WorldWideScience

Sample records for victim-activated improvised explosive

  1. Igloo containment system for improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyckes, G.W.

    1980-09-01

    A method for containing or partially containing the blast and dispersal of radioactive particulate from improvised explosive devices is described. The containment system is restricted to devices located in fairly open areas at ground level, e.g., devices concealed in trucks, vans, transportainers, or small buildings which are accessible from all sides

  2. Maritime improvised explosive devices, modelling and large scale trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, W. van den; Trouwborst, W.; Vader, J.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices (MIEDs) such as small boats filled with explosives are likely to be a threat in future combat scenarios. For example the suicide attack against the USS Cole in Yemen (October 2000) has shown how disastrous MIEDs can be. With relatively simple means a complete

  3. Real-time change detection for countering improvised explosive devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de D.W.J.M.; Rens, van K.; Lint, van R.H.; Jaspers, Egbert; With, de P.H.N.; Loce, R.P.; Saber, E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore an automatic real-time change detection system to assist military personnel during transport and surveillance, by detection changes in the environment with respect to a previous operation. Such changes may indicate the presence of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), which can then be

  4. Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    E XC E L L E N C E Joint Improvised ‑Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter‑ Improvised Explosive Device...USE ONLY DODIG-2016-120 (Project No. D2015-D000AE-0222.000) │ i Results in Brief Joint Improvised ‑Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and...Documentation of Counter‑ Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether

  5. Improvised explosive devices: pathophysiology, injury profiles and current medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    The improvised explosive device (IED), in all its forms, has become the most significant threat to troops operating in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices range from rudimentary home made explosives to sophisticated weapon systems containing high-grade explosives. Within this broad definition they may be classified as roadside explosives and blast mines, explosive formed pojectile (EFP) devices and suicide bombings. Each of these groups causeinjury through a number of different mechanisms and can result in vastly different injury profiles. The "Global War on Terror" has meant that incidents which were previously exclusively seen in conflict areas, can occur anywhere, and clinicians who are involved in emergency trauma care may be required to manage casualties from similar terrorist attacks. An understanding of the types of devices and their pathophysiological effects is necessary to allow proper planning of mass casualty events and to allow appropriate management of the complex poly-trauma casualties they invariably cause. The aim of this review article is to firstly describe the physics and injury profile from these different devices and secondly to present the current clinical evidence that underpins their medical management.

  6. Serious Gaming for Improvised Explosive Device Neutralization Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Christopher C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improvised explosive device (IED is a “homemade” bomb intended to cause great harm when it explodes. The public safety task of identifying and neutralizing IEDs falls to military and police services often called explosive disposal units (EDU who act to neutralize the threat associated with the IED either rendering it inoperable or destroying it safely. EDUs train in various aspects of explosive handling and investigation but are limited in the tools available for safely analyzing real world bombs. This paper describes a game based approach to IED training that employs an interactive 3D simulation to spatially identify key IED components of interest. We give an example of how this approach might be used and provide a preliminary evaluation of its potential effectiveness. We employ images formed from a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM system captured using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI technology to a virtual IED in a game. Empirical evaluation and EDU testimony suggest accurate representation of the IED and the potential efficacy of the proposed approach for successfully identifying components in the bomb for the purposes of EDU training.

  7. Research and development to protect soldiers from landmines and improvised explosive devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ahmed, R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Landmines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) remain a major threat for military vehicles, their occupants and other assets. It is thus imperative that traditional methods of protection need to be adapted or new technologies developed....

  8. Getting it Right: The Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    NCO leadership and education was critical to success. This was especially true in divisional engineer units where squad operations in support of...Getting it Right: The Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army A Monograph by MAJ Christian R. Johnson United States...Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  9. Vulnerability of industrial facilities to attacks with improvised explosive devices aimed at triggering domino scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Reniers, Genserik; Cozzani, Valerio; Salzano, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Process- and chemical plants may constitute a critical target for a terrorist attack. In the present study, the analysis of industrial accidents induced by intentional acts of interference is carried out focusing on accident chains triggered by attacks with home-made (improvised) explosives. The effects of blast waves caused by improvised explosive devices are compared with those expected from a net equivalent charge of TNT by using a specific methodology for the assessment of stand-off distances. It is demonstrated that a home-made explosive device has a TNT efficiency comprised between 0.2 and 0.5. The model was applied to a case study, demonstrating the potentiality of improvised explosives in causing accident escalation sequences and severe effects on population and assets. The analysis of the case-study also allowed obtaining suggestions for an adequate security management. - Highlights: • Improvised explosives possibly used for terrorist attacks were described. • The TNT efficiency of ANFO and TATP was characterized. • Domino effects caused by an attack with improvised explosive were analyzed. • Domino scenarios induced by an attack were compared to conventional scenarios

  10. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  11. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-02-18

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  12. Choreographing American Citizenship in the Age of the Improvised Explosive Device

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates contemporary citizenship through an investigation of intermedia choreography and performance during the first decade of the twenty-first century. I theorize the present era as the age of the improvised explosive device (IED) to argue that citizenship has been fundamentally redefined within instable, unpredictable political and social conditions best encapsulated by the signification of the IED. The IED represents one of two twenty-first century phenomena affecti...

  13. The signature-based radiation-scanning approach to standoff detection of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, R.L.; Dunn, W.L.; Heider, S.; Matthew, C.; Yang, X.

    2012-01-01

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique for detection of improvised explosive devices is described. The technique seeks to detect nitrogen-rich chemical explosives present in a target. The technology compares a set of “signatures” obtained from a test target to a collection of “templates”, sets of signatures for a target that contain an explosive in a specific configuration. Interrogation of nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples, which serve as surrogates for explosives, is shown experimentally to be able to discriminate samples of 3.8 L and larger. - Highlights: ► Signature-based radiation-scanning techniques applied to detection of explosives. ► Nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples served as surrogate explosive samples. ► Signatures of a target compared to collections of templates of surrogate explosives. ► Figure-of-merit determined for neutron and neutron-induced gamma-ray signatures. ► Discrimination of surrogate explosive from inert samples of 3.8 L and larger.

  14. DHS small-scale safety and thermal testing of improvised explosives-comparison of testing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J G; Hsu, P C; Sandstrom, M M; Brown, G W; Warner, K F; Phillips, J J; Shelley, T J; Reyes, J A

    2014-01-01

    One of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of improvised materials or homemade explosives (HMEs) to SSST testing, 16 HME materials were compared to three standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories-two DoD and three DOE-sponsored by DHS. The testing matrix has been designed to address problems encountered with improvised materials-powder mixtures, liquid suspensions, partially wetted solids, immiscible liquids, and reactive materials. More than 30 issues have been identified that indicate standard test methods may require modification when applied to HMEs to derive accurate sensitivity assessments needed for developing safe handling and storage practices. This paper presents a generalized comparison of the results among the testing participants, comparison of friction results from BAM (German Bundesanstalt für Materi-alprüfung) and ABL (Allegany Ballistics Laboratory) designed testing equipment, and an overview of the statistical results from the RDX (1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine) standard tested throughout the proficiency test.

  15. Multilateral haptics-based immersive teleoperation for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Daly, John

    2013-05-01

    Of great interest to police and military organizations is the development of effective improvised explosive device (IED) disposal (IEDD) technology to aid in activities such as mine field clearing, and bomb disposal. At the same time minimizing risk to personnel. This paper presents new results in the research and development of a next generation mobile immersive teleoperated explosive ordnance disposal system. This system incorporates elements of 3D vision, multilateral teleoperation for high transparency haptic feedback, immersive augmented reality operator control interfaces, and a realistic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 3D simulation environment incorporating vehicle and manipulator dynamics for both operator training and algorithm development. In the past year, new algorithms have been developed to facilitate incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robotic hardware into the teleoperation system. In particular, a real-time numerical inverse position kinematics algorithm that can be applied to a wide range of manipulators has been implemented, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attitude stabilization system for manipulators has been developed and experimentally validated, and a voice­operated manipulator control system has been developed and integrated into the operator control station. The integration of these components into a vehicle simulation environment with half-car vehicle dynamics has also been successfully carried out. A physical half-car plant is currently being constructed for HIL integration with the simulation environment.

  16. Urea nitrate, an exceptionally easy-to-make improvised explosive: studies towards trace characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiri, Tsippy; Rozin, Rinat; Lemberger, Nitay; Almog, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    Urea nitrate is a powerful improvised explosive, frequently used by terrorists in the Israeli arena. It was also used in the first World Trade Center bombing in New York in February 1993. It is difficult to identify urea nitrate in post-explosion debris, since only a very small fraction survives the blast. Also, in the presence of water, it readily decomposes to its original components, urea and nitric acid. It is suspected that post-blast debris of urea nitrate can be confused with ammonium nitrate, the main solid product of urea nitrate thermal decomposition. In a comprehensive study towards identification of urea nitrate in post-blast traces, a spectrophotometric technique for quantitative determination of urea nitrate was developed, and conditions were found for extraction and separation of un-exploded traces of urea nitrate with minimal decomposition. Nevertheless, out of 28 samples collected from a series of three controlled firings of urea nitrate charges, only one gave the typical adduct ion by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. We found that urea nitrate can be extracted from solid mixtures to organic solvents by using Crown ethers as "host compounds." The adducts thus formed are solid, crystalline compounds that can be characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques.

  17. [Emotional Profile of a Group of Colombian Military Victims of Landmines or Improvised Explosive Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Jorge Emiro; Yara, Eduardo Alfonso; Cano Betancur, Jessica; Tavera, Luz Navia

    2014-01-01

    Antipersonnel Mines (MAP) and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are frequently used in Colombia as an armed resource without the need for direct combat. The Department of Antioquia has the highest number of events associated with the detonation of such battle techniques. There are no studies on the psychological effects that appear as a result of accidents with Antipersonnel Mines and IEDs in the military population. To establish the psychological profile of a group of military victims of MAP and AEI, and a control group of soldiers who were not victims from the analysis of four emotional variables (depression, anxiety, anger and stress). The research was conducted using a case-control design in a .quantitative, comparative, descriptive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 80 soldiers assigned to the Seventh Division of the National Army of Colombia at Medellin, Antioquia. The sample included a group of 30 military cases and 50 soldiers as controls. The anxiety state, trait anxiety, state anger, and trait anger variables showed statistically significant differences between groups. There were no significant differences in the variables depression and stress between groups variables. There was no depression, anxiety, or stress in either of the two groups, but there were clinically significant levels of anger in both groups. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Common Chemicals as Precursors of Improvised Explosive Devices: The Challenges of Controlling Domestic Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rostberg, James I

    2005-01-01

    ...). Explosives in the hands of terrorists continue to pose a significant threat. Lessons learned indicate that when traditional explosives become difficult to obtain, bomb makers turn to common chemicals as precursors to manufacture explosives...

  19. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  20. Systems Approach to Defeating Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices in U.S. Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    with a few pounds of explosive in plastic pipes and a timer wrapped in trash bags to keep it afloat. One possible target was presidential hopeful...sonar, laser, gps, control system Benthos Modem Network REMUS reference Bouy WIFI Few equipment and parts N.A 5 3 2 1 5 4 Reliability prediction

  1. The incidence of pelvic fractures with traumatic lower limb amputation in modern warfare due to improvised explosive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, A M; Davis, C; Penn-Barwell, J; Taylor, D M; De Mello, W F; Matthews, J J

    2014-01-01

    A frequently-seen injury pattern in current military experience is traumatic lower limb amputation as a result of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). This injury can coexist with fractures involving the pelvic ring. This study aims to assess the frequency of concomitant pelvic fracture in IED-related lower limb amputation. A retrospective analysis of the trauma charts, medical notes, and digital imaging was undertaken for all patients arriving at the Emergency Department at the UK military field hospital in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, with a traumatic lower limb amputation in the six months between September 2009 and April 2010, in order to determine the incidence of associated pelvic ring fractures. Of 77 consecutive patients with traumatic lower limb amputations, 17 (22%) had an associated pelvic fracture (eleven with displaced pelvic ring fractures, five undisplaced fractures and one acetabular fracture). Unilateral amputees (n = 31) had a 10% incidence of associated pelvic fracture, whilst 30 % of bilateral amputees (n = 46) had a concurrent pelvic fracture. However, in bilateral, trans-femoral amputations (n = 28) the incidence of pelvic fracture was 39%. The study demonstrates a high incidence of pelvic fractures in patients with traumatic lower limb amputations, supporting the routine pre-hospital application of pelvic binders in this patient group.

  2. Detection of Materials Used for Improvised Explosive Devices Employing D-T (14 MeV) Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyam, Anurag; Sharma, Surender Kumar; Das, Basanta

    2010-01-01

    There is an increased use of improvised explosive devices (IED), especially for human targets. One of the substances used in these devices is ammonium nitrate. Since this IED substance also contains elements - hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O). The elemental density (of H, C, O, and N) and elemental density ratio (C/O, N/O, H/N etc) can be used to differentiate it from other substances. Neutrons based techniques are one of the methods for non-destructive these elemental characterization. For our experiments we are using two sealed neutron tubes. First tubes can produce 10 8 (maximum) D-T neutrons in ∼0.8 μs pulse and 100 (maximum) pulses can be generated per second. Second tube can produce (maximum) 10 10 D-T neutrons/s. The neutron output can be pulsed. Pulses of 1.5 μs duration and pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz to 10 kHz can be obtained. D-T neutrons pulses are impinged on ammonium nitrate samples (0.5 to 1.5 kg) and resultant gamma rays (prompt and due to activation) are recorded using sodium iodide (NaI) and bismuth germanium orthosilicate (BGO) scintillation detectors. To facilitate recording of high count rate a 2 GS/s high speed digitizer with large on board memory and high transfer rate has been used (instead of conventional multi channel analyzer). Preliminary results and analysis will be presented at the conference. To further refine the technique we are also developing a D-T neutron generator with associated particle detection facility. For this system we have already developed a penning ion source and a 140 kV battery operated SMPS. (author)

  3. An experimental study addressing the use of geoforensic analysis for the exploitation of improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Beth; Morgan, Ruth M; Rose, Neil L

    2017-09-01

    The use of geoforensic analysis in criminal investigations is continuing to develop, with the diversification of analytical techniques, many of which are semi-automated, facilitating prompt analysis of large sample sets at a relatively low cost. Whilst micro-scale geoforensic analysis has been shown to assist criminal investigations including homicide (Concheri et al., 2011 [1]), wildlife crime (Morgan et al., 2006 [2]), illicit drug distribution (Stanley, 1992 [3]), and burglary (Mildenhall, 2006 [4]), its application to the pressing international security threat posed by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is yet to be considered. This experimental study simulated an IED supply chain from the sourcing of raw materials through to device emplacement. Mineralogy, quartz grain surface texture analysis (QGSTA) and particle size analysis (PSA) were used to assess whether environmental materials were transferred and subsequently persisted on the different components of three pressure plate IEDs. The research also addressed whether these samples were comprised of material from single or multiple geographical provenances that represented supply chain activity nodes. The simulation demonstrated that material derived from multiple activity nodes, was transferred and persisted on device components. The results from the mineralogy and QGSTA illustrated the value these techniques offer for the analysis of mixed provenance samples. The results from the PSA, which produces a bulk signature of the sample, failed to distinguish multiple provenances. The study also considered how the environmental material recovered could be used to generate information regarding the geographical locations the device had been in contact with, in an intelligence style investigation, and demonstrated that geoforensic analysis has the potential to be of value to international counter-IED efforts. It is a tool that may be used to prevent the distribution of large quantities of devices, by aiding the

  4. Research and Development of a portable microfocus x-ray system capable of providing ultra-high resolutions images of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkala, G.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of x-ray screening has long been a recognized valuable tool as a means to evaluate and identify suspect articles for possible improvised explosive devices. Recent bombings indicate an increase in technical sophistication by the terrorist which demand additional means to further the possibility of detecting these devices before they reach their target or detonate. This paper discusses history of the use of x-ray and the design parameters of a portable micro-focus x-ray system capable of providing ultra high resolution radiographs as well as being able to be used with additional state-of-the-art imaging systems

  5. Collective Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Cooper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective improvisation as a creative practice is intensely social, trusting, unpopular, anti-hierarchical and, for these reasons, political. Cooper describes the risks and rich rewards of improvising with fellow artists and identifies the parallels between improvising ensembles of musicians in Australia with the collectively painted protest banners of the Taring Padi Collective in Indonesia after a brief visit to Jogjakarta.

  6. Organ Improvisation - An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidom, J.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas musicological attention to improvisation tended to neglect organ improvisation,new initiatives, both musically and musicologically, indicate an imminent rehabilitation. Such rehabilitation is more than justified: organ improvisation is the only unbroken western improvisation tradition,

  7. Identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices by analysis of postblast residues using portable capillary electrophoresis instrumentation and indirect photometric detection with a light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joseph P; Evenhuis, Christopher J; Johns, Cameron; Kazarian, Artaches A; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Miroslav; Hilder, Emily F; Guijt, Rosanne M; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R

    2007-09-15

    A commercial portable capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument has been used to separate inorganic anions and cations found in postblast residues from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) of the type used frequently in terrorism attacks. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the type of explosive used. The CE instrument was modified for use with an in-house miniaturized light-emitting diode (LED) detector to enable sensitive indirect photometric detection to be employed for the detection of 15 anions (acetate, benzoate, carbonate, chlorate, chloride, chlorite, cyanate, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, phosphate, sulfate, thiocyanate, thiosulfate) and 12 cations (ammonium, monomethylammonium, ethylammonium, potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, magnesium, manganese, calcium, zinc, lead) as the target analytes. These ions are known to be present in postblast residues from inorganic IEDs constructed from ammonium nitrate/fuel oil mixtures, black powder, and chlorate/perchlorate/sugar mixtures. For the analysis of cations, a blue LED (470 nm) was used in conjunction with the highly absorbing cationic dye, chrysoidine (absorption maximum at 453 nm). A nonaqueous background electrolyte comprising 10 mM chrysoidine in methanol was found to give greatly improved baseline stability in comparison to aqueous electrolytes due to the increased solubility of chrysoidine and its decreased adsorption onto the capillary wall. Glacial acetic acid (0.7% v/v) was added to ensure chrysoidine was protonated and to enhance separation selectivity by means of complexation with transition metal ions. The 12 target cations were separated in less than 9.5 min with detection limits of 0.11-2.30 mg/L (calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The anions separation system utilized a UV LED (370 nm) in conjunction with an aqueous chromate electrolyte (absorption maximum at 371 nm) consisting of 10 mM chromium(VI) oxide and 10 mM sodium chromate, buffered with 40 mM tris

  8. Exploring improvisation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Fenton, Mary V

    2007-06-01

    Improvisation has long been considered a function of music, dance, and the theatre arts. An exploration of the definitions and characteristics of this concept in relation to the art and practice of nursing provide an opportunity to illuminate related qualities within the field of nursing. Nursing has always demonstrated improvisation because it is often required to meet the needs of patients in a rapidly changing environment. However, little has been done to identify improvisation in the practice of nursing or to teach improvisation as a nursing knowledge-based skill. This article strives to explore the concept of improvisation in nursing, to describe the characteristics of improvisation as applied to nursing, and to utilize case studies to illustrate various manifestations of improvisation in nursing practice.

  9. Research topics in explosives - a look at explosives behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J L

    2014-01-01

    The behaviors of explosives under many conditions - e.g., sensitivity to inadvertent reactions, explosion, detonation - are controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the explosive materials. Several properties are considered for a range of improvised and conventional explosives. Here I compare these properties across a wide range of explosives to develop an understanding of explosive behaviors. For improvised explosives, which are generally heterogeneous mixtures of ingredients, a range of studies is identified as needed to more fully understand their behavior and properties. For conventional explosives, which are generally comprised of crystalline explosive molecules held together with a binder, I identify key material properties that determine overall sensitivity, including the extremely safe behavior of Insensitive High Explosives, and discuss an approach to predicting the sensitivity or insensitivity of an explosive.

  10. Free Improvisation; Life Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hoon Hong

    2011-01-01

    This autoethnographic study seeks the value, position and possibilities of free improvisation in the musical field. It explores how embodied knowledge, dialectical exchanges, emotional and intellectual stimulation constructs and reconstructs experiences in various contexts for the free improviser, who is both researcher and actual piano performer.…

  11. The Neuroscience of Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Andrew T.; Limb, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Current research in the neuroscience of musical creativity reveals promising implications for the value of learning to improvise. This article outlines the neuroscientific literature on musical improvisation and relates these findings to the benefits of musical creativity. We begin by describing the neural substrates of flow with respect to the…

  12. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  13. Using Jazz to Teach Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Improvising has been around since the dawn of music. Most music in the world is improvised to some extent, and the idea of performing notes on the page "as written" is a fairly young development in music's history. One genre that does heavily stress improvisation from the start is jazz. Since jazz ethic is based on improvised performances,…

  14. Keyboard Improvisation: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingscott, John; Durrant, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomenon of musical improvisation within two contrasting musical genres--jazz piano and liturgical and concert organ. While improvisation is well documented in both genres, there is little literature relating the two forms and, in particular, the process of improvisation. The aim of this study is to…

  15. The Effects of Group Free Improvisation Instruction on Improvisation Achievement and Improvisation Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Maud; Ankney, Kimberly; Healy, Daniel; Gallo, Donna

    2016-01-01

    While improvisation in K-12 schools in the USA has gained some traction since the inception of the US National Standards in 1994, there is still a dearth of improvisation activities in schools because of the lack of music teacher preparation in improvisation. The purpose of this study was to determine if providing group free improvisation…

  16. Dalcroze-Based Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the Emile Jaques-Dalcroze method of improvisation, which he believed was the study of the direct relations between cerebral commands and muscular interpretations in order to express one's own musical feelings. Performance is propelled by developing the students' powers of sensation, imagination, and memory. (Author/KC)

  17. Improvisation for Leadership Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Sylvain; Nordgren, Mollie

    2017-04-01

    Leaders are required to demonstrate agility, creativity, and innovation. Professional development educators can help leaders to develop the skills to listen carefully, be present in the moment, and contribute to any conversation by using improvisation. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(4):151-153. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Pædagogisk improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dorthe Riis; Leegaard, Sarah Palle

    2017-01-01

    Sarah Palle Leegaard og Dorthe Riis Kristensen indleder deres artikel ”Pædagogisk improvisation” med at konstatere, at ”begrebet pædagogisk improvisation er en definition på pædagogens grundlæggende faglighed på højde med det at trække vejret”. Når vi trækker vejret ind, tager vi dét til os, som...... pædagogisk improvisation er udviklet i forbindelse med et forskningsprojekt, hvor Sarah Palle Leegaard og Dorthe Riis Kristensen har fokus på det, de betegner som pædagogens upåagtede faglighed i skoleregi. Hensigten er at udvikle en tydelig fagforskel i henholdsvis lærer- og pædagogprofessionen med henblik...... på at styrke samarbejdet. På baggrund af undersøgelser i praksis i form af bl.a. interviews med lærere og pædagoger, iagttagelser af situationer fra samarbejdet i klasserummet samt oplæg og praktiske øvelser i pædagogisk improvisation (dans) redegør artiklen for, hvordan de deltagende lærere og...

  19. Descriptions of Improvisational Thinking by Developing Jazz Improvisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Research investigating improvisational skill development in adolescent learners is scant. In this study interviews with developing jazz improvisers are used to characterize the skill-building process. The findings were considered in light of two views of skill learning. In one view, students progress through several discrete levels, while in a…

  20. Improvisation: Thinking "and" Playing Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, David

    2013-01-01

    This article explores and contextualizes improvisation in music from an educational perspective. First, recent brain research that sees improvisation as a distinct cognitive activity is examined and used to illustrate the importance and uniqueness of this often ignored area of music learning. Next, the implications for the music classroom are…

  1. Experimental Learning Enhancing Improvisation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Christopoulos, Tania; Wilner, Adriana; Trindade Bestetti, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to present improvisation training and experimentation as an alternative method to deal with unexpected events in which structured processes do not seem to work. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on the literature of sensemaking and improvisation, the study designs a framework and process model of experimental learning…

  2. Improvisation and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Simon

    2013-08-07

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  3. Improvisation and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gilbertson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  4. Improvisation and meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating. PMID:23930989

  5. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Philippe; Burnard, Pamela; Dubé, Francis; Stévance, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice's aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers' thinking…

  6. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  7. Improvisation in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of extemporaneous action and bricolage in designing and implementing information systems in organizations. We report a longitudinal field study of design and implementation of a Web-based groupware application in a multinational corporation. We adopt a sensemaking...... perspective to analyze the dynamics of this process and show that improvisational action and bricolage (making do with the materials at hand) played a vital role in the development of the application. Finally, we suggest that this case study provides an occasion to reconsider how we conceptualize information...

  8. Improvisation skills for clinical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    Creativity and flexibility are the hallmarks of effective improvisational technique. It is also becoming increasingly apparent that providing musical structure can be significant in enabling clients with poor communication, reciprocity and resistance to engagement. This workshop will offer some...... practical experiences of music making that utilise techniques. Creating a musical frame using an idiom or style, developing the ability to improvise in the style of a song or existing piece, developing the ability to introduce brief or lengthier transitions (Wigram 2004), and building up an improvisation...... based on a short theme or ‘leit-motif’ will all be included in the workshop activities, using both piano, and other instruments. While interventions utilising improvisational music therapy should never be driven by clinical procedures, applying therapeutic method, and also recognising method...

  9. Keywords in musical free improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents some keywords and concepts concerning free improvised music and its recent developments drawing from ongoing bibliographical research. A radical pluralism stems from musicians' backgrounds and the mixtures and fusions of styles and idioms resulting from these mixtures....... Seemingly very different "performance-driven" and "play-driven" attitudes exist, even among musicians who share the practice of performing at concerts. New models of musical analysis aiming specifically at free improvised music provide strategical observations of interaction and structure....

  10. Ready to improvise?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Quite unusually for a CERN colloquium, on 8 and 9 August the CERN Auditorium will host a presentation on comedy and communication and a workshop by Charna Halpern, the founder of "iO theaters" in Chicago and Los Angeles. Members of Geneva’s Impro Federation (FIG) in full swing!Charna Halpern has been teaching performers how to work together for more than 20 years. She founded the world-famous iO theaters (formerly Improv Olympic) in Chicago and Los Angeles in 1981. Today, the theatres are the meccas of training in the art of improvisation, and they act as a "recruiting" stop for television shows supplying New York and Hollywood with writers and performers. Specializing in creating a "group mind" with hilarious end results, Charna Halpern will be sharing her secrets and skills with the CERN audience and she will make her public laugh as they learn. The following day, Saturday, she will give a workshop on how to prepare an improv gro...

  11. The neuroscience of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have recently begun to examine the neural basis of musical improvisation, one of the most complex forms of creative behavior. The emerging field of improvisation neuroscience has implications not only for the study of artistic expertise, but also for understanding the neural underpinnings of domain-general processes such as motor control and language production. This review synthesizes functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) studies of musical improvisation, including vocal and instrumental improvisation, with samples of jazz pianists, classical musicians, freestyle rap artists, and non-musicians. A network of prefrontal brain regions commonly linked to improvisatory behavior is highlighted, including the pre-supplementary motor area, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal premotor cortex. Activation of premotor and lateral prefrontal regions suggests that a seemingly unconstrained behavior may actually benefit from motor planning and cognitive control. Yet activation of cortical midline regions points to a role of spontaneous cognition characteristic of the default network. Together, such results may reflect cooperation between large-scale brain networks associated with cognitive control and spontaneous thought. The improvisation literature is integrated with Pressing's theoretical model, and discussed within the broader context of research on the brain basis of creative cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvisational Practices in Elementary General Music Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenhagen, Lisa M.; Whitcomb, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Despite historic and ongoing support for the inclusion of improvisation in the elementary general music curriculum, music educators consistently report challenges with implementation of improvisational activities in their classes. This study was designed to examine (a) the extent to which improvisational activities were occurring in the…

  13. Body memories in dance improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    In the analysis of body-memory and improvisation presented in this paper I contend that dancers’ specialised body-memory are not to be understood as more or less automatized. Rather, in each repetition, body-memories – or habits – are to be understood as unfolding in response to the actual context....... The repetition instantiates a fresh memory of these habits while moulding them at the same time. Accordingly, any movement performed is always improvised in different degrees. Throughout the analysis I draw on resent phenomenological discussions to describe how body-memories unfold and find their form...

  14. Improvisation and the art of holistic nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Fenton, Mary V

    2013-10-01

    The art of improvisation is an essential component of responding on the front lines of caring. Improvisation expresses the nurse's capacity to perceive the changing patterns of patients and their environments in ways that foster creative and innovative approaches to meeting healthcare needs. Many holistic nurses across the country are working on the front lines of caring, improvising and implementing projects to create change within their communities. This article examines improvisation within the context of the art and science of nursing, and proposes that improvisation reflects qualities within holistic nursing that are essential in contemporary health care.

  15. Improvisation, change, works, and ragas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Studying change in music poses considerable challenges. Especially with respect to music that is not, or only partly, written, and improvised music in which the line between 'fixed' and 'free' is extremely fine. Where does internal variability turn into a breach with the established tradition? This

  16. Improvisation, change, works and ragas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Studying change in music poses considerable challenges. Especially with respect to music that is not, or only partly, written, and improvised music in which the line between ‘fixed’ and ‘free’ is extremely fine. Where does internal variability turn into a breach with the established tradition? This

  17. Novice Music Teachers Learning to Improvise in an Improvisation Professional Development Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filsinger, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    With the intent of improving music improvisation pedagogy, the purpose of this research was to examine experiences of six novice music teachers and a professional development facilitator in an eight-week Improvisation Professional Development Workshop (IPDW). The research questions were: 1. How do teachers learn to improvise within the context of…

  18. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Despres, JP; Burnard, Pamela Anne; Dube, F; Stevance, S

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice’s aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers’ thinking processes are not yet thoroughly documented. As a result of this gap, our research addresses the following question: What strategies are implement...

  19. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-04-30

    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) device at the National Hospital Abuja gives immediate improvement in respiratory rate and oxygenation in neonates with respiratory distress.

  1. Improvisation: An Essential Element of Musical Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Bill

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of improvisation, suggesting that improvisation be introduced in the earliest stages of education and be taught through an approach that integrates ear training, sight-reading, instrumental and vocal techniques and theory into a unified and complete understanding of music as a language. (Author/KC)

  2. Improvisation and identity : a biographical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2013-01-01

    Seeing improvisation as something that really needs its place in conservatoire training and education may be more or less ‘new’. However improvisation itself is of course not at all new and has existed since as long as we can remember. I will not go into that any further, it would take not a single

  3. Informal Music Learning, Improvisation and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth; Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores firstly the sense in which improvisation might be conceived of as an informal music education process and, secondly, the effects of a course in free improvisation on student teachers' perceptions in relation to themselves as musicians, music as a school subject and children as musicians. The results of a study conducted in two…

  4. Improvisational Teaching as Mode of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Tov, Naphtaly

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical improvisation is a joyful, creative, and playful activity of discovery and a spontaneous process. It seems to be the opposite of teaching, which requires proper planning and advance thinking and seems a very "serious business" that deals with values and knowledge. Improvisation is shaped by flexibility and by transformative…

  5. Experimental improvisation practise and notation. Addenda 2000-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    Addenda to Experimental improvisation practise and notation (please see this title for more information!) Stichwörter: experimentelle Musik, offenes Werk, grafische Notation, musikalische Notation, musikalische Aufführungspraxis, freie Improvisation, Musikpädagogik, Geschichte der Musik, Musikäst...

  6. Improvisation as a Way of Knowing Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens Skou

    This paper examines improvisation and points to improvisational practice as the central transforming force in music and the educational practice of the Rhythmic Music Conservatory (RMC). In less than 25 years RMC has radically changed its education methodology from one based on jazz and African....../African-American/Cuban orientation in a worldview of music as an ontological, intransitive fact to ‘music-as-artwork’ – as an extemporal, physically explicit art object; from a performance-based focus on live bands playing as a central source and key of learning and excellence with little or no theoretical awareness to project...... of improvisation in popular music that can inform the construction of meaningful and relevant popular music programs based on music improvisation is discussed. The author argues for a need to critically examine the tacit auxiliary hypotheses that seem to govern our understanding of musical improvisation through...

  7. Developing clinical piano improvisation skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Teaching piano improvisation skills for use in clinical work relies on the development of a range of musical techniques and therapeutic methods that are combined and integrated. Simple musical styles of playing such as melody dialogues, two chord accompaniments, walking basses (tonal and atonal), 6...... skilful way of helping a client or group of clients move, or develop their musical expression (Wigram & Bonde 2002 pp 278-279). Frame-working is a method that offers a musical structure to the music of a client. This structure could have the goal of enhancing the music aesthetically, or guiding the client...

  8. Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave Overpressure Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Many TBIs are associated with blast from improvised explosive devices.2–4 Explosions are physical, chemical , or nuclear reactions involving a rapid...ARL-TR-8210 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave...Research Laboratory Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave Overpressure Impacts by Nicole E Zander, Thuvan

  9. Defeating Improvised Explosive Devices (IED): Asymmetric Threats and Capability Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    City, Oklahoma bombings in 1995. In order to adapt and avoid detection, terrorists are exploring other options, such as using potassium chlorate ...white, odorless powder) or sodium chlorate (yellow, odorless powder) when making IEDs. High-profile, historic examples include the London attacks...and potassium nitrate. It is the main ingredient found in fireworks. In the past it was used as a propellant powder in ammunition, http

  10. Developing the Second Generation of Improvised Explosive Device Detector Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    impact learning capability and performance of learned tasks. Such emotional responses may arise from heritable temperament, genetic traits, early...Veterinary Medicine Project 11-093-O 25 by half points, to 6 for severe anxiety behavior exhibited most of the time. The scoring rubric used was

  11. Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization: Anomaly or Future Roadmap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadowski, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    .... JIEDDO itself has been compared to a 'Manhattan-style' project This paper provides historical perspective through case studies while exploring other analogs such as the North Atlantic shipping tragedy in WWII...

  12. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    .... and coalition forces since the invasion of Iraq. The bombs have been hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with IEDs are becoming more numerous and deadly...

  13. Improvised Explosive Devices: Booklet of Related Readings 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-20

    component in U.S. strategy because it influences attitudes and behavior." According to Deputy National Security Advisor Juan Zarate, this is...technology to create robo -bugs and replicate the adaptive behavior of insects would be an huge milestone in Artificial Intelligence research. After all

  14. Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices: A Threat Based Technology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    id/3078682/ns/technology_and_science- science/t/dolphins-go-front-lines-iraq-war/#.VPsmDZU5DIV. Carnegie , Dale , and Rita Kiley. 1948. How to Stop...Besides, if I let those things get me, I wouldn’t last long. ( Carnegie and Kiley 1948, 6) ― Admiral Ernest J. King Admiral King’s focus on

  15. Innovation as improvisation 'in the shadow'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    processes of innovation, with a particular emphasis on the improvisational nature of interaction. Through an abductive approach, by iterating actual experiences and our understanding of them, we show that such processes are collective efforts that take place as informal, highly improvised conversations......, they can be induced by invitations – conscious or unconscious moves that encourage those involved to make spontaneous moves together in a mutually improvised context. Our experience shows that the emergence of shadow themes can have a long-term impact on the organization and the people involved...

  16. Improvised Apparatus: A Lab on a Shoestring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the construction of various types of physics equipment from laboratory "bits and pieces" (parts of discarded/unusable equipment). Includes comments on constructing improvised equipment from similar bits and pieces in schools in Peru and the Caribbean. (JN)

  17. Improvised Nuclear Device Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suski, Nancy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-07-12

    Reducing the casualties of catastrophic terrorist attacks requires an understanding of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) effects, infrastructure damage, atmospheric dispersion, and health effects. The Federal Planning Guidance for Response to a Nuclear Detonation provides the strategy for response to an improvised nuclear device (IND) detonation. The supporting science developed by national laboratories and other technical organizations for this document significantly improves our understanding of the hazards posed by such an event. Detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, including extensive global geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations, are a key part of response planning. This presentation describes the methodology and results to date, including visualization aids developed for response organizations. These products have greatly enhanced the community planning process through first-person points of view and description of the dynamic nature of the event.

  18. Biography, identity, improvisation, sound: intersections of personal and social identity through improvisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2016-01-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of improvisation and identity. Biographical research that was conducted by the author into professional musicians’ lifelong learning showed the huge importance of improvisation for personal expression. Musically, the concept of sound appeared to serve as a

  19. Biography, Identity, Improvisation, Sound: Intersections of Personal and Social Identity through Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2016-01-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of improvisation and identity. Biographical research that was conducted by the author into professional musicians' lifelong learning showed the huge importance of improvisation for personal expression. Musically, the concept of "sound" appeared to serve as a strong metaphor for identity. In addition,…

  20. Can Improvisation Be "Taught"?: A Call for Free Improvisation in Our Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Maud

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the idea that the music education profession's current drive to include improvisation in school music is limited in its approach, and that "teaching" improvisation, in the traditional sense, is not possible. These beliefs are based on an examination of current methodologies and texts in light of the…

  1. Fearless Improvisation: A Pilot Study to Analyze String Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…

  2. Instrumental Jazz Improvisation Development: Characteristics of Novice, Intermediate, and Advanced Improvisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the role aural imitation ability, jazz theory knowledge, and personal background variables play in the development of jazz improvisation achievement. Participants (N = 70) included 26 high school and 44 college instrumentalists with varying degrees of jazz improvisation experience. Data were…

  3. Pengaruh Tandem Booster TNT Terhadap Kecepatan Detonasi Campuran Bahan Peledak Tepung Kalium Klorat, Sulfur Dan Aluminium Sebagai Bahan Peldak High Explosive

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Tarsim

    2010-01-01

    There are a research on velocity of detonation explosives from Improvised Bomb with potassium chlorate, sulfur and aluminum with a composition of 65:20:15% (weight / weight), 70 mesh, galvanized pipes and containers with some blasting mechanism, starts with an explosion that ignite by a improvise detonator, factory detonator without a booster, factory detonator with a tandem booster TNT, and TNT booster modifications by adding a layer of Pb plate and make a cavity between the main booster ch...

  4. 342 Effects of Improvised Materials on Students' Achievement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Richardson formula 20 and a reliability index of 0.78 was obtained. Theory. The improvised ... removed and stored in a separate container. .... group taught with improvised material achieved higher than the control group.

  5. Using Baroque Techniques to Teach Improvisation in Your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyesoo

    2015-01-01

    Before our current notation system was widely adopted by musicians, improvisation was a key component of music throughout the Western world. One of the fundamental elements of the baroque style, namely, using improvised embellishment, offered musicians great artist liberty. During the baroque period, improvisation spread across Europe and beyond.…

  6. Developing Musical Creativity through Improvisation in the Large Performance Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an ideal way to develop musical creativity in ensemble settings. This article describes two prominent theoretical frameworks related to improvisation. Next, based on research with developing and expert improvisers, it discusses how to sequence improvisatory activities so that students feel accomplished at every step. Finally, the…

  7. Symbolic Interactionism in Music Education: Eight Strategies for Collaborative Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Learning improvisation in music is often treated as the process of gaining skills to spontaneously perform within the conventions of a style. Alternatively, learning improvisation can offer musicians a place to explore sound as it happens in free improvisation. Within the school setting, the former approach is commonly used in the jazz programs,…

  8. Development of a Rubric for Collegiate Jazz Improvisation Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kendall Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a jazz improvisation rubric for the evaluation of collegiate jazz improvisation. To create this measure, research objectives were devised to investigate the aurally-observed performer-controlled components of improvisation, which aurally-observed components should be evaluated in an improvisatory…

  9. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  10. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    -accompaniment relationship. Results of interaction data and video analysis show that 1) teams related to each other through their experience with verbal conversation, 2) users searched for harmonic relations and 3) were able to establish rhythmical grounding. The paper concludes with some design guidelines for future solo...... in order to understand how future shared electronic music instruments can be de-signed to encourage non-musicians to engage in social action through music improvisation. A combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis was used to find characteristics in co-expression found in a solo......-accompaniment shared improvisation interfaces: How real time analysis of co-expression can be mapped to ad-ditional sound feedback that supports, strengthens and evolves co-expression in improvisation....

  11. Improvisation during Process-Technology Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Mathiassen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    SPI technology adoption and events that causes the process to drift in unpredictable directions. To further understand how management's attempt to control the process is complemented by drifting, this article investigates the role of improvisation in adoption of SPI technology in a Danish software......Most software firms struggle to take advantage of the potential benefits of software process improvement (SPI) as they adopt this technology into the complex and dynamic realities of their day-to-day operation. Such efforts are therefore typically fluctuating between management's attempt to control...... firm, SmallSoft, over a 10-year period (1996–2005). We found that micro-level and macro-level improvisations interacted, often in uncoordinated ways, to shape SPI technology adoption at SmallSoft. The improvisations enhanced employee creativity, motivation and empowerment, created momentum...

  12. The Five Improvisation "Brains": A Pedagogical Model for Jazz Improvisation at High School and the Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The learning of jazz improvisation is often treated as the incorporation of stylistic vocabulary and development of technical dexterity. Although this methodology is effective, considering other aspects of jazz improvisation can make the learning process a more holistic and less technical endeavour. My experience teaching improvisation has led me…

  13. Creating Time: Social Collaboration in Music Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ashley E; Washburn, Auriel; Langland-Hassan, Peter; Chemero, Anthony; Kloos, Heidi; Richardson, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Musical collaboration emerges from the complex interaction of environmental and informational constraints, including those of the instruments and the performance context. Music improvisation in particular is more like everyday interaction in that dynamics emerge spontaneously without a rehearsed score or script. We examined how the structure of the musical context affords and shapes interactions between improvising musicians. Six pairs of professional piano players improvised with two different backing tracks while we recorded both the music produced and the movements of their heads, left arms, and right arms. The backing tracks varied in rhythmic and harmonic information, from a chord progression to a continuous drone. Differences in movement coordination and playing behavior were evaluated using the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems, with the aim of uncovering the multiscale dynamics that characterize musical collaboration. Collectively, the findings indicated that each backing track afforded the emergence of different patterns of coordination with respect to how the musicians played together, how they moved together, as well as their experience collaborating with each other. Additionally, listeners' experiences of the music when rating audio recordings of the improvised performances were related to the way the musicians coordinated both their playing behavior and their bodily movements. Accordingly, the study revealed how complex dynamical systems methods (namely recurrence analysis) can capture the turn-taking dynamics that characterized both the social exchange of the music improvisation and the sounds of collaboration more generally. The study also demonstrated how musical improvisation provides a way of understanding how social interaction emerges from the structure of the behavioral task context. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. The model of counterpoint improvisation and the methods of improvisation in popular music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fulara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first, more general, contains a description of the phenomena associated with improvisation, especially guitar, detailing the execution issues facing the improviser. Two points of view are presented: the first, more detailed, describes the elements of music and its importance in the process of improvisation, the second - more general - speaks of phenomena which cannot be described or analyzed in a simple way, or that are different for each track. These include the interaction between team members, expressing emotions through music and research problem of searching for one's own voice in art. Moreover, this section contains a description of three very different approaches to guitar improvisation. The first is the use of a tonal center (enriched with dominant tensions; the second method (used in fusion music is to combine the harmony of the composition with relevant scales; the third (typical for bebop music is based on the strict use of improvised chord sounds without the use of scales. The second section of the text provides a description of a specific type of polyphonic improvisation with the use of two-handed tapping on the guitar. This model stands in contrast to the three previously described ways of understanding guitar improvisation. The system is based on methods used in both the Renaissance and Baroque polyphony (among others in the leading Cantus Firmus melody or the counterpoint rules as well as on assumptions of one voice bebop improvisation (the use of leading sound solutions specific to natural foursounds. This description refers back to the first part of the article, grouping issues around the individual elements of a musical work. This section contains notes and observations collected during the eight years the author spent searching for his own musical way.

  15. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. ► The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. ► The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. ► Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. ► The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  16. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert, E-mail: robert.matyas@upce.cz [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Selesovsky, Jakub; Musil, Tomas [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  17. Aesthetics and design for group music improvisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funk, M.; Hengeveld, B.J.; Frens, J.W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Streitz, N.; Stephanidis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Performing music as a group—improvised or from sheet music—is an intensive and immersive interaction activity that bears its own aesthetics. Players in such a setting are usually skilled in playing an instrument up to the level where they do not need to focus on the "operation" of the instrument,

  18. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabury, E.H.; Caffrey, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  19. Distributed improvisation: a systems perspective of improvisation 'epics' by led outdoor activity leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Margaret J; Salmon, Paul M; Goode, Natassia; Lenné, Michael G

    2018-02-01

    Improvisation represents the spontaneous and real-time conception and execution of a novel response to an unanticipated situation. In order to benefit from the positive safety potential of this phenomenon, it is necessary to understand what influences its appropriateness and effectiveness. This study has applied the system-based methodology Impromaps to analysing accounts of improvisation aimed at mitigating adverse safety outcomes. These accounts were obtained from led outdoor activity (LOA) leaders through critical decision method interviews. Influencing factors and interactions have been identified across all system levels. The factors most influential to leaders' ability to improvise are 'Policy, procedures and rules', 'Organisation culture', 'Training', 'Role responsibilities', 'Communication/instruction/demonstration', 'Situation awareness', 'Leader experience', 'Mental simulation', 'Equipment, clothing & PPE' and 'Terrain/physical environment'. To enhance the likelihood of effective, appropriate improvisation, LOA providers are recommended to focus on higher level factors over which they are able to exert greater control. Practitioner Summary: To enhance resilience in safety-critical situations, organisations need to understand what influences appropriate, effective improvisation. To elucidate this, the Impromaps methodology is applied to in-depth interview data. The Impromap affords a graphical depiction of the influencing factors and interactions across the system, providing a basis for the development of interventions.

  20. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  1. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for X-ray-based inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anthony A.; Nacson, Sabatino; Koffler, Bruce; Bourbeau, Éric; Gagne, Louis; Laing, Robin; Anderson, C. J.

    2014-05-01

    Transport Canada (TC), the Canadian Armed Forces, and other public security agencies have an interest in the assessment of the potential utility of advanced explosives detection technologies to aid in the detection and interdiction of commercial grade, military grade, and homemade or improvised explosives (HME or IE). The availability of suitable, non-hazardous, non-toxic, explosive simulants is of concern when assessing the potential utility of such detection systems. Lack of simulants limits the training opportunities, and ultimately the detection probability, of security personnel using these systems. While simulants for commercial and military grade explosives are available for a wide variety of detection technologies, the design and production of materials to simulate improvised explosives has not kept pace with this emerging threat. Funded by TC and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Visiontec Systems, and Optosecurity engaged in an effort to develop inert, non-toxic Xray interrogation simulants for IE materials such as ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and triacetone triperoxide. These simulants were designed to mimic key X-ray interrogation-relevant material properties of real improvised explosives, principally their bulk density and effective atomic number. Different forms of the simulants were produced and tested, simulating the different explosive threat formulations that could be encountered by front line security workers. These simulants comply with safety and stability requirements, and as best as possible match form and homogeneity. This paper outlines the research program, simulant design, and validation.

  2. Improvisation as an adaptive strategy for occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusen, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT As health care environments become increasingly complex, practitioners must develop new adaptive skills to master practice. The idea of using theatrical improvisation (improv) in health care is relatively new. Occupational therapy students were taught a module of improvisational techniques as part of an academic seminar, learning improvisation rules, and enacting solutions to typical daily professional challenges. The purpose of this article is to recommend improvisational techniques as an adaptive skill to effectively blend art and science for occupational therapy practice in fast-paced and unpredictable health care environments.

  3. Control Improvisation with Application to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    Control Improvisation with Application to Music Alexandre Donze Sophie Libkind Sanjit A. Seshia David Wessel Electrical Engineering and Computer...to Music 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...domain of music . More speci cally, we consider the scenario of generating a monophonic Jazz melody (solo) on a given song harmonization. The music is

  4. Stellar explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.

    1987-01-01

    What is the energy source and which physical processes are powerful enough to generate this explosion which scatters the star. The knowledge progress of very dense matter allows the scenario reconstitution. An instability in the star core which is developing during milliseconds is the cause of this explosion [fr

  5. The dynamic behaviour of the floor of a surrogate vehicle under explosive blast loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Newell, N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvised Explosive Devices have been the signature weapon in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. High-rate axial forces exerted by the vehicle floor to the lower limbs of occupants have been the cause of severe injuries. In order to gain...

  6. The development of a ballistic method for simulating fragments from buried explosive devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    No standard scientific methodology currently exists to assess the performance of personal protection equipment (PPE) against secondary debris, such as soil, grit and stones, ejected when a buried improvised explosive device (IED) detonates. Different test methods are used for this evaluation. The

  7. Using Comedy Improvisation Techniques to Support Dance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Although contemporary dance improvisation techniques and comedy improvisation are seldom linked, the two forms evolved around the same time and have many similarities. Both forms exist in the moment, share a highly ephemeral nature, and make use of physical games and structures. Both forms teach students the skill of being present, so essential to…

  8. Risk-Taking and Large-Group Dance (Improvisation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueira da Silva Jr., João

    2016-01-01

    Improvisation in dance is often conceived of as a practice that involves a kind of risk-taking that is occasioned by spontaneity and a ‘stepping into the unknown’. Choreography, usually considered to be the ‘other’ of improvisation, on the contrary, is associated with ‘knowing’ and repetition, and

  9. Free Improvisation and Performance Anxiety among Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of anxiety that students experienced according to whether their public performance consisted of a free improvisation or a repertory piece. The researcher had two objectives: (1) examine the relationship of students' levels of anxiety to free improvisation and repertory pieces during a…

  10. Pedagogical Techniques of Improvisation Instructors without Academic Credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Richard Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The importance of music improvisation can be seen in its inclusion in the National Standards for Music Education and the accreditation standards for the National Association of Schools of Music. The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogical techniques and materials of improvisation instructors who do not hold academic credentials. The…

  11. Descriptions of Improvisational Thinking by Artist-Level Jazz Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Thought processes of seven artist-level jazz musicians, each of whom recorded an improvised solo, were investigated. Immediately after completing their improvisations, participants listened to recordings of their playing and looked at the notation of their solos as they described in a directed interview the thinking processes that led to the…

  12. Dramaturgical and Music-Theoretical Approaches to Improvisation Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Erkki; Tenkanen, Atte; Kuusinen, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the relative merits of two approaches to teaching musical improvisation: a music-theoretical approach, focusing on chords and scales, and a "dramaturgical" one, emphasizing questions of balance, variation and tension. Adult students of music pedagogy, with limited previous experience in improvisation,…

  13. Young Pianists Exploring Improvisation Using Interactive Music Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Victoria; Triantafyllaki, Angeliki; Anagnostopoulou, Xristina

    2015-01-01

    The use of music technology in the enhancement of young pianists' musical improvisations has been scarcely explored in instrumental music teaching and learning research. In the present study, 19 piano pupils aged 6-10 from the UK and Greece used an interactive improvisation system called Musical Interaction Relying On Reflexion (MIROR)-Impro for…

  14. Whose Classroom Is It, Anyway? Improvisation as a Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.; Trieber, Rosalind H.

    2009-01-01

    Improvisational techniques derived from the experiences in improvisational theatre can be adapted for the college classroom to leverage the characteristics of the Net Generation, their multiple intelligences and learning styles, and the variety of collaborative learning activities already in place in a learner-centered environment. When…

  15. Improvisational Theater Games: Performatory Team-Building Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Joan S.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes five improvisational theater games for building "teams" in the classroom and on the sports field. Particular attention is given to understanding how teams must challenge the hyper-individuality of modern culture. Improvisational theater games for team building are designed to help participants find a balance…

  16. Use Jazz to Teach Your String Students Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Standards 3 and 9 of the National Standards for Music Education charge teachers to teach improvisation as well as music of diverse cultures. Jazz is a musical style that is perfect to cover both content areas. Until now, however, jazz repertoire and improvisation have not played a major role in the education of string students. One reason is that…

  17. Relationships among Selected Practice Behaviours and Achievement in Jazz Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the practice strategies that collegiate music majors chose to employ in preparing for a jazz improvisation performance, and the relationships among selected practice behaviours and achievement in instrumental jazz improvisation. Participants for the study (N = 62) were enrolled as music majors…

  18. Free Improvisation: What It Is, and Why We Should Apply It in Our General Music Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknafs, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation, the third content standard for the National Standards for Music Education (Music Educators National Conference, 1994), has received less attention from music teachers. This article advocates for more improvisation specifically free improvisation in general music classrooms. The nature of free improvisation, and its evolution in the…

  19. Vocal Improvisation and Creative Thinking by Australian and American University Jazz Singers: A Factor Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated factors underlying vocal improvisation achievement and relationships with the singers' musical background. Participants were 102 college students in Australia and the United States who performed 3 jazz improvisations and 1 free improvisation. Jazz improvisations were rated on rhythmic, tonal, and creative…

  20. The Bucket System – A computer mediated signaling system for group improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders; Robair, Gino

    2015-01-01

    The Bucket System is a new system for computer-mediated ensemble improvisation, designed by improvisers for improvisers. Coming from a tradition of structured free ensemble improvisation practices (comprovisation), influenced by post-WW2 experimental music practices, it is a signaling system...

  1. [Beyond suffering, schizophrenic improvisation and therapeutic challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizot, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Led jointly by an actress and an occupational therapist, an 'improvisation' activity has been set up within the Sainte-Anne University Hospital SHU Sector 14 for hospitalised patients, on medical prescription. This containing environment provides psychological support and encourages patients with schizophrenia to explore their creativity and to 'let go' so as to discover new physical possibilities. The group thereby becomes a support for the relationship and the development of verbal and non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Health information systems: failure, success and improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeks, Richard

    2006-02-01

    The generalised assumption of health information systems (HIS) success is questioned by a few commentators in the medical informatics field. They point to widespread HIS failure. The purpose of this paper was therefore to develop a better conceptual foundation for, and practical guidance on, health information systems failure (and success). Literature and case analysis plus pilot testing of developed model. Defining HIS failure and success is complex, and the current evidence base on HIS success and failure rates was found to be weak. Nonetheless, the best current estimate is that HIS failure is an important problem. The paper therefore derives and explains the "design-reality gap" conceptual model. This is shown to be robust in explaining multiple cases of HIS success and failure, yet provides a contingency that encompasses the differences which exist in different HIS contexts. The design-reality gap model is piloted to demonstrate its value as a tool for risk assessment and mitigation on HIS projects. It also throws into question traditional, structured development methodologies, highlighting the importance of emergent change and improvisation in HIS. The design-reality gap model can be used to address the problem of HIS failure, both as a post hoc evaluative tool and as a pre hoc risk assessment and mitigation tool. It also validates a set of methods, techniques, roles and competencies needed to support the dynamic improvisations that are found to underpin cases of HIS success.

  3. Bilateral tension pneumothorax following equipment improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambricki, Christine; Schmidt, Carol; Vos, Karen

    2014-02-01

    This case report describes an unexpected event that took place as a result of using improvised equipment. The patient, a 16-year-old female undergoing complex oral surgery, suffered bilateral pneumothorax following the improper use of an airway support device. During the immediate postoperative period with the patient still intubated, oxygen tubing was attached to a right angle elbow connector with the port closed and 10 L/minute oxygen flow was administered to the patient in a manner that did not allow the patient to exhale. Within seconds, pneumothorax was apparent as the patient's vital signs deteriorated, visible swelling was noted in the shoulders and neck, and there was an absence of breath sounds on auscultation. This case study has application beyond the immediate discussion of bilateral pneumothorax, serving as a caution about the unintended consequences of equipment improvisation. In addition to highlighting the hazards of providing patient care with a non-standard device, this study also provides a powerful example of the human factors that can contribute to medical errors in the healthcare setting.

  4. Jazz improvisers' shared understanding: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2014-01-01

    To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard ("It Could Happen to You") on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner's musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded) interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener's statements more than their partner's argues against a simple notion that performers' interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider's.

  5. Creativity and improvisation as therapeutic tools within music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Concetta M

    2013-11-01

    The neuroscience of creativity and music improvisation is a fascinating topic and one with strong implications for clinical music therapy. Music therapists are trained to use musical improvisation as a means to bring their clients into deeper therapeutic relationship as well as free up any inhibitions or limitations that may block recovery. Could recent fMRI studies of jazz musicians showing areas of brain activation during music improvisation provide a new framework to understand underlying mechanisms at work with neurologically impaired individuals? © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

  7. Does Improvised Waterbed Reduce the Incidence of Pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Does Improvised Waterbed Reduce the Incidence of Pressure Ulcers in Patients with Spinal Injury? ... The use of bed replacements markedly reduces the incidence of pressure ... Keywords: Neurological deficits, plastic sachet, table water ...

  8. Electrochemical Sensor for Explosives Precursors’ Detection in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloé Desmet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although all countries are intensifying their efforts against terrorism and increasing their mutual cooperation, terrorist bombing is still one of the greatest threats to society. The discovery of hidden bomb factories is of primary importance in the prevention of terrorism activities. Criminals preparing improvised explosives (IE use chemical substances called precursors. These compounds are released in the air and in the waste water during IE production. Tracking sources of precursors by analyzing air or wastewater can then be an important clue for bomb factories’ localization. We are reporting here a new multiplex electrochemical sensor dedicated to the on-site simultaneous detection of three explosive precursors, potentially used for improvised explosive device preparation (hereafter referenced as B01, B08, and B15, for security disclosure reasons and to avoid being detrimental to the security of the counter-explosive EU action. The electrochemical sensors were designed to be disposable and to combine ease of use and portability in a screen-printed eight-electrochemical cell array format. The working electrodes were modified with different electrodeposited metals: gold, palladium, and platinum. These different coatings giving selectivity to the multi-sensor through a “fingerprint”-like signal subsequently analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. Results are given regarding the detection of the three compounds in a real environment and in the presence of potentially interfering species.

  9. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  10. Postural coordination during socio-motor improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gueugnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation. Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively. Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and anti-phase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability. Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  11. Training generalized improvisation of tools by preschool children1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonson, Barry S.; Baer, Donald M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of new, “creative” behaviors was examined in a problem-solving context. One form of problem solving, improvisation, was defined as finding a substitute to replace the specifically designated, but currently unavailable, tool ordinarily used to solve the problem. The study examined whether preschool children spontaneously displayed generalized improvisation skills, and if not, whether they could be trained to do so within different classes of tools. Generalization across different tool classes was monitored but not specifically trained. Five preschool children participated in individual sessions that first probed their skill at improvising tools, and later trained and probed generalized improvisation in one or more of three tool classes (Hammers, Containers, and Shoelaces), using a multiple-baseline design. All five children were trained with Hammers, two were trained in two classes, and two were trained in all three tool classes. Four of the five children improvised little in Baseline. During Training, all five showed increased generalized improvisation within the trained class, but none across classes. Tools fabricated by item combinations were rare in Baseline, but common in Training. Followup probes showed that the training effects were durable. PMID:16795596

  12. Bodystorming: effects of collaboration and familiarity on improvising contemporary dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine J; Leach, James

    2015-09-01

    In contemporary dance, cognitive events are not necessarily restricted "to the skin or skull of an individual" (Hutchins in Int Encycl Soc Behav Sci 2068-2072, 2001) but distributed across dancers during collaborative improvisation. There is some experimental evidence of greater output when people perform problem-solving tasks alone. However, when a task is challenging and paired participants are familiar with each other, pairwise and emergent outcomes are more plentiful than solo outcomes. We investigate these factors in the context of dance with the broad hypothesis that innovation is enhanced when dancers improvise together compared with when they improvise alone. Dancers (N = 10) in a professional company improvised for 2 min alone and then with another dancer. Dancer familiarity (familiar, unfamiliar) and task (expressive, non-expressive) were crossed (within-subjects). The improvisations were video-recorded over 2 h in the dancers' usual improvisation space. After each improvisation, the dancers: stated the number of movement ideas expressed and rated task ease, satisfaction, interest, novelty, originality and clarity. In both tasks, there was a tendency for self-report of a greater number of movement ideas expressed in familiar and unfamiliar pairs than alone. Ratings of task ease, satisfaction, interest, clarity, etc. were slightly higher in the unfamiliar pair condition. In the non-expressive task, ratings of the task were higher in pairs (M = 3.02, SD 0.82) than in the solo (M = 2.67, SD 0.96) condition. Distributed creativity, relational cognition and social facilitation are used to interpret the results.

  13. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  14. Designing for group music improvisation: a case for jamming with your emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostos Rios, G.A.; Funk, M.; Hengeveld, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    During improvisation, musicians express themselves through live music. This project looks at the relationship between musicians during music improvisation, the processes of expression and communication taking place during performance and possible ways to use musicians’ emotions, to influence a

  15. Improvisation Planning and Jam Session Design using concepts of Sequence Variation and Flow Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnov , Shlomo; Assayag , Gérard

    2005-01-01

    cote interne IRCAM: Assayag05a; National audience; We describe a model for improvisation design based on Factor Oracle automation, which is extended to perform learning and analysis of incoming sequences in terms of sequence variation parameters, namely replication, recombination and innovation. These parameters describe the improvisation plan and allow the design of new improvisations or analysis and modification of plans of existing improvisations. We further introduce an idea of flow exper...

  16. Individuality and togetherness in joint improvised motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Hart

    Full Text Available Actors, dancers and musicians that improvise together report special moments of togetherness: high performance and synchrony, seemingly without a leader and a follower. Togetherness seems to conflict with individuality- the idiosyncratic character of each person's performance. To understand the relation of individuality and togetherness, we employed the mirror game paradigm in which two players are asked to mirror each other and create interesting synchronized motion, with and without a designated leader. The mirror game enables quantitative characterization of moments of togetherness in which complex motion is generated with high synchrony. We find that each person as a leader does basic strokes of motion with a characteristic signature, in terms of the shape of their velocity profile between two stopping events. In moments of togetherness both players change their signature to a universal stroke shape. This universal velocity profile resembles a half-period of a sine wave, and is therefore symmetric and maximally smooth. Thus, instead of converging to an intermediate motion signature, or having one player dominate, players seem to shift their basic motion signatures to a shape that is altogether different from their individually preferred shapes; the resulting motion may be easier to predict and to agree on. The players then build complex motion by using such smooth elementary strokes.

  17. Individuality and togetherness in joint improvised motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval; Noy, Lior; Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Mayo, Avraham E; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Actors, dancers and musicians that improvise together report special moments of togetherness: high performance and synchrony, seemingly without a leader and a follower. Togetherness seems to conflict with individuality- the idiosyncratic character of each person's performance. To understand the relation of individuality and togetherness, we employed the mirror game paradigm in which two players are asked to mirror each other and create interesting synchronized motion, with and without a designated leader. The mirror game enables quantitative characterization of moments of togetherness in which complex motion is generated with high synchrony. We find that each person as a leader does basic strokes of motion with a characteristic signature, in terms of the shape of their velocity profile between two stopping events. In moments of togetherness both players change their signature to a universal stroke shape. This universal velocity profile resembles a half-period of a sine wave, and is therefore symmetric and maximally smooth. Thus, instead of converging to an intermediate motion signature, or having one player dominate, players seem to shift their basic motion signatures to a shape that is altogether different from their individually preferred shapes; the resulting motion may be easier to predict and to agree on. The players then build complex motion by using such smooth elementary strokes.

  18. Pedagogical applications of cognitive research on musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the implementation of educational activities involving musical improvisation that is based on a review of the literature on the psychology of music. Psychology of music is a complex field of research in which quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed involving participants ranging from novices to expert performers. The cognitive research has been analyzed to propose a pedagogical approach to the development of processes rather than products that focus on an expert's use of improvisation. The intention is to delineate a reflective approach that goes beyond the mere instruction of some current practices of teaching improvisation in jazz pedagogy. The review highlights that improvisation is a complex, multidimensional act that involves creative and performance behaviors in real-time in addition to processes such as sensory and perceptual encoding, motor control, performance monitoring, and memory storage and recall. Educational applications for the following processes are outlined: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback, and flow. These characteristics are discussed in relation to the design of a pedagogical approach to musical improvisation based on reflection and metacognition development.

  19. Pedagogical applications of the cognitive research on music improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIchele eBiasutti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the implementation of educational activities involving musical improvisation that is based on a review of the literature on the psychology of music. Psychology of music is a complex field of research in which quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed involving participants ranging from novices to expert performers. The cognitive research has been analyzed to propose a pedagogical approach to the development of processes rather than products that focus on an expert’s use of improvisation. The intention is to delineate a reflective approach that goes beyond the mere instruction of some current practices of teaching improvisation in jazz pedagogy. The review highlights that improvisation is a complex, multidimensional act that involves creative and performance behaviors in real-time in addition to processes such as sensory and perceptual encoding, motor control, performance monitoring, and memory storage and recall. Educational applications for the following processes are outlined: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback and flow. These characteristics are discussed in relation to the design of a pedagogical approach to musical improvisation based on reflection and metacognition development.

  20. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions associated with pneumonia (parapneumonic effusions are one of the most common causes of exudative pleural effusions in the world. Approximately 20 to 40% of patients hospitalized with pneumonia will have an accompanying pleural effusion. The term 'Explosive pleuritis' was originally described by Braman and Donat in 1986 as pleural effusions developing within hours of admission. We report a 38 years old male patient with minimal pleural effusion which progressed rapidly within one day to involve almost whole of the hemithorax. There were multiple loculations on ultrasonography of thorax. Pleural fluid was sero-sanguinous and revealed gram positive diplococcic. The patient improved with antibiotics and pigtail catheter drainage.

  1. Relationships among Vocal Jazz Improvisation Achievement, Jazz Theory Knowledge, Imitative Ability, Musical Experience, Creativity, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Patrice Dawn

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a study that examined the nature of vocal jazz improvisation and the factors that influence achievement in improvisation. Participating subjects performed two jazz improvisation tasks that were measured for tonal, rhythmic, and expressive items. Correlating independent variables included jazz theory knowledge, jazz experience, and…

  2. Teaching Improvisation through Melody and Blues-Based Harmony: A Comprehensive and Sequential Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Leila

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a sequential approach to improvisation teaching that can be used with students at various age and ability levels by any educator, regardless of improvisation experience. The 2014 National Core Music Standards include improvisation as a central component in musical learning and promote instructional approaches that are…

  3. Teaching Improvisation in Elementary General Music: Facing Fears and Fostering Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation is a vital part of an elementary general music education. While some music teachers successfully include improvisation in music instruction, others have fears and face challenges when attempting improvisational activities in the classroom. This article acknowledges obstacles facing music educators when attempting to incorporate…

  4. The Sign of Silence: Negotiating Musical Identities in an Improvising Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Graeme B.; MacDonald, Raymond A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Group musical improvisation, as a spontaneous process of collaborative creativity effected through non-verbal social interaction, is a unique psychological phenomenon and universal capacity. Existing studies focus on improvisation among professional jazz musicians, often using qualitative methods. However, improvisation transcends genres and…

  5. A Three-Stage Process of Improvisation for Teamwork: Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Pollard, Vikki; Campbell, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This study examines street performing arts students' responses to using improvisation for teamwork during a first year, non-placement, work-integrated learning (WIL) experience. The aim of the study was to investigate: (1) students' perceptions of improvisation and (2) ways in which to design teamwork assessments that utilise improvisation. Data…

  6. Teaching Improvisation through Processes. Applications in Music Education and Implications for General Education

    OpenAIRE

    Biasutti, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities...

  7. Clinical improvisation and the universe of musical idioms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2001-01-01

    (please choose Danish language to see a German summary) The music therapy education at Aalborg University, Denmark, takes five years of full-time study to accomplish and contains many special disciplines. One of these is called intuitive music. It deals with improvisation training and with the cr......(please choose Danish language to see a German summary) The music therapy education at Aalborg University, Denmark, takes five years of full-time study to accomplish and contains many special disciplines. One of these is called intuitive music. It deals with improvisation training...

  8. The Performative Presence in the Scenics Arts and the Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Reis Biancalana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a reflection about the relevance of improvisation aspect in the performative arts as a fomenter element of scenic presence. Performances can be defined by the moment when one or more bodies shows themselves to other people eyes and the presence here means the performer ability to attract the viewer‟s attention to himself. The improvisational aspect comes out of these situations can be applied at many levels and many ways but mainly depends on the performer in his desire to do, namely, in giving psychophysically himself to his art.

  9. Exit from Synchrony in Joint Improvised Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assi Dahan

    Full Text Available Motion synchrony correlates with effective and well-rated human interaction. However, people do not remain locked in synchrony; Instead, they repeatedly enter and exit synchrony. In many important interactions, such as therapy, marriage and parent-infant communication, it is the ability to exit and then re-enter synchrony that is thought to build strong relationship. The phenomenon of entry into zero-phase synchrony is well-studied experimentally and in terms of mathematical modeling. In contrast, exit-from-synchrony is under-studied. Here, we focus on human motion coordination, and examine the exit-from-synchrony phenomenon using experimental data from the mirror game paradigm, in which people perform joint improvised motion, and from human tracking of computer-generated stimuli. We present a mathematical mechanism that captures aspects of exit-from-synchrony in human motion. The mechanism adds a random motion component when the accumulated velocity error between the players is small. We introduce this mechanism to several models for human coordinated motion, including the widely studied HKB model, and the predictor-corrector model of Noy, Dekel and Alon. In all models, the new mechanism produces realistic simulated behavior when compared to experimental data from the mirror game and from tracking of computer generated stimuli, including repeated entry and exit from zero-phase synchrony that generates a complexity of motion similar to that of human players. We hope that these results can inform future research on exit-from-synchrony, to better understand the dynamics of coordinated action of people and to enhance human-computer and human-robot interaction.

  10. Explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-04-01

    An explosive composition containing ammonium nitrate consists of (1) from 40 to 75 Pt. by wt of particulate ammonium nitrate, (2) from 20 to 35 Pt. by wt of a solution selected from the group consisting of aqueous magnesium nitrate, aqueous ammonium nitrate and aqueous ammoniacal ammonium nitrate; and (3) at least 2 Pt. by wt of a setting agent selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal oxides, zinc oxide, lead monoxide, calcined dolomitic limestone, anhydrous calcium sulfate, anhydrous magnesium sulfate, anhydrous sodium tetrapyrophosphate and anhydrous sodium thiosulfate. The setting agent is further characterized in setting the composition to a solid material which contains solvent used in the liquid phase. (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  11. Explosive composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slykhouse, T E

    1968-05-09

    An ammonium nitrate explosive composition is characterized in that it contains from 40 to 75 parts by wt of particulate ammonium nitrate, from 20 to 35 parts by wt of a solution selected from the group consisting of aqueous magnesium nitrate, aqueous ammonium nitrate, and aqueous ammoniacal ammonium nitrate. It also contains at least 2 parts by wt of a setting agent selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal oxides, zinc oxide, lead monoxide, calcined dolomitic limestone, substantially anhydrous calcium sulfate, substantially anhydrous magnesium sulfate, substantially anhydrous sodium tetrapyrophosphate and substantially anhydrous sodium thiosulfate. The setting agent is further characterized in that it sets the composition to a solid material which contains solvent used in the liquid phase. (12 claims)

  12. Slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-08-23

    A slurry explosive is comprised of (1) a composition consisting of ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate; or an alkaline earth metal nitrate; or an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate; at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels; and water; (2) 0.1 to 2.0% of guar gum; (3) between 0% and 0.3% of a sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium borate; and greater than 0% but not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine; and (4) 0.02 to 2.0% of antimony potassium tartarate, antimony trioxide, antimony trisulfide or a mixture of these antimony compounds, % by wt.

  13. Expertise in musical improvisation and creativity: the mediation of idea evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded M Kleinmintz

    Full Text Available The current study explored the influence of musical expertise, and specifically training in improvisation on creativity, using the framework of the twofold model, according to which creativity involves a process of idea generation and idea evaluation. Based on the hypothesis that a strict evaluation phase may have an inhibiting effect over the generation phase, we predicted that training in improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on the evaluation system, leading to greater creativity. To examine this hypothesis, we compared performance among three groups--musicians trained in improvisation, musicians not trained in improvisation, and non-musicians--on divergent thinking tasks and on their evaluation of creativity. The improvisation group scored higher on fluency and originality compared to the other two groups. Among the musicians, evaluation of creativity mediated how experience in improvisation was related to originality and fluency scores. It is concluded that deliberate practice of improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on creativity.

  14. Expertise in musical improvisation and creativity: the mediation of idea evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmintz, Oded M; Goldstein, Pavel; Mayseless, Naama; Abecasis, Donna; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the influence of musical expertise, and specifically training in improvisation on creativity, using the framework of the twofold model, according to which creativity involves a process of idea generation and idea evaluation. Based on the hypothesis that a strict evaluation phase may have an inhibiting effect over the generation phase, we predicted that training in improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on the evaluation system, leading to greater creativity. To examine this hypothesis, we compared performance among three groups--musicians trained in improvisation, musicians not trained in improvisation, and non-musicians--on divergent thinking tasks and on their evaluation of creativity. The improvisation group scored higher on fluency and originality compared to the other two groups. Among the musicians, evaluation of creativity mediated how experience in improvisation was related to originality and fluency scores. It is concluded that deliberate practice of improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on creativity.

  15. Expertise in Musical Improvisation and Creativity: The Mediation of Idea Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmintz, Oded M.; Goldstein, Pavel; Mayseless, Naama; Abecasis, Donna; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the influence of musical expertise, and specifically training in improvisation on creativity, using the framework of the twofold model, according to which creativity involves a process of idea generation and idea evaluation. Based on the hypothesis that a strict evaluation phase may have an inhibiting effect over the generation phase, we predicted that training in improvisation may have a “releasing effect” on the evaluation system, leading to greater creativity. To examine this hypothesis, we compared performance among three groups - musicians trained in improvisation, musicians not trained in improvisation, and non-musicians - on divergent thinking tasks and on their evaluation of creativity. The improvisation group scored higher on fluency and originality compared to the other two groups. Among the musicians, evaluation of creativity mediated how experience in improvisation was related to originality and fluency scores. It is concluded that deliberate practice of improvisation may have a “releasing effect” on creativity. PMID:25010334

  16. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ..., including non-cap sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting.... Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing... powder. [[Page 64247

  17. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Haidet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30 completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  18. The causal inference of cortical neural networks during music improvisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaogeng; Crüts, Björn; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2014-01-01

    We present an EEG study of two music improvisation experiments. Professional musicians with high level of improvisation skills were asked to perform music either according to notes (composed music) or in improvisation. Each piece of music was performed in two different modes: strict mode and "let-go" mode. Synchronized EEG data was measured from both musicians and listeners. We used one of the most reliable causality measures: conditional Mutual Information from Mixed Embedding (MIME), to analyze directed correlations between different EEG channels, which was combined with network theory to construct both intra-brain and cross-brain networks. Differences were identified in intra-brain neural networks between composed music and improvisation and between strict mode and "let-go" mode. Particular brain regions such as frontal, parietal and temporal regions were found to play a key role in differentiating the brain activities between different playing conditions. By comparing the level of degree centralities in intra-brain neural networks, we found a difference between the response of musicians and the listeners when comparing the different playing conditions.

  19. Improvisation and the self-organization of multiple musical bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eWalton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding everyday behavior relies heavily upon understanding our ability to improvise, how we are able to continuously anticipate and adapt in order to coordinate with our environment and others. Here we consider the ability of musicians to improvise, where they must spontaneously coordinate their actions with co-performers in order to produce novel musical expressions. Investigations of this behavior have traditionally focused on describing the organization of cognitive structures. The focus, here, however, is on the ability of the time-evolving patterns of inter-musician movement coordination as revealed by the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems to provide a new understanding of what potentiates the novelty of spontaneous musical action. We demonstrate this approach through the application of cross wavelet spectral analysis, which isolates the strength and patterning of the behavioral coordination that occurs between improvising musicians across a range of nested time-scales. Revealing the sophistication of the previously unexplored dynamics of movement coordination between improvising musicians is an important step towards understanding how creative musical expressions emerge from the spontaneous coordination of multiple musical bodies.

  20. Towards a Professionalization of Pedagogical Improvisation in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Oded

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge about strategies and techniques for training primary school education pre-service teachers (PSTs) for Pedagogical Improvisation (PI). Data was collected during two iterations of cross-disciplinary art/science school interventions in Norwegian 3rd-grade classes, which provided…

  1. Lessons from Lithuania: A Pedagogical Approach in Teaching Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the approach that a professor in Lithuania utilized in successfully teaching undergraduate music education majors how to improvise during a one-semester course. The research questions focused on the participant's philosophy of teaching and learning, his methods for motivating students, the learning…

  2. Improvisation and the self-organization of multiple musical bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ashley E; Richardson, Michael J; Langland-Hassan, Peter; Chemero, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Understanding everyday behavior relies heavily upon understanding our ability to improvise, how we are able to continuously anticipate and adapt in order to coordinate with our environment and others. Here we consider the ability of musicians to improvise, where they must spontaneously coordinate their actions with co-performers in order to produce novel musical expressions. Investigations of this behavior have traditionally focused on describing the organization of cognitive structures. The focus, here, however, is on the ability of the time-evolving patterns of inter-musician movement coordination as revealed by the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems to provide a new understanding of what potentiates the novelty of spontaneous musical action. We demonstrate this approach through the application of cross wavelet spectral analysis, which isolates the strength and patterning of the behavioral coordination that occurs between improvising musicians across a range of nested time-scales. Revealing the sophistication of the previously unexplored dynamics of movement coordination between improvising musicians is an important step toward understanding how creative musical expressions emerge from the spontaneous coordination of multiple musical bodies.

  3. Oral Communication in ESL through Improvisations, Playwriting and Rehearsals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Chamkaur

    2013-01-01

    The application of drama strategies which focus more on meaning than on form can provide an impetus for ESL learners to be more confident about speaking, thereby increasing the quantity of their spoken English. This paper discusses existing research and the author's own experiences in an attempt to highlight the positive effects of improvisations,…

  4. Angelica Gets the Spirit Out: Improvisation, Epiphany and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignato, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This article presents excerpts from a case study describing Angelica Dawson, a New York State music educator. Angelica makes improvisation a central part of her curricula in ways that transcend traditional offerings prevalent in American public schools. Qualitative research methods were used to document Angelica's work over the course of an…

  5. Improvisation in Teaching and Education--Roots and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdhus, Kari; Høisaeter, Sissel; Maeland, Kjellfrid; Vangsnes, Vigdis; Engelsen, Knut Steinar; Espeland, Magne; Espeland, Åsmund

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this review article is to understand and discuss the concept of improvisation as a professional skill for teacher educators. The literature review suggests that five academic traditions are especially relevant to examine: Rhetoric, music, theatre/drama, organizational theory and education. The dialogic, open-scripted, interactive…

  6. Utilizing Improvisation to Teach Empathy Skills in Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Hannah B.; Jangha, Awa

    2016-01-01

    Empathy development is foundational to counselor training, yet there is scant research on techniques for teaching empathy aside from traditional microskills models. The authors discuss empathy as a skill set, highlight how improvisation (improv) can be used to enhance training, and describe how to incorporate improv activities within the classroom.

  7. The Causal Inference of Cortical Neural Networks during Music Improvisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaogeng; Crüts, Björn; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2014-01-01

    We present an EEG study of two music improvisation experiments. Professional musicians with high level of improvisation skills were asked to perform music either according to notes (composed music) or in improvisation. Each piece of music was performed in two different modes: strict mode and “let-go” mode. Synchronized EEG data was measured from both musicians and listeners. We used one of the most reliable causality measures: conditional Mutual Information from Mixed Embedding (MIME), to analyze directed correlations between different EEG channels, which was combined with network theory to construct both intra-brain and cross-brain networks. Differences were identified in intra-brain neural networks between composed music and improvisation and between strict mode and “let-go” mode. Particular brain regions such as frontal, parietal and temporal regions were found to play a key role in differentiating the brain activities between different playing conditions. By comparing the level of degree centralities in intra-brain neural networks, we found a difference between the response of musicians and the listeners when comparing the different playing conditions. PMID:25489852

  8. Bubble CPAP in Nigerian tertiary hospitals; Patented and improvised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-12

    Sep 12, 2016 ... used in resource poor settings. Objectives: To ... strategy is technically simple and effective in managing new-born .... Type of practice Public. 208(87.8) .... cost improvised bubble CPAP devise ($350).17 The im- pact of the ...

  9. Improvisation and utilization of resources in the teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the importance of improvisation in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in the senior secondary schools in Cross River State of N Nigeria. Human and material resources are inevitable in enhancing the teaching and learning of science and mathematics generally and practically at this ...

  10. The Memory Ensemble: Improvising Connections among Performance, Disability, and Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Christine Mary; Yoshizaki-Gibbons, Hailee M.; Morhardt, Darby

    2017-01-01

    There is a recognised need for research that illuminates mutually beneficial connections among performance, ageing, disability theory, and praxis. One such project is the Memory Ensemble™, an improvisational theatre intervention for persons with early stage Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). This case study explores how the…

  11. Play Fluency in Music Improvisation Games for Novices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2011-01-01

    and evaluated through video analysis: A qualitative view of mutual action describes the social context of music improvisation: how two people with speech, laughter, gestures, postures and pauses negotiate individual and joint action. The objective behind the design of the game application was to support players...

  12. An Improvised Active Drain | Ogirima | Nigerian Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improvised active drain is designed from intravenous infusion set and recycled RedivacR or Haemovac® bottle. Outcome of the use of this system on 100 patients is presented. This suction drainage system had been used in major orthopaedic and common minor surgical procedures and no significant complication was ...

  13. Improvising information technology projects through the duality of structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiko Iyamu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is always emphasis on information technology (IT projects because of their significance in organisations. Thus, efforts and resources are reciprocally committed to ensure the successes. Still, failure of IT projects in many organisations remains high and affects competitiveness. As recourse for remedy, different techniques and approaches have been employed. However, little or no progress has been made in increasing the success rate of IT projects in many organisations. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the factors that influence and impact IT projects, improvisation and how improvisation manifests. Method: The study was carried out using a single case study approach. Qualitative data were collected and duality of structure from the perspective of structuration theory was used as lens to guide the analysis. Results: Findings from this study reveal how reproduction of actions manifests from non-technical factors, such as cultural value, organisational structure, power relationship, human capacity, know-how and change management. These factors help to gain a more constructive and better understanding of how IT projects improvisation is influenced or impacted by non-technical factors in organisations. Conclusion: The study is intended to benefit both practitioners and academics. Some of the benefits will be gained from fresh perspectives on the complexities of IT projects improvisation, which are often caused by various seen and unforeseen non-technical factors. This includes how actions from relationship, know-how about facilities and communicative scheme are produced and reproduced.

  14. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul; Jarecke, Jodi; Yang, Chengwu; Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L; Stuckey, Heather

    2017-08-04

    Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by "mapping" them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students ( N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students' adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students' course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  15. Organizational improvisation, jazz and the representations of time in organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzo Alves Aranha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is possible to verify an  increase  of academic articles about the phenomenon of time on  Organizations  Studies   field  which  has  close relation  to change  management  in  organization. Recently, investigations about time are associated to organizational improvisation and some of these researches offer  organizational  formats  and models.  This  article  aims  to  verify  how  cyclical and  linear  perspectives of time are present in organizational improvisation. Therefore, this article was structured in the following segments: the  first is  an  introduction,  the  second  deals  with  some conceptual aspects of cyclical and linear perspectives  of  time;  the  third  describes  organizational improvisational  conceptual  frames;  the  fourth presents  a  description  of  the  relations  between cyclical  and linear perspectives of time and organizational improvisational conceptual frames; and the  fith presents the  final considerations.

  16. Generating Ideas in Jazz Improvisation: Where Theory Meets Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Idea generation is an integral component of jazz improvising. This article merges theoretical origins and practical experiences through the examination of two seminal works from Pressing and Sudnow. A comparative analysis yields three common sources with distinct characteristics. The greater body of jazz literature supports this potential link…

  17. The development of improvisational expertise in jazz musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    Improvisation is a complex musical skill that takes many years of practice to master. An interesting question is what it takes to start and maintain such long period of practice and which environmental factors influence commitment to practice. This study aims to reveal factors that affect successful

  18. Learning to Lead, Unscripted: Developing Affiliative Leadership through Improvisational Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Suzanne; Vough, Heather C.; Nickerson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We argue that improvisational theatre training creates a compelling experience of co-creation through interaction and, as such, can be used to build a distinctive kind of leadership skills. Theories of leadership as relational, collaborative or shared are in pointed contrast to traditional notions of an individual "hero leader" who possesses the…

  19. The causal inference of cortical neural networks during music improvisations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogeng Wan

    Full Text Available We present an EEG study of two music improvisation experiments. Professional musicians with high level of improvisation skills were asked to perform music either according to notes (composed music or in improvisation. Each piece of music was performed in two different modes: strict mode and "let-go" mode. Synchronized EEG data was measured from both musicians and listeners. We used one of the most reliable causality measures: conditional Mutual Information from Mixed Embedding (MIME, to analyze directed correlations between different EEG channels, which was combined with network theory to construct both intra-brain and cross-brain networks. Differences were identified in intra-brain neural networks between composed music and improvisation and between strict mode and "let-go" mode. Particular brain regions such as frontal, parietal and temporal regions were found to play a key role in differentiating the brain activities between different playing conditions. By comparing the level of degree centralities in intra-brain neural networks, we found a difference between the response of musicians and the listeners when comparing the different playing conditions.

  20. Audacity in Vocal Improvisation: Motivating Elementary School Students through Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichivitsa, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Every day, music teachers face the challenge of motivating less-confident student singers in general music classes. Teaching vocal improvisation can be a difficult task, because students are often self-conscious about their voices and too intimidated to sing in front of their peers. Technology can be an excellent motivational tool in the classroom…

  1. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  2. Cortical regions involved in the generation of musical structures during improvisation in pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Sara L; Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály; Ullén, Fredrik

    2007-05-01

    Studies on simple pseudorandom motor and cognitive tasks have shown that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and rostral premotor areas are involved in free response selection. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether these brain regions are also involved in free generation of responses in a more complex creative behavior: musical improvisation. Eleven professional pianists participated in the study. In one condition, Improvise, the pianist improvised on the basis of a visually displayed melody. In the control condition, Reproduce, the participant reproduced his previous improvisation from memory. Participants were able to reproduce their improvisations with a high level of accuracy, and the contrast Improvise versus Reproduce was thus essentially matched in terms of motor output and sensory feedback. However, the Improvise condition required storage in memory of the improvisation. We therefore also included a condition FreeImp, where the pianist improvised but was instructed not to memorize his performance. To locate brain regions involved in musical creation, we investigated the activations in the Improvise-Reproduce contrast that were also present in FreeImp contrasted with a baseline rest condition. Activated brain regions included the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the presupplementary motor area, the rostral portion of the dorsal premotor cortex, and the left posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus. We suggest that these regions are part of a network involved in musical creation, and discuss their possible functional roles.

  3. Understanding the Impact of Expertise in Joint and Solo-Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issartel, Johann; Gueugnon, Mathieu; Marin, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    Joint-improvisation is not only an open-ended creative action that two or more people perform together in the context of an artistic performance (e.g., theatre, music or dance). Joint-improvisation also takes place in daily life activities when humans take part in collective performance such as toddlers at play or adults engaged in a conversation. In the context of this article, joint-improvisation has been looked at from a social motor coordination perspective. In the literature, the nature of the social motor coordination characteristics of joint-improvisation for either the creative aspect or daily life features of this motor performance remains unclear. Additionally, both solo-improvisation and joint-improvisation need to be studied conjointly to establish the influence of the social element of improvisation in the emergence of multi-agent motor coordination. In order to better understand those two types of improvisation, we compared three level of expertise - novice, intermediate and professional in dance improvisation to identify movement characteristics for each of the groups. Pairs of the same level were asked to improvise together. Each individual was also asked to perform an improvisation on his/her own. We found that each of the three groups present specific movement organization with movement complexity increasing with the level of expertise. Experts performed shorter movement duration in conjunction with an increase range of movement. The direct comparison of individual and paired Conditions highlighted that the joint-improvisation reduced the complexity of the movement organization and those for all three levels while maintaining the differences between the groups. This direct comparison amongst those three distinct groups provides an original insight onto the nature of movement patterns in joint-improvisation situation. Overall, it reveals the role of both individual and collective properties in the emergence of social coordination.

  4. Understanding the Impact of Expertise in Joint and Solo-Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Issartel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint-improvisation is not only an open-ended creative action that two or more people perform together in the context of an artistic performance (e.g., theatre, music or dance. Joint-improvisation also takes place in daily life activities when humans take part in collective performance such as toddlers at play or adults engaged in a conversation. In the context of this article, joint-improvisation has been looked at from a social motor coordination perspective. In the literature, the nature of the social motor coordination characteristics of joint-improvisation for either the creative aspect or daily life features of this motor performance remains unclear. Additionally, both solo-improvisation and joint-improvisation need to be studied conjointly to establish the influence of the social element of improvisation in the emergence of multi-agent motor coordination. In order to better understand those two types of improvisation, we compared three level of expertise – novice, intermediate and professional in dance improvisation to identify movement characteristics for each of the groups. Pairs of the same level were asked to improvise together. Each individual was also asked to perform an improvisation on his/her own. We found that each of the three groups present specific movement organization with movement complexity increasing with the level of expertise. Experts performed shorter movement duration in conjunction with an increase range of movement. The direct comparison of individual and paired Conditions highlighted that the joint-improvisation reduced the complexity of the movement organization and those for all three levels while maintaining the differences between the groups. This direct comparison amongst those three distinct groups provides an original insight onto the nature of movement patterns in joint-improvisation situation. Overall, it reveals the role of both individual and collective properties in the emergence of social

  5. Detection of chemical explosives using multiple photon signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loschke, K.W.; Dunn, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A template-matching procedure to aid in rapid detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is being investigated. Multiple photon-scattered and photon-induced positron annihilation radiation responses are being used as part of a photon-neutron signature-based radiation scanning (SBRS) approach (see companion reference for description of the neutron component), in an attempt to detect chemical explosives at safe standoff distances. Many past and present photon interrogation methods are based on imaging. Imaging techniques seek to determine at high special resolution the internal structure of a target of interest. Our technique simply seeks to determine if an unknown target contains a detectable amount of chemical explosives by comparing multiple responses (signatures) that depend on both density and composition of portions of a target. In the photon component, beams of photons are used to create back-streaming signatures, which are dependent on the density and composition of part of the target being interrogated. These signatures are compared to templates, which are collections of the same signatures if the interrogated volume contained a significant amount of explosives. The signature analysis produces a figure-of-merit and a standard deviation of the figure-of-merit. These two metrics are used to filter safe from dangerous targets. Experiments have been conducted that show that explosive surrogates (fertilizers) can be distinguished from several inert materials using these photon signatures, demonstrating that these signatures can be used effectively to help IEDs

  6. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  7. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  8. Basic Research at the University of Washington to Counter Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    frequency equal to ωS = ω1 + ω2. As a concrete example of this process, when photons having wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm illuminate the surface of...Second, common obscuring materials (e.g., cellulose, plastic) are translucent to THz radiation, so detection and imaging of spectral signatures inside

  9. Preventing an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Terror Campaign in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wehri, Matthew T

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis will propose how to prevent a domestic IED terror campaign by utilizing the intelligence triggers indications and warnings and open source intelligence as well as placing increased...

  10. Sustaining Eleven Years of Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Relevancy for Tomorrow’s War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    working aggressively in concert with JIEDDO to find, develop, test , and rapidly deliver emerging CIED capabilities to Marine Corps forces for current...Tools Application Senior Leader’s Att;lC’.lr thP 1PltP1 TATT pmvi~ r.mi11ing C:nnnO#’. frtr GC::’F. m:lnPnvPr unit Nunm:utciPrs :lnci .~nff~ :1t thP

  11. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq, 2003-09: A Case of Operational Surprise and Institutional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    plementation for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan under no-win, no-loss arrangements. While impos- sible to isolate in the published budget data...the slow erosion of our agreeable way of life. The dilemma facing modern militaries, therefore, is to balance their efforts and investment between

  12. Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Fusion Cells and the Brigade Combat Team: A Modern Day Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Center Observer Controller/Trainer Mentors. Lieutenant Colonel Kevin Brown , Brigade Special Troop Battalion Lead Observer Controller/Trainer Mentor...December 2010): 13-19. Joint Readiness Training C-IED Lead Observer Controller/Trainer Mentors. Lieutenant Colonel Kevin S. Brown , Brigade Special... Gareth . “How the U.S. Quietly Lost the IED War in Afghanistan.” Inter Press Service News Agency (10 June 2013). Powledge, Timothy R. “Beating the

  13. Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2006-01-01

    .... IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan...

  14. Dragon’s Claws: The Improvised Explosive Device (IED) as a Weapon of Strategic Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    admiration, respect, regret, sadness, guilt, and even anguish. They emotionally prepared themselves for loading their friends’ flag- draped coffins...including attacks on armoured vehicles, outposts and helicopters.164 AQI certainly has not limited its operations to the guidelines of Zarqawi’s letter...reports of American casualties, glimpses of flag- draped coffins, and stories of towns rallying behind the families of their fallen heroes accumulate in

  15. Assessment of Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) Training Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the RAND study team was asked to assess whether JIEDDO duplicated or showed close similarity to the training programs and functions already...duplication and relatively few cases of close similarity. We also note that Services or CCMDs did use the programs provided and indicated that they used...tailored interactive modules. TBD ALL Home station/CTC/ Theater VISDeS The expansion of KEYHOLE /Route Clearance Optic System/Marine Corps EOD Optic

  16. Enhancing Teaching, Adaptability and Presentation Skills through Improvisational Theater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Marlowe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Improvisational theater, creative role-playing and open-ended scenarios are increasingly being used as ways to emphasize the importance of combining planning with flexibility and evolution to respond to changes in context. These skills and capabilities are extremely valuable in teaching, especially for strengthening communication and interpersonal skills, as well as the capacity for critical thinking and problem solving. Further, this combination of planning with flexibility is also a major theme of agile software development and a number of other problem-solving domains, and in the collaborative development of intellectual property in technical areas. With improvisation, the plan becomes less of a fixed framework, and more of a guideline. In software engineering, it becomes a mutable structure on which to hang goals and objectives, progress, processes, artifacts, and properties. In this submission, we explore the ramifications of this approach.

  17. Photovoltaic Cells Improvised With Used Bipolar Junction Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akintayo, J. A

    2002-01-01

    The understanding of the underlying principle that the solar cell consists of a p-n junction is exploited to adapt the basic NPN or PNP Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) to serve as solar cells. In this mode the in improvised solar cell have employed just the emitter and the base sections with an intact emitter/base junction as the active PN area. The improvised devices tested screened and sorted are wired up in strings, blocks and modules. The photovoltaic modules realised tested as close replica of solar cells with output voltage following insolation level. Further work need be done on the modules to make them generate usable levels of output voltage and current

  18. Twelve tips for using applied improvisation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista; Rossing, Jonathan P; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    Future physicians will practice medicine in a more complex environment than ever, where skills of interpersonal communication, collaboration and adaptability to change are critical. Applied improvisation (or AI) is an instructional strategy which adapts the concepts of improvisational theater to teach these types of complex skills in other contexts. Unique to AI is its very active teaching approach, adapting theater games to help learners meet curricular objectives. In medical education, AI is particularly helpful when attempting to build students' comfort with and skills in complex, interpersonal behaviors such as effective listening, person-centeredness, teamwork and communication. This article draws on current evidence and the authors' experiences to present best practices for incorporating AI into teaching medicine. These practical tips help faculty new to AI get started by establishing goals, choosing appropriate games, understanding effective debriefing, considering evaluation strategies and managing resistance within the context of medical education.

  19. Oral Communication in ESL Through Improvisations, Playwriting And Rehearsals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamkaur Gill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of drama strategies which focus more on meaning than on form can provide an impetus for ESL learners to be more confident about speaking, thereby increasing the quantity of their spoken English. This paper discusses existing research and the author’s own experiences in an attempt to highlight the positive effects of improvisations, playwriting and rehearsals on the oral output of learners in relation to communicative English.

  20. Listeners' and performers' shared understanding of jazz improvisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Schober

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which a large set of musically experienced listeners share understanding with a performing saxophone-piano duo, and with each other, of what happened in three improvisations on a jazz standard. In an online survey, 239 participants listened to audio recordings of three improvisations and rated their agreement with 24 specific statements that the performers and a jazz-expert commenting listener had made about them. Listeners endorsed statements that the performers had agreed upon significantly more than they endorsed statements that the performers had disagreed upon, even though the statements gave no indication of performers' levels of agreement. The findings show some support for a more-experienced-listeners-understand-more-like-performers hypothesis: Listeners with more jazz experience and with experience playing the performers' instruments endorsed the performers' statements more than did listeners with less jazz experience and experience on different instruments. The findings also strongly support a listeners-as-outsiders hypothesis: Listeners' ratings of the 24 statements were far more likely to cluster with the commenting listener's ratings than with either performer's. But the pattern was not universal; particular listeners even with similar musical backgrounds could interpret the same improvisations radically differently. The evidence demonstrates that it is possible for performers' interpretations to be shared with very few listeners, and that listeners’ interpretations about what happened in a musical performance can be far more different from performers’ interpretations than performers or other listeners might assume.

  1. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  2. Listeners' and Performers' Shared Understanding of Jazz Improvisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a large set of musically experienced listeners share understanding with a performing saxophone-piano duo, and with each other, of what happened in three improvisations on a jazz standard. In an online survey, 239 participants listened to audio recordings of three improvisations and rated their agreement with 24 specific statements that the performers and a jazz-expert commenting listener had made about them. Listeners endorsed statements that the performers had agreed upon significantly more than they endorsed statements that the performers had disagreed upon, even though the statements gave no indication of performers' levels of agreement. The findings show some support for a more-experienced-listeners-understand-more-like-performers hypothesis: Listeners with more jazz experience and with experience playing the performers' instruments endorsed the performers' statements more than did listeners with less jazz experience and experience on different instruments. The findings also strongly support a listeners-as-outsiders hypothesis: Listeners' ratings of the 24 statements were far more likely to cluster with the commenting listener's ratings than with either performer's. But the pattern was not universal; particular listeners even with similar musical backgrounds could interpret the same improvisations radically differently. The evidence demonstrates that it is possible for performers' interpretations to be shared with very few listeners, and that listeners' interpretations about what happened in a musical performance can be far more different from performers' interpretations than performers or other listeners might assume.

  3. The Anatomy of a Witch: Lessons in English Language, Literature and Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka (Nemet Flegar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a brief outline of the historical development, principles and implementation of improvisational theatre in both the theatrical and non-theatrical context in order to present the art of improvisation as a strategy in foreign and second language acquisition. Research shows that because of the adaptability of the improvisational game structure which allows for the applicability of improvisational techniques in different contexts and with subjects of various backgrounds, improvisational theatre can be incorporated in teaching an array of subjects and topics, including English as a foreign and second language. In order to demonstrate the possible application of the improvisational strategy in English language teaching, there is a detailed description of an interdisciplinary workshop The English Anatomy of a Witch, focusing on the oral tradition of storytelling and the fairy tale as the direct product of both storytelling and improvisational practices, which contains different aspects of improvisational techniques in the classroom setting. By discussing the figure of the witch, which is anthropologically and historically present in British and American culture, the workshop aims to achieve a number of goals and objectives pertaining to both foreign and second language acquisition, the re-evaluation of the literary tradition, as well as pedagogies that foster critical and divergent thinking.

  4. Improvisation and the Teaching of Literature: The Proceedings of a Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Ann, MO.

    This report comprises transcripts of tape recordings of (1) a short improvisation session conducted by a drama coach and (2) the subsequent seminar (edited) in which the 28 participants explore the relationship of improvisation to teaching literature. Topics discussed are the objectives of literature instruction, emotional experience as an…

  5. Teachers' Improvisation of Instructional Materials for Nigerian Home Economics Curriculum Delivery: Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olibie, Eyiuche Ifeoma; Nwabunwanne, Chinyere; Ezenwanne, Dorothy Nkem

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the challenges of improvising instructional materials by Home Economics teachers at the Upper Basic education level in Nigeria, and as a result identify strategies for enhancing improvisation. The study used survey research design based on two research questions. The sample was four hundred and thirty-one Home…

  6. Teaching Improvisation and the Pedagogical History of the Jimmy Giuffre 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation pedagogy has presented a challenge to music educators since jazz courses began being offered in North American universities in the 1950s, a development which has raised important pedagogical questions ranging from 'Can improvisation be taught?' to "Should it be taught?" Following on the increase in academic…

  7. Improvising with Material in the Higher Education Dance Technique Class: Exploration and Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author, Rachel Rimmer, explores how improvisation can facilitate skills that are transferable to other areas of dance practice, enabling different areas of study to complement each other. The experimental forum of improvisation as an alternative method of learning technique is considered, contemplating the value of this…

  8. Improvisation and Meditation in the Academy: Parallel Ordeals, Insights, and Openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This article examines parallel challenges and avenues for progress I have observed in my efforts to introduce improvisation in classical music studies, and meditation in music and overall academic settings. Though both processes were once central in their respective knowledge traditions--improvisation in earlier eras of European classical music,…

  9. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  10. An Approach to Improvisation Pedagogy in Post-Secondary Jazz Programmes Based on Negative Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louth, Joseph Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that an approach to jazz improvisation pedagogy based on negative dialectics may provide a viable solution to the threat of codification of the jazz language as a result of the academisation of improvisation studies at the post-secondary level. Some tentative means of incorporating such an approach into the design of university…

  11. A National Survey of Music Education Majors' Confidence in Teaching Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, H. Christian, II.; Stringham, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate undergraduate music education majors' confidence in teaching improvisation, according to the NAfME (1994) K-12 Achievement Standards. Specific research questions were: 1) How confident are music education majors in implementing the 11 improvisation achievement standards for grades K-12? 2) How confident…

  12. A Beginning Workshop in the Basic Skill Areas of Theatre Sports Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Lynda

    1990-01-01

    Describes "Theatre Sports," a type of improvisational theater that actively involves the audience. Presents a beginning workshop that explains the basic skills of improvisation (group cohesion and trust, movement, pantomime, spontaneity, offers and blocking, characterization and status, narrative, and endowment) and explains how to play…

  13. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  14. Effects of hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation on the electrical infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Evrenosoglu, C. Yaman; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Phadke, Arun; Thorp, James; Vullikanti, Anil

    2013-01-01

    We study the impacts of a hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation (IND) on the electrical infrastructure and its cascading effects on other urban inter-dependent infrastructures of a major metropolitan area in the US. We synthesize open source information, expert knowledge, commercial software and Google Earth data to derive a realistic electrical transmission and distribution network spanning the region. A dynamic analysis of the geo-located grid is carried out to determine the cause of malfunction of components, and their short-term and long-term effect on the stability of the grid. Finally a detailed estimate of the cost of damage to the major components of the infrastructure is provided.

  15. Patterns of Joint Improvisation in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezis, Rachel-Shlomit; Noy, Lior; Alony, Tali; Gotlieb, Rachel; Cohen, Rachel; Golland, Yulia; Levit-Binnun, Nava

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggests that individuals with autism may have a basic deficit in synchronizing with others, and that this difficulty may lead to more complex social and communicative deficits. Here, we examined synchronization during an open-ended joint improvisation (JI) paradigm, called the mirror game (MG). In the MG, two players take turns leading, following, and jointly improvising motion using two handles set on parallel tracks, while their motion tracks are recorded with high temporal and spatial resolution. A series of previous studies have shown that players in the MG attain moments of highly synchronized co-confident (CC) motion, in which there is no typical kinematic pattern of leader and reactive follower. It has been suggested that during these moments players act as a coupled unit and feel high levels of connectedness. Here, we aimed to assess whether participants with ASD are capable of attaining CC, and whether their MG performance relates to broader motor and social skills. We found that participants with ASD ( n = 34) can indeed attain CC moments when playing with an expert improviser, though their performance was attenuated in several ways, compared to typically developing (TD) participants ( n = 35). Specifically, ASD participants had lower rates of CC, compared with TD participants, which was most pronounced during the following rounds. In addition, the duration of their CC segments was shorter, across all rounds. When controlling for participants' motor skills (both on the MG console, and more broadly) some of the variability in MG performance was explained, but group differences remained. ASD participants' alexithymia further correlated with their difficulty following another's lead; though other social skills did not relate to MG performance. Participants' subjective reports of the game suggest that other cognitive and emotional factors, such as attention, motivation, and reward-processing, which were not

  16. Patterns of Joint Improvisation in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel-Shlomit Brezis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs suggests that individuals with autism may have a basic deficit in synchronizing with others, and that this difficulty may lead to more complex social and communicative deficits. Here, we examined synchronization during an open-ended joint improvisation (JI paradigm, called the mirror game (MG. In the MG, two players take turns leading, following, and jointly improvising motion using two handles set on parallel tracks, while their motion tracks are recorded with high temporal and spatial resolution. A series of previous studies have shown that players in the MG attain moments of highly synchronized co-confident (CC motion, in which there is no typical kinematic pattern of leader and reactive follower. It has been suggested that during these moments players act as a coupled unit and feel high levels of connectedness. Here, we aimed to assess whether participants with ASD are capable of attaining CC, and whether their MG performance relates to broader motor and social skills. We found that participants with ASD (n = 34 can indeed attain CC moments when playing with an expert improviser, though their performance was attenuated in several ways, compared to typically developing (TD participants (n = 35. Specifically, ASD participants had lower rates of CC, compared with TD participants, which was most pronounced during the following rounds. In addition, the duration of their CC segments was shorter, across all rounds. When controlling for participants’ motor skills (both on the MG console, and more broadly some of the variability in MG performance was explained, but group differences remained. ASD participants’ alexithymia further correlated with their difficulty following another’s lead; though other social skills did not relate to MG performance. Participants’ subjective reports of the game suggest that other cognitive and emotional factors, such as attention, motivation, and reward

  17. Effects of hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation on the electrical infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Evrenosoglu, C. Yaman; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Phadke, Arun; Thorp, James; Vullikanti, Anil [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Network Dynamics and Simulation Science Lab.

    2013-07-01

    We study the impacts of a hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation (IND) on the electrical infrastructure and its cascading effects on other urban inter-dependent infrastructures of a major metropolitan area in the US. We synthesize open source information, expert knowledge, commercial software and Google Earth data to derive a realistic electrical transmission and distribution network spanning the region. A dynamic analysis of the geo-located grid is carried out to determine the cause of malfunction of components, and their short-term and long-term effect on the stability of the grid. Finally a detailed estimate of the cost of damage to the major components of the infrastructure is provided.

  18. Interprofessional communication and teambuilding using applied improvisational exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Candace

    2014-01-01

    According to The Joint Commission (TJC), the most frequently cited root cause of sentinel events is ineffective communication or miscommunication (TJC, 2002, 2012). The need to improve communication among health care professionals is a high priority because of the serious consequences of poor communication for everyone involved, on both personal and corporate levels. Applied improvisational exercises (AlEs) comprise a strategy for enhancing interprofessional communication (IPC). This article asks: What are the challenges inherent in IPC and teambuilding in the health care setting, and how can AIE help bridge the communication gap?

  19. Free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  20. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  1. Chernobyl explosion bombshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Arnott, D.

    1988-01-01

    It is suggested that the explosion at the Chernobyl-4 reactor in April 1986 was a nuclear explosion. The evidence for this is examined. The sequence of events at Chernobyl is looked at to see if the effects were like those from a nuclear explosion. The question of whether a United Kingdom reactor could go prompt critical is discussed. It is concluded that prompt criticality excursions are possible, but the specific Chernobyl sequence is impossible. (UK)

  2. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  3. Creativity as openness: improvising health and care 'situations'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, James

    2009-12-01

    Creativity has become an oft-used word in UK public policy, but perhaps it is also under-imagined. This paper contends that there is an instrumental tendency to narrowly frame creativity as innovation, implying a reproducible product, instead of more openly as improvisation, a situational, embodied and temporal process. This is not a simple dichotomy (innovation and improvisation, product and process, can be mutually informing concepts), nor is it specifically a question of definition; rather, it relates to an ontological orientation, and related to that are issues of epistemological implications. In particular the paper is concerned with the value of the arts in public policy, as situated in the social, and therefore human, spaces of health and care; and more generally the arts in society. The paper brings together a broad discussion from across disciplines, not in an interdisciplinary attempt to solve a problem, or to be reductive in the analysis, but to begin to approach a reorienting of understandings of creativity and the human value and foundation of the arts in society.

  4. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state. PMID:29740300

  5. Teaching Improvisation through Processes. Applications in Music Education and Implications for General Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Biasutti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper. The challenge is to overcome the mere instructional dimension of some practices of teaching improvisation by designing activities that stimulate self-regulated learning strategies in the students. In the article the present thesis is declined in three ways, concerning the following three possible areas of application: (1 high-level musical learning, (2 musical pedagogy with children, (3 general pedagogy. The applications in the music field focusing mainly on an expert's use of improvisation are discussed. The last section considers how these ideas should transcend music studies, presenting the benefits and the implications of improvisation activities for general learning. Moreover, the application of music education to the following cognitive processes are discussed: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback and flow. These characteristics could be used to outline a pedagogical method for teaching music improvisation based on the development of reflection, reasoning, and meta-cognition.

  6. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians ( N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5-7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15-29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  7. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Boasen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG. However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG. With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13 in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  8. Teaching Improvisation through Processes. Applications in Music Education and Implications for General Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper. The challenge is to overcome the mere instructional dimension of some practices of teaching improvisation by designing activities that stimulate self-regulated learning strategies in the students. In the article the present thesis is declined in three ways, concerning the following three possible areas of application: (1) high-level musical learning, (2) musical pedagogy with children, (3) general pedagogy. The applications in the music field focusing mainly on an expert's use of improvisation are discussed. The last section considers how these ideas should transcend music studies, presenting the benefits and the implications of improvisation activities for general learning. Moreover, the application of music education to the following cognitive processes are discussed: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback and flow. These characteristics could be used to outline a pedagogical method for teaching music improvisation based on the development of reflection, reasoning, and meta-cognition.

  9. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Larry, E-mail: larry.hudson@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work responds to the need for standards for x-ray screening systems used to detect explosives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Described are new measurement tools to gage the performance and radiation safety of such systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders is argued.

  10. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, Larry; Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. - Highlights: ► This work responds to the need for standards for x-ray screening systems used to detect explosives. ► Described are new measurement tools to gage the performance and radiation safety of such systems. ► A more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders is argued.

  11. Explosion metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community

  12. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  13. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  14. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Gary H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  16. Underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Gary H.

    1970-01-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  17. Jazz and the ‘Art’ of Medicine: Improvisation in the Medical Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Improvisation is an important aspect of patient-physician communication. It is also a defining feature of jazz music performance. This essay uses examples from jazz to illustrate principles of improvisation that relate to an individual communication act (ie, building space into one’s communication), a physician’s communicative style (ie, developing one’s voice), and the communicative process of the medical encounter (ie, achieving ensemble). At all 3 levels, the traditions of jazz improvisation can inform efforts to research and teach medical interviewing by fostering a contextualized view of patient-physician communication. PMID:17389542

  18. Jazz and the 'art' of medicine: improvisation in the medical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Improvisation is an important aspect of patient-physician communication. It is also a defining feature of jazz music performance. This essay uses examples from jazz to illustrate principles of improvisation that relate to an individual communication act (ie, building space into one's communication), a physician's communicative style (ie, developing one's voice), and the communicative process of the medical encounter (ie, achieving ensemble). At all 3 levels, the traditions of jazz improvisation can inform efforts to research and teach medical interviewing by fostering a contextualized view of patient-physician communication.

  19. The Role of Head Teacher in Improvisation and Maintenance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... aid effective teaching and learning in the school system. In his own view ... Enrolment explosion leading to excessive pressure on existing school facilities. .... Financing maintenance cost internally: The head teacher must be.

  20. Neural correlates of lyrical improvisation: an FMRI study of freestyle rap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Chow, Ho Ming; Xu, Yisheng; Erkkinen, Michael G; Swett, Katherine E; Eagle, Michael W; Rizik-Baer, Daniel A; Braun, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of creativity are poorly understood. Freestyle rap provides a unique opportunity to study spontaneous lyrical improvisation, a multidimensional form of creativity at the interface of music and language. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize this process. Task contrast analyses indicate that improvised performance is characterized by dissociated activity in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, providing a context in which stimulus-independent behaviors may unfold in the absence of conscious monitoring and volitional control. Connectivity analyses reveal widespread improvisation-related correlations between medial prefrontal, cingulate motor, perisylvian cortices and amygdala, suggesting the emergence of a network linking motivation, language, affect and movement. Lyrical improvisation appears to be characterized by altered relationships between regions coupling intention and action, in which conventional executive control may be bypassed and motor control directed by cingulate motor mechanisms. These functional reorganizations may facilitate the initial improvisatory phase of creative behavior.

  1. Improviser non verbalement pour l’apprentissage de la langue parlée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Chaîné

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Un texte réflexif sur la pratique de l'improvisation dans un contexte scolaire en vue d'apprendre la langue parlée. D'aucun penserait que l'improvisation verbale est le moyen par excellence pour faire l'apprentissage de la langue, mais l'expérience nous a fait découvrir la richesse de l'improvisation non-verbale suivie de prise de parole sur la pratique comme moyen privilégié. L'article est illustré d'un atelier d'improvisation-non verbale s'adressant à des enfants ou à des adolescents.

  2. WORLD-WIDE PERSPECTIVES ON IMPROVISATIONAL MUSIC THERAPY FROM THE TIME-A PROJECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Geretsegger, Monika

    Background Improvisational music therapy methods have been viewed as a valuable way of working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) since the pioneering efforts of Alvin and Nordoff and Robbins (Alvin, 1978; Nordoff & Robbins, 1977). The TIME-A project is a unique international...... collaboration targeted at investigating the effectiveness of improvisational music therapy (IMT) (Geretsegger, Holck, & Gold, 2012; Wigram, 2004) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within this project, an international “consensus model” for IMT has been developed by drawing on the worldwide...... perspectives of the international collaborators. World Wide Perspectives on Improvisational Music Therapy with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Clinicians from 4 continents around the world presented examples of clinical work highlighting an aspect of working improvisationally in their local context...

  3. Emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness of children with autism in improvisational music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint attention ep...

  4. Explosives 92. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnfield, R.A. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    17 papers are presented. Topics covered include: the POG system - a new concept in the use of ANFO; demolition of a motorway bridge; presplit and smooth blasting; VIBReX - a predictive code for assessing the effect of blast design on ground vibration; ground vibrations from blasting; digital seismographs; human response to blasting and the effects on planning conditions; landform construction by restoration blasting; use of small diameter explosives; efficient priming; safety management in the explosives industry; and the law on packaging of explosives. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  5. Danger of the improvisation in the services of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, Laura M.A.; Azevedo, Ana C.P.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the safety conditions and of the radiological protection procedures in some X-rays rooms at the Radiodiagnostic Service of the HUCFF was performed. This evaluation was carried through the radiometric survey of the rooms, using an ion chamber of ionization Victoreen 450 P, calibrated for radiodiagnostic and a water phantom of 25 x 35 cm. The results showed that in the places shielded by proper barriers, the dose rates were in accordance with international recommendations and Norm CNEN 3.01. In the rooms where mobile shielding were placed, presented dose rates above the acceptable limits being critical in small rooms. Very often the improvisations are made without communication to the technical department. Periodic radiometric surveys help in the detection of situations. (author)

  6. A Preliminary Analysis of Teaching Improvisation with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Marckel, Julie M; Neef, Nancy A; Ferreri, Summer J

    2006-01-01

    Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of improvised requests, and that these skills generalized to novel items, and across settings and listeners in the natural environment.

  7. Planning to Improvise? The Role of Reasoning in the Strategy Process: Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Paul; Hodgkinson, Ian R.; Arshad, Darwina; Hughes, Mathew; Leone, Vitor

    2017-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Planning and improvisation are depicted as alternate decision-making orientations in the strategy process literature, executed by two parallel cognitive contexts: rational or intuitive, but can rationality and intuition be harmonised in the strategy process? Strategic managers may not have to choose to either plan or improvise, rather there is ...

  8. Ways of the Jam:Collective and improvisational perspectives on learning

    OpenAIRE

    Brinck, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In the PhD-dissertation Ways of the Jam I investigate jamming and learning as profoundly collective and improvisational matters. Bridging a theory of funk jamming with situated learning theoretical analyses of New Orleans second line, everyday leadership, and of a studio recording session demonstrate how looking at human activity from a jamming perspective enhances our understanding of learning as a complex collective and improvisational process. Ways of the Jam demonstrates how learning is a...

  9. Being in the zone: physiological markers of togetherness in joint improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    Noy, Lior; Levit-Binun, Nava; Golland, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Performers improvising together describe special moments of ‘being in the zone’ – periods of high performance, synchrony, and enhanced sense of togetherness. Existing evidence suggests a possible route for attaining togetherness – interpersonal synchrony, the fine-grained sensory-motor coordination that promotes social connectedness. Here, we investigated the physiological characteristics of togetherness using a practice from theater and dance, the mirror game. Pairs of expert improvisers joi...

  10. Being in the zone: physiological markers of togetherness in joint improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    Lior eNoy; Lior eNoy; Nava eLevit Binnun; Uri eAlon; Uri eAlon; Yulia eGolland

    2015-01-01

    Performers improvising together describe special moments of ‘being in the zone’ – periods of high performance, synchrony and enhanced sense of togetherness. Existing evidence suggests ¬a possible route for attaining togetherness - interpersonal synchrony, the fine-grained sensory-motor coordination that promotes social connectedness. Here we investigated the physiological characteristics of togetherness using a practice from theater and dance, the mirror game.Pairs of expert improvisers joint...

  11. The control and prevention of dust explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Papers presented discussed: explosion characteristics and hybrid mixtures explosion characteristics and influencing factors, propagation of dust explosions in ducts, prevention of dust explosions, desensitization, explosion-proof type of construction, explosion pressure relief, optical flame barriers, slide-valves for explosion protection, Ventex explosion barrier valves, grinding and mixing plants, spray driers, dust explosions in silos, and explosion-proof bucket elevators. One paper has been abstracted separately.

  12. Creativity as a distinct trainable mental state: An EEG study of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Joel A; Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Joanisse, Marc F

    2017-05-01

    Alpha-band EEG was used to index how creative mental states relate to the creation of artistic works in skilled musicians. We contrasted differences in frontal upper alpha-band activity between tasks with high and low creativity demands by recording EEGs while skilled musicians listened to, played back, and improvised jazz melodies. Neural responses were compared for skilled musicians with training in musical improvisation versus those who had no formal improvisation training. Consistent with our hypotheses, individuals showed increased frontal upper alpha-band activity during more creative tasks (i.e., improvisation) compared to during less creative tasks (i.e., rote playback). Moreover, this effect was greatest for musicians with formal improvisation training. The strength of this effect also appeared to modulate the quality of these improvisations, as evidenced by significant correlations between upper alpha EEG power and objective post-hoc ratings of individuals' performances. These findings support a conceptualization of creativity as a distinct mental state and suggest spontaneous processing capacity is better nurtured through formal institutional training than informal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The acquisition of socio-motor improvisation in the mirror game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Socio-motor improvisation is defined as the creative action of two or more people without a script or anticipated preparation. It is evaluated through two main parameters: movement synchronization and movement richness. Experts in art (e.g., dance, theater or music) are known to exhibit higher synchronization and to perform richer movements during interpersonal improvisation, but how these competences evolve over time is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether performing more synchronized and richer movements over time can promote the acquisition of improvisation. Pairs of novice participants were instructed to play an improvisation mirror game in three different sessions. Between sessions, they performed an unintended interpersonal coordination task in which synchronization and richness were manipulated, resulting in four different groups of dyads. Our results demonstrate that synchronization during improvisation improved for all groups whereas movement richness only enhanced for dyads that performed synchronized movements during unintended coordination tasks. Our findings suggest that movement synchrony contributes more than movement richness to the acquisition of socio-motor improvisation in the mirror game. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The mirror game as a paradigm for studying the dynamics of two people improvising motion together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Dekel, Erez; Alon, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Joint improvisation is the creative action of two or more people without a script or designated leader. Examples include improvisational theater and music, and day-to-day activities such as conversations. In joint improvisation, novel action is created, emerging from the interaction between people. Although central to creative processes and social interaction, joint improvisation remains largely unexplored due to the lack of experimental paradigms. Here we introduce a paradigm based on a theater practice called the mirror game. We measured the hand motions of two people mirroring each other at high temporal and spatial resolution. We focused on expert actors and musicians skilled in joint improvisation. We found that players can jointly create novel complex motion without a designated leader, synchronized to less than 40 ms. In contrast, we found that designating one player as leader deteriorated performance: The follower showed 2–3 Hz oscillation around the leader's smooth trajectory, decreasing synchrony and reducing the range of velocities reached. A mathematical model suggests a mechanism for these observations based on mutual agreement on future motion in mirrored reactive–predictive controllers. This is a step toward understanding the human ability to create novelty by improvising together. PMID:22160696

  15. Thermal explosion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Tso Chin [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1984-12-01

    The phenomenon of thermal explosion arises in several important safety problems, yet scientists are still baffled by its origin. This article reviews some of the models that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon.

  16. Thermal explosion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chin Ping

    1984-01-01

    The phenomenon of thermal explosion arises in several important safety problems, yet scientists are still baffled by its origin. This article reviews some of the models that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. (author)

  17. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  18. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  19. Nuclear explosive driven experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressures are generated in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion. We have developed diagnostic techniques to obtain precise high pressures equation-of-state data in this exotic but hostile environment

  20. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  1. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... explosive disorder involves repeated, sudden episodes of impulsive, aggressive, violent behavior or angry verbal outbursts in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Road rage, domestic abuse, throwing or breaking objects, or other temper tantrums ...

  2. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  3. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reber, Edward L.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Jewell, J. Keith; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Klinger, Jeffery B.

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004

  4. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Edward L. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States)]. E-mail: reber@inel.gov; Blackwood, Larry G. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Edwards, Andrew J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Jewell, J. Keith [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Rohde, Kenneth W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Seabury, Edward H. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Klinger, Jeffery B. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  5. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  6. Sensitivities of ionic explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Lane, Pat; Murray, Jane S.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the relevance for ionic explosive sensitivity of three factors that have been demonstrated to be related to the sensitivities of molecular explosives. These are (1) the maximum available heat of detonation, (2) the amount of free space per molecule (or per formula unit) in the crystal lattice and (3) specific features of the electrostatic potential on the molecular or ionic surface. We find that for ionic explosives, just as for molecular ones, there is an overall tendency for impact sensitivity to increase as the maximum detonation heat release is greater. This means that the usual emphasis upon designing explosives with large heats of detonation needs to be tempered somewhat. We also show that a moderate detonation heat release does not preclude a high level of detonation performance for ionic explosives, as was already demonstrated for molecular ones. Relating the free space per formula unit to sensitivity may require a modified procedure for ionic explosives; this will continue to be investigated. Finally, an encouraging start has been made in linking impact sensitivities to the electrostatic potentials on ionic surfaces, although limited so far to ammonium salts.

  7. The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: A randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy a...... skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further....

  8. A study on vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, N.; Shoji, M.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out for vapor explosions of molten tin falling in water. For various initial metal temperatures and subcooling of water, transient pressure of the explosions, relative frequency of the explosions and the position where the explosions occur were measured in detail. The influence of ambient pressure was also investigated. From the results, it was concluded that the vapor explosion is closely related to the collapse of a vapor film around the molten metal. (author)

  9. Automation in airport security X-ray screening of cabin baggage: Examining benefits and possible implementations of automated explosives detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Sterchi, Yanik; Mendes, Marcia; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2018-10-01

    Bomb attacks on civil aviation make detecting improvised explosive devices and explosive material in passenger baggage a major concern. In the last few years, explosive detection systems for cabin baggage screening (EDSCB) have become available. Although used by a number of airports, most countries have not yet implemented these systems on a wide scale. We investigated the benefits of EDSCB with two different levels of automation currently being discussed by regulators and airport operators: automation as a diagnostic aid with an on-screen alarm resolution by the airport security officer (screener) or EDSCB with an automated decision by the machine. The two experiments reported here tested and compared both scenarios and a condition without automation as baseline. Participants were screeners at two international airports who differed in both years of work experience and familiarity with automation aids. Results showed that experienced screeners were good at detecting improvised explosive devices even without EDSCB. EDSCB increased only their detection of bare explosives. In contrast, screeners with less experience (tenure automated decision provided better human-machine detection performance than on-screen alarm resolution and no automation. This came at the cost of slightly higher false alarm rates on the human-machine system level, which would still be acceptable from an operational point of view. Results indicate that a wide-scale implementation of EDSCB would increase the detection of explosives in passenger bags and automated decision instead of automation as diagnostic aid with on screen alarm resolution should be considered. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGaast, Brian W.; McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) identified a requirement for inert simulants to act as improvised, or homemade, explosives (IEs) when training on, or evaluating, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems commonly used in the detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In response, Defence R and D Canada (DRDC) initiated a project to develop IE simulant formulations using commonly available inert materials. These simulants are intended to approximate the expected GPR response of common ammonium nitrate-based IEs, in particular ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) and ammonium nitrate/aluminum (ANAl). The complex permittivity over the range of electromagnetic frequencies relevant to standard GPR systems was measured for bulk quantities of these three IEs that had been fabricated at DRDC Suffield Research Centre. Following these measurements, published literature was examined to find benign materials with both a similar complex permittivity, as well as other physical properties deemed desirable - such as low-toxicity, thermal stability, and commercial availability - in order to select candidates for subsequent simulant formulation. Suitable simulant formulations were identified for ANFO, with resulting complex permittivities measured to be within acceptable limits of target values. These IE formulations will now undergo end-user trials with CAF operators in order to confirm their utility. Investigations into ANAl simulants continues. This progress report outlines the development program, simulant design, and current validation results.

  11. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2010-04-15

    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Humor doesn't retire: Improvisation as a health-promoting intervention for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Lucy A; Xiong, Linda; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Anne, Seltzer; Barish, Becca; Lindquist, Lee A

    As our population ages and aging in place continues to remain a priority of older adults, identifying novel ways to promote the wellbeing of older adults and reduce isolation is of the utmost importance. The Second City is a Chicago-based comedy improvisation organization that provides training in improvisation. One of their training courses, Humor Doesn't Retire, specifically teaches adults 55 and over, on improvisation. This study sought to explore the experiences of older adults enrolled in Humor Doesn't Retire, and to characterize any benefits that older adult participants perceived following participation in the comedy improvisation course. Qualitative analysis was used to identify and describe common themes that emerged in a survey of open-ended questions regarding benefits of the improvisation course on outlook and mood as well as behavior changes. Results for perceived benefits showed main themes of increased positivity, an increased sense of comfort and ease with the unexpected, a sense of self-development and self-awareness, and a feeling of acceptance by their social group. Participants reported that these changes fed into their behaviors, and resulted in enhanced problem solving abilities, greater facility in social situations, and the tangible outcome of an expanded and closer-knit social circle. As the first study in our knowledge to examine the effect of improvisation comedy on healthy older adults, this exploratory analysis has suggested that improvisation comedy may be a mechanism by which to combat several geriatric syndromes, including depression, stress, and isolation - all of which are detrimental to older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  14. Novel high explosive compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  15. High-nitrogen explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAz

  16. Shared periodic performer movements coordinate interactions in duo improvisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Moran, Nikki; Keller, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    Human interaction involves the exchange of temporally coordinated, multimodal cues. Our work focused on interaction in the visual domain, using music performance as a case for analysis due to its temporally diverse and hierarchical structures. We made use of two improvising duo datasets—(i) performances of a jazz standard with a regular pulse and (ii) non-pulsed, free improvizations—to investigate whether human judgements of moments of interaction between co-performers are influenced by body movement coordination at multiple timescales. Bouts of interaction in the performances were manually annotated by experts and the performers’ movements were quantified using computer vision techniques. The annotated interaction bouts were then predicted using several quantitative movement and audio features. Over 80% of the interaction bouts were successfully predicted by a broadband measure of the energy of the cross-wavelet transform of the co-performers’ movements in non-pulsed duos. A more complex model, with multiple predictors that captured more specific, interacting features of the movements, was needed to explain a significant amount of variance in the pulsed duos. The methods developed here have key implications for future work on measuring visual coordination in musical ensemble performances, and can be easily adapted to other musical contexts, ensemble types and traditions. PMID:29515867

  17. Disciplined Improvisation: Characteristics of Inquiry in Mindfulness-Based Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Rebecca S; Stanley, Steven; Rooney, Michael; Bartley, Trish; Cooper, Lucinda; Mardula, Jody

    Evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is rapidly growing as interest in this field expands. By contrast, there are few empirical analyses of the pedagogy of MBSR and MBCT. Development of the evidence base concerning the teaching of MBCT or MBSR would support the integrity of the approach in the context of rapid expansion. This paper describes an applied conversation analysis (CA) of the characteristics of inquiry in the MBSR and MBCT teaching process. Audio-recordings of three 8-week MBCT and MBSR classes, with 24, 12, and 6 participants, were transcribed and systematically examined. The study focused on the teacher-led interactive inquiry which takes place in each session after a guided meditation practice. The study describes and analyzes three practices within the inquiry process that can be identified in sequences of talk: turn-taking talk involving questions and reformulations; the development of participant skills in a particular way of describing experience; and talk that constructs intersubjective connection and affiliation within the group. CA enables fine-grained analysis of the interactional work of mindfulness-based inquiry. Inquiry is a process of disciplined improvisation which is both highly specific to the conditions of the moment it took place in and uses repeated and recognizable patterns of interaction.

  18. Explosive material treatment in particular the explosive compaction of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruemmer, R.

    1985-01-01

    The constructive use of explosives in the last decades has led to new procedures in manufacturing techniques. The most important of these are explosive forming and cladding, the latter especially for the production of compound materials. The method of explosive compaction has the highest potential for further innovation. Almost theoretical densities are achievable in the green compacts as the pressure released by detonating explosives are very high. Also, the production of new conditions of materials (metastable high pressure phases) is possible. (orig.) [de

  19. Design of a Virtual Player for Joint Improvisation with Humans in the Mirror Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chao; Alderisio, Francesco; Słowiński, Piotr; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; di Bernardo, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Joint improvisation is often observed among humans performing joint action tasks. Exploring the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms behind the emergence of joint improvisation is an open research challenge. This paper investigates jointly improvised movements between two participants in the mirror game, a paradigmatic joint task example. First, experiments involving movement coordination of different dyads of human players are performed in order to build a human benchmark. No designation of leader and follower is given beforehand. We find that joint improvisation is characterized by the lack of a leader and high levels of movement synchronization. Then, a theoretical model is proposed to capture some features of their interaction, and a set of experiments is carried out to test and validate the model ability to reproduce the experimental observations. Furthermore, the model is used to drive a computer avatar able to successfully improvise joint motion with a human participant in real time. Finally, a convergence analysis of the proposed model is carried out to confirm its ability to reproduce joint movements between the participants.

  20. Creating the next steps to care: Maternal heath, improvisation, and Fulani women in Niamey, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    On paper, Niger's maternal healthcare system is extensively outlined by policies which assure access to certain services and create hierarchical referral chains. In practice it remains intensely improvisational: actors in the system must frequently make up the next steps to giving and receiving care, often outside the existing policies and procedures. Although population health in Niger has improved since the recently enacted gratuité des soins policy (which guarantees free access to certain material and child health services), care on the ground is still dictated by difficult circumstances and scarce resources. Health workers often lack the required medications and supplies; nevertheless, they must find ways to deliver services. Patients seeking maternal health services are frequently dissatisfied with the care they receive and so move forward of their own volition, by negotiating with health workers or by looking for services elsewhere. This research builds on recent scholarly work on improvisation, and asks us to further look at the ways that improvisation can be informed by the identity of the actors. Examining case studies of women from the Fulani ethnic group illustrates how particular cultural differences can inform improvisation. Analysing improvisation can also have policy implications; identifying typical points of departure from the official maternal health care system can reveal points where Niger can bolster its commitment to a universally high quality of care.

  1. The role of emotion in musical improvisation: an analysis of structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda J; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Rankin, Summer K; Limb, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor) and emotion (happy vs. sad) do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not utilize any universal rules to convey emotions, but would instead combine heterogeneous musical elements together in order to depict positive and negative emotions. Our findings demonstrate a lack of simple correspondence between emotions and musical features of spontaneous musical improvisation. While improvisations in response to positive emotional cues were more likely to be in major keys, have faster tempos, faster key press velocities and more staccato notes when compared to negative improvisations, there was a wide distribution for each emotion with components that directly violated these primary associations. The finding that musicians often combine disparate features together in order to convey emotion during improvisation suggests that structural diversity may be an essential feature of the ability of music to express a wide range of emotion.

  2. The role of emotion in musical improvisation: an analysis of structural features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda J McPherson

    Full Text Available One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor and emotion (happy vs. sad do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not utilize any universal rules to convey emotions, but would instead combine heterogeneous musical elements together in order to depict positive and negative emotions. Our findings demonstrate a lack of simple correspondence between emotions and musical features of spontaneous musical improvisation. While improvisations in response to positive emotional cues were more likely to be in major keys, have faster tempos, faster key press velocities and more staccato notes when compared to negative improvisations, there was a wide distribution for each emotion with components that directly violated these primary associations. The finding that musicians often combine disparate features together in order to convey emotion during improvisation suggests that structural diversity may be an essential feature of the ability of music to express a wide range of emotion.

  3. Using the Native American Flute in a Beginning Instrumental Classroom: The Native American Flute Can Be a Great Tool for Helping Students Learn to Improvise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Michael; Winslow, Hayley

    2006-01-01

    Although the National Standards include achievement standards for improvisation for elementary school students, music teachers sometimes are reluctant to pursue improvisation study with young students. First- and second-year instrumental students, often older elementary or middle school students, may have difficulty studying improvisation because…

  4. 75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting powder. BTNEC [bis.... Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing... powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating...

  5. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ..., including non-cap sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting.... Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing... powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating...

  6. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  7. The Multiple-Demand System in the Novelty of Musical Improvisation: Evidence from an MRI Study on Composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; He, Hui; Jeon, Seun; Hou, Changyue; Evans, Alan C; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    The multiple-demand (MD) system has proven to be associated with creating structured mental programs in comprehensive behaviors, but the functional mechanisms of this system have not been clarified in the musical domain. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that the MD system is involved in a comprehensive music-related behavior known as musical improvisation. Under a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, 29 composers were recruited to improvise melodies through visual imagery tasks according to familiar and unfamiliar cues. We found that the main regions of the MD system were significantly activated during both musical improvisation conditions. However, only a greater involvement of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) within the MD system was shown when improvising with unfamiliar cues. Our results revealed that the MD system strongly participated in musical improvisation through processing the novelty of melodies, working memory, and attention. In particular, improvising with unfamiliar cues required more musical transposition manipulations. Moreover, both functional and structural analyses indicated evidence of neuroplasticity in MD regions that could be associated with musical improvisation training. These findings can help unveil the functional mechanisms of the MD system in musical cognition, as well as improve our understanding of musical improvisation.

  8. Freedom and Responsibility: The Aesthetics of Free Musical Improvisation and Its Educational Implications--A View from Bakhtin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to examine how specific aspects of Bakhtin's theoretical perspective might inform our understanding of improvisation. Moreover, it outlines the possible educational implications of such a perspective. Specifically, a sketch of a Bakhtinian conception of improvisation is proposed, a sketch which emphasizes the cultivation of an…

  9. Towards a Typology of Improvisation as a Professional Teaching Skill: Implications for Pre-Service Teacher Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Helga; Espeland, Magne; Arnesen, Trond Egil

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss the concept of improvisation as a professional teaching skill. Our professional context is teacher education and our discussion is aimed at developing a categorized understanding, or rather a tentative typology, of what professional improvisation in teaching and teacher education might be. Undertaking such a bold…

  10. "Play It Again, Billy, but This Time with More Mistakes": Divergent Improvisation Activities for the Jazz Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The jazz ensemble represents an important performance opportunity in many school music programs. Due to the cultural history of jazz as an improvisatory art form, school jazz ensemble directors must address methods of teaching improvisation concepts to young students. Progress has been made in the field of prescribed improvisation activities and…

  11. Differential parietal and temporal contributions to music perception in improvising and score-dependent musicians, an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert Harris; Bauke M. de Jong

    2015-01-01

    Using fMRI, cerebral activations were studied in 24 classically-trained keyboard performers and 12 musically unskilled control subjects. Two groups of musicians were recruited: improvising (n=12) and score-dependent (non-improvising) musicians (n=12). While listening to both familiar and unfamiliar

  12. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  13. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate. OSHA subsequently made several minor revisions to the standard (37 FR... explosives; storing ammonium nitrate; and storing small arms ammunition, small arms primers, and small arms..., which is extremely widespread, causes lung disease, silicosis and lung cancer. Terminating the...

  14. New slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, D.C.

    1982-12-01

    Mining engineers will soon have an additional 2 or 3 types of explosives which increase rock yield without increasing cost. A new variety of Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil (ANFO), which is much heavier and more powerful, is being introduced in the US. New types of NCN (nitrocarbonitrate) blasting agents have also been developed.

  15. STIDP: A U.S. Department of Homeland Security program for countering explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Christa K.; Kemp, Michael C.; Lombardo, Nicholas J.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Standoff Technology Integration and Demonstration Program is designed to accelerate the development and integration of technologies, concepts of operations, and training to defeat explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities. The program will address threats posed by suicide bombers, vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices, and leave-behind bombs. The program is focused on developing and testing explosives countermeasure architectures using commercial off-the-shelf and near-commercial standoff and remotely operated detection technologies in prototypic operational environments. An important part of the program is the integration of multiple technologies and systems to protect against a wider range of threats, improve countermeasure performance, increase the distance from the venue at which screening is conducted, and reduce staffing requirements. The program will routinely conduct tests in public venues involving successively more advanced technology, higher levels of system integration, and more complex scenarios. This paper describes the initial field test of an integrated countermeasure system that included infrared, millimeter-wave, and video analytics technologies for detecting person-borne improvised explosive devices at a public arena. The test results are being used to develop a concept for the next generation of integrated countermeasures, to refine technical and operational requirements for architectures and technologies, and engage industry and academia in solution development.

  16. Beginning from the End: Strategies of Composition in Lyrical Improvisation with End Rhyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venla Sykäri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the basic principles of constructing improvised verses with end rhyme in three contemporary cultures: _mandinadhes_, Mallorcan _gloses_, and Finnish freestyle rap. This study is based on ethnographic interviews, in which improvisers analyze their methods of composition. This knowledge is complemented by a textual analysis of examples of performances in the given traditions. Sykäri shows that competent improvisers master complex cognitive methods when they create their lines that end with the poetic device of end rhyme, and in particular when they structure the discourse so that the strong arguments are situated at the end of the structural unit of composition. This “reversed” method witnesses a tendency to use parallel phonic patterns in a way that is largely the opposite of those employed with semantic (or canonical parallelism.

  17. Tinkering toward departure: The limits of improvisation in rural Ethiopian biomedical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores Ethiopian physicians' responses to tensions produced by gaps between ideals of biomedicine and realities of clinical practice in two rural Ethiopian hospitals. Physicians engage in creativity and improvisation, including relying on informal networks and practices and tinkering within diagnoses and procedures, to overcome constraints of lack of resources and limited opportunities to engage in "good medicine." These courageous, but often unsuccessful attempts to mitigate professional and personal conflicts within their medical practices represent improvisation in impossible circumstances. This paper results from ethnographic research conducted in 2013-2014 and includes participant observations and qualitative interviews in two hospitals within the same community. The inherent conflicts among globalized standards, unpredictable transnational medical networks, and innovative practices produce tenuous clinical spaces and practices that rely on a mosaic of techniques and ad hoc connections. Tinkering and improvisation often fail to mediate these conflicts, contributing to physician disenchantment and departure from the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid and flexible creativity in musical improvisation: review and a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche

    2018-03-25

    Creativity has been defined as the ability to produce output that is novel, useful, beneficial, and desired by an audience. But what is musical creativity, and relatedly, to what extent does creativity depend on domain-general or domain-specific neural and cognitive processes? To what extent can musical creativity be taught? To answer these questions from a reductionist scientific approach, we must attempt to isolate the creative process as it pertains to music. Recent work in the neuroscience of creativity has turned to musical improvisation as a window into real-time musical creative process in the brain. Here, I provide an overview of recent research in the neuroscience of musical improvisation, especially focusing on multimodal neuroimaging studies. This research informs a model of creativity as a combination of generative and reactive processes that coordinate their functions to give rise to perpetually novel and aesthetically rewarding improvised musical output. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Moments of resonance in musical improvisation with persons with severe dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coomans, Anke

    In this book, Anke Coomans presents her doctoral study on music therapy and dementia. The study will be of interest to music therapists, psychotherapists, and other professionals working in the field of dementia, or to music therapists that use musical improvisation with clinical populations...... deterioration is less in the foreground. This book may encourage music therapists to take an introspective look at their therapeutic listening attitude and to consider listening play as important for facilitating moments of resonance in music therapy with persons with severe dementia. The terminology presented...... that benefit from a non-verbal approach. The findings of the study provide insights in the role of musical improvisation for the occurrence of moments of resonance in music therapy with persons with severe dementia. The reader is led through the characteristics of musical improvisation and the specifics...

  20. Impaired Maintenance of Interpersonal Synchronization in Musical Improvisations of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Foubert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a serious and complex mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 5.9%, characterized by pervasive difficulties with emotion regulation, impulse control, and instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image. Impairments in interpersonal functioning have always been a prominent characteristic of BPD, indicating a need for research to identify the specific interpersonal processes that are problematic for diagnosed individuals. Previous research has concentrated on self-report questionnaires, unidirectional tests, and experimental paradigms wherein the exchange of social signals between individuals was not the focus. We propose joint musical improvisation as an alternative method to investigate interpersonal processes. Using a novel, carefully planned, ABA′ accompaniment paradigm, and taking into account the possible influences of mood, psychotropic medication, general attachment, and musical sophistication, we recorded piano improvisations of 16 BPD patients and 12 matched healthy controls. We hypothesized that the insecure attachment system associated with BPD would be activated in the joint improvisation and manifest in measures of timing behavior. Results indicated that a logistic regression model, built on differences in timing deviations, predicted diagnosis with 82% success. More specifically, over the course of the improvisation B section (freer improvisation, controls' timing deviations decreased (temporal synchrony became more precise whereas that of the patients with BPD did not, confirming our hypothesis. These findings are in accordance with previous research, where BPD is characterized by difficulties in attachment relationships such as maintaining strong attachment with others, but it is novel to find empirical evidence of such issues in joint musical improvisation. We suggest further longitudinal research within the field of music therapy, to study how recovery of these timing

  1. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Moran

    Full Text Available In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling' by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed. The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'. Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60 with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction.

  2. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling') by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction.

  3. Perception of ‘Back-Channeling’ Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V.; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues (‘back-channeling’) by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians’ nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers’ musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician (‘back-channeler’). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction. PMID:26086593

  4. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    play, and also in unstructured part than structured part. The findings highlighted the ‘motivational aspects’ of musical interaction between the child and the therapist, and supported the long-lived claims of improvisational music therapy, promoting self-expression’, emotional communication and social...... joint attention behaviours in children than free play. The most clinically relevant and important findings were that children displayed markedly more and longer events of ‘eye contact’ ‘joy’ ‘emotional synchronicity’ and ‘initiation of engagement’ spontaneously in improvisational music therapy than free...

  5. MUSIC TEACHERS’ EDUCATIONAL IMPROVISATION AS AN IMPORTANT INDICATOR OF THEIR PROFESSIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Smyrenskyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with music teachers’ creative activity in comprehensive school, where they solve a number of both typical and creative tasks encountered while working with students. The teacher should design the result in accordance with the lesson plan, analyze the situation and find ways to achieve the goal, critically evaluate the data and pose a new task. In the real process of musical and aesthetic education and upbringing teacher’s work has a predetermined character, and even small unintended deviations from the lesson plan that are very difficult for them. The multifactor, rapidly changing circumstances of the development of the musical and educational process and the teachers’ creative abilities often lead to various, sometimes unpredictable situations of educational and musical communication and unexpected appearing of a new, more constructive option that arises directly in the lesson. In such circumstances the music teacher must be ready for the prompt resolution of contradictions, which appear suddenly, with the help of intuition based on the acquired experience of creative activity. This solution of contradictions is considered to be pedagogical improvisation. The music teacher’s pedagogical improvisation is the most important indicator of his/her professionalism. The main purpose of the article is to define the essence of the concept “a music teacher’s pedagogical improvisation”. The author reveals the criteria for the effectiveness of pedagogical improvisation, determines its functions and types. Specificity of a music teacher’s pedagogical improvisation is a free association of various types of musical performance and lecture activities. The pedagogical condition for using pedagogical improvisation by a teacher is a set of improvisational skills, which ensure the efficiency of searching for an operative adoption of a pedagogical decision that is adequate to the unexpected situation of educational and musical

  6. Structural and Magnetic Behavioral Improvisation of Nanocalcium Hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sable, Sharad N., E-mail: sharadtz@hotmail.co [Department of Applied Physics, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur (India); Rewatkar, Kishor G. [Department of Physics, Dr. Ambedkar College, Dikshabhumi, Nagpur (India); Nanoti, Vivek M. [Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur (India)

    2010-04-15

    In modern technoscientific era, the industrial application of nanomaterials has grabbed a paramount importance owing to their improved characteristics. Hexagonal ferrites especially M-type ferrites have been proved to be the promising candidates for nanomaterials by virtue of their ease of applicability in high density recording media, microwave absorption devices, magneto-optic recording media, etc. Keeping a bird's view over, the samples of varied combinations of M-type substituted hexaferrites are synthesized using sol-gel combustion route by blending nitrates and chlorides as oxidants accompanied with fuels like urea, glycine, citric acid, etc. as reducing agents. The substitution of Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions lie essentially in the octahedral and tetrahedral sites. As the Fe{sup 3+} ions are being replaced by Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions, the probability of having oxygen vacancies in the structure was found to be greatly reduced. The magnetic particles produced by conventional solid state reactions are often larger than those produced by sol-gel combustion route. Larger particles of magnetic oxides generally exhibit multidomain magnetic structure whereas nanosized particles generally exhibit single domain magnetic structure. The simultaneous or coupled divalent and tetravalent substitution of Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} for Fe{sup 3+} ions greatly helps to improvise the magnetic parameters such as Curie temperature, coercivity, remanent magnetization, saturation magnetization, etc. The structural comparison is being analyzed through the XRD, TEM. The samples so synthesized are found to be reseasonably homogeneous and the average particle size of the sample synthesized is found to be in the nanorange. The structural and magnetic properties are observed be improved upon those of the samples reported earlier. This confirms the more viability of such samples in the various applications of digital data devices. Further attempts could possibly lead to

  7. Sources of Embodied Creativity: Interactivity and Ideation in Contact Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Michael; Hristova, Dayana; Kussmaul, Kerstin

    2018-05-23

    Drawing on a micro-phenomenological paradigm, we discuss Contact Improvisation (CI), where dancers explore potentials of intercorporeal weight sharing, kinesthesia, touch, and momentum. Our aim is to typologically discuss creativity related skills and the rich spectrum of creative resources CI dancers use. This spectrum begins with relatively idea-driven creation and ends with interactivity-centered, fully emergent creation: (1) Ideation internal to the mind, the focus of traditional creativity research, is either restricted to semi-independent dancing or remains schematic and thus open to dynamic specification under the partner’s influence. (2) Most frequently, CI creativity occurs in tightly coupled behavior and is radically emergent. This means that interpersonal synergies emerge without anybody’s prior design or planned coordination. The creative feat is interpersonally “distributed” over cascades of cross-scaffolding. Our micro-genetic data validate notions from dynamic systems theory such as interpersonal self-organization , although we criticize the theory for failing to explain where precisely this leaves skilled intentionality on the individuals’ part. Our answer is that dancers produce a stream of momentary micro-intentions that say “yes, and”, or “no, but” to short-lived micro-affordances, which allows both individuals to skillfully continue, elaborate, tweak, or redirect the collective movement dynamics. Both dancers can invite emergence as part of their playful exploration, while simultaneously bringing to bear global constraints, such as dance scores, and guide the collective dynamics with a set of specialized skills we shall term emergence management .

  8. Identifying Future Unexpected Survivors: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Fatal Injury Patterns in Victims of Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    harass and often incorporating military stores’.2 IEDs have been shown to generate a different injury profile compared to con- ventional munitions, and...redress this, but is an evolving science and is both time intensive and labour intensive compared to a standard CT scan, requiring invasive access to

  9. From Whack-a-Mole to Three-Dimensional Chess: Leveraging Airpower to Defeat the Improvised Explosive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    AY10 3 physical destruction and loss of life, there is the higher-order effect of generating headlines and statistics unfavorable to maintaining...Army for Counterinsurgency Operations.” In Warfare Studies AY10 Coursebook , edited by Sharon McBride, 326-341. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University...Studies AY10 Coursebook , edited by Sharon McBride, 364-386. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, October 2009. United States Government Interagency

  10. Counterterrorism: U.S. Agencies Face Challenges Countering the Use of Improvised Explosive Devices in the Afghanistan/Pakistan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    make IEDs. According to DOD, other products available in Pakistan—such as potassium chlorate , used in making matches, and urea, another commonly used...IED precursor chemicals. According to State officials, other substitutes for CAN, including potassium chlorate and urea, are exported by countries

  11. Combating Terrorism: State Should Enhance Its Performance Measures for Assessing Efforts in Pakistan to Counter Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    readily switch to another precursor chemical to make IEDs. According to DOD, other products available in Pakistan such as potassium chlorate , used in...chemicals. According to State officials, other substitutes for CAN, including urea and potassium chlorate , are exported by countries other than Pakistan

  12. The Hungarian Counter Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED) Strategy: Considering the Use of Military Working Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    language forming efforts. Special thanks for Dr. Rhoda Risner, my small group leader, for the guidance and support. Finally, thanks to my student...in the “no man’s land” but also in the trenches. The unburied dead bodies and the countless injures mixed with the muddy environment and provided...There are many war stories about canine heroes that carried messages for long periods with several injuries. The other effort was the fight against the

  13. Services Textbook of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    the propagation in such systems of the detonation wave which had been observed in 1881 by Berthelot and Vieille and by Mallard and le Chatelier . In...detonation, Berthelot and Le Chatelier , Dautrich 4 - 63: Calorometric value 4 -- 66, Power of explosive, lead block, Trauzl 4 - 67- Ballistic pendulum 4...the principles of electric ignition were applied to this system also. 75. In 1890-91 Curtius first prepared lead, silver and mercury azides. The

  14. Explosive Leidenfrost droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Pierre; Moreau, Florian; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2017-11-01

    We show that Leidenfrost droplets made of an aqueous solution of surfactant undergo a violent explosion in a wide range of initial volumes and concentrations. This unexpected behavior turns out to be triggered by the formation of a gel-like shell, followed by a sharp temperature increase. Comparing a simple model of the radial surfactant distribution inside a spherical droplet with experiments allows highlighting the existence of a critical surface concentration for the shell to form. The temperature rise (attributed to boiling point elevation with surface concentration) is a key feature leading to the explosion, instead of the implosion (buckling) scenario reported by other authors. Indeed, under some conditions, this temperature increase is shown to be sufficient to trigger nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the highly superheated liquid bulk, stretching the surrounding elastic shell up to its rupture limit. The successive timescales characterizing this explosion sequence are also discussed. Funding sources: F.R.S. - FNRS (ODILE and DITRASOL projects, RD and SRA positions of P. Colinet and S. Dorbolo), BELSPO (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST project).

  15. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Qingjie Jiao; Qiushi Wang; Jianxin Nie; Xueyong Guo; Wei Zhang; Wenqi Fan

    2018-01-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-...

  16. Framework for Reducing Teaching Challenges Relating to Improvisation of Science Education Equipment and Materials in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuma, Fru Vitalis; Callaghan, Ronel

    2016-01-01

    The science education budget of many secondary schools has decreased, while shortages and environmental concerns linked to conventional Science Education Equipment and Materials (SEEMs) have emerged. Thus, in some schools, resourceful educators produce low-cost equipment from basic materials and use these so-called improvised SEEMs in practical…

  17. Shaping Interpersonal Learning in the Jazz Improvisation Lesson: Observing a Dynamic Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Leon Rene

    2018-01-01

    Music institutions predominantly utilize the one-to-one lesson in developing and supporting music students' learning of skill and knowledge. This article explores the effect that interpersonal interaction plays in shaping pedagogical applications between teacher and student. Observing the learning of improvisation within this individualized social…

  18. Learning Pre-Played Solos: Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Jazz/Improvised Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the self-regulated learning strategies of two advanced students in jazz/improvised music education when learning pre-played solos over well-known jazz tunes. The students were enrolled in a well-established performance degree programme in a music conservatoire, and videotaped their own individual practice sessions. In…

  19. Improv(ing) the Academy: Applied Improvisation as a Strategy for Educational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Jonathan P.; Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista

    2016-01-01

    Improvisational theater training (or "improv") is a strategy employed by many business leaders and educators to cultivate creativity and collaboration amid change. Drawing on improv principles such as "Yes, And…" and "Make your scene partners look good," we explore the ways in which educational developers might apply…

  20. The Effects of Harmonic Accompaniment on the Tonal Improvisations of Students in First through Sixth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, Denise Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of harmonic accompaniment on the tonal improvisations of elementary school students. Specifically, this study was designed to (a) determine if the addition of a root melody accompaniment to song instruction affects the implied harmonic changes and harmonic rhythm in the tonal improvisations…

  1. Expertise-related deactivation of the right temporoparietal junction during musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Musical training has been associated with structural changes in the brain as well as functional differences in brain activity when musicians are compared to nonmusicians on both perceptual and motor tasks. Previous neuroimaging comparisons of musicians and nonmusicians in the motor domain have used tasks involving prelearned motor sequences or synchronization with an auditorily presented sequence during the experiment. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine expertise-related differences in brain activity between musicians and nonmusicians during improvisation--the generation of novel musical-motor sequences--using a paradigm that we previously used in musicians alone. Despite behaviorally matched performance, the two groups showed significant differences in functional brain activity during improvisation. Specifically, musicians deactivated the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) during melodic improvisation, while nonmusicians showed no change in activity in this region. The rTPJ is thought to be part of a ventral attentional network for bottom-up stimulus-driven processing, and it has been postulated that deactivation of this region occurs in order to inhibit attentional shifts toward task-irrelevant stimuli during top-down, goal-driven behavior. We propose that the musicians' deactivation of the rTPJ during melodic improvisation may represent a training-induced shift toward inhibition of stimulus-driven attention, allowing for a more goal-directed performance state that aids in creative thought.

  2. Improvisation as a Curricular Metaphor: Imagining Education for a Rural Creative Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Rural communities contain a largely unacknowledged innovative capacity founded on improvisational traditions. These traditions may be rooted in work practices in agriculture and other rurally-based productive activities but today they have expanded into other lifeworld locations, particularly virtual spaces that accelerate time-space compression.…

  3. Idea Bank: I Can't Do That! Improvisation for Classically Trained Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills lists among its top priorities for students the development of "learning and innovation skills," of which the first are "creativity and innovation." The third National Standard from the National Association for Music Education is "Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments." These guiding…

  4. Group Playing by Ear in Higher Education: The Processes That Support Imitation, Invention and Group Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how group playing by ear (GEP) through imitation of recorded material and opportunities for inventive work during peer interaction was used to support first year undergraduate western classical music students' aural, group creativity and improvisation skills. The framework that emerged from the analysis of the data describes…

  5. The Power of Limits and the Pleasure of Games: An Easy and Fun Piano Duo Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    This column presents an improvisation game designed to be played by any two musicians from beginner through professional skill level. The author argues that two aspects are critical for success: one, an understanding of the creative power of limits; and, two, the importance of framing the activity as a game. The game, based on the limit of the…

  6. A Case Study of Diverse Multimodal Influences on Music Improvisation Using Visual Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    This case study employed multimodal methods and visual analysis to explore how a young multilingual student used music improvisation to form a speech rap. This student, recently arrived in Australia from Ethiopia, created piano music that was central to his music identity and that simultaneously, through dialogue with his mother, enhanced his…

  7. The Touch "Taboo" and the Art of Contact: An Exploration of Contact Improvisation for Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the experience of participating in Contact Improvisation by male prisoners. It specifically focuses on issues of touch for this participant group and how inmates can learn different ways of acting from acquiring Contact skills, contributing to their rehabilitation. The paper looks at the culture in prisons that propagates a…

  8. A Duet between Science and Art: Neural Correlates of Dance Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savrami, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Dance Improvisation is an essential skill and tool for dancers. It is grounded in the kinesthetic experience and its constantly changing dynamic qualities through self-movement. It requires a spontaneous kinesthetic response in a spatiotemporal vigorous qualitative dynamic happening of affect and movement; a momentum that allows dancers to perform…

  9. Using Improvisational Exercises in General Education to Advance Creativity, Inventiveness and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbert, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Creativity is the process of generating something new or original that has value to an individual, a group, an organization, an industry or a society. Improvisational theater techniques are used to enhance creative thinking and action in a variety of disciplines as broad as education, theater, dance, painting, writing and music, law, business, and…

  10. "The 'Principal' Character": The Triad Approach and Improvisation in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Tov, Naphtaly

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on a teaching case, Rona, a student in the educational dance-theatre programme that adopted improvisational teaching to deal with her lack of self-confidence. This lack had denied her feeling free and teaching without inhibitions in the classroom. Rona found a way to release her lack of self-confidence by spontaneously acting…

  11. Behavioral Quantification of Audiomotor Transformations in Improvising and Score-Dependent Musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; van Kranenburg, Peter; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    The historically developed practice of learning to play a music instrument from notes instead of by imitation or improvisation makes it possible to contrast two types of skilled musicians characterized not only by dissimilar performance practices, but also disparate methods of audiomotor learning.

  12. Learning from the Experts: A Study of Free-Improvisation Pedagogues in University Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Maud

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in alternative forms of pedagogy for students in K-12 settings. Free improvisation, a relatively new and unfamiliar genre, offers potential as an ensemble for teachers to provide in order to offer more egalitarian and creative music experiences for their students. The purpose of this multiple case study was to determine…

  13. Common ground: 1970s improvised music as part of a cross-genre Dutch ensemble culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the way in which jazz and Western art music in the Netherlands during the 1970s were intertwined, both social and musically, and how alliances between their avant-gardes (Improvising Musicians and Contemporary Musicians) contributed to what came to be known as Dutch ensemble

  14. Exploring the 12-Key Approach: Perceptions and Experiences of Improvising Jazz Vocalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The 12-key approach is considered a foundational practice strategy for jazz instrumentalists. Its relevance to vocalists, however, seems less clear. This article investigates improvising jazz vocalists' perceptions and experiences of using the 12-key approach as distinguished from instrumentalists'. It uses data from a two-phase, mixed methods…

  15. Beyond borders : broadening the artistic palette of (composing) improvisers in jazz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de D.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this on-line dissertation, jazz saxophonist Dick de Graaf investigates a variety of compositional and improvisational models and techniques in contemporary jazz and Western art music, and discusses possible applications of these materials in current jazz practices. The study includes

  16. Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, Charles J; Braun, Allen R

    2008-02-27

    To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences) was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar) cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance) as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone). This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.

  17. A Preliminary Analysis of Teaching Improvisation with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckel, Julie M.; Neef, Nancy A.; Ferreri, Summer J.

    2006-01-01

    Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of…

  18. Coordinated Interpersonal Behaviour in Collective Dance Improvisation: The Aesthetics of Kinaesthetic Togetherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Tommi; Laroche, Julien; Bigé, Romain; Buchkowski, Megan; Bachrach, Asaf

    2018-02-09

    Collective dance improvisation (e.g., traditional and social dancing, contact improvisation) is a participatory, relational and embodied art form which eschews standard concepts in aesthetics. We present our ongoing research into the mechanisms underlying the lived experience of "togetherness" associated with such practices. Togetherness in collective dance improvisation is kinaesthetic (based on movement and its perception), and so can be simultaneously addressed from the perspective of the performers and the spectators, and be measured. We utilise these multiple levels of description: the first-person, phenomenological level of personal experiences, the third-person description of brain and body activity, and the level of interpersonal dynamics. Here, we describe two of our protocols: a four-person mirror game and a 'rhythm battle' dance improvisation score. Using an interpersonal closeness measure after the practice, we correlate subjective sense of individual/group connectedness and observed levels of in-group temporal synchronization. We propose that kinaesthetic togetherness, or interpersonal resonance, is integral to the aesthetic pleasure of the participants and spectators, and that embodied feeling of togetherness might play a role more generally in aesthetic experience in the performing arts.

  19. Emotional, Motivational and Interpersonal Responsiveness of Children with Autism in Improvisational Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint engagement episodes. The randomized controlled study (n = 10)…

  20. Feasibility of a Trial on Improvisational Music Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Bieleninik, Łucja

    2016-01-01

    and strategies to facilitate study implementation is available in the music therapy literature. Objective: Using data from a subsample of a multi-center RCT on improvisational music therapy (IMT) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study aims to evaluate feasibility of study procedures, evaluate safety...

  1. Common characteristics of improvisational approaches in music therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Carpente, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improvisational methods of music therapy have been increasingly applied in the treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades in many countries worldwide. Objective: This study aimed at developing treatment guidelines based on the most important...

  2. Coordinated Interpersonal Behaviour in Collective Dance Improvisation: The Aesthetics of Kinaesthetic Togetherness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Himberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Collective dance improvisation (e.g., traditional and social dancing, contact improvisation is a participatory, relational and embodied art form which eschews standard concepts in aesthetics. We present our ongoing research into the mechanisms underlying the lived experience of “togetherness” associated with such practices. Togetherness in collective dance improvisation is kinaesthetic (based on movement and its perception, and so can be simultaneously addressed from the perspective of the performers and the spectators, and be measured. We utilise these multiple levels of description: the first-person, phenomenological level of personal experiences, the third-person description of brain and body activity, and the level of interpersonal dynamics. Here, we describe two of our protocols: a four-person mirror game and a ‘rhythm battle’ dance improvisation score. Using an interpersonal closeness measure after the practice, we correlate subjective sense of individual/group connectedness and observed levels of in-group temporal synchronization. We propose that kinaesthetic togetherness, or interpersonal resonance, is integral to the aesthetic pleasure of the participants and spectators, and that embodied feeling of togetherness might play a role more generally in aesthetic experience in the performing arts.

  3. The Instant Composers Pool: Music Notation and the Mediation of Improvising Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article relates the recent development of a “relational musicology” to debates about participatory art and relational aesthetics. I present results from an ethnographic study of the Dutch improvising music collective the Instant Composers Pool, founded in 1967 and still performing. With a

  4. The “Elbow-Way” to Proper Handwashing: A Device Improvised for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of running pipe-borne water is common to developing countries and therefore, water used in hospitals and laboratories are collected in buckets or basins from wells or bore holes. This often leads to contamination of the water from contact with the hands when this is used for routine handwashing. By improvising a ...

  5. Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Limb

    Full Text Available To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone. This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.

  6. Sorbent Film-Coated Passive Samplers for Explosives Vapour Detection Part A: Materials Optimisation and Integration with Analytical Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneff, Gillian L; Murphy, Bronagh; Webb, Tony; Wood, Dan; Irlam, Rachel; Mills, Jim; Green, David; Barron, Leon P

    2018-04-11

    A new thin-film passive sampler is presented as a low resource dependent and discrete continuous monitoring solution for explosives-related vapours. Using 15 mid-high vapour pressure explosives-related compounds as probes, combinations of four thermally stable substrates and six film-based sorbents were evaluated. Meta-aramid and phenylene oxide-based materials showed the best recoveries from small voids (~70%). Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-high resolution accurate mass spectrometry which also enabled tentative identification of new targets from the acquired data. Preliminary uptake kinetics experiments revealed plateau concentrations on the device were reached between 3-5 days. Compounds used in improvised explosive devices, such as triacetone triperoxide, were detected within 1 hour and were stably retained by the sampler for up to 7 days. Sampler performance was consistent for 22 months after manufacture. Lastly, its direct integration with currently in-service explosives screening equipment including ion mobility spectrometry and thermal desorption mass spectrometry is presented. Following exposure to several open environments and targeted interferences, sampler performance was subsequently assessed and potential interferences identified. High-security building and area monitoring for concealed explosives using such cost-effective and discrete passive samplers can add extra assurance to search routines while minimising any additional burden on personnel or everyday site operation.

  7. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Pras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When musicians improvise freely together—not following any sort of script, predetermined harmonic structure, or “referent”—to what extent do they understand what they are doing in the same way as each other? And to what extent is their understanding privileged relative to outside listeners with similar levels of performing experience in free improvisation? In this exploratory case study, a saxophonist and a pianist of international renown who knew each other's work but who had never performed together before were recorded while improvising freely for 40 min. Immediately afterwards the performers were interviewed separately about the just-completed improvisation, first from memory and then while listening to two 5 min excerpts of the recording in order to prompt specific and detailed commentary. Two commenting listeners from the same performance community (a saxophonist and drummer listened to, and were interviewed about, these excerpts. Some months later, all four participants rated the extent to which they endorsed 302 statements that had been extracted from the four interviews and anonymized. The findings demonstrate that these free jazz improvisers characterized the improvisation quite differently, selecting different moments to comment about and with little overlap in the content of their characterizations. The performers were not more likely to endorse statements by their performing partner than by a commenting listener from the same performance community, and their patterns of agreement with each other (endorsing or dissenting with statements across multiple ratings—their interrater reliability as measured with Cohen's kappa—was only moderate, and not consistently higher than their agreement with the commenting listeners. These performers were more likely to endorse statements about performers' thoughts and actions than statements about the music itself, and more likely to endorse evaluatively positive than negative statements

  8. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pras, Amandine; Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2017-01-01

    When musicians improvise freely together-not following any sort of script, predetermined harmonic structure, or "referent"-to what extent do they understand what they are doing in the same way as each other? And to what extent is their understanding privileged relative to outside listeners with similar levels of performing experience in free improvisation? In this exploratory case study, a saxophonist and a pianist of international renown who knew each other's work but who had never performed together before were recorded while improvising freely for 40 min. Immediately afterwards the performers were interviewed separately about the just-completed improvisation, first from memory and then while listening to two 5 min excerpts of the recording in order to prompt specific and detailed commentary. Two commenting listeners from the same performance community (a saxophonist and drummer) listened to, and were interviewed about, these excerpts. Some months later, all four participants rated the extent to which they endorsed 302 statements that had been extracted from the four interviews and anonymized. The findings demonstrate that these free jazz improvisers characterized the improvisation quite differently, selecting different moments to comment about and with little overlap in the content of their characterizations. The performers were not more likely to endorse statements by their performing partner than by a commenting listener from the same performance community, and their patterns of agreement with each other (endorsing or dissenting with statements) across multiple ratings-their interrater reliability as measured with Cohen's kappa-was only moderate, and not consistently higher than their agreement with the commenting listeners. These performers were more likely to endorse statements about performers' thoughts and actions than statements about the music itself, and more likely to endorse evaluatively positive than negative statements. But these kinds of statements

  9. A study on Improvisation in a Musical performance using Multifractal Detrended Cross Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shankha; Banerjee, Archi; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak

    2016-11-01

    MFDFA (the most rigorous technique to assess multifractality) was performed on four Hindustani music samples played on same 'raga' sung by the same performer. Each music sample was divided into six parts and 'multifractal spectral width' was determined for each part corresponding to the four samples. The results obtained reveal that different parts of all the four sound signals possess spectral width of widely varying values. This gives a cue of the so called 'musical improvisation' in all music samples, keeping in mind they belong to the bandish part of the same raga. Formal compositions in Hindustani raga are juxtaposed with the improvised portions, where an artist manoeuvers his/her own creativity to bring out a mood that is specific for that particular performance, which is known as 'improvisation'. Further, this observation hints at the association of different emotions even in the same bandish of the same raga performed by the same artist, this interesting observation cannot be revealed unless rigorous non-linear technique explores the nature of musical structure. In the second part, we applied MFDXA technique to explore more in-depth about 'improvisation' and association with emotion. This technique is applied to find the degree of cross-correlation (γx) between the different parts of the samples. Pronounced correlation has been observed in the middle parts of the all the four samples evident from higher values of γx ​whereas the other parts show weak correlation. This gets further support from the values of spectral width from different parts of the sample - width of those parts is significantly different from other parts. This observation is extremely new both in respect of musical structure of so called improvisation and associated emotion. The importance of this study in application area of cognitive music therapy is immense.

  10. Does improvised waterbed reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude-Kennedy C Emejulu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pressure ulcers are lesions caused by unrelieved pressure over bony prominences, resulting in damage to underlying tissues. The etiology is multifactorial including prolonged immobility. They usually complicate spinal cord injuries with long periods of bed confinement. The use of bed replacements markedly reduces the incidence of pressure ulcers, but the unaffordability of these replacements in low-income countries has necessitated the need to explore cheaper alternatives. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the use of our cheap and locally improvised waterbeds would reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients on prolonged bed confinement due to spinal injury. Methodology: Over a 16-month period, 51 patients (age range 1-80 years with spinal injuries were managed conservatively in our service using improvised waterbeds in 21 (41.2%, while using the regular hospital bed/foam in 30 (58.8%. Biodata, the time interval between injury and presentation to the hospital, nature of the injury, use of improvised waterbed and development of pressure ulcer, were collected, collated, and analyzed. Statistical significance was calculated with the Chi-square test. Results: Most were males (98%, in the age range of 21-30 years (25.5%, and due to fall from heights (35.3%. Of 21 patients who were managed on improvised waterbeds, 6 (28.6% had pressure ulcers, and of the 30 who did not use the waterbed, 17 (56.7% developed ulcers. The c2 = 3.9381, while P = 0.0472. This difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The improvised waterbed, which is much cheaper than the standard waterbed, was observed to have significantly reduced the incidence of pressure ulcers among our patients. Nonetheless, further studies would still be needed to confirm this observation.

  11. Explosive processes in nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    There are many explosive processes in nucleosynthesis: big bang nucleosynthesis, the rp-process, the γ-process, the ν-process, and the r-process. However, I will discuss just the rp-process and the r-process in detail, primarily because both seem to have been very active research areas of late, and because they have great potential for studies with radioactive nuclear beams. I will also discuss briefly the γ-process because of its inevitability in conjunction with the rp-process. (orig.)

  12. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  13. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  14. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting powder. BTNEC [bis.... Esters of nitro-substituted alcohols. Ethyl-tetryl. Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive... silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G Gelatinized...

  15. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting powder. BTNEC [bis.... Esters of nitro-substituted alcohols. Ethyl-tetryl. Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive.... Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G...

  16. Peaceful nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-07-01

    Article V of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) specifies that the potential benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions be made available to non-nuclear weapon states party to the Treaty 'under appropriate international observation and through appropriate international procedures'. The International Atomic Energy Agency's responsibility and technical competence in this respect have been recognized by its Board of Governors, the Agency's General Conference and the United Nations' General Assembly. Since 1968 when the United Nations Conference of Non-Nuclear Weapon States also recommended that the Agency initiate the necessary studies in the peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) field, the Agency has taken the following steps: 1. The exchange of scientific and technical information has been facilitated by circulating information on the status of the technology and through the Agency's International Nuclear Information System. A bibliography of PNE-related literature was published in 1970. 2. In 1972, guidelines for 'the international observation of PNE under the provisions of NPT and analogous provisions in other international agreements' were developed and approved by the Board of Governors. These guidelines defined the basic purpose of international observation as being to verify that in the course of conducting a PNE project the intent and letter of Articles I and II of the NPT are not violated. 3. In 1974, an advisory group developed 'Procedures for the Agency to Use in Responding to Requests for PNE-Related Services'. These procedures have also been approved by the Board of Governors. 4. The Agency has convened a series of technical meetings which reviewed the 'state-of-the- art'. These meetings were convened in 1970, 1971, 1972 and in January 1975. The Fourth Technical Committee was held in Vienna from 20-24 January 1975 under the chairmanship of Dr. Allen Wilson of Australia with Experts from: Australia, France, Federal

  17. Aspects regarding explosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părăian Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive risk occurs in all activities involving flammable substances in the form of gases, vapors, mists or dusts which, in mixture with air, can generate an explosive atmosphere. As explosions can cause human losses and huge material damage, the assessment of the explosion risk and the establishment of appropriate measures to reduce it to acceptable levels according to the standards and standards in force is of particular importance for the safety and health of people and goods.There is no yet a recognized method of assessing the explosion risk, but regardless of the applied method, the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere occurrence has to be determined, together with the occurrence of an efficient ignition source and the magnitude of foreseeable consequences. In assessment processes, consequences analysis has a secondary importance since it’s likely that explosions would always involve considerable damage, starting from important material damages and up to human damages that could lead to death.The purpose of the work is to highlight the important principles and elements to be taken into account for a specific risk assessment. An essential element in assessing the risk of explosion in workplaces where explosive atmospheres may occur is technical installations and personal protective equipment (PPE that must be designed, manufactured, installed and maintained so that they cannot generate a source of ignition. Explosion prevention and protection requirements are governed by specific norms and standards, and a main part of the explosion risk assessment is related to the assessment of the compliance of the equipment / installation with these requirements.

  18. Emotional Intent Modulates The Neural Substrates Of Creativity: An fMRI Study of Emotionally Targeted Improvisation in Jazz Musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Malinda J. McPherson; Frederick S. Barrett; Monica Lopez-Gonzalez; Patpong Jiradejvong; Charles J. Limb

    2016-01-01

    Emotion is a primary motivator for creative behaviors, yet the interaction between the neural systems involved in creativity and those involved in emotion has not been studied. In the current study, we addressed this gap by using fMRI to examine piano improvisation in response to emotional cues. We showed twelve professional jazz pianists photographs of an actress representing a positive, negative or ambiguous emotion. Using a non-ferromagnetic thirty-five key keyboard, the pianists improvise...

  19. The effectiveness and influence of Vocal and Instrumental Improvisation in Music Therapy on children diagnosed with autism. Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Knapik-Szweda

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder which is difficult to recognize and diagnose. The present study examines the effectiveness of music therapy intervention based on improvisational techniques with the elements of Creative Music Therapy by Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins and improvisational techniques by Tony Wigram (such as imitating, frameworking, dialogues, holding) on developmentl of children with Autism (two boys diagnosed with autism - case 1. and case 2), especially in verbal and nonver...

  20. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  1. Kaliski's explosive driven fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment performed by a group in Poland on the production of DD fusion neutrons by purely explosive means is discussed. A method for multiplying shock velocities ordinarily available from high explosives by a factor of ten is described, and its application to DD fusion experiments is discussed

  2. Nuclear explosions and their effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-01-01

    A brief historical background is given of the development of the atomic bomb. Also included is an account of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombing, plus some information on the testing and production of nuclear weapons by the United States, United Kingdom, and Russia. More detailed consideration is given to the following: the scientific principles of fission and fusion explosions; the energy released in fission and the radioactivity of fission products; blast, thermal, and radiologicalal effects of nuclear explosions; long-term radiological hazards from fall-out; and genetic effects of nuclear explosions. A brief account is given of the fission chain process, the concept of critical size, and the principles of implosion as applied to nuclear explosions. Limited information is presented on the controlled release of thermonuclear energy and catalyzed fusion reaction. Discussions are included on dose rates from radiation sources inside and outside the body, the effect of nuclear explosions on the weather, and the contamination of fish and marine organisms.

  3. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  4. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10 6 M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints

  5. Thermochemistry of mixed explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janney, J.L.; Rogers, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In order to predict thermal hazards of high-energy materials, accurate kinetics constants must be determined. Predictions of thermal hazards for mixtures of high-energy materials require measurements on the mixtures, because interactions among components are common. A differential-scanning calorimeter (DSC) can be used to observe rate processes directly, and isothermal methods enable detection of mechanism changes. Rate-controlling processes will change as components of a mixture are depleted, and the correct depletion function must be identified for each specific stage of a complex process. A method for kinetics measurements on mixed explosives can be demonstrated with Composition B is an approximately 60/40 mixture of RDX and TNT, and is an important military explosive. Kinetics results indicate that the mator process is the decomposition of RDX in solution in TNT with a perturbation caused by interaction between the two components. It is concluded that a combination of chemical kinetics and experimental self-heating procedures provides a good approach to the production of predictive models for thermal hazards of high-energy materials. Systems involving more than one energy-contributing component can be studied. Invalid and dangerous predictive models can be detected by a failure of agreement between prediction and experiment at a specific size, shape, and density. Rates of thermal decomposition for Composition B appear to be modeled adequately for critical-temperature predictions with the following kinetics constants: E = 180.2 kJ mole -1 and Z = 4.62 X 10 16 s -1

  6. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  7. An Analysis of improvisational budgeting from calendar year 1990 to 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Buell, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Improvisational budgeting represents an interruption to the normal budgeting process, resulting in costly delays to the defense Planning Programming and Budgeting Process (PPBS). A normal congressional budget process was characterized by Congress' ability to follow established procedures, complete their budget in a timely manner and fulfill their expected roles for applying incremental adjustments to the budget. The latent pro-spending...

  8. The Role of Emotion in Musical Improvisation: An Analysis of Structural Features

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, Malinda J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Rankin, Summer K.; Limb, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor) and emotion (happy vs. sad) do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not u...

  9. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  10. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose eEngel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the aesthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%, which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners’ hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners’ judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer’s actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual’s action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  11. Taking two to tango: fMRI analysis of improvised joint action with physical contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Many forms of joint action involve physical coupling between the participants, such as when moving a sofa together or dancing a tango. We report the results of a novel two-person functional MRI study in which trained couple dancers engaged in bimanual contact with an experimenter standing next to the bore of the magnet, and in which the two alternated between being the leader and the follower of joint improvised movements. Leading showed a general pattern of self-orientation, being associated with brain areas involved in motor planning, navigation, sequencing, action monitoring, and error correction. In contrast, following showed a far more sensory, externally-oriented pattern, revealing areas involved in somatosensation, proprioception, motion tracking, social cognition, and outcome monitoring. We also had participants perform a “mutual” condition in which the movement patterns were pre-learned and the roles were symmetric, thereby minimizing any tendency toward either leading or following. The mutual condition showed greater activity in brain areas involved in mentalizing and social reward than did leading or following. Finally, the analysis of improvisation revealed the dual importance of motor-planning and working-memory areas. We discuss these results in terms of theories of both joint action and improvisation. PMID:29324862

  12. Generation of novel motor sequences: the neural correlates of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Ansari, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    While some motor behavior is instinctive and stereotyped or learned and re-executed, much action is a spontaneous response to a novel set of environmental conditions. The neural correlates of both pre-learned and cued motor sequences have been previously studied, but novel motor behavior has thus far not been examined through brain imaging. In this paper, we report a study of musical improvisation in trained pianists with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using improvisation as a case study of novel action generation. We demonstrate that both rhythmic (temporal) and melodic (ordinal) motor sequence creation modulate activity in a network of brain regions comprised of the dorsal premotor cortex, the rostral cingulate zone of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the inferior frontal gyrus. These findings are consistent with a role for the dorsal premotor cortex in movement coordination, the rostral cingulate zone in voluntary selection, and the inferior frontal gyrus in sequence generation. Thus, the invention of novel motor sequences in musical improvisation recruits a network of brain regions coordinated to generate possible sequences, select among them, and execute the decided-upon sequence.

  13. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annerose; Keller, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the esthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%), which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners' hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness) in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners' judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer's actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual's action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  14. Core Themes in Music Therapy Clinical Improvisation: An Arts-Informed Qualitative Research Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Anthony; Wimpenny, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Although clinical improvisation continues to be an important focus of music therapy research and practice, less attention has been given to integrating qualitative research in this area. As a result, this knowledge base tends to be contained within specific areas of practice rather than integrated across practices and approaches. This qualitative research synthesis profiles, integrates, and re-presents qualitative research focused on the ways music therapists and clients engage in, and make meaning from, clinical improvisation. Further, as a conduit for broadening dialogues, opening up this landscape fully, and sharing our response to the analysis and interpretation process, we present an arts-informed re-presentation of this synthesis. Following an eight-step methodological sequence, 13 qualitative studies were synthesized. This included reciprocal and refutational processes associated with synthesizing the primary studies, and additional steps associated with an arts-informed representation. Three themes, professional artistry, performing self, and meaning-making, are presented. Each theme is explored and exemplified through the selected articles, and discussed within a larger theoretical framework. An artistic re-presentation of the data is also presented. Music therapists use complex frameworks through which to engage clients in, and make meaning from, improvisational experiences. Artistic representation of the findings offers an added dimension to the synthesis process, challenging our understanding of representation, and thereby advancing synthesis methodology. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Peaceful applications of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, L.B.

    1975-12-01

    The intension of this report is to give a survey of the field of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. As an introduction some examples of possibilities of application are given together with a simple description of nuclear explosions under ground. After a summary of what has been done and will be done in this field nationally and internationally, a short discussion of advantages and problems with peaceful application of nuclear explosions follows. The risks of spreading nuclear weapons due to this applications are also touched before the report is finished with an attempt to judge the future development in this field. (M.S.)

  16. Donor free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  17. Explosive coalescence of Magnetic Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.I.

    1985-04-01

    An explosive reconnection process associated with nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability is found through studies of particle and magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The explosive coalescence is a self-similar process of magnetic collapse, in which the magnetic and electrostatic energies and temperatures explode toward the explosion time t 0 as (t 0 -t)/sup 8/3/,(t 0 -t) -4 , and (t 0 -t)/sup -8/3/, respectively. Ensuing amplitude oscillations in these quantities are identified by deriving an equation of motion for the scale factor in the Sagdeev potential

  18. Explosive actuated valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means

  19. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Joshua David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  20. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  1. Phenomenological modelling of steam explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Drumheller, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    During a hypothetical core meltdown accident, an important safety issue to be addressed is the potential for steam explosions. This paper presents analysis and modelling of experimental results. There are four observations that can be drawn from the analysis: (1) vapor explosions are suppressed by noncondensible gases generated by fuel oxidation, by high ambient pressure, and by high water temperatures; (2) these effects appear to be trigger-related in that an explosion can again be induced in some cases by increasing the trigger magnitude; (3) direct fuel liquid-coolant liquid contact can explain small scale fuel fragmentation; (4) heat transfer during the expansion phase of the explosion can reduce the work potential

  2. Water-bearing explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G M

    1970-12-21

    An explosive water-bearing composition, with high detonation velocity, comprises a mixture of (1) an inorganic oxidizer salt; (2) nitroglycerine; (3) nitrocellulose; (4) water; and (5) a water thickening agent. (11 claims)

  3. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with explosives...

  4. Explosives mimic for testing, training, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.

    2018-02-13

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make mimics for explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.

  5. 8. Peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter deals with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Described are the development of the underground nuclear explosion, properties of radionuclides formed during the explosion, their distribution, the release of radioactive products of underground nuclear explosions into the air, their propagation in the atmosphere, and fallout in the landscape. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 8 figs., 19 refs

  6. Computer simulation of explosion crater in dams with different buried depths of explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Ye, Longzhen

    2018-04-01

    Based on multi-material ALE method, this paper conducted a computer simulation on the explosion crater in dams with different buried depths of explosive using LS-DYNA program. The results turn out that the crater size increases with the increase of buried depth of explosive at first, but closed explosion cavity rather than a visible crater is formed when the buried depth of explosive increases to some extent. The soil in the explosion cavity is taken away by the explosion products and the soil under the explosion cavity is compressed with its density increased. The research can provide some reference for the anti-explosion design of dams in the future.

  7. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  8. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  9. Safety engineering experiments of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Noboru

    1987-07-24

    The outline of large scale experiments carried out every year since 1969 to obtain fundamental data and then establish the safety engineering standards concerning the manufacturing, storage and transportation, etc. of all explosives was described. Because it becomes recently difficult to ensure the safety distance in powder magazines and powder plants, the sandwich structure with sand is thought to be suitable as the neighboring barrier walls. The special vertical structure for embankments to provide against a emergency explosion is effective to absorb the blast. Explosion behaviors such as initiating sensitivity, detonation, sympathetic detonation, and shock occurence of the ANFO explosives in place of dynamite and the slurry explosives were studied. The safety engineering standards for the manufacturing and application of explosives were studied to establish because accidents by tabacco fire are not still distinguished. Much data concerning early stage fire fighting, a large quantity of flooding and shock occurence from a assumption of ignition during machining in the propellants manufacturing plant, could be obtained. Basic studies were made to prevent pollution in blasting sites. Collected data are utilized for the safety administration after sufficient discussion. (4 figs, 2 tabs, 3 photos, 17 refs)

  10. Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dp/pt)max ~ 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC ~ 101 -102 g/m3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt ~ 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2. Work supported through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)

  11. Trace explosives sensor testbed (TESTbed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Greg E.; Malito, Michael P.; Tamanaha, Cy R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Giordano, Braden C.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Field, Christopher R.; Rogers, Duane A.; Jeffries, Russell A.; Colton, Richard J.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2017-03-01

    A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated that is amenable to both high- and low-volatility explosives vapors including nitromethane, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, triacetone triperoxide, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The TESTbed incorporates a six-port dual-line manifold system allowing for rapid actuation between a dedicated clean air source and a trace explosives vapor source. Explosives and explosives-related vapors can be sourced through a number of means including gas cylinders, permeation tube ovens, dynamic headspace chambers, and a Pneumatically Modulated Liquid Delivery System coupled to a perfluoroalkoxy total-consumption microflow nebulizer. Key features of the TESTbed include continuous and pulseless control of trace vapor concentrations with wide dynamic range of concentration generation, six sampling ports with reproducible vapor profile outputs, limited low-volatility explosives adsorption to the manifold surface, temperature and humidity control of the vapor stream, and a graphical user interface for system operation and testing protocol implementation.

  12. Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Anna Rita; Anelli, Filomena; Benghi, Diber; Friberg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this article children's musical improvisation is investigated through the "reflexive interaction" paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a "reflexive" output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6-7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the children's abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the children's ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational skills, and necessary

  13. Connecting to create: expertise in musical improvisation is associated with increased functional connectivity between premotor and prefrontal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ana Luísa; de Manzano, Örjan; Fransson, Peter; Eriksson, Helene; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-04-30

    Musicians have been used extensively to study neural correlates of long-term practice, but no studies have investigated the specific effects of training musical creativity. Here, we used human functional MRI to measure brain activity during improvisation in a sample of 39 professional pianists with varying backgrounds in classical and jazz piano playing. We found total hours of improvisation experience to be negatively associated with activity in frontoparietal executive cortical areas. In contrast, improvisation training was positively associated with functional connectivity of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, dorsal premotor cortices, and presupplementary areas. The effects were significant when controlling for hours of classical piano practice and age. These results indicate that even neural mechanisms involved in creative behaviors, which require a flexible online generation of novel and meaningful output, can be automated by training. Second, improvisational musical training can influence functional brain properties at a network level. We show that the greater functional connectivity seen in experienced improvisers may reflect a more efficient exchange of information within associative networks of importance for musical creativity.

  14. Explosive coalescence of magnetic islands and explosive particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.I.

    1985-07-01

    An explosive reconnection process associated with the nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability is found through studies of the electromagnetic particle simulation and the magnetohydrodynamic particle simulation. The explosive coalescence is a process of magnetic collapse, in which we find the magnetic and electrostatic field energies and temperatures (ion temperature in the coalescing direction, in particular) explode toward the explosion time t 0 as (t 0 - t)/sup -8/3/, (t 0 - t) -4 , and (t 0 - t)/sup -8/3/, respectively for a canonical case. Single-peak, double-peak, and triple-peak structures of magnetic energy, temperature, and electrostatic energy, respectively, are observed on the simulation as overshoot amplitude oscillations and are theoretically explained. The heuristic model of Brunel and Tajima is extended to this explosive coalescence in order to extract the basic process. Since the explosive coalescence exhibits self-similarity, a temporal universality, we theoretically search for a self-similar solution to the two-fluid plasma equations

  15. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Jiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E and energy release rate (η peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  16. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qingjie; Wang, Qiushi; Nie, Jianxin; Guo, Xueyong; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Wenqi

    2018-03-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX) based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm) grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es) continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb) increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E) and energy release rate (η) peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  17. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using {sup 12}CO( J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  18. Fa-fa-fa-fa, de doo doo doo, de da da da, sha la la la lee : What is the optimal syllable in improvised singing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, Laura; Gilbers, Dicky; Lowie, Wander; Kager, René; Grijzenhout, Janet; Sebregts, Koen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and account for the optimal syllable structure in improvised singing without lyrics. Improvised singing has an overall relaxed character and it is abstracted from meaning. Furthermore, singing in general involves an exaggerated articulation of speech sounds.

  19. 2. Rhythmical Creativity in Duple and Triple Meter of Students of Early-School Education in the Light of Their Stabilised Musical Aptitudes and Rhythm Readiness to Improvise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołodziejski Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of (author's own research on the students of earlyschool education imitation and the rhythmical improvisation in the light of their stabilised musical aptitudes measured with Edwin E. Gordon's AMMA test and also Edwin E. Gordon's readiness to rhythm improvisation readiness record (RIRR. In the first part of the research the students imitated some rhythmical patterns diversified in terms of difficulty in duple and triple meter and the subsequent part concerned guiding the oral rhythmical dialogue (on the BAH syllable by the teacher with the application of various rhythmical motives in different metres. The students' both imitative and improvising performances were rated by three competent judges. What was undertaken was searching for the relations between musical aptitudes, improvisation readiness and the pupils' rhythmical imitation and improvisation abilities.

  20. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  1. Electromagnetic field effects in explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas

    2009-06-01

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: measurements of conductivity; enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Hayes...()^1 showed a strong correlation of peak electrical conductivity with carbon content of the detonation products. Ershov.......^2 linked detailed electrical conductivity measurements with reaction kinetics and this work was extended to enhance detonation performance electrically;...^3 for this, electrical power densities of the order of 100 TW/m^2 of explosive surface normal to the detonation front were required. However, small electrical powers are required to affect the initiation and growth of reaction.......^4,5 A continuation of this work will be reported. LA-UR 09-00873 .^1 B. Hayes, Procs. of 4th Symposium (International) on Detonation (1965), p. 595. ^2 A. Ershov, P. Zubkov, and L. Luk'yanchikov, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 10, 776-782 (1974). ^3 M. Cowperthwaite, Procs. 9th Detonation Symposium (1989), p. 388-395. ^4 M. A. Cook and T. Z. Gwyther, ``Influence of Electric Fields on Shock to Detonation Transition,'' (1965). ^5 D. Salisbury, R. Winter, and L. Biddle, Procs. of the APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (2005) p. 1010-1013.

  2. Medical improvisation training to enhance the antenatal counseling skills of neonatologists and neonatal fellows: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Taylor; Fu, Belinda; Gray, Megan; Umoren, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    Neonatologists must be skilled at providing antenatal counseling to expectant parents of premature infants at the limits of viability. We conducted a medical improvisation workshop with the objective of enhancing antenatal counseling skills. Pre- and postworkshop questionnaires were collected to examine the impact of the training. A follow-up survey was distributed 3 months after the workshop to examine the impact of the training on antenatal counseling skills. Nine neonatologists and three neonatal fellows participated in the workshop. Participants reported the skills learned in the workshop could enhance the quality of antenatal counseling. On follow-up survey, 90% of subjects reported improvements in the quality of their antenatal counseling. Participation in a medical improvisation workshop resulted in enhancements of self-perceived antenatal counseling skills. Medical improvisation training may provide a feasible and effective method of communication training for neonatologists. Further research into this innovative method are needed.

  3. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude

    2009-06-01

    An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classification scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classification scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from five different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material.

  4. Video Conferencing for Opening Classroom Doors in Initial Teacher Education: Sociocultural Processes of Mimicking and Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Wiesemes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an alternative framework for conceptualising video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education and in Higher Education (HE more generally. This alternative framework takes into account the existing models in the field, but – based on a set of interviews conducted with teacher trainees and wider analysis of the related literature – we suggest that there is a need to add to existing models the notions of ‘mimicking’ (copying practice and improvisation (unplanned and spontaneous personal learning moments. These two notions are considered to be vital, as they remain valid throughout teachers’ careers and constitute key affordances of video-conferencing uses in HE. In particular, we argue that improvisational processes can be considered as key for developing professional practice and lifelong learning and that video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education can contribute to an understanding of training and learning processes. Current conceptualisations of video conferencing as suggested by Coyle (2004 and Marsh et al. (2009 remain valid, but also are limited in their scope with respect to focusing predominantly on pragmatic and instrumental teacher-training issues. Our article suggests that the theoretical conceptualisations of video conferencing should be expanded to include elements of mimicking and ultimately improvisation. This allows us to consider not just etic aspects of practice, but equally emic practices and related personal professional development. We locate these arguments more widely in a sociocultural-theory framework, as it enables us to describe interactions in dialectical rather than dichotomous terms (Lantolf & Poehner, 2008.

  5. Being in the zone: physiological markers of togetherness in joint improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Levit-Binun, Nava; Golland, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Performers improvising together describe special moments of 'being in the zone' - periods of high performance, synchrony, and enhanced sense of togetherness. Existing evidence suggests a possible route for attaining togetherness - interpersonal synchrony, the fine-grained sensory-motor coordination that promotes social connectedness. Here, we investigated the physiological characteristics of togetherness using a practice from theater and dance, the mirror game. Pairs of expert improvisers jointly improvised synchronized linear motion, while their motion tracks and cardiovascular activity were continuously monitored. Players also provided dynamic ratings of togetherness while watching video recordings of their games. We identified periods of togetherness using kinematic and subjective markers and assessed their physiological characteristics. The kinematic and the subjective measures of togetherness showed some agreement, with more extensive game periods being marked by the subjective than the kinematic one. Game rounds with high rates of togetherness were characterized by increased players' cardiovascular activity, increased correlation of players' heart rates (HRs), and increased motion intensity. By comparing motion segments with similar motion intensity, we showed that moments of togetherness in the mirror game were marked by increased players' HRs, regardless of motion intensity. This pattern was robust for the subjectively defined periods of togetherness, while showing a marginal effect for the kinematically defined togetherness. Building upon similar findings in flow research we suggest that the observed increase of players' HRs during togetherness periods in the mirror game might indicate the enhanced engagement and enjoyment reported by performers going into 'the zone.' The suggested approach, combining temporal measurements of kinematic, physiological and subjective responses, demonstrates how the dynamics of spontaneously emerging dyadic states can be

  6. Being in the zone: physiological markers of togetherness in joint improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior eNoy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Performers improvising together describe special moments of ‘being in the zone’ – periods of high performance, synchrony and enhanced sense of togetherness. Existing evidence suggests ¬a possible route for attaining togetherness - interpersonal synchrony, the fine-grained sensory-motor coordination that promotes social connectedness. Here we investigated the physiological characteristics of togetherness using a practice from theater and dance, the mirror game.Pairs of expert improvisers jointly improvised synchronized linear motion, while their motion tracks and cardiovascular activity were continuously monitored. Players also provided dynamic ratings of togetherness while watching video recordings of their games. We identified periods of togetherness using kinematic and subjective markers and assessed their physiological characteristics. The kinematic and the subjective measures of togetherness showed some agreement, with more extensive game-periods being marked by the subjective than the kinematic one.Game rounds with high rates of togetherness were characterized by increased players’ cardiovascular activity, increased correlation of players’ heart rates, and increased motion intensity. By comparing motion segments with similar motion intensity, we showed that moments of togetherness in the mirror game were marked by increased players’ heart rates, regardless of motion intensity. This pattern was robust for the subjectively defined periods of togetherness, while showing a marginal effect for the kinematically defined togetherness. Building upon similar findings in flow research we suggest that the observed increase of players’ heart rates during togetherness periods in the mirror game might indicate the enhanced engagement and enjoyment reported by performers going into ‘the zone’. The suggested approach, combining temporal measurements of kinematic, physiological and subjective responses, demonstrates how the dynamics of

  7. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  8. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  9. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 x 10 -3 to as low as 5.8 x 10 -6 . Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson 8 provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10 -1

  10. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  11. Calculating overpressure from BLEVE explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planas-Cuchi, E.; Casal, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Technological Risk Studies; Salla, J.M. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Department of Heat Engines

    2004-11-01

    Although a certain number of authors have analyzed the prediction of boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) and fireball effects, only very few of them have proposed methodologies for predicting the overpressure from such explosions. In this paper, the methods previously published are discussed and shown to introduce a significant overestimation due to erroneous thermodynamic assumptions - ideal gas behaviour and isentropic vapour expansion - on which they are based (in fact, they give the maximum value of overpressure which can be caused by a BLEVE). A new approach is proposed, based on the - more realistic - assumption of an adiabatic and irreversible expansion process; the real properties of the substance involved in the explosion are used. The two methods are compared through the application to a given case. (author)

  12. The vapor pressures of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  13. Evidence for nearby supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Narciso; Maiz-Apellaniz, Jesus; Canelles, Matilde

    2002-01-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are one of the most energetic--and potentially lethal--phenomena in the Universe. We show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at ∼130 pc from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. The deposition on Earth of 60 Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that ∼2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction

  14. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A Ojo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. Aim: The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients′ survival. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. Results: A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9% male and 9 (32.1% females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9% survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6% of the patients died. Conclusions: External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a

  15. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, O A; Asha, M A; Bankole, O B; Kanu, O O

    2015-01-01

    The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD) sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients' survival. This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9%) male and 9 (32.1%) females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9%) survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6%) of the patients died. External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a standard feeding tube as described.

  16. The effects of parent-implemented PECS training on improvisation of mands by children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chaabane, Delia B; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R; DeBar, Ruth M

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which mothers were able to train their children, 2 boys with autism, to exchange novel pictures to request items using the picture exchange communication system (PECS). Generalization probes assessing each child's ability to mand for untrained items were conducted throughout conditions. Using a multiple baseline design, results demonstrated that both children improvised by using alternative symbols when the corresponding symbol was unavailable across all symbol categories (colors, shapes, and functions) and that parents can teach their children to use novel pictorial response forms.

  17. Graphic Notation as a Tool in Describing and Analyzing Music Therapy Improvisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    1993-01-01

    , involving graphic brainstorms,using coordinative systems and other frameworks, interpretative method including working on specifically musical counter-transference and special graphic exercises are outlined. Work by students at Aalborg University, Denmark, is quoted. General perspectives including relations......Presents graphic notation as the making of aural scores to memorise or analyse improvised music therapy processes, capturing also those aspectsthe usual music notation would not cover. An example in some detail is shown, the music taken from a well known Nordoff/Robbins recording. Training method...... to music analysis in musicology and to the history,epistemology and cultural status of musical notation is discussed....

  18. Difficulties in the neuroscience of creativity: jazz improvisation and the scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda; Limb, Charles J

    2013-11-01

    Creativity is a fundamental and remarkable human capacity, yet the scientific study of creativity has been limited by the difficulty of reconciling the scientific method and creative processes. We outline several hurdles and considerations that should be addressed when studying the cognitive neuroscience of creativity and suggest that jazz improvisation may be one of the most useful experimental models for the study of spontaneous creativity. More broadly, we argue that studying creativity in a way that is both scientifically and ecologically valid requires collaboration between neuroscientists and artists. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, O. A.; Asha, M. A.; Bankole, O. B.; Kanu, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD) sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. Aim: The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients’ survival. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. Results: A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9%) male and 9 (32.1%) females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9%) survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6%) of the patients died. Conclusions: External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a standard

  20. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  1. Explosions in Landau Vlasov dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.; Cussol, D.; Gregoire, C.; Boilley, D.; Pi, M.; Schuck, P.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1988-01-01

    A microscopic study of the quasi-fusion/explosion transition is presented in the framework of Landau-Vlasov simulations of intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions (bombarding energies between 10 and 100 MeV/A). A detailed analysis in terms of the Equation of State of the system is performed. In agreement with schematic models we find that the composite nuclear system formed in the collision does explode when it stays long enough in the mechanically unstable region (spinodal region). Quantitative estimates of the explosion threshold are given for central symmetric reactions (Ca+Ca and Ar+Ti). The effect of the nuclear matter compressibility modulus is discussed

  2. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  3. Biological consequences of atomic explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1984-01-01

    After an introductory chapter of the development and properties of nuclear weapons and the events of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, this books shows the effects of atomic explosions for man: effects of the pressure wave, thermal radiation, initial nuclear radiation alone or in conjunction and possible medical help. In addition the less massive damage caused by induced radioactivity and fallout, their prevention resp. treatment and the malignant/nonmalignant late effects are discussed. A further chapter deals with the psychological and epidemiological effects of atomic explosions, the consequences for food and water supply, and the construction of shetters. The last chapter is concerned with the problem of organising medical help. (MG) [de

  4. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, William E.; Day, Walter C.

    1970-01-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment

  5. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberg, William E; Day, Walter C [U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment.

  6. Experimental approach to explosive nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubono, S.

    1991-07-01

    Recent development of experimental studies on explosive nucleosynthesis, especially the rapid proton process and the primordial nucleosynthesis were discussed with a stress on unstable nuclei. New development in the experimental methods for the nuclear astrophysics is also discussed which use unstable nuclear beams. (author)

  7. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  8. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and

  9. The behavior limestone under explosive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. Yu; Orlova, Yu N.; Bogomolov, G. N.

    2016-11-01

    Limestone behavior under explosive loading was investigated. The behavior of the limestone by the action of the three types of explosives, including granular, ammonite and emulsion explosives was studied in detail. The shape and diameter of the explosion craters were obtained. The observed fragments after the blast have been classified as large, medium and small fragments. Three full-scale experiments were carried out. The research results can be used as a qualitative test for the approbation of numerical methods.

  10. Teaching Medical Students to Communicate With Empathy and Clarity Using Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan-Liss, Evonne; Lantz-Gefroh, Valeri; Bass, Elizabeth; Killebrew, Deirdre; Ponzio, Nicholas M; Savi, Christine; O'Connell, Christine

    2018-03-01

    Medical educators widely accept that health care providers need strong communication skills. The authors sought to develop a course incorporating improvisation to teach health professions students communication skills and build empathy. Teaching health care professionals to communicate more effectively with patients, the public, and each other is a goal of the Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science at Stony Brook University. The authors designed an interprofessional elective for medical, nursing, and dental students that differed in several respects from traditional communication training. The Communicating Science elective, which was offered by the Alda Center from 2012 to 2016, used verbal and nonverbal exercises, role-playing, and storytelling, including improvisation exercises, to teach students to communicate with empathy and clarity. In course evaluations completed by 76 students in 2012 and 2013, 100% said they would recommend the course to fellow students, saw the relevance of the course content to their careers, and desired more of the course content in their school's curriculum. As a result of this positive feedback, from 2014 to 2016, 10 hours of instruction pairing empathy and communication training was embedded in the preclinical curriculum at the Stony Brook University School of Medicine. This course could be an effective model, and one that other institutions could employ, for improving communication skills and empathy in the next generation of health care professionals. Next steps include advocating for communication skills training to be embedded throughout the curriculum of a four-year medical school program.

  11. The art of improvisation: the working process of administrators at a Federal University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littike, Denilda; Sodré, Francis

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the working process of administrators at a Federal University Hospital (HUF). It includes research with a qualitative approach conducted through interviews with twelve administrators. The work process, the work tools and the human activity per se are understood to be under scrutiny. Work is acknowledged as a category that analyzes the management methods used by professional health workers. The HUFs are responsible for two social policies, namely education and health. The aim of the administrators' work is an organizational issue, and the administration tools used are bureaucratic and out-of-date for the current political context of hospital management. The most significant feature of this hospital administration is improvisation, which reduces the potential of the administrators in such a way that, instead of introducing innovative changes into their work process, they prefer to leave their jobs. Improvisation is caused by the production of sequential obstacles in management decision-making at this teaching hospital. In short, the transfer of administration at the HUF, from direct government administration by the University to the Brazilian Company of Hospital Services (EBSERH), was analyzed on the grounds that this would establish a "new" management model.

  12. Intra- and inter-brain synchronization during musical improvisation on the guitar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viktor; Sänger, Johanna; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    Humans interact with the environment through sensory and motor acts. Some of these interactions require synchronization among two or more individuals. Multiple-trial designs, which we have used in past work to study interbrain synchronization in the course of joint action, constrain the range of observable interactions. To overcome the limitations of multiple-trial designs, we conducted single-trial analyses of electroencephalography (EEG) signals recorded from eight pairs of guitarists engaged in musical improvisation. We identified hyper-brain networks based on a complex interplay of different frequencies. The intra-brain connections primarily involved higher frequencies (e.g., beta), whereas inter-brain connections primarily operated at lower frequencies (e.g., delta and theta). The topology of hyper-brain networks was frequency-dependent, with a tendency to become more regular at higher frequencies. We also found hyper-brain modules that included nodes (i.e., EEG electrodes) from both brains. Some of the observed network properties were related to musical roles during improvisation. Our findings replicate and extend earlier work and point to mechanisms that enable individuals to engage in temporally coordinated joint action.

  13. Exploring the therapist's use of self: enactments, improvisation and affect in psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Psychoanalytic psychotherapists, drawing upon intersubjective and attachment theories, recognize that mutual influence impacts the treatment process. Mutual influence generates enactments--emotionally intense joint creations stemming from the unconscious of both therapist and patient--which often leave both patient and therapist feeling confused and stuck. The author presents a case in which the therapist's use of improvisational role play was a critical therapeutic response to an enactment. The therapist's self-expression through the displacement of the role play 1) modeled a safe, affectively genuine engagement in relationship, 2) provided the patient with an unexpected and powerful window into the therapist's emotional world, 3) shifted the patient's fundamental belief that fathers and men are cold and unfeeling, and 4) led the patient to uncover "new" early memories and to become aware of his role as an agent of vitality and intimacy. The author concludes that using improvisation as a flexible response to rigid patterns of enactment may provide a catalyst for therapeutic change.

  14. Stock-outs, uncertainty and improvisation in access to healthcare in war-torn Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyinda, Herbert; Mugisha, James

    2015-12-01

    Stock-outs, also known as shortages or complete absence of a particular inventory, in public health facilities have become a hallmark in Uganda's health system making the notions of persistent doubt in access to healthcare - uncertainty, and doing more with less - 'improvisation', very pronounced. The situation becomes more critical in post-conflict areas with an over whelming burden of preexisting and conflict-related ailments amidst weak health systems. Particularly in the war-torn Northern Uganda, the intersection between the effects of violent conflict and shortage of medications is striking. There are problems getting the right type of medications to the right people at the right time, causing persistent shortages and uncertainty in access to healthcare. With reference to patients on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), we present temporal trends in access to healthcare in the context of medication shortages in conflict-affected areas. We examine uncertainties in access to care, and how patients, medical practitioners, and the state - the key actors in the domain of supplying and utilizing medicines, respond. Our observation is that, while improvisation is a feature of biomedicine and facilitates problem solving in daily life, it is largely contextual. Given the rapidly evolving contexts and social and professional sensitivities that characterize war affected areas, there is a need for deliberate healthcare programs tailored to the unique needs of people and to the shaping of appropriate policies in post-conflict settings, which call for more North-South collaboration on equal terms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvised Performances: Urban Ethnography and the Creative Tactics of Montreal’s Metro Buskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wees

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Buskers—street performers—evince the creative tactics of self-conscious agents who are both produced by and productive of the social and material conditions within which they carry out their practices. In this article, I discuss my ethnographic research among buskers in Montreal’s underground transit system—the metro—and examine their highly variable and improvisational practices (musical and spatial. I detail how buskers work with and against the constraints and possibilities posed by the material characteristics of those spaces (especially in terms of acoustics as well as formal regulations and prevailing social norms. This suggests understanding busking as a relational process of “cobbling together” that is never entirely fixed or bounded, but dispersed and always in-the-making. Further, I demonstrate how the research process in this context is itself a creative, improvisational approach, guided as much by the conditions at hand as by an overarching research design. By drawing parallels between the busker-performer and my role as researcher and creative producer, particularly in my use of audio-visual production, I argue that ethnographic research is, itself, a form of assemblaging, of bricolage—an embodied, relational process that involves multiple participants (human and material of varying influences, bound together by the tactical activities of the researcher.

  16. Behavior of explosion debris clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    In the normal course of events the behavior of debris clouds created by explosions will be of little concern to the atomic energy industry. However, two situations, one of them actual and one postulated, exist where the rise and spread of explosion clouds can affect site operations. The actual occurrence would be the detonation of nuclear weapons and the resultant release and transport of radioactive debris across the various atomic energy installations. Although the activity of the diffusing cloud is not of biological concern, it may still be sufficiently above background to play havoc with the normal readings of sensitive monitoring instruments. If it were not known that these anomalous readings resulted from explosion debris, considerable time and expense might be required for on-site testing and tracing. Fortunately it is usually possible, with the use of meteorological data and forecasts, to predict when individual sites are affected by nuclear weapon debris effects. The formation rise, and diffusion of weapon clouds will be discussed. The explosion of an atomic reactor is the postulated situation. It is common practice in reactor hazard analysis to assume a combination of circumstances which might result in a nuclear incident with a release of material to the atmosphere. It is not within the scope of this report to examine the manifold plausibilities that might lead to an explosion or the possible methods of release of gaseous and/or particulates from such an occurrence. However, if the information of a cloud is assumed and some idea of its energy content is obtainable, estimates of the cloud behavior in the atmosphere can be made

  17. Ideas for peaceful nuclear explosions in USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Three papers prepared in USSR have been made available to the Agency for circulation among Member States. One examines radioactive contamination and methods for predicting it, of natural environments during underground explosions. Another deals with the mechanical effect of underground explosions. The third, which forms the basis of this article, reviews possible applications of peaceful nuclear explosions in the Soviet economy. (author)

  18. Gas explosion in domestic buildings. The vented gas explosion[sub][/sub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Chyży

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the basic information, related to the so-called vented gas explosion, has been presented. The vented explosion it is an explosion, during which the destruction of the weakest elements of the structure occurs. Through the resulting holes (decompressing surfaces can flow both combustion products and non-burned gas mixture. In consequence, reduction of the maximum explosion pressure[i] P[sub]red [/sub][/i] may be significant. Often, a gas explosion occurs inside residential buildings. In this case, natural vents are window and door openings.[b]Keywords[/b]: gas, explosion, combustion, explosion vents

  19. The Development of Rhythm at the Age of 6-11 Years: Non-Pitch Rhythmic Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Pirkko

    2006-01-01

    In the statistical and transcriptional analyses reported in this exploratory study, original rhythms of 6-11-year-old children (N=36) were examined. The hypotheses were based on a new model of musical development, and tested empirically using non-pitch rhythmic improvisation in a MIDI-environment. Several representational types were found in…

  20. Pre-Service Teachers' Problems of Improvisation of Instructional Materials in Social Studies in Ekiti State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.; Oluwagbohunmi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined problems of improvisation of instructional materials in Social Studies by pre-service teachers in Ekiti State University. The population for the study comprised all Social Studies pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education. The sample consisted of 90 Social Studies pre-service teachers selected from 200, 300 and 400…

  1. Safety-Related Improvisation in Led Outdoor Activities: An Exploratory Investigation into Its Occurrence and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Margaret J.; Salmon, Paul M.; Lenné, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic nature of led outdoor activities means that, despite activity providers' best efforts, activity leaders can be exposed to unanticipated situations for which no procedures exist. Improvisation, the spontaneous, real-time conception and execution of a novel response, has been identified as a potential means of maintaining safety in…

  2. Constancy and Variability: Dialogic Literacy Events as Sites for Improvisation in Two 3rd-Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…

  3. Verbal Auditory Cueing of Improvisational Dance: A Proposed Method for Training Agency in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Soriano, Christina T.

    2016-01-01

    Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease (PPD). Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson’s have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance) and partnered (tango). In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time-to-music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation demands open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues, potentially fostering the formation of spontaneous movement strategies. Here, we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living. PMID:26925029

  4. The Youth Worker as Jazz Improviser: Foregrounding Education "In the Moment" within the Professional Development of Youth Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Pete

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the foregrounding of improvisation and education "in the moment" within youth workers' professional development. Devised in collaboration with third-year Youth and Community Work students and lecturers at a university in Birmingham, this participatory action research project drew on work of jazz ethnomusicologists…

  5. The Effects of Aural versus Notated Instructional Materials on Achievement and Self-Efficacy in Jazz Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of aural versus notated pedagogical materials on achievement and self-efficacy in instrumental jazz improvisation performance. A secondary purpose of this study was to investigate how achievement and self-efficacy may be related to selected experience variables. The sample for the…

  6. Evolving Regulatory Processes Used by Students and Experts in the Acquiring of Improvisational Skills: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Leon R.

    2018-01-01

    The way an improviser practices is a vital and significant aspect to a musician's means and capacities of expression. Expert music performers utilize extensive self-regulatory processes involving planning, strategic development, and systemized approaches to learning and reflective practice. Scholars posit that these processes are constructivist…

  7. The Vocal Improviser-Educator: An Analysis of Selected American and Australian Educators' Influences and Pedagogical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2014-01-01

    Thirty vocal improviser-educators from Australia (n = 15) and the United States (n = 15) were surveyed for musical background, influences and pedagogical views, and assessed for personality type using the "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator" ("MBTI"). The purpose was to both combine and compare the two groups to identify overall…

  8. Reduction of radioactivity produced by nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessler, Richard M [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Four main sources contribute to the radioactivity produced by a nuclear explosive: 1. Fission products from the nuclear explosive, 2. Fusion products from the nuclear explosive, 3. Induced radioactivity in the nuclear explosive, 4. Induced radioactivity in the environment. This paper will summarize some of the work done at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore to reduce the radioactivity from these sources to levels acceptable for peaceful applications. Although it is theoretically possible to have no radioactivity produced by nuclear explosives, this goal has not been achieved.

  9. Activation and connectivity patterns of the presupplementary and dorsal premotor areas during free improvisation of melodies and rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manzano, Örjan; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-10-15

    Free, i.e. non-externally cued generation of movement sequences is fundamental to human behavior. We have earlier hypothesized that the dorsal premotor cortex (PMD), which has been consistently implicated in cognitive aspects of planning and selection of spatial motor sequences may be particularly important for the free generation of spatial movement sequences, whereas the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), which shows increased activation during perception, learning and reproduction of temporal sequences, may contribute more to the generation of temporal structures. Here we test this hypothesis using fMRI and musical improvisation in professional pianists as a model behavior. We employed a 2 × 2 factorial design with the factors Melody (Specified/Improvised) and Rhythm (Specified/Improvised). The main effect analyses partly confirmed our hypothesis: there was a main effect of Melody in the PMD; the pre-SMA was present in the main effect of Rhythm, as predicted, as well as in the main effect of Melody. A psychophysiological interaction analysis of functional connectivity demonstrated that the correlation in activity between the pre-SMA and cerebellum was higher during rhythmic improvisation than during the other conditions. In summary, there were only subtle differences in activity level between the pre-SMA and PMD during improvisation, regardless of condition. Consequently, the free generation of rhythmic and melodic structures, appears to be largely integrated processes but the functional connectivity between premotor areas and other regions may change during free generation in response to sequence-specific spatiotemporal demands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  11. Problems in the theory of point explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. P.

    The book is concerned with the development of the theory of point explosions, which is relevant to the study of such phenomena as the initiation of detonation, high-power explosions, electric discharges, cosmic explosions, laser blasts, and hypersonic aerodynamics. The discussion covers the principal equations and the statement of problems; linearized non-self-similar one-dimensional problems; spherical, cylindrical, and plane explosions with allowance for counterpressure under conditions of constant initial density; explosions in a combustible mixture of gases; and point explosions in inhomogeneous media with nonsymmetric energy release. Attention is also given to point explosions in an electrically conducting gas with allowance for the effect of the magnetic field and to the propagation of perturbations from solar flares.

  12. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  13. Bipolar explosion models for hypernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar explosion models for hypernovae (very energetic supernovae) are presented. These models provide a favorable situation to explain some unexpected features in observations of hypernovae, e.g., high velocity matter dominated by Fe and low velocity matter dominated by O. The overall abundance of these models gives a good fit, at least qualitatively, to abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. We suggest hypernovae be driven by bipolar jets and contribute significantly to the early Galactic chemical evolution

  14. Mass extinctions and supernova explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Korschinek, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, o...

  15. Performance properties of commercial explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.N.; Mader, C.L.; Goldstein, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aquarium test is a proven means of obtaining nonidial performance property data for commercial blasting agents. Optical data on the detonation velocity, shock wave in water, and expansion rate of the pipe enclosing the detonation products (in combination with the equilibrium thermodynamic chemistry code BKW) give the C-J state and degree of chemical reaction at the detonation front, as well as information on additional chemical reaction that occurs as the detonation products expand. Specific explosive systems that are studied are ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixture (ANFO), aluminized ANFO, flaked trinitrotoluene (TNT), and several other commercial products in 10-cm diam and 20-cm-diam pipes of Plexiglas and clay. Experimental shock-pressure data are obtained with lithium niobate transducers placed in the water surrounding the explosive charge. These data show that the addition of approx.100-..mu..m aluminum particles to ANFO significantly increases the initial peak shock pressure delivered to the surrounding medium. Peak shock pressures in the water, calculated from the shock-wave orientation, are also useful in comparing performance properties of various commercial explosives. 20 references, 17 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Nuclear Explosions 1945-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Nils-Olov; Ferm, Ragnhild

    2000-07-01

    The main part of this report is a list of nuclear explosions conducted by the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan in 1945-98. The list includes all known nuclear test explosions and is compiled from a variety of sources including officially published information from the USA, Russia and France. The details given for each explosion (date, origin time, location, yield, type, etc.) are often compiled from more than one source because the individual sources do not give complete information. The report includes a short background to nuclear testing and provides brief information on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the verification regime now being established to verify compliance with the treaty. It also summarizes nuclear testing country by country. The list should be used with some caution because its compilation from a variety of sources means that some of the data could be incorrect. This report is the result of cooperation between the Defence Research Establishment (FOA) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

  17. A model of vulcanian explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    We present a model of the initial stages of the explosive eruption of magma from a volcanic conduit as occurs in Vulcanian style eruptions. We assume there is a volatile rich (1-10 wt%) mixture of magma, vaporised groundwater and exsolved volatiles, trapped at high pressure (1-100 atm) just below a plug in a volcanic conduit. If the plug disrupts, there is an explosive eruption in which a rarefaction wave propagates into the conduit allowing the volatile rich mixture to expand and discharge into the atmosphere ahead of the vent. Typically, the explosions are so rapid that coarse grained ejecta (>0.5 mm) do not remain in thermal equilibrium with the gas, and this leads to significantly lower velocities and temperatures than predicted by an equilibrium model. Material may erupt from the vent at speeds of 100-400 m s -1 with an initial mass flux of order 10 7 -10 9 kg s -1 , consistent with video observations of eruptions and measurements of the ballistic dispersal of large clasts. (orig.)

  18. Neural substrates of interactive musical improvisation: an FMRI study of 'trading fours' in jazz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F Donnay

    Full Text Available Interactive generative musical performance provides a suitable model for communication because, like natural linguistic discourse, it involves an exchange of ideas that is unpredictable, collaborative, and emergent. Here we show that interactive improvisation between two musicians is characterized by activation of perisylvian language areas linked to processing of syntactic elements in music, including inferior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal gyrus, and deactivation of angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus, brain structures directly implicated in semantic processing of language. These findings support the hypothesis that musical discourse engages language areas of the brain specialized for processing of syntax but in a manner that is not contingent upon semantic processing. Therefore, we argue that neural regions for syntactic processing are not domain-specific for language but instead may be domain-general for communication.

  19. The 'ripple effect': Towards researching improvisational music therapy in dementia care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; Tsiris, Giorgos; Wood, Stuart; Powell, Harriet; Graham, Janet; Sanderson, Richard; Millman, Rachel; Gibson, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision for persons with dementia prompted this study's exploration of music therapists' strategies for creating musical communities in dementia care settings, considering the needs and resources of people affected by dementia. Focus group discussions and detailed iterative study of improvisational music therapy work by six experienced practitioners clarify the contextual immediacy and socio-musical complexities of music therapy in dementia care homes. Music therapy's 'ripple effect', with resonances from micro (person-to-person musicking), to meso (musicking beyond 'session time') and macro level (within the care home and beyond), implies that all who are part of the dementia care ecology need opportunities for flourishing, shared participation, and for expanded self-identities; beyond 'staff', 'residents', or 'being in distress'. On such basis, managers and funders might consider an extended brief for music therapists' roles, to include generating and maintaining musical wellbeing throughout residential care settings. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Body memories in artistic improvisation: a dialogical embodied exchange of movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne; Høffding, Simon

    When engaging in observations of and interviews with expert artists, such as dancers and musicians, it becomes evident that their practices are, in different ways, focused on developing, adjusting and optimising certain techniques of the body. In the phenomenological analysis of body memory...... in dance and musicianship presented in this paper, we contend that it would be a mistake to think of these body techniques – or specialised habits – as a repertoire of more or less automatized movements. Rather, in each repetition, body memories including these habits are to be understood as unfolding...... in response to the present context and accordingly instantiate a fresh memory of these habits while moulding them at the same time. In that sense, any habit is also always improvised in some degree – adjusted and timed in accordance with the present situation. In recent sociological discussions, several...

  1. Danger of the improvisation in the services of radiology; Perigo de improvisacao nos servicos de radiologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Laura M.A. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: laur@gbl.com.br; Azevedo, Ana C.P. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: anacecilia@hucff.ufrj.br

    2001-07-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the safety conditions and of the radiological protection procedures in some X-rays rooms at the Radiodiagnostic Service of the HUCFF was performed. This evaluation was carried through the radiometric survey of the rooms, using an ion chamber of ionization Victoreen 450 P, calibrated for radiodiagnostic and a water phantom of 25 x 35 cm. The results showed that in the places shielded by proper barriers, the dose rates were in accordance with international recommendations and Norm CNEN 3.01. In the rooms where mobile shielding were placed, presented dose rates above the acceptable limits being critical in small rooms. Very often the improvisations are made without communication to the technical department. Periodic radiometric surveys help in the detection of situations. (author)

  2. Working memory benefits creative insight, musical improvisation, and original ideation through maintained task-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Baas, Matthijs; Wolsink, Inge; Roskes, Marieke

    2012-05-01

    Anecdotes from creative eminences suggest that executive control plays an important role in creativity, but scientific evidence is sparse. Invoking the Dual Pathway to Creativity Model, the authors hypothesize that working memory capacity (WMC) relates to creative performance because it enables persistent, focused, and systematic combining of elements and possibilities (persistence). Study 1 indeed showed that under cognitive load, participants performed worse on a creative insight task. Study 2 revealed positive associations between time-on-task and creativity among individuals high but not low in WMC, even after controlling for general intelligence. Study 3 revealed that across trials, semiprofessional cellists performed increasingly more creative improvisations when they had high rather than low WMC. Study 4 showed that WMC predicts original ideation because it allows persistent (rather than flexible) processing. The authors conclude that WMC benefits creativity because it enables the individual to maintain attention focused on the task and prevents undesirable mind wandering.

  3. Evaluation of the medical records system in an upcoming teaching hospital-a project for improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Deepak; Kumari, C M Vinaya; Sharada, M S; Mangala, M S

    2012-08-01

    The medical records system of an upcoming teaching hospital in a developing nation was evaluated for its accessibility, completeness, physician satisfaction, presence of any lacunae, suggestion of necessary steps for improvisation and to emphasize the importance of Medical records system in education and research work. The salient aspects of the medical records department were evaluated based on a questionnaire which was evaluated by a team of 40 participants-30 doctors, 5 personnel from Medical Records Department and 5 from staff of Hospital administration. Most of the physicians (65%) were partly satisfied with the existing medical record system. 92.5% were of the opinion that upgradation of the present system is necessary. The need of the hour in the present teaching hospital is the implementation of a hospital-wide patient registration and medical records re-engineering process in the form of electronic medical records system and regular review by the audit commission.

  4. Kidnapping in Taiwan: the significance of geographic proximity, improvisation, and fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Lung; Wu, Bohsiu; Huang, Shih-Long

    2007-06-01

    Kidnapping had been rare in Taiwan until recently. Several high-profile cases in the late 1990s, victimizing both Taiwanese citizens and foreigners, startled the island state. This study is the first systematic examination of the social dynamics involved in kidnapping. Data came from court cases, questionnaires, and in-depth interviews from incarcerated inmates. Results showed that kidnappers' financial crises and friendships with ringleaders were two primary motives. Most kidnapping cases involved a small number of offenders who form an ad hoc kidnapping group. Victims were not randomly chosen and share a geographic tie with the offenders. The process of kidnapping is idiosyncratic in nature, as most kidnappers improvised their plans. The negotiation phase in kidnapping is done hastily, and the amount of ransom is often a compromised result of offenders' needs, victim's family's financial status, timing, and the offenders' perception of risks. Ways to prevent kidnapping are also discussed in this article.

  5. Initiative-taking, Improvisational Capability and Business Model Innovation in Emerging Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yangfeng

    Business model innovation plays a very important role in developing competitive advantage when multinational small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from developed country enter into emerging markets because of the large contextual distances or gaps between the emerging and developed economies....... Many prior researches have shown that the foreign subsidiaries play important role in shaping the overall strategy of the parent company. However, little is known about how subsidiary specifically facilitates business model innovation (BMI) in emerging markets. Adopting the method of comparative...... innovation in emerging markets. We find that high initiative-taking and strong improvisational capability can accelerate the business model innovation. Our research contributes to the literatures on international and strategic entrepreneurship....

  6. Neural substrates of interactive musical improvisation: an FMRI study of 'trading fours' in jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnay, Gabriel F; Rankin, Summer K; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    Interactive generative musical performance provides a suitable model for communication because, like natural linguistic discourse, it involves an exchange of ideas that is unpredictable, collaborative, and emergent. Here we show that interactive improvisation between two musicians is characterized by activation of perisylvian language areas linked to processing of syntactic elements in music, including inferior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal gyrus, and deactivation of angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus, brain structures directly implicated in semantic processing of language. These findings support the hypothesis that musical discourse engages language areas of the brain specialized for processing of syntax but in a manner that is not contingent upon semantic processing. Therefore, we argue that neural regions for syntactic processing are not domain-specific for language but instead may be domain-general for communication.

  7. Collaborative resonant writing and musical improvisation to explore the concept of resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    2018-01-01

    phenomenon consisting of physical vibrations and acoustic sounding that offers a clear logic, and (2) a metaphorical conceptualization used to describe and understand complex psychological processes of human relationships. The process of collaborative writing led to the discovery or development of a ninestep......Resonance is often used to characterize relationships, but it is a complex concept that explains quite different physical, physiological and psychological processes. With the aim of gaining deeper insight into the concept of resonance, a group of ten music therapy researchers, all colleagues...... procedure including different collaborative resonant writing procedures and musical improvisation, as well as of a series of metaphors to explain therapeutic interaction, resonant learning and ways of resonant exploration....

  8. Improvising innovation in UK urban district heating: The convergence of social and environmental agendas in Aberdeen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Janette

    2015-01-01

    Research on district heating has focused on technical-economic appraisal of its contribution to energy and carbon saving in urban centres. There is however lack of analysis of political and social processes which govern its actual take up. This paper examines these processes through a case study of Aberdeen, Scotland. Interviews and documentary analysis are used to examine the 2002 development of Aberdeen Heat and Power (AHP), an independent energy services company (ESCo). Technical-economic feasibility was a necessary component of appraisal, but not sufficient to govern decision-making. In the UK centralised energy market, DH investment is unattractive to commercial investors, and local authorities lack capacity and expertise in energy provision. In Aberdeen, the politics of fuel poverty converged with climate politics, creating an a-typical willingness to innovate through improvisation. The welfare priority resulted in creation of a non-profit locally-owned ESCo, using cost- rather than market-based heat tariffs. AHP has developed three combined heat and power energy centres and heat networks, supplying 34 MWh/pa of heat. Carbon savings are estimated to be 45% in comparison with electric heating, and heating costs are reduced by a similar amount. The conclusion outlines potential policy improvements. - Highlights: • UK policy proposes district heating for urban low carbon heat. • Technical and economic feasibility are insufficient to drive take-up. • In Aberdeen convergence of social and environmental goals gave impetus to improvisation. • The resulting non-profit ESCo has three CHP and district heat networks, supplying 34 MWh of heat pa. • Carbon and cost savings are 45% in comparison with electric heating

  9. A principle of organization which facilitates broad Lamarckian-like adaptations by improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soen, Yoav; Knafo, Maor; Elgart, Michael

    2015-12-02

    During the lifetime of an organism, every individual encounters many combinations of diverse changes in the somatic genome, epigenome and microbiome. This gives rise to many novel combinations of internal failures which are unique to each individual. How any individual can tolerate this high load of new, individual-specific scenarios of failure is not clear. While stress-induced plasticity and hidden variation have been proposed as potential mechanisms of tolerance, the main conceptual problem remains unaddressed, namely: how largely non-beneficial random variation can be rapidly and safely organized into net benefits to every individual. We propose an organizational principle which explains how every individual can alleviate a high load of novel stressful scenarios using many random variations in flexible and inherently less harmful traits. Random changes which happen to reduce stress, benefit the organism and decrease the drive for additional changes. This adaptation (termed 'Adaptive Improvisation') can be further enhanced, propagated, stabilized and memorized when beneficial changes reinforce themselves by auto-regulatory mechanisms. This principle implicates stress not only in driving diverse variations in cells tissues and organs, but also in organizing these variations into adaptive outcomes. Specific (but not exclusive) examples include stress reduction by rapid exchange of mobile genetic elements (or exosomes) in unicellular, and rapid changes in the symbiotic microorganisms of animals. In all cases, adaptive changes can be transmitted across generations, allowing rapid improvement and assimilation in a few generations. We provide testable predictions derived from the hypothesis. The hypothesis raises a critical, but thus far overlooked adaptation problem and explains how random variation can self-organize to confer a wide range of individual-specific adaptations beyond the existing outcomes of natural selection. It portrays gene regulation as an

  10. Calretinin immunohistochemistry versus improvised rapid Acetylcholinesterase histochemistry in the evaluation of colorectal biopsies for Hirschsprung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokendra Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE histochemistry on rectal mucosal biopsies accurately diagnoses Hirschsprung disease (HD, but is not widely employed as it requires special tissue handling and pathologist expertise. Calretinin immunohistochemistry (IHC has been reported to be comparable to AChE staining with the loss of expression correlating with aganglionosis. Aim: The aim was to evaluate calretinin IHC as a primary diagnostic tool in comparison to the improvised rapid AChE technique in the diagnosis of HD. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 rectal biopsies (18 fresh frozen - 18 cases, 56 formalin fixed - 33 cases from 51 cases of suspect HD were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin/AChE/Calretinin. Ten biopsies each from ganglionated and aganglionated segments served as positive and negative controls. Ileal (3, appendiceal (3 and ring bowel (2 biopsies were also included. Two pathologists blinded to the clinical details evaluated the histomorphology with AChE and calretinin. Observations were statistically analyzed and Cohen′s k coefficient employed to assess agreement between two pathologists and calretinin and the AChE. Results: The study confirmed HD in 26 and non-HD in 25 cases. There were 7 neonates, 5 low level biopsies and 14 "inadequate" biopsies. The results of calretinin were comparable with AChE with a statistically significant measure of agreement of k = 0.973 between the two. One false-positive case of HD was noted with calretinin. The advantages and disadvantages of calretinin versus AChE are discussed. Conclusion: Calretinin is a reliable single immune marker for ruling out HD by its specific positive mucosal staining of formalin fixed rectal biopsy. The improvised AChE staining remains indispensable to confirm HD on fresh biopsies and thus, along with calretinin IHC maximizes the diagnostic accuracy of HD in difficult cases.

  11. Steam explosion pretreatment of softwood: the effect of the explosive decompression on enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielhop, Thomas; Amgarten, Janick; von Rohr, Philipp Rudolf; Studer, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Steam explosion pretreatment has been examined in many studies for enhancing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and is currently the most common pretreatment method in commercial biorefineries. The information available about the effect of the explosive decompression on the biochemical conversion is, however, very limited, and no studies prove that the latter is actually enhanced by the explosion. Hence, it is of great value to discern between the effect of the explosion on the one hand and the steaming on the other hand, to identify their particular influences on enzymatic digestibility. The effect of the explosive decompression in the steam explosion pretreatment of spruce wood chips on their enzymatic cellulose digestibility was studied systematically. The explosion had a high influence on digestibility, improving it by up to 90 % compared to a steam pretreatment without explosion. Two factors were identified to be essentially responsible for the effect of the explosion on enzymatic digestibility: pretreatment severity and pressure difference of the explosion. A higher pretreatment severity can soften up and weaken the lignocellulose structure more, so that the explosion can better break up the biomass and decrease its particle size, which enhances its digestibility. In particular, increasing the pressure difference of the explosion leads to more defibration, a smaller particle size and a better digestibility. Though differences were found in the micro- and nanostructure of exploded and non-exploded biomass, the only influence of the explosion on digestibility was found to be the macroscopic particle size reduction. Steam explosion treatments with a high severity and a high pressure difference of the explosion lead to a comparatively high cellulose digestibility of the-typically very recalcitrant-softwood biomass. This is the first study to show that explosion can enhance the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. If the

  12. Implementation of structure-mapping inference by event-file binding and action planning: a model of tool-improvisation analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Structure-mapping inferences are generally regarded as dependent upon relational concepts that are understood and expressible in language by subjects capable of analogical reasoning. However, tool-improvisation inferences are executed by members of a variety of non-human primate and other species. Tool improvisation requires correctly inferring the motion and force-transfer affordances of an object; hence tool improvisation requires structure mapping driven by relational properties. Observational and experimental evidence can be interpreted to indicate that structure-mapping analogies in tool improvisation are implemented by multi-step manipulation of event files by binding and action-planning mechanisms that act in a language-independent manner. A functional model of language-independent event-file manipulations that implement structure mapping in the tool-improvisation domain is developed. This model provides a mechanism by which motion and force representations commonly employed in tool-improvisation structure mappings may be sufficiently reinforced to be available to inwardly directed attention and hence conceptualization. Predictions and potential experimental tests of this model are outlined.

  13. Study on explosives and their quality performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabiullah, M.; Pingua, B.M.P.; Jagdish Khan, M.; Emranuzzaman [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    2005-07-01

    There are about forty suppliers of explosive and blasting accessories in India manufacturing site mixed emulsion, site mixed slurry, ANFO, HANFO, packed products, and blasting accessories of use in surface and underground mines. A field laboratory was set up to measure explosive properties of explosive samples, cast booster, detonating fuse, detonators, cord relay, MS connector, and shock tubes. Density, velocity of detonation, water percentage, water resistance, and energy output were considered as the important properties of explosives. A rating system was designed for selection of good explosive products. The delay interval and delay scattering in cord relay and shock tube was studied to improve blast performance. This paper describes in detail the method of measurement and vender rating system for explosive products as per marking system accepted by Coal India. 12 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination; Explosion nucleaire et contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [French] Etudiant les modalites de la contamination interne par les elements radioactifs apparus lors d'une explosion nucleaire, le role de la 'masse' et le mode d'expression des doses sont envisages. La connaissance de la composition en 'masse' du melange contaminant et de son evolution en fonction du temps peut seule apporter les bases necessaires a l'etude de son comportement dans l'organisme. Les courbes donnant la composition du melange de produits de fission - en nombre de noyaux - - en fonction du temps - ont ete etablies. Quelques applications pratiques, relatives en particulier a la nature de la contamination, a la radiotoxicite de certains elements et a l'evaluation de risque, sont envisagees a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  15. Use of explosives in pipeline construction work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, M J

    1976-08-01

    Explosives are an essential tool in Great Britain's pipeline-construction industry, with applications on dry land and under water, in trench blasting and tunneling for road and service crossings, demolition of unwanted sections, and removal of coatings. Nobels Explosive Co. Ltd. describes basic explosives operations as pertaining to the requirements of rock trenching, submarine operations, thrust-bore and tunneling operations, demolitions, and precision blasting.

  16. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Charles R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  17. Safety problems with abandoned explosive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtright, W.C.

    1969-01-01

    Procedures were developed for the safe removal of explosive and radioactive contaminated materials structures and drains from abandoned sites, including explosives processing and service buildings with a goal to return the entire area to its natural state and to permit public access. The safety problems encountered in the cleanup and their solutions are applicable to modification and maintenance work in operating explosive facilities. (U.S.)

  18. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  19. Health Consequences and Management of Explosive Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ostadtaghizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Because of the wide range and adverse impacts of explosions, healthcare authorities and staff should have a good grasp of preventive principles, as well as protection and management of explosion sites. Besides they have to be familiar with treating the injured. It is recommended that training courses and simulated explosive events be designed and run by the healthcare sector.

  20. Mathematical modelling of the decomposition of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Lev P

    2010-01-01

    Studies on mathematical modelling of the molecular and supramolecular structures of explosives and the elementary steps and overall processes of their decomposition are analyzed. Investigations on the modelling of combustion and detonation taking into account the decomposition of explosives are also considered. It is shown that solution of problems related to the decomposition kinetics of explosives requires the use of a complex strategy based on the methods and concepts of chemical physics, solid state physics and theoretical chemistry instead of empirical approach.

  1. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  2. Explosions on a gas-vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.; Klein, L.; Ratcliffe, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    A finite-difference computer code is used to calculate the time development of an explosion on a gas-vacuum interface. An analytic theory of the shape of the shock wave produced in the explosion is compared with the results of the computer simulation. The assumptions used in obtaining this analytic solution are verified, and the degree to which the variables describing the explosion are self-similar is examined. Finally, certain consistency relations among the similarity exponents are tested

  3. Explosive hydrogen burning in novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiescher, M.; Goerres, J.; Thielemann, F.K.; Ritter, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations (nova CrA 81 and Aql 82) reported large enhancements of element abundances beyond CNO nuclei in nova ejecta, which still wait for a clear theoretical explanation. Attempts to interprete these findings include scenarios like nova events on a O-Ne-Mg white dwarf or nuclear processing which enables the transfer of CNO material to heavier nuclei. In the present study we included all available nuclear information on proton-rich unstable nuclei, to update thermo-nuclear reaction rates in explosive hydrogen burning. They are applied in a systematic analysis of explosive hydrogen burning for a variety of temperature conditions, appropriate to nova explosions. We find that (a) for temperatures T>2 10 8 K, pre-existing material in Ne, Al, or Mg can be transferred to heavier nuclei following the flow pattern of a r(apid) p(roton-capture) process (b) for T> or approx.3.5 10 8 K CNO matter can be processed to heavier nuclei (in accordance with previous findings). On the basis of these results it seems unlikely that nova Aql 82 (which shows strong carbon and oxygen enrichment together with heavier elements) can be explained by a nova event on a bare O-Ne-Mg white dwarf but is rather a result of burning with T> or approx.3.5 10 8 K. An application to existing nova models shows a reduced 26 Al production, when compared to earlier predictions. Both conclusions, however, have to be verified by complete nova calculations which include the improved nuclear physics input, presented here. (orig.)

  4. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  5. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    At a very early age, children learn how to classify objects according to their shape. Now, new research suggests studying the shape of the aftermath of supernovas may allow astronomers to do the same. A new study of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory on supernova remnants - the debris from exploded stars - shows that the symmetry of the remnants, or lack thereof, reveals how the star exploded. This is an important discovery because it shows that the remnants retain information about how the star exploded even though hundreds or thousands of years have passed. "It's almost like the supernova remnants have a 'memory' of the original explosion," said Laura Lopez of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who led the study. "This is the first time anyone has systematically compared the shape of these remnants in X-rays in this way." Astronomers sort supernovas into several categories, or "types", based on properties observed days after the explosion and which reflect very different physical mechanisms that cause stars to explode. But, since observed remnants of supernovas are leftover from explosions that occurred long ago, other methods are needed to accurately classify the original supernovas. Lopez and colleagues focused on the relatively young supernova remnants that exhibited strong X-ray emission from silicon ejected by the explosion so as to rule out the effects of interstellar matter surrounding the explosion. Their analysis showed that the X-ray images of the ejecta can be used to identify the way the star exploded. The team studied 17 supernova remnants both in the Milky Way galaxy and a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. For each of these remnants there is independent information about the type of supernova involved, based not on the shape of the remnant but, for example, on the elements observed in it. The researchers found that one type of supernova explosion - the so-called Type Ia - left behind relatively symmetric, circular

  6. Peaceful nuclear explosions and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Some theoretical advances in the thermodynamics of very high pressures are reviewed. A universal (system-independent) formulation of the thermodynamics is sketched, and some of the equations more frequently used are written in system-independent form. Among these equations are: Hugoniot pressure and temperature as functions of volume; the Mie-Gruneisen equation; and an explicit form for the equation of state. It is also shown that this formalism can be used to interpret and predict results from peaceful nuclear explosions. (author)

  7. The experimental investigation of explosive opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiande; Zhong Huihuang; Li Chuanlu; Liu Yonggui; Cheng Dongqun; Peng Xianyang

    1996-01-01

    The explosive opening switch (EOS) used in explosive-driven magnetic-flux compression generator (EMCG) circuits was investigated. It is shown that (1) under certain conditions, the EOS voltage is hardly dependent on the size of the explosive and aluminium foil used in EOS; (2) with the explosive coated by an insulator pipe, the opening effect of EOS is better; (3) by use of EOS, a pulse with 5 kA current, 100 kV voltage and 250 ns risetime has been transferred into a resistance load. (author). 12 figs., 5 refs

  8. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  9. The experimental investigation of explosive opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiande, Zhang; Huihuang, Zhong; Chuanlu, Li; Yonggui, Liu; Dongqun, Cheng; Xianyang, Peng [National Univ. of Defense Technology, Changsha (China). Dept. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    The explosive opening switch (EOS) used in explosive-driven magnetic-flux compression generator (EMCG) circuits was investigated. It is shown that (1) under certain conditions, the EOS voltage is hardly dependent on the size of the explosive and aluminium foil used in EOS; (2) with the explosive coated by an insulator pipe, the opening effect of EOS is better; (3) by use of EOS, a pulse with 5 kA current, 100 kV voltage and 250 ns risetime has been transferred into a resistance load. (author). 12 figs., 5 refs.

  10. Risk of dust explosions of combustible nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Ritsu

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials have several valuable properties and are widely used for various practical applications. However, safety matters are suspected such as the influence on health and environment, and fire and explosion hazards. To minimize the risk of nanomaterials, appropriate understanding of these hazards is indispensable. Nanoparticles of combustible materials have potential hazard of dust explosion accidents. However, the explosion risk of nanomaterials has not yet been understood adequately because of the lack of data for nanomaterials. In this presentation, the risk of dust explosions of nanomaterials is discussed.

  11. M55 Rocket Fire/Explosion Concerns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ...: chemical and petrochemical process hazards and investigations, propellant and explosives manufacturing and testing, risk evaluation and incident investigation, mechanical processing and environmental...

  12. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions; Phenomenologie generale des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S; Supiot, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [French] On donne une description essentiellement qualitative des phenomenes lies aux explosions nucleaires souterraines (explosion d'un seul engin, d'engins en ligne et explosions simultanees). Dans un premier chapitre sont decrits les phenomenes communs aux explosions contenues et aux explosions formant un cratere (formation et propagation d'une onde de choc provoquant la vaporisation, la fusion et la fracturation du milieu). Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les phenomenes lies aux tirs contenus (formation d'une cavite et d'une cheminee). Le troisieme chapitre est consacre a la phenomenologie des tirs formant un cratere et decrit notamment le mecanisme de formation et les differents types de crateres en fonction de la profondeur d'explosion et de la nature du terrain. Les phenomenes aeriens lies aux explosions formant un cratere: onde de pression aerienne et focalisation a grande distance, nuages de poussieres, sont egalement abordes. (auteurs)

  13. Emotional Intent Modulates The Neural Substrates Of Creativity: An fMRI Study of Emotionally Targeted Improvisation in Jazz Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda J; Barrett, Frederick S; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2016-01-04

    Emotion is a primary motivator for creative behaviors, yet the interaction between the neural systems involved in creativity and those involved in emotion has not been studied. In the current study, we addressed this gap by using fMRI to examine piano improvisation in response to emotional cues. We showed twelve professional jazz pianists photographs of an actress representing a positive, negative or ambiguous emotion. Using a non-ferromagnetic thirty-five key keyboard, the pianists improvised music that they felt represented the emotion expressed in the photographs. Here we show that activity in prefrontal and other brain networks involved in creativity is highly modulated by emotional context. Furthermore, emotional intent directly modulated functional connectivity of limbic and paralimbic areas such as the amygdala and insula. These findings suggest that emotion and creativity are tightly linked, and that the neural mechanisms underlying creativity may depend on emotional state.

  14. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United States...

  15. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations..., explosives, (b) Permits for users who buy or transport explosives in interstate or foreign commerce, (c...

  16. A structured approach to forensic study of explosions: The TNO Inverse Explosion Analysis tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  17. Singing in Action. : An inquiry into the creative working processes and practices of classical and contemporary vocal improvisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilén, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores performative perspectives on classical and contemporary vocal improvisation (CCVI) as a critical, creative tool for development of and research in vocal performance. It consists of one introductory part and five articles, with additional documentation on a homepage. The artistic projects have been performed in close collaboration with fellow classically trained singers and musicians. The practice of CCVI is contextualised in relation to vocal history, opera, improvi...

  18. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principal tools for monitoring compliance with a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, are seismic networks and surveillance satellites. On-site inspections might also be required to resolve ambiguous events. The critical element of the monitoring system is the network of seismic stations, and in particular the in-country station. Internal stations provide much more useful data than do stations outside the borders of testing nations. For large events that are not eliminated by depth or location, one of the most useful discriminants is based on the ratio of surface-wave to body-wave magnitudes (M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ ). If an explosion and an earthquake have the same body-wave magnitude, the surface-wave magnitude for the earthquake is generally larger. It has yet to be proven that M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ is useful at low magnitudes, expecially when explosions are set off in long tunnels or odd-shaped cavities. A number of other promising regional discriminants have been suggested. Evasion opportunities and cavity decoupling are discussed

  19. Chernobyl: Anatomy of the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lvov, G.

    1992-01-01

    On Friday, 26 April 1986, it was planned to shut down the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, U.S.S.R., for periodic maintenance. The procedure supplied the opportunity to perform a further experiment; operation of the turbine in free rotation regime, which occurs when the steam is cut down while the turbine is still running. It so happened that carrying out this experiment turned out to be the worst accident in the history of nuclear power industry. The first part of the article proceeds to a second by second detailed analysis of the causes of the catastrophe. The analysis uses official data and reports. The author covers the sequence of events, which led up to two explosions in the second hour of that tragic morning. In the second part of the article, the author provides hints and suggestions, so that 'the tragedy of Chernobyl does not become a useless lesson'. With regard to what, so far, has been published, the novelty of the article may be a diagram showing the excessive changes that affected the main parameters (power, water flow through circulating pumps, steam pressure in separators, and length of the immersed part of control rods) in the fourth unit during the last seconds before the explosion. If may be noteworthy to mention that the curves supplied here are based on data stored in the computer 'SCALA'. 2 figs

  20. Explosive double salts and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Howard H.; Lee, Kien-yin

    1984-01-01

    Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.