviews and four focus groups were done. With the information organized by subjects and categories that were defined in relation to the purposes of the study, categories were identified that arose from the patterns and recurrences in the data, in order to see sociocultural trends by sex, stratum, and city. RESULTS: The patterns of sexual activity, union (married or unmarried relationship, and maternity differ considerably among the socioeconomic strata, in both of the cities. The adolescent women in the low stratum begin having sexual relations, form unions, and become mothers earlier in life and with greater frequency than do adolescent women in the medium or high strata. The main determinant of the reproductive behavior of adolescent women is the set of contextual and socioeconomic factors in the home, mainly the family context (environment and supervision and the educational climate (the average number of years of formal education of the family members over the age of 15. CONCLUSIONS: Sex education has been provided in the schools in Colombia since 1993, but our results clearly indicate that it has had only a limited impact on the reproductive behavior of adolescent women.
Szuhany, Kristin L; Otto, Michael W
Distress intolerance (DI), the inability to tolerate stressful experiences, has been linked to multiple psychiatric conditions and maladaptive coping patterns. Although DI is often considered a trait-like variable, evidence indicates that self-report and behavioral indices of DI can be manipulated by contextual factors. Understanding such contextual influences is important given evidence of unexpected variability in these presumed trait-like measures over brief intervals. The current study examined the influence of context (manipulated by priming concepts of "Interminability" and "Brevity") in predicting behavioral persistence, in relation to self-reported DI. Results indicated that priming Brevity was associated with terminating a cold-pressor task more quickly. Self-reported DI was linked to earlier termination, but there was no interaction between self-reported DI and priming condition. Results indicate that contextual cues modulate performance on behavioral measures of DI. Hence, models of DI should consider both trait-like and contextual factors in understanding variability in DI measures.
Perez, Juan Manuel; Berlanga, Rafael; Aramburu, Maria Jose
Current data warehouse and OLAP technologies are applied to analyze the structured data that companies store in databases. The context that helps to understand data over time is usually described separately in text-rich documents. This paper proposes to integrate the traditional corporate data...... warehouse with a document warehouse, resulting in a contextualized warehouse. Thus, the user first selects an analysis context by supplying some keywords. Then, the analysis is performed on a novel type of OLAP cube, called an R-cube, which is materialized by retrieving and ranking the documents...
Privitera, Mary Beth
Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users
Hung, Dorothy; Gray, Caroline; Martinez, Meghan; Schmittdiel, Julie; Harrison, Michael I
Lean is a leading change strategy used in health care to achieve short-term efficiency and quality improvement while promising longer-term system transformation. Most research examines Lean intervention to address isolated problems, rather than to achieve broader systemic changes to care delivery. Moreover, no studies examine contextual influences on system-wide Lean implementation efforts in primary care. The aim of this study was to identify contextual factors most critical to implementing and scaling Lean redesigns across all primary care clinics in a large, ambulatory care delivery system. Over 100 interviews and focus groups were conducted with frontline physicians, clinical staff, and operational leaders. Data analysis was guided by a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), a popular implementation science framework. On the basis of expert recommendations, the modified framework targets factors influencing the implementation of process redesigns. This modified framework, the CFIR-PR, informed our identification of contextual factors that most impacted Lean acceptance among frontline physicians and staff. Several domains identified by the CFIR-PR were critical to acceptance of Lean redesigns. Regarding the implementation process acceptance was influenced by time and intensity of exposure to changes, "top-down" versus "bottom-up" implementation styles, and degrees of employee engagement in developing new workflows. Important factors in the inner setting were the clinic's culture and style of leadership, along with availability of information about Lean's effectiveness. Last, implementation efforts were impacted by individual and team characteristics regarding changed work roles and related issues of professional identity, authority, and autonomy. This study underscores the need for change leaders to consider the contextual factors that surround efforts to implement Lean in primary care. As Lean redesigns are scaled across a system
Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If the claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then
Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If this claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then
Dibbets, P.; Maes, J.H.R.; Vossen, J.M.H.
Two experiments with human subjects assessed contextual dependencies in a stimulus equivalence paradigm. Subjects learned to form two sets of stimuli in a matching-to-sample training procedure. Each set was presented against one of two different background colours, the contextual cues. At test, the
Oestereich, André L.; Galvão, Ernesto F.
An operational approach to the study of computation based on correlations considers black boxes with one-bit inputs and outputs, controlled by a limited classical computer capable only of performing sums modulo-two. In this setting, it was shown that noncontextual correlations do not provide any extra computational power, while contextual correlations were found to be necessary for the deterministic evaluation of nonlinear Boolean functions. Here we investigate the requirements for reliable computation in this setting; that is, the evaluation of any Boolean function with success probability bounded away from 1 /2 . We show that bipartite CHSH quantum correlations suffice for reliable computation. We also prove that an arbitrarily small violation of a multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger noncontextuality inequality also suffices for reliable computation.
Llorens, A; Dubarry, A-S; Trébuchon, A; Chauvel, P; Alario, F-X; Liégeois-Chauvel, C
Picture naming is a standard task used to probe language processes in healthy and impaired speakers. It recruits a broad neural network of language related areas, among which the hippocampus is rarely included. However, the hippocampus could play a role during picture naming, subtending, for example, implicit learning of the links between pictured objects and their names. To test this hypothesis, we recorded hippocampal activity during plain picture naming, without memorization requirement; we further assessed whether this activity was modulated by contextual factors such as repetition priming and semantic interference. Local field potentials recorded from intracerebral electrodes implanted in the healthy hippocampi of epileptic patients revealed a specific and reliable pattern of activity, markedly modulated by repetition priming and semantic context. These results indicate that the hippocampus is recruited during picture naming, presumably in relation to implicit learning, with contextual factors promoting differential hippocampal processes, possibly subtended by different sub-circuitries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Maribel Cruz Ortiz
Full Text Available Bajo la perspectiva del interaccionismo simbólico se analiza como influyen los factores del entorno en la relación de cuidado establecida por cuidadores primarios de personas con enfermedad mental severa en México. El cuidado se encuentra circunscrito al ámbito familiar dado el escaso desarrollo de una red social que proporcione los apoyos necesarios para favorecer la integración social. A esta situación han contribuido la naturalización cultural de los roles que desempeñan las mujeres como cuidadoras natas y las personas con enfermedad mental como dependientes, favoreciendo de esta forma la aceptación de alternativas como la institucionalización. La visualización del cuidado como responsabilidad individual favorece la situación de vulnerabilidad social, emocional y económica en la que se encuentran los cuidadores primarios y personas con enfermedad mental de este estudio.Under the perspective of symbolic interactionism analyzes how environmental factors influence the relationship of care provided by primary caregivers of people with severe mental illness in Mexico. The care is restricted to the family given the limited development of a social network to provide the necessary support to promote social integration. This situation has contributed the cultural naturalization of the roles that women plays as natural born caregivers and people with mental illness as a dependent person, consequently, encouraging the acceptance of alternatives such as institutionalization. The display of care as individual responsibility benefits the vulnerable social, emotional and economic situation, in which are the primary caregivers and people with mental illness in this study.
Valente, Maria I B; Vettore, Mario V
To investigate the relationship of contextual and individual factors with periodontal disease in dentate adults and older people using the Andersen's behavioural model. Secondary individual data from 6011 adults and 2369 older people from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (2010) were combined with contextual data for 27 cities. Attachment loss (AL) categories for each sextant were coded and summed to obtain the periodontal disease measure. The association of predisposing, enabling and need characteristics at city and individual level with periodontal disease was assessed using an adapted version of the Andersen's behavioural model. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% CIs. Periodontal disease was associated with contextual predisposing (RR 0.93; 95% CI = 0.87-0.99) and enabling factors (RR 0.99; 95% CI = 0.98-0.99) in adults. Contextual predisposing was also associated with periodontal disease in older people (RR 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73-0.92). Individual predisposing (age, sex and schooling) and need characteristics (perceived treatment need) were common predictors of periodontal disease in adults and older people. Periodontal disease was also associated with behaviours in the latter age group. Contextual predisposing factors and individual characteristics influenced periodontal disease experience in adults and older people. Contextual enabling factors were also meaningful determinants of periodontal disease in the former age group. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Meng, Hui-xian; Cao, Huai-xin; Wang, Wen-hua; Fan, Ya-jing; Chen, Liang
Based on the fact that both nonlocality and contextuality are resource theories, it is natural to ask how to amplify them more efficiently. In this paper, we present a contextuality distillation protocol which produces an n-cycle box B ∗ B ' from two given n-cycle boxes B and B '. It works efficiently for a class of contextual n-cycle (n ≥ 4) boxes which we termed as "the generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes". For any two generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes B and B ', B ∗ B ' is more contextual than both B and B '. Moreover, they can be distilled toward to the maximally contextual box C H n as the times of iteration goes to infinity. Among the known protocols, our protocol has the strongest approximate ability and is optimal in terms of its distillation rate. What is worth noting is that our protocol can witness a larger set of nonlocal boxes that make communication complexity trivial than the protocol in Brunner and Skrzypczyk (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 2009), this might be helpful for exploring the problem that why quantum nonlocality is limited.
Full Text Available Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels. Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.
Yang, Yingying; Merrill, Edward C
Contextual cueing refers to a form of implicit spatial learning where participants incidentally learn to associate a target location with its repeated spatial context. Successful contextual learning produces an efficient visual search through familiar environments. Despite the fact that children exhibit the basic ability of implicit spatial learning, their general effectiveness in this form of learning can be compromised by other development-dependent factors. Learning to extract useful information (signal) in the presence of various amounts of irrelevant or distracting information (noise) characterizes one of the most important changes that occur with cognitive development. This research investigated whether signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) affects contextual cueing differently in children and adults. S/N was operationally defined as the ratio of repeated versus new displays encountered over time. Three ratio conditions were created: high (100%), medium (67%), and low (33%) conditions. Results suggested no difference in the acquisition of contextual learning effects in the high and medium conditions across three age groups (6- to 8-year-olds, 10- to 12-year-olds, and young adults). However, a significant developmental difference emerged in the low S/N condition. As predicted, adults exhibited significant contextual cueing effects, whereas older children showed marginally significant contextual cueing and younger children did not show cueing effects. Group differences in the ability to exhibit implicit contextual learning under low S/N conditions and the implications of this difference are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.
Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.
We discuss the role of contextuality within quantum fluctuation theorems, in the light of a recent no-go result by Perarnau-Llobet et al. We show that any fluctuation theorem reproducing the two-point-measurement scheme for classical states either admits a notion of work quasiprobability or fails to describe protocols exhibiting contextuality. Conversely, we describe a protocol that smoothly interpolates between the two-point-measurement work distribution for projective measurements and Allahverdyan's work quasiprobability for weak measurements, and show that the negativity of the latter is a direct signature of contextuality.
During the last twenty-five years, the contextual interference effect has been thoroughly studied. This review finds that the effect is relatively robust in basic research, but considerably weaker in applied settings. Motor learning scholars have urged practitioners to develop instructional strategies based upon the inferences of the contextual interference effect. The smaller effects seem to indicate that the concept may have more limited use for the physical educator. It appears that the generalization of procedures from other domains may not adequately accommodate the complexity of motor skills. Manipulating the task difficulty, both nominal and functional, and the contextual continuum may be a promising route for the practitioner.
Full Text Available Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.
Llorente-Marrón, Mar; Díaz-Fernández, Montserrat; Méndez-Rodríguez, Paz
Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence.
Weiner, Saul J; Schwartz, Alan; Weaver, Frances; Goldberg, Julie; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Sharma, Gunjan; Binns-Calvey, Amy; Preyss, Ben; Schapira, Marilyn M; Persell, Stephen D; Jacobs, Elizabeth; Abrams, Richard I
A contextual error occurs when a physician overlooks elements of a patient's environment or behavior that are essential to planning appropriate care. In contrast to biomedical errors, which are not patient-specific, contextual errors represent a failure to individualize care. To explore the frequency and circumstances under which physicians probe contextual and biomedical red flags and avoid treatment error by incorporating what they learn from these probes. An incomplete randomized block design in which unannounced, standardized patients visited 111 internal medicine attending physicians between April 2007 and April 2009 and presented variants of 4 scenarios. In all scenarios, patients presented both a contextual and a biomedical red flag. Responses to probing about flags varied in whether they revealed an underlying complicating biomedical or contextual factor (or both) that would lead to errors in management if overlooked. 14 practices, including 2 academic clinics, 2 community-based primary care networks with multiple sites, a core safety net provider, and 3 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. Primary outcomes were the proportion of visits in which physicians probed for contextual and biomedical factors in response to hints or red flags and the proportion of visits that resulted in error-free treatment plans. Physicians probed fewer contextual red flags (51%) than biomedical red flags (63%). Probing for contextual or biomedical information in response to red flags was usually necessary but not sufficient for an error-free plan of care. Physicians provided error-free care in 73% of the uncomplicated encounters, 38% of the biomedically complicated encounters, 22% of the contextually complicated encounters, and 9% of the combined biomedically and contextually complicated encounters. Only 4 case scenarios were used. The study assessed physicians' propensity to make errors when every encounter provided an opportunity to do so and did not measure actual
Specht, M. (2009). From Personal to Contextual Learning Support. Keynote given at the Tagung Lernen, Wissen, Adaptivität of the Deutschen Gesellschaft für Informatik. September, 21, 2009, Darmstadt, Germany.
Ian T. Durham
Full Text Available In this essay, I develop order-theoretic notions of determinism and contextuality on domains and topoi. In the process, I develop a method for quantifying contextuality and show that the order-theoretic sense of contextuality is analogous to the sense embodied in the topos-theoretic statement of the Kochen–Specker theorem. Additionally, I argue that this leads to a relation between the entropy associated with measurements on quantum systems and the second law of thermodynamics. The idea that the second law has its origin in the ordering of quantum states and processes dates to at least 1958 and possibly earlier. The suggestion that the mechanism behind this relation is contextuality, is made here for the first time.
Engelmann, Jan B; Hein, Grit
To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M
We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Recent work on the processing of idiomatic expressions argues against the idea that idioms are simply big words. For example, hybrid models of idiom representation, originally investigated in the context of idiom production, propose a priority of literal computation, and a principled relationship between the conceptual meaning of an idiom, its literal lemmas and its syntactic structure. We examined the predictions of the hybrid representation hypothesis in the domain of idiom comprehension. We conducted two experiments to examine the role of syntactic, lexical and contextual factors on the interpretation of idiomatic expressions. Experiment I examines the role of syntactic compatibility and lexical compatibility on the real-time processing of potentially idiomatic strings. Experiment 2 examines the role of contextual information on idiom processing and how context interacts with lexical information during processing. We find evidence that literal computation plays a causal role in the retrieval of idiomatic meaning and that contextual, lexical and structural information influence the processing of idiomatic strings at early stages during processing, which provide support for the hybrid model of idiom representation in the domain of idiom comprehension.
Cohen, Deborah A.; Babey, Susan H.
This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviors are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviors, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims, and labeling strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473
Dev Raj Dahal
Full Text Available Social science informs about the ideals and trains experts to deal with the complex social realities. It has a public purpose rooted in what we call dharma (professional and institutional responsibility as opposed to the arrogance of reason, self-will and self-rationalization intrinsic to contemporary rational choice and modernity. Learning has a synergy - establishing connection between the world of social science theories and the drama of social life. A lack of mutual learning between Nepal's traditional faith intellectuals and modern reason-based social scientists has created a big hiatus and contradiction. The academic life of social scientists in Nepal is completely outside of spiritual, moral and ethical influence experienced by ordinary public. The spiritual blindness of modern social scientists has thus opened multiple gaps between their worldview and those of the citizens on various frontiers--theoretical knowledge and practical experience, technical understanding and composite knowledge and secularity of social science and the vitality of the Hindu-Buddhist scriptures in the popular mind, culture, behavior and practices. This has reinforced a division between the system of knowledge of social scientists and the life-world of people. The proponents of new social movements in Nepal, such as women, Dalits, Janajatis, Madhesis, youths and marginalized population are seeking a structural shift in reason-based knowledge to both reason and feeling in social science knowledge discovery. This movement can open the "captive mind" to social learning of contextual knowledge, conduct research with the citizens, provide inputs to the policy makers and reverse their linear, structure-bound, rationalist and disciplinary thinking into the one that represents what the Nepal mandala, the Nepali space, is really like and how to improve it for the better. The renewal and indigenization of qualitative social science research is important to overcome the
Dogan, Yasemin; Gurel, Z.
This thesis focuses on the need for enriched learning environments in science education through the integrated setting of a physics course that is included in the training program for physics teachers. The participants are researchers, prospective physics teachers, civil defence volunteers and astronomers as collaborators. In this course an approach is adopted to incorporate indoor and outdoor settings in the same process to support one another with the purpose of contextualizing physics through nature. In the heart of the course is experience and observation, particularly in nature, in the form of a residential camp. Nature is a setting where students are faced with the sky and a telescope and do sky observations throughout the night. The part of the course involving astronomy is based on this engagement with the problems that arise from the topic of sky and telescope and are brought into the class in ill-structured form as a result of experience and observation. Within this thesis, the data gathered in two consecutive years, 2008 and 2009, are evaluated qualitatively. The problems were formed around a core experience but with the same core experience, problems varied from year to year depending on the human factor within the experience, namely the different characteristics of different people in different conditions, and environmental factors; geography and weather conditions, and the increasing experience of the researchers. Furthermore IYA2009 was also effective on the program of the course in 2009. Through this thesis prospective physics teachers’ participation in astronomy was broadened and it resulted in the formation of new knowledge, better understanding and led to the advancement of the use of astronomy in physics education. It is consistent with the inclusion of astronomy in new secondary and high school physics curriculum in our country as well.
Rigoli, Francesco; Chew, Benjamin; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J
Substantial evidence indicates that subjective value is adapted to the statistics of reward expected within a given temporal context. However, how these contextual expectations are learned is poorly understood. To examine such learning, we exploited a recent observation that participants performing a gambling task adjust their preferences as a function of context. We show that, in the absence of contextual cues providing reward information, an average reward expectation was learned from recent past experience. Learning dependent on contextual cues emerged when two contexts alternated at a fast rate, whereas both cue-independent and cue-dependent forms of learning were apparent when two contexts alternated at a slower rate. Motivated by these behavioral findings, we reanalyzed a previous fMRI data set to probe the neural substrates of learning contextual reward expectations. We observed a form of reward prediction error related to average reward such that, at option presentation, activity in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and ventral striatum correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with the actual and predicted value of options. Moreover, an inverse correlation between activity in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (but not striatum) and predicted option value was greater in participants showing enhanced choice adaptation to context. The findings help understanding the mechanisms underlying learning of contextual reward expectation.
van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Meeter, Martijn; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel
The inability to store fearful memories into their original encoding context is considered to be an important vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder. Altered memory contextualization most likely involves effects of the stress hormone cortisol, acting via receptors located in the memory neurocircuitry. Cortisol via these receptors induces rapid nongenomic effects followed by slower genomic effects, which are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite, complementary ways. Here, we targeted these time-dependent effects of cortisol during memory encoding and tested subsequent contextualization of emotional and neutral memories. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 64 men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 30 minutes (rapid cortisol effects) before a memory encoding task; 2) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 210 minutes (slow cortisol) before a memory encoding task; or 3) received placebo at both times. During encoding, participants were presented with neutral and emotional words in unique background pictures. Approximately 24 hours later, context dependency of their memories was assessed. Recognition data revealed that cortisol's rapid effects impair emotional memory contextualization, while cortisol's slow effects enhance it. Neutral memory contextualization remained unaltered by cortisol, irrespective of the timing of the drug. This study shows distinct time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of specifically emotional memories. The results suggest that rapid effects of cortisol may lead to impaired emotional memory contextualization, while slow effects of cortisol may confer protection against emotional memory generalization. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.
Voices – marks of the tangle of subjectivities involved in textual processes – constitute the very fabric of texts in general and translations in particular. The title of this book, Textual and Contextual Voices of Translation, refers both to textual voices, that is, the voices found within...... the translated texts, and to contextual voices, that is, the voices of those involved in shaping, commenting, or otherwise influencing the textual voices. The latter appear in prefaces, reviews, and other texts that surround the translated texts and provide them with a context. Our main claim is that studying...... both the textual and contextual voices helps us better understand and explain the complexity of both the translation process and the translation product. The dovetailed approach to translation research that is advocated in this book aims at highlighting the diversity of participants, power positions...
Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao; Xi, Youmin
, and cultural norm at the organizational level, on organizational trust directly, and their behavioural outcomes at the individual level indirectly, using organizational trust as a cross-level mediator. The empirical results, based on a hierarchical linear model with a sample of 444 employees from 82 firms......In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule...... in China, lent support for our multidimensional cross-level model of context–trust–behaviour link. We extend the research on organizational trust by treating it as a cross-level phenomenon and by specifying its core contextual antecedents and behavioural consequences....
Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette
The results of research on mergers and acquisitions often point to a need to improve acquisition outcomes and lessen the organizational turmoil that can often follow integration efforts. We assert that viewing acquisition integration through the lens of contextual ambidexterity may improve...... acquisition outcomes in two ways: by providing an integrated solution to the economic and social tensions in acquisitions, and by enabling managers to effectively confront the competing needs of task and human integration. We also posit that by building on contextual ambidexterity, we can extend...... the possibilities for both research and practice regarding task and human integration in acquisitions. We also emphasize the role of an integration manager and integration mechanisms in enabling contextual ambidexterity for successful acquisition integration. Finally, we identify implications for research...
Dorothy E. Salonius-Pasternak
Full Text Available Most research on electronic play has focused on its possible negative effects for children and adolescents, and contextual factors such as socioeconomic status (SES and culture are rarely considered. This article considers the potential benefits of electronic play from a psychological perspective, as well as individual and contextual factors that may shape the influence of electronic play for children and adolescents. Demographics of players and the games themselves are presented, and recommendations for research and policy are discussed.
Schnoll, Jessica S.; Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy J.; Pepler, Debra; Simkins-Strong, Emily
Using a developmental-contextual framework, the present study investigated risk factors for same- and cross-gender sexual harassment victimization in 986 middle school students. Participants completed questionnaires in the fall and spring of the same school year so risk factors could be explored longitudinally. Results revealed that gender…
van Doesum, Karin T. M.; Hosman, Clemens M. H.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Hoefnagels, Cees
Objective: To examine various maternal, child, and contextual characteristics, as well as the number of risk factors present, to distinguish which factors explain variance in the sensitivity of depressed mothers toward their infants. Method: Participants were depressed mothers (n = 84) with their infants ages 1 month up to 1 year. Mothers were…
Cass, John; Van der Burg, Erik
Correctly perceiving the temporal order of events is essential to many tasks. Despite this, the factors constraining our ability to make timing judgments remain largely unspecified. Here we present a new phenomenon demonstrating that perceived timing of visual events may be profoundly impaired by the mere presence of irrelevant events elsewhere in the visual field. Human observers saw two abrupt luminance events presented across a range of onset asynchronies. Temporal order judgment (TOJ) just noticeable differences (JNDs) provided a behavioural index of temporal precision. When target events were presented in isolation or in static distractor environments temporal resolution was very precise (JNDs ∼20ms). However, when surrounded by dynamic distractor events, performance deteriorated more than a factor of four. This contextual effect we refer to as Remote Temporal Camouflage (RTC) operates across large spatial and temporal distances and possesses a unique spatial distribution conforming to neither the predictions of attentional capture by transient events, nor by stimulus dependencies associated with other contextual phenomena such as surround suppression, crowding, object-substitution masking or motion-induced blindness. We propose that RTC is a consequence of motion-related masking whereby irrelevant motion signals evoked by dynamic distractors interfere with TOJ-relevant target-related apparent motion. Consistent with this we also show that dynamic visual distractors do not interfere with audio-visual TOJs. Not only is RTC the most spatially extensive contextual effect ever reported, it offers vision science a new technique with which to investigate temporal order performance, free of motion-related sensory contributions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Social contextual factors contributing to child and adolescent labor: an ecological analysis Factores sociocontextuales para el trabajo del niño y del adolescente: un análisis ecológico Fatores sociocontextuais para o trabalho da criança e do adolescente: uma análise ecológica
Vilma Sousa Santana
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between social contextual factors and child and adolescent labor. METHODS: Population-based cohort study carried out with 2,512 families living in 23 subareas of a large urban city in Brazil from 2000 to 2002. A random one-stage cluster sampling was used to select families. Data were obtained through individual household interviews using questionnaires. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was estimated for each district. New child and adolescent labor cases were those who had their first job over the two-year follow-up. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was the response variable and predictors were contextual factors such as lack of social support, social deprivation, unstructured family, perceived violence, poor school quality, poor environment conditions, and poor public services. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: There were selected 943 families corresponding to 1,326 non-working children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years. Lack of social support, social deprivation, perceived violence were all positively and individually associated with the annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor. In the multiple linear regression model, however, only lack of social support and perceived violence in the neighborhood were positively associated to child and adolescent labor. No effect was found for poor school quality, poor environment conditions, poor public services or unstructured family. CONCLUSIONS: Poverty reduction programs can reduce the contextual factors associated with child and adolescent labor. Violence reduction programs and strengthening social support at the community level may contribute to reduce CAL.OBJETIVO: Analizar la relación entre las variables sociocontextuales y el trabajo de niños y adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte con 2.512 familias residentes en
van Kranenburg, H.; Salden, Alfons; Broens, T.H.F.; Koolwaaij, Johan
This paper reflects our findings on the technological feasibility of a mobile service scenario. We will show that despite the scenario being quite ordinary for endusers, the required service support functionality is rather complex. The realisation hinges on intricate grounded contextual reasoning
Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Cervantes, Víctor H; Kujala, Janne V
Random variables representing measurements, broadly understood to include any responses to any inputs, form a system in which each of them is uniquely identified by its content (that which it measures) and its context (the conditions under which it is recorded). Two random variables are jointly distributed if and only if they share a context. In a canonical representation of a system, all random variables are binary, and every content-sharing pair of random variables has a unique maximal coupling (the joint distribution imposed on them so that they coincide with maximal possible probability). The system is contextual if these maximal couplings are incompatible with the joint distributions of the context-sharing random variables. We propose to represent any system of measurements in a canonical form and to consider the system contextual if and only if its canonical representation is contextual. As an illustration, we establish a criterion for contextuality of the canonical system consisting of all dichotomizations of a single pair of content-sharing categorical random variables.This article is part of the themed issue 'Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Carlos G. Wernicke
Full Text Available Based on the relationship among politics, economy and pedagogy, in individual development and the knowledge about perception, the construction of conceptual maps and paradigms, pedagogy an education are defined and a contextual pedagogy is proposed, which is described in its essence.
King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James
This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…
This contribution investigates whether the transdisciplinary, region-centred scientific research approach with a focus on the Hölderlin perspective on reconciliation could assist scholars in practical theology to address reconciliation in a post-apartheid and post-TRC society. The article proposes a contextual and constructive ...
This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer rela...
Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…
Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Cervantes, Víctor H.; Kujala, Janne V.
Random variables representing measurements, broadly understood to include any responses to any inputs, form a system in which each of them is uniquely identified by its content (that which it measures) and its context (the conditions under which it is recorded). Two random variables are jointly distributed if and only if they share a context. In a canonical representation of a system, all random variables are binary, and every content-sharing pair of random variables has a unique maximal coupling (the joint distribution imposed on them so that they coincide with maximal possible probability). The system is contextual if these maximal couplings are incompatible with the joint distributions of the context-sharing random variables. We propose to represent any system of measurements in a canonical form and to consider the system contextual if and only if its canonical representation is contextual. As an illustration, we establish a criterion for contextuality of the canonical system consisting of all dichotomizations of a single pair of content-sharing categorical random variables. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.
A contextual information based scholary paper recommender system using big data platform. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... For implementing the system it has been used hadoop bed and the parallel programming because the volume of data was a part of a big data and the time was also an important ...
Dyhrberg, Mette Bang
of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions...
Overvliet, K.E.; Sayim, B.
Since the early phenomenological demonstrations of Gestalt principles, one of the major challenges of Gestalt psychology has been to quantify these principles. Here, we show that contextual modulation, i.e. the influence of context on target perception, can be used as a tool to quantify perceptual
Overvliet, K. E.; Sayim, B.
Since the early phenomenological demonstrations of Gestalt principles, one of the major challenges of Gestalt psychology has been to quantify these principles. Here, we show that contextual modulation, i.e. the influence of context on target perception, can be used as a tool to quantify perceptual
Havermans, L.A.; Den Hartog, D.N.; Keegan, A.E.; Uhl-Bien, M.
Sustainable success calls for contextually ambidextrous organizing. According to theory, this entails enabling simultaneous high levels of exploration and exploitation within a subsystem. The practices involved in enabling contextual ambidexterity form a major and relatively unexplored leadership
Klemke, Roland; Börner, Dirk; Suarez, Angel; Schneider, Jan; Antonaci, Alessandra
This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile
This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile devices
Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul; van Boxtel, Carla; van de Grift, Wim
This study describes the development and testing of a pedagogy aimed at promoting students’ ability to perform historical contextualization. Promoting historical contextualization was conceptualized as three different pedagogical principles: 1) the awareness of the consequences of a present-oriented
Castelo-Branco, Miguel; van Asselen, Marieke
Implicit contextual cuing refers to the ability to learn the association between contextual information of our environment and a specific target, which can be used to guide attention during visual search. It was recently suggested that the storage of a snapshot image of the local context of a target underlies implicit contextual cuing. To make such a snapshot, it is necessary to use peripheral vision. In order to test whether peripheral vision can underlie implicit contextual cuin...
Escritura y argumentación académica: trayectorias estudiantiles, factores docentes y contextuales (Academic Writing and Argumentation: Trajectories Student-Teachers and Contextual Factors (Ecriture et argumentation académique: trajectoires, facteurs enseignants et contextuels (Escrita e argumentação acadêmica: trajetórias estudantis, fatores docentes e contextuais
Full Text Available ResumenEn el presente artículo de investigación, intentamos contribuir a la discusión sobre las alternativas para ocuparse de la escritura académica en la Universi- dad. Articulamos aportes teóricos sobre escritura y argumentación, al atender a sus potencialidades epis- témicas. El objetivo es ponderar el impacto de inter- venciones docentes y de factores contextuales en las trayectorias de estudiantes principiantes y avanzados de una universidad pública argentina que participaron o no, de programas de alfabetización académica. Me- diante triangulación de datos, comprobamos proviso- riamente dos hipótesis de trabajo: la relación entre la calidad de los escritos académicos estudiantiles y una intervención didáctica sistemática, y la incidencia de diversos factores contextuales en los itinerarios acadé- micos estudiantiles.AbstractIn this research paper we try to contri- bute to the discussion on alternatives to deal with academic writing in colle- ge. Theoretical studies articulate wri- ting and argumentation, according to their epistemic potentialities. The aim is to assess the impact of educational interventions and contextual factors in the trajectories of beginners and ad- vanced students of a public university involving Argentina or not, academic literacy programs. By triangulating data, we test two hypotheses tempo- rarily work: the relationship between the quality of student academic wri- ting and systematic educational inter- vention, and the incidence of various contextual factors on student learning paths.RésuméDans le présent article de recherche on essaye de contribuer au débat par rapport aux alternatives de s'occu- per de l'écriture académique à l'Uni- versité. On articule les contributions théoriques par rapport à l'écriture et l'argumentation, en faisant attention aux potentielles épistémiques. L’objec- tif est pondérer l'impact des interven- tions des enseignants et de facteurs contextuelles dans
Perea, Manuel; Soares, Ana Paula; Comesaña, Montserrat
Recent research with college-aged skilled readers by Adelman and colleagues revealed that contextual diversity (i.e., the number of contexts in which a word appears) is a more critical determinant of visual word recognition than mere repeated exposure (i.e., word frequency) (Psychological Science, 2006, Vol. 17, pp. 814-823). Given that contextual diversity has been claimed to be a relevant factor to word acquisition in developing readers, the effects of contextual diversity should also be a main determinant of word identification times in developing readers. A lexical decision experiment was conducted to examine the effects of contextual diversity and word frequency in young readers (children in fourth grade). Results revealed a sizable effect of contextual diversity, but not of word frequency, thereby generalizing Adelman and colleagues' data to a child population. These findings call for the implementation of dynamic developmental models of visual word recognition that go beyond a learning rule by mere exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Bass, Ellyn Charlotte; Stella-Lopez, Luz; Bukowski, William M.
Previous studies have demonstrated that several contextual factors influence the relationship between aggression and peer victimization in early adolescence, including gender of the same-sex peer group and gender composition of the school. The current study replicated and expanded on this research by examining the moderating influences of gender…
Gay, Jennifer L.; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni M.
In the present study, we examined developmental and contextual factors that may increase the odds of reporting higher social physique anxiety (SPA) among 404 adolescent athletes 11 to 16 years old. Findings showed older, later maturing athletes past peak height velocity and with greater body mass index (BMI) reported higher SPA. Individual…
DuBois, David L.; Bull, Catherine A.; Sherman, Michelle D.; Roberts, Magie
Global self-esteem and social-contextual incongruity in factors contributing to the development and maintenance of self-esteem were studied as predictors of the emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment of 213 young adolescents. Higher reported levels of global self-esteem were associated with more favorable scores on most measures of…
van Belzen, J.A.
Taking the history of the psychology of religion as a case, two theses are presented: (1) Psychology has always been determined by a multitude of contextual factors, among them seemingly trivial ones such as "market" and "fashion," and (2) research on its history readily turns into critical
Grill, Thomas; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Obrist, Marianna; Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Tscheligi, Manfred
Contextual interfaces gain more and more importance within the last years. Numerous research programs that address the term context have been established, each focusing on context from their own point of view. The Christian Doppler Laboratory on Contextual Interfaces has been founded with different goals in mind. The first goal is to elaborate on the definitions and foundations of the term context to achieve a common understanding on how to use context and the terms related to context. Further we elaborate on the relation between context and user experience to tackle the complexity of the interrelations between both areas. The second goal is to apply the findings of the basic context research with two different context laboratories, each addressing a different application area. This allows to build a robust research basis that is applied to application oriented research.
Sayim, Bilge; Westheimer, Gerald; Herzog, Michael H
Vernier alignment thresholds are strongly compromised when the vernier is embedded in an array of equal-length flanking lines. Here, we show that these contextual interactions can be diminished by giving the flanks the opposite contrast polarity, e.g., white flanks surrounding a black vernier. Similar results are obtained for red verniers and equiluminant green flanks and when vernier and flanks have different binocular disparity. Using special flank configurations, we can eliminate location uncertainty as an important factor for this kind of contextual interactions. We interpret these results as evidence that perceptual grouping of the vernier and the flanks plays an important role in the vernier threshold elevation caused by contextual flanks.
error rate over the existing system by four-fold. In parallel to this work, we developed a user interface. The theory behind the user interface is...then we proposed a user interface design to help users manage that system . This work applies Nissenbaum’s theory of Privacy as Contextual...Instrumentation Changing developer options Opening/Closing security settings Changing security settings Enabling/ Disabling NFC Changing location mode
Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurelien; Alt, Florian
Infrastructures are persistent socio-technical systems used to deliver different kinds of services. Researchers have looked into how awareness of infrastructures in the areas of sustainability [6, 10] and software appropriation  can be provided. However, designing infrastructure-aware systems...... has specific requirements, which are often ignored. In this paper we explore the challenges when developing infrastructure awareness systems based on contextual analysis, and propose guidelines for enhancing the design process....
Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager
Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses....
Culley, Marci R; Conkling, Martha; Emshoff, James; Blakely, Craig; Gorman, Dennis
School violence has received unprecedented attention in recent years, particularly since the infamous events unfolded in Littleton, Colorado at Columbine High School. For many Americans, such events were not imagined possible while for others, they confirmed the need for urgent and careful examination of the nature and scope of school violence. It appears, however, that school violence research has been relegated to the individual level of analysis. In this introduction to the special issue about the environmental and contextual factors related to school violence, the authors examine what we know about school violence, how school violence has been addressed, and argue that environmental factors must be part of research and intervention in this area. Finally, the contributions of the articles included in this special issue are discussed.
Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.
Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph
Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.
Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.
Full Text Available The issues of immigrants and attitudes towards immigrants are an important social issue in our country, and in recent years these issues have become more topical due to the large number of immigrants from the Middle East and Africa who pass through Serbia. This research was aimed at identifying the determinants of social attitudes towards immigrants. Contextual determinants, first of all, economic security and life in a multiethnic environment, as well as individual determinants, operationalized through the HEXACO model of personality, were examined. The research was conducted on the convenience sample of 540 participants. The results have shown that economic security has no direct effect on the attitudes towards immigrants, while the multiethnic environment is an important determinant of these attitudes. Personality traits, especially Openness, as well as Honesty- Humility, have better predictive power than the contextual variables. The factors of economic security are significant moderators of the relationship between personality and attitudes towards immigrants. The importance of the obtained results for understanding the formation of attitudes towards immigrants is discussed, as well as the methodological framework for future studies of attitudes towards immigrants and other social groups.
Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the effect of the application of contextual teaching and learning (CTL approach to the enhance of mathematical critical thinking ability (MCTA of Primary School Teacher Students (PSTS. This research is an experimental study with the population of all students PSTS who took algebra subject matter of one university in the city of Bogor. The results showed: (1 the increase of MCTA of student who receive CTL better than students who receive TTL; (2 There are differences in the increase MCTA between students in groups of high MPA, medium MPA, and low MPA, both the student who received the CTL and TTL; and (3 There is no interaction between learning factors (CTL and TTL with MPA (high, medium and low toward the enhance of MCTA.Keywords: Critical Thinking Ability in Mathematics, Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach, Prior Mathematical Ability DOI: dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.61.53
Charles, Kathryn; McKee, Lorna; McCann, Sharon
To use organizational change theory to explore the interplay of contextual influences on patient safety. A multi-level comparative case study of eight National Health Service (NHS) acute hospital trusts in England, including 144 depth interviews with senior managers, staff involved with risk analysis and reporting, middle managers, and senior and junior clinicians, supplemented with documentary data and observation of nine meetings. Organizational change theory was used to identify content, contextual and process influences on patient safety. Organizational stability and staff engagement appeared to influence patient safety and specific contextual factors appeared to influence both organizational stability and staff engagement, both of which were important for patient safety. These contextual factors comprised: environmental shocks; cultural characteristics; processes and structures supportive of patient safety; and trust leadership style. A model is suggested that analyses the trusts in terms of these factors and then groups them into four trust types. The study highlights the massive and unpredictable impact of both internal and external environmental shocks and how they destabilize trusts distracting attention from patient safety. It also underlines the importance of regular self-assessment of internal and external risks and awareness of context.
Muetze, Tanja; Lynn, David J
Highly connected nodes in biological networks are called network hubs. Hubs are topologically important to the structure of the network and have been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), an application within Cytoscape 3, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene or protein expression data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes than expected by chance. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ferreira-Júnior, Osmar Martins; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Costa, Luciane Rezende
Despite growing interest on dental pain in children, there are very few studies on its prevalence and determinants among preschool children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence of dental pain and associated individual and contextual factors in 5 year-old Brazilian children. This cross-sectional study used primary data from the 2010 National Survey of Oral Health, carried out in capital cities and a sample of country towns. Participants were 7280 5-year-olds, who were examined in their homes and whose parents answered a questionnaire. Dependent variable was report of dental pain in the last 6 months. Independent variables were contextual (city level) socioeconomic factors, and individual (child) sociodemographic and oral health-related variables. Data analysis included hierarchized Poisson regression models, using a multilevel approach and prevalence rate (PR) estimates. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.0% (95% CI 19.1-25.2). It was higher among those living in cities with lower human development index (PR 0.07; 95% CI 0.02-0.22) and with a higher percentage of their population with an incomplete primary education (PR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.06). Indigenous children had prevalence of dental pain 1.97 times higher (95% CI 1.19-3.26) than those of white colour. Families with monthly incomes of U$ 218.00 or less and between U$ 219.00 and U$ 656.00 had, respectively, a prevalence of dental pain 2.67 (95% CI 1.33-5.32) and 2.11 (95% CI 1.03-4.32) times higher than families with highest income level. For each unit increase in the number of dwellers per bedroom, there was a 14% increase in the probability of having pain. Children with caries experience had a 3.45 (95% CI 2.58-4.62) higher prevalence of pain than caries-free individuals. Dental pain prevalence in Brazilian preschool children was high and influenced by contextual and individual factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J
Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat).
Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the
Full Text Available Individual health is not only individual responsibility, but also depends on the social contexts that condition the individual across the life course. However, while it is of high public health relevance to identify these contextual influences, they still remain poorly understood, and the research performed so far has suffered from severe limitations. This paper presents a research agenda for social epidemiology that underlines a number of novel concepts, ideas, and unanswered questions deserving future investigation. The paper presents a conceptual framework intended to organize the investigation of geographical, socioeconomic, and cultural disparities in health. This framework identifies five main areas of research: (1 identifying the relevant contexts that influence individual health by measuring general contextual effects, (2 measuring contextual characteristics, the specific effects of these characteristics on individual health and their underlying cross-level mechanisms, (3 investigating general and specific contextual effects from a longitudinal, a life-course perspective and across generations, (4 developing quasi-experimental methods (e.g., family-based designs for the analysis of causal effects in contextual analyses, and (5 using the achieved scientific knowledge for planning and evaluating interventions. The proposed framework emphasizes that future research in social epidemiology should question the current means-centric reductionism that is mostly concerned with the identification of (contextual risk factors, and it stresses the need to deliberately investigate determinants of variance. In fact, social epidemiology is not only interested in increasing the (mean health of the population, but also in understanding and decreasing inappropriate health inequalities (variance.
Abramsky, Samson; Brandenburger, Adam
We use the mathematical language of sheaf theory to give a unified treatment of non-locality and contextuality, in a setting that generalizes the familiar probability tables used in non-locality theory to arbitrary measurement covers; this includes Kochen-Specker configurations and more. We show that contextuality, and non-locality as a special case, correspond exactly to obstructions to the existence of global sections. We describe a linear algebraic approach to computing these obstructions, which allows a systematic treatment of arguments for non-locality and contextuality. We distinguish a proper hierarchy of strengths of no-go theorems, and show that three leading examples—due to Bell, Hardy and Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger, respectively—occupy successively higher levels of this hierarchy. A general correspondence is shown between the existence of local hidden-variable realizations using negative probabilities, and no-signalling; this is based on a result showing that the linear subspaces generated by the non-contextual and no-signalling models, over an arbitrary measurement cover, coincide. Maximal non-locality is generalized to maximal contextuality, and characterized in purely qualitative terms, as the non-existence of global sections in the support. A general setting is developed for the Kochen-Specker-type results, as generic, model-independent proofs of maximal contextuality, and a new combinatorial condition is given, which generalizes the ‘parity proofs’ commonly found in the literature. We also show how our abstract setting can be represented in quantum mechanics. This leads to a strengthening of the usual no-signalling theorem, which shows that quantum mechanics obeys no-signalling for arbitrary families of commuting observables, not just those represented on different factors of a tensor product.
Peng, Wei; Pfeiffer, Karin; Winn, Brian
With the expanded genres of active videogames, one inevitably raises the question of whether it is worthwhile to use active videogames to promote physical activity if games involve violent themes. The purpose of the current study was to explore the effects of contextual cues of violence in an active videogame on (1) state hostility, (2) perceived arousal, (3) game enjoyment, (4) perceived effort in the game, and (5) activity intensity in the game. A one-factor between-subjects experiment with three conditions (minimal, moderate, and extreme contextual cues of violence) of playing an in-house-developed active videogame was conducted. Activity intensity was objectively measured using the ActiGraph (Pensacola, FL) model GT3X accelerometer. Psychological outcomes were measured using established scales. We did not find that the level of contextual cues of violence had any effect on the outcome variables, although the moderate level of contextual cues of violence resulted in a greater amount of feeling mean (P=0.011) and unsociable (P=0.038) among the players immediately after gameplay than players in the minimal contextual cues of violence condition. We did not find any statistically significant difference among the three conditions in terms of enjoyment, perceived arousal, or activity intensity. This study empirically examined the effects of contextual cues of violence in active videogames on player hostility, arousal, and enjoyment after gameplay as well as their physical activity intensity during gameplay. These findings provide some initial evidence to guide active videogame designers and researchers on how to design the games to be more engaging and thus elicit more activities among the players.
Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line
years from a random sample of Danish schools. Students answered a questionnaire including mental health and the classroom environment. The outcome measure emotional problems was defined as daily presence of at least one of four symptoms: feeling low; irritable or bad tempered; feeling nervous and having......Background A large proportion of adolescents suffer from emotional problems and great variation is observed across schools. To what degree these variations are caused by compositional or contextual predictors is unknown. Objectives The objectives of this presentation is to identify factors...... and conditions at the individual-, classroom- and school level that are associated with students´ experiences of emotional problems. Methods Data come from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2010 and include 4,922 students aged 11, 13 and 15...
Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.
Vourdas, A. [Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)
The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.
Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the effect of the application of contextual teaching and learning (CTL approach to the enhance of mathematical critical thinking ability (MCTA of Primary School Teacher Students (PSTS. This research is an experimental study with the population of all students PSTS who took algebra subject matter of one university in the city of Bogor. The results showed: (1 the increase of MCTA of student who receive CTL better than students who receive TTL; (2 There are differences in the increase MCTA between students in groups of high MPA, medium MPA, and low MPA, both the student who received the CTL and TTL; and (3 There is no interaction between learning factors (CTL and TTL with MPA (high, medium and low toward the enhance of MCTA.
Roze des Ordons, Amanda L; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hartwick, Michael; Sarti, Aimee; Ajjawi, Rola
Postgraduate medical trainees are not well prepared difficult conversations about goals of care with patients and families in the acute care clinical setting. While contextual nuances within the workplace can impact communication, research to date has largely focused on individual communication skills. Our objective was to explore contextual factors that influence conversations between trainees and patients/families about goals of care in the acute care setting. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study involving five focus groups with Internal Medicine trainees (n = 20) and a series of interviews with clinical faculty (n = 11) within a single Canadian centre. Thematic framework analysis was applied to categorize the data and identify themes and subthemes. Challenges and factors enabling goals of care conversations emerged within individual, interpersonal and system dimensions. Challenges included inadequate preparation for these conversations, disconnection between trainees, faculty and patients, policies around documentation, the structure of postgraduate medical education, and resource limitations; these challenges led to missed opportunities, uncertainty and emotional distress. Enabling factors were awareness of the importance of goals of care conversations, support in these discussions, collaboration with colleagues, and educational initiatives enabling skill development; these factors have resulted in learning, appreciation, and an established foundation for future educational initiatives. Contextual factors impact how postgraduate medical trainees communicate with patients/families about goals of care. Attention to individual, interpersonal and system-related factors will be important in designing educational programs that help trainees develop the capacities needed for challenging conversations.
Frederick Ato Armah; Reginald Quansah; Isaac Luginaah; Ratana Chuenpagdee; Herbert Hambati; Gwyn Campbell
.... Methods and Findings We also assessed the collective (compositional and contextual) factors that currently determine risks to multiple NTDs using a cross sectional survey of 1253 individuals in coastal Tanzania...
Curry Owens, Tracy; Jackson, Fleda Mask
This article explores how childhood and adulthood socioeconomic position (SEP) and socioeconomic mobility, as indicators of life-course experiences, impact the relationship between contextualized stress and depression among well-educated, pregnant African-American women. The Jackson, Hogue, Phillips Contextualized Stress Measure and the Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 101 well-educated, pregnant African-American women during their first and second trimesters. Bivariate associations and regression analysis were conducted to assess life-course SEP, mobility, and contextualized stress as predictors of depression. Based on the demographic data for childhood and adult SES, the SEP and mobility variables were created. Results from χ2 analysis revealed that high contextual stress was significantly associated with no change in mobility, that is, staying the same. Results from regression models found that contextualized stress was the only predictor for depression. Additionally, life-course SEP and mobility did not moderate the relationship between contextualized stress and depression. Our findings illuminated the persistence of racial and gendered stress as risk factors for depression among well-educated, pregnant African-American women, regardless of life-course SEP. We offer an explanation as to why African-American women who possess the material and social resources thought to mediate psychosocial and pregnancy risks remain in jeopardy. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhan, Xiang; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Wang, Kunkun; Bian, Zhihao; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xue, Peng
Contextuality is an essential characteristic of quantum theory, and supplies the power for many quantum information processes. Previous tests of contextuality focus mainly on the probability distribution of measurement results. However, a test of contextuality can be formulated in terms of entropic inequalities whose violations imply information deficit in the studied system. This information deficit has not been observed on a single local system. Here we report the first experimental detection of information deficit in an entropic test of quantum contextuality based on photonic setup. The corresponding inequality is violated with more than 13 standard deviations.
Liu, Mengqiao; Huang, Jason L
Personality traits can predict how well-sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in US colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings) will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, M age = 24 years) revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower) withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase) in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower) withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality, and more importantly, the importance of understanding within-person change in contextualized personality in a cross-cultural adjustment context. The study points to more research that explicate the process of personality change in other contexts.
Liu, Mengqiao; Huang, Jason L.
Personality traits can predict how well-sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in US colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings) will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, Mage = 24 years) revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower) withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase) in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower) withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality, and more importantly, the importance of understanding within-person change in contextualized personality in a cross-cultural adjustment context. The study points to more research that explicate the process of personality change in other contexts. PMID:26579033
Full Text Available Personality traits can predict how well sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in U.S. colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, Mage = 24 years revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality, and more importantly, the importance of understanding within-person change in contextualized personality in a cross-cultural adjustment context. The study points to more research that explicate the process of personality change in other contexts.
Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas
The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…
Gagnon, Sylvain; Soulard, Kathleen; Brasgold, Melissa; Kreller, Joshua
Twenty-four younger (18-35 years) and 24 older adult participants (65 or older) were exposed to three experimental conditions involving the memorization words and their associated contextual features, with contextual feature complexity increasing from Conditions 1 to 3. In Condition 1, words presented varied only on one binary feature (color,…
Ralph, Edwin G.
In contextual supervision (CS) (an adaptation of situational leadership), the student teacher's (supervisee's) level of confidence and competence determines level of supervisory support and task orientation. CS also encourages a global view of all contextual variables. Observation of 49 untrained pairs of practicum students and cooperating…
Dzhafarov, E N; Zhang, Ru; Kujala, Janne
Most behavioural and social experiments aimed at revealing contextuality are confined to cyclic systems with binary outcomes. In quantum physics, this broad class of systems includes as special cases Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type systems. The theory of contextuality known as contextuality-by-default allows one to define and measure contextuality in all such systems, even if there are context-dependent errors in measurements, or if something in the contexts directly interacts with the measurements. This makes the theory especially suitable for behavioural and social systems, where direct interactions of 'everything with everything' are ubiquitous. For cyclic systems with binary outcomes, the theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for non-contextuality, and these conditions are known to be breached in certain quantum systems. We review several behavioural and social datasets (from polls of public opinion to visual illusions to conjoint choices to word combinations to psychophysical matching), and none of these data provides any evidence for contextuality. Our working hypothesis is that this may be a broadly applicable rule: behavioural and social systems are non-contextual, i.e. all 'contextual effects' in them result from the ubiquitous dependence of response distributions on the elements of contexts other than the ones to which the response is presumably or normatively directed. © 2015 The Author(s).
White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.
Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…
Waddell, Kathryn J.; Rogoff, Barbara
Study looks at whether spatial memory is automatic by examining the effects of intentionality and attention to contextual organization in spatial memory. The pattern of results demonstrated that reconstruction was enhanced by intentionality or by the goal-relevant activity of attending to contextual spatial relations. (Author/RWB)
Frankland, Paul W.; Ding, Hoi-Ki; Takahashi, Eiki; Suzuki, Akinobu; Kida, Satoshi; Silva, Alcino J.
Following initial encoding, memories undergo a prolonged period of reorganization. While such reorganization may occur in many different memory systems, its purpose is not clear. Previously, we have shown that recall of recent contextual fear memories engages the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). In contrast, recall of remote contextual fear memories…
much to improve the result ranking. 4. CONTEXTUAL SUGGESTION TRACK The research question we examine in the Contextual Sug- gestion track is whether a... gestions we build upon state-of-the-art tools. Our first run uses descriptions without explanations while an explanation is added in the second run
Soledad Escalante Beltrán
Full Text Available This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.
Treno, Andrew J; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wood, Darryl S; Ponicki, William R
The current study considers the determinants of prices charged for alcoholic beverages by on-premise and off-premise outlets in Alaska. Alcohol outlet densities, a surrogate measure for local retail competition, are expected to be negatively associated with prices while costs associated with distribution are expected to be positively related to prices. Community demographic and economic characteristics may affect observed local prices via the level of demand, retail costs borne by retailers, or the quality of brands offered for sale. The core data for these analyses came from a telephone survey of Alaskan retail establishments licensed to serve alcohol. This survey utilized computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) techniques to collect alcohol-pricing information from on-premise (i.e., establishments where alcohol is consumed at the point of purchase such as bars and restaurants) and off-premise (i.e., establishments such as grocery stores and convenience markets where consumption occurs in other locations) alcohol retailers throughout the state of Alaska. Price estimates were developed for each beverage-type based on alcohol content. Separate regression analyses were used to model each of the 8 price indices (on-premise and off-premise measures for beer, spirits, wine, and the average price across beverage types). All regressions also controlled for a set of zip-code level indicators of community economic and demographic characteristics based on census data. Outlet density per roadway mile was unrelated to price for both on- and off-premise establishments, either across or between beverage types. In contrast, overall distribution costs did appear to be related to alcohol price. The demographic and economic variables, as a group, were significantly related to observed prices. More attention needs to be directed to the manner in which sellers and buyers behave relative to alcoholic beverages. Alcohol demand remains responsive to prices; yet, consumers have considerable latitude in determining the price that they pay for alcohol.
Christensen, Ulla; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted
of the whole Danish population including individuals aged 43-60 years, (n = 516.454 person-years including 840 cases of IHD). The independent variable was incident hospitalization for IHD and outcome variable was defined as job loss 2 years after the event. Regional-level data included all the 275 Danish...... of municipality was included in the analyses. Conclusion: Geographical variation in incidence of labour market exclusion following incident disease is not primarily an effect of differential social consequences across municipal variations in labour market and socio-economic conditions....
Elzerman, J.E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.
Purpose – Meat substitutes can be environmentally more sustainable alternatives to meat. However, the image of these products in The Netherlands is still low. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' experiences and sensory expectations of meat substitutes and the appropriateness of the
Tas, Yasemin; Tekkaya, Ceren
The authors conducted a correlational study to investigate the relations among seventh-grade Turkish students' cheating behavior, academic self-efficacy beliefs, usage of self-handicapping strategies, personal goal orientations, and classroom goal structures specific to the science domain. The Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales was administered…
Clouse, A., Ferguson, J., Hayes, W., and Nidiffer, K., CMMI SCAMPI Distilled: Appraisals for Process Improvement. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2005...6. Software Engineering Institute, " CMMI for Development, Version 1.3" CMMI -DEV (Version 1.3), Carnegie Mellon University, 2010 7. Software...Engineering Institute, " CMMI for Acquisition, Version 1.3" CMMI -ACQ (Version 1.3), Carnegie Mellon University, 2010 8. Software Engineering Institute
Decision–making by physicians on patients' treatment has received increased research attention. Research on the effect of marketing strategies on prescription behaviour has tended to generate controversial results. While some researchers reported a strong influence, some found only moderate effects, while others find no ...
Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M.; Zhou, Nan
The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers’ provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers’ ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers’ parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory. PMID:25530631
Hornstra, L.; Mansfield, C.; van der Veen, I.; Peetsma, T.; Volman, M.
Teachers are key actors who shape the learning environment and whose main tasks include motivating students to learn. Teachers can differ in the way in which they try to motivate students to learn and their motivational strategies can vary from autonomy-supportive to controlling. The present study
Hornstra, Lisette; Mansfield, Caroline; van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea; Volman, Monique
Teachers are key actors who shape the learning environment and whose main tasks include motivating students to learn. Teachers can differ in the way in which they try to motivate students to learn and their motivational strategies can vary from autonomy-supportive to controlling. The present study
Conclusion: No significant ethnic differences were found in LPA participation. LPA was significantly correlated with age, male sex, total time spent watching television, life satisfaction, and enjoyment of exercise.
Full Text Available In contrast to humans and most other animals, rhesus macaques strongly prefer risky rewards to safe ones with similar expected value. Why macaques prefer risk while other animals typically avoid it remains puzzling and challenges the idea that monkeys provide a model for human economic behavior. Here we argue that monkeys’ risk-seeking preferences are neither mysterious nor unique. Risk-seeking in macaques is possibly induced by specific elements of the tasks that have been used to measure their risk preferences. The most important of these elements are (1 very small stakes, (2 serially repeated gambles with short delays between trials, and (3 task parameters that are learned through experience, not described verbally. Together, we hypothesize that these features will readily induce risk-seeking in monkeys, humans, and rats. Thus, elements of task design that are often ignored when comparing studies of risk attitudes can easily overwhelm basal risk preferences. More broadly, these results highlight the fundamental importance of understanding the psychological basis of economic decisions in interpreting preference data and corresponding neural measures.
Waegell, Mordecai; Denkmayr, Tobias; Geppert, Hermann; Ebner, David; Jenke, Tobias; Hasegawa, Yuji; Sponar, Stephan; Dressel, Justin; Tollaksen, Jeff
Previous experimental tests of quantum contextuality based on the Bell-Kochen-Specker (BKS) theorem have demonstrated that not all observables among a given set can be assigned noncontextual eigenvalue predictions, but have never identified which specific observables must fail such assignment. We now remedy this shortcoming by showing that BKS contextuality can be confined to particular observables by pre- and postselection, resulting in anomalous weak values that we measure using modern neutron interferometry. We construct a confined contextuality witness from weak values, which we measure experimentally to obtain a 5 σ average violation of the noncontextual bound, with one contributing term violating an independent bound by more than 99 σ . This weakly measured confined BKS contextuality also confirms the quantum pigeonhole effect, wherein eigenvalue assignments to contextual observables apparently violate the classical pigeonhole principle.
Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W
In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African American, and 45% were Puerto Rican. Self-report data were obtained on externalizing and internalizing problems, substance use, and contextual influences across adolescence and young adulthood. Drug dependence was assessed in adulthood. Multivariate logistic regressions of drug dependence were performed on the whole sample and separately by gender. Each of the domains was associated with adult drug dependence. Although mean gender differences were found, most associations of risk factors with drug dependence did not vary significantly by gender. Treating externalizing and internalizing problems, reducing substance use, and providing coping skills for adverse contextual influences in adolescence and young adulthood may reduce the likelihood of becoming drug dependent in adulthood.
Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth
Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities.
Joseph, Pamela; Davis, A Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Hill, Karen; McCarthy, Honey; Banerjee, Ananya; Chow, Clara; Mente, Andrew; Anand, Sonia S
Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco.In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH) tool. The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.
Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yi-Dong
We exhibit the monogamy relation between two entropic non-contextuality inequalities in the scenario where compatible projectors are orthogonal. We show the monogamy relation can be exhibited by decomposing the orthogonality graph into perfect induced subgraphs. Then we find two entropic non-contextuality inequalities are monogamous while the KCBS-type non-contextuality inequalities are not if the orthogonality graphs of the observable sets are two odd cycles with two shared vertices. Supported by 973 Programs of China under Grant Nos. 2011CBA00303 and 2013CB328700, Basic Research Foundation of Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList)
Singh, Jaskaran; Bharti, Kishor; Arvind
The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols hinges upon features of physical systems that are uniquely quantum in nature. We explore the role of quantumness, as qualified by quantum contextuality, in a QKD scheme. A QKD protocol based on the Klyachko-Can-Binicioğlu-Shumovsky (KCBS) contextuality scenario using a three-level quantum system is presented. We explicitly show the unconditional security of the protocol by a generalized contextuality monogamy relationship based on the no-disturbance principle. This protocol provides a new framework for QKD which has conceptual and practical advantages over other protocols.
Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on the organizational components has been in researchers' focus for years, together with their impact on the overall organizational efficiency. Traditional view commonly divided the factors on internal and external ones, which became improper in modern conditions. With contemporary division on structural and contextual factors, as a specific determinant we have to extract information and communication technology (ICT which impacts elements of structural and contextual dimension in every organization. Therefore it is becoming generic factor which cannot be classified into one of these groups. In this research, we observed impact of ICT on organizational elements of public administrations offices on the case of the Varaždin County. Results show that this impact is present in various forms in all observed factors and thus makes ICT a generic organizational factor.
Okasha, S; Paternotte, C
We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Ehtibar N Dzhafarov
Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.
Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.
The analytic process, in which the patient's and the analyst's internal characters struggle to create a script through the analysand's mouth and the analyst's pen, resembles Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921): different characters come together on the analytic stage to rehearse the analyst's role as coauthor of a play that depicts the ongoing analytic saga. To compose the text for the interplay of characters, the author must search for contexts that may confer meaning upon the words and actions of characters. This involves a search for a mise en scène (stage) that will assign mise en sens (meaning) to the actors' role-specific dialogue. Yet mise en scène, in the theatrical sense, is a set of iconic signs set with its own décor, props, and costumes. In contrast, the psychoanalytic scene is a symbolic stage for the play of words--words that may contain unconscious codes for switching into particular language games. A clinical case report describes a struggle with the contextual analysis of an aspect of a treatment that involved reported episodes of verbal indiscretions "taken out of context" with unwanted consequences. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.
Guerrero, Erick G.
The emerging discourse on science in social work (SW) has generated much-needed analysis of the profession's status as a scientific enterprise. Brekke raised critical issues that must be addressed for SW to become a science. This response examines the contextual factors that led to the call for SW science. It also relies on a comparative…
Full Text Available This study examined the development of social-pragmatic comprehension in 170 Finnish four- to eight-year-old children. The children were asked to respond to socially and contextually demanding questions targeting their social-pragmatic language processing, and to explain their correct answers in order to elicit their awareness of how they had derived the answers from the context. The results showed that the number of correct answers increased especially between the ages of four and seven years. We found that questions demanding contextual processing without mind-reading were the easiest to understand, followed by questions demanding processing of feelings of others and false beliefs. The questions demanding understanding of relevant language use and processing of contextual factors including mental states and intentions were the most challenging for the children. Between four and five years of age there was a remarkable developmental phase in children’s ability to give proper explanations.
Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors.
Gorchoff, Sara M; John, Oliver P; Helson, Ravenna
To address the need for longitudinal marital research that takes contextual factors into account, we investigated change in women's marital satisfaction over 18 years of middle age. We examined not only whether marital satisfaction changed, but also why and how it changed. Marital satisfaction increased in middle age, and increased marital, but not life, satisfaction was linked to the transition to an empty nest. More specifically, the transition to an empty nest increased marital satisfaction via an increase in women's enjoyment of time with their partners, but not via an increase in the quantity of that time with partners. Also, increasing marital satisfaction was not attributable to changing partners. Taken together, these findings support the utility of applying a contextualized approach focused on major life transitions to the study of long-term change in marital satisfaction.
Rodriguez, Christina M
According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.
Akinyemi, Joshua O; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Adebowale, Ayo S
We investigated the relation of internal migration to contraceptive use and adjusted for individual and contextual (community) characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted to nationally representative data of 28,876 women from 884 communities in Nigeria. Only about one out of every 10 women (10.4%) currently used a contraceptive method. Contraceptive prevalence according to the migration status were rural-urban (12.5%), urban-rural (13.8%), rural nonmigrants (6.2%) and urban nonmigrants (17.1%). The relationship between internal migration and contraceptive use was fully explained by individual and community characteristics. Programs aimed at increasing contraceptive prevalence should address contextual challenges alongside socioeconomic factors.
Kuci, Edlira; Erdweg, S.T.; Bračevac, Oliver; Bejleri, Andi; Mezini, Mira; Müller, Peter
This paper addresses compositional and incremental type checking for object-oriented programming languages. Recent work achieved incremental type checking for structurally typed functional languages through co-contextual typing rules, a constraint-based formulation that removes any context
Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej
In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement......, surrounding networks, devices, people, and application data is used to semi-automatically annotate information in our current proof-of-concept prototype. The application allows the derived contextual information to be annotated as tags to available content and thereby facilitating the processes involved...... in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...
.... These texts are discussed exemplarily in relation to the parameters of fictional autobiographies, before they are contextualized with historical discourses regarding horses in natural history and so-called ‘horse-science...
The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational
Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.
Börner, D. (2009). Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments. Presented at the Doctoral Consortium of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France.
El Zein, Marwa
Everyday social decisions require the combination of multiple sources of information and therefore build upon abundant contextual elements such as the social cues of emitters (e.g., gaze direction, emotion, gesture), the attentional focus of observers, their mood and their past experience. The work conducted during this Ph.D. (including three main studies in healthy human subjects) aimed at characterizing the cognitive and neural mechanisms of contextual influences in social settings. The fir...
Hu, B.; Hidders, A.J.H.; De Lignie, M.; Cimiano, P.
When carrying out tasks, police officers need up-to-date information contextualized to their current situation to support them in decision making. The results of a previous user study with the aim of capturing the information requirements of police officers have led to the implementation of a rule-based system for contextualized information delivery. In this paper, we present the overall system and discuss how the various sources of information are modelled using ontologies. Our focus is on t...
Akhmad Ali Mirza
The study is aimed at investigating the effects of contextual meaning aspects on reading comprehension, and finding out whether or not there is effect of reading proficiency, consists of low and high, on reading comprehension and effect of contextual meaning aspects together with reading proficiency on reading comprehension. It was used experimental design in this study. The data were processed and analyzed according to these steps: giving the treatment, checking and scoring, tabulating, anal...
Intan Satriani; Emi Emilia; Handi Gunawan
Abstract: This article reports a study on the implementation of contextual teaching and learning approach to teaching English writing to second graders of a Junior High Shool in Bandung. The study aims to investigate the strategies of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) (as adapted from Crawford, 2001) and the advantages of using CTL approach. The study employed a qualitative case study research design. The data were obtained from several instruments, namely class observations, students’ i...
Gartlehner, Gerald; Matyas, Nina
Shared decision making in medicine has become a widely promoted approach. The goal is for patients and physicians to reach a mutual, informed decision by taking into consideration scientific evidence, clinical experience, and the patient's personal values or preferences. Shared decision making, however, is not a straightforward process. In practice, it might fall short of what it promises and might even be misused to whitewash monetary motives. In this article, which summarizes a presentation given at the 17(th) Annual Conference of the German Network Evidence-based Medicine on March 4(th), 2016 in Cologne, Germany, we discuss three contextual factors that in our opinion can have a tremendous impact on any informed decision making: 1) opinions and convictions of physicians or other clinicians; 2) uncertainty of the evidence regarding benefits and harms; 3) uncertainty of patients about their own values and preferences. But despite barriers and shortcomings, modern medicine currently does not have an alternative to shared decision making. Shared decision making has become a central theme in good quality health care because it has a strong ethical component. Advocates of shared decision making, however, must realize that not all patients prefer to participate in decision making. For those who do, however, we must ensure that shared decisions can be made in a neutral environment as free of biases and conflicts of interest as possible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria
Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. Methods The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Results Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Discussion Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood
Proffitt, Dennis R.
The visually guided control of helicopter flight is a human achievement, and, thus, understanding this skill is, in part, a psychological problem. The abilities of skilled pilots are impressive, and yet it is of concern that pilots' performance is less than ideal: they suffer from workload constraints, make occasional errors, and are subject to such debilities as simulator sickness. Remedying such deficiencies is both an engineering and a psychological problem. When studying the psychological aspects of this problem, it is desirable to simplify the problem as much as possible, and thereby, sidestep as many intractable psychological issues as possible. Simply stated, we do not want to have to resolve such polemics as the mind-body problem in order to contribute to the design of more effective helicopter systems. On the other hand, the study of human behavior is a psychological endeavor and certain problems cannot be evaded. Four related issues that are of psychological significance in understanding the visually guided control of helicopter flight are discussed. First, a selected discussion of the nature of descriptive levels in analyzing human perception and performance is presented. It is argued that the appropriate level of description for perception is kinematical, and for performance, it is procedural. Second, it is argued that investigations into pilot performance cannot ignore the nature of pilots' phenomenal experience. The conscious control of actions is not based upon environmental states of affairs, nor upon the optical information that specifies them. Actions are coupled to perceptions. Third, the acquisition of skilled actions in the context of inherent misperceptions is discussed. Such skills may be error prone in some situations, but not in others. Finally, I discuss the contextual relativity of human errors. Each of these four issues relates to a common theme: the control of action is mediated by phenomenal experience, the veracity of which is context
Liang, Xiaodan; Xu, Chunyan; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Tang, Jinhui; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng
In this work, we address the human parsing task with a novel Contextualized Convolutional Neural Network (Co-CNN) architecture, which well integrates the cross-layer context, global image-level context, semantic edge context, within-super-pixel context and cross-super-pixel neighborhood context into a unified network. Given an input human image, Co-CNN produces the pixel-wise categorization in an end-to-end way. First, the cross-layer context is captured by our basic local-to-global-to-local structure, which hierarchically combines the global semantic information and the local fine details across different convolutional layers. Second, the global image-level label prediction is used as an auxiliary objective in the intermediate layer of the Co-CNN, and its outputs are further used for guiding the feature learning in subsequent convolutional layers to leverage the global imagelevel context. Third, semantic edge context is further incorporated into Co-CNN, where the high-level semantic boundaries are leveraged to guide pixel-wise labeling. Finally, to further utilize the local super-pixel contexts, the within-super-pixel smoothing and cross-super-pixel neighbourhood voting are formulated as natural sub-components of the Co-CNN to achieve the local label consistency in both training and testing process. Comprehensive evaluations on two public datasets well demonstrate the significant superiority of our Co-CNN over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F-1 score on the large dataset  reaches 81:72% by Co-CNN, significantly higher than 62:81% and 64:38% by the state-of-the-art algorithms, MCNN  and ATR , respectively. By utilizing our newly collected large dataset for training, our Co-CNN can achieve 85:36% in F-1 score.
Ogdie, Alexis R; Reilly, James B; Pang, Wyki G; Keddem, Shimrit; Barg, Frances K; Von Feldt, Joan M; Myers, Jennifer S
Diagnostic errors in medicine are common and costly. Cognitive bias causes are increasingly recognized contributors to diagnostic error but remain difficult targets for medical educators and patient safety experts. The authors explored the cognitive and contextual components of diagnostic errors described by internal medicine resident physicians through the use of an educational intervention. Forty-one internal medicine residents at University of Pennsylvania participated in an educational intervention in 2010 that comprised reflective writing and facilitated small-group discussion about experiences with diagnostic error from cognitive bias. Narratives and discussion were transcribed and analyzed iteratively to identify types of cognitive bias and contextual factors present. All residents described a personal experience with a case of diagnostic error that contained at least one cognitive bias and one contextual factor that may have influenced the outcome. The most common cognitive biases identified by the residents were anchoring bias (36; 88%), availability bias (31; 76%), and framing effect (23; 56%). Prominent contextual factors included caring for patients on a subspecialty service (31; 76%), complex illness (26; 63%), and time pressures (22; 54%). Eighty-five percent of residents described at least one strategy to avoid a similar error in the future. Residents can easily recall diagnostic errors, analyze the errors for cognitive bias, and richly describe their context. The use of reflective writing and narrative discussion is an educational strategy to teach recognition, analysis, and cognitive-bias-avoidance strategies for diagnostic error in residency education.
Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie
This study examined how Israeli students, despite exposure to contextual risk factors, may experience a high ratio of self-reported positive to negative emotions (i.e., positivity ratio). Self-control skills and perceived social support were tested as protective factors, where each was posited to moderate the relation between risk status and positivity ratio. The participants were 460 Israeli students (51% girls) in grades 8-10. Contrary to expectations, students attending a school with high contextual risks did not differ from students attending a school with low contextual risks in their scores on self-control skills, perceived social support, or positivity ratio. However, an exploratory follow-up moderation analysis revealed a significant three-way interaction, indicating that while low self-control skills eliminate the link between social support and positivity ratio for students attending the school defined as at-risk, high self-control protects this link. These results suggest that neither contextual risk in itself nor initial differences in self-control or social support account for differences in students' positivity ratio. Rather, it is the way these factors interact with each other that matters. Study limitations and implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tempesta, Daniela; Socci, Valentina; Coppo, Martina; Dello Ioio, Giada; Nepa, Valeria; De Gennaro, Luigi; Ferrara, Michele
Sleep loss affects emotional memory, but the specific effects on its contextual and non-contextual aspects are unknown. In this study we investigated the possible differential influence of one night of sleep deprivation on the encoding and subsequent recall of these two aspects of emotional information. Forty-eight healthy subjects, divided in a sleep deprivation (SD) and a well-rested group (WR), completed two testing sessions: the encoding session took place after one night of sleep for the WR and after one night of sleep deprivation for the SD group; the recall session after two nights of recovery sleep for both groups. During the encoding session, 6 clips of films of different valence (2 positive, 2 neutral and 2 negative) were presented to the participants. During the recall session, the non-contextual emotional memory was assessed by a recognition task, while the contextual emotional memory was evaluated by a temporal order task. The SD group showed a worst non-contextual recognition of positive and neutral events compared to WR subjects, while recognition of negative items was similar in the two groups. Instead, the encoding of the temporal order resulted deteriorated in the SD participants, independent of the emotional valence of the items. These results indicate that sleep deprivation severely impairs the encoding of both contextual and non-contextual aspects of memory, resulting in significantly worse retention two days later. However, the preserved recognition of negative non-contextual events in sleep deprived subjects suggests that the encoding of negative stimuli is more "resistant" to the disruptive effects of sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stokols, Daniel; Misra, Shalini; Moser, Richard P; Hall, Kara L; Taylor, Brandie K
Increased public and private investments in large-scale team science initiatives over the past two decades have underscored the need to better understand how contextual factors influence the effectiveness of transdisciplinary scientific collaboration. Toward that goal, the findings from four distinct areas of research on team performance and collaboration are reviewed: (1) social psychological and management research on the effectiveness of teams in organizational and institutional settings; (2) studies of cyber-infrastructures (i.e., computer-based infrastructures) designed to support transdisciplinary collaboration across remote research sites; (3) investigations of community-based coalitions for health promotion; and (4) studies focusing directly on the antecedents, processes, and outcomes of scientific collaboration within transdisciplinary research centers and training programs. The empirical literature within these four domains reveals several contextual circumstances that either facilitate or hinder team performance and collaboration. A typology of contextual influences on transdisciplinary collaboration is proposed as a basis for deriving practical guidelines for designing, managing, and evaluating successful team science initiatives.
Agustan, S.; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko
Reflective thinking is an important component in the world of education, especially in professional education of teachers. In learning mathematics, reflective thinking is one way to solve mathematical problem because it can improve student's curiosity when student faces a mathematical problem. Reflective thinking is also a future competence that should be taught to students to face the challenges and to respond of demands of the 21st century. There are many factors which give impact toward the student's reflective thinking when student solves mathematical problem. One of them is cognitive style. For this reason, reflective thinking and cognitive style are important things in solving contextual mathematical problem. This research paper describes aspect of reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem involved solution by using some mathematical concept, namely linear program, algebra arithmetic operation, and linear equations of two variables. The participant, in this research paper, is a male-prospective teacher who has Field Dependent. The purpose of this paper is to describe aspect of prospective teachers' reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem. This research paper is a descriptive by using qualitative approach. To analyze the data, the researchers focus in four main categories which describe prospective teacher's activities using reflective thinking, namely; (a) formulation and synthesis of experience, (b) orderliness of experience, (c) evaluating the experience and (d) testing the selected solution based on the experience.
Yu, Hongkun; Shang, Jingbo; Hsu, Meichun; Castellanos, Malú; Han, Jiawei
Users often write reviews on different themes involving linguistic structures with complex sentiments. The sentiment polarity of a word can be different across themes. Moreover, contextual valence shifters may change sentiment polarity depending on the contexts that they appear in. Both challenges cannot be modeled effectively and explicitly in traditional sentiment analysis. Studying both phenomena requires multi-theme sentiment analysis at the word level, which is very interesting but significantly more challenging than overall polarity classification. To simultaneously resolve the multi-theme and sentiment shifting problems, we propose a data-driven framework to enable both capabilities: (1) polarity predictions of the same word in reviews of different themes, and (2) discovery and quantification of contextual valence shifters. The framework formulates multi-theme sentiment by factorizing the review sentiments with theme/word embeddings and then derives the shifter effect learning problem as a logistic regression. The improvement of sentiment polarity classification accuracy demonstrates not only the importance of multi-theme and sentiment shifting, but also effectiveness of our framework. Human evaluations and case studies further show the success of multi-theme word sentiment predictions and automatic effect quantification of contextual valence shifters.
T A Parshutkina
Full Text Available The article deals with the modernization of foreign language education within the contextual approach. It is noted that the task of training the experts, possessing the knowledge of foreign languages at the level of international standards, competent in foreign languages in the field of professional communication, capable of academic and social mobility is currently put forward in vocational education. A growing trend is to integrate competency and personality-oriented approaches into a single conceptual framework. A synthesized approach, whereby it is possible to carry out a gradual transition to teaching positions on language education, becomes the contextual approach. Understanding the contextual approach as a holistic education required the consideration of its various sides and elements in constant mutual integrative mediation. It allowed to explore this approach as one of the most promising areas for the development of education. The modern contextual approach constitutes an important factor of meaning through which the process of personality development of educational content intensifies, and the transformation of learning motivation into the vocational sphere occurs, the position of the subject of training and learning activities, effectively promoting occupational and social personality self-realization of the future specialist is formed. The leading trends in foreign language education within the context of the new approach are: the new methodological reflection on the basic components of the process of teaching foreign languages, philosophical and anthropological understanding of the “context” in the educational space, striving for integrity and consistency in the organization and self-organization of the educational process, the integrative nature of foreign language education.
Spence, Clay D.; Sajda, Paul; Pearson, John C.
An important problem in image analysis is finding small objects in large images. The problem is challenging because (1) searching a large image is computationally expensive, and (2) small targets (on the order of a few pixels in size) have relatively few distinctive features which enable them to be distinguished from non-targets. To overcome these challenges we have developed a hierarchical neural network (HNN) architecture which combines multi-resolution pyramid processing with neural networks. The advantages of the architecture are: (1) both neural network training and testing can be done efficiently through coarse-to-fine techniques, and (2) such a system is capable of learning low-resolution contextual information to facilitate the detection of small target objects. We have applied this neural network architecture to two problems in which contextual information appears to be important for detecting small targets. The first problem is one of automatic target recognition (ATR), specifically the problem of detecting buildings in aerial photographs. The second problem focuses on a medical application, namely searching mammograms for microcalcifications, which are cues for breast cancer. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggests that the hierarchical architecture improves the detection accuracy for both the ATR and microcalcification detection problems, reducing false positive rates by a significant factor. In addition, we have examined the hidden units at various levels of the processing hierarchy and found what appears to be representations of road location (for the ATR example) and ductal/vasculature location (for mammography), both of which are in agreement with the contextual information used by humans to find these classes of targets. We conclude that this hierarchical neural network architecture is able to automatically extract contextual information in imagery and utilize it for target detection.
Palazzolo, Sarah L; Yamanis, Thespina J; De Jesus, Maria; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Barker, Suyanna L
The purpose of this study was to explore the contextual factors that determine or mitigate vulnerability to HIV among Latina transgender women. Documentation status (legal authorization to live in the United States) has been cited by other studies as a barrier to recruitment or engagement in HIV-related care among immigrant Latinos, but not explored as a determinant of HIV risk for transgender immigrant Latinas. We collaborated with a community-based organization to explore these contextual, including social and structural, factors. In-depth interviews in Spanish captured life histories of eight 18- to 29-year-old transgender Latinas, who collectively self-identify as chicas trans. Codes were assigned deductively from the interview guide, and emerging themes were identified throughout data collection. Most participants migrated to the United States from Central America after experiencing discrimination and violence in their countries of origin. Participants emphasized documentation status as a critical factor in three areas related to social and structural determinants of HIV risk: gender identity expression, access to services, and relationship power dynamics. Chicas trans who gained legal asylum reported greater control over sexual relationships, improved access to services, and less risky employment. Documentation status emerged as a key HIV risk factor for this population. For undocumented transgender Latinas, legal asylum appears to be a promising HIV-related protective factor. Further research could assess whether legal assistance combined with wraparound support services affects HIV prevention for this population.
Pan, Yung-Wei; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui
Adult neurogenesis occurs in two discrete regions of the adult mammalian brain, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricles. Signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SGZ are currently an active area of investigation. Adult-born neurons in the DG functionally integrate into the hippocampal circuitry and form functional synapses, suggesting a role for these neurons in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. Although results from earlier behavioral studies addressing this issue were inconsistent, recent advances in conditional gene targeting technology, viral injection and optogenetic approaches have provided convincing evidence supporting a role for adult-born neurons in the more challenging forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Here, we briefly summarize these recent studies with a focus on extra signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 5, a MAP kinase whose expression in the adult brain is restricted to the neurogenic regions including the SGZ and SVZ. We review evidence identifying ERK5 as a novel endogenous signaling pathway that regulates the pro-neural transcription factor Neurogenin 2, is activated by neurotrophins and is critical for adult neurogenesis. We discuss studies demonstrating that specific deletion of ERK5 in the adult neurogenic regions impairs several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory formation in mice. These include contextual fear memory extinction, the establishment and maintenance of remote contextual fear memory, and several other challenging forms of hippocampus-dependent memory formation including 48h memory for novel object recognition, contextual fear memory established by a weak foot shock, pattern separation, and reversal of spatial learning and memory. We also briefly discuss current evidence that increasing adult neurogenesis, by small molecules or genetic manipulation, improves memory formation and long-term memory. Copyright © 2013
Alshurafa, Nabil; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Pourhomayoun, Mohammad; Liu, Jason J; Sarrafzadeh, Majid
Current studies have produced a plethora of remote health monitoring (RHM) systems designed to enhance the care of patients with chronic diseases. Many RHM systems are designed to improve patient risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including physiological parameters such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, and lipid profiles such as low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). There are several patient characteristics that could be determining factors for a patient's RHM outcome success, but these characteristics have been largely unidentified. In this paper, we analyze results from an RHM system deployed in a six month Women's Heart Health study of 90 patients, and apply advanced feature selection and machine learning algorithms to identify patients' key baseline contextual features and build effective prediction models that help determine RHM outcome success. We introduce Wanda-CVD, a smartphone-based RHM system designed to help participants with cardiovascular disease risk factors by motivating participants through wireless coaching using feedback and prompts as social support. We analyze key contextual features that secure positive patient outcomes in both physiological parameters and lipid profiles. Results from the Women's Heart Health study show that health threat of heart disease, quality of life, family history, stress factors, social support, and anxiety at baseline all help predict patient RHM outcome success.
Titone, D; Levy, D L; Holzman, P S
The authors investigated whether contextual failures in schizophrenia are due to deficits in the detection of context or the inhibition of contextually irrelevant information. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 24 nonpsychiatric controls were tested via a cross-modal semantic priming task. Participants heard sentences containing homonyms and made lexical decisions about visual targets related to the homonyms' dominant or subordinate meanings. When sentences moderately biased subordinate meanings (e.g., the animal enclosure meaning of pen), schizophrenia patients showed priming of dominant targets (e.g., paper) and subordinate targets (e.g., pig). In contrast, controls showed priming only of subordinate targets. When contexts strongly biased subordinate meanings, both groups showed priming only of subordinate targets. The results suggest that inhibitory deficits rather than context detection deficits underlie contextual failures in schizophrenia.
Meng, HuiXian; Cao, HuaiXin; Wang, WenHua; Chen, Liang; Fan, Yajing
Recently, the robustness of contextuality (RoC) of an empirical model was discussed in [Sci. China-Phys. Mech. Astron. 59, 640303 (2016)], many important properties of the RoC have been proved except for its boundedness and continuity. The aim of this paper is to find an upper bound for the RoC over all of empirical models and prove that the RoC is a continuous function on the set of all empirical models. Lastly, a relationship between the RoC and the extent of violating the noncontextual inequalities is established for an n-cycle contextual box. This relationship implies that the RoC can be used to quantify the contextuality of n-cycle boxes.
The Allais and Ellsberg paradoxes show that the expected utility hypothesis and Savage's Sure-Thing Principle are violated in real life decisions. The popular explanation in terms of 'ambiguity aversion' is not completely accepted. On the other hand, we have recently introduced a notion of 'contextual risk' to mathematically capture what is known as 'ambiguity' in the economics literature. Situations in which contextual risk occurs cannot be modeled by Kolmogorovian classical probabilistic structures, but a non-Kolmogorovian framework with a quantum-like structure is needed. We prove in this paper that the contextual risk approach can be applied to the Ellsberg paradox, and elaborate a 'sphere model' within our 'hidden measurement formalism' which reveals that it is the overall conceptual landscape that is responsible of the disagreement between actual human decisions and the predictions of expected utility theory, which generates the paradox. This result points to the presence of a 'quantum conceptual layer'...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community.
Cristina Cândida de Macedo
Full Text Available Contextualization of school contents has been seen as a possibility of facilitating students’ learning, since it makes the educative process more significant to them. However, there is no agreement as to the meaning and the forms of applying such processes. Particularly in the area of Science teaching, the creation of thematic projects has been seen as a way of contextualizing school contents. It is noteworthy that the experience with the education of Physics teachers shows that the creation and execution of such projects brings many difficulties to teachers, the main obstacle being the understanding of what contextualized educative processes are. Having this in mind, a project has been elaborated with the objective of analyzing the comprehension Physics teachers that are going through teacher education courses have of the processes of contextualization. The data for this investigation has been obtained from students who attended a course of the Physics Teacher Education module at the Federal University of Itajubá. It is significant to mention that in this course students are asked to create three versions of a thematic project. In order to analyze the data, the procedure of Thematic Content and Category Analysis was adopted. This research shows that Physics teachers to be incorporate the discourses of the educative ideas throughout the course. However, there is a series of obstacles they face as they attempt to understand and carry out contextualized educative processes. Those difficulties are connected to their experience with this kind of educative process throughout the years they spend at school and in the teacher education course. We conclude thus that it is essential that contextualized educative activities be part of the reality of teacher education programs.
Hubbard, D. T.; Nakashima, B. R.; Lee, I. van der; Takahashi, L. K.
The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) and central amygdala nucleus (CeA) are involved in fear and anxiety. In addition, the BLA contains a high density of corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptors in comparison to the CeA. However, the role of BLA CRF1 receptors in contextual fear conditioning is poorly understood. In the present study, we first demonstrated that oral administration of DMP696, the selective CRF1 receptor antagonist, had no significant effects on the acquisition of co...
Osler, M; Prescott, E
, exercise, alcohol use, and body mass index) and contextual factors (local area unemployment, income share, and household composition) were included in the Cox model. CONCLUSION: In this study the educational level of an area influenced subject's mortality, but first after adjustment for behavioural......): 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98) and individual level (HR: 0.76 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.88) were inversely associated with mortality, when comparing the higest educated groups with the least educated. However, at parish level the effect was only present, when information on subject's income, behaviour (smoking...
Wasfi, Rania A; Ross, Nancy A; El-Geneidy, Ahmed M
This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murawski, Nathen J; Asok, Arun
The precise contribution of visual information to contextual fear learning and discrimination has remained elusive. To better understand this contribution, we coupled the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) fear conditioning paradigm with presentations of distinct visual scenes displayed on 4 LCD screens surrounding a conditioning chamber. Adult male Long-Evans rats received non-reinforced context pre-exposure on Day 1, an immediate 1.5mA foot shock on Day 2, and a non-reinforced context test on Day 3. Rats were pre-exposed to either digital Context (dCtx) A, dCtx B, a distinct Ctx C, or no context on Day 1. Digital context A and B were identical except for the visual image displayed on the LCD screens. Immediate shock and retention testing occurred in dCtx A. Rats pre-exposed dCtx A showed the CPFE with significantly higher levels of freezing compared to controls. Rats pre-exposed to Context B failed to show the CPFE, with freezing that did not highly differ from controls. These results suggest that visual information contributes to contextual fear learning and that visual components of the context can be manipulated via LCD screens. Our approach offers a simple modification to contextual fear conditioning paradigms whereby the visual features of a context can be manipulated to better understand the factors that contribute to contextual fear discrimination and generalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This overview sets therapeutic work with children in context. It begins with a rationale for why this work is necessary and describes and explores the needs and rights of children and young people. Resilience as a factor in mitigating the effects of distress is discussed and an overview of the history of therapeutic work is offered. Different…
Pas, Elise T; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Bradshaw, Catherine P
Although it is widely recognized that variation in implementation fidelity influences the impact of preventive interventions, little is known about how specific contextual factors may affect the implementation of social and behavioral interventions in classrooms. Theoretical research highlights the importance of multiple contextual influences on implementation, including factors at the classroom and school level (Domitrovich et al., Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 1, 6-28, 2008). The current study used multi-level modeling to empirically examine the influence of teacher, classroom, and school characteristics on the implementation of classroom-based positive behavior support strategies over the course of 4 years. Data were collected in the context of a 37-school randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Multi-level results identified several school-level contextual factors (e.g., school size, behavioral disruptions) and teacher-level factors (perceptions of school organizational health and grade level taught) associated with variability in the implementation of classroom-based positive behavior supports. Implications for prevention research and practice are discussed.
Full Text Available Angela Kueny,1 Leah L Shever,2 Melissa Lehan Mackin,3 Marita G Titler4 1Luther College, Decorah, IA, 2The University of Michigan Hospital and Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 3University of Iowa College of Nursing, Iowa City, IA, 4University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background/purpose: Nurse managers (NMs play an important role promoting evidence-based practice (EBP on clinical units within hospitals. However, there is a dearth of research focused on NM perspectives about institutional contextual factors to support the goal of EBP on the clinical unit. The purpose of this article is to identify contextual factors described by NMs to drive change and facilitate EBP at the unit level, comparing and contrasting these perspectives across nursing units. Methods: This study employed a qualitative descriptive design using interviews with nine NMs who were participating in a large effectiveness study. To stratify the sample, NMs were selected from nursing units designated as high or low performing based on implementation of EBP interventions, scores on the Meyer and Goes research use scale, and fall rates. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes that reflect the complex nature of infrastructure described by NMs and contextual influences that supported or hindered their promotion of EBP on the clinical unit. Results: NMs perceived workplace culture, structure, and resources as facilitators or barriers to empowering nurses under their supervision to use EBP and drive change. A workplace culture that provides clear communication of EBP goals or regulatory changes, direct contact with CEOs, and clear expectations supported NMs in their promotion of EBP on their units. High-performing unit NMs described a structure that included nursing-specific committees, allowing nurses to drive change and EBP from within the unit. NMs from high-performing units were more likely to articulate internal resources, such as quality
Tosun, Bahadir Cahit
The current study is a quantitative research that aims to throw light on the place of students' views on contextual vocabulary teaching in conformity with Constructivism (CVTC) in the field of foreign language teaching. Hence, the study investigates whether any significant correlation exists between the fourth year university students' attitudes…
Behlol, Malik; Kaini, Mohammad Munir
The study was conducted to find out effectiveness of contextual an, structural method of teaching vocabulary in English at secondary level. It was an experimental study in which the pretest posttest design was used. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Government secondary schools of Rawalpindi District.…
Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Potter, Kristin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clyne, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)
Data sizes are becoming a critical issue particularly for HPC applications. We have developed a user-driven lossy wavelet-based storage model to facilitate the analysis and visualization of large-scale wind turbine array simulations. The model stores data as heterogeneous blocks of wavelet coefficients, providing high-fidelity access to user-defined data regions believed the most salient, while providing lower-fidelity access to less salient regions on a block-by-block basis. In practice, by retaining the wavelet coefficients as a function of feature saliency, we have seen data reductions in excess of 94 percent, while retaining lossless information in the turbine-wake regions most critical to analysis and providing enough (low-fidelity) contextual information in the upper atmosphere to track incoming coherent turbulent structures. Our contextual wavelet compression approach has allowed us to deliver interative visual analysis while providing the user control over where data loss, and thus reduction in accuracy, in the analysis occurs. We argue this reduced but contextualized representation is a valid approach and encourages contextual data management.
This paper explores the link between contextual innovation, business growth and income for garment micro-businesses based on survey data collected from Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, Iringa and Mbeya Regions. The survey (on which the paper is based ) intended to find out the role of information in the promotion of micro- ...
This paper aims to elaborate on the notion of 'presupposition' from the contextual perspective in consideration of translation studies. Presupposition plays an important role for researchers to understand translation or the process of translating, work out the implications of translated texts, and explain various issues ...
Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.
This study focuses on elucidating and explaining reasons for the stability of and interrelationships between students' conceptions about "Light Propagation" and "Visibility of Objects" using contextualized questions across 3 years of secondary schooling from Years 7 to 9. In a large-scale quantitative study involving 1,233…
Brink, D. van den
The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight into spoken-word comprehension and the influence of sentence-contextual information on these processes using ERPs. By manipulating critical words in semantically constraining sententes, in semantic or syntactic sense, and examining the consequences in
A. I. Kuropjatnik
Full Text Available The article deals with the cultural and social aspects of modernization of contemporary sociological education in Russia. Its update is done in the logic of the transition from tradition to modernity and post-modernity caused by contextual and discrete changes as manifestations of globalization.
Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi
In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…
Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.
Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…
Hagenauer, J.; Helbich, M.
This study aims to introduce contextual Neural Gas (CNG), a variant of the Neural Gas algorithm, which explicitly accounts for spatial dependencies within spatial data. The main idea of the CNG is to map spatially close observations to neurons, which are close with respect to their rank distance.
Anshu, Anurag; Hoyer, Peter; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon
Analyzing pseudo-telepathy graph games, we propose a way to build contextuality scenarios exhibiting the quantum supremacy using graph states. We consider the combinatorial structures that generate equivalent scenarios. We introduce a new tool called multipartiteness width to investigate which scenarios are harder to decompose and show that there exist graphs generating scenarios with a linear multipartiteness width.
Jonathan L C Lee
Full Text Available The reactivation of a memory can result in its destabilization, necessitating a process of memory reconsolidation to maintain its persistence. Here we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is potentiated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist ACEA. Co-infusion of ACEA and the IKK inhibitor sulfasalazine into the dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This observation was achieved under behavioural conditions that, by themselves, did not result in either a reconsolidation impairment by sulfasalazine alone or reactivation-induced upregulation of Zif268 expression. Moreover, we show that the destabilization of a contextual fear memory is dependent upon neuronal activity in the dorsal hippocampus, but not memory expression per se. The effect on contextual fear memory destabilization of intra-hippocampal ACEA was replicated by systemic injections, allowing an amnestic effect of MK-801. These results indicate that memory expression and destabilization, while being independent from one another, are both dependent upon memory reactivation. Moreover, memory destabilization can be enhanced pharmacologically, which may be of therapeutic potential.
McNaughton, Susan Maree; Billot, Jennie
Higher education teachers' roles and identities are constantly shifting in response to contextual change. Pedagogy, values, and professional and personal narratives of self are all affected, particularly by technological change. This paper explores the role and identity shifts of academics during the introduction of large-class videoconferencing.…
Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis
We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to
Ptaszynski, Michal; Dybala, Pawel; Mazur, Michal; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji; Momouchi, Yoshio
This paper presents research in Contextual Affect Analysis (CAA) for the need of future application in intelligent agents, such as conversational agents or artificial tutors. The authors propose a new term, Computational Fronesis (CF), to embrace the tasks included in CAA applied to development of conversational agents such as artificial tutors.…
This study aims to describe the influence of contextual learning model and critical thinking ability toward argumentative writing skill on university students. The population of the research was 147 university students, and 52 university students were used as sample with multi stage sampling. The results of the research indicate that; group of…
Verhoeven, M.; Junger, M.; van Aken, C.; Deković, M.; van Aken, M.A.G.
The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure,
Deriving Contextual Defining Information for Technical Terms from a Specialized Corpus - The Case of Kiswahili Health Care Terminology. ... research project into developing domain specific publications that can be used by non-experts in the understanding of technical terms as applied in everyday swahili language.
The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, ...
Kurniati; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Herman, Tatang
This research aimed to examine the effect of the application of contextual teaching and learning (CTL) approach to the enhance of mathematical critical thinking ability (MCTA) of Primary School Teacher Students (PSTS). This research is an experimental study with the population of all students PSTS who took algebra subject matter of one university…
Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 1. Contextual snowflake modelling for pattern warehouse logical design. Vivek Tiwari Ramjeevan ... In the present work, we focus on conceptual and logical design of pattern warehouse, by introducing a context and 'kind of knowledge' hierarchy to this end. For the simplicity ...
Gottlieb, Lauren J.; Wong, Jenny; de Chastelaine, Marianne; Rugg, Michael D.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to identify neural regions engaged during the encoding of contextual features belonging to different modalities. Subjects studied objects that were presented to the left or right of fixation. Each object was paired with its name, spoken in either a male or a female voice. The test…
Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund
This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among pol...
The paper examines the performance of accounting and finance students entering university via a "widening participation" scheme that seeks to attract students who have been historically under-represented in higher education. Focus is placed on the policy of providing contextual entry offers that recognise that academic qualifications be…
Vosselman, George; Coenen, Maximilian; Rottensteiner, Franz
Classification of point clouds is needed as a first step in the extraction of various types of geo-information from point clouds. We present a new approach to contextual classification of segmented airborne laser scanning data. Potential advantages of segment-based classification are easily offset
Full Text Available Contextual Inquiry (CI) is a method developed by Beyer and Holtzblatt for grounding design in the context of work being performed by user(s). This paper is about identifying ways of improving the usability of Java Integrated Development Environments...
Arne Orvik MPolSc
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see how contextual factors are expressed, used, and analyzed in data collected in focus group discussions (FGDs. The study includes an assessment of how the methodological reporting of contextual factors might influence and improve the trustworthiness of articles. Articles reporting workplace health, stress, and coping among health professionals were identified in a systematic review and used in the analysis. By using Vicsek's framework of situational factors for analysis of focus group results as a starting point, we found that contextual factors were most frequently described in the method sections and less frequently in the results and discussion sections. Vicsek's framework for the analysis of focus group results covers six contextual and methodological dimensions: interactional factors, personal characteristics of the participants, the moderator, the environment, time factors, and the content of FGDs. We found that the framework does not include a consideration of psychological safety, ethical issues, or organizational information. To deepen the analysis of focus group results, we argue that contextual factors should be analyzed as methodological dimensions and be considered as a sensitizing concept. Credibility, confirmability, dependability, and transferability can be strengthened by using, reporting, and discussing contextual factors in detail. The study contributes to elucidating how reporting of contextual data may enrich the analysis of focus group results and strengthen the trustworthiness. Future research should focus on clear reporting of contextual factors as well as further develop Vicsek's model to enhance reporting accuracy and transferability.
Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali
Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom."
In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and
Whiteside, Nicola; Sarmanova, Aliya; Chen, Xi; Zou, Kun; Abdullah, Natasya; Doherty, Michael; Zhang, Weiya
The objective of this study is to examine the proportion of the total treatment effect that is attributable to contextual effects in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for fibromyalgia. A systematic literature search was undertaken in Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Allied and Complementary Medicine in September 2015. The proportion of contextual effect (PCE) was calculated by dividing the improvement in the placebo arm by the improvement in the treatment arm. The measure was log-transformed for each trial and the random effects model was used to pool data. The primary outcome was pain. Secondary outcomes were fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) total and fatigue. Heterogeneity was quantified using I 2. Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot and Egger's test. Subgroup analysis was undertaken to explore heterogeneity and potential determinants of the PCE. Fifty-one eligible trials (9599 participants) were identified. The PCE was 0.60 (95% CI 0·56 to 0·64) for pain, 0·57 (95% CI 0·53 to 0·61) for FIQ total, and 0·63 (95% CI 0·59 to 0·68) for fatigue. The I 2 was 99.4% for pain, 99.2% for FIQ total, and 97.6% for fatigue. More than half of the treatment effect in fibromyalgia RCTs results from non-specific contextual factors. This suggests that optimising contextual care may enhance treatment effects and improve outcomes. Reporting the total treatment effect and the proportion of contextual effect in trials may help to better translate research evidence into practice.
Ingram, Samantha Jones
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the contextual learning method on science performance, attitudes toward science, and motivational factors that influence high school students to learn science. Gender differences in science performance and attitudes toward science were also investigated. The sample included four tenth-grade classes of African-American students enrolled in Chemistry I. All students were required to review for the Alabama High School Graduation Exam in Science. Students were administered a science pretest and posttest to measure science performance. A two-way analysis of covariance was performed on the test data. The results showed a main effect of contextual learning instruction on science achievement and no significant differences between females' and males' performance in science. The Science Attitude and the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE) Review Class Surveys were administered to assess students' beliefs and attitudes toward science. The Science Attitude Survey results indicated a control effect in three subscales: perception of guardian's attitude, attitude toward success in science, and perception of teacher's attitude. No significant differences resulted between males and females in their beliefs about science from the attitude survey. However, students' attitudes toward science were more favorable in the contextual learning classes based on the results of the Review Class Survey. The survey data revealed that both males and females in the contextual classes had positive attitudes toward science and toward being active participants in the learning process. Qualitative data on student motivation were collected to examine the meaningfulness of the contextual learning content and materials. The majority of the students in the treatment (96%) and the control groups (86%) reported high interest in the lesson on Newton's three laws of motion. Both the treatment and the control groups indicated their interest
Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y
Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J
Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. © The Author(s) 2014.
Johansson, Emily M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Moscoso-Castro, María; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga
The recreational drugs, alcohol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) have both been shown to cause immune activation in vivo, and they are linked to cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The neuronal effects of these drugs in the hippocampal area, an area that has been a focus of studies aiming to explain the mechanisms underlying anxiety related-disorders, remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated the specific inflammatory impact of alcohol and MDMA on this area of the brain and on a hippocampal-related behavioral task. We centered our study on two inflammatory factors linked to anxiety-related disorders, namely Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We subjected drug-consuming mice to a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate general activity, anxiety-like and depressive-live behaviors. We then introduced them to a contextual fear discrimination task and immune-related effects were examined by immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between the induction of immune activated pathways by voluntary alcohol consumption and a high-dose MDMA. Furthermore, the ability of mice to perform a contextual fear discrimination task was impaired by drug consumption and we report long term inflammatory alterations in the hippocampus even several weeks after drug intake. This information will be helpful for discovering new selective drug targets, and to develop treatments and preventive approaches for patients with anxiety-related disorders. PMID:26566284
Ho, Ming-Jung; Alkhal, Abdullatif; Tekian, Ara; Shih, Julie; Shaw, Kevin; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Alyafei, Khalid; Konopasek, Lyuba
The Physician Charter on medical professionalism has been endorsed by professional organizations worldwide, yet it is unclear if this Western framework of professionalism is applicable in non-Western countries. This study examines how physicians practicing in a Middle Eastern context perceive the terms, principles, and commitments outlined in the charter. In May 2013, the authors conducted 6 focus groups with 43 clinician-educators practicing at Hamad Medical Corporation in Doha, Qatar, to discuss the applicability of the Physician Charter in a local context. The research team coded and analyzed transcripts to identify sociocultural influences on professionalism. Participants generally expressed agreement with the applicability of the charter's principles to physician professionalism in Qatar. However, 3 contextual factors (religious beliefs and practices, family-centered decision making, and multinationality) complicated the application of the core principles of patient autonomy and social justice. Islamic beliefs reinforced the importance of professional values such as altruism, but presented a barrier to the principle of self-determination for female patients. The family-centered culture in Qatar called for enlarging the scope of patient-centered decision making to include the patient's family. Qatar's multinational population prompted debate over equal treatment and how to conceptualize and implement the principle of social justice. Several sociocultural contexts influence the conceptualization of the principles of medical professionalism in Qatar. The findings suggest that contextual factors should be considered when developing or adopting a professionalism framework in an international setting and context.
Cummings, Janet R
Most adolescents with depressive disorders do not receive any mental health services, even though effective treatments exist. Although research has examined numerous individual-level factors associated with mental health service use among depressed adolescents, less is known about the role of contextual factors. This study examines the relationship between contextual-level socioeconomic status (SES) and clinic-based mental health counseling use among US adolescents with high depressive symptoms in urban and suburban areas. Data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,133; 59 % female) were analyzed using multilevel logistic models in which adolescents were nested within counties. After controlling for individual-level predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics, as well as county racial/ethnic composition, county SES was positively associated with clinic-based counseling use among depressed youth. A one standard deviation increase in the county affluence index was associated with 43 % greater odds of receiving any clinical counseling services. Furthermore, the positive relationship between county affluence and clinical counseling use was no longer significant after controlling for the county supply of mental health specialist physicians. The results indicate that county residential context is a key correlate of mental health service use among depressed adolescents, such that those who live in lower SES counties with fewer mental health specialists are less likely to receive treatment.
Hull, Dan; Souders, John C., Jr.
Defines contextual learning, or presenting new information to students in familiar contexts. Argues that community colleges must be ready for an anticipated increase in contextual learners due to its use in tech prep programs. Describes elements of contextual learning, its application in the classroom, and ways that colleges can prepare for…
van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel
Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…
Böhm, Stephan; Constantine, Georges Philip
Purpose: This paper aims to focus on contextualized features for mobile language learning apps. The scope of this paper is to explore students' perceptions of contextualized mobile language learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: An extended Technology Acceptance Model was developed to analyze the effect of contextual app features on students'…
Ryan E.B. Mruczek
Full Text Available The Ebbinghaus illusion is a classic example of the influence of a contextual surround on the perceived size of an object. Here, we introduce a novel variant of this illusion called the Dynamic Ebbinghaus illusion in which the size and eccentricity of the surrounding inducers modulates dynamically over time. Under these conditions, the size of the central circle is perceived to change in opposition with the size of the inducers. Interestingly, this illusory effect is relatively weak when participants are fixating a stationary central target, less than half the magnitude of the classic static illusion. However, when the entire stimulus translates in space requiring a smooth pursuit eye movement to track the target, the illusory effect is greatly enhanced, almost twice the magnitude of the classic static illusion. A variety of manipulations including target motion, peripheral viewing, and smooth pursuit eye movements all lead to dramatic illusory effects, with the largest effect nearly four times the strength of the classic static illusion. We interpret these results in light of the fact that motion-related manipulations lead to uncertainty in the image size representation of the target, specifically due to added noise at the level of the retinal input. We propose that the neural circuits integrating visual cues for size perception, such as retinal image size, perceived distance, and various contextual factors, weight each cue according to the level of noise or uncertainty in their neural representation. Thus, more weight is given to the influence of contextual information in deriving perceived size in the presence of stimulus and eye motion. Biologically plausible models of size perception should be able to account for the reweighting of different visual cues under varying levels of certainty.
Mruczek, Ryan E B; Blair, Christopher D; Strother, Lars; Caplovitz, Gideon P
The Ebbinghaus illusion is a classic example of the influence of a contextual surround on the perceived size of an object. Here, we introduce a novel variant of this illusion called the Dynamic Ebbinghaus illusion in which the size and eccentricity of the surrounding inducers modulates dynamically over time. Under these conditions, the size of the central circle is perceived to change in opposition with the size of the inducers. Interestingly, this illusory effect is relatively weak when participants are fixating a stationary central target, less than half the magnitude of the classic static illusion. However, when the entire stimulus translates in space requiring a smooth pursuit eye movement to track the target, the illusory effect is greatly enhanced, almost twice the magnitude of the classic static illusion. A variety of manipulations including target motion, peripheral viewing, and smooth pursuit eye movements all lead to dramatic illusory effects, with the largest effect nearly four times the strength of the classic static illusion. We interpret these results in light of the fact that motion-related manipulations lead to uncertainty in the image size representation of the target, specifically due to added noise at the level of the retinal input. We propose that the neural circuits integrating visual cues for size perception, such as retinal image size, perceived distance, and various contextual factors, weight each cue according to the level of noise or uncertainty in their neural representation. Thus, more weight is given to the influence of contextual information in deriving perceived size in the presence of stimulus and eye motion. Biologically plausible models of size perception should be able to account for the reweighting of different visual cues under varying levels of certainty.
A number of papers have challenged research on physiological and psychological influences on perception by claiming to show that such findings can be explained by nonperceptual factors such as demand characteristics. Relatedly, calls for separating perception from judgment have been issued. However, such efforts fail to consider key processes known to shape judgment processes: people's inability to report accurately on their judgments, conversational dynamics of experimental research contexts, and misattribution and discounting processes. Indeed, the fact that initially observed effects of embodied influences disappear is predicted by an extensive amount of literature on judgments studied within social psychology. Thus, findings from such studies suggest that the initially presumed underlying processes are at work-namely, functional considerations that are informative in the context of preparing the body for action. In this article, I provide suggestions on how to conduct research on perception within the social constraints of experimental contexts.
Vegard Gundersen; Bjorn Petter Kaltenborn; Daniel R. Williams
Local communities in the Gudbrandsdalen region in Norway are increasingly exposed to climateinduced hazards such as floods and landslides. A core question is how community members respond to climate change and what factors contribute to more resilient communities. The authors used a contextual approach to analyze data from semi-structured interviews along five...
Palminteri, Stefano; Khamassi, Mehdi; Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio
Compared with reward seeking, punishment avoidance learning is less clearly understood at both the computational and neurobiological levels. Here we demonstrate, using computational modelling and fMRI in humans, that learning option values in a relative--context-dependent--scale offers a simple computational solution for avoidance learning. The context (or state) value sets the reference point to which an outcome should be compared before updating the option value. Consequently, in contexts with an overall negative expected value, successful punishment avoidance acquires a positive value, thus reinforcing the response. As revealed by post-learning assessment of options values, contextual influences are enhanced when subjects are informed about the result of the forgone alternative (counterfactual information). This is mirrored at the neural level by a shift in negative outcome encoding from the anterior insula to the ventral striatum, suggesting that value contextualization also limits the need to mobilize an opponent punishment learning system.
Full Text Available The mobile journalism and, particularly, hypermedia stories get new possibilities for making narratives, boosted by the mobility itself, and also by the use of touchable screens, accelerometer, GPS receiver and permanent connection to the internet. Due to these potentials, tablets, smartphones and wearables reconfigure processes and journalistic narratives for the web. From this premise, the article focuses the research in hypermedia storytelling for mobile devices, aiming to observe how the hypertext resources are used in the contextualization of journalistic narratives published at mobile devices (tablets and smartphones. To achieve this aim, we realized a systematic analysis from newspaper editions of Globo A Mais journal for two months. This was done by selecting a case exemplifying the way the hypertext features can serve the contextualization.
Wright, Nicholas D; Symmonds, Mkael; Fleming, Stephen M; Dolan, Raymond J
Perception of fairness can influence outcomes in human exchange. However, an inherent subjectivity in attribution renders it difficult to manipulate fairness experimentally. Here using a modified ultimatum game, within a varying social context, we induced a bias in human subjects' acceptance of objectively identical offers. To explain this fairness-related behavior, we use a computational model to specify metrics for the objective and contextual aspects of fairness, testing for correlations between these model parameters and brain activity determined using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We show that objective social inequality, as defined by our model, is tracked in posterior insula cortex. Crucially, this inequality is integrated with social context in posterior and mid-insula, consistent with construction of a fairness motivation that flexibly adapted to the social environment. We suggest that the dual importance of objective and contextual aspects to fairness we highlight might explain seemingly inconsistent societal phenomena, including public attitudes to income disparities.
El-Hajj, Ramy; Mokbel, Chafic; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence
In this paper we present a system for the off-line recognition of cursive Arabic handwritten words. This system in an enhanced version of our reference system presented in [El-Hajj et al., 05] which is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and uses a sliding window approach. The enhanced version proposed here uses contextual character models. This approach is motivated by the fact that the set of Arabic characters includes a lot of ascending and descending strokes which overlap with one or two neighboring characters. Additional character models are constructed according to characters in their left or right neighborhood. Our experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database of handwritten villages/towns names show that using contextual character models improves recognition. For a lexicon of 306 name classes, accuracy is increased by 0.6% in absolute value which corresponds to a 7.8% reduction in error rate.
Weng, Feng-Ju; Garcia, Rodrigo I; Lutzu, Stefano
Synaptic connections between hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs) and CA3 pyramidal neurons are essential for contextual memory encoding, but the molecular mechanisms regulating MF-CA3 synapses during memory formation and the exact nature of this regulation are poorly understood. Here we report...... that the activity-dependent transcription factor Npas4 selectively regulates the structure and strength of MF-CA3 synapses by restricting the number of their functional synaptic contacts without affecting the other synaptic inputs onto CA3 pyramidal neurons. Using an activity-dependent reporter, we identified CA3...... pyramidal cells that were activated by contextual learning and found that MF inputs on these cells were selectively strengthened. Deletion of Npas4 prevented both contextual memory formation and this learning-induced synaptic modification. We further show that Npas4 regulates MF-CA3 synapses by controlling...
Rushmer, Rosemary; Kelly, Diane; Lough, Murray; Wilkinson, Joyce E; Davies, Huw T O
This paper is the third of three related papers exploring the ways in which the principles of Learning Organizations (LOs) could be applied in Primary Care settings at the point of service delivery. Here we provide a systematic literature review of contextual factors that either play a key role in providing a facilitative context for a Learning Practice or manifest themselves as barriers to any Practice's attempts to develop a learning culture. Core contextual conditions are identified as, first, the requirement for strong and visionary leadership. Leaders who support and develop others, ask challenging questions, are willing to be learners themselves, see possibilities and make things happen, facilitate learning environments. The second core condition is the involvement and empowerment of staff where changes grow from the willing participation of all concerned. The third prerequisite is the setting-aside of times and places for learning and reflection. This paper contributes to the wider quality improvement debate in three main ways. First, by highlighting the local contextual issues that are most likely to impact on the success or failure of a Practice's attempts to work towards a learning culture. Second, by demonstrating that the very same factors can either help or hinder depending on how they are manifest and played out in context. Third, it adds to the evidence available to support the case for LOs in health care settings.
Ouidir, Marion; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Malherbe, Laure; Meleux, Frederik; Rivière, Emmanuel; Launay, Ludivine; Zaros, Cécile; Cheminat, Marie; Charles, Marie-Aline; Slama, Rémy
Exposure to atmospheric pollutants is a danger for the health of pregnant mother and children. Our objective was to identify individual (socioeconomic and behavioural) and contextual factors associated with atmospheric pollution pregnancy exposure at the nationwide level. Among 14 921 women from the French nationwide ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children) mother-child cohort recruited in 2011, outdoor exposure levels of PM2.5, PM10 (particulate matter atmospheric pollutants with individual (maternal age, body mass index, parity, education level, relationship status, smoking status) and contextual (European Deprivation Index, urbanisation level) factors. Patterns of associations were globally similar across pollutants. For the CART approach, the highest tertile of exposure included mainly women not in a relationship living in urban and socially deprived areas, with lower education level. Linear regression models identified different determinants of atmospheric pollutants exposure according to the residential urbanisation level. In urban areas, atmospheric pollutants exposure increased with social deprivation, while in rural areas a U-shaped relationship was observed. We highlighted social inequalities in atmospheric pollutants exposure according to contextual characteristics such as urbanisation level and social deprivation and also according to individual characteristics such as education, being in a relationship and smoking status. In French urban areas, pregnant women from the most deprived neighbourhoods were those most exposed to health-threatening atmospheric pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Section 6 which contains the results . 1.2 Task Description The contextual suggestion track investigates search techniques for complex information needs...split into two files: examples2014.csv, profiles2014-70.csv, and profiles2014-100.csv. exam - ples2014.csv contains a list of 100 suggestions which each...Chamber Music Festival Description Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival is music that moves you, played by artists who astound and dazzle you with their
Hartmann, Stephan; Bovens, L
We develop a probabilistic criterion for belief expansion that is sensitive to the degree of contextual fit of the new information to our belief set as well as to the reliability of our information source. We contrast our approach with the success postulate in AGM-style belief revision and show how the idealizations in our approach can be relaxed by invoking Bayesian-Network models.Article
D?Argembeau, Arnaud; Van Der Linden, Martial
In 4 experiments, the authors investigated the influence of the affective meaning of words on memory for 2 kinds of contextual features that differ in the amount of effortful processes they require to be encoded in memory (i.e., color and spatial location). The main results showed that memory for color, in which words were typed, was better for emotional than for neutral words, but only when color information was learned incidentally. In contrast, spatial location of the words was better reme...
Full Text Available Linguistic information can be conveyed in the form of speech and written text, but it is the content of the message that is ultimately essential for higher-level processes in language comprehension, such as making inferences and associations between text information and knowledge about the world. Linguistically, inference is the shovel that allows receivers to dig meaning out from the text with selecting different embedded contextual clues. Naturally, people with different world experiences infer similar contextual situations differently. Lack of contextual knowledge of the target language can present an obstacle to comprehension (Anderson & Lynch, 2003. This paper tries to investigate how true contextual clue selection from the text can influence listener’s inference. In the present study 60 male and female teenagers (13-19 and 60 male and female young adults (20-26 were selected randomly based on Oxford Placement Test (OPT. During the study two fiction and two non-fiction passages were read to the participants in the experimental and control groups respectively and they were given scores according to Lexile’s Score (LS based on their correct inference and logical thinking ability. In general the results show that participants’ clue selection based on their personal schematic references and background knowledge differ between teenagers and young adults and influence inference and listening comprehension. - This is a framework for reading and listening which matches the appropriate score to each text based on degree of difficulty of text and each text was given a Lexile score from zero to four.
Seugnet Blignaut; Christo Els; Sarah Howie
The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006) - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African ed...
Full Text Available Wheeler’s observer-participancy and the related it from bit credo refer to quantum non-locality and contextuality. The mystery of these concepts slightly starts unveiling if one encodes the (incompatibilities between qubit observables in the relevant finite geometries. The main objective of this treatise is to outline another conceptual step forward by employing Grothendieck’s dessins d’enfants to reveal the topological and (nonalgebraic machinery underlying the measurement acts and their information content.
DeLorey, T M; Lin, R C; McBrady, B; He, X; Cook, J M; Lameh, J; Loew, G H
Eight compounds that bind to the benzodiazepine binding site on the gamma-amino butyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor were assessed for their influence on contextual memory, an aspect of memory affected in various cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Using a Pavlovian fear-conditioning paradigm, each ligand was evaluated in C57Bl/6 mice in regards to its direct affect on contextual memory and whether the ligand could attenuate scopolamine-induced contextual memory impairment. Of the eight ligands tested, one impaired contextual memory (agonist), six attenuated scopolamine-induced contextual memory impairment (inverse agonists), and one antagonized the ability of an inverse agonist to attenuate scopolamine-induced contextual memory impairment. Hence, further demonstrating the bi-directional influence benzodiazepine binding site ligands are able to exert on memory modulation. This study serves as an initial starting point in the development of pharmacological tools to be used in deciphering how GABA(A) receptors influence contextual memory.
Rácz, Péter; Hay, Jennifer B; Pierrehumbert, Janet B
We investigate the learning of contextual meaning by adults in an artificial language. Contextual meaning here refers to the non-denotative contextual information that speakers attach to a linguistic construction. Through a series of short games, played online, we test how well adults can learn different contextual meanings for a word-formation pattern in an artificial language. We look at whether learning contextual meanings depends on the social salience of the context, whether our players interpret these contexts generally, and whether the learned meaning is generalized to new words. Our results show that adults are capable of learning contextual meaning if the context is socially salient, coherent, and interpretable. Once a contextual meaning is recognized, it is readily generalized to related forms and contexts.
Rácz, Péter; Hay, Jennifer B.; Pierrehumbert, Janet B.
We investigate the learning of contextual meaning by adults in an artificial language. Contextual meaning here refers to the non-denotative contextual information that speakers attach to a linguistic construction. Through a series of short games, played online, we test how well adults can learn different contextual meanings for a word-formation pattern in an artificial language. We look at whether learning contextual meanings depends on the social salience of the context, whether our players interpret these contexts generally, and whether the learned meaning is generalized to new words. Our results show that adults are capable of learning contextual meaning if the context is socially salient, coherent, and interpretable. Once a contextual meaning is recognized, it is readily generalized to related forms and contexts. PMID:28194122