WorldWideScience

Sample records for victim-activated improvised explosive

  1. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Terry

    2010-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  2. Predicting the Emplacement of Improvised Explosive Devices: An Innovative Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Warren D.

    2013-01-01

    In this quantitative correlational study, simulated data were employed to examine artificial-intelligence techniques or, more specifically, artificial neural networks, as they relate to the location prediction of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). An ANN model was developed to predict IED placement, based upon terrain features and objects…

  3. Getting it Right: The Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Getting it Right: The Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army A Monograph by MAJ Christian R. Johnson United States...Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Page Name of Candidate: Major Christian R. Johnson Monograph Title: Getting it Right: The Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US

  4. Systems Approach to Defeating Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices in U.S. Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    xxiii I. INTRODUCTION TO MARITIME IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES AND THE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS ........................... 1...SIGHT MARSEC MARITIME SECURITY MCDM MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING MCM MINE COUNTER-MEASURE(S) MCMUSV MINE COUNTER-MEASURES UNMANNED...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION TO MARITIME IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES AND THE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS (SEDP) 1. PROJECT TEAM

  5. Research in Support of Electromagnetic Detection and Jamming of Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-15

    electromagnetic radiation . 20Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs); electromagnetic detection of IEDs; electromagnetic propagation over earth; Galerkin method; EMF method; TEM horn antennas; transmission-line antennas ...SUBJECT TERMS Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs); electromagnetic detection of IEDs; electromagnetic propagation over earth; Galerkin method; EMF ...wires and give pointers to published material relevant to the analysis of health effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation . (a) Papers

  6. A field diagnostic test for the improvised explosive urea nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Joseph; Klein, Asne; Tamiri, Tsippy; Shloosh, Yael; Abramovich-Bar, Sara

    2005-05-01

    A sensitive, specific and simple color test for the improvised explosive urea nitrate is described. It is based on the formation of a red pigment upon the reaction between urea nitrate and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DMAC) under neutral conditions. Urea itself, which is the starting material for urea nitrate, does not react with p-DMAC under the same conditions. Other potential sources of false positive response e.g., common fertilizers, medications containing the urea moiety and various amines, do not produce the red pigment with p-DMAC. Exhibits collected from 10 terrorist cases have been tested with p-DMAC. The results were in full agreement with those obtained by instrumental techniques including GC/MS, XRD and IR.

  7. Serious Gaming for Improvised Explosive Device Neutralization Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Christopher C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improvised explosive device (IED is a “homemade” bomb intended to cause great harm when it explodes. The public safety task of identifying and neutralizing IEDs falls to military and police services often called explosive disposal units (EDU who act to neutralize the threat associated with the IED either rendering it inoperable or destroying it safely. EDUs train in various aspects of explosive handling and investigation but are limited in the tools available for safely analyzing real world bombs. This paper describes a game based approach to IED training that employs an interactive 3D simulation to spatially identify key IED components of interest. We give an example of how this approach might be used and provide a preliminary evaluation of its potential effectiveness. We employ images formed from a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM system captured using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI technology to a virtual IED in a game. Empirical evaluation and EDU testimony suggest accurate representation of the IED and the potential efficacy of the proposed approach for successfully identifying components in the bomb for the purposes of EDU training.

  8. Ocular injuries in survivors of improvised explosive devices (IED) in commuter trains

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Vinay; Mehta Salil; Jiandani Prakash

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Ocular injuries are common in survivors of terror incidents that involve the use of explosive materials. These explosives are commonly of a High Explosive type (HE) and may be fashioned into improvised explosive devices (IED) that incorporate additional materials to maximise trauma and injuries. Serial IED explosions have occurred in commuter trains in several cities including London and Madrid but data on ocular injuries is limited. We report the ocular injuries of the su...

  9. Ground Penetrating Radar : Ultra-wideband radars for improvised explosive devices and landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarovoy, A.

    2008-01-01

    For last two decades Ultra-Wideband Ground Penetrating Radars seemed to be a useful tool for detection and classification of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). However limitations of radar technology considerably limited operational use of these radars. Recent research at TU Delft

  10. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K.; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B.

    2009-02-01

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  11. Improvised Explosive Device Detector Dogs (IDDs): Is the USMC Barking Up the Wrong Tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    dogs . The dogs temperament is its hallmark: kind, outgoing, eager to please, and non-aggressive to man or animal. Hip and elbow dysplasia are the... dogs retire. Through selective breeding health problems such as hip dysplasia have been minimized. The benefit of selecting this breed as an...CONTRACT NUMBER Improvised Explosive Device Detector Dogs (IDDs): Is the USMC barking up the N/A wrong tree? 5b. GRANT NUMBER .. ~- - --- N/A

  12. Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices and Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Viola; Nicola Liberatore; Domenico Luciani; Sandro Mengali

    2016-01-01

    A compact portable and standalone point sensor has been developed for the detection and identification of precursors of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and to be part of a network of sensors for the discovery of hidden bomb factories in homeland security applications. The sensor is based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and it implements a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser source (EC-QCL). It makes use of an optical cell purposely designed with a ...

  13. DHS small-scale safety and thermal testing of improvised explosives-comparison of testing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. G.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Brown, G. W.; Warner, K. F.; Phillips, J. J.; Shelley, T. J.; Reyes, J. A.; Hsu, P. C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of improvised materials or homemade explosives (HMEs) to SSST testing, 16 HME materials were compared to three standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories-two DoD and three DOE-sponsored by DHS. The testing matrix has been designed to address problems encountered with improvised materials-powder mixtures, liquid suspensions, partially wetted solids, immiscible liquids, and reactive materials. More than 30 issues have been identified that indicate standard test methods may require modification when applied to HMEs to derive accurate sensitivity assessments needed for developing safe handling and storage practices. This paper presents a generalized comparison of the results among the testing participants, comparison of friction results from BAM (German Bundesanstalt für Materi-alprüfung) and ABL (Allegany Ballistics Laboratory) designed testing equipment, and an overview of the statistical results from the RDX (1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine) standard tested throughout the proficiency test.

  14. Application of Referee Functions to the Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Dambreville

    2011-01-01

    We propose a solution to the Vehicle-Born Improvised Explosive Device problem. This solution is based on a modelling by belief functions, and involves the construction of a combination rule dedicated to this problem. The construction of the combination rule is made possible by a tool developped in previous works, which is a generic framework dedicated to the construction of combination rules. This tool implies a tripartite architecture, with respective parts...

  15. Propellant's differentiation using FTIR-photoacoustic detection for forensic studies of improvised explosive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Ángela; Yáñez, Jorge; Contreras, David; Saavedra, Renato; Sáez, Pedro; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2017-11-01

    The use of propellant for making improvised explosive devices (IED) is an incipient criminal practice. Propellant can be used as initiator in explosive mixtures along with other components such as coal, ammonium nitrate, sulfur, etc. The identification of the propellant's brand used in homemade explosives can provide additional forensic information of this evidence. In this work, four of the most common propellant brands were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) which is a non-destructive micro-analytical technique. Spectra shows characteristic signals of typical compounds in the propellants, such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, guanidine, diphenylamine, etc. The differentiation of propellant components was achieved by using FTIR-PAS combined with chemometric methods of classification. Principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used to achieve an effective differentiation and classification (100%) of propellant brands. Furthermore, propellant brand differentiation was also assessed using partial least squares discriminant analyses (PLS-DA) by leave one out cross (∼97%) and external (∼100%) validation method. Our results show the ability of FTIR-PAS combined with chemometric analysis to identify and differentiate propellant brands in different explosive formulations of IED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A neutron based vehicle-borne improvised explosive device detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltick, D.; Kim, Y.; McConchie, S.; Novikov, I.; Belbot, M.; Gardner, G.

    2007-08-01

    Vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices pose significant risk to government facilities, economic centers and the general public. The detonation of large-scale explosive devices is a worldwide phenomenon. Checkpoint operations currently call for a manual search of vehicles, putting personnel at high risk. We have built a prototype, remotely controlled system to non-intrusively and non-destructively detect explosives with a vehicle inspection time of between 2 and 5 min. The system utilizes a neutron generator and high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in moving components that scan the entire vehicle and allow for a single location rescan. The neutron generator operates at ∼108 neutrons per second resulting in extremely small induced radiation levels and low exposure to possible stowaways. A control software operator interface is fully automated for remote operation of the hardware components and execution of the data analysis and threat algorithm with no operator intervention. Studies have been completed to characterize the performance of the system as a function of the weight of explosive within a complete set of vehicles. The underlying physical concepts of the system development are presented.

  17. Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices and Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact portable and standalone point sensor has been developed for the detection and identification of precursors of improvised explosive devices (IEDs and to be part of a network of sensors for the discovery of hidden bomb factories in homeland security applications. The sensor is based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and it implements a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser source (EC-QCL. It makes use of an optical cell purposely designed with a miniaturized internal volume, to achieve fast response and high sensitivity, and that can also be heated to improve sensitivity towards less volatile compounds. The sensor has been assembled and successfully tested in the lab with several compounds, including IED’s precursors such as acetone, nitromethane, nitric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. The identification capability and limits of detection near the ppm level have been estimated for all these compounds.

  18. Urea nitrate, an exceptionally easy-to-make improvised explosive: studies towards trace characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiri, Tsippy; Rozin, Rinat; Lemberger, Nitay; Almog, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    Urea nitrate is a powerful improvised explosive, frequently used by terrorists in the Israeli arena. It was also used in the first World Trade Center bombing in New York in February 1993. It is difficult to identify urea nitrate in post-explosion debris, since only a very small fraction survives the blast. Also, in the presence of water, it readily decomposes to its original components, urea and nitric acid. It is suspected that post-blast debris of urea nitrate can be confused with ammonium nitrate, the main solid product of urea nitrate thermal decomposition. In a comprehensive study towards identification of urea nitrate in post-blast traces, a spectrophotometric technique for quantitative determination of urea nitrate was developed, and conditions were found for extraction and separation of un-exploded traces of urea nitrate with minimal decomposition. Nevertheless, out of 28 samples collected from a series of three controlled firings of urea nitrate charges, only one gave the typical adduct ion by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. We found that urea nitrate can be extracted from solid mixtures to organic solvents by using Crown ethers as "host compounds." The adducts thus formed are solid, crystalline compounds that can be characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques.

  19. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. ©RSNA, 2016.

  20. Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    auditing standards . We considered management comments on a draft of this report. DoD Instruction 7650.03 requires that recommendations be...660, “Actions Needed to Improve the Joint Improvised Device Defeat Organization’s System of Internal Controls,” July 1, 2010. 20 Report of Audit ...July 2015 through June 2016 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards . Those standards require that we plan and perform the

  1. Ocular injuries in survivors of improvised explosive devices (IED in commuter trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Vinay

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular injuries are common in survivors of terror incidents that involve the use of explosive materials. These explosives are commonly of a High Explosive type (HE and may be fashioned into improvised explosive devices (IED that incorporate additional materials to maximise trauma and injuries. Serial IED explosions have occurred in commuter trains in several cities including London and Madrid but data on ocular injuries is limited. We report the ocular injuries of the survivors of a series of IED explosions in crowded commuter trains. Methods 28 patients (56 eyes, 28 male, ages ranging from 22 to 52 years (mean 35.27 years were screened in the triage area or the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Testing included bedside visual acuity testing, torchlight examination of the anterior segment and dilated (or if necessary, undilated fundus examination. Selected patients underwent B-scan examination, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, orbits and the optic nerves or visual evoked potential assessment. The injuries, investigations and procedures were entered into the patient's case sheet as well as into a standardised format suggested by the Indian eye injury registry (IER. Results 16 of 28 patients (57.1% had ocular injuries whereas 12 (42.8% were found to be normal. Injuries were seen unilaterally in 10 patients and bilaterally in six yielding a total of 22 injured eyes. The common injuries were periorbital haemorrhages (09 eyes, 40%; first or second degree burns to the upper or lower lids (seen in 07 eyes, 31.8 % and corneal injuries (seen in 08 eyes, 36.3%. Open globe injuries were seen in two eyes of two patients (09%. One patient (4.5% had a traumatic optic neuropathy. Conclusion Ophthalmologists and traumatologists should be aware of these patterns of ocular injuries. Protocols need to include the screening of large numbers of patients in a short time, diagnostic tests (B scan, visual evoked potential (VEP etc and early surgery

  2. Solvent-Free Off-On Detection of the Improvised Explosive Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP) with Fluorogenic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Gredilla, Patricia; García-Calvo, José; Cuevas, José V; Torroba, Tomás; Pablos, Jesús-Luis; García, Félix C; García, José-Miguel; Zink-Lorre, Nathalie; Font-Sanchis, Enrique; Sastre-Santos, Ángela; Fernández-Lázaro, Fernando

    2017-10-09

    A fluorogenic perylenediimide-functionalized polyacrylate capable of generating color and fluorescence changes in the presence of triacetone triperoxide TATP), an improvised explosive used in terrorist attacks, under solvent-free, solid-state conditions has been developed. The material works by accumulating volatile TATP until it reaches a threshold; therefore, triggering colorimetric and fluorescent responses. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Identical fracture patterns in combat vehicle blast injuries due to improvised explosive devices; a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Commandeur Joris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2008, a surgical team from the Red Cross Hospital Beverwijk, the Netherlands, was deployed in Afghanistan for three months to attend in the army hospital of Kandahar. During their stay, four incidents of armored personnel carriers encountering an improvised explosive device were assessed. In each incident, two soldiers were involved, whose injuries were strikingly similar. Case presentation The described cases comprise paired thoracic vertebral fractures, radial neck fractures, calcaneal fractures and talar fractures. Moreover, the different types of blast injury are mentioned and related to the injuries described in our series. Acknowledging the different blast mechanisms is important for understanding possible injury patterns. Conclusion From this case series, as well as the existing literature on injury patterns caused by blast injuries, it seems appropriate to pay extra attention to bodily areas that were injured in other occupants of the same vehicle. Obviously, the additional surveillance for specific injuries should be complementary to the regular trauma work-up (e.g., ATLS.

  4. Identification of the Emplacement of Improvised Explosive Devices by Experienced Mission Payload Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeese, Nathan J; Cooke, Nancy J; Branaghan, Russell; Knobloch, Ashley; Taylor, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have become one of the deadliest threats to military personnel, resulting in over 50% of American combat casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan. Identification of IED emplacement is conducted by mission payload operators (MPOs). Yet, experienced MPOs are limited in number, making MPO training a critical intervention. In this article, we implement a Cognitive Engineering Based on Expert Skill methodology to better understand how experienced MPOs identify the emplacement of IEDs for the purposes of improving training. First, expert knowledge was elicited through interviews and questionnaires to identify the types of perceptual cues used and how these cues are cognitively processed. Results indicate that there are many different static and dynamic cues that interact with each other over time and space. Using data from the interviews and questionnaires, an empirically grounded framework is presented that explains the cognitive process of IED emplacement detection. Using the overall findings and the framework, IED emplacement training scenarios were developed and built into a simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Emotional Profile of a Group of Colombian Military Victims of Landmines or Improvised Explosive Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Jorge Emiro; Yara, Eduardo Alfonso; Cano Betancur, Jessica; Tavera, Luz Navia

    2014-01-01

    Antipersonnel Mines (MAP) and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are frequently used in Colombia as an armed resource without the need for direct combat. The Department of Antioquia has the highest number of events associated with the detonation of such battle techniques. There are no studies on the psychological effects that appear as a result of accidents with Antipersonnel Mines and IEDs in the military population. To establish the psychological profile of a group of military victims of MAP and AEI, and a control group of soldiers who were not victims from the analysis of four emotional variables (depression, anxiety, anger and stress). The research was conducted using a case-control design in a .quantitative, comparative, descriptive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 80 soldiers assigned to the Seventh Division of the National Army of Colombia at Medellin, Antioquia. The sample included a group of 30 military cases and 50 soldiers as controls. The anxiety state, trait anxiety, state anger, and trait anger variables showed statistically significant differences between groups. There were no significant differences in the variables depression and stress between groups variables. There was no depression, anxiety, or stress in either of the two groups, but there were clinically significant levels of anger in both groups. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. The psychological effects of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) on UK military personnel in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Thandi, Gursimran; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil

    2014-07-01

    To explore the psychological consequences of improvised explosive device (IED) exposure as IEDs have been the greatest threat to UK military personnel in Afghanistan though the mental health consequences of IED exposure are largely unknown. Deployed UK military personnel completed a survey while deployed in Afghanistan. Combat personnel and those dealing specifically with the IED threat were compared with all other deployed personnel; the relationship between IED exposure, general combat experiences, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and General Health Questionnaire scores were evaluated. The response rate was 98% (n=2794). Half reported IED-related concerns, a third experienced exploding IEDs and a quarter gave medical aid to IED casualties. Combat and counter-IED threat personnel had higher levels of IED exposure than other deployed personnel. 18.8% of personnel who witnessed exploding IEDs scored positive for common mental disorder (General Health Questionnaire-12 scores ≥4) and 7.6% scored positive for probable PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version scores ≥44). After adjusting for general combat exposure and other observed confounders, PTSD symptoms were associated with IED exposure whereas common mental disorder symptoms were not. IED exposure, IED-related concerns and functional impairment accumulated during deployment but functional impairment was related to factors other than IED exposure alone. In Afghanistan, a substantial proportion of personnel were exposed to exploding IEDs however, the majority of exposed personnel were psychologically healthy. Psychological effects were similar for combat personnel and those dealing specifically with the IED threat but both groups were at greater psychological risk than other deployed personnel. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Proficiency Testing on Small-Scale Safety and Thermal Testing of Improvised Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John; Sandstrom, Mary; Brown, Geoffrey; Warner, Kirstin; Phillips, Jason; Shelley, Timothy; Reyes, Jose; Hsu, Peter

    2013-06-01

    One of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of improvised materials or HMEs to SSST testing, 18 HME materials were compared to 3 standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories--2 DoD and 3 DOE--sponsored by DHS. The testing matrix has been designed to address problems encountered with improvised materials--powder mixtures, liquid suspensions, partially wetted solids, immiscible liquids, and reactive materials. Over 30 issues have been identified that indicate standard test methods may require modification when applied to HMEs to derive accurate sensitivity assessments needed for development safe handling and storage practices. This presentation will discuss experimental difficulties encountered when testing these problematic samples, show inter-laboratory testing results, show some statistical interpretation of the results, and highlight some of the testing issues. Some of the work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-617519 (721812).

  8. Neutralization of improvised explosive devices by high-power lasers: research results from the FP7 project ENCOUNTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholz, J.; Lueck, M.; Lexow, B.; Wickert, M.

    2016-10-01

    The development of reliable techniques for the safe neutralization of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is an active field of research. Recently, innovative approaches for the neutralization of IEDs were developed and tested within the FP7 project ENCOUNTER ("Explosive Neutralisation and Mitigation Countermeasures for IEDs in Urban/Civil Environment") and were compared to existing, established technologies. Here, the ENCOUNTER project is presented with a special focus on the neutralization of IEDs by high-power lasers. The working principle of the application of high-power lasers for the neutralization of explosive devices is based on thermal effects. Heating of the IEDs main charge may occur either by direct irradiation of the explosive material or by heat transfer through the main charge's confinement. The aim of the application of the laser is to achieve a low order burning reaction of the explosive charge and thus a controlled neutralization of the IED. Since laser beams allow for the directed transport of energy, this technique can be applied over long stand-off distances and has thus potential for an increase of the safety of clearing forces and population in the case of terroristic attacks in a civilian environment. Within the ENCOUNTER project, a laboratory environment has been set up which allows for the irradiation of IEDs with a laser power of up to 10 kW. Experiments have been carried out on a broad spectrum of different types of IEDs. The processes during neutralization were studied in detail with high-speed diagnostics. On the basis of these experimental data, the safety and the reliability of the application of the laser was analyzed, and recommendations to end users were given. In addition to the results of the ENCOUNTER project, approaches for the numerical simulation of the neutralization of IEDs are discussed.

  9. Recovery of DNA and fingermarks following deployment of render-safe tools for vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, S; Houspian, A; Knott, F

    2011-07-15

    Improvised explosive devices (IED) are responsible for a significant proportion of combat and civilian deaths around the world. Given the ease with which IEDs can be made, the large quantity of explosive which can be contained within or on a vehicle, and the use of VBIED in the past (for example the 2002 Bali bombing) in terrorist activities, VBIED are an ongoing concern for Defence and law enforcement agencies. Fingermark and DNA analyses are routinely used by police and forensic analysts to identify suspects involved in illegal activities. There is limited information available on the feasibility of obtaining fingermarks, fibres, hair and DNA samples following an explosive incident, or a situation whereby an IED has been rendered safe following the utilisation of an appropriate defeat or render-safe tool. The main objective of this study was to determine if fingermarks and/or DNA (from saliva and hair samples) placed on the interior and exterior of road vehicles, and on inanimate objects (such as plastic or glass bottles), are able to be obtained and analysed following the use of a vehicle-borne IED (VBIED) render-safe tool on a vehicle containing simulated explosives. The identification of fingermarks on the exterior (67.2±8.5%) and interior (43.8±17.8%) of the vehicles was possible following the use of the render-safe tool, though this was more challenging in the latter than the former. Fingermarks were also able to be identified from both plastic and glass bottles placed inside the vehicles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques yielded DNA profiles that were able to be identified from saliva and hair samples. These preliminary results suggest that both fingermarks and DNA profiles, obtained from vehicles that have been subjected to a VBIED render-safe tool, may be used to identify persons of interest. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research and development to protect soldiers from landmines and improvised explosive devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ahmed, R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Devices (IEDs) remain a major threat for military vehicles, their occupants and other assets • Warfare shifting from conventional to unconventional tactics and weapons • Improvised nature of IEDs make it difficult to predict terminal effects... of chemical, biological or nuclear material http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1679-78252014001100006& script=sci_arttext&tlng=pt http://jbjs.org/content/95/5/e25 Case Study Case Study Aim: to develop a protection solution to protect against a...

  11. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  12. Physical and chemical evidence remaining after the explosion of large improvised bombs. Part 1: firings of ammonium nitrate/sugar and urea nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S A; Lowe, A; Marshall, M; Hubbard, P; Burmeister, S G; Williams, D R

    2000-03-01

    Recent criminal acts in the United Kingdom, United States and other countries have demonstrated the dangers to public safety from the criminal use of improvised explosives on a large scale. Four sets of trials were carried out over four years, partly in collaboration with the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, involving the firing of large bombs, mostly fertilizer based. The principal objectives of the firings were to measure the physical effects of the explosions upon objects representative of those that would be found at a real bomb scene and to recover any chemical traces deposited on these objects. The results are intended for use as an aid in determining the approximate size and type of an explosive employed in a terrorist attack. This paper describes the background behind the trials, the procedures for preparation of witness materials and charges, and the collection and analysis of physical and chemical evidence.

  13. An experimental study addressing the use of geoforensic analysis for the exploitation of improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Beth; Morgan, Ruth M; Rose, Neil L

    2017-09-01

    The use of geoforensic analysis in criminal investigations is continuing to develop, with the diversification of analytical techniques, many of which are semi-automated, facilitating prompt analysis of large sample sets at a relatively low cost. Whilst micro-scale geoforensic analysis has been shown to assist criminal investigations including homicide (Concheri et al., 2011 [1]), wildlife crime (Morgan et al., 2006 [2]), illicit drug distribution (Stanley, 1992 [3]), and burglary (Mildenhall, 2006 [4]), its application to the pressing international security threat posed by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is yet to be considered. This experimental study simulated an IED supply chain from the sourcing of raw materials through to device emplacement. Mineralogy, quartz grain surface texture analysis (QGSTA) and particle size analysis (PSA) were used to assess whether environmental materials were transferred and subsequently persisted on the different components of three pressure plate IEDs. The research also addressed whether these samples were comprised of material from single or multiple geographical provenances that represented supply chain activity nodes. The simulation demonstrated that material derived from multiple activity nodes, was transferred and persisted on device components. The results from the mineralogy and QGSTA illustrated the value these techniques offer for the analysis of mixed provenance samples. The results from the PSA, which produces a bulk signature of the sample, failed to distinguish multiple provenances. The study also considered how the environmental material recovered could be used to generate information regarding the geographical locations the device had been in contact with, in an intelligence style investigation, and demonstrated that geoforensic analysis has the potential to be of value to international counter-IED efforts. It is a tool that may be used to prevent the distribution of large quantities of devices, by aiding the

  14. Detection of the improvised explosives ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea nitrate (UN) using non-aqueous solvents with electrospray ionization and MS/MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Inge; McCord, Bruce

    2013-10-15

    In this study methods for the detection of trace levels of the improvised explosives urea nitrate and ammonium nitrate were developed using electrospray ionization with infusion. By using a non-aqueous solvent mixture containing 95% acetone with 5% 2-methoxyethanol we were able to preserve the urea and ammonium nitrate ion pairs and discriminate between these and other similar salts. Negative ion electrospray ionization was used for urea nitrate detection and positive ion electrospray ionization was used for ammonium nitrate. Two specific adduct ions were detected for each explosive with ammonium nitrate producing m/z 178 [2AN+NH4](+) and m/z 258 ions [3AN+NH4](+) while urea nitrate produced m/z 185 [UN+NO3](-) and m/z 248 [UN+HNO3+NO3](-) The specificity of the analysis was examined by mixing the different explosives with various salts and interferents. Adduct ions formed in the gas phase were found to be useful in distinguishing between ion pairs and mixed salts. Overall the method demonstrates the sensitive detection of both explosives, and more specifically the potential to determine intact urea nitrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A single, improvised "Kassam" rocket explosion can cause a mass casualty incident: a potential threat for future international terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D; Ostfeld, I; Bar-Dayan, Y

    2009-04-01

    Over 2000 improvised rockets (called "Kassam" rockets) have been targeted at the south of Israel from the Gaza strip since 2001. Most of them have injured relatively few people. The first known case of a multicasualty incident (MCI) caused by the landing of a single, improvised rocket is described. The event is described according to the disastrous incidents systematic analysis through components, interactions and results methodology (DISAST-CIR). The rocket hit a military training tent camp in the south of Israel at 01:18 hours. At that time, all soldiers were in bed and were not using any protective gear. A total of 76 soldiers was injured (three severe, eight moderate and 65 mild). The most prevalent types of injuries were upper extremity (33%) and lower extremity (30%) trauma, tinnitus (30%) and acute stress reactions (32%). A total of 67 casualties was evacuated to the nearest level two hospital, Barzilai, in a two-phase distribution characterised by different patterns of injury severity and type. All urgent casualties arrived at hospitals within 1 h 24 minutes, whereas most stress casualties arrived in the later phase. Seven casualties were secondarily transported to level one trauma centres. 42 of the casualties were hospitalised and 17 needed urgent surgery. None has died. A single low-tech mortar with poor accuracy and small warhead (estimated weight of 10 kg only) can cause a large-scale MCI. As international terrorist organisations can easily gain access to improvised rockets, the latter may become a threat in many countries. Emergency systems should thus be prepared for that adverse possibility.

  16. Bulk and trace detection of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide using quantum cascade laser technology - a tool for identifying improvised explosive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Ruth; Normand, Erwan; McCulloch, Michael; Black, Paul; Howieson, Iain; Lewis, Colin; Foulger, Brian

    2008-10-01

    The type of explosive materials used in terrorist activities has seen a gradual shift from those that are commonly manufactured but difficult to obtain, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) and nitroglycerine (NG), to improvised explosive devices (IEDs) made from substances that are more readily available. This shift has placed an emphasis on development of instruments capable of detecting IEDs and their precursors, which are often small, volatile molecules well suited to detection through mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy. Two such examples are ammonia, a breakdown product of ammonium nitrate and urea nitrate, and hydrogen peroxide, an efficient oxidiser used in the production of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethyl triperoxide diamine (HMTD). At this meeting in 2007 we presented results of a hydrogen peroxide detection portal utilising quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology. This trace detection system has since undergone significant development to improve sensitivity and selectivity, and the results of this will be presented alongside those of a similar system configured for bulk detection of ammonia. Detection of ammonia produced from the breakdown of ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated, both on the optical bench and in a walkthrough portal. This research has been supported by the UK government.

  17. Compact, rapid, and rugged detector of military and improvised explosives based on external grating cavity quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekoun, Alexei; Dunayevskiy, Ilya; Maulini, Richard; Barron-Jimenez, Rodolfo; Lyakh, Arkadiy; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-08-01

    Early detection of explosive substances is the first and most difficult step in defeating explosive devices. Many currently available methods suffer from fundamental failure modes limiting their realworld suitability. Infrared spectroscopy is ideal for reliable identification of explosives since it probes the chemical composition of molecules. Quantum cascade lasers rapidly became the light source of choice of IR spectroscopy due to their wavelength agility, relatively high output power, and small size and weight. Our compact, rapid, and rugged multi-explosives sensor based on external grating cavity QCLs simultaneously detects TNT, TATP, and acetone while being immune to ammonium nitrate interference. The instrument features low false alarm rate, and low probability of false negatives. Receiver operation characteristics curves are presented.

  18. Organ Improvisation - An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidom, J.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas musicological attention to improvisation tended to neglect organ improvisation,new initiatives, both musically and musicologically, indicate an imminent rehabilitation. Such rehabilitation is more than justified: organ improvisation is the only unbroken western improvisation tradition,

  19. The Nose Knows: Developing Advanced Chemical Sensors for the Remote Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    insect algorithms into a reliable artificial intelligence will permit minimal human controller input. 58 In nature, pheromones are chemical...developing bio-chemical sensing and urban operations will translate into tangible gains with explosive sensing. Converting insect behaviors into... pheromones ” similar to the way that ants mark their territory, a UAV can detect how much of an individual terrain has been covered by itself and

  20. Exploring improvisation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Fenton, Mary V

    2007-06-01

    Improvisation has long been considered a function of music, dance, and the theatre arts. An exploration of the definitions and characteristics of this concept in relation to the art and practice of nursing provide an opportunity to illuminate related qualities within the field of nursing. Nursing has always demonstrated improvisation because it is often required to meet the needs of patients in a rapidly changing environment. However, little has been done to identify improvisation in the practice of nursing or to teach improvisation as a nursing knowledge-based skill. This article strives to explore the concept of improvisation in nursing, to describe the characteristics of improvisation as applied to nursing, and to utilize case studies to illustrate various manifestations of improvisation in nursing practice.

  1. Free Improvisation; Life Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hoon Hong

    2011-01-01

    This autoethnographic study seeks the value, position and possibilities of free improvisation in the musical field. It explores how embodied knowledge, dialectical exchanges, emotional and intellectual stimulation constructs and reconstructs experiences in various contexts for the free improviser, who is both researcher and actual piano performer.…

  2. The Neuroscience of Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Andrew T.; Limb, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Current research in the neuroscience of musical creativity reveals promising implications for the value of learning to improvise. This article outlines the neuroscientific literature on musical improvisation and relates these findings to the benefits of musical creativity. We begin by describing the neural substrates of flow with respect to the…

  3. Improvisation in Korean Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byong Won

    1980-01-01

    In this article, an ethnocentric view of the improvisatory music of Korea is presented in terms of what Korean musicians think of improvisation as opposed to fixed composition and how improvisation operates as a performance practice. Musical scores and selected recordings are listed. (Author/KC)

  4. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  5. Contact Improvisation. Une bibliographie franco-américaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bigé

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This bibliographic article proposes to draw up an inventory of the publications dedicated to the contact improvisation, an experimental form of movement initiated in the United States in 1972 by the choreographer and improviser Steve Paxton. From the beginning, under the impulse of her first practitioners - especially Nancy Stark Smith and Lisa Nelson, who founded the magazine «Contact Quarterly» - contact improvisation is the occasion for a major literary production, between dancers who seek words to describe their experiences. In this bibliography, one will find a reference to the various magazines, articles, books that emerge from their shared words; as well as a mainly Franco-American selection of academic publications dedicated to this form of dance, from the doctoral thesis of Cynthia Novack dedicated to contact improvisation and the American culture of the movement until the explosion of dance studies (anthropology, comparative literature, physiology, philosophy devoted to it today.

  6. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  7. Dalcroze-Based Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the Emile Jaques-Dalcroze method of improvisation, which he believed was the study of the direct relations between cerebral commands and muscular interpretations in order to express one's own musical feelings. Performance is propelled by developing the students' powers of sensation, imagination, and memory. (Author/KC)

  8. Detection and Imaging of Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-10

    microwave tomographic scanner is going to use a commercial stepper motor positioning control (including stepper motors , controller and drivers and...the commercial stepper motor positioning control, were acquired with funding available to the MSPL, Multi Sensing Processing and Learning Lab...stage (ρ component of the tomographic projection); and (3) angular positioning stage (θ component of the tomographic projection). Stepper motors and

  9. Improvisation: Thinking "and" Playing Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, David

    2013-01-01

    This article explores and contextualizes improvisation in music from an educational perspective. First, recent brain research that sees improvisation as a distinct cognitive activity is examined and used to illustrate the importance and uniqueness of this often ignored area of music learning. Next, the implications for the music classroom are…

  10. Improvisation and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gilbertson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  11. Improvisation in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2003-01-01

    perspective to analyze the dynamics of this process and show that improvisational action and bricolage (making do with the materials at hand) played a vital role in the development of the application. Finally, we suggest that this case study provides an occasion to reconsider how we conceptualize information......The paper discusses the role of extemporaneous action and bricolage in designing and implementing information systems in organizations. We report a longitudinal field study of design and implementation of a Web-based groupware application in a multinational corporation. We adopt a sensemaking...... systems development (ISD)....

  12. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Philippe; Burnard, Pamela; Dubé, Francis; Stévance, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice's aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers' thinking…

  13. Improvisation, Analysis, and Listening Otherwise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehy, August

    2013-01-01

    .... Rather than placing moments of heard music within an a priori theoretical frame, which I call "idiomatic listening," analysis-as-improvisation resists the idea of stability suggested by theories of music...

  14. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  15. Keywords in musical free improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2017-01-01

    This article presents some keywords and concepts concerning free improvised music and its recent developments drawing from ongoing bibliographical research. A radical pluralism stems from musicians' backgrounds and the mixtures and fusions of styles and idioms resulting from these mixtures....... Seemingly very different "performance-driven" and "playdriven" attitudes exist, even among musicians who share the practice of performing at concerts. New models of musical analysis aiming specifically at free improvised music provide strategical observations of interaction and structure....

  16. Keywords in musical free improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents some keywords and concepts concerning free improvised music and its recent developments drawing from ongoing bibliographical research. A radical pluralism stems from musicians' backgrounds and the mixtures and fusions of styles and idioms resulting from these mixtures....... Seemingly very different "performance-driven" and "play-driven" attitudes exist, even among musicians who share the practice of performing at concerts. New models of musical analysis aiming specifically at free improvised music provide strategical observations of interaction and structure....

  17. Ready to improvise?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Quite unusually for a CERN colloquium, on 8 and 9 August the CERN Auditorium will host a presentation on comedy and communication and a workshop by Charna Halpern, the founder of "iO theaters" in Chicago and Los Angeles. Members of Geneva’s Impro Federation (FIG) in full swing!Charna Halpern has been teaching performers how to work together for more than 20 years. She founded the world-famous iO theaters (formerly Improv Olympic) in Chicago and Los Angeles in 1981. Today, the theatres are the meccas of training in the art of improvisation, and they act as a "recruiting" stop for television shows supplying New York and Hollywood with writers and performers. Specializing in creating a "group mind" with hilarious end results, Charna Halpern will be sharing her secrets and skills with the CERN audience and she will make her public laugh as they learn. The following day, Saturday, she will give a workshop on how to prepare an improv gro...

  18. The neuroscience of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have recently begun to examine the neural basis of musical improvisation, one of the most complex forms of creative behavior. The emerging field of improvisation neuroscience has implications not only for the study of artistic expertise, but also for understanding the neural underpinnings of domain-general processes such as motor control and language production. This review synthesizes functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) studies of musical improvisation, including vocal and instrumental improvisation, with samples of jazz pianists, classical musicians, freestyle rap artists, and non-musicians. A network of prefrontal brain regions commonly linked to improvisatory behavior is highlighted, including the pre-supplementary motor area, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal premotor cortex. Activation of premotor and lateral prefrontal regions suggests that a seemingly unconstrained behavior may actually benefit from motor planning and cognitive control. Yet activation of cortical midline regions points to a role of spontaneous cognition characteristic of the default network. Together, such results may reflect cooperation between large-scale brain networks associated with cognitive control and spontaneous thought. The improvisation literature is integrated with Pressing's theoretical model, and discussed within the broader context of research on the brain basis of creative cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Managing and improvising: lessons from jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    Offers a model of leadership development based on the metaphor of jazz improvisation. Examines the meaning of improvisation as applied to jazz and shows how managers' lives are similar to that faced by jazz improvisers in that they often face problems which are unstructured and ambiguous. Shows how the metaphor can be applied to other areas of organizational innovation.

  20. Improvisation: Performer as Co-composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Schick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Elements of musical improvisation have been present throughout the medieval, renaissance, and baroque eras, however, improvisation had the most profound recorded presence in the baroque era. Improvisation is inherently a living practice and leaves little documentation behind for historians to study, but however elusive, it is still important to trace where instances of this improvised art appear throughout the eras listed above. It is also interesting to trace what role improvisation would later have in realizing the Baroque ideals of emotional expression, virtuosity, and individuality. This paper seeks to focus on a few of the best documented mediums of improvisation within each era. During the medieval period, improvisation took on the form of improvised counterpoint against a plainsong. In the renaissance, improvised harmony of faburden and the contenance angloise is this paper’s selected example. In the Baroque, this study seeks to describe several areas where improvisation appears such as the art of improvised accompaniment from figured bass symbols, the practice of expressive ornamentation on a written melody, and improvised vocal embellishments and cadenzas of the da capo aria. A final aim of this research is to provide examples to clarify the definition of improvisation as the degree to which the composer of a musical work has given control of its realization to the performer. Treatises and ear witness accounts of improvised musical forms provided primary sources. Other sources used in this research included writings on performance practices of different historical eras and writings on the changing relationship between the composer and the performer. This paper also consults writings on how improvised music was perceived historically as opposed to composed music.

  1. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  2. Body memories in dance improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    . The repetition instantiates a fresh memory of these habits while moulding them at the same time. Accordingly, any movement performed is always improvised in different degrees. Throughout the analysis I draw on resent phenomenological discussions to describe how body-memories unfold and find their form...

  3. An improvised wound closure system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid, Oren

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin stretching harnesses the same viscoelastic properties of the skin as expansion, with the difference that the forces are applied externally and not internally. An improvised system for wound closure is presented. METHOD: The system is assembled using silicone vascular loops used as

  4. Improvisation skills for clinical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    based on a short theme or ‘leit-motif’ will all be included in the workshop activities, using both piano, and other instruments. While interventions utilising improvisational music therapy should never be driven by clinical procedures, applying therapeutic method, and also recognising method...

  5. Dramatic Presence in Improvised Stories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes, I.M.T.; Theune, Mariet

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how to achieve a sense of dramatic presence (the perception of being “in” a story, playing the role of one of its characters), with the aim of building systems that can offer the same. Improvisational theatre might serve as a model for this experience, where there is no guiding plot;

  6. Improvisation, change, works, and ragas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Studying change in music poses considerable challenges. Especially with respect to music that is not, or only partly, written, and improvised music in which the line between 'fixed' and 'free' is extremely fine. Where does internal variability turn into a breach with the established tradition? This

  7. Improvisation, change, works and ragas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Studying change in music poses considerable challenges. Especially with respect to music that is not, or only partly, written, and improvised music in which the line between ‘fixed’ and ‘free’ is extremely fine. Where does internal variability turn into a breach with the established tradition? This

  8. Developing clinical piano improvisation skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Teaching piano improvisation skills for use in clinical work relies on the development of a range of musical techniques and therapeutic methods that are combined and integrated. Simple musical styles of playing such as melody dialogues, two chord accompaniments, walking basses (tonal and atonal), 6......ths with octave grounds, pentatonic and Spanish style frameworks are easily learnt and applied through in combination with therapeutic approaches such as matching, supporting, frame-working grounding – and many others. The use of transitions in therapeutic improvisation are a primary and musically...... skilful way of helping a client or group of clients move, or develop their musical expression (Wigram & Bonde 2002 pp 278-279). Frame-working is a method that offers a musical structure to the music of a client. This structure could have the goal of enhancing the music aesthetically, or guiding the client...

  9. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Despres, JP; Burnard, Pamela Anne; Dube, F; Stevance, S

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice’s aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers’ thinking processes are not yet thoroughly documented. As a result of this gap, our research addresses the following question: What strategies are implement...

  10. Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) device at the National Hospital Abuja gives immediate improvement in respiratory rate and oxygenation in neonates with respiratory distress.

  11. Experimental improvisation practise and notation. Addenda 2000-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    Addenda to Experimental improvisation practise and notation (please see this title for more information!) Stichwörter: experimentelle Musik, offenes Werk, grafische Notation, musikalische Notation, musikalische Aufführungspraxis, freie Improvisation, Musikpädagogik, Geschichte der Musik, Musikäst...

  12. Improvisation: Another Way to Move and Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using improvisation in movement and dance classes is an ideal way to help students relate to how their bodies move. Students can learn confidence from the way they move by experimenting with unconventional and different methods. Improvisation, as such, is responding spontaneously to stimuli (music) in order to create a composition that allows for…

  13. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-04-30

    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  15. Improvised Nuclear Device Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suski, Nancy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-07-12

    Reducing the casualties of catastrophic terrorist attacks requires an understanding of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) effects, infrastructure damage, atmospheric dispersion, and health effects. The Federal Planning Guidance for Response to a Nuclear Detonation provides the strategy for response to an improvised nuclear device (IND) detonation. The supporting science developed by national laboratories and other technical organizations for this document significantly improves our understanding of the hazards posed by such an event. Detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, including extensive global geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations, are a key part of response planning. This presentation describes the methodology and results to date, including visualization aids developed for response organizations. These products have greatly enhanced the community planning process through first-person points of view and description of the dynamic nature of the event.

  16. Improvised Explosive Devices: Booklet of Related Readings 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-20

    component in U.S. strategy because it influences attitudes and behavior." According to Deputy National Security Advisor Juan Zarate, this is...Michael Leiter, Juan Zarate, Charles Allen, and Dell Dailey. http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC05.php?CID=2836 Library of Congress...was Shab-e-barat (night of salvation ), a festival when Muslims visit graveyards to offer night-long prayers for their dead relatives. Blasts in

  17. Detecting Improvised Explosive Devices: Enduring Threat Requires Enduring Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    current, or recoiled springs; a command-, time-, or victim-operated switch; an initiator, such as electric or non-electric blasting caps; and a...and programs such as robots, radio frequency jamming systems, change detection and directed-energy technologies, ground penetrating radar ...clearance vehicles and equipment and specialized tools (ground penetrating radar , mine detectors, robots, optics suites, etc…) to detect IEDs. Once

  18. Defeating Improvised Explosive Devices (IED): Asymmetric Threats and Capability Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    nail polish remover. HMTD can also be synthesized from hydrogen peroxide and a weak acid such as citric acid , and hexamine solid fuel tablets such...Trinitrotoluene (TNT), but are made in crude chemical labs using industrial chemicals like nitric acid , ammonium nitrate, diesel fuel and sugar, they...creativity of those who would do the population of the world harm is seemingly limitless. This fact has been true throughout history ; today is no

  19. Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization: Anomaly or Future Roadmap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadowski, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    .... JIEDDO itself has been compared to a 'Manhattan-style' project This paper provides historical perspective through case studies while exploring other analogs such as the North Atlantic shipping tragedy in WWII...

  20. Disrupting Improvised Explosive Device Terror Campaigns: Basic Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    graphs (Carter, Raich , and Hero 2007). Network tomography12 is another field of research with potential applicability to IED discovery. Rabbat and...Applications 2003, at Orlando, FL. Carter, Kevin M., Raviv Raich , and Alfred O. III Hero. 2007. Debiasing for Intrinsic Dimension Estimation. Paper

  1. Developing the Second Generation of Improvised Explosive Device Detector Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Agility and search and rescue training differently affects pet dogs’ behaviour in socio-cognitive tasks. Behav Processes. 2009 Jul;81(3):416-22...equipped, and operated to comply with Title 9, Code of Federal Regulations, parts 1-3 and with DoD Directive 3216.01 to guarantee the humane , safe and... music amplifiers (~120 dB), jet engine noise (138 dB at 100 feet), and gunshot/firecracker (140 dB at 2-3 feet). We also considered that the breed

  2. Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices: A Threat Based Technology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Underwater Vehicle,” accessed 25 April 2015, http://www.bluefinrobotics.com/assets/ Downloads/Bluefin-HAUV-Product-Sheet.pdf; ECA Group , “H300 MK II...author utilizing ECA Group , “H300 MK II,” accessed 25 April 2015, http:// eca -media.ecagroup.com/player/pdf?key=f2e33e5aedf56d6f34e2a7d77dcd0 be5...The Civil War Campaigns of David Farragut. New York: Castle Books. ECA Group . 2015. “H300 MK II.” Accessed 25 April 2015. http:// eca -media.eca

  3. Pluralism in contemporary improvised concert music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2002-01-01

    Pluralist musical practise in improvised music yield inspiring models of music as a medium for human co-existence. Active music therapy in its modern form came into being on the background of emancipative tendencies in the mid-sixties and on which questioned traditional concepts of authority....... In Western music cultures, both serious and popular, there was a strongly renewed interest in improvisation. Especially from around 1980, formerly clear boundaries between "serious" and "popular" were taken away as a result of these developments. Even though music therapists are often unaware of its...... existence, an improvised concert music has existed ever since in many cities and deserves our serious interest. Much valuable experience within the medium of free improvisation has been gained here, and a lot of music has been recorded on LP, cassette and CD. There is also a growing body of litterature...

  4. Concurrent Constraint Machine Improvisation: Models and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Toro, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Machine improvisation creates music either by explicit coding of rules or by applying machine learning methods. We deal with the latter case. An improvisation system capable of real-time must execute two process concurrently: one to apply machine learning methods to musical sequences in order to capture prominent musical features, and one to produce musical sequences stylistically consistent with the learned material. As an example, the Concurrent Constraint Factor Oracle Model for Music Impr...

  5. What makes a good musical improviser? An expert view on improvisational expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Wopereis, I. G. J. H., Kirschner, P. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012). What makes a good musical improviser? An expert view on improvisational expertise. In E. King & E. Himonides (Eds.), Abstracts: SEMPRE 40th anniversary conference (p. 166). London, UK: International Music Education Research

  6. Biography, Identity, Improvisation, Sound: Intersections of Personal and Social Identity through Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2016-01-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of improvisation and identity. Biographical research that was conducted by the author into professional musicians' lifelong learning showed the huge importance of improvisation for personal expression. Musically, the concept of "sound" appeared to serve as a strong metaphor for identity. In addition,…

  7. Developing Musical Creativity through Improvisation in the Large Performance Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an ideal way to develop musical creativity in ensemble settings. This article describes two prominent theoretical frameworks related to improvisation. Next, based on research with developing and expert improvisers, it discusses how to sequence improvisatory activities so that students feel accomplished at every step. Finally, the…

  8. Using Baroque Techniques to Teach Improvisation in Your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyesoo

    2015-01-01

    Before our current notation system was widely adopted by musicians, improvisation was a key component of music throughout the Western world. One of the fundamental elements of the baroque style, namely, using improvised embellishment, offered musicians great artist liberty. During the baroque period, improvisation spread across Europe and beyond.…

  9. Symbolic Interactionism in Music Education: Eight Strategies for Collaborative Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Learning improvisation in music is often treated as the process of gaining skills to spontaneously perform within the conventions of a style. Alternatively, learning improvisation can offer musicians a place to explore sound as it happens in free improvisation. Within the school setting, the former approach is commonly used in the jazz programs,…

  10. Tactile paths : on and through notation for improvisers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tactile Paths: on and through Notation for Improvisers is an artistic research project that articulates and expands the nexus of notation and improvisation in contemporary and experimental music. The project interweaves direct artistic experience with insights from improvisation studies, the social

  11. Explosive detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doremus, Steven; Crownover, Robin

    2017-05-01

    The continuing proliferation of improvised explosive devices is an omnipresent threat to civilians and members of military and law enforcement around the world. The ability to accurately and quickly detect explosive materials from a distance would be an extremely valuable tool for mitigating the risk posed by these devices. A variety of techniques exist that are capable of accurately identifying explosive compounds, but an effective standoff technique is still yet to be realized. Most of the methods being investigated to fill this gap in capabilities are laser based. Raman spectroscopy is one such technique that has been demonstrated to be effective at a distance. Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a technique capable of identifying chemical compounds inside of containers, which could be used to detect hidden explosive devices. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) utilized a coherent pair of lasers to excite a sample, greatly increasing the response of sample while decreasing the strength of the lasers being used, which significantly improves the eye safety issue that typically hinders laser-based detection methods. Time-gating techniques are also being developed to improve the data collection from Raman techniques, which are often hindered fluorescence of the test sample in addition to atmospheric, substrate, and contaminant responses. Ultraviolet based techniques have also shown significant promise by greatly improved signal strength from excitation of resonance in many explosive compounds. Raman spectroscopy, which identifies compounds based on their molecular response, can be coupled with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) capable of characterizing the sample's atomic composition using a single laser.

  12. Improvisation as a Way of Knowing Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens Skou

    This paper examines improvisation and points to improvisational practice as the central transforming force in music and the educational practice of the Rhythmic Music Conservatory (RMC). In less than 25 years RMC has radically changed its education methodology from one based on jazz and African....../African-American/Cuban orientation in a worldview of music as an ontological, intransitive fact to ‘music-as-artwork’ – as an extemporal, physically explicit art object; from a performance-based focus on live bands playing as a central source and key of learning and excellence with little or no theoretical awareness to project......-based classes put together with little or no regard to instrumentation and genre with a strong focus on analysis, artistic reflection and evaluation of the individual output. The author examines improvisation as an adaptation to and transformation of the world, and the possibility of a methodology...

  13. Creating Time: Social Collaboration in Music Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ashley E; Washburn, Auriel; Langland-Hassan, Peter; Chemero, Anthony; Kloos, Heidi; Richardson, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Musical collaboration emerges from the complex interaction of environmental and informational constraints, including those of the instruments and the performance context. Music improvisation in particular is more like everyday interaction in that dynamics emerge spontaneously without a rehearsed score or script. We examined how the structure of the musical context affords and shapes interactions between improvising musicians. Six pairs of professional piano players improvised with two different backing tracks while we recorded both the music produced and the movements of their heads, left arms, and right arms. The backing tracks varied in rhythmic and harmonic information, from a chord progression to a continuous drone. Differences in movement coordination and playing behavior were evaluated using the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems, with the aim of uncovering the multiscale dynamics that characterize musical collaboration. Collectively, the findings indicated that each backing track afforded the emergence of different patterns of coordination with respect to how the musicians played together, how they moved together, as well as their experience collaborating with each other. Additionally, listeners' experiences of the music when rating audio recordings of the improvised performances were related to the way the musicians coordinated both their playing behavior and their bodily movements. Accordingly, the study revealed how complex dynamical systems methods (namely recurrence analysis) can capture the turn-taking dynamics that characterized both the social exchange of the music improvisation and the sounds of collaboration more generally. The study also demonstrated how musical improvisation provides a way of understanding how social interaction emerges from the structure of the behavioral task context. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Improvisation during Process-Technology Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Mathiassen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    SPI technology adoption and events that causes the process to drift in unpredictable directions. To further understand how management's attempt to control the process is complemented by drifting, this article investigates the role of improvisation in adoption of SPI technology in a Danish software......Most software firms struggle to take advantage of the potential benefits of software process improvement (SPI) as they adopt this technology into the complex and dynamic realities of their day-to-day operation. Such efforts are therefore typically fluctuating between management's attempt to control...... in small software firms can exploit improvisations to facilitate adoption of complex technologies like SPI....

  15. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  16. The model of counterpoint improvisation and the methods of improvisation in popular music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fulara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first, more general, contains a description of the phenomena associated with improvisation, especially guitar, detailing the execution issues facing the improviser. Two points of view are presented: the first, more detailed, describes the elements of music and its importance in the process of improvisation, the second - more general - speaks of phenomena which cannot be described or analyzed in a simple way, or that are different for each track. These include the interaction between team members, expressing emotions through music and research problem of searching for one's own voice in art. Moreover, this section contains a description of three very different approaches to guitar improvisation. The first is the use of a tonal center (enriched with dominant tensions; the second method (used in fusion music is to combine the harmony of the composition with relevant scales; the third (typical for bebop music is based on the strict use of improvised chord sounds without the use of scales. The second section of the text provides a description of a specific type of polyphonic improvisation with the use of two-handed tapping on the guitar. This model stands in contrast to the three previously described ways of understanding guitar improvisation. The system is based on methods used in both the Renaissance and Baroque polyphony (among others in the leading Cantus Firmus melody or the counterpoint rules as well as on assumptions of one voice bebop improvisation (the use of leading sound solutions specific to natural foursounds. This description refers back to the first part of the article, grouping issues around the individual elements of a musical work. This section contains notes and observations collected during the eight years the author spent searching for his own musical way.

  17. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how non-musicians engaged in a solo-accompaniment music improvisation relationship. Seven user teams interacted with two electronic music instruments integrated in two pen tablets. One instrument was a melody instrument and the other a chord instru-ment. The study was done...

  18. "Essence" Dance: A Simple Model for Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Ellen R.

    This paper describes an improvisational dance model that analyzes verbs and adverbs in terms of their movement essence and yields a unique group dance using dancers of any age or experience. Essence dance uses word cards to build a dance. Each word (verb or adverb) suggests a movement or use of the body. The teacher begins by charting a piece of…

  19. Explosives tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S [San Ramon, CA; Howard, Douglas E [Livermore, CA; Eckels, Joel D [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  20. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  1. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  2. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert, E-mail: robert.matyas@upce.cz [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Selesovsky, Jakub; Musil, Tomas [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  3. Detection and dispersal of explosives by ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve; Faust, Anthony A.; Puckrin, Eldon; House, Andrew; Reynolds, Damon; McDougall, William; Asquini, Adam

    2009-05-01

    The ability of animals to detect explosives is well documented. Mammalian systems, insects and even single celled organisms have all been studied and in a few cases employed to detect explosives. This paper will describe the potential ability of ants to detect, disperse and possibly neutralize bulk explosives. In spring 2008 a team of DRDC and Itres scientists conducted experiments on detecting surface-laid and buried landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and their components. Measurements were made using state-of-the-art short wave and thermal infrared hyperspectral imagers mounted on a personnel lift. During one of the early morning measurement sessions, a wispy, long linear trail was seen to emanate several meters from piles of explosives that were situated on the ground. Upon close visual inspection, it was observed that ants had found the piles of explosives and were carrying it to their ant hill, a distance of almost 20 meters from the piles. Initial analysis of the hyperspectral images clearly revealed the trail to the ant hill of explosives, despite being present in quantities not visible to the unaided eye. This paper details these observations and discusses them in the context of landmine and IED detection and neutralization. Possible reasons for such behaviour are presented. A number of questions regarding the behaviour, many pertinent to the use of ants in a counter-landmine/IED role, are presented and possible methods of answering them are discussed. Anecdotal evidence from deminers of detection and destruction of explosives by ants are presented.

  4. Principles of baroque music: Improvisation, ornamentation, polyphony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović-Kutlača Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of mutual dependence of historical compositional, historical interpretative practice and the properties of historical instruments is essential for baroque style revival. The Baroque music epoch is dominated by the neo-Platonic idea of the ability of music to demonstrate harmony in cosmos, human society and nature. The three basic principles of baroque music, improvisation, ornamentation and polyphony, are all rooted in the idea of music harmony, whose 'key' has been hidden in figured (thorough bass. Reconsideration of the Italian, French and German baroque music reveals various concepts of universal harmony, and different ways of its reflections in music. Baroque music revival reconsiders the ancient question of the role of music in society and the interpreter's power. The true value of historical interpretative practice revival is seen as revitalization of the musician's freedom, creativity and inspiration in the improvisation practice.

  5. Improvisation during Process-Technology Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Mathiassen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Most software firms struggle to take advantage of the potential benefits of software process improvement (SPI) as they adopt this technology into the complex and dynamic realities of their day-to-day operation. Such efforts are therefore typically fluctuating between management's attempt to control...... SPI technology adoption and events that causes the process to drift in unpredictable directions. To further understand how management's attempt to control the process is complemented by drifting, this article investigates the role of improvisation in adoption of SPI technology in a Danish software...... in the adoption process despite constrained resources, and, most importantly, helped adapt SPI technology to the everyday practices at SmallSoft. However, we also identified un-called for improvisations and outcomes that were uncoordinated with SmallSoft's goals. Based on these findings we discuss how management...

  6. Qualitative inquiry, reflective practice and jazz improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerstedt, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This paper, based on my PhD empirical study, suggests that qualitative investigations, seen as reflective practices, have much in common with – and probably much to learn from – jazz improvisational practices. The complex processes of hermeneutic understanding include laying bare the researcher’s pre-understanding as well as, in the interpretation of statements, the dynamics between their holistic coherence and the agent’s intentions. Through interview excerpts, the important phenomenon of br...

  7. Control Improvisation with Application to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    Control Improvisation with Application to Music Alexandre Donze Sophie Libkind Sanjit A. Seshia David Wessel Electrical Engineering and Computer...to Music 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...domain of music . More speci cally, we consider the scenario of generating a monophonic Jazz melody (solo) on a given song harmonization. The music is

  8. Improvising Linguistic Style Social and Affective Bases for Agent Personality

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A; Whittaker, S J; Walker, Marilyn A.; Cahn, Janet E.; Whittaker, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces Linguistic Style Improvisation, a theory and set of algorithms for improvisation of spoken utterances by artificial agents, with applications to interactive story and dialogue systems. We argue that linguistic style is a key aspect of character, and show how speech act representations common in AI can provide abstract representations from which computer characters can improvise. We show that the mechanisms proposed introduce the possibility of socially oriented agents, meet the requirements that lifelike characters be believable, and satisfy particular criteria for improvisation proposed by Hayes-Roth.

  9. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  10. Risk-Taking and Large-Group Dance (Improvisation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueira da Silva Jr., João

    2016-01-01

    Improvisation in dance is often conceived of as a practice that involves a kind of risk-taking that is occasioned by spontaneity and a ‘stepping into the unknown’. Choreography, usually considered to be the ‘other’ of improvisation, on the contrary, is associated with ‘knowing’ and repetition, and

  11. Towards a Music-based Understanding of Improvisation in Music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts to make sense of improvisation in music therapy of ten rely on psychological, medical, psychoanalytic, musical or other discourses. These attempts seem to ignore the musical aspect of clinical improvisation and make an unsatisfactory leap of logic from the musical event to its extramusical meaning. This article ...

  12. Using Comedy Improvisation Techniques to Support Dance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Although contemporary dance improvisation techniques and comedy improvisation are seldom linked, the two forms evolved around the same time and have many similarities. Both forms exist in the moment, share a highly ephemeral nature, and make use of physical games and structures. Both forms teach students the skill of being present, so essential to…

  13. Imagery and Improvisation in Dance in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Ella

    1981-01-01

    Improvisation and imagery should be used to strengthen the thin bond between creativity and motor development in children. The approach to dance as an improvisational tool should be made more concrete when working with special populations such as mentally handicapped students. (JN)

  14. Young Pianists Exploring Improvisation Using Interactive Music Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Victoria; Triantafyllaki, Angeliki; Anagnostopoulou, Xristina

    2015-01-01

    The use of music technology in the enhancement of young pianists' musical improvisations has been scarcely explored in instrumental music teaching and learning research. In the present study, 19 piano pupils aged 6-10 from the UK and Greece used an interactive improvisation system called Musical Interaction Relying On Reflexion (MIROR)-Impro for…

  15. Improvisational Theater Games: Performatory Team-Building Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Joan S.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes five improvisational theater games for building "teams" in the classroom and on the sports field. Particular attention is given to understanding how teams must challenge the hyper-individuality of modern culture. Improvisational theater games for team building are designed to help participants find a balance…

  16. Dramaturgical and Music-Theoretical Approaches to Improvisation Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Erkki; Tenkanen, Atte; Kuusinen, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the relative merits of two approaches to teaching musical improvisation: a music-theoretical approach, focusing on chords and scales, and a "dramaturgical" one, emphasizing questions of balance, variation and tension. Adult students of music pedagogy, with limited previous experience in improvisation,…

  17. Collective Talent : A Study of Improvisational Group Performance in Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacqueline B.

    2006-01-01

    Improvised music performance offers remarkable and dramatic examples of the talented ways in which group members can interact and inspire each other. Such musical sessions can serve as examples of improvised performance of groups in general. This thesis reports on ways of initiating and supporting

  18. Free Improvisation and Performance Anxiety among Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of anxiety that students experienced according to whether their public performance consisted of a free improvisation or a repertory piece. The researcher had two objectives: (1) examine the relationship of students' levels of anxiety to free improvisation and repertory pieces during a…

  19. Play Fluency in Music Improvisation Games for Novices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a collaborative music game for two pen tablets is studied in order to see how two people with no professional music background negotiated musical improvisation. In an initial study of what it is that constitutes play fluency in improvisation, a music game has been designed and evalu......In this paper a collaborative music game for two pen tablets is studied in order to see how two people with no professional music background negotiated musical improvisation. In an initial study of what it is that constitutes play fluency in improvisation, a music game has been designed...... suggestions for how o direct future designs of collaborative music improvisation games towards ways of mutual play....

  20. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  1. Free Improvisation: What It Is, and Why We Should Apply It in Our General Music Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknafs, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation, the third content standard for the National Standards for Music Education (Music Educators National Conference, 1994), has received less attention from music teachers. This article advocates for more improvisation specifically free improvisation in general music classrooms. The nature of free improvisation, and its evolution in the…

  2. Reliable, rapid and simple voltammetric detection of urea nitrate explosive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Avi; Lu, Donglai; Cizek, Karel; La Belle, Jeff; Wang, Joseph

    2008-05-01

    A highly selective and rapid electrochemical assay of the improvised explosive urea nitrate (UN) is reported. The method involves a short ( approximately 10 s) acid-catalyzed reaction of UN with 4-nitrotoluene (NT) followed by a rapid ( approximately 2 s) square-wave voltammetric (SWV) detection of the 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) product. The new protocol offers great promise for a reliable field detection of UN, with significant advantages of speed, sensitivity, portability, simplicity, and cost.

  3. The dynamic behaviour of the floor of a surrogate vehicle under explosive blast loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Newell, N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvised Explosive Devices have been the signature weapon in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. High-rate axial forces exerted by the vehicle floor to the lower limbs of occupants have been the cause of severe injuries. In order to gain...

  4. The Bucket System – A computer mediated signaling system for group improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders; Robair, Gino

    2015-01-01

    The Bucket System is a new system for computer-mediated ensemble improvisation, designed by improvisers for improvisers. Coming from a tradition of structured free ensemble improvisation practices (comprovisation), influenced by post-WW2 experimental music practices, it is a signaling system...... implemented with a set of McMillen QuNeo controllers as input and output interfaces, powered by custom software. It allows for a new kind of on-stage compositional/improvisation interaction....

  5. Development in the Detection and Identification of Explosive Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, A D

    1992-06-01

    In the past 2 decades, developments in the sensitivity and selectivity of instrument detectors have significantly improved the detection limits for explosives, particularly nitrated organic compounds. Significant improvements have also been made in clean up and recovery procedures for explosive residues. Methods which also have met the criterion of proven effectiveness in identifying explosive components in "real-world" residues from test explosions have been incorporated into systematic analysis protocols for explosive residues. This article first reviews developments in the application of both traditional and novel methods to analysis of unreacted explosives and explosive residues. Compounds used to formulate commercial, military, and "homemade" explosives are then cross-referenced to the analytical methods that have been specifically applied to them, both as pure chemicals and in explosive mixtures. The subsequent focus is on the combinations of methods used to systematically analyze and positively identify residues from improvised explosive devices, from handswabs derived from persons suspected of handling explosives, and from organic gunshot residue. Technology is available to positively identify virtually any unreacted explosive in residue, but no one method can detect all components of all explosives. Investigators and the courts are best served by well-equipped forensic science laboratories staffed with scientists who have gained experience by the successful analysis of post-blast residues from an explosives range and have comprehensive reference collections of physical material, analytical data, and literature. The greatest progress has been made with respect to nitrated organic compounds, but the new generation of commercial explosive slurries and emulsions which are primarily formulated with inorganic salts and non-nitrated organic compounds offer an ongoing challenge. Copyright © 1992 Central Police University.

  6. Creativity and improvisation as therapeutic tools within music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Concetta M

    2013-11-01

    The neuroscience of creativity and music improvisation is a fascinating topic and one with strong implications for clinical music therapy. Music therapists are trained to use musical improvisation as a means to bring their clients into deeper therapeutic relationship as well as free up any inhibitions or limitations that may block recovery. Could recent fMRI studies of jazz musicians showing areas of brain activation during music improvisation provide a new framework to understand underlying mechanisms at work with neurologically impaired individuals? © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Exploration of the contribution of isotope ratio mass spectrometry to the investigation of explosives: A study of black powders and ammonium nitrate fertilisers

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, N.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of bomb attacks involving improvised explosive devices, as well as the nature of the explosives, give rise to concern among safety and law enforcement agencies. The substances used in explosive charges are often everyday products diverted from their primary licit applications. Thus, reducing or limiting their accessibility for prevention purposes is difficult. Ammonium nitrate, employed in agriculture as a fertiliser, is used worldwide in small and large h...

  8. Explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.F.M.; Falconer, E.L.

    1971-04-13

    A thickening agent for an aqueous slurry explosive composition consists of the combination of a cross-linked galactomannan with psyllium flour in specific proportions. This thickener provides good fluidity and reduced tackiness. (7 claims)

  9. Bodystorming: effects of collaboration and familiarity on improvising contemporary dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine J; Leach, James

    2015-09-01

    In contemporary dance, cognitive events are not necessarily restricted "to the skin or skull of an individual" (Hutchins in Int Encycl Soc Behav Sci 2068-2072, 2001) but distributed across dancers during collaborative improvisation. There is some experimental evidence of greater output when people perform problem-solving tasks alone. However, when a task is challenging and paired participants are familiar with each other, pairwise and emergent outcomes are more plentiful than solo outcomes. We investigate these factors in the context of dance with the broad hypothesis that innovation is enhanced when dancers improvise together compared with when they improvise alone. Dancers (N = 10) in a professional company improvised for 2 min alone and then with another dancer. Dancer familiarity (familiar, unfamiliar) and task (expressive, non-expressive) were crossed (within-subjects). The improvisations were video-recorded over 2 h in the dancers' usual improvisation space. After each improvisation, the dancers: stated the number of movement ideas expressed and rated task ease, satisfaction, interest, novelty, originality and clarity. In both tasks, there was a tendency for self-report of a greater number of movement ideas expressed in familiar and unfamiliar pairs than alone. Ratings of task ease, satisfaction, interest, clarity, etc. were slightly higher in the unfamiliar pair condition. In the non-expressive task, ratings of the task were higher in pairs (M = 3.02, SD 0.82) than in the solo (M = 2.67, SD 0.96) condition. Distributed creativity, relational cognition and social facilitation are used to interpret the results.

  10. Design optimization of Cassegrain telescope for remote explosive trace detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Kaushalkumar; Eseller, K. E.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna

    2017-10-01

    The past three years have seen a global increase in explosive-based terror attacks. The widespread use of improvised explosives and anti-personnel landmines have caused thousands of civilian casualties across the world. Current scenario of globalized civilization threat from terror drives the need to improve the performance and capabilities of standoff explosive trace detection devices to be able to anticipate the threat from a safe distance to prevent explosions and save human lives. In recent years, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging approach for material or elemental investigations. All the principle elements on the surface are detectable in a single measurement using LIBS and hence, a standoff LIBS based method has been used to remotely detect explosive traces from several to tens of metres distance. The most important component of LIBS based standoff explosive trace detection system is the telescope which enables remote identification of chemical constituents of the explosives. However, in a compact LIBS system where Cassegrain telescope serves the purpose of laser beam delivery and light collection, need a design optimization of the telescope system. This paper reports design optimization of a Cassegrain telescope to detect explosives remotely for LIBS system. A design optimization of Schmidt corrector plate was carried out for Nd:YAG laser. Effect of different design parameters was investigated to eliminate spherical aberration in the system. Effect of different laser wavelengths on the Schmidt corrector design was also investigated for the standoff LIBS system.

  11. Electrochemical Sensor for Explosives Precursors’ Detection in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloé Desmet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although all countries are intensifying their efforts against terrorism and increasing their mutual cooperation, terrorist bombing is still one of the greatest threats to society. The discovery of hidden bomb factories is of primary importance in the prevention of terrorism activities. Criminals preparing improvised explosives (IE use chemical substances called precursors. These compounds are released in the air and in the waste water during IE production. Tracking sources of precursors by analyzing air or wastewater can then be an important clue for bomb factories’ localization. We are reporting here a new multiplex electrochemical sensor dedicated to the on-site simultaneous detection of three explosive precursors, potentially used for improvised explosive device preparation (hereafter referenced as B01, B08, and B15, for security disclosure reasons and to avoid being detrimental to the security of the counter-explosive EU action. The electrochemical sensors were designed to be disposable and to combine ease of use and portability in a screen-printed eight-electrochemical cell array format. The working electrodes were modified with different electrodeposited metals: gold, palladium, and platinum. These different coatings giving selectivity to the multi-sensor through a “fingerprint”-like signal subsequently analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. Results are given regarding the detection of the three compounds in a real environment and in the presence of potentially interfering species.

  12. Analysis of different materials subjected to open-air explosions in search of explosive traces by Raman microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control. In this work, a wide variety of materials such as glass, steel, plywood, plastic bag, brick, cardboard or cotton subjected to open-air explosions were examined using confocal Raman microscopy, aiming to detect the inorganic oxidizing salts contained in explosives as black powder, chloratite, dynamite, ammonium nitrate fuel oil and ammonal. Post-blast residues were detected through microscopic examination of materials surfaces. In general, the more homogeneous and smoother the surface was, the less difficulties and better results in terms of identification were obtained. However, those highly irregular surfaces were the most unsuitable collectors for the posterior identification of explosive traces by Raman microscopy. The findings, difficulties and some recommendations related to the identification of post-blast particles in the different materials studied are thoroughly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pedagogical applications of the cognitive research on music improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIchele eBiasutti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the implementation of educational activities involving musical improvisation that is based on a review of the literature on the psychology of music. Psychology of music is a complex field of research in which quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed involving participants ranging from novices to expert performers. The cognitive research has been analyzed to propose a pedagogical approach to the development of processes rather than products that focus on an expert’s use of improvisation. The intention is to delineate a reflective approach that goes beyond the mere instruction of some current practices of teaching improvisation in jazz pedagogy. The review highlights that improvisation is a complex, multidimensional act that involves creative and performance behaviors in real-time in addition to processes such as sensory and perceptual encoding, motor control, performance monitoring, and memory storage and recall. Educational applications for the following processes are outlined: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback and flow. These characteristics are discussed in relation to the design of a pedagogical approach to musical improvisation based on reflection and metacognition development.

  14. Pedagogical applications of cognitive research on musical improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the implementation of educational activities involving musical improvisation that is based on a review of the literature on the psychology of music. Psychology of music is a complex field of research in which quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed involving participants ranging from novices to expert performers. The cognitive research has been analyzed to propose a pedagogical approach to the development of processes rather than products that focus on an expert’s use of improvisation. The intention is to delineate a reflective approach that goes beyond the mere instruction of some current practices of teaching improvisation in jazz pedagogy. The review highlights that improvisation is a complex, multidimensional act that involves creative and performance behaviors in real-time in addition to processes such as sensory and perceptual encoding, motor control, performance monitoring, and memory storage and recall. Educational applications for the following processes are outlined: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback, and flow. These characteristics are discussed in relation to the design of a pedagogical approach to musical improvisation based on reflection and metacognition development. PMID:26029147

  15. Teaching Improvisation in Elementary General Music: Facing Fears and Fostering Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation is a vital part of an elementary general music education. While some music teachers successfully include improvisation in music instruction, others have fears and face challenges when attempting improvisational activities in the classroom. This article acknowledges obstacles facing music educators when attempting to incorporate…

  16. Teaching Improvisation through Processes. Applications in Music Education and Implications for General Education

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Biasutti

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities...

  17. The Sign of Silence: Negotiating Musical Identities in an Improvising Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Graeme B.; MacDonald, Raymond A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Group musical improvisation, as a spontaneous process of collaborative creativity effected through non-verbal social interaction, is a unique psychological phenomenon and universal capacity. Existing studies focus on improvisation among professional jazz musicians, often using qualitative methods. However, improvisation transcends genres and…

  18. A Three-Stage Process of Improvisation for Teamwork: Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Pollard, Vikki; Campbell, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This study examines street performing arts students' responses to using improvisation for teamwork during a first year, non-placement, work-integrated learning (WIL) experience. The aim of the study was to investigate: (1) students' perceptions of improvisation and (2) ways in which to design teamwork assessments that utilise improvisation. Data…

  19. Clinical improvisation and the universe of musical idioms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2001-01-01

    (please choose Danish language to see a German summary) The music therapy education at Aalborg University, Denmark, takes five years of full-time study to accomplish and contains many special disciplines. One of these is called intuitive music. It deals with improvisation training......, which are focused upon one after another in practical exercises, and which can be used in analysing improvisations, are explained. Quotation aspects receive special attention and are seen as resulting from an inherent pluralism in the musical language. Through accepting this situation and through...

  20. Combat Trousers as Effective Improvised Pelvic Binders A Comparative Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Andrew; Morris, Rhys; Friedmann, Yasmin; Pallister, Ian; Parker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Improvised explosive devices and landmines can cause pelvic fractures, which, in turn, can produce catastrophic hemorrhage. This cadaveric study compared the intrapelvic pressure changes that occurred with the application of an improvised pelvic binder adapted from the combat trousers worn by British military personnel with the commercially available trauma pelvic orthotic device (TPOD). Six unembalmed cadavers (three male, three female) were used to simulate an unstable pelvic fracture with complete disruption of the posterior arch (AO/OTA 61-C1) by dividing the pelvic ring anteriorly and posteriorly. A 3-4cm manometric balloon filled with water was placed in the retropubic space and connected to a 50mL syringe and water manometer via a three-way tap. A baseline pressure of 8cm H2O (average central venous pressure) was set. The combat trouser binder (CTB) and TPOD were applied to each cadaver in a random sequence and the steady intrapelvic pressure changes were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a paired t test depending on the normality of the data to determine impact on the intrapelvic pressure of each intervention compared with baseline. The median steady intrapelvic pressure achieved after application of the CTB was 16cm H2O and after application of the TPOD binder was 18cm H2O, both of which were significantly greater than the baseline pressure (ρ .05). Pelvic injuries are increasingly common in modern theaters of war. The CTB is a novel, rapidly deployable, yet effective, method of pelvic binding adapted from the clothes the casualty is already wearing. This technique may be used in austere environments to tamponade and control intrapelvic hemorrhage. 2017.

  1. Expertise in musical improvisation and creativity: the mediation of idea evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmintz, Oded M; Goldstein, Pavel; Mayseless, Naama; Abecasis, Donna; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the influence of musical expertise, and specifically training in improvisation on creativity, using the framework of the twofold model, according to which creativity involves a process of idea generation and idea evaluation. Based on the hypothesis that a strict evaluation phase may have an inhibiting effect over the generation phase, we predicted that training in improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on the evaluation system, leading to greater creativity. To examine this hypothesis, we compared performance among three groups--musicians trained in improvisation, musicians not trained in improvisation, and non-musicians--on divergent thinking tasks and on their evaluation of creativity. The improvisation group scored higher on fluency and originality compared to the other two groups. Among the musicians, evaluation of creativity mediated how experience in improvisation was related to originality and fluency scores. It is concluded that deliberate practice of improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on creativity.

  2. Expertise in musical improvisation and creativity: the mediation of idea evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded M Kleinmintz

    Full Text Available The current study explored the influence of musical expertise, and specifically training in improvisation on creativity, using the framework of the twofold model, according to which creativity involves a process of idea generation and idea evaluation. Based on the hypothesis that a strict evaluation phase may have an inhibiting effect over the generation phase, we predicted that training in improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on the evaluation system, leading to greater creativity. To examine this hypothesis, we compared performance among three groups--musicians trained in improvisation, musicians not trained in improvisation, and non-musicians--on divergent thinking tasks and on their evaluation of creativity. The improvisation group scored higher on fluency and originality compared to the other two groups. Among the musicians, evaluation of creativity mediated how experience in improvisation was related to originality and fluency scores. It is concluded that deliberate practice of improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on creativity.

  3. Generating Ideas in Jazz Improvisation: Where Theory Meets Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Idea generation is an integral component of jazz improvising. This article merges theoretical origins and practical experiences through the examination of two seminal works from Pressing and Sudnow. A comparative analysis yields three common sources with distinct characteristics. The greater body of jazz literature supports this potential link…

  4. Improvisation and utilization of resources in the teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the importance of improvisation in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in the senior secondary schools in Cross River State of N Nigeria. Human and material resources are inevitable in enhancing the teaching and learning of science and mathematics generally and practically at this ...

  5. improvisation and utilization of resources in the teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    learning of science and technology(Biology inclusive) must ... biology resources. Improvisation of Science and Mathematics. Resources in Secondary Schools. It has been observed in recent times that both the rural and urban secondary schools are increasing in .... science teachers to improve and update their competence.

  6. Improvised Bryant's traction in the treatment of neonatal femoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Femoral fractures in the neonatal period could occur in vaginal or caesarean deliveries. Options of treatment in the neonate include hip spica cast application, use of Pavlik harness and Bryant's traction. Aim: To report our experience utilizing improvised Bryant's traction in the treatment of neonatal femoral ...

  7. Utilizing Improvisation to Teach Empathy Skills in Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Hannah B.; Jangha, Awa

    2016-01-01

    Empathy development is foundational to counselor training, yet there is scant research on techniques for teaching empathy aside from traditional microskills models. The authors discuss empathy as a skill set, highlight how improvisation (improv) can be used to enhance training, and describe how to incorporate improv activities within the classroom.

  8. How I improvised an external fixator to manage open fractures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    also reduces the heat generated by friction. The more the heat generated during drilling of holes in bones the more the necrosis along the pin tracts and the ... This improvisation consists of a long threaded metal rod that passes through two pieces of metal pipe. A small piece of metal plate is welded at an angle to each pipe.

  9. Improvisation and the self-organization of multiple musical bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ashley E.; Richardson, Michael J.; Langland-Hassan, Peter; Chemero, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Understanding everyday behavior relies heavily upon understanding our ability to improvise, how we are able to continuously anticipate and adapt in order to coordinate with our environment and others. Here we consider the ability of musicians to improvise, where they must spontaneously coordinate their actions with co-performers in order to produce novel musical expressions. Investigations of this behavior have traditionally focused on describing the organization of cognitive structures. The focus, here, however, is on the ability of the time-evolving patterns of inter-musician movement coordination as revealed by the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems to provide a new understanding of what potentiates the novelty of spontaneous musical action. We demonstrate this approach through the application of cross wavelet spectral analysis, which isolates the strength and patterning of the behavioral coordination that occurs between improvising musicians across a range of nested time-scales. Revealing the sophistication of the previously unexplored dynamics of movement coordination between improvising musicians is an important step toward understanding how creative musical expressions emerge from the spontaneous coordination of multiple musical bodies. PMID:25941499

  10. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Yang, Chengwu; Teal, Cayla R.; Street, Richard L.; Stuckey, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation. PMID:28777345

  11. The causal inference of cortical neural networks during music improvisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaogeng; Crüts, Björn; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2014-01-01

    We present an EEG study of two music improvisation experiments. Professional musicians with high level of improvisation skills were asked to perform music either according to notes (composed music) or in improvisation. Each piece of music was performed in two different modes: strict mode and "let-go" mode. Synchronized EEG data was measured from both musicians and listeners. We used one of the most reliable causality measures: conditional Mutual Information from Mixed Embedding (MIME), to analyze directed correlations between different EEG channels, which was combined with network theory to construct both intra-brain and cross-brain networks. Differences were identified in intra-brain neural networks between composed music and improvisation and between strict mode and "let-go" mode. Particular brain regions such as frontal, parietal and temporal regions were found to play a key role in differentiating the brain activities between different playing conditions. By comparing the level of degree centralities in intra-brain neural networks, we found a difference between the response of musicians and the listeners when comparing the different playing conditions.

  12. Activating Self-Transformation through Improvisation in Instrumental Music Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    1997-01-01

    Believes that learning must have meaning for students and some promise of application to the real world. Maintains that music teachers cannot educate their students successfully through the traditional methods of instrumental instruction, but must teach by improvisation in order to appeal to each individual student and assist in the…

  13. 342 Effects of Improvised Materials on Students' Achievement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... In the science class, teaching aids are needed to supplement the teacher's oral explanation with the ... This is why Abdullahi. (1982) stated that scientific materials used in teaching enable the students to ..... This could be attributed to the fact that the improvised material provided visual and mental pictures in.

  14. The development of improvisational expertise in jazz musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    Improvisation is a complex musical skill that takes many years of practice to master. An interesting question is what it takes to start and maintain such long period of practice and which environmental factors influence commitment to practice. This study aims to reveal factors that affect successful

  15. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Haidet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30 completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  16. Improvisation and the self-organization of multiple musical bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eWalton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding everyday behavior relies heavily upon understanding our ability to improvise, how we are able to continuously anticipate and adapt in order to coordinate with our environment and others. Here we consider the ability of musicians to improvise, where they must spontaneously coordinate their actions with co-performers in order to produce novel musical expressions. Investigations of this behavior have traditionally focused on describing the organization of cognitive structures. The focus, here, however, is on the ability of the time-evolving patterns of inter-musician movement coordination as revealed by the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems to provide a new understanding of what potentiates the novelty of spontaneous musical action. We demonstrate this approach through the application of cross wavelet spectral analysis, which isolates the strength and patterning of the behavioral coordination that occurs between improvising musicians across a range of nested time-scales. Revealing the sophistication of the previously unexplored dynamics of movement coordination between improvising musicians is an important step towards understanding how creative musical expressions emerge from the spontaneous coordination of multiple musical bodies.

  17. Imitation, Interaction and Imagery: Learning to Improvise Drawing with Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Erkki; Manneberg, Avigail

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project in which undergraduate students of beginning drawing were brought together with free improvising musicians to explore interaction in collective real-time art-making. Following a series of guided rehearsals, the students were free to choose their own strategies for interactive group projects. We discuss these…

  18. 342 Effects of Improvised Materials on Students' Achievement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Abstract. This paper is an empirical study aimed at finding out the effect of improvised material on students' academic achievement and retention on the concept of radioactivity. The study adopted the pretest post test non-equivalent control group design and was carried out in Calabar Education Zone, ...

  19. Learning to Lead, Unscripted: Developing Affiliative Leadership through Improvisational Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Suzanne; Vough, Heather C.; Nickerson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We argue that improvisational theatre training creates a compelling experience of co-creation through interaction and, as such, can be used to build a distinctive kind of leadership skills. Theories of leadership as relational, collaborative or shared are in pointed contrast to traditional notions of an individual "hero leader" who possesses the…

  20. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul; Jarecke, Jodi; Yang, Chengwu; Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L; Stuckey, Heather

    2017-08-04

    Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by "mapping" them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students' adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students' course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  1. Improvising information technology projects through the duality of structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiko Iyamu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is always emphasis on information technology (IT projects because of their significance in organisations. Thus, efforts and resources are reciprocally committed to ensure the successes. Still, failure of IT projects in many organisations remains high and affects competitiveness. As recourse for remedy, different techniques and approaches have been employed. However, little or no progress has been made in increasing the success rate of IT projects in many organisations.Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the factors that influence and impact IT projects, improvisation and how improvisation manifests.Method: The study was carried out using a single case study approach. Qualitative data were collected and duality of structure from the perspective of structuration theory was used as lens to guide the analysis.Results: Findings from this study reveal how reproduction of actions manifests from non-technical factors, such as cultural value, organisational structure, power relationship, human capacity, know-how and change management. These factors help to gain a more constructive and better understanding of how IT projects improvisation is influenced or impacted by non-technical factors in organisations.Conclusion: The study is intended to benefit both practitioners and academics. Some of the benefits will be gained from fresh perspectives on the complexities of IT projects improvisation, which are often caused by various seen and unforeseen non-technical factors. This includes how actions from relationship, know-how about facilities and communicative scheme are produced and reproduced.

  2. The causal inference of cortical neural networks during music improvisations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogeng Wan

    Full Text Available We present an EEG study of two music improvisation experiments. Professional musicians with high level of improvisation skills were asked to perform music either according to notes (composed music or in improvisation. Each piece of music was performed in two different modes: strict mode and "let-go" mode. Synchronized EEG data was measured from both musicians and listeners. We used one of the most reliable causality measures: conditional Mutual Information from Mixed Embedding (MIME, to analyze directed correlations between different EEG channels, which was combined with network theory to construct both intra-brain and cross-brain networks. Differences were identified in intra-brain neural networks between composed music and improvisation and between strict mode and "let-go" mode. Particular brain regions such as frontal, parietal and temporal regions were found to play a key role in differentiating the brain activities between different playing conditions. By comparing the level of degree centralities in intra-brain neural networks, we found a difference between the response of musicians and the listeners when comparing the different playing conditions.

  3. Neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity: The example of improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skirtach I.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the turn of this century, a substantial body of research has been published on the neuroscience of creativity. Now, it is necessary to study the neurophysiological correlates in true-to-life, professionally specific situations. The aim of our empirical research was to study the neurophysiological correlates of musical improvisation, a spontaneous creative activity. The participants were 136 right-handed practicing musicians aged 19 to 36 (102 males and 34 females, divided into two groups—professionals (56 people and amateurs (80 people. EEG signals were recorded in a resting state (eyes closed and during three types of internal musical activity (perceiving, mentally reproducing, and mentally improvising from 21 scalp electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. For statistical analysis, we used ANOVA and post hoc analysis. For the main neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity, we revealed higher values of EEG spectral power in the delta band and the dominance of long-distance functional cortical connections in the high-frequency bands. Variable neurophysiological correlates were differentiated according to emotions and the professional level of the musicians. The distinguishing EEG pattern in the professional musicians during improvisation was the predominant activation of the left- hemisphere cortical regions simultaneously with high interhemispheric integration in the high-frequency band along the “creativity axis.” The revealed neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity during improvisation included basic and variable components and were characterized by a specific frequency-spatial organization of bioelectric cortical activity in the musicians.

  4. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep K Sharma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to describe the clinical and computed tomography features of 'explosive pleuritis', an entity first named by Braman and Donat in 1986, and to propose a case definition. A case report of a previously healthy, 45-year-old man admitted to hospital with acute onset pleuritic chest pain is presented. The patient arrived at the emergency room at 15:00 in mild respiratory distress; the initial chest x-ray revealed a small right lower lobe effusion. The subsequent clinical course in hospital was dramatic. Within 18 h of admission, he developed severe respiratory distress with oxygen desaturation to 83% on room air and dullness of the right lung field. A repeat chest x-ray, taken the morning after admission, revealed complete opacification of the right hemithorax. A computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a massive pleural effusion with compression of pulmonary tissue and mediastinal shift. Pleural fluid biochemical analysis revealed the following concentrations: glucose 3.5 mmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase 1550 U/L, protein 56.98 g/L, amylase 68 U/L and white blood cell count 600 cells/mL. The pleural fluid cultures demonstrated light growth of coagulase-negative staphylococcus and viridans streptococcus, and very light growth of Candida albicans. Cytology was negative for malignant cells. Thoracotomy was performed, which demonstrated a loculated parapneumonic effusion that required decortication. The patient responded favourably to the empirical administration of intravenous levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, and conservative surgical methods in the management of the empyema. This report also discusses the patient's rapidly progressing pleural effusion and offers a potential case definition for explosive pleuritis. Explosive pleuritis is a medical emergency defined by the rapid development of a pleural effusion involving more than 90% of the hemithorax over 24 h, which causes compression of pulmonary tissue and

  5. Movement of Explosive Ordnance Disposal Command and Control (C2) from Logistical Support to Operational/Maneuver Support, within the Military Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    future wars. EOD requirements would receive higher priority in attaining tlie equipment required to successfuiTy support operations on tiie oattlefiefii...battlefield threat, the improvised explosive device. Service EOD forces need to reorganize so tiiat tiie fudiVidual· services can atfequateiy pian and

  6. Understanding the Impact of Expertise in Joint and Solo-Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Issartel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint-improvisation is not only an open-ended creative action that two or more people perform together in the context of an artistic performance (e.g., theatre, music or dance. Joint-improvisation also takes place in daily life activities when humans take part in collective performance such as toddlers at play or adults engaged in a conversation. In the context of this article, joint-improvisation has been looked at from a social motor coordination perspective. In the literature, the nature of the social motor coordination characteristics of joint-improvisation for either the creative aspect or daily life features of this motor performance remains unclear. Additionally, both solo-improvisation and joint-improvisation need to be studied conjointly to establish the influence of the social element of improvisation in the emergence of multi-agent motor coordination. In order to better understand those two types of improvisation, we compared three level of expertise – novice, intermediate and professional in dance improvisation to identify movement characteristics for each of the groups. Pairs of the same level were asked to improvise together. Each individual was also asked to perform an improvisation on his/her own. We found that each of the three groups present specific movement organization with movement complexity increasing with the level of expertise. Experts performed shorter movement duration in conjunction with an increase range of movement. The direct comparison of individual and paired Conditions highlighted that the joint-improvisation reduced the complexity of the movement organization and those for all three levels while maintaining the differences between the groups. This direct comparison amongst those three distinct groups provides an original insight onto the nature of movement patterns in joint-improvisation situation. Overall, it reveals the role of both individual and collective properties in the emergence of social

  7. Understanding the Impact of Expertise in Joint and Solo-Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issartel, Johann; Gueugnon, Mathieu; Marin, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    Joint-improvisation is not only an open-ended creative action that two or more people perform together in the context of an artistic performance (e.g., theatre, music or dance). Joint-improvisation also takes place in daily life activities when humans take part in collective performance such as toddlers at play or adults engaged in a conversation. In the context of this article, joint-improvisation has been looked at from a social motor coordination perspective. In the literature, the nature of the social motor coordination characteristics of joint-improvisation for either the creative aspect or daily life features of this motor performance remains unclear. Additionally, both solo-improvisation and joint-improvisation need to be studied conjointly to establish the influence of the social element of improvisation in the emergence of multi-agent motor coordination. In order to better understand those two types of improvisation, we compared three level of expertise - novice, intermediate and professional in dance improvisation to identify movement characteristics for each of the groups. Pairs of the same level were asked to improvise together. Each individual was also asked to perform an improvisation on his/her own. We found that each of the three groups present specific movement organization with movement complexity increasing with the level of expertise. Experts performed shorter movement duration in conjunction with an increase range of movement. The direct comparison of individual and paired Conditions highlighted that the joint-improvisation reduced the complexity of the movement organization and those for all three levels while maintaining the differences between the groups. This direct comparison amongst those three distinct groups provides an original insight onto the nature of movement patterns in joint-improvisation situation. Overall, it reveals the role of both individual and collective properties in the emergence of social coordination.

  8. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  9. Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    is viewed as a result of the propulsion of broken rock mass by explosion gas by-products. The physical model used to recreate the second and the third...period seismographs. Seismologists of the                                                              5  Edinaya  Sistema   Seismicheskih  Nablyudenii...d’explosifs chiniques dans le sable: Programme Dynasol, Centre d’etudes Nucl. De Grenoble Lab. D’applications Speciales de la Physique, Grenoble. 9

  10. Twelve tips for using applied improvisation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista; Rossing, Jonathan P; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2017-10-12

    Future physicians will practice medicine in a more complex environment than ever, where skills of interpersonal communication, collaboration and adaptability to change are critical. Applied improvisation (or AI) is an instructional strategy which adapts the concepts of improvisational theater to teach these types of complex skills in other contexts. Unique to AI is its very active teaching approach, adapting theater games to help learners meet curricular objectives. In medical education, AI is particularly helpful when attempting to build students' comfort with and skills in complex, interpersonal behaviors such as effective listening, person-centeredness, teamwork and communication. This article draws on current evidence and the authors' experiences to present best practices for incorporating AI into teaching medicine. These practical tips help faculty new to AI get started by establishing goals, choosing appropriate games, understanding effective debriefing, considering evaluation strategies and managing resistance within the context of medical education.

  11. Musical answerability : a theory on the relationship between music therapy improvisation and the phenomenon of action

    OpenAIRE

    Stensæth, Karette

    2007-01-01

    What is the relationship between music therapy improvisation and the phenomenon of action? This thesis seeks to build a theory on how actions manifest themselves in music therapy improvisation and how they are cultivated and thought about by music therapists. A video recorded excerpt of a music therapy improvisation with a multi-handicapped client is used in order to produce the empirical material, and the theoretical material includes discussions on relevant established theories. New theo...

  12. Expert practitioner voices: a phenomenological inquiry into teaching, learning, and collaborating in musical improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruin, Leon Rene

    2017-01-01

    My research thesis concerns the teaching and learning of improvisation in music, and consists of nine scholarly articles and one book chapter. I investigate how expert practitioners inculcate and influence skill and knowledge acquisition in their students, exploring the various ways students learn, absorb and retain knowledge. In this research I employ cognitive and phenomenological theories of the improvisation process to underpin my inquiry into the learning of improvisation as understood b...

  13. Stemming the Flow of Improvised Explosive Device Making Materials through Global Export Control Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    bomb making. According to this report, one captured bomb maker described his ability to construct a “complex detonation system – a Dual- Tone Multi...into South and Central Asia. 10 detonations while supporting coalition efforts in either Iraq or Afghanistan. Currently, U.S. and UK defense forces...movement of these technologies without the state even realizing it. Heinz Gartner also stresses that many times distributors get involved, which clouds

  14. Characterization of the improvised explosive urea nitrate using electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiri, Tsippy

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectra of urea nitrate were measured in electrospray ionization and in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the negative mode. In both ionization methods two characteristic adduct ions containing the intact molecule [urea nitrate+NO3]- and [urea nitrate+HNO3+NO3]- are shown. The structure of the two adduct ions was deduced using measurements of isotopically labeled urea nitrate. Collision-induced dissociation measurements of the adduct ions show typical losses enabling the identification of urea nitrate in trace amounts. Using these methods urea nitrate was identified in real cases. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Sustaining Eleven Years of Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Relevancy for Tomorrow’s War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    the Global War on Terrorism began in 2001, IEDs accounted for 3,404 killed in action ( KIA ) and 35,045 wounded in action (WIA).2 Individual services...artillery that does this; it is the motor -transport community share the same school in Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Traditionally throughout OIF and

  16. Investigation of isotopic linkages between precursor materials and the improvised high explosive product hexamethylene triperoxide diamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lock, C.M.; Brust, G.M.H.; Breukelen, M. van; Dalmolen, J.; Koeberg, M.; Stoker, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The results of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) on hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) and its precursor hexamethylenetetramine (hexamine) is presented. HMTD was prepared from hexamine using several different sources of hexamine under both controlled laboratory conditions and in field

  17. Assessment of Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) Training Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    clips and snap shots to train system use. Hiawatha I Training Support to Developmental Effort TBD TBD TBD HME Interdiction Concept Exploration...Understand and employ system CONOPs/Capabilities Advanced Individual (electronic warfare officer– specific) Schoolhouse and Theater Next Gen Neutron

  18. Developing a Decision Model for Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) Proposal Selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawley, Lyle M; Marentette, Lenore A; Long, A. M

    2008-01-01

    This research uses decision analysis to develop a structured, repeatable and most importantly defensible decision model for the evaluation of proposed IED defeat solutions submitted to the Joint IED Defeat Organization (JIEDDO...

  19. Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) for Improvised Explosive Device Screening Systems (IEDSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    will be conducted at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) . The results will be analyzed and become part of a later document. 17 K4V Womb 18...arousal level and/or attention to the task effect 13. Conclusions drawn from data collection in this fashion may be affected by an artificially high J3

  20. Basic Research at the University of Washington to Counter Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    frequency equal to ωS = ω1 + ω2. As a concrete example of this process, when photons having wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm illuminate the surface of...Final Report for ONR CODE 30 CIED 6.1 Basic Research Effort 1. “Deep Bleeder Mitigation by Image Guided Ultrasound ” 2. Prime Offeror: Applied Physics...goals of this effort were as follows: (1) Adapt and modify an image-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) device for use in an investigation

  1. Knowledge Engineering Considerations for Improving Information Sharing in the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Test Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Integration of expertise fosters “innovation, product customisation , and technological leverage” (Klenke, 2006, p. 231). Ensuring thorough...all interviewees. The demographic survey addressed individual characteristics, education , experience, and placement within the organization. The...demographic information for the 15 interviewees shows that they are well educated and experienced, especially considering the relatively short

  2. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq, 2003-09: A Case of Operational Surprise and Institutional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ir- relevant: the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) are examples of these events.8...which was developed for another purpose. Although precise fi gures are not publicly available, the photographic 34 and budgetary record suggests...Merrett, Nicholas and Tamir Eshel, “Next Generation Jam - mers,” Asia-Pacifi c Defence Reporter, January 2008, pp. 50-54. “New unit meets demand

  3. Dragon’s Claws: The Improvised Explosive Device (IED) as a Weapon of Strategic Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Americas, and Russia.34 As an example Lacquer uses Karl Heinzen, a radical German publicist and democrat who played an important role in creating...growing strong and that the Iraqi Security Forces in their infantile state could not protect them. In that regard, it also showed the populace that...many Democrats voiced the 182 “Hard Lessons; the Iraqi Reconstruction Experience,” Office of the

  4. Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Fusion Cells and the Brigade Combat Team: A Modern Day Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    adaptable and lethal enemy. As soon as vaccines have defeated a certain flu strain, the virus evolves.”53 Despite the significant advancement in the...Hezbollah learned much of about IED construction and employment from the Tigers. 10 The Iraq Experience Examination of professional journals and...dominance and contemplated how these and other variables would influence future conflicts. Military professionals expected future adversaries to seek an

  5. Sensing and Identifying the Improvised Explosive Device Suicide Bombers: People Carrying Wires on Their Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    are called clutter. A very important technique in removing clutter is called moving target discrimination or Doppler filtering . Radar echoes are...ground level to prevent having to ‘look’ thorough a group of people. The bulk of the electronics (a cigar -box size, aside from prime power that we

  6. The Infernal Machine: The Use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) against U.S. Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    of Dares Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. In total, these attacks resulted in 502 killed and 5,918 wounded civilians. Other IED attacks included...engage the coalition. xt 13 As the insurgency continued to g1;ow beyond grass roots movements to foreign fighters crossing the border of Iraq to

  7. Detection and Monitoring of Improvised Explosive Device Education Networks through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    plugin properties --> <property> <name>lang.ngram.min.length</name> <value>1</value> <description> The minimum size of ngrams to uses to...value>4</value> <description> The maximum size of ngrams to uses to identify language (must be between lang.ngram.min.length and 4). 77

  8. Codes of dance improvisation: The case of Intuitive Dance

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, Kseniia

    2017-01-01

    The idea that dance can be understood as an act of communication and a form of language has been already taken into account by scholars. The hypothesis that will be discussed in this MA dissertation concerns a more specific matter: a semiotic approach to different forms of dance improvisation, and notably the method traditionally labeled "intuitive dance". To understand this phenomena two main concepts will be conveyed: that of "quotation" understood via W. Benjamin's essays on Brecht, and th...

  9. Salesperson improvisation: Antecedents, performance outcomes, and boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah Banin, A.; Boso, N.; Hultman, M.; Souchon, A. L.; Hughes, P; Nemkova, E.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Premised on the idea that not all salesperson behaviors can be pre-scripted and that, increasingly, salespersons must find ways to respond to unexpected but urgent market conditions, this study theorizes the drivers, outcomes and boundary conditions of salesperson improvisation. Using primary data from industrial salespersons, the study examine...

  10. Primal-improv: Towards co-evolutionary musical improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, M.; Eklund, P.; Togelius, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a work in progress on co-evolving Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for music improvisation. Using this neuro-evolutionary approach the ANNs adapt to the changes in the human player's music as input, while still maintaining some of the structure of the musical piece previously...... arrangements than ANNs evolved without a specific objective. The emerging and interesting musical patterns that are produced by the evolved ANNs hint at the promising potential of the system....

  11. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  12. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  13. Listeners' and performers' shared understanding of jazz improvisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Schober

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which a large set of musically experienced listeners share understanding with a performing saxophone-piano duo, and with each other, of what happened in three improvisations on a jazz standard. In an online survey, 239 participants listened to audio recordings of three improvisations and rated their agreement with 24 specific statements that the performers and a jazz-expert commenting listener had made about them. Listeners endorsed statements that the performers had agreed upon significantly more than they endorsed statements that the performers had disagreed upon, even though the statements gave no indication of performers' levels of agreement. The findings show some support for a more-experienced-listeners-understand-more-like-performers hypothesis: Listeners with more jazz experience and with experience playing the performers' instruments endorsed the performers' statements more than did listeners with less jazz experience and experience on different instruments. The findings also strongly support a listeners-as-outsiders hypothesis: Listeners' ratings of the 24 statements were far more likely to cluster with the commenting listener's ratings than with either performer's. But the pattern was not universal; particular listeners even with similar musical backgrounds could interpret the same improvisations radically differently. The evidence demonstrates that it is possible for performers' interpretations to be shared with very few listeners, and that listeners’ interpretations about what happened in a musical performance can be far more different from performers’ interpretations than performers or other listeners might assume.

  14. [Improvisation with alcoholics. Test of a combination of creative and therapeutic procedures (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesenbeckh, W

    1980-02-01

    The article reports on Group Work making use of dancing improvisations and nonverbal interaction exercises as therapeutic media. The improvisation group is part of a stationary therapy programme for alcoholics. The therapeutic intention is to utilise the interactions of the group's members for therapeutic purposes. The improvisation suggestions and exercises should provoke nonverbal interactions which could then be discussed. The article describes the mode of action of the improvisation group on an individual member and on the whole group, the programme of this group, and the experiences made.

  15. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  16. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  17. Discovering New Ways of Moving: Observational Analysis of Motor Creativity while Dancing Contact Improvisation and the Influence of the Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrents, Carlota; Castaner, Marta; Dinusova, Maria; Anguera, M. Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Contact improvisation (CI) is a form of dance based on motor creativity, improvisation and the physical contact between different improvisers dancing together. This will generate different ways of moving and a varied use of motor creativity depending on the dancers involved. This study aims to observe the differences in movement generation…

  18. The contrasting interaction effects of improvisational behavior with entrepreneurial self-efficacy on new venture performance and entrepreneur work satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hmieleski, Keith M; Corbett, Andrew C

    2008-01-01

    ... to have important implications for the performance of their new ventures. Although improvisation appears to be an important component of the entrepreneurial process, we know little about why some entrepreneurs are more effective improvisers than others. Similarly, it is not known what effects that improvisational behavior has on the work satisfact...

  19. An Approach to Improvisation Pedagogy in Post-Secondary Jazz Programmes Based on Negative Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louth, Joseph Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that an approach to jazz improvisation pedagogy based on negative dialectics may provide a viable solution to the threat of codification of the jazz language as a result of the academisation of improvisation studies at the post-secondary level. Some tentative means of incorporating such an approach into the design of university…

  20. Improvisational Theatre as Public Pedagogy: A Case Study of "Aesthetic" Pedagogy in Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Buonincontro, Jen

    2011-01-01

    How does improvisational theatre promote aesthetic learning in leaders, emphasizing emotion and somatic, or sensory, knowledge? While improvisational theatre has been used in organizational settings, there is little empirical research describing the aesthetic learning process geared towards preparing educational leaders. Based on a case study of…

  1. Creative Dance Improvisation: Fostering Creative Expression, Group Cooperation, and Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Mary Ann; Kampfe, Charlene M.

    Creative dance improvisation involves both the movement of the body with awareness and the awakening of the creative spirit. The basic elements of creative dance improvisation--force, time, and space--are examined with a view toward how this approach to dance can be a means for growth in the general education of anyone throughout their lives.…

  2. Improvising with Material in the Higher Education Dance Technique Class: Exploration and Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author, Rachel Rimmer, explores how improvisation can facilitate skills that are transferable to other areas of dance practice, enabling different areas of study to complement each other. The experimental forum of improvisation as an alternative method of learning technique is considered, contemplating the value of this…

  3. Spontaneous Dancemaking with Beginning Improvisers: Foundational Practices in Presence, Stillness, and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Many dance artists in their first encounters with improvisational dance making begin not only to learn how to compose spontaneously, but also to gain skills for coping with the uncertainties inherent in the form. This article suggests helpful dance scores for beginning students of physical improvisation and those who teach improvisational…

  4. A National Survey of Music Education Majors' Confidence in Teaching Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, H. Christian, II.; Stringham, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate undergraduate music education majors' confidence in teaching improvisation, according to the NAfME (1994) K-12 Achievement Standards. Specific research questions were: 1) How confident are music education majors in implementing the 11 improvisation achievement standards for grades K-12? 2) How confident…

  5. Improvisation and Meditation in the Academy: Parallel Ordeals, Insights, and Openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This article examines parallel challenges and avenues for progress I have observed in my efforts to introduce improvisation in classical music studies, and meditation in music and overall academic settings. Though both processes were once central in their respective knowledge traditions--improvisation in earlier eras of European classical music,…

  6. Patterns of Joint Improvisation in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel-Shlomit Brezis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs suggests that individuals with autism may have a basic deficit in synchronizing with others, and that this difficulty may lead to more complex social and communicative deficits. Here, we examined synchronization during an open-ended joint improvisation (JI paradigm, called the mirror game (MG. In the MG, two players take turns leading, following, and jointly improvising motion using two handles set on parallel tracks, while their motion tracks are recorded with high temporal and spatial resolution. A series of previous studies have shown that players in the MG attain moments of highly synchronized co-confident (CC motion, in which there is no typical kinematic pattern of leader and reactive follower. It has been suggested that during these moments players act as a coupled unit and feel high levels of connectedness. Here, we aimed to assess whether participants with ASD are capable of attaining CC, and whether their MG performance relates to broader motor and social skills. We found that participants with ASD (n = 34 can indeed attain CC moments when playing with an expert improviser, though their performance was attenuated in several ways, compared to typically developing (TD participants (n = 35. Specifically, ASD participants had lower rates of CC, compared with TD participants, which was most pronounced during the following rounds. In addition, the duration of their CC segments was shorter, across all rounds. When controlling for participants’ motor skills (both on the MG console, and more broadly some of the variability in MG performance was explained, but group differences remained. ASD participants’ alexithymia further correlated with their difficulty following another’s lead; though other social skills did not relate to MG performance. Participants’ subjective reports of the game suggest that other cognitive and emotional factors, such as attention, motivation, and reward

  7. Inspection tester for explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  8. Advances in Raman spectroscopy for explosive identification in aviation security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Javier D.; Brown, Christopher D.; Jalenak, Wayne

    2007-04-01

    In the operational airport environment, the rapid identification of potentially hazardous materials such as improvised explosive devices, chemical warfare agents and flammable and explosive liquids is increasingly critical. Peroxide-based explosives pose a particularly insidious threat because they can be made from commonly available and relatively innocuous household chemicals, such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide. Raman spectroscopy has been validated as a valuable tool for rapid identification of chemicals, explosives, and narcotics and their precursors while allowing "line-of-sight" interrogation through bottles or other translucent containers. This enables safe identification of both precursor substances, such as acetone, and end-products, such as TATP, without direct sampling, contamination and exposure by security personnel. To date, Raman systems have been laboratory-based, requiring careful operation and maintenance by technology experts. The capital and ongoing expenses of these systems is also significant. Recent advances in Raman component technologies have dramatically reduced the footprint and cost, while improving the reliability and ease of use of Raman spectroscopy systems. Such technologies are not only bringing the lab to the field, but are also protecting civilians and security personnel in the process.

  9. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... for classifying, labeling, and providing safety data sheets for explosives. By withdrawing this.... OSHA-S031-2006-0665 and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health... the rulemaking to amend its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR 1910.109. OSHA is taking...

  10. Teaching Improvisation through Processes. Applications in Music Education and Implications for General Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper. The challenge is to overcome the mere instructional dimension of some practices of teaching improvisation by designing activities that stimulate self-regulated learning strategies in the students. In the article the present thesis is declined in three ways, concerning the following three possible areas of application: (1) high-level musical learning, (2) musical pedagogy with children, (3) general pedagogy. The applications in the music field focusing mainly on an expert's use of improvisation are discussed. The last section considers how these ideas should transcend music studies, presenting the benefits and the implications of improvisation activities for general learning. Moreover, the application of music education to the following cognitive processes are discussed: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback and flow. These characteristics could be used to outline a pedagogical method for teaching music improvisation based on the development of reflection, reasoning, and meta-cognition.

  11. Teaching Improvisation through Processes. Applications in Music Education and Implications for General Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Biasutti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper. The challenge is to overcome the mere instructional dimension of some practices of teaching improvisation by designing activities that stimulate self-regulated learning strategies in the students. In the article the present thesis is declined in three ways, concerning the following three possible areas of application: (1 high-level musical learning, (2 musical pedagogy with children, (3 general pedagogy. The applications in the music field focusing mainly on an expert's use of improvisation are discussed. The last section considers how these ideas should transcend music studies, presenting the benefits and the implications of improvisation activities for general learning. Moreover, the application of music education to the following cognitive processes are discussed: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback and flow. These characteristics could be used to outline a pedagogical method for teaching music improvisation based on the development of reflection, reasoning, and meta-cognition.

  12. Numerical Analysis of the Risk of Neck Injuries Caused By IED Explosion under the Vehicle in Military Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackiewicz Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of an explosion under a military vehicle, the risk of threat to life and health of the crew increases. Examination of this event in terms of the security of soldiers comes down to a complex analysis of the mutual interaction of the body of a soldier, seating and structural elements of the vehicle. As a result, shock wave impacts can cause tremor resulting from the construction of the vehicle and acceleration of the passenger's body. This study attempts to analyze the impact of an explosion of an improvised explosive device (IED under the military vehicle with the risk of cervical spine injuries of soldiers. The analysis was carried out using numerical methods in the LS-DYNA program and was carried out taking into account the variable displacement values and acceleration recorded during the\\ explosion. The study used a model of the body of a soldier in the form of a Hybrid III 50th Male Dummy.

  13. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  14. Explosives tester with heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  15. Effects of Partner's Improvisational Resistance Training on dancers' muscular strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Rheba E; Dorgo, Sandor

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of Partner's Improvisational Resistance Training (PIRT) on muscular strength, body circumference, and body fat percentage in 10 female college-age dancers in comparison with 8 female dancers in a control group. The PIRT program, based on the concepts of manual resistance training, is the application of contact improvisation in a systematic strength development program, which proposes a way of contextualizing muscular strength development within the dance class. The program lasted 8 weeks, meeting 3 times weekly for 60-minute sessions. The muscular strength pre- and posttests included 1-repetition maximum (1RM) for leg extension, leg flexion, leg press, bench press, lat pulldown, back extension, and modified sit-up. Hydrostatic weighing for body composition and circumference measures on the waist, hip, shoulder, upper arm, and thigh were made pre- and posttest analyses. There were no significant pretest differences between the groups for age, height, body weight, body fat percentage, any of the circumference measures, or 5 of the 7 muscular strength measures. At posttest, neither group showed significant changes in total body weight, body fat percentage, or lean body weight. The experimental group showed significant decrements in the waist and hip circumference measures, and all other body circumference changes were nonsignificant. The experimental group showed significant changes from pretest to posttest for all seven 1RM strength measures and greater absolute and relative strength improvements in 5 measures compared with the control group. Thus, the 8-week PIRT program for female dancers was found effective in improving overall muscular strength and decreasing circumference in the waist-hip region, but it did not elicit significant changes in body composition.

  16. Neural correlates of lyrical improvisation: an FMRI study of freestyle rap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Chow, Ho Ming; Xu, Yisheng; Erkkinen, Michael G; Swett, Katherine E; Eagle, Michael W; Rizik-Baer, Daniel A; Braun, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of creativity are poorly understood. Freestyle rap provides a unique opportunity to study spontaneous lyrical improvisation, a multidimensional form of creativity at the interface of music and language. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize this process. Task contrast analyses indicate that improvised performance is characterized by dissociated activity in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, providing a context in which stimulus-independent behaviors may unfold in the absence of conscious monitoring and volitional control. Connectivity analyses reveal widespread improvisation-related correlations between medial prefrontal, cingulate motor, perisylvian cortices and amygdala, suggesting the emergence of a network linking motivation, language, affect and movement. Lyrical improvisation appears to be characterized by altered relationships between regions coupling intention and action, in which conventional executive control may be bypassed and motor control directed by cingulate motor mechanisms. These functional reorganizations may facilitate the initial improvisatory phase of creative behavior.

  17. Understanding the Impact of Expertise in Joint and Solo-Improvisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johann Issartel; Mathieu Gueugnon; Ludovic Marin

    2017-01-01

    ...., theatre, music or dance). Joint-improvisation also takes place in daily life activities when humans take part in collective performance such as toddlers at play or adults engaged in a conversation...

  18. Emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness of children with autism in improvisational music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint attention ep...... play sessions than music therapy. The results of this exploratory study found significant evidence supporting the value of music therapy in promoting social, emotional and motivational development in children with autism.......Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint attention...... episodes. It was a randomized controlled study (n=10) employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and toy play sessions and using DVD analysis of sessions.   Improvisational music therapy produced markedly more and longer events of ‘joy...

  19. Improviser non verbalement pour l’apprentissage de la langue parlée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Chaîné

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Un texte réflexif sur la pratique de l'improvisation dans un contexte scolaire en vue d'apprendre la langue parlée. D'aucun penserait que l'improvisation verbale est le moyen par excellence pour faire l'apprentissage de la langue, mais l'expérience nous a fait découvrir la richesse de l'improvisation non-verbale suivie de prise de parole sur la pratique comme moyen privilégié. L'article est illustré d'un atelier d'improvisation-non verbale s'adressant à des enfants ou à des adolescents.

  20. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  1. A Preliminary Analysis of Teaching Improvisation with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Marckel, Julie M; Neef, Nancy A; Ferreri, Summer J

    2006-01-01

    Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of improvised requests, and that these skills generalized to novel items, and across settings and listeners in the natural environment.

  2. Active explosion barrier performance against methane and coal dust explosions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. J. L. du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of methane or coal dust explosions through the use of active explosion-suppression systems remains one of the most underutilised explosion controls in underground coal mines...

  3. Solid state gas sensors for detection of explosives and explosive precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yun

    The increased number of terrorist attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) over the past few years has made the trace detection of explosives a priority for the Department of Homeland Security. Considerable advances in early detection of trace explosives employing spectroscopic detection systems and other sensing devices have been made and have demonstrated outstanding performance. However, modern IEDs are not easily detectable by conventional methods and terrorists have adapted to avoid using metallic or nitro groups in the manufacturing of IEDs. Instead, more powerful but smaller compounds, such as TATP are being more frequently used. In addition, conventional detection techniques usually require large capital investment, labor costs and energy input and are incapable of real-time identification, limiting their application. Thus, a low cost detection system which is capable of continuous online monitoring in a passive mode is needed for explosive detection. In this dissertation, a thermodynamic based thin film gas sensor which can reliably detect various explosive compounds was developed and demonstrated. The principle of the sensors is based on measuring the heat effect associated with the catalytic decomposition of explosive compounds present in the vapor phase. The decomposition mechanism is complicated and not well known, but it can be affected by many parameters including catalyst, reaction temperature and humidity. Explosives that have relatively high vapor pressure and readily sublime at room temperature, like TATP and 2, 6-DNT, are ideal candidate for vapor phase detection using the thermodynamic gas sensor. ZnO, W2O 3, V2O5 and SnO2 were employed as catalysts. This sensor exhibited promising sensitivity results for TATP, but poor selectivity among peroxide based compounds. In order to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the thermodynamic sensor, a Pd:SnO2 nanocomposite was fabricated and tested as part of this dissertation. A

  4. Creativity as a distinct trainable mental state: An EEG study of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Joel A; Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Joanisse, Marc F

    2017-05-01

    Alpha-band EEG was used to index how creative mental states relate to the creation of artistic works in skilled musicians. We contrasted differences in frontal upper alpha-band activity between tasks with high and low creativity demands by recording EEGs while skilled musicians listened to, played back, and improvised jazz melodies. Neural responses were compared for skilled musicians with training in musical improvisation versus those who had no formal improvisation training. Consistent with our hypotheses, individuals showed increased frontal upper alpha-band activity during more creative tasks (i.e., improvisation) compared to during less creative tasks (i.e., rote playback). Moreover, this effect was greatest for musicians with formal improvisation training. The strength of this effect also appeared to modulate the quality of these improvisations, as evidenced by significant correlations between upper alpha EEG power and objective post-hoc ratings of individuals' performances. These findings support a conceptualization of creativity as a distinct mental state and suggest spontaneous processing capacity is better nurtured through formal institutional training than informal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The acquisition of socio-motor improvisation in the mirror game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Socio-motor improvisation is defined as the creative action of two or more people without a script or anticipated preparation. It is evaluated through two main parameters: movement synchronization and movement richness. Experts in art (e.g., dance, theater or music) are known to exhibit higher synchronization and to perform richer movements during interpersonal improvisation, but how these competences evolve over time is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether performing more synchronized and richer movements over time can promote the acquisition of improvisation. Pairs of novice participants were instructed to play an improvisation mirror game in three different sessions. Between sessions, they performed an unintended interpersonal coordination task in which synchronization and richness were manipulated, resulting in four different groups of dyads. Our results demonstrate that synchronization during improvisation improved for all groups whereas movement richness only enhanced for dyads that performed synchronized movements during unintended coordination tasks. Our findings suggest that movement synchrony contributes more than movement richness to the acquisition of socio-motor improvisation in the mirror game. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The mirror game as a paradigm for studying the dynamics of two people improvising motion together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Dekel, Erez; Alon, Uri

    2011-12-27

    Joint improvisation is the creative action of two or more people without a script or designated leader. Examples include improvisational theater and music, and day-to-day activities such as conversations. In joint improvisation, novel action is created, emerging from the interaction between people. Although central to creative processes and social interaction, joint improvisation remains largely unexplored due to the lack of experimental paradigms. Here we introduce a paradigm based on a theater practice called the mirror game. We measured the hand motions of two people mirroring each other at high temporal and spatial resolution. We focused on expert actors and musicians skilled in joint improvisation. We found that players can jointly create novel complex motion without a designated leader, synchronized to less than 40 ms. In contrast, we found that designating one player as leader deteriorated performance: The follower showed 2-3 Hz oscillation around the leader's smooth trajectory, decreasing synchrony and reducing the range of velocities reached. A mathematical model suggests a mechanism for these observations based on mutual agreement on future motion in mirrored reactive-predictive controllers. This is a step toward understanding the human ability to create novelty by improvising together.

  7. Laser-based standoff detection of surface-bound explosive chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, David L.; Smith, Gregory P.; Oser, Harald

    2010-04-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential damage from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as suicide, roadside, or vehicle bombs requires that the explosive device be detected and neutralized outside its effective blast radius. Only a few seconds may be available to both identify the device as hazardous and implement a response. As discussed in a study by the National Research Council, current technology is still far from capable of meeting these objectives. Conventional nitrocarbon explosive chemicals have very low vapor pressures, and any vapors are easily dispersed in air. Many pointdetection approaches rely on collecting trace solid residues from dust particles or surfaces. Practical approaches for standoff detection are yet to be developed. For the past 5 years, SRI International has been working toward development of a novel scheme for standoff detection of explosive chemicals that uses infrared (IR) laser evaporation of surfacebound explosive followed by ultraviolet (UV) laser photofragmentation of the explosive chemical vapor, and then UV laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of nitric oxide. This method offers the potential of long standoff range (up to 100 m or more), high sensitivity (vaporized solid), simplicity (no spectrometer or library of reference spectra), and selectivity (only nitrocompounds).

  8. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  9. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Steam explosion studies review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  11. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  12. Chemical explosive stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRocca, S.J.; McLamore, R.T.; Spencer, A.M. Jr.

    1974-02-01

    A safe, reliable chemical explosive fracturing process has been demonstrated and prototype equipment for its use has been successfully field tested.Called the Astro-Flow II process, it utilizes a highly energetic, hydrazine-based family of liquid explosives known as Astrolite. A unique property of these explosives is that they can be divided into 2 nonexplosive pumpable components that can be handled safely. The 2 components are pumped independently and simultaneously into the well and blended together downhole to form the explosive which is circulated in place or displaced into formation fractures. Explosive hazards to surface equipment and personnel are eliminated. Extensive testing of the physical and chemical stability of the mixed explosive indicates that the material can be reliable and safely used at elevated temperatures, pressures, and in the adverse chemical environment often found in deep oil and gas wells. These tests of prototype equipment proved that the 2 components could be independently pumped with precision and blended together to form the desired explosive formulation. How the process works is described.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY OF EXPLOSIVES

    OpenAIRE

    KOYUNCU, Hülya

    2017-01-01

    Explosives are used on a large scale byboth the military and by various civilian industries (e.g. mining, high-energymetalwork, and civil engineering). Explosives utilization contributes to the high environmentalcontamination. TNT(2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are found mainly in soils and surface waters; there havealso been cases of groundwater contamination. Most explosives are stable du...

  14. Improvised Hand Injury Treatment Using Traditional Veterinary Medicine in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; November, Eva J J; Rayyan, Maissa

    2017-09-13

    In remote wilderness environments, local people with traditional knowledge of medicinal plants are potentially important first-line health care providers. We present a case of a 31-year-old man who fell off a horse while trekking through a remote mountain landscape in Ethiopia and sustained blunt force trauma to the hand. A local mountain hut keeper examined the patient's hand and used heated leaves of the succulent plant Kalanchoe petitiana to treat a suspected metacarpal fracture. As first responder in a low-resource setting, the hut keeper relied on his traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine to improvise a treatment for a human injury in a remote mountain environment. Although in this case the outcome of the traditional intervention was positive, our analysis shows that the massage component of the intervention could have led to complications. Conversely, reports from the use of related Kalanchoe species suggest that heated Kalanchoe leaves could be useful in the compression component of traditional care for hand injuries. Validation of traditional remedies and their therapeutic potential are needed if they are to complement wilderness wound care safely and reliably. The documentation and validation of these remedies are urgently needed, as many medicinal plants and indigenous knowledge of how to use these valuable natural resources are being lost. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improviser dans l’espace numérique: des enjeux pour les acteurs de la scène éducative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catherine Caws

    2015-01-01

    ... d’analyser les productions de quelques participants en les contrastant à certaines des caractéristiques de l’improvisation en éducation.  Bien que l’improvisation soit une technique principalement...

  16. The stability of TNT, RDX and PETN in simulated post-explosion soils: Implications of sample preparation for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H A; DeTata, D A; Lewis, S W; Nic Daeid, N

    2017-03-01

    Explosives residues in soils may be a useful source of evidence following the detonation of an improvised explosive device (IED), such as a vehicle-borne IED. Soil samples collected from the vicinity of an explosion scene will often be stored for some time prior to analysis, yet explosives residues in soil samples are susceptible to rapid degradation or transformation. Although some research has assessed the use of different storage temperatures with a view to reducing explosives' degradation over time, further research examining the degradation of explosives in soil when stored under a variety of storage conditions is crucial to determine the optimal sample collection and storage procedures for soil containing explosives residues. In this work, three different soils were spiked with solutions of TNT, RDX and PETN and stored either at room temperature, refrigerated or frozen. Samples were extracted over 6 weeks, with additional samples gamma-irradiated or nitrogen purged prior to storage. Experimental results indicate that TNT underwent very rapid degradation at room temperature, attributed to microbial action, whereas PETN and RDX proved to be more stable. Gamma irradiation and nitrogen purging proved of some benefit for mitigating TNT degradation, with lower storage temperatures ultimately proving the most effective method of mitigating degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aging of civil explosives (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hoen, C. 't; Krämer, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch MoD and police, TNO composed sets with different kinds of civil explosives to train their detection dogs. The manufacturer of these explosives guarantees several years of stability of these explosives. These sets of explosives are used under different conditions, like temperature and

  18. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  19. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  20. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Intermittent explosive disorder Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  1. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  2. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  4. Modeling nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  5. Explosion suppression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  6. Polymeric binder for explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical reaction for producing a polymer which can be mixed with explosives to produce a rigid material is discussed. Physical and chemical properties of polymers are described and chemical structure of the polymer is illustrated.

  7. The role of emotion in musical improvisation: an analysis of structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda J; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Rankin, Summer K; Limb, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor) and emotion (happy vs. sad) do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not utilize any universal rules to convey emotions, but would instead combine heterogeneous musical elements together in order to depict positive and negative emotions. Our findings demonstrate a lack of simple correspondence between emotions and musical features of spontaneous musical improvisation. While improvisations in response to positive emotional cues were more likely to be in major keys, have faster tempos, faster key press velocities and more staccato notes when compared to negative improvisations, there was a wide distribution for each emotion with components that directly violated these primary associations. The finding that musicians often combine disparate features together in order to convey emotion during improvisation suggests that structural diversity may be an essential feature of the ability of music to express a wide range of emotion.

  8. The role of emotion in musical improvisation: an analysis of structural features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda J McPherson

    Full Text Available One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor and emotion (happy vs. sad do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not utilize any universal rules to convey emotions, but would instead combine heterogeneous musical elements together in order to depict positive and negative emotions. Our findings demonstrate a lack of simple correspondence between emotions and musical features of spontaneous musical improvisation. While improvisations in response to positive emotional cues were more likely to be in major keys, have faster tempos, faster key press velocities and more staccato notes when compared to negative improvisations, there was a wide distribution for each emotion with components that directly violated these primary associations. The finding that musicians often combine disparate features together in order to convey emotion during improvisation suggests that structural diversity may be an essential feature of the ability of music to express a wide range of emotion.

  9. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGaast, Brian W.; McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) identified a requirement for inert simulants to act as improvised, or homemade, explosives (IEs) when training on, or evaluating, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems commonly used in the detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In response, Defence R and D Canada (DRDC) initiated a project to develop IE simulant formulations using commonly available inert materials. These simulants are intended to approximate the expected GPR response of common ammonium nitrate-based IEs, in particular ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) and ammonium nitrate/aluminum (ANAl). The complex permittivity over the range of electromagnetic frequencies relevant to standard GPR systems was measured for bulk quantities of these three IEs that had been fabricated at DRDC Suffield Research Centre. Following these measurements, published literature was examined to find benign materials with both a similar complex permittivity, as well as other physical properties deemed desirable - such as low-toxicity, thermal stability, and commercial availability - in order to select candidates for subsequent simulant formulation. Suitable simulant formulations were identified for ANFO, with resulting complex permittivities measured to be within acceptable limits of target values. These IE formulations will now undergo end-user trials with CAF operators in order to confirm their utility. Investigations into ANAl simulants continues. This progress report outlines the development program, simulant design, and current validation results.

  10. Using the Native American Flute in a Beginning Instrumental Classroom: The Native American Flute Can Be a Great Tool for Helping Students Learn to Improvise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Michael; Winslow, Hayley

    2006-01-01

    Although the National Standards include achievement standards for improvisation for elementary school students, music teachers sometimes are reluctant to pursue improvisation study with young students. First- and second-year instrumental students, often older elementary or middle school students, may have difficulty studying improvisation because…

  11. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  12. Towards a Typology of Improvisation as a Professional Teaching Skill: Implications for Pre-Service Teacher Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Helga; Espeland, Magne; Arnesen, Trond Egil

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss the concept of improvisation as a professional teaching skill. Our professional context is teacher education and our discussion is aimed at developing a categorized understanding, or rather a tentative typology, of what professional improvisation in teaching and teacher education might be. Undertaking such a bold…

  13. Differential parietal and temporal contributions to music perception in improvising and score-dependent musicians, an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2015-01-01

    Using fMRI, cerebral activations were studied in 24 classically-trained keyboard performers and 12 musically unskilled control subjects. Two groups of musicians were recruited: improvising (n=12) and score-dependent (non-improvising) musicians (n=12). While listening to both familiar and unfamiliar

  14. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2010-04-15

    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Beginning from the End: Strategies of Composition in Lyrical Improvisation with End Rhyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venla Sykäri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the basic principles of constructing improvised verses with end rhyme in three contemporary cultures: _mandinadhes_, Mallorcan _gloses_, and Finnish freestyle rap. This study is based on ethnographic interviews, in which improvisers analyze their methods of composition. This knowledge is complemented by a textual analysis of examples of performances in the given traditions. Sykäri shows that competent improvisers master complex cognitive methods when they create their lines that end with the poetic device of end rhyme, and in particular when they structure the discourse so that the strong arguments are situated at the end of the structural unit of composition. This “reversed” method witnesses a tendency to use parallel phonic patterns in a way that is largely the opposite of those employed with semantic (or canonical parallelism.

  16. Improvised Suction Apparatus for Closure of Large Soft Tissue Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Estillore

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC is an established method that can be used in order to cover for soft tissue defects. This study focuses on the use of a modified suction machine in the form of an aquarium pump as an economical substitute for the VAC dressing. The improvised suction apparatus was a regular aquarium pump, which was altered in order to draw air in instead of expelling it. The patients were followed-up for a period of three weeks in the wards. METHODS: VAC was applied over the soft tissue defects. Sterilized foam was used and attached to a French 16 suction tube. A tight seal was ensured using a sterile adhesive covering. The tube was then attached to the modified vacuum machine, which maintained the negative pressure. CASE STUDIES: Three cases are presented in this study. The first and second cases involved pediatric patients who sustained degloving injuries of the foot. The third case involved a 23 year-old male who sustained an open patellar fracture due to a motorcycle accident. The dressing was changed every five days and the progress was documented using photographs. The patients were placed on VAC dressing for a period of two weeks. On the 14th day, good granulation was evident on the soft tissue defects hence; the patients were scheduled and subsequently underwent splitthickness skin grafting. DISCUSSION: The modified suction pump is an effective and economical alternative to the VAC machine for the purpose of providing constant negative pressure to promote tissue granulation and healing for large tissue defects. However, in order to establish the efficacy of the proposed intervention, the modified suction pump should be tested on more cases.

  17. Impaired Maintenance of Interpersonal Synchronization in Musical Improvisations of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, Katrien; Collins, Tom; De Backer, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious and complex mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 5.9%, characterized by pervasive difficulties with emotion regulation, impulse control, and instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image. Impairments in interpersonal functioning have always been a prominent characteristic of BPD, indicating a need for research to identify the specific interpersonal processes that are problematic for diagnosed individuals. Previous research has concentrated on self-report questionnaires, unidirectional tests, and experimental paradigms wherein the exchange of social signals between individuals was not the focus. We propose joint musical improvisation as an alternative method to investigate interpersonal processes. Using a novel, carefully planned, ABA' accompaniment paradigm, and taking into account the possible influences of mood, psychotropic medication, general attachment, and musical sophistication, we recorded piano improvisations of 16 BPD patients and 12 matched healthy controls. We hypothesized that the insecure attachment system associated with BPD would be activated in the joint improvisation and manifest in measures of timing behavior. Results indicated that a logistic regression model, built on differences in timing deviations, predicted diagnosis with 82% success. More specifically, over the course of the improvisation B section (freer improvisation), controls' timing deviations decreased (temporal synchrony became more precise) whereas that of the patients with BPD did not, confirming our hypothesis. These findings are in accordance with previous research, where BPD is characterized by difficulties in attachment relationships such as maintaining strong attachment with others, but it is novel to find empirical evidence of such issues in joint musical improvisation. We suggest further longitudinal research within the field of music therapy, to study how recovery of these timing habits are related to

  18. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling') by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction.

  19. Impaired Maintenance of Interpersonal Synchronization in Musical Improvisations of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Foubert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a serious and complex mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 5.9%, characterized by pervasive difficulties with emotion regulation, impulse control, and instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image. Impairments in interpersonal functioning have always been a prominent characteristic of BPD, indicating a need for research to identify the specific interpersonal processes that are problematic for diagnosed individuals. Previous research has concentrated on self-report questionnaires, unidirectional tests, and experimental paradigms wherein the exchange of social signals between individuals was not the focus. We propose joint musical improvisation as an alternative method to investigate interpersonal processes. Using a novel, carefully planned, ABA′ accompaniment paradigm, and taking into account the possible influences of mood, psychotropic medication, general attachment, and musical sophistication, we recorded piano improvisations of 16 BPD patients and 12 matched healthy controls. We hypothesized that the insecure attachment system associated with BPD would be activated in the joint improvisation and manifest in measures of timing behavior. Results indicated that a logistic regression model, built on differences in timing deviations, predicted diagnosis with 82% success. More specifically, over the course of the improvisation B section (freer improvisation, controls' timing deviations decreased (temporal synchrony became more precise whereas that of the patients with BPD did not, confirming our hypothesis. These findings are in accordance with previous research, where BPD is characterized by difficulties in attachment relationships such as maintaining strong attachment with others, but it is novel to find empirical evidence of such issues in joint musical improvisation. We suggest further longitudinal research within the field of music therapy, to study how recovery of these timing

  20. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Moran

    Full Text Available In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling' by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed. The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'. Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60 with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction.

  1. MUSIC TEACHERS’ EDUCATIONAL IMPROVISATION AS AN IMPORTANT INDICATOR OF THEIR PROFESSIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Smyrenskyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with music teachers’ creative activity in comprehensive school, where they solve a number of both typical and creative tasks encountered while working with students. The teacher should design the result in accordance with the lesson plan, analyze the situation and find ways to achieve the goal, critically evaluate the data and pose a new task. In the real process of musical and aesthetic education and upbringing teacher’s work has a predetermined character, and even small unintended deviations from the lesson plan that are very difficult for them. The multifactor, rapidly changing circumstances of the development of the musical and educational process and the teachers’ creative abilities often lead to various, sometimes unpredictable situations of educational and musical communication and unexpected appearing of a new, more constructive option that arises directly in the lesson. In such circumstances the music teacher must be ready for the prompt resolution of contradictions, which appear suddenly, with the help of intuition based on the acquired experience of creative activity. This solution of contradictions is considered to be pedagogical improvisation. The music teacher’s pedagogical improvisation is the most important indicator of his/her professionalism. The main purpose of the article is to define the essence of the concept “a music teacher’s pedagogical improvisation”. The author reveals the criteria for the effectiveness of pedagogical improvisation, determines its functions and types. Specificity of a music teacher’s pedagogical improvisation is a free association of various types of musical performance and lecture activities. The pedagogical condition for using pedagogical improvisation by a teacher is a set of improvisational skills, which ensure the efficiency of searching for an operative adoption of a pedagogical decision that is adequate to the unexpected situation of educational and musical

  2. Explosion containment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  3. Surface explosion cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Clanet, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video on cavities created by explosions of firecrackers at the water free surface. We use three types of firecrackers containing 1, 1.3 and 5 g of flash powder. The firecrackers are held with their center at the surface of water in a cubic meter pool. The movies are recorded from the side with a high-speed video camera. Without confinement the explosion produces an hemispherical cavity. Right after the explosion this cavity grows isotropically, the bottom then stops while the sides continue to expand. In the next phase the bottom of the cavity accelerates backwards to the surface. During this phase the convergence of the flow creates a central jet that rises above the free surface. In the last part of the video the explosion is confined in a vertical open tube made of glass and of centimetric diameter. The explosion creates a cylindrical cavity that develops towards the free end of the tube. Depending on the charge, the cavity can either stop inside the tube or at its exit, but nev...

  4. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G... fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN ; methylamine nitrate...

  5. A Heuristic Algorithm for Optimized Routing of Unmanned Aerial Systems for the Interdiction of Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    such as intensification, diversification , and strategic oscillation (Harder et al., 2004). Harder et al.’s results are comparable to results achieved...were obtained by running both solutions using solvers on a Dell Precision PWS690 Intel® Xeon™ CPU 3.37GHz processor, with 3.00 GB of RAM. In some...there are multiple optimal solutions, but given the problem description, efficient routing procedures are desired and minor reward diversification

  6. The Hungarian Counter Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED) Strategy: Considering the Use of Military Working Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    dog needs. For every fifty pounds of the animal’s weight, the dog needs a half pound of meat per day. The meat could be horse , beef or chicken, but...soon as possible. The bite victim should receive a tetanus immunization if there is any doubt that the victim’s tetanus shots are up to date. As noted

  7. The Touch "Taboo" and the Art of Contact: An Exploration of Contact Improvisation for Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the experience of participating in Contact Improvisation by male prisoners. It specifically focuses on issues of touch for this participant group and how inmates can learn different ways of acting from acquiring Contact skills, contributing to their rehabilitation. The paper looks at the culture in prisons that propagates a…

  8. Idea Bank: I Can't Do That! Improvisation for Classically Trained Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills lists among its top priorities for students the development of "learning and innovation skills," of which the first are "creativity and innovation." The third National Standard from the National Association for Music Education is "Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments." These guiding…

  9. Improv(ing) the Academy: Applied Improvisation as a Strategy for Educational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Jonathan P.; Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista

    2016-01-01

    Improvisational theater training (or "improv") is a strategy employed by many business leaders and educators to cultivate creativity and collaboration amid change. Drawing on improv principles such as "Yes, And…" and "Make your scene partners look good," we explore the ways in which educational developers might apply…

  10. Feasibility of a Trial on Improvisational Music Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Bieleninik, Łucja

    2016-01-01

    and strategies to facilitate study implementation is available in the music therapy literature. Objective: Using data from a subsample of a multi-center RCT on improvisational music therapy (IMT) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study aims to evaluate feasibility of study procedures, evaluate safety...

  11. Emotional, Motivational and Interpersonal Responsiveness of Children with Autism in Improvisational Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint engagement episodes. The randomized controlled study (n = 10)…

  12. A Preliminary Analysis of Teaching Improvisation with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckel, Julie M.; Neef, Nancy A.; Ferreri, Summer J.

    2006-01-01

    Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of…

  13. The Instant Composers Pool: Music Notation and the Mediation of Improvising Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, F.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413334295

    2016-01-01

    This article relates the recent development of a “relational musicology” to debates about participatory art and relational aesthetics. I present results from an ethnographic study of the Dutch improvising music collective the Instant Composers Pool, founded in 1967 and still performing. With a

  14. Oratorium - auditorium - laboratorium: early modern improvisations on cabala, music, and alchemy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forshaw, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the improvisations in the practices of cabala, music and alchemy. It examines the connection between magic, alchemy and cabala and their implications for theosophy according to Paracelsian doctor Heinrich Khunrath. It also analyzes the musical composition and harmony of

  15. Verbal Auditory Cueing of Improvisational Dance: A Proposed Method for Training Agency in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Soriano, Christina T

    2016-01-01

    Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease (PPD). Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson's have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance) and partnered (tango). In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time-to-music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation demands open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues, potentially fostering the formation of spontaneous movement strategies. Here, we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living.

  16. Using Improvisational Exercises in General Education to Advance Creativity, Inventiveness and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbert, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Creativity is the process of generating something new or original that has value to an individual, a group, an organization, an industry or a society. Improvisational theater techniques are used to enhance creative thinking and action in a variety of disciplines as broad as education, theater, dance, painting, writing and music, law, business, and…

  17. Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Wopereis, I. G. J. H., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences: Vol. 2 (pp. 419-420).

  18. Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Limb

    Full Text Available To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone. This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.

  19. The “Elbow-Way” to Proper Handwashing: A Device Improvised for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This often leads to contamination of the water from contact with the hands when this is used for routine handwashing. By improvising a plastic intravenous infusion bottle as soap dispenser, a longitudinal water tank with tap to deliver water, a hose-pipe connected to a plastic bowl on a table and a box containing clean towels ...

  20. Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, Charles J; Braun, Allen R

    2008-02-27

    To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences) was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar) cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance) as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone). This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.

  1. "The 'Principal' Character": The Triad Approach and Improvisation in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Tov, Naphtaly

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on a teaching case, Rona, a student in the educational dance-theatre programme that adopted improvisational teaching to deal with her lack of self-confidence. This lack had denied her feeling free and teaching without inhibitions in the classroom. Rona found a way to release her lack of self-confidence by spontaneously acting…

  2. Using Improvisational Workshop to Explore Gender Issues in "The Untold Lie"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumhagen, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Patricia Zumhagen, a high school English teacher, highlights the gender inequalities present in older literature by attempting to develop a film update of Sherwood Anderson's story. The students have learned to see how stereotypes operated in literature and in their lives by various discussions and improvisations.

  3. Behavioral Quantification of Audiomotor Transformations in Improvising and Score-Dependent Musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; van Kranenburg, Peter; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    The historically developed practice of learning to play a music instrument from notes instead of by imitation or improvisation makes it possible to contrast two types of skilled musicians characterized not only by dissimilar performance practices, but also disparate methods of audiomotor learning.

  4. Learning from the Experts: A Study of Free-Improvisation Pedagogues in University Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Maud

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in alternative forms of pedagogy for students in K-12 settings. Free improvisation, a relatively new and unfamiliar genre, offers potential as an ensemble for teachers to provide in order to offer more egalitarian and creative music experiences for their students. The purpose of this multiple case study was to determine…

  5. Common ground: 1970s improvised music as part of a cross-genre Dutch ensemble culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the way in which jazz and Western art music in the Netherlands during the 1970s were intertwined, both social and musically, and how alliances between their avant-gardes (Improvising Musicians and Contemporary Musicians) contributed to what came to be known as Dutch ensemble

  6. WORLD-WIDE PERSPECTIVES ON IMPROVISATIONAL MUSIC THERAPY FROM THE TIME-A PROJECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Geretsegger, Monika

    Background Improvisational music therapy methods have been viewed as a valuable way of working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) since the pioneering efforts of Alvin and Nordoff and Robbins (Alvin, 1978; Nordoff & Robbins, 1977). The TIME-A project is a unique international...

  7. A Case Study of Diverse Multimodal Influences on Music Improvisation Using Visual Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    This case study employed multimodal methods and visual analysis to explore how a young multilingual student used music improvisation to form a speech rap. This student, recently arrived in Australia from Ethiopia, created piano music that was central to his music identity and that simultaneously, through dialogue with his mother, enhanced his…

  8. “Immunology of music”? A short introduction to cognitive science of musical improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Wachowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on music in the area of cognitive sciences – quite varied despite their short history – meet with scepticism. The author of this introduction, presenting some spectacular examples of research on musical improvisation, tries to demonstrate that they enrich rather than reduce our understanding of this phenomenon.

  9. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Pras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When musicians improvise freely together—not following any sort of script, predetermined harmonic structure, or “referent”—to what extent do they understand what they are doing in the same way as each other? And to what extent is their understanding privileged relative to outside listeners with similar levels of performing experience in free improvisation? In this exploratory case study, a saxophonist and a pianist of international renown who knew each other's work but who had never performed together before were recorded while improvising freely for 40 min. Immediately afterwards the performers were interviewed separately about the just-completed improvisation, first from memory and then while listening to two 5 min excerpts of the recording in order to prompt specific and detailed commentary. Two commenting listeners from the same performance community (a saxophonist and drummer listened to, and were interviewed about, these excerpts. Some months later, all four participants rated the extent to which they endorsed 302 statements that had been extracted from the four interviews and anonymized. The findings demonstrate that these free jazz improvisers characterized the improvisation quite differently, selecting different moments to comment about and with little overlap in the content of their characterizations. The performers were not more likely to endorse statements by their performing partner than by a commenting listener from the same performance community, and their patterns of agreement with each other (endorsing or dissenting with statements across multiple ratings—their interrater reliability as measured with Cohen's kappa—was only moderate, and not consistently higher than their agreement with the commenting listeners. These performers were more likely to endorse statements about performers' thoughts and actions than statements about the music itself, and more likely to endorse evaluatively positive than negative statements

  10. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pras, Amandine; Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2017-01-01

    When musicians improvise freely together-not following any sort of script, predetermined harmonic structure, or "referent"-to what extent do they understand what they are doing in the same way as each other? And to what extent is their understanding privileged relative to outside listeners with similar levels of performing experience in free improvisation? In this exploratory case study, a saxophonist and a pianist of international renown who knew each other's work but who had never performed together before were recorded while improvising freely for 40 min. Immediately afterwards the performers were interviewed separately about the just-completed improvisation, first from memory and then while listening to two 5 min excerpts of the recording in order to prompt specific and detailed commentary. Two commenting listeners from the same performance community (a saxophonist and drummer) listened to, and were interviewed about, these excerpts. Some months later, all four participants rated the extent to which they endorsed 302 statements that had been extracted from the four interviews and anonymized. The findings demonstrate that these free jazz improvisers characterized the improvisation quite differently, selecting different moments to comment about and with little overlap in the content of their characterizations. The performers were not more likely to endorse statements by their performing partner than by a commenting listener from the same performance community, and their patterns of agreement with each other (endorsing or dissenting with statements) across multiple ratings-their interrater reliability as measured with Cohen's kappa-was only moderate, and not consistently higher than their agreement with the commenting listeners. These performers were more likely to endorse statements about performers' thoughts and actions than statements about the music itself, and more likely to endorse evaluatively positive than negative statements. But these kinds of statements

  11. XIT Commercial Explosives Identification Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Explosives Identification Tool (XIT) was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development...Explosives Training Unit, and Toronto Police Service, Explosives Disposal Unit. CSSP is a federally-funded program to strengthen Canada’s ability to

  12. Behavioral Quantification of Audiomotor Transformations in Improvising and Score-Dependent Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert; van Kranenburg, Peter; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    The historically developed practice of learning to play a music instrument from notes instead of by imitation or improvisation makes it possible to contrast two types of skilled musicians characterized not only by dissimilar performance practices, but also disparate methods of audiomotor learning. In a recent fMRI study comparing these two groups of musicians while they either imagined playing along with a recording or covertly assessed the quality of the performance, we observed activation of a right-hemisphere network of posterior superior parietal and dorsal premotor cortices in improvising musicians, indicating more efficient audiomotor transformation. In the present study, we investigated the detailed performance characteristics underlying the ability of both groups of musicians to replicate music on the basis of aural perception alone. Twenty-two classically-trained improvising and score-dependent musicians listened to short, unfamiliar two-part excerpts presented with headphones. They played along or replicated the excerpts by ear on a digital piano, either with or without aural feedback. In addition, they were asked to harmonize or transpose some of the excerpts either to a different key or to the relative minor. MIDI recordings of their performances were compared with recordings of the aural model. Concordance was expressed in an audiomotor alignment score computed with the help of music information retrieval algorithms. Significantly higher alignment scores were found when contrasting groups, voices, and tasks. The present study demonstrates the superior ability of improvising musicians to replicate both the pitch and rhythm of aurally perceived music at the keyboard, not only in the original key, but also in other tonalities. Taken together with the enhanced activation of the right dorsal frontoparietal network found in our previous fMRI study, these results underscore the conclusion that the practice of improvising music can be associated with enhanced

  13. Does improvised waterbed reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude-Kennedy C Emejulu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pressure ulcers are lesions caused by unrelieved pressure over bony prominences, resulting in damage to underlying tissues. The etiology is multifactorial including prolonged immobility. They usually complicate spinal cord injuries with long periods of bed confinement. The use of bed replacements markedly reduces the incidence of pressure ulcers, but the unaffordability of these replacements in low-income countries has necessitated the need to explore cheaper alternatives. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the use of our cheap and locally improvised waterbeds would reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients on prolonged bed confinement due to spinal injury. Methodology: Over a 16-month period, 51 patients (age range 1-80 years with spinal injuries were managed conservatively in our service using improvised waterbeds in 21 (41.2%, while using the regular hospital bed/foam in 30 (58.8%. Biodata, the time interval between injury and presentation to the hospital, nature of the injury, use of improvised waterbed and development of pressure ulcer, were collected, collated, and analyzed. Statistical significance was calculated with the Chi-square test. Results: Most were males (98%, in the age range of 21-30 years (25.5%, and due to fall from heights (35.3%. Of 21 patients who were managed on improvised waterbeds, 6 (28.6% had pressure ulcers, and of the 30 who did not use the waterbed, 17 (56.7% developed ulcers. The c2 = 3.9381, while P = 0.0472. This difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The improvised waterbed, which is much cheaper than the standard waterbed, was observed to have significantly reduced the incidence of pressure ulcers among our patients. Nonetheless, further studies would still be needed to confirm this observation.

  14. Behavioral Quantification of Audiomotor Transformations in Improvising and Score-Dependent Musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harris

    Full Text Available The historically developed practice of learning to play a music instrument from notes instead of by imitation or improvisation makes it possible to contrast two types of skilled musicians characterized not only by dissimilar performance practices, but also disparate methods of audiomotor learning. In a recent fMRI study comparing these two groups of musicians while they either imagined playing along with a recording or covertly assessed the quality of the performance, we observed activation of a right-hemisphere network of posterior superior parietal and dorsal premotor cortices in improvising musicians, indicating more efficient audiomotor transformation. In the present study, we investigated the detailed performance characteristics underlying the ability of both groups of musicians to replicate music on the basis of aural perception alone. Twenty-two classically-trained improvising and score-dependent musicians listened to short, unfamiliar two-part excerpts presented with headphones. They played along or replicated the excerpts by ear on a digital piano, either with or without aural feedback. In addition, they were asked to harmonize or transpose some of the excerpts either to a different key or to the relative minor. MIDI recordings of their performances were compared with recordings of the aural model. Concordance was expressed in an audiomotor alignment score computed with the help of music information retrieval algorithms. Significantly higher alignment scores were found when contrasting groups, voices, and tasks. The present study demonstrates the superior ability of improvising musicians to replicate both the pitch and rhythm of aurally perceived music at the keyboard, not only in the original key, but also in other tonalities. Taken together with the enhanced activation of the right dorsal frontoparietal network found in our previous fMRI study, these results underscore the conclusion that the practice of improvising music can be

  15. A study on Improvisation in a Musical performance using Multifractal Detrended Cross Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shankha; Banerjee, Archi; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak

    2016-11-01

    MFDFA (the most rigorous technique to assess multifractality) was performed on four Hindustani music samples played on same 'raga' sung by the same performer. Each music sample was divided into six parts and 'multifractal spectral width' was determined for each part corresponding to the four samples. The results obtained reveal that different parts of all the four sound signals possess spectral width of widely varying values. This gives a cue of the so called 'musical improvisation' in all music samples, keeping in mind they belong to the bandish part of the same raga. Formal compositions in Hindustani raga are juxtaposed with the improvised portions, where an artist manoeuvers his/her own creativity to bring out a mood that is specific for that particular performance, which is known as 'improvisation'. Further, this observation hints at the association of different emotions even in the same bandish of the same raga performed by the same artist, this interesting observation cannot be revealed unless rigorous non-linear technique explores the nature of musical structure. In the second part, we applied MFDXA technique to explore more in-depth about 'improvisation' and association with emotion. This technique is applied to find the degree of cross-correlation (γx) between the different parts of the samples. Pronounced correlation has been observed in the middle parts of the all the four samples evident from higher values of γx ​whereas the other parts show weak correlation. This gets further support from the values of spectral width from different parts of the sample - width of those parts is significantly different from other parts. This observation is extremely new both in respect of musical structure of so called improvisation and associated emotion. The importance of this study in application area of cognitive music therapy is immense.

  16. Development of ammonium nitrate based explosives to optimize explosive properties and explosive welding parameters used during explosion cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Christoph

    The ability to accurately measure and predict the velocity of explosively driven flyer plates has been a subject of significant work by the explosives community for some time. The majority of this work has focused on the use of high-energy, ideal explosives that are of interest for defense applications. Several attempts have been made to modify the experimental methods developed for these ideal explosives for use in testing low-energy, non-ideal explosive compounds (including industrially useful mixtures of ammonium nitrate, fuels, and additives) with varying degrees of success. The detonation properties of non-ideal explosives are difficult to measure precisely due to the effect of physical, environmental, and geometric factors on the detonation of these materials. The work presented in this document attempts to mitigate the variability inherent in measurements of non-ideal, ammonium nitrate-based explosives by performing testing using charge geometry similar to that used in the industrial process of explosion welding. A method to measure flyer plate velocity with optical high-speed imaging using commercially available equipment is described. Flyer plate velocity data from both experimental measurements and numerical modeling is presented. A new formula for predicting explosive energy based on the detonation velocity of an ammonium nitrate based explosive in a planar geometry is proposed and applied to a theoretical explosive cladding scenario.

  17. Biodegradation of nitro-explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Pradnya; Dautpure, Premlata; Sarnaik, Seema

    2003-09-01

    Environmental contamination by nitro compounds is associated principally with the explosives industry. However, global production and use of explosives is unavoidable. The presently widely used nitro-explosives are TNT (Trinitrotoluene), RDX (Royal Demolition Explosive) and HMX (High Melting Explosive). Nevertheless, the problems of these nitro-explosives are almost parallel due to their similarities of production processes, abundance of nitro-explosives and resembling chemical structures. The nitro-explosives per se as well as their environmental transformation products are toxic, showing symptoms as methaemoglobinaemia, kidney trouble, jaundice etc. Hence their removal/degradation from soil/water is essential. Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of TNT and RDX have been reported, while for HMX anaerobic or anoxic degradation have been described in many studies. A multisystem involvement using plants in remediation is gaining importance. Thus the information about degradation of nitro-explosives is available in jigsaw pieces which needs to be arranged and lacunae filled to get concrete degradative schemes so that environmental pollution from nitro-explosives can be dealt with more successfully at a macroscale. An overview of the reports on nitro-explosives degradation, future outlook and studies done by us are presented in this review.

  18. The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: A randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication...... skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further.......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy...

  19. Services Textbook of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    and shock effects is obtained by the use of ’primary’ (also known as ’initiatory’) explosives, among the most important of which are mercury fulminate ...Brown had discovered that compressed dry guncotton could be detonated by a mercury fulminate detonator, and a little later they found that compressed wet...of his powder (a mixture of mercury fulminate and potassium chlorate) enclosed in thin copper caps. This idea did not at once meet with the approval

  20. Explosives signatures and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

    2008-04-01

    The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

  1. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  2. Field-improvised war surgery in Kosovo: use of kitchen utensils as surgical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Besim; Singh, Karan P; Muzina, Rubina; Lu, Yan; Flaherty, Devin

    2008-06-01

    After years of conflict between Serbia and neighboring Kosovo, a full-blown war started in March 1999 when the Serbian and Yugoslav armies began a statewide military crackdown against ethnic Albanians and the Kosovo Liberation Army. Most ethnic Albanians were displaced to Macedonia or Albania. Some, however, found refuge in the Molopolce mountain region of Kosovo among military personnel, thus necessitating the creation of a field medical facility. Patient treatment at the field-improvised Nerodime Military Hospital, and the management of work took place under very difficult conditions including a chronic lack of appropriate medical equipment. Improvised lifesaving surgeries were performed with kitchen utensils serving as retractors at the field hospital. This article compares the treatment of patients between the two hospitals, and is the first article to date describing the war experience in general at the field hospitals in Kosovo.

  3. Common characteristics of improvisational approaches in music therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Carpente, John A.

    2015-01-01

    common characteristics of improvisational music therapy (IMT) with children affected by ASD as applied across various countries and theoretical backgrounds. Methods: After initial development of treatment principle items, a survey among music therapy professionals in 10 countries and focus group...... corroborated most of the initial principles for IMT in the context of children with ASD. Unique and essential principles include facilitating musical and emotional attunement, musically scaffolding the flow of interaction, and tapping into the shared history of musical interaction between child and therapist......Background: Improvisational methods of music therapy have been increasingly applied in the treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades in many countries worldwide. Objective: This study aimed at developing treatment guidelines based on the most important...

  4. Moments of resonance in musical improvisation with persons with severe dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coomans, Anke

    that benefit from a non-verbal approach. The findings of the study provide insights in the role of musical improvisation for the occurrence of moments of resonance in music therapy with persons with severe dementia. The reader is led through the characteristics of musical improvisation and the specifics...... of therapeutic listening attitudes from the perspectives of a person-centred approach towards dementia. The study illustrates how music therapy can offer a privileged opportunity to meet persons with dementia not as a ‘de-menting’ person, but on a musical and affective level where the neurocognitive...... deterioration is less in the foreground. This book may encourage music therapists to take an introspective look at their therapeutic listening attitude and to consider listening play as important for facilitating moments of resonance in music therapy with persons with severe dementia. The terminology presented...

  5. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    into unstructured and structured parts. There were four different types of dependent measurements; the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory (PDDBI), the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), the Mother Play Intervention Profile (MPIP) and DVD analyses of selected session data. 10 children, all...... joint attention behaviours in children than free play. The most clinically relevant and important findings were that children displayed markedly more and longer events of ‘eye contact’ ‘joy’ ‘emotional synchronicity’ and ‘initiation of engagement’ spontaneously in improvisational music therapy than free...... play, and also in unstructured part than structured part. The findings highlighted the ‘motivational aspects’ of musical interaction between the child and the therapist, and supported the long-lived claims of improvisational music therapy, promoting self-expression’, emotional communication and social...

  6. The experience of the other in the Contact Improvisation: a phenomenological path from having to being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Motterle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at approaching a particular choreutic phenomenon of the Seventies, the contact improvisation, beginning from the revaluation of the body by the hand of some thinkers of the XX century and, in particular, by the philosophical analysis of Merleau-Ponty. With the study of this form of dance through the paradigm of enbodiement, we can observe how it becomes a place to live the encounter with the other through the experience of being a body.

  7. Which Improvised Tourniquet Windlasses Work Well and Which Ones Won't?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, John F; Wallum, Timothy E; Aden, James K; Dubick, Michael A; Baer, David G

    2015-09-01

    Improvised tourniquets in first aid are recommended when no scientifically designed tourniquet is available. Windlasses for mechanical advantage can be a stick or pencil and can be used singly or multiply in tightening a tourniquet band, but currently there is an absence of empiric knowledge of how well such windlasses work. The purpose of the present study was to determine the performance of improvised tourniquets in their use by the type and number of windlasses to improve tourniquet practice. A simulated Leg Tourniquet Trainer was used as a manikin thigh to test the effectiveness of improvised tourniquets of a band-and-windlass design. Two users made 20 tests each with 3 types of windlasses. Tests started with 1 representative of a given type (eg, 1 pencil), then continued with increasing numbers of each windlass type until the user reached 100% effectiveness as determined by cessation of simulated blood flow. Windlass types included chopsticks, pencils, and craft sticks. Effectiveness percentages in stopping bleeding were associated inversely with breakage percentages. Pulse stoppage percentages were associated inversely with breakage. The windlass turn numbers, time to stop bleeding, the number of windlasses, and the under-tourniquet pressure were associated inversely with breakage. The windlass type was associated with breakage; at 2 windlasses, only chopsticks were without breakage. Of those windlass types that broke, 20.7% were chopsticks, 26.1% were pencils, and 53.2% were craft sticks. A pair of chopsticks as an improvised tourniquet windlass worked better than pencils or craft sticks. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Collaborative resonant writing and musical improvisation to explore the concept of resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2018-01-01

    and acoustic sounding that offers a clear logic, (2) a metaphorical conceptualization used to describe and understand complex psychological processes of human relationships. The process of collaborative writing led to the discovery or development of a nine-step procedure including different collaborative......, resonant writing procedures and musical improvisation as well as a series of metaphors to explain therapeutic interaction, resonant learning and ways of resonant exploration....

  9. Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    weight (6 kg), and its power require- ments (24 W) allow for the high portability of the system. Laser vibrometer measurement, 2 meters from target...2515 P ar tic le v el oc ity (× 1 0 μ m /s ) −1 −2 2 0 1 −1 −2 2 0 1 −1 −2 2 0 1 The laser vibrometer and processing algorithms clearly...technique is depicted for a moving system. Note that the laser vibrometer measures the vibrations caused by the explosive vaporization process. At the same

  10. Core Themes in Music Therapy Clinical Improvisation: An Arts-Informed Qualitative Research Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Anthony; Wimpenny, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Although clinical improvisation continues to be an important focus of music therapy research and practice, less attention has been given to integrating qualitative research in this area. As a result, this knowledge base tends to be contained within specific areas of practice rather than integrated across practices and approaches. This qualitative research synthesis profiles, integrates, and re-presents qualitative research focused on the ways music therapists and clients engage in, and make meaning from, clinical improvisation. Further, as a conduit for broadening dialogues, opening up this landscape fully, and sharing our response to the analysis and interpretation process, we present an arts-informed re-presentation of this synthesis. Following an eight-step methodological sequence, 13 qualitative studies were synthesized. This included reciprocal and refutational processes associated with synthesizing the primary studies, and additional steps associated with an arts-informed representation. Three themes, professional artistry, performing self, and meaning-making, are presented. Each theme is explored and exemplified through the selected articles, and discussed within a larger theoretical framework. An artistic re-presentation of the data is also presented. Music therapists use complex frameworks through which to engage clients in, and make meaning from, improvisational experiences. Artistic representation of the findings offers an added dimension to the synthesis process, challenging our understanding of representation, and thereby advancing synthesis methodology.

  11. Experimental improvisation practise and notation 1945-1999. An annotated bibliography (2002f). Pdf edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    Please see also addenda: Experimental improvisation practise and notation. Addenda 2002-: Pdf edition. (Deutsches Resumée - siehe bitte unten) (Resumé en Francais, voire ci-dessous svp.) This is an attempt to make a broad and comprehensive mapping of existing material, the vast majority being in ...... in printed form, concerning experimental improvisation practise. Bibliographical research has taken place over time, and the methods employed and steps taken are accounted for in each category. It deals with both editions and quotings of open compositions and with writings related...... to these - and with writings related to free improvisation. The bibliography comprises more than 670 entries most of which are annotated, a number of these annotations being summaries of their content. Before the "appendix section" containing the bibliographical information, there is a "text section" providing general...... published but quoted elsewhere - both in extenso and in part and one of unpublished material exemplifying some nevertheless essential and partly influential works by Danish composers. - These lists are at the basis for a discussion of publisher's policies in these matters and the role of unpublished...

  12. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose eEngel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the aesthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%, which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners’ hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners’ judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer’s actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual’s action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  13. Laser machining of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  14. Laser based in-situ and standoff detection of chemical warfare agents and explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-09-01

    environment, especially from improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and of civilian personnel from terrorist attacks in metropolitan areas.

  15. Differential parietal and temporal contributions to music perception in improvising and score-dependent musicians, an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M

    2015-10-22

    Using fMRI, cerebral activations were studied in 24 classically-trained keyboard performers and 12 musically unskilled control subjects. Two groups of musicians were recruited: improvising (n=12) and score-dependent (non-improvising) musicians (n=12). While listening to both familiar and unfamiliar music, subjects either (covertly) appraised the presented music performance or imagined they were playing the music themselves. We hypothesized that improvising musicians would exhibit enhanced efficiency of audiomotor transformation reflected by stronger ventral premotor activation. Statistical Parametric Mapping revealed that, while virtually 'playing along׳ with the music, improvising musicians exhibited activation of a right-hemisphere distribution of cerebral areas including posterior-superior parietal and dorsal premotor cortex. Involvement of these right-hemisphere dorsal stream areas suggests that improvising musicians recruited an amodal spatial processing system subserving pitch-to-space transformations to facilitate their virtual motor performance. Score-dependent musicians recruited a primarily left-hemisphere pattern of motor areas together with the posterior part of the right superior temporal sulcus, suggesting a relationship between aural discrimination and symbolic representation. Activations in bilateral auditory cortex were significantly larger for improvising musicians than for score-dependent musicians, suggesting enhanced top-down effects on aural perception. Our results suggest that learning to play a music instrument primarily from notation predisposes musicians toward aural identification and discrimination, while learning by improvisation involves audio-spatial-motor transformations, not only during performance, but also perception. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Explosives detection for aviation security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, A

    1992-03-20

    The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

  17. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  18. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael

    2007-03-01

    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  19. Microbial bioreporters of trace explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Benjamin; Koshet, Ori; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon

    2017-06-01

    Since its introduction as an explosive in the late 19th century, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), along with other explosive compounds, has left numerous environmental marks. One of these is widespread soil and water pollution by trace explosives in military proving grounds, manufacturing facilities, or actual battlefields. Another dramatic impact is that exerted by the millions of landmines and other explosive devices buried in large parts of the world, causing extensive loss of life, injuries, and economical damage. In this review we highlight recent advances in the design and construction of microbial bioreporters, molecularly engineered to generate a quantifiable dose-dependent signal in the presence of trace amounts of explosives. Such sensor strains may be employed for monitoring environmental pollution as well as for the remote detection of buried landmines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Anna Rita; Anelli, Filomena; Benghi, Diber; Friberg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this article children's musical improvisation is investigated through the "reflexive interaction" paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a "reflexive" output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6-7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the children's abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the children's ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational skills, and necessary

  1. Caribbean AIDS explosion examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-13

    Homophobia, sex tourism, infidelity, and poverty are major factors causing a rapid explosion of AIDS and increasingly infecting women in the Caribbean. The region has the second largest incidence of AIDS in the world after Africa. The number of people with the HIV virus is likely greater than 500,000 and could be as high as 700,000, about twice the previously reported figures. Societal norms encourage homosexuals to have heterosexual relationships, and married men to have extramarital affairs, while poverty forces men and women to prostitution, often with tourists. In addition, a survey of 8100 school children in 4 English-speaking Caribbean islands revealed that 42% of the children had experienced sex before the age of 10 years; 62% had experienced it by age 12. This finding may reflect a high rate of child molestation in the region.

  2. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  3. Mixing in explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  4. Connecting to create: expertise in musical improvisation is associated with increased functional connectivity between premotor and prefrontal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ana Luísa; de Manzano, Örjan; Fransson, Peter; Eriksson, Helene; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-04-30

    Musicians have been used extensively to study neural correlates of long-term practice, but no studies have investigated the specific effects of training musical creativity. Here, we used human functional MRI to measure brain activity during improvisation in a sample of 39 professional pianists with varying backgrounds in classical and jazz piano playing. We found total hours of improvisation experience to be negatively associated with activity in frontoparietal executive cortical areas. In contrast, improvisation training was positively associated with functional connectivity of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, dorsal premotor cortices, and presupplementary areas. The effects were significant when controlling for hours of classical piano practice and age. These results indicate that even neural mechanisms involved in creative behaviors, which require a flexible online generation of novel and meaningful output, can be automated by training. Second, improvisational musical training can influence functional brain properties at a network level. We show that the greater functional connectivity seen in experienced improvisers may reflect a more efficient exchange of information within associative networks of importance for musical creativity.

  5. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  6. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  7. Linking strategic improvisation and entrepreneurial self-efficacy to corporate entrepreneurship in Nigerian higher education institutions (HEIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafi Auwalu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of leaders toward the development of entrepreneurship has been fully acknowledged. However, Leaders’ characteristics such as strategic improvisation and entrepreneurial self-efficacy were mainly examined in the private sector. Hence, it is imperative to extend empirical studies to public sector organizations. The present study, therefore, proposed and validated a model linking leaders’ strategic improvisation and entrepreneurial self-efficacy to corporate entrepreneurship in Nigerian higher education institutions (HEIs. Using a structured questionnaire, 220 responses were generated from large HEIs in Kano State, Nigeria. The data of the study was analysed using SmartPLS 3.0 to ascertain both measurement and structural model validity of the model. The results showed that both leaders’ strategic improvisation and entrepreneurial self-efficacy were significantly related to corporate entrepreneurship in HEIs. Implication and limitation of the study; and suggestions for future study are also provided.

  8. Video Conferencing for Opening Classroom Doors in Initial Teacher Education: Sociocultural Processes of Mimicking and Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Wiesemes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an alternative framework for conceptualising video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education and in Higher Education (HE more generally. This alternative framework takes into account the existing models in the field, but – based on a set of interviews conducted with teacher trainees and wider analysis of the related literature – we suggest that there is a need to add to existing models the notions of ‘mimicking’ (copying practice and improvisation (unplanned and spontaneous personal learning moments. These two notions are considered to be vital, as they remain valid throughout teachers’ careers and constitute key affordances of video-conferencing uses in HE. In particular, we argue that improvisational processes can be considered as key for developing professional practice and lifelong learning and that video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education can contribute to an understanding of training and learning processes. Current conceptualisations of video conferencing as suggested by Coyle (2004 and Marsh et al. (2009 remain valid, but also are limited in their scope with respect to focusing predominantly on pragmatic and instrumental teacher-training issues. Our article suggests that the theoretical conceptualisations of video conferencing should be expanded to include elements of mimicking and ultimately improvisation. This allows us to consider not just etic aspects of practice, but equally emic practices and related personal professional development. We locate these arguments more widely in a sociocultural-theory framework, as it enables us to describe interactions in dialectical rather than dichotomous terms (Lantolf & Poehner, 2008.

  9. Being in the zone: physiological markers of togetherness in joint improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior eNoy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Performers improvising together describe special moments of ‘being in the zone’ – periods of high performance, synchrony and enhanced sense of togetherness. Existing evidence suggests ¬a possible route for attaining togetherness - interpersonal synchrony, the fine-grained sensory-motor coordination that promotes social connectedness. Here we investigated the physiological characteristics of togetherness using a practice from theater and dance, the mirror game.Pairs of expert improvisers jointly improvised synchronized linear motion, while their motion tracks and cardiovascular activity were continuously monitored. Players also provided dynamic ratings of togetherness while watching video recordings of their games. We identified periods of togetherness using kinematic and subjective markers and assessed their physiological characteristics. The kinematic and the subjective measures of togetherness showed some agreement, with more extensive game-periods being marked by the subjective than the kinematic one.Game rounds with high rates of togetherness were characterized by increased players’ cardiovascular activity, increased correlation of players’ heart rates, and increased motion intensity. By comparing motion segments with similar motion intensity, we showed that moments of togetherness in the mirror game were marked by increased players’ heart rates, regardless of motion intensity. This pattern was robust for the subjectively defined periods of togetherness, while showing a marginal effect for the kinematically defined togetherness. Building upon similar findings in flow research we suggest that the observed increase of players’ heart rates during togetherness periods in the mirror game might indicate the enhanced engagement and enjoyment reported by performers going into ‘the zone’. The suggested approach, combining temporal measurements of kinematic, physiological and subjective responses, demonstrates how the dynamics of

  10. Being in the zone: physiological markers of togetherness in joint improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Levit-Binun, Nava; Golland, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Performers improvising together describe special moments of 'being in the zone' - periods of high performance, synchrony, and enhanced sense of togetherness. Existing evidence suggests a possible route for attaining togetherness - interpersonal synchrony, the fine-grained sensory-motor coordination that promotes social connectedness. Here, we investigated the physiological characteristics of togetherness using a practice from theater and dance, the mirror game. Pairs of expert improvisers jointly improvised synchronized linear motion, while their motion tracks and cardiovascular activity were continuously monitored. Players also provided dynamic ratings of togetherness while watching video recordings of their games. We identified periods of togetherness using kinematic and subjective markers and assessed their physiological characteristics. The kinematic and the subjective measures of togetherness showed some agreement, with more extensive game periods being marked by the subjective than the kinematic one. Game rounds with high rates of togetherness were characterized by increased players' cardiovascular activity, increased correlation of players' heart rates (HRs), and increased motion intensity. By comparing motion segments with similar motion intensity, we showed that moments of togetherness in the mirror game were marked by increased players' HRs, regardless of motion intensity. This pattern was robust for the subjectively defined periods of togetherness, while showing a marginal effect for the kinematically defined togetherness. Building upon similar findings in flow research we suggest that the observed increase of players' HRs during togetherness periods in the mirror game might indicate the enhanced engagement and enjoyment reported by performers going into 'the zone.' The suggested approach, combining temporal measurements of kinematic, physiological and subjective responses, demonstrates how the dynamics of spontaneously emerging dyadic states can be

  11. Video Conferencing for Opening Classroom Doors in Initial Teacher Education: Sociocultural Processes of Mimicking and Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesemes, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an alternative framework for conceptualising video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education and in Higher Education (HE more generally. This alternative framework takes into account the existing models in the field, but – based on a set of interviews conducted with teacher trainees and wider analysis of the related literature – we suggest that there is a need to add to existing models the notions of ‘mimicking’ (copying practice and improvisation (unplanned and spontaneous personal learning moments. These two notions are considered to be vital, as they remain valid throughout teachers’ careers and constitute key affordances of video-conferencing uses in HE. In particular, we argue that improvisational processes can be considered as key for developing professional practice and lifelong learning and that video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education can contribute to an understanding of training and learning processes. Current conceptualisations of video conferencing as suggested by Coyle (2004 and Marsh et al. (2009 remain valid, but also are limited in their scope with respect to focusing predominantly on pragmatic and instrumental teacher-training issues. Our article suggests that the theoretical conceptualisations of video conferencing should be expanded to include elements of mimicking and ultimately improvisation. This allows us to consider not just etic aspects of practice, but equally emic practices and related personal professional development. We locate these arguments more widely in a sociocultural-theory framework, as it enables us to describe interactions in dialectical rather than dichotomous terms (Lantolf & Poehner, 2008.

  12. Testing of Confining Pressure Impacton Explosion Energy of Explosive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecki, Jan; Myszkowski, Jacek; Pytlik, Andrzej; Pytlik, Mateusz

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the results of testing the explosion effects of two explosive charges placed in an environment with specified values of confining pressure. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of variable environmental conditions on the suitability of particular explosives for their use in the prevention of natural hazards in hard coal mining. The research results will contribute to improving the efficiency of currently adopted technologies of natural hazard prevention and aid in raising the level of occupational safety. To carry out the subject matter measurements, a special test stand was constructed which allows the value of the initial pressure inside the chamber, which constitutes its integral part, to be altered before the detonation of the charge being tested. The obtained characteristics of the pressure changes during the explosion of the analysed charge helped to identify the work (energy) which was produced during the process. The test results are a valuable source of information, opening up new possibilities for the use of explosives, the development of innovative solutions for the construction of explosive charges and their initiation.

  13. Difficulties in the neuroscience of creativity: jazz improvisation and the scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda; Limb, Charles J

    2013-11-01

    Creativity is a fundamental and remarkable human capacity, yet the scientific study of creativity has been limited by the difficulty of reconciling the scientific method and creative processes. We outline several hurdles and considerations that should be addressed when studying the cognitive neuroscience of creativity and suggest that jazz improvisation may be one of the most useful experimental models for the study of spontaneous creativity. More broadly, we argue that studying creativity in a way that is both scientifically and ecologically valid requires collaboration between neuroscientists and artists. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A Ojo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. Aim: The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients′ survival. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. Results: A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9% male and 9 (32.1% females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9% survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6% of the patients died. Conclusions: External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a

  15. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, O A; Asha, M A; Bankole, O B; Kanu, O O

    2015-01-01

    The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD) sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients' survival. This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9%) male and 9 (32.1%) females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9%) survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6%) of the patients died. External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a standard feeding tube as described.

  16. Graphic Notation as a Tool in Describing and Analyzing Music Therapy Improvisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Presents graphic notation as the making of aural scores to memorise or analyse improvised music therapy processes, capturing also those aspectsthe usual music notation would not cover. An example in some detail is shown, the music taken from a well known Nordoff/Robbins recording. Training method......, involving graphic brainstorms,using coordinative systems and other frameworks, interpretative method including working on specifically musical counter-transference and special graphic exercises are outlined. Work by students at Aalborg University, Denmark, is quoted. General perspectives including relations...

  17. [Causation, prevention and treatment of dust explosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maolong; Jia, Wenbin; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Fei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Dahai

    2014-10-01

    With the development of industrial technology, dust explosion accidents have increased, causing serious losses of people's lives and property. With the development of economy, we should lay further emphasis on causation, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion. This article summarizes the background, mechanism, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion, which may provide some professional knowledge and reference for the treatment of dust explosion.

  18. Explosives mimic for testing, training, and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.

    2018-02-13

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make mimics for explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.

  19. Microglass spheres in ammonium nitrate explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Kazakov; G. Turesheva; Olga Golovchenko; N. Bergeneva; R. Seisembayev

    2010-01-01

    Developed consisting the explosive ammonium nitrate, paraffin and mikrosteklosfer. Due to the input of the explosive paraffin increased water resistance of explosives to 60 minutes. By entering into the explosive mikrosteklosfers been improved caking indices, since steklomikrosfers and paraffin was formed seal between the granules of ammonium nitrate.

  20. Microglass spheres in ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kazakov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed consisting the explosive ammonium nitrate, paraffin and mikrosteklosfer. Due to the input of the explosive paraffin increased water resistance of explosives to 60 minutes. By entering into the explosive mikrosteklosfers been improved caking indices, since steklomikrosfers and paraffin was formed seal between the granules of ammonium nitrate.

  1. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  2. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  3. Causes of the Cambrian Explosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Paul Smith; David A. T. Harper

    2013-01-01

    .... Recent hypotheses for the Cambrian explosion fall into three main categories: developmental/genetic, ecologic, and abiotic/environmental, with geochemical hypotheses forming an abundant and distinctive subset of the last...

  4. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Joshua David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  5. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnikov Sergei M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT, hexogen (RDX, trotyl-hexogen (Comp B, octogen (HMX, and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  6. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Scott K; Borrowdale, Roderick

    2014-04-01

    The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Mansfield

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring.

  8. exLOPA for explosion risks assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowski, Adam S

    2007-04-11

    The European Union regulations require safety and health protection of workers who are potentially at risk from explosive atmosphere areas. According to the requirements, the operators of installations where potentially explosive atmosphere can occur are obliged to produce an explosion protection document. The key objective of this document is the assessment of explosion risks. This paper is concerned with the so-called explosion layer of protection analysis (exLOPA), which allows for semi-quantitative explosion risk assessment for process plants where explosive atmospheres occur. The exLOPA is based on the original work of CCPS for LOPA but takes into account some typical factors appropriate for explosion, like the probability that an explosive atmosphere will occur, probability that sources of ignition will be present and become effective as well as the probability of failure on demand for appropriate explosion prevention and mitigation means.

  9. L’improvisation : une invitation à voyager en classe de FLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Noëlle Cocton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available L’improvisation en didactique du français langue étrangère est, après plus d’une cinquantaine d’années d’existence, une pratique de classe aujourd’hui délaissée par les enseignants qui en ont peur ou la connaissent mal. Préconisée par le BELC dès les années 70, choisie dans les manuels de FLE pour ses bienfaits pédagogiques (Caré : 1989, elle est, depuis peu, considérée par la majorité des ouvrages périphériques liés à la didactique de la pratique théâtrale, comme une « technique » visant à communiquer autrement. L’objectif de cet article est de faire un état des lieux de la notion d’improvisation et d’expliquer comment elle s’insère dans un dispositif pédagogique invitant l’apprenant à effectuer un voyage dans son apprentissage langagier, personnel et culturel.

  10. Affect Detection from Text-Based Virtual Improvisation and Emotional Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an intelligent agent to engage with users in virtual drama improvisation previously. The intelligent agent was able to perform sentence-level affect detection from user inputs with strong emotional indicators. However, we noticed that many inputs with weak or no affect indicators also contain emotional implication but were regarded as neutral expressions by the previous interpretation. In this paper, we employ latent semantic analysis to perform topic theme detection and identify target audiences for such inputs. We also discuss how such semantic interpretation of the dialog contexts is used to interpret affect more appropriately during virtual improvisation. Also, in order to build a reliable affect analyser, it is important to detect and combine weak affect indicators from other channels such as body language. Such emotional body language detection also provides a nonintrusive channel to detect users’ experience without interfering with the primary task. Thus, we also make initial exploration on affect detection from several universally accepted emotional gestures.

  11. Improvised Vacuum-Assisted Closure for severe neck infection in poorly equipped conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, S; Sama, H D; Chossegros, C; Bouassalo, M K; Akpoto, M Y; Kpemissi, E

    2017-06-01

    Dental infections are common and are mainly due to dental caries. When left untreated, these infections can lead to severe life-threatening sepsis. The authors reported a case of a severe odontogenic deep neck space infection in a 54-year-old male. The patient was a heavy smoker with incidentally discovered diabetes. He was successfully treated by surgical drainage combined with an improvised Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VAC) system. The results of surgical drainage followed by insertion of an improvised VAC system were spectacular. The abscess resolved in response to dual-agent antibiotic therapy on day 17 and blood glucose control was achieved with insulin. Full-thickness skin graft was performed to repair the necrotic zone of the neck. The use of VAC can be a valuable alternative to conventional dressings and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in poorly equipped conditions. Public awareness campaigns remain the most effective form of prevention against these odontogenic infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of an improvisational music therapy program for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoulaki, Maria; MacDonald, Raymond; Flowers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although there are an increasing number of qualitative studies investigating the benefits of music therapy interventions in cancer care settings, few studies have adopted a phenomenological approach to explore how and why such interventions work. The aim of this study was to explore the psychological processes involved in an improvisational music therapy program for cancer patients. Nine individuals took part in an improvisational music therapy program and participated in semi-structured interviews. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was employed as a theoretical and methodological framework for the analysis of the interviews. Recurrent themes revealed a variety of social and psychological benefits related to the experience of music therapy, such as facilitating peer support and group interaction, increasing self-confidence, relaxation, the generation of positive feelings, stress relief and feelings of enhanced communication through music. There was also an emphasis upon the importance of social interaction and communication. This paper highlights a number of key benefits connected with music therapy for patients with cancer and the effectiveness of IPA in applied health psychology research.

  13. Teaching Medical Students to Communicate with Empathy and Clarity Using Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan-Liss, Evonne; Lantz-Gefroh, Valeri; Bass, Elizabeth; Killebrew, Deirdre; Ponzio, Nicholas M; Savi, Christine; O'Connell, Christine

    2017-10-20

    Medical educators widely accept that health care providers need strong communication skills. The authors sought to develop a course incorporating improvisation to teach health professions students communication skills and build empathy. Teaching health care professionals to communicate more effectively with patients, the public, and each other is a goal of the Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science at Stony Brook University. The authors designed an interprofessional elective for medical, nursing, and dental students that differed in several respects from traditional communication training. The Communicating Science elective, which was offered by the Alda Center from 2012-2016, used verbal and nonverbal exercises, role-playing, and storytelling, including improvisation exercises, to teach students to communicate with empathy and clarity. In course evaluations completed by 76 students in 2012 and 2013, 100% said they would recommend the course to fellow students, saw the relevance of the course content to their careers, and desired more of the course content in their school's curriculum. As a result of this positive feedback, from 2014-2016, ten hours of instruction pairing empathy and communication training were embedded in the preclinical curriculum at the Stony Brook University School of Medicine. This course could be an effective model, and one other institutions could employ, for improving communication skills and empathy in the next generation of health care professionals. Next steps include advocating for communication skills training to be embedded throughout the curriculum of a four-year medical school program.

  14. Improvised Performances: Urban Ethnography and the Creative Tactics of Montreal’s Metro Buskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wees

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Buskers—street performers—evince the creative tactics of self-conscious agents who are both produced by and productive of the social and material conditions within which they carry out their practices. In this article, I discuss my ethnographic research among buskers in Montreal’s underground transit system—the metro—and examine their highly variable and improvisational practices (musical and spatial. I detail how buskers work with and against the constraints and possibilities posed by the material characteristics of those spaces (especially in terms of acoustics as well as formal regulations and prevailing social norms. This suggests understanding busking as a relational process of “cobbling together” that is never entirely fixed or bounded, but dispersed and always in-the-making. Further, I demonstrate how the research process in this context is itself a creative, improvisational approach, guided as much by the conditions at hand as by an overarching research design. By drawing parallels between the busker-performer and my role as researcher and creative producer, particularly in my use of audio-visual production, I argue that ethnographic research is, itself, a form of assemblaging, of bricolage—an embodied, relational process that involves multiple participants (human and material of varying influences, bound together by the tactical activities of the researcher.

  15. The Quiet Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very

  16. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using {sup 12}CO( J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  17. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude

    2009-06-01

    An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classification scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classification scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from five different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material.

  18. Verbal Auditory Cueing of Improvisational Dance: A Proposed Method for Training Agency in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Soriano, Christina T.

    2016-01-01

    Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease (PPD). Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson’s have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance) and partnered (tango). In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time-to-music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation demands open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues, potentially fostering the formation of spontaneous movement strategies. Here, we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living. PMID:26925029

  19. Verbal auditory cueing of improvisational dance: A proposed method for training agency in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenna eBatson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease (PPD. Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson’s have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance and partnered (tango. In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time to music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with PD. The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing (VAC with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility, but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation trains spontaneity of thought, fostering open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues. Here we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living.

  20. The Vocal Improviser-Educator: An Analysis of Selected American and Australian Educators' Influences and Pedagogical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2014-01-01

    Thirty vocal improviser-educators from Australia (n = 15) and the United States (n = 15) were surveyed for musical background, influences and pedagogical views, and assessed for personality type using the "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator" ("MBTI"). The purpose was to both combine and compare the two groups to identify overall…

  1. Teaching with Art21 and Contemporary Artists: Mark Bradford and the Use of Improvisation, Layering, and Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark; Hamlin, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Continuing the traditions of the avant-garde, contemporary artists often question notions of originality through the practice of appropriation and repurposing familiar or loaded symbols and signs (Barrett, 2011). This Instructional Resource focuses on three aspects of artistic practice: improvisation as a way of emphasizing a process-driven…

  2. Constancy and Variability: Dialogic Literacy Events as Sites for Improvisation in Two 3rd-Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…

  3. Stand-off explosive detection utilizing low power stimulated emission nuclear quadrupole resonance detection and subwavelength focusing wideband super lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolos, John; Mouyos, William; Feng, Judy; Chase, Walter

    2015-05-01

    The need for advanced techniques to detect improvised explosive devices (IED) at stand-off distances greater than ten (10) meters has driven AMI Research and Development (AMI) to develop a solution to detect and identify the threat utilizing a forward looking Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) combined with our CW radar technology Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) detection system. The novel features include a near-field sub-wavelength focusing antenna, a wide band 300 KHz to 300 MHz rapidly scanning CW radar facilitated by a high Q antenna/tuner, and an advanced processor utilizing Rabi transitions where the nucleus oscillates between states under the time dependent incident electromagnetic field and alternately absorbs energy from the incident field while emitting coherent energy via stimulated emission. AMI's Sub-wavelength Focusing Wide Band Super Lens uses a Near-Field SAR, making detection possible at distances greater than ten (10) meters. This super lens is capable of operating on the near-field and focusing electromagnetic waves to resolutions beyond the diffraction limit. When applied to the case of a vehicle approaching an explosive hazard the methodologies of synthetic aperture radar is fused with the array based super resolution and the NQR data processing detecting the explosive hazard.

  4. Thickened aqueous slurry explosive composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.F.M.; Matts, T.C.; Seto, P.F.L.

    1979-01-04

    A thickened slurry explosive composition consists of water, inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, and thickener wherein the thickener is a mixture of an unmodified guar gum and a hydroxypropyl-modified guar gum. The thickener mixture improves the stability and rheologic properties of the explosive. The preferred thickener mixture contains from 15 to 85% by weight of unmodified guar to 15 to 85% by weight of hydroxypropyl-modified guar and the composition preferably comprises 0.2% to 2.0% by weight of the thickener mixture. The thickener mixture is especially effective in explosive compositions sensitized with gas bubbles or with water-soluble organic nitrate for example, ethylene glycol mononitrate, propylene glycol mononitrate, ethanolamine nitrate, propanolamine nitrate, methylamine nitrate, ethylamine nitrate, ethylenediamine dinitrate, urea nitrate, or aniline nitrate. 14 claims.

  5. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  6. Civilian casualties of terror-related explosions: The impact of vascular trauma on treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi

    2016-09-01

    A high prevalence (10%) of vascular trauma (VT) was previously described in terror-related trauma as compared with non-terror-related trauma (1%), in a civilian setting. No data regarding outcome of VT casualties of improvised explosive device (IED) explosions, in civilian settings, are available. The aim of the current study is to present the prognosis of civilian casualties of IED explosions with and without VT. A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from September 2000 to December 2005 who were victims of explosions were included. These patients were subdivided into patients with VT (n = 109) and non-VT (NVT) (n = 1,152). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury, and treatment. Of 1,261 explosion casualties, there were 109 VT victims (8.6%). Patients with VT tended to be more complex, with a higher injury severity score (ISS): 17.4% with ISS 16 to 24 as compared with only 10.5%. In the group of critically injured patients (ISS, 25-75), 51.4% had VT compared with only 15.5% of the NVT patients. As such, a heavy share of hospitals' resources were used-trauma bay admission (62.4%), operating rooms (91.7%), and intensive care unit beds (55.1%). The percentage of VT patients who were admitted for more than 15 days was 2.3 times higher than that observed among the NVT patients. Lower-extremity VT injuries were the most prevalent. Although many resources are being invested in treating this group of patients, their mortality rate is approximately five times more than NVT (22.9% vs. 4.9%). Vascular trauma casualties of IED explosions are more complex and have poorer prognosis. Their higher ISS markedly increases the hospital's resource utilization, and as such, it should be taken into consideration either upon the primary evacuation from the scene or when secondary modulation is needed in order to reduce the burden of the hospitals receiving the casualties

  7. Experiments in gasdynamics of explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.; Soloukhin, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    Various topics concerning recent accomplishments in experimental studies of gasdynamics of explosions are reviewed. Detonations, shocks, and blast waves form these topics. The most important feature of current studies is the particular attention paid to transient processes and the concomitant progress made in the development of novel experimental means for the study of such processes. The most exciting prospects for the future are associated with possibilities of exploiting knowledge of explosion phenomena for the development of such interesting devices as the gasdynamic laser and the apparatus based on the use of lasers to achieve controlled thermonuclear reaction.

  8. Intravesical explosion during transurethral electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgios, Kallinikas; Evangelos, Boulinakis; Helai, Habib; Ioannis, Gerzelis

    2015-05-01

    Intravesical explosion is a very rare complication of transurethral resection of prostate and transurethral resection of bladder tumour operations. In vitro studies have shown that the gases produced during the procedure could result in a blast once they are mixed with air from the atmosphere. A 79-year-old male experienced an explosion in his bladder while undergoing a transurethral resection of bladder tumour. The case is presented as well as the way that it was treated as an emergency. Precautions of such events are finally suggested. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Pulmonary contusion and hemothorax due to explosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeza-Herrera, Carlos; Sanjuán-Fabián, Héctor; Medellín-Sierra, Ulises Darío; Nájera-Garduño, Heladio; García-Cabello, Luis Manuel

    2006-01-01

    .... Such is the case of gunpowder explosive objects used during celebration holidays. We present a 14-year-old male who suffered a pulmonary contusion as a consequence of an explosion of "huevo de codorniz...

  10. A Conversation on the Aesthetics of Improvisation and Some Other Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Forti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A personal and artistic recount, Simone Forti’s conversation with Rossella Mazzaglia deals with her training with Anna Halprin, with the motivations that brought her to New York in 1959, as well as with her first creations and collaborations with the happening, music and visual art scenes. It illustrates an idea of structured improvisation, which stayed with Forti over time and that was also used by other postmodern choreographers in the early Sixties.This interview represents a primary source concerning Simone Forti and the artistic environment in New York. Forti’s words on the kinesthetic affinities among works from different genres and arts are also a tool to further analysis from a “trans-disciplinary” standpoint.The interview is published in English. It is followed by a comment by Rossella Mazzaglia in Italian.

  11. The 'ripple effect': Towards researching improvisational music therapy in dementia care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; Tsiris, Giorgos; Wood, Stuart; Powell, Harriet; Graham, Janet; Sanderson, Richard; Millman, Rachel; Gibson, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision for persons with dementia prompted this study's exploration of music therapists' strategies for creating musical communities in dementia care settings, considering the needs and resources of people affected by dementia. Focus group discussions and detailed iterative study of improvisational music therapy work by six experienced practitioners clarify the contextual immediacy and socio-musical complexities of music therapy in dementia care homes. Music therapy's 'ripple effect', with resonances from micro (person-to-person musicking), to meso (musicking beyond 'session time') and macro level (within the care home and beyond), implies that all who are part of the dementia care ecology need opportunities for flourishing, shared participation, and for expanded self-identities; beyond 'staff', 'residents', or 'being in distress'. On such basis, managers and funders might consider an extended brief for music therapists' roles, to include generating and maintaining musical wellbeing throughout residential care settings. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Can improvised somatic dance reduce acute pain for young people in hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, Lisa

    2016-11-08

    Aim This study explores the effects of improvised somatic dance (ISD) on children and young people experiencing acute pain following orthopaedic or cardiac surgery, or post-acquired brain injury. Methods The study involved 25 children and young people and adopted a mixed methods approach. This included a descriptive qualitative approach to help the participants and witnesses verbalise their experience of ISD, and pain scores were assessed before and after ISD using validated pain assessment tools. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical analysis. Findings A total of 92% of participants experienced a reduction in pain, with 80% experiencing a >50% reduction. There was an improved sense of well-being for all. Conclusion Although not a replacement for pharmacological treatments, a multidimensional, child-centred and inclusive approach with ISD can be a useful complementary, non-pharmacological method of pain management in children and young people.

  13. Improvised purification methods for obtaining individual drinking water supply under war and extreme shortage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlicic, A; Hadzic, A; Bevanda, H

    1994-01-01

    Supplying an adequate amount of drinking water to a population is a complex problem that becomes an extremely difficult task in war conditions. In this paper, several simple methods for obtaining individual supplies of drinking water by filtration of atmospheric water with common household items are reported. Samples of atmospheric water (rain and snow) were collected, filtered, and analyzed for bacteriological and chemical content. The ability of commonly available household materials (newspaper, filter paper, gauze, cotton, and white cotton cloth) to filter water from the environmental sources was compared. According to chemical and biological analysis, the best results were obtained by filtering melted snow from the ground through white cotton cloth. Atmospheric water collected during war or in extreme shortage conditions can be purified with simple improvised filtering techniques and, if chlorinated, used as an emergency potable water source.

  14. Exploitation of Ubiquitous Wi-Fi Devices as Building Blocks for Improvised Motion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Soldovieri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a feasibility study on the detection of human movements in indoor scenarios based on radio signal strength variations. The sensing principle exploits the fact that the human body interacts with wireless signals, introducing variations of the radiowave fields due to shadowing and multipath phenomena. As a result, human motion can be inferred from fluctuations of radiowave power collected by a receiving terminal. In this paper, we investigate the potentialities of widely available wireless communication devices in order to develop an improvised motion detection system (IMDS. Experimental tests are performed in an indoor environment by using a smartphone as a Wi-Fi access point and a laptop with dedicated software as a receiver. Simple detection strategies tailored for real-time operation are implemented to process the received signal strength measurements. The achieved results confirm the potentialities of the simple system here proposed to reliably detect human motion in operational conditions.

  15. Kidnapping in Taiwan: the significance of geographic proximity, improvisation, and fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Lung; Wu, Bohsiu; Huang, Shih-Long

    2007-06-01

    Kidnapping had been rare in Taiwan until recently. Several high-profile cases in the late 1990s, victimizing both Taiwanese citizens and foreigners, startled the island state. This study is the first systematic examination of the social dynamics involved in kidnapping. Data came from court cases, questionnaires, and in-depth interviews from incarcerated inmates. Results showed that kidnappers' financial crises and friendships with ringleaders were two primary motives. Most kidnapping cases involved a small number of offenders who form an ad hoc kidnapping group. Victims were not randomly chosen and share a geographic tie with the offenders. The process of kidnapping is idiosyncratic in nature, as most kidnappers improvised their plans. The negotiation phase in kidnapping is done hastily, and the amount of ransom is often a compromised result of offenders' needs, victim's family's financial status, timing, and the offenders' perception of risks. Ways to prevent kidnapping are also discussed in this article.

  16. L’improvisation : une invitation à voyager en classe de FLE

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Noëlle Cocton

    2015-01-01

    L’improvisation en didactique du français langue étrangère est, après plus d’une cinquantaine d’années d’existence, une pratique de classe aujourd’hui délaissée par les enseignants qui en ont peur ou la connaissent mal. Préconisée par le BELC dès les années 70, choisie dans les manuels de FLE pour ses bienfaits pédagogiques (Caré : 1989), elle est, depuis peu, considérée par la majorité des ouvrages périphériques liés à la didactique de la pratique théâtrale, comme une « technique » visant à ...

  17. Initiative-taking, Improvisational Capability and Business Model Innovation in Emerging Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yangfeng

    . Many prior researches have shown that the foreign subsidiaries play important role in shaping the overall strategy of the parent company. However, little is known about how subsidiary specifically facilitates business model innovation (BMI) in emerging markets. Adopting the method of comparative......Business model innovation plays a very important role in developing competitive advantage when multinational small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from developed country enter into emerging markets because of the large contextual distances or gaps between the emerging and developed economies...... innovation in emerging markets. We find that high initiative-taking and strong improvisational capability can accelerate the business model innovation. Our research contributes to the literatures on international and strategic entrepreneurship....

  18. Neural substrates of interactive musical improvisation: an FMRI study of 'trading fours' in jazz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F Donnay

    Full Text Available Interactive generative musical performance provides a suitable model for communication because, like natural linguistic discourse, it involves an exchange of ideas that is unpredictable, collaborative, and emergent. Here we show that interactive improvisation between two musicians is characterized by activation of perisylvian language areas linked to processing of syntactic elements in music, including inferior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal gyrus, and deactivation of angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus, brain structures directly implicated in semantic processing of language. These findings support the hypothesis that musical discourse engages language areas of the brain specialized for processing of syntax but in a manner that is not contingent upon semantic processing. Therefore, we argue that neural regions for syntactic processing are not domain-specific for language but instead may be domain-general for communication.

  19. Working memory benefits creative insight, musical improvisation, and original ideation through maintained task-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Baas, Matthijs; Wolsink, Inge; Roskes, Marieke

    2012-05-01

    Anecdotes from creative eminences suggest that executive control plays an important role in creativity, but scientific evidence is sparse. Invoking the Dual Pathway to Creativity Model, the authors hypothesize that working memory capacity (WMC) relates to creative performance because it enables persistent, focused, and systematic combining of elements and possibilities (persistence). Study 1 indeed showed that under cognitive load, participants performed worse on a creative insight task. Study 2 revealed positive associations between time-on-task and creativity among individuals high but not low in WMC, even after controlling for general intelligence. Study 3 revealed that across trials, semiprofessional cellists performed increasingly more creative improvisations when they had high rather than low WMC. Study 4 showed that WMC predicts original ideation because it allows persistent (rather than flexible) processing. The authors conclude that WMC benefits creativity because it enables the individual to maintain attention focused on the task and prevents undesirable mind wandering.

  20. Experimental Investigations of Multiphase Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joel R.; Lightstone, James M.; McGrath, Thomas P.

    2009-12-01

    The addition of solid fuel particles to explosive formulations generally reduces the detonation velocity, but can enhance the blast performance if prompt combustion of the particles occurs in the detonation products and surrounding air early enough to support the shock. The degree to which fuel particles burn heavily depends on their dispersal throughout the explosion field and access to oxidizers. To distinguish the factors affecting the dispersal of fuel particles from those controlling their combustion, we began by analyzing the dispersal of equivalent mock inert particles. Solid glass spheres embedded in detonating small explosive charges were tracked using high-speed digital shadowgraphy. Two different particle sizes, 3 and 30 μm, and different mass fractions in the explosive compositions were considered. Shadowgraphs and pressure measurements were compared to the predictions of a newly developed multiphase numerical model. Reactive aluminum particles in the range of 1 to 120 μm in diameter were also analyzed. During the first 50 μs of the expansion, the general trend for both reactive and inert particles is for the smaller particles to expand near or beyond the leading shock wave to a greater extent than the larger particles. Expansion beyond the initial shock from the detonation is presumed to occur when particles agglomerate. The results are consistent with the predictions of the numerical models, highlighting the role of simple factors such as particle size and density in the early time expansion and mixing of fuels for enhanced blast applications.

  1. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2007-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and

  2. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  3. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  4. Eye-safe UV Raman spectroscopy for remote detection of explosives and their precursors in fingerprint concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Angelini, F.; Chirico, R.; Palucci, A.; Nuvoli, M.; Schnuerer, F.; Schweikert, W.; Romolo, F. S.

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of Raman investigation performed at stand-off distance between 6-10 m with a new apparatus, capable to detect traces of explosives with surface concentrations similar to those of a single fingerprint. The device was developed as part of the RADEX prototype (RAman Detection of EXplosives) and is capable of detecting the Raman signal with a single laser shot of few ns (10-9 s) in the UV range (wavelength 266 nm), in conditions of safety for the human eye. This is because the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for the human eye is established to be 3 mJ/cm2 in this wavelength region and pulse duration. Samples of explosives (PETN, TNT, Urea Nitrate, Ammonium Nitrate) were prepared starting from solutions deposited on samples of common fabrics or clothing materials such as blue jeans, leather, polyester or polyamide. The deposition process takes place via a piezoelectric-controlled plotter device, capable of producing drops of welldefined volume, down to nanoliters, on a surface of several cm2, in order to carefully control the amount of explosive released to the tissue and thus simulate a slight stain on a garment of a potential terrorist. Depending on the type of explosive sampled, the detected density ranges from 0.1 to 1 mg/cm2 and is comparable to the density measured in a spot on a dress or a bag due to the contact with hands contaminated with explosives, as it could happen in the preparation of an improvised explosive device (IED) by a terrorist. To our knowledge the developed device is at the highest detection limits nowadays achievable in the field of eyesafe, stand-off Raman instruments. The signals obtained show some vibrational bands of the Raman spectra of our samples with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), allowing us to identify with high sensitivity (high number of True Positives) and selectivity (low number of False Positives) the explosives, so that the instrument could represent the basis for an automated and remote monitoring

  5. The Core-Collapse Supernova Explosion Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    The explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae is a long-standing problem in stellar astrophysics. We briefly outline the main contenders for a solution and review recent efforts to model core-collapse supernova explosions by means of multi-dimensional simulations. Focusing on the neutrino-driven mechanism, we summarize currents efforts to predict supernova explosion and remnant properties.

  6. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.100 Section 7.100 Mineral... Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test... agree. (ii) Remove all parts that do not contribute to the operation or ensure the explosion-proof...

  7. Explosion Power and Pressure Desensitization Resisting Property of Emulsion Explosives Sensitized by MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yangfan; Ma, Honghao; Liu, Rong; Shen, Zhaowu

    2014-07-01

    Due to low detonation power and pressure desensitization problems that traditional emulsion explosives encounter in utilization, a hydrogen-based emulsion explosives was devised. This type of emulsion explosives is sensitized by hydrogen-containing material MgH2, and MgH2 plays a double role as a sensitizer and an energetic material in emulsion explosives. Underwater explosion experiments and shock wave desensitization experiments show that an MgH2 emulsion explosives has excellent detonation characteristics and is resistant to pressure desensitization. The pressure desensitization-resistant mechanism of MgH2 emulsion explosives was investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Implementation of structure-mapping inference by event-file binding and action planning: a model of tool-improvisation analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Structure-mapping inferences are generally regarded as dependent upon relational concepts that are understood and expressible in language by subjects capable of analogical reasoning. However, tool-improvisation inferences are executed by members of a variety of non-human primate and other species. Tool improvisation requires correctly inferring the motion and force-transfer affordances of an object; hence tool improvisation requires structure mapping driven by relational properties. Observational and experimental evidence can be interpreted to indicate that structure-mapping analogies in tool improvisation are implemented by multi-step manipulation of event files by binding and action-planning mechanisms that act in a language-independent manner. A functional model of language-independent event-file manipulations that implement structure mapping in the tool-improvisation domain is developed. This model provides a mechanism by which motion and force representations commonly employed in tool-improvisation structure mappings may be sufficiently reinforced to be available to inwardly directed attention and hence conceptualization. Predictions and potential experimental tests of this model are outlined.

  9. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  10. Emotional Intent Modulates The Neural Substrates Of Creativity: An fMRI Study of Emotionally Targeted Improvisation in Jazz Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda J; Barrett, Frederick S; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2016-01-04

    Emotion is a primary motivator for creative behaviors, yet the interaction between the neural systems involved in creativity and those involved in emotion has not been studied. In the current study, we addressed this gap by using fMRI to examine piano improvisation in response to emotional cues. We showed twelve professional jazz pianists photographs of an actress representing a positive, negative or ambiguous emotion. Using a non-ferromagnetic thirty-five key keyboard, the pianists improvised music that they felt represented the emotion expressed in the photographs. Here we show that activity in prefrontal and other brain networks involved in creativity is highly modulated by emotional context. Furthermore, emotional intent directly modulated functional connectivity of limbic and paralimbic areas such as the amygdala and insula. These findings suggest that emotion and creativity are tightly linked, and that the neural mechanisms underlying creativity may depend on emotional state.

  11. The Song of the Shepherd Does not Scare the Sheep: Memory and Nostalgia in the Improvised Verses of Basque Emigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pío Pérez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this presentation is to reflect on the nostalgia suffered by Basque shepherds who emigrated to America, by analysing their production of improvised verses. These improvised verses addressed their homesickness, desires, opinions and concerns in a declarative and emotional way. While other narrative genres tend to represent these feelings in a more rationalized way, these verses tend to be evocative and emotional, with a testimonial function that is perceived more directly. In that respect, they become complex and multifaceted texts that influence the representation of identity and the migratory project. Nowadays, the consensus is that literature and cinema are cultural products with an enormous social relevance, and that they elaborate and represent social and historical discourses. Similarly, the verses of emigrants to America constitute social and historical discourses that let us reflect on the construction of the social reality of Basque emigration.

  12. Rapid on-site detection of explosives on surfaces by ambient pressure laser desorption and direct inlet single photon ionization or chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, S; Hölzer, J; Rittgen, J; Pütz, M; Schulte-Ladbeck, R; Zimmermann, R

    2013-09-01

    Considering current security issues, powerful tools for detection of security-relevant substances such as traces of explosives and drugs/drug precursors related to clandestine laboratories are required. Especially in the field of detection of explosives and improvised explosive devices, several relevant compounds exhibit a very low vapor pressure. Ambient pressure laser desorption is proposed to make these substances available in the gas phase for the detection by adapted mass spectrometers or in the future with ion-mobility spectrometry as well. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal desorption approach, by which the sample surface is probed for explosive traces by a wipe pad being transferred to a thermal desorber unit, by the ambient pressure laser desorption approach presented here, the sample is directly shockwave ablated from the surface. The laser-dispersed molecules are sampled by a heated sniffing capillary located in the vicinity of the ablation spot into the mass analyzer. This approach has the advantage that the target molecules are dispersed more gently than in a thermal desorber unit where the analyte molecules may be decomposed by the thermal intake. In the technical realization, the sampling capillary as well as the laser desorption optics are integrated in the tip of an endoscopic probe or a handheld sampling module. Laboratory as well as field test scenarios were performed, partially in cooperation with the Federal Criminal Police Office (Bundeskriminalamt, BKA, Wiesbaden, Germany), in order to demonstrate the applicability for various explosives, drugs, and drug precursors. In this work, we concentrate on the detection of explosives. A wide range of samples and matrices have been investigated successfully.

  13. Studying stellar explosions with Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P.; Jonker, P.

    Athena is the second large mission selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision plan. With its large collecting area, high spectral-energy resolution (X-IFU instrument) and impressive grasp (WFI instrument), Athena will truly revolutionise X-ray astronomy. The most prodigious sources of high-energy photons are often transitory in nature. Athena will provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution coupled with rapid response to enable the study of the dynamic sky. Potential sources include: distant Gamma-Ray Bursts to probe the reionisation epoch and find missing baryons in the cosmic web; tidal disruption events to reveal dormant supermassive and intermediate-mass black holes; and supernova explosions to understand progenitors and their environments. We illustrate Athenas capabilities and show how it will be able to constrain the nature of explosive transients including gas metallicity and dynamics.

  14. Ranchero Explosive Pulsed Power Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, J.H.; Atchison, W.L.; Deninger, W.J.; Fowler, C.M.; Herrera, D.H.; King, J.C.; Lopez, E.A.; Oona, H.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Stokes, J.L.; Sena, F.C.; Tabaka, L.J.; Tasker, D.G.; Torres, D.T.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Oro, D.M.; Garcia, O.F.; parker, J.V.; Broste, W.B.

    1999-06-27

    The authors are developing the Ranchero high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. The near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas Capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of {approximately}50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. They have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long.

  15. RANCHERO explosive pulsed power experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Goforth, J H; Armijo, E V; Atchison, W L; Bartos, Yu; Clark, D A; Day, R D; Deninger, W J; Faehl, R J; Fowler, C M; García, F P; García, O F; Herrera, D H; Herrera, T J; Keinigs, R K; King, J C; Lindemuth, I R; López, E; Martínez, E C; Martínez, D; McGuire, J A; Morgan, D; Oona, H; Oro, D M; Parker, J V; Randolph, R B; Reinovsky, R E; Rodríguez, G; Stokes, J L; Sena, F C; Tabaka, L J; Tasker, D G; Taylor, A J; Torres, D T; Anderson, H D; Broste, W B; Johnson, J B; Kirbie, H C

    1999-01-01

    The authors are developing the RANCHERO high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. Their near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of ~50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. The authors have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper, they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long. (6 refs).

  16. Explosives Removal from Munitions Wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 19105 2 Background Generally, pollation in munitions plant waste water stems from washing and steam cleaning...290131 EXPLOSIVES REMOVAL FROM MUNITIONS WST- WATERS B. W. STEVENS, R. P. MCDONNELL ROHM. AND HAAS CO?*ANY, PHILAD2ELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA R. K. PXDREN...operations. Waste water from a typical TNT manufacturing J21 plant may contain from 40 to 120 ppm of TNT and lesser aimounts of 2,4, DNT. K. Waste

  17. Shell and explosive hydrogen burning

    CERN Document Server

    Boeltzig, A; Cavanna, F; Cristallo, S; Davinson, T; Depalo, R; deBoer, R J; Di Leva, A; Ferraro, F; Imbriani, G; Marigo, P; Terrasi, F; Wiescher, M

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of light elements, from helium up to silicon, mainly occurs in Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and Novae. The relative abundances of the synthesized nuclides critically depend on the rates of the nuclear processes involved, often through non-trivial reaction chains, combined with complex mixing mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the contributions made by LUNA experiments in furthering our understanding of nuclear reaction rates necessary for modeling nucleosynthesis in AGB stars and Novae explosions.

  18. The effectiveness and influence of Vocal and Instrumental Improvisation in Music Therapy on children diagnosed with autism. Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Knapik-Szweda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a developmental disorder which is difficult to recognize and diagnose. The present study examines the effectiveness of music therapy intervention based on improvisational techniques with the elements of Creative Music Therapy by Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins and improvisational techniques by Tony Wigram (such as imitating, frameworking, dialogues, holding on developmentl of children with Autism (two boys diagnosed with autism - case 1. and case 2, especially in verbal and nonverbal communication, disturbance behavior patterns, cognitive and social-emotional areas. The results indicate a positive outcome in two music therapy observing tools: Scale I Child – Therapist Relationship in Coactive Musical Experience Rating Form and Scale II Musical Communicativeness Rating Form. The tables indicate the intensity of interaction between the therapist and the subject during the music therapy process (including communication skills, cognitive skills and behavior patterns. The results of case 1 are indicated in Scale I and Scale II and show a significant effect of improvisational music therapy. The important findings from the analysis of behavior in the sessions were Stability and confidence in interpersonal musical relationship, Activity relationship developing, (scale 1.. The results of the case 2. show small changes in musical behavior when it comes to Stability and confidence in interpersonal musical relationship, but in Activity relationship developing the indicators show a lot of changes between sessions. The results of the research indicate that music therapy intervention has a positive outcome and may be an effective method to increase functioning of children with autism

  19. Common Characteristics of Improvisational Approaches in Music Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Developing Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Carpente, John A; Elefant, Cochavit; Kim, Jinah; Gold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Improvisational methods of music therapy have been increasingly applied in the treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades in many countries worldwide. This study aimed at developing treatment guidelines based on the most important common characteristics of improvisational music therapy (IMT) with children affected by ASD as applied across various countries and theoretical backgrounds. After initial development of treatment principle items, a survey among music therapy professionals in 10 countries and focus group workshops with experienced clinicians in three countries were conducted to evaluate the items and formulate revised treatment guidelines. To check usability, a treatment fidelity assessment tool was subsequently used to rate therapy excerpts. Survey findings and feedback from the focus groups corroborated most of the initial principles for IMT in the context of children with ASD. Unique and essential principles include facilitating musical and emotional attunement, musically scaffolding the flow of interaction, and tapping into the shared history of musical interaction between child and therapist. Raters successfully used the tool to evaluate treatment adherence and competence. Summarizing an international consensus about core principles of improvisational approaches in music therapy for children with ASD, these treatment guidelines may be applied in diverse theoretical models of music therapy. They can be used to assess treatment fidelity, and may be applied to facilitate future research, clinical practice, and training. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An Improvised "Blow Glove" Device Produces Similar PEP Values to a Commercial PEP Device: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Yaakov; Wiser, Itay; Weissman, Oren; Farber, Nimrod; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Winkler, Eyal; Kazula-Halabi, Tamar; Haik, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy promotes increased lung volume, secretion clearance, and improved oxygenation. Several commercial devices exist that produce recommended PEP values (10-20 cmH2O) when the patient breathes through a fixed orifice resistor. It was hypothesized that an inexpensive, improvised "blow glove" device would produce similar PEP values over a wider range of expiration volumes and flow rates. PEP for different expiration volumes (400-2000 mL) and expiratory flow rates (10-80 L/min) was compared between a commercial PEP device (Resistex, Mercury Medical, Clearwater, FL) and an improvised "blow glove" device, recorded by a Vela ventilator (CareFusion, San Diego, CA). Dynamics in positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) values were evaluated following five consecutive expirations. The "blow glove" device was evaluated using various glove compositions and sizes. The improvised "blow glove" device produced a significantly higher rate of PEP values in the recommended range than the Resistex device (88.9% vs. 20%, p0.05), but the powdered latex glove showed a significantly higher rate of PEP values in the recommended range than the powder-free latex glove (88.9% vs. 44.4%, pblow glove" PEP device using a powdered latex glove produces PEP values in the recommended range over a wider spectrum of expiratory flow rates and expiration volumes than a commercial PEP device.

  1. Anodal tDCS to Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Facilitates Performance for Novice Jazz Improvisers but Hinders Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David S; Erickson, Brian; Kim, Youngmoo E; Mirman, Daniel; Hamilton, Roy H; Kounios, John

    2016-01-01

    Research on creative cognition reveals a fundamental disagreement about the nature of creative thought, specifically, whether it is primarily based on automatic, associative (Type-1) or executive, controlled (Type-2) processes. We hypothesized that Type-1 and Type-2 processes make differential contributions to creative production that depend on domain expertise. We tested this hypothesis with jazz pianists whose expertise was indexed by the number of public performances given. Previous fMRI studies of musical improvisation have reported that domain expertise is characterized by deactivation of the right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r-DLPFC), a brain area associated with Type-2 executive processing. We used anodal, cathodal, and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over r-DLPFC with the reference electrode on the contralateral mastoid (1.5 mA for 15 min, except for sham) to modulate the quality of the pianists' performances while they improvised over chords with drum and bass accompaniment. Jazz experts rated each improvisation for creativity, esthetic appeal, and technical proficiency. There was no main effect of anodal or cathodal stimulation on ratings compared to sham; however, a significant interaction between anodal tDCS and expertise emerged such that stimulation benefitted musicians with less experience but hindered those with more experience. We interpret these results as evidence for a dual-process model of creativity in which novices and experts differentially engage Type-1 and Type-2 processes during creative production.

  2. Anodal tDCS to right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex facilitates performance for novice jazz improvisers but hinders experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Rosen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on creative cognition reveals a fundamental disagreement about the nature of creative thought, specifically, whether it is primarily based on automatic, associative (Type-1 or executive, controlled (Type-2 processes. We hypothesized that Type-1 and Type-2 processes make differential contributions to creative production that depend on domain expertise. We tested this hypothesis with jazz pianists whose expertise was indexed by the number of public performances given. Previous fMRI studies of musical improvisation have reported that domain expertise is characterized by deactivation of the right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r-DLPFC, a brain area associated with Type-2 executive processing. We used anodal, cathodal, and sham transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS applied over r-DLPFC with the reference electrode on the contralateral mastoid (1.5mA for 15 min., except for sham to modulate the quality of the pianists’ performances while they improvised over chords with drum and bass accompaniment. Jazz experts rated each improvisation for creativity, aesthetic appeal, and technical proficiency. There was no main effect of anodal or cathodal stimulation on ratings compared to sham; however, a significant interaction between anodal tDCS and expertise emerged such that stimulation benefitted musicians with less experience but hindered those with more experience. We interpret these results as evidence for a dual-process model of creativity in which novices and experts differentially engage Type-1 and Type-2 processes during creative production.

  3. Nuclear Explosions 1945-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Nils-Olov; Ferm, Ragnhild

    2000-07-01

    The main part of this report is a list of nuclear explosions conducted by the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan in 1945-98. The list includes all known nuclear test explosions and is compiled from a variety of sources including officially published information from the USA, Russia and France. The details given for each explosion (date, origin time, location, yield, type, etc.) are often compiled from more than one source because the individual sources do not give complete information. The report includes a short background to nuclear testing and provides brief information on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the verification regime now being established to verify compliance with the treaty. It also summarizes nuclear testing country by country. The list should be used with some caution because its compilation from a variety of sources means that some of the data could be incorrect. This report is the result of cooperation between the Defence Research Establishment (FOA) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

  4. Data base of chemical explosions in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, V.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Malahova, M.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Martysevich, P.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Mihaylova, N.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Nurmagambetov, A. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Kopnichev, Yu.F. D. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Edomin, V.I. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan)

    1996-12-01

    Within the bounds of this report, the following works were done: (1) Information about explosion quarries, located in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kasakstan was summarized. (2) The general information about seismicity of areas of location of explosion quarries was adduced. (3) The system of observation and seismic apparatus, recording the local earthquakes and quarry explosions at the territory of Kazakstan were described. (4) Data base of quarry explosions, that were carried out in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kazakstan during 1995 and first half of 1996 year was adduced. (5) Upon the data of registration of explosions in Southern Kazakstan the correlative dependences between power class of explosions and summary weight of charge were constructed. (6) Seismic records of quarry explosions were adduced. It is necessary to note, that the collection of data about quarry explosions in Kazakstan in present time is very difficult task. Organizations, that makes these explosions, are always suffering reorganizations and sometimes it is actually impossible to receive all the necessary information. Some quarries are situated in remote, almost inaccessible regions, and within the bounds of supplier financing not the every quarry was in success to visit. So the present data base upon the chemical explosions for 1995 is not full and in further it`s expansion is possible.

  5. Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy vs Enhanced Standard Care on Symptom Severity Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieleninik, Łucja; Geretsegger, Monika; Mössler, Karin; Assmus, Jörg; Thompson, Grace; Gattino, Gustavo; Elefant, Cochavit; Gottfried, Tali; Igliozzi, Roberta; Muratori, Filippo; Suvini, Ferdinando; Kim, Jinah; Crawford, Mike J.; Odell-Miller, Helen; Oldfield, Amelia; Casey, Órla; Finnemann, Johanna; Carpente, John; Park, A-La; Grossi, Enzo

    2017-01-01

    Importance Music therapy may facilitate skills in areas affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as social interaction and communication. Objective To evaluate effects of improvisational music therapy on generalized social communication skills of children with ASD. Design, Setting, and Participants Assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial, conducted in 9 countries and enrolling children aged 4 to 7 years with ASD. Children were recruited from November 2011 to November 2015, with follow-up between January 2012 and November 2016. Interventions Enhanced standard care (n = 182) vs enhanced standard care plus improvisational music therapy (n = 182), allocated in a 1:1 ratio. Enhanced standard care consisted of usual care as locally available plus parent counseling to discuss parents’ concerns and provide information about ASD. In improvisational music therapy, trained music therapists sang or played music with each child, attuned and adapted to the child’s focus of attention, to help children develop affect sharing and joint attention. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was symptom severity over 5 months, based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), social affect domain (range, 0-27; higher scores indicate greater severity; minimal clinically important difference, 1). Prespecified secondary outcomes included parent-rated social responsiveness. All outcomes were also assessed at 2 and 12 months. Results Among 364 participants randomized (mean age, 5.4 years; 83% boys), 314 (86%) completed the primary end point and 290 (80%) completed the last end point. Over 5 months, participants assigned to music therapy received a median of 19 music therapy, 3 parent counseling, and 36 other therapy sessions, compared with 3 parent counseling and 45 other therapy sessions for those assigned to enhanced standard care. From baseline to 5 months, mean ADOS social affect scores estimated by linear mixed-effects models decreased from 14

  6. 'Thinking on my feet': an improvisation course to enhance students' confidence and responsiveness in the medical interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shochet, Robert; King, Julie; Levine, Rachel; Clever, Sarah; Wright, Scott

    2013-02-01

    Effective patient-centred communication requires physicians to respond 'in the moment' to comments and questions. It is a valuable skill to be able to react to unexpected patient utterances with empathy and support, and these surprises may be most common in general practice where patients are encouraged to speak to their doctor about anything. We developed an elective for medical students to learn and practise improvisational skills that would optimise their communications with patients during medical encounters. Nineteen second-year medical students during two consecutive years (n =38) participated in a four-session elective that introduced and allowed them to practise the principles and skills of improvisation, and reflect on the role of those skills in their communication with patients. Specific skills that were practised and emphasised included listening, affirmation, vocal tone modulation, nonverbal communication, agreement, collaboration, acceptance and validation. In addition to previously developed 'Improv' exercises, students created their own improvisation exercises targeted at specific communication skills. Twenty-seven (71%) of all participating students completed the post-curriculum assessment survey. Twenty-two (81%) rated their enjoyment as 'tremendous'. The desire to experience something new and different from the standard medical curriculum served as the motivation for many of the students (67%) to sign up for the course. Most students (23/27; 85%) thought that the concepts that were addressed were either 'very much' or 'tremendously' relevant to the care of patients. We have found that an improvisational workshop geared towards enhancing medical student communication skills has the potential to impart valuable skills that are essential to providing empathic, supportive patient-centred care. Communication skills training programmes have become a cornerstone in medical student and postgraduate medical education over the past 20 years. Both national

  7. Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from music improvisation does not depend on temporal correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Karin; McAleer, Phil; Pollick, Frank

    2010-04-06

    In the present study we applied a paradigm often used in face-voice affect perception to solo music improvisation to examine how the emotional valence of sound and gesture are integrated when perceiving an emotion. Three brief excerpts expressing emotion produced by a drummer and three by a saxophonist were selected. From these bimodal congruent displays the audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisually incongruent conditions (obtained by combining the two signals both within and between instruments) were derived. In Experiment 1 twenty musical novices judged the perceived emotion and rated the strength of each emotion. The results indicate that sound dominated the visual signal in the perception of affective expression, though this was more evident for the saxophone. In Experiment 2 a further sixteen musical novices were asked to either pay attention to the musicians' movements or to the sound when judging the perceived emotions. The results showed no effect of visual information when judging the sound. On the contrary, when judging the emotional content of the visual information, a worsening in performance was obtained for the incongruent condition that combined different emotional auditory and visual information for the same instrument. The effect of emotionally discordant information thus became evident only when the auditory and visual signals belonged to the same categorical event despite their temporal mismatch. This suggests that the integration of emotional information may be reinforced by its semantic attributes but might be independent from temporal features. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Planning and Response to the Detonation of an Improvised Nuclear Device: Past, Present, and Future Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, A

    2008-07-31

    While the reality of an improvised nuclear device (IND) being detonated in an American city is unlikely, its destructive power is such that the scenario must be planned for. Upon reviewing the academic literature on the effects of and response to IND events, this report looks to actual responders from around the country. The results from the meetings of public officials in the cities show where gaps exist between theoretical knowledge and actual practice. In addition to the literature, the meetings reveal areas where future research needs to be conducted. This paper recommends that local response planners: meet to discuss the challenges of IND events; offer education to officials, the public, and responders on IND events; incorporate 'shelter-first' into response plans; provide information to the public and responders using the 3 Cs; and engage the private sector (including media) in response plans. In addition to these recommendations for the response planners, the paper provides research questions that once answered will improve response plans around the country. By following the recommendations, both groups, response planners and researchers, can help the country better prepare for and mitigate the effects of an IND detonation.

  9. “LISTENING AND REMEMBERING”: NETWORKED OFF-LINE IMPROVISATION FOR FOUR COMMUTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Alarcón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the experience of the networked off-line improvisation ‘Listening and Remembering’, a performance for four commuters using voices and sounds from the Mexico City and Paris metros. It addresses the question: how can an act of collective remembering, inspired by listening to metro soundscapes, lead to the creation of networked voice-and sound-based narratives about the urban commuting experience? The networked experience is seen here from the structural perspective (telematic setting, the sonic underground context, the ethnographic process that led to the performance, the narratives that are created in the electro-acoustic setting, the shared acoustic environments that those creations suggest, and the technical features and participants’ responses that pre- vent or facilitate interaction. Emphasis is placed on the participants’ status as non-performers, and on their familiarity with the sonic environment, as a context that allows the participation of non-musicians in the making of music through telematically shared interfaces, using soundscape and real-time voice. Participants re-enact their routine experience through a dialogical relationship with the sounds, the other participants, themselves, and the experience of sharing: a collective memory.

  10. Promoting students’ reflections in organisational improvisation arrangement between higher education and workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Rautkorpi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how experimentation-based pedagogy has been pursued by one Finnish university of applied sciences (UAS in working life environments in the context of the Triple Helix. This article focuses on efforts to combine together situated learning, organisational improvisation and cultural-historical activity theory. In this higher education organisation, the students’ multidisciplinary innovation projects are used to improve the students’ skills in performing experiments with variations. The article demonstrates how pilot trainings were organised for teachers and their networks to equip them to project facilitators in a new mode of activity. It also reports on the undergraduates’ group demonstrations and evaluations based on a recent sample of their subsequent innovation projects. The small-scale content analysis was conducted to identify areas for further development. According to the activity theory, the crucial learning outcome of the UAS educational projects should be a collective reflection on practices. In addition, the two essentials of reflection and learning are the tools available for mirroring and continuous concept formation. According to the findings, there were prominent achievements in ethnographic fieldwork but more supportive arrangements and training is needed to promote especially the concept formation.

  11. Estimation of body exposure to explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William R; Baker, Andrew M; Powell, James D; Cotone, Chris M; Meeker, Jeffrey

    2002-09-01

    An ordnance-disposal expert was killed while disposing of a cache of explosives. The likely position of the body was reconstructed by modeling the explosion as an omnidirectional emission of particles from a model of the explosion site and noting the distribution of particles on a model of a human. The applications and limitations of this method in reconstructing the events and correlation with the injuries noted at autopsy are discussed.

  12. Investigation of Hotline Allegation of a Questionable Intelligence Activity Concerning the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO), Counter-IED Operations/Intelligence Integration Center (COIC) (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-04

    8217 .. ft’t«ht .. 11Mrl olft•l« elf•--. ... ,..,....._ _. "" ,..,,. idVUt<. ~...,..,.,.,,.1’ə<.., .. , .. , uoc ""’,.... roH• a, ... - ~ hopnol o’III I~M6

  13. Raman Detection of Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Material Fabricated Using Drop-on-Demand Inkjet Technology on Several Real World Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    2003). [73] D. Bedrov, C. Ayyagari, G. D. Smith, T. D. Sewell, R. Menikoff, J. M. Zaug, "Molecular dynamics simulations of HMX crystal polymorphs ......used for stand-off detection and identification. Some of these materials are also known to exist in multiple polymorphic phases60-74 that can in

  14. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G... fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN ; methylamine nitrate...

  15. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G... fulminate. Mercury oxalate. Mercury tartrate. Metriol trinitrate. Minol-2 . MMAN ; methylamine nitrate...

  16. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  17. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  18. Explosives detection technology for commercial aviation security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafrik, Robert E.

    1994-03-01

    The threat posed to commercial aviation by small, concealed plastic explosives is particularly onerous. Small amounts of these highly energetic explosives are difficult to reliably detect using current technologies. But they can cause significant damage to an aircraft that can result in the destruction of the aircraft, resulting in loss of life. The key issues regarding explosive detection technologies include: What methods can detect plastic explosives? How do these methods perform in practice? How can the different methods be best employed to counter the terrorist threat?

  19. Child–Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children’s Musical Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Anna Rita; Anelli, Filomena; Benghi, Diber; Friberg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this article children’s musical improvisation is investigated through the “reflexive interaction” paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a “reflexive” output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6–7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the children’s abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the children’s ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational

  20. Theoretical basis of explosion effects using al - granules in bulk explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Nikolic, Miroslav; Dambov, Ilija; Cacarov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Use of bulk explosives such as AN-FO, heavy AN-FO, SLLURY and various Emulsions significantly improves explosive energy efficiency in the rock massif. Many operating engineers have the opportunity to examine and modify the technical characteristics of explosives and technologists especially, in the production of explosives where the main goal is improvement, the energy capacity by adding various components. The question is when is technically and economically most suitable to use ...

  1. Explosive transition in amorphous microwire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenko, I. Yu.; Tulin, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    An amorphous microwire in a glass shell offers a quick thermal response and can be rapidly heated to the crystallization point. When heated by a current pulse with a small amplitude and duration, the wire passes from the amorphous to microcrystalline state. The crystallization of the amorphous state may represent a slow or explosive process depending on the parameters of the pulse. In the latter case, the emission of electromagnetic waves (flash of light) and a sharp rise in the resistance are observed. The rate of propagation of the crystallization front in our experiments has been found to be about 1 m/s.

  2. Explosives detection using nanoporous coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, María P.; Pellejero, Ismael; Urbiztondo, Miguel; Sesé, Javier; Santamaría, J.

    2011-06-01

    Zeolite-coated cantilevers provided with internal heating elements have been developed and used for the selective detection of nitroderivates, in particular o-nitrotoluene as an example of an explosive-related molecule. In particular, Co exchanged commercial BEA zeolites have been deployed of rectangular Si cantilevers by microdropping technique. In particular, two different strategies have been demonstrated to increase the zeolite modified cantilevers performance: the sensing coating and the operating temperature. As a result, o-nitrotoluene LOD values below 1 ppm are attained at room temperature conditions; whereas the interference of toluene at concentrations below 1000 ppm is completely suppressed by heating the cantilever.

  3. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    At a very early age, children learn how to classify objects according to their shape. Now, new research suggests studying the shape of the aftermath of supernovas may allow astronomers to do the same. A new study of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory on supernova remnants - the debris from exploded stars - shows that the symmetry of the remnants, or lack thereof, reveals how the star exploded. This is an important discovery because it shows that the remnants retain information about how the star exploded even though hundreds or thousands of years have passed. "It's almost like the supernova remnants have a 'memory' of the original explosion," said Laura Lopez of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who led the study. "This is the first time anyone has systematically compared the shape of these remnants in X-rays in this way." Astronomers sort supernovas into several categories, or "types", based on properties observed days after the explosion and which reflect very different physical mechanisms that cause stars to explode. But, since observed remnants of supernovas are leftover from explosions that occurred long ago, other methods are needed to accurately classify the original supernovas. Lopez and colleagues focused on the relatively young supernova remnants that exhibited strong X-ray emission from silicon ejected by the explosion so as to rule out the effects of interstellar matter surrounding the explosion. Their analysis showed that the X-ray images of the ejecta can be used to identify the way the star exploded. The team studied 17 supernova remnants both in the Milky Way galaxy and a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. For each of these remnants there is independent information about the type of supernova involved, based not on the shape of the remnant but, for example, on the elements observed in it. The researchers found that one type of supernova explosion - the so-called Type Ia - left behind relatively symmetric, circular

  4. The gas dynamics of explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee,\tJohn H S

    2016-01-01

    Explosions, and the non-steady shock propagation associated with them, continue to interest researchers working in different fields of physics and engineering (such as astrophysics and fusion). Based on the author's course in shock dynamics, this book describes the various analytical methods developed to determine non-steady shock propagation. These methods offer a simple alternative to the direct numerical integration of the Euler equations and offer a better insight into the physics of the problem. Professor Lee presents the subject systematically and in a style that is accessible to graduate students and researchers working in shock dynamics, combustion, high-speed aerodynamics, propulsion and related topics.

  5. Power of TATP based explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyás, Robert; Selesovský, Jakub

    2009-06-15

    The power of various explosive mixtures based on triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP), ammonimum nitrate (AN), urea nitrate (UrN) and water (W), namely TATP/AN, oil/AN, TATP/UrN, TATP/W and TATP/AN/W, was studied using the ballistic mortar test. The ternary mixtures of TATP/AN/W have relatively high power in case of the low water contents. Their power decrease significantly with increasing the water content in the mixture to more than 30%.

  6. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations..., explosives, (b) Permits for users who buy or transport explosives in interstate or foreign commerce, (c...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.902 - Surface transportation of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of explosives shall be equipped with a fully charged fire extinguisher, in good condition. An... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface transportation of explosives. 1926.902 Section 1926... Explosives § 1926.902 Surface transportation of explosives. (a) Transportation of explosives shall meet the...

  8. Determination of hydrogen peroxide concentration using a handheld Raman spectrometer: Detection of an explosives precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S P; Bell, S E J; McAuley, D; Baird, I; Speers, S J; Kee, G

    2012-03-10

    It has been shown that a handheld Raman spectrometer can be used to determine hydrogen peroxide concentration in aqueous solutions in seconds. To allow quantitative analysis, the aqueous peroxide samples were mixed 50/50 (v/v) with a 4mol/dm(3) sodium perchlorate solution which acted as the internal standard. Standard calibration using relative peak heights of the strongest perchlorate (932cm(-1)) and peroxide bands (876cm(-1)) gave an average error of 1.43% for samples in the range 5-30% peroxide. PLS regression of the same data set gave an average error of 0.98%. In addition, the concentrations of the samples were estimated by searching spectra against a library of standard spectra prepared using the same range of peroxide concentrations at 5% increments and with the same perchlorate internal standard. It was found that the library searching method classified all the test samples correctly, matching either the spectra of the same concentration, if they were present, or matching to the closest concentration if an exact match was not possible. This method thus provides a very rapid technique to allow determination of hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the field, for example at suspected improvised explosives manufacturing sites, without complex calibration procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ANALYSIS OF HAZARDS OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION DURING TREATMENT WITH AMMONIUM SELITRENNOE EXPLOSIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Luchko, Ivan Andriiovych; Pashkov, Anatolii Pavlovych

    2016-01-01

    Dangerous factors at the handling ammonium nitrate explosives are covered. Dependence of influence of critical diameter for detonation on degree of compaction of the explosives is specified, causes of self-ignition of liquid explosive mixes are determined and measures according to their elimination are recommended.

  10. A structured approach to forensic study of explosions: The TNO Inverse Explosion Analysis tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  11. High temperature two component explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  12. Geotechnical Aspects of Explosive Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shakeran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive Compaction (EC is the ground modification technique whereby the energy released from setting off explosives in subsoil inducing artificial earthquake effects, which compact the soil layers. The efficiency of EC predominantly depends on the soil profile, grain size distribution, initial status, and the intensity of energy applied to the soil. In this paper, in order to investigate the geotechnical aspects, which play an important role in performance of EC, a database has been compiled from thirteen-field tests or construction sites around the world, where EC has been successfully applied for modifying soil. This research focuses on evaluation of grain size distribution and initial stability status of deposits besides changes of soil penetration resistance due to EC. Results indicated suitable EC performance for unstable and liquefiable deposits having particle sizes ranging from gravel to silty sand with less than 40% silt content and less than 10% clay content. However, EC is most effective in fine-to-medium sands with a fine content less than 5% and hydraulically deposited with initial relative density ranging from 30% to 60%. Moreover, it has been observed that EC can be an effective method to improve the density, stability, and resistance of the target soils.

  13. Advances IN Explosive Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotay, Gavin

    2016-09-01

    Breathtaking results from the Planck satellite mission and Hubble space telescope have highlighted the key role modern Astronomy is playing for our understanding of Big Bang Cosmology. However, not so widely publicized is the similar wealth of observational data now available on explosive stellar phenomena, such as X-ray bursts, novae and Supernovae. These astronomical events are responsible for the synthesis of almost all the chemical elements we find on Earth and observe in our Galaxy, as well as energy generation throughout the cosmos. Regrettably, understanding the latest collection of observational data is severely hindered by the current, large uncertainties in the underlying nuclear physics processes that drive such stellar scenarios. In order to resolve this issue, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is a need to explore the unknown properties and reactions of nuclei away from the line of stability. Consequently, state-of-the-art radioactive beam facilities have become terrestrial laboratories for the reproduction of explosive astrophysical events. In this talk, both direct and indirect methods for studying key astrophysical reactions using radioactive beams will be discussed.

  14. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  16. Forecasting volcanic explosions based on seismic quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D.; La Femina, P.; Rodgers, M.; Geirsson, H.; Tenorio, V.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are generally forecast based on strong increases in monitoring parameters such as seismicity or gas emissions above a relatively low background level. Because of this, forecasting individual explosions during an ongoing eruption, or at persistently restless volcanoes, is difficult as seismicity, gas emissions, and other indicators of unrest are already in a heightened state. Therefore, identification of short-term precursors to individual explosions at volcanoes already in heightened states of unrest, and an understanding of explosion trigger mechanisms, is important for the reduction of volcanic risk worldwide. Seismic and visual observations at Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, demonstrate that a) episodes of seismic quiescence reliably preceded explosions during an eruption in May 2011 and b) the duration of precursory quiescence and the energy released in the ensuing explosion were strongly correlated. Precursory seismic quiescence is interpreted as the result of sealing of shallow gas pathways, leading to pressure accumulation and eventual catastrophic failure of the system, culminating in an explosion. Longer periods of sealing and pressurization lead to greater energy release in the ensuing explosion. Near-real-time observations of seismic quiescence at restless or erupting volcanoes can thus be useful for both timely eruption warnings and for forecasting the energy of impending explosions.

  17. Some analytical methods for explosives: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1965-12-08

    This report is the second compilation of methods for analyzing explosives. All the methods were developed for routine performance by techniques, and an attempt has therefore been made to keep them as simple as possible. Methods are presented for analyzing plastic-bonded explosives based on sym-cyclomethylenetetra-nitramine (HMX), based on viton in addition to HMX, and based on pentraerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  18. 76 FR 8923 - Explosive Siting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... launch site in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 420. Part of the application for a... operational requirements of other regulatory regimes, they do not pose a risk of fire or explosion. Isolating... explosion due to the mixing of the two. In accordance with current DDESB and National Fire Protection...

  19. Characterization of mock high-explosive powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, C.R.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1979-03-01

    Analytical characterization and explosibility tests were made on a simulative high-explosive powder consisting of cyanuric acid, melamine, nitrocellulose, and tris-(..beta..-chloroethyl)-phosphate. Tests indicated that the powder presents no unusual safety or health hazards in isostatic-pressing and dry-machining operations.

  20. Explosion risks and consequences for tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Berg, A.C. van den

    2014-01-01

    Tunnel accidents with transports of dangerous goods may lead to explosions. Risk assessment for these accidents is complicated because of the low probability and the unknown, but disastrous effects expected. Especially the lack of knowledge on the strength of the explosion and the consequences for

  1. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the United States and in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, Class 1, Divisions 1.1 to 1.5 inclusive...

  2. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden explosives...

  3. The St Marys fragmentation grenade explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, A

    1997-05-19

    The accidental explosion of a fragmentation grenade in a munitions factory at St Marys injured four workers, two critically. The prompt response by ambulances and physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service prevented deaths, but the incident suggests lessons for the future handling of urban explosions.

  4. A Review of the Research on Response to Improvised Nuclear Device Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, A; Buddemeier, B; Dombroski, M

    2008-07-01

    Following the events of September 11, a litany of imaginable horribles was trotted out before an anxious and concerned public. To date, government agencies and academics are still grappling with how to best respond to such catastrophes, and as Senator Lieberman's quote says above, now is the time to plan and prepare for such events. One of the nation's worst fears is that terrorists might detonate an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an American city. With 9/11 serving as the catalyst, the government and many NGOs have invested money into research and development of response capabilities throughout the country. Yet, there is still much to learn about how to best respond to an IND event. Understanding the state of knowledge, identifying gaps, and making recommendations for how to fill those gaps, this paper will provide a framework under which past findings can be understood and future research can fit. The risk of an improvised nuclear device (IND) detonation may seem unlikely; and while this is hopefully true, due to its destructive capability, IND events must be prepared for. Many people still live under the Cold War mentality that if a city is attacked with a nuclear weapon, there is little chance of survival. This assumption, while perhaps true in the case of multiple, thermonuclear weapons exchanges, does not hold for the current threat. If a single IND were detonated in the United States, there would be many casualties at the point of impact; however, there would also be many survivors and the initial response by two major groups will mean the difference between life and death for many people. These groups are the first responders and the public. Understanding how these two groups prepare, react and interact will improve response to nuclear terrorism. Figure 1 provides a visualization of the response timeline of an IND event. For the purposes of this assessment, it is assumed that to accurately inform the public, three functions need to be

  5. The effect of improvisational music therapy on the treatment of depression: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punkanen Marko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Music therapy is frequently offered to individuals suffering from depression. Despite the lack of research into the effects of music therapy on this population, anecdotal evidence suggests that the results are rather promising. The aim of this study is to examine whether improvisational, psychodynamically orientated music therapy in an individual setting helps reduce symptoms of depression and improve other health-related outcomes. In particular, attention will be given to mediator agents, such as musical expression and interaction in the sessions, as well as to the explanatory potential of EEG recordings in investigating emotion related music perception of individuals with depression. Methods 85 adults (18–50 years of age with depression (ICD-10: F 32 or F33 will be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. All participants will receive standard care, but the experimental group will be offered biweekly sessions of improvisational music therapy over a period of 3 months. A blind assessor will measure outcomes before testing, after 3 months, and after 6 months. Discussion This study aims to fill a gap in knowledge as to whether active (improvisational music therapy applied to people with depression improves their condition. For the first time in this context, the mediating processes, such as changes in musical expression and interaction during the course of therapy, will be objectively investigated, and it is expected that the results will provide new insights into these processes. Furthermore, the findings are expected to reveal whether music related emotional experiences, as measured by EEG, can be utilized in assessing a depressive client's improvement in the therapy. The size and the comprehensiveness of the study are sufficient for generalizing its findings to clinical practice as well as to further music therapy research. Trial registration ISRCTN84185937

  6. The effect of improvisational music therapy on the treatment of depression: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkkilä, Jaakko; Gold, Christian; Fachner, Jörg; Ala-Ruona, Esa; Punkanen, Marko; Vanhala, Mauno

    2008-06-28

    Music therapy is frequently offered to individuals suffering from depression. Despite the lack of research into the effects of music therapy on this population, anecdotal evidence suggests that the results are rather promising. The aim of this study is to examine whether improvisational, psychodynamically orientated music therapy in an individual setting helps reduce symptoms of depression and improve other health-related outcomes. In particular, attention will be given to mediator agents, such as musical expression and interaction in the sessions, as well as to the explanatory potential of EEG recordings in investigating emotion related music perception of individuals with depression. 85 adults (18-50 years of age) with depression (ICD-10: F 32 or F33) will be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. All participants will receive standard care, but the experimental group will be offered biweekly sessions of improvisational music therapy over a period of 3 months. A blind assessor will measure outcomes before testing, after 3 months, and after 6 months. This study aims to fill a gap in knowledge as to whether active (improvisational) music therapy applied to people with depression improves their condition. For the first time in this context, the mediating processes, such as changes in musical expression and interaction during the course of therapy, will be objectively investigated, and it is expected that the results will provide new insights into these processes. Furthermore, the findings are expected to reveal whether music related emotional experiences, as measured by EEG, can be utilized in assessing a depressive client's improvement in the therapy. The size and the comprehensiveness of the study are sufficient for generalizing its findings to clinical practice as well as to further music therapy research. ISRCTN84185937.

  7. The effect of improvisational music therapy on the treatment of depression: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkkilä, Jaakko; Gold, Christian; Fachner, Jörg; Ala-Ruona, Esa; Punkanen, Marko; Vanhala, Mauno

    2008-01-01

    Background Music therapy is frequently offered to individuals suffering from depression. Despite the lack of research into the effects of music therapy on this population, anecdotal evidence suggests that the results are rather promising. The aim of this study is to examine whether improvisational, psychodynamically orientated music therapy in an individual setting helps reduce symptoms of depression and improve other health-related outcomes. In particular, attention will be given to mediator agents, such as musical expression and interaction in the sessions, as well as to the explanatory potential of EEG recordings in investigating emotion related music perception of individuals with depression. Methods 85 adults (18–50 years of age) with depression (ICD-10: F 32 or F33) will be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. All participants will receive standard care, but the experimental group will be offered biweekly sessions of improvisational music therapy over a period of 3 months. A blind assessor will measure outcomes before testing, after 3 months, and after 6 months. Discussion This study aims to fill a gap in knowledge as to whether active (improvisational) music therapy applied to people with depression improves their condition. For the first time in this context, the mediating processes, such as changes in musical expression and interaction during the course of therapy, will be objectively investigated, and it is expected that the results will provide new insights into these processes. Furthermore, the findings are expected to reveal whether music related emotional experiences, as measured by EEG, can be utilized in assessing a depressive client's improvement in the therapy. The size and the comprehensiveness of the study are sufficient for generalizing its findings to clinical practice as well as to further music therapy research. Trial registration ISRCTN84185937 PMID:18588701

  8. Hydrodynamics of Explosion Experiments and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kedrinskii, Valery K

    2005-01-01

    Hydronamics of Explosion presents the research results for the problems of underwater explosions and contains a detailed analysis of the structure and the parameters of the wave fields generated by explosions of cord and spiral charges, a description of the formation mechanisms for a wide range of cumulative flows at underwater explosions near the free surface, and the relevant mathematical models. Shock-wave transformation in bubbly liquids, shock-wave amplification due to collision and focusing, and the formation of bubble detonation waves in reactive bubbly liquids are studied in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the investigation of wave processes in cavitating liquids, which incorporates the concepts of the strength of real liquids containing natural microinhomogeneities, the relaxation of tensile stress, and the cavitation fracture of a liquid as the inversion of its two-phase state under impulsive (explosive) loading. The problems are classed among essentially nonlinear processes that occur unde...

  9. [Explosion injuries - prehospital care and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsträter, Thorsten; Holsträter, Susanne; Rein, Daniela; Helm, Matthias; Hossfeld, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Explosion injuries are not restricted to war-like military conflicts or terrorist attacks. The emergency physician may also encounter such injuries in the private or industrial fields, injuries caused by fireworks or gas explosions. In such cases the injury patterns are especially complex and may consist of blunt and penetrating injuries as well as thermal damage. Emergency medical personnel must be prepared to cope with explosion trauma not only in individual cases but also in major casualty incidents (MCI). This necessitates a sound knowledge about the mechanisms and processes of an explosion as well as the particular pathophysiological relationships of explosion injuries in order to be able to initiate the best possible, guideline-conform trauma therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Independence day explosion on lovers key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Brett A; Wolf, Barbara C

    2007-09-01

    The display of fireworks is a popular holiday celebration in the United States. Because injuries due to recreational fireworks-related explosions among private consumers are relatively common, the sale of fireworks is regulated by the federal government and is also limited by state and local laws. In contrast, because fireworks display companies are under tight safety regulations, explosions in the professional pyrotechnics industry are uncommon occurrences, and the literature contains rare reports of injuries and fatalities resulting from such explosions. We report the 2003 Fourth of July commercial fireworks explosion on Lovers Key in southwest Florida that resulted in five fatalities. Events occurring during the investigation of the scene of this explosion illustrate the unique considerations and hazards for medicolegal death investigators, law enforcement and other investigative agencies. Additionally, this case demonstrates unusual aspects of the postmortem examinations performed on victims of fireworks-related incidents.

  11. Explosion interaction with water in a tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homae, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, Y.

    2017-02-01

    As proposed and legislated in Japan, subsurface magazines have an explosive storage chamber, a horizontal passageway, and a vertical shaft for a vent. The authors found that a small amount of water on the floor of the storage chamber mitigated blast pressure remarkably. The mitigation mechanism has been examined more closely. To examine the effect of water, the present study assesses explosions in a transparent, square cross section, and a straight tube. A high-speed camera used to observe the tube interior. Blast pressure in and around the tube was also measured. Images obtained using the high-speed camera revealed that water inside the tube did not move after the explosion. Differences between cases of tubes without water and with water were unclear. Along with blast pressure measurements, these study results suggest that blast pressure mitigation by water occurs because of interaction between the explosion and the water near the explosion point.

  12. Musical friends and foes: The social cognition of affiliation and control in improvised interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Canonne, Clément

    2017-04-01

    A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention. We created a novel experimental situation in which we asked expert music improvisers to communicate 5 types of non-musical social intentions, such as being domineering, disdainful or conciliatory, to one another solely using musical interaction. Using a combination of decoding studies, computational and psychoacoustical analyses, we show that both musically-trained and non musically-trained listeners can recognize relational intentions encoded in music, and that this social cognitive ability relies, to a sizeable extent, on the information processing of acoustic cues of temporal and harmonic coordination that are not present in any one of the musicians' channels, but emerge from the dynamics of their interaction. By manipulating these cues in two-channel audio recordings and testing their impact on the social judgements of non-musician observers, we finally establish a causal relationship between the affiliation dimension of social behaviour and musical harmonic coordination on the one hand, and between the control dimension and musical temporal coordination on the other hand. These results provide novel mechanistic insights not only into the social cognition of musical interactions, but also into that of non-verbal interactions as a whole. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Metabolic Dysregulation after Neutron Exposures Expected from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiakis, Evagelia C; Wang, Yi-Wen; Young, Erik F; Harken, Andrew D; Xu, Yanping; Smilenov, Lubomir; Garty, Guy Y; Brenner, David J; Fornace, Albert J

    2017-07-01

    The increased threat of terrorism across the globe has raised fears that certain groups will acquire and use radioactive materials to inflict maximum damage. In the event that an improvised nuclear device (IND) is detonated, a potentially large population of victims will require assessment for radiation exposure. While photons will contribute to a major portion of the dose, neutrons may be responsible for the severity of the biologic effects and cellular responses. We investigated differences in response between these two radiation types by using metabolomics and lipidomics to identify biomarkers in urine and blood of wild-type C57BL/6 male mice. Identification of metabolites was based on a 1 Gy dose of radiation. Compared to X rays, a neutron spectrum similar to that encountered in Hiroshima at 1-1.5 km from the epicenter induced a severe metabolic dysregulation, with perturbations in amino acid metabolism and fatty acid β-oxidation being the predominant ones. Urinary metabolites were able to discriminate between neutron and X rays on day 1 as well as day 7 postirradiation, while serum markers showed such discrimination only on day 1. Free fatty acids from omega-6 and omega-3 pathways were also decreased with 1 Gy of neutrons, implicating cell membrane dysfunction and impaired phospholipid metabolism, which should otherwise lead to release of those molecules in circulation. While a precise relative biological effectiveness value could not be calculated from this study, the results are consistent with other published studies showing higher levels of damage from neutrons, demonstrated here by increased metabolic dysregulation. Metabolomics can therefore aid in identifying global perturbations in blood and urine, and effectively distinguishing between neutron and photon exposures.

  14. Feasibility of a Trial on Improvisational Music Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Bieleninik, Łucja; Gold, Christian

    2016-01-01

    To conduct generalizable, rigorously designed, adequately powered trials investigating music therapy and other complex interventions, it is essential that study procedures are feasible and acceptable for participants. To date, only limited evidence on feasibility of trial designs and strategies to facilitate study implementation is available in the music therapy literature. Using data from a subsample of a multi-center RCT on improvisational music therapy (IMT) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study aims to evaluate feasibility of study procedures, evaluate safety, document concomitant treatment, and report consistency of individuals' trends over time in chosen outcome measures. Children with ASD aged between 4 years, 0 months, and 6 years, 11 months, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: one (low intensity) vs. three weekly IMT sessions (high intensity) for five months vs. standard care. Feasibility was evaluated by examining recruitment, implementation of study conditions, assessment procedures, blinding, and retention; we also evaluated safety, concomitant treatment, and consistency of changes in standardized scales completed by blinded assessors and parents before and 5 months after randomization. Within this subsample (n = 15), recruitment rates, session attendance in the high-intensity condition, and consistency between outcome measures were lower than expected. Session attendance in the low-intensity and control conditions, treatment fidelity, measurement completion, blinding, retention, and safety met a priori thresholds for feasibility. By discussing strategies to improve recruitment and to minimize potential burden on study participants, referrers, and researchers, this study helps build knowledge about designing and implementing trials successfully. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Local Explosion Monitoring using Rg

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, C. T.; Baker, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Rg is the high-frequency fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave, which is only excited by near-surface events. As such, an Rg detection indicates that a seismic source is shallow, generally less than a few km depending on the velocity structure, and so likely man-made. Conversely, the absence of Rg can indicate that the source is deeper and so likely naturally occurring. We have developed a new automated method of detecting Rg arrivals from various explosion sources at local distances, and a process for estimating the likelihood that a source is not shallow when no Rg is detected. Our Rg detection method scans the spectrogram of a seismic signal for a characteristic frequency peak. We test this on the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment data, which includes earthquakes, active source explosions in boreholes, and mining explosions recorded on a dense network that spans the Bighorn Mountains and Powder River Basin. The Rg passbands used were 0.4-0.8 Hz for mining blasts and 0.8-1.2 Hz for borehole shots. We successfully detect Rg across the full network for most mining blasts. The lower-yield shots are detectable out to 50 km. We achieve methods that use cross-correlation to detect retrograde motion of the surface waves. Our method shows more complete detection across the network, especially in the Powder River Basin where Rg exhibits prograde motion that does not trigger the existing detector. We also estimate the likelihood that Rg would have been detected from a surface source, based on the measured P amplitude. For example, an event with a large P wave and no detectable Rg would have a high probability of being a deeper event, whereas we cannot confidently determine whether an event with a small P wave and no Rg detection is shallow or not. These results allow us to detect Rg arrivals, which indicate a shallow source, and to use the absence of Rg to estimate the likelihood that a source in a calibrated region is not shallow enough to be man-made.

  16. Improvised Song in Schools: Breaking Away from the Perception of Traditional Song as Infantile by Introducing a Traditional Adult Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Ayats

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article revolves around a project aimed at incorporating improvised song into primary school education. Among its objectives, this pilot scheme aimed to solve the problem of infantilization and the lack of functionality affecting the traditional school repertoire of songs in Catalonia by introducing a hitherto untested genre of traditional song into the official curriculum. The findings obtained in five centers suggest that this traditional form of oral expression through singing obtains positive results in the 10-12- year-old age group, and manages to break free of the clichés about traditional song pre-existing in the school environment.

  17. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G

    2008-08-01

    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies

  18. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  19. Numerical modelling of the effect of using multi-explosives on the explosive forming of steel cones

    OpenAIRE

    De Vuyst, T; Kong, K.; Djordjevic, N.; Vignjevic, R.; Campbell, JC; Hughes, K

    2016-01-01

    Modelling and analysis of underwater explosive forming process by using FEM and SPH formulation is presented in this work. The explosive forming of a steel cone is studied. The model setup includes a low carbon steel plate, plate holder, forming die as well as water and C4 explosive. The effect of multiple explosives on rate of targets deformation has been studied. Four different multi-explosives models have been developed and compared to the single explosive model. The formability of the ste...

  20. Fast Chromatographic Method for Explosive Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Hugues Stefanuto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Security control is becoming a major global issue in strategic locations, such as airports, official buildings, and transit stations. The agencies responsible for public security need powerful and sensitive tools to detect warfare agents and explosives. Volatile signature detection is one of the fastest and easiest ways to achieve this task. However, explosive chemicals have low volatility making their detection challenging. In this research, we developed and evaluated fast chromatographic methods to improve the characterization of volatile signatures from explosives samples. The headspace of explosives was sampled with solid phase micro-extraction fiber (SPME. Following this step, classical gas chromatography (GC and comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC were used for analysis. A fast GC approach allows the elution temperature of each analyte to be decreased, resulting in decreased thermal degradation of sensitive compounds (e.g., nitro explosives. Using fast GC×GC, the limit of detection is further decreased based on the cryo-focusing effect of the modulator. Sampling of explosives and chromatographic separation were optimized, and the methods then applied to commercial explosives samples. Implementation of fast GC methods will be valuable in the future for defense and security forensics applications.

  1. Pictionary-based fMRI paradigm to study the neural correlates of spontaneous improvisation and figural creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Manish; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Kienitz, Eliza; Bott, Nicholas T.; Sun, Zhaochun; Hong, Wei-Chen; Chien, Yin-hsuan; Liu, Ning; Dougherty, Robert F.; Royalty, Adam; Hawthorne, Grace; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    A novel game-like and creativity-conducive fMRI paradigm is developed to assess the neural correlates of spontaneous improvisation and figural creativity in healthy adults. Participants were engaged in the word-guessing game of PictionaryTM, using an MR-safe drawing tablet and no explicit instructions to be “creative”. Using the primary contrast of drawing a given word versus drawing a control word (zigzag), we observed increased engagement of cerebellum, thalamus, left parietal cortex, right superior frontal, left prefrontal and paracingulate/cingulate regions, such that activation in the cingulate and left prefrontal cortices negatively influenced task performance. Further, using parametric fMRI analysis, increasing subjective difficulty ratings for drawing the word engaged higher activations in the left pre-frontal cortices, whereas higher expert-rated creative content in the drawings was associated with increased engagement of bilateral cerebellum. Altogether, our data suggest that cerebral-cerebellar interaction underlying implicit processing of mental representations has a facilitative effect on spontaneous improvisation and figural creativity. PMID:26018874

  2. Metal explosion chambers: designing, manufacturing, application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanovskii, O. I.; Zlobin, B. S.; Shtertser, A. A.; Meshcheryakov, Y. P.

    2017-10-01

    Designing of explosion chambers is based on research investigations of the chamber body stress-strain state, which is determined by numerical computation and experimentally by the strain gage technique. Studies show that chamber bottoms are the most loaded elements, and maximal stresses arise in chamber poles. Increasing the shell thickness around poles by welding-in an insert is a simple and saving way to solve this problem. There are structural solutions, enabling reliable hermetic closure and preventing leakage of detonation products from the chamber. Explosion chambers are employed in scientific research and in different industrial applications: explosive welding and hardening, synthesis of new materials, disposal of expired ammunition, and etc.

  3. Wave dynamics of electric explosion in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, V. V.; Kuznetsova, N. S.; Lopatin, V. V.

    2009-05-01

    A mathematical model of an electric explosion is developed that consistently describes the expansion of the explosion channel with regard to the parameters of the discharge circuit of a high-voltage pulse generator, radiation, and propagation of stress waves in a solid. The dynamics of conversion of the stored energy to a wave and the formation of mechanical stresses due to electric explosion in a solid immersed in a liquid are considered. In the context of electro-discharge destruction of hard materials, the resulting stress field and the relationship between the discharge circuit parameters and characteristics of the wave are analyzed and the most efficient discharge modes are determined.

  4. The mathematical modeling of supernova explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, A. A.; Koldoba, A. V.; Poveshchenko, Iu. A.; Popov, Iu. P.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    An essentially two-dimensional model of supernova explosion is developed, with emphasis on the role of rotation in the thermonuclear explosion process. Attention is given to a star with a carbon-oxygen core, which is transformed into a nickel core as a result of nuclear reaction. In this case, the development of thermal instability leads to the generation of a detonation wave propagating to the periphery of the star. Rapid rotation is found to produce a strong asymmetry of the hydrodynamic processs of the explosion.

  5. Water waves generated by underwater explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Mehaute, Bernard Le

    1996-01-01

    This is the first book on explosion-generated water waves. It presents the theoretical foundations and experimental results of the generation and propagation of impulsively generated waves resulting from underwater explosions. Many of the theories and concepts presented herein are applicable to other types of water waves, in particular, tsunamis and waves generated by the fall of a meteorite. Linear and nonlinear theories, as well as experimental calibrations, are presented for cases of deep and shallow water explosions. Propagation of transient waves on dissipative, nonuniform bathymetries to

  6. On the Violence of High Explosive Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarver, C M; Chidester, S K

    2004-02-09

    High explosive reactions can be caused by three general energy deposition processes: impact ignition by frictional and/or shear heating; bulk thermal heating; and shock compression. The violence of the subsequent reaction varies from benign slow combustion to catastrophic detonation of the entire charge. The degree of violence depends on many variables, including the rate of energy delivery, the physical and chemical properties of the explosive, and the strength of the confinement surrounding the explosive charge. The current state of experimental and computer modeling research on the violence of impact, thermal, and shock-induced reactions is reviewed.

  7. Increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of gas sensors for the detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Daniel

    Over the past decade, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has increased, domestically and internationally, highlighting a growing need for a method to quickly and reliably detect explosive devices in both military and civilian environments before the explosive can cause damage. Conventional techniques have been successful in explosive detection, however they typically suffer from enormous costs in capital equipment and maintenance, costs in energy consumption, sampling, operational related expenses, and lack of continuous and real-time monitoring. The goal was thus to produce an inexpensive, portable sensor that continuously monitors the environment, quickly detects the presence of explosive compounds and alerts the user. In 2012, here at URI, a sensor design was proposed for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The design entailed a thermodynamic gas sensor that measures the heat of decomposition between trace TATP vapor and a metal oxide catalyst film. The sensor was able to detect TATP vapor at the part per million level (ppm) and showed great promise for eventual commercial use, however, the sensor lacked selectivity. Thus, the specific objective of this work was to take the original sensor design proposed in 2012 and to make several key improvements to advance the sensor towards commercialization. It was demonstrated that a sensor can be engineered to detect TATP and ignore the effects of interferent H2O2 molecules by doping SnO2 films with varying amounts of Pd. Compared with a pure SnO2 catalyst, a SnO2, film doped with 8 wt. % Pd had the highest selectivity between TATP and H2O2. Also, at 12 wt. % Pd, the response to TATP and H2O2 was enhanced, indicating that sensitivity, not only selectivity, can be increased by modifying the composition of the catalyst. An orthogonal detection system was demonstrated. The platform consists of two independent sensing mechanisms, one thermodynamic and one conductometric, which take measurements from

  8. 30 CFR 75.1314 - Sheathed explosive units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sheathed explosive units. 75.1314 Section 75... explosive units. (a) A separate instantaneous detonator shall be used to fire each sheathed explosive unit. (b) Sheathed explosive units shall be primed and placed in position for firing only by a qualified...

  9. Tradução, adaptação transcultural e evidências de validade da escala improvisation assessment profiles (IAPs) para uso no Brasil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattino, Gustavo; Ferrari, Karina; Azevedo, Graciane

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to present the second part of the research which created the Improvisation Assessment Profiles (IAPs) version in Brazil according to a formal translation process and the analysis of the instrument in relation to its cross-cultural adaptation. The scale was also evaluated ...

  10. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christie, D. R; Kennett, B. L

    2007-01-01

    The performance of typical IMS infrasound monitoring stations has been examined in detail in order to evaluate the detection capability of the global network for regional and distant nuclear explosions...

  11. Isolator fragmentation and explosive initiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rae, Philip John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Timothy J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Novak, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, Christopher Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baca, Eva V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gunderson, Jake Alfred [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of firing an isolator in proximity to a barrier or explosive charge. The tests with explosive were conducted without a barrier, on the basis that since any barrier will reduce the shock transmitted to the explosive, bare explosive represents the worst-case from an inadvertent initiation perspective. No reaction was observed. The shock caused by the impact of a representative plastic material on both bare and cased PBX 9501 is calculated in the worst-case, 1-D limit, and the known shock response of the HE is used to estimate minimum run-to-detonation lengths. The estimates demonstrate that even 1-D impacts would not be of concern and that, accordingly, the divergent shocks due to isolator fragment impact are of no concern as initiating stimuli.

  12. Electronic cigarette explosions involving the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rebecca; Hicklin, David

    2016-11-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a rapidly growing trend throughout the United States. E-cigarettes have been linked to the risk of causing explosion and fire. Data are limited on the associated health hazards of e-cigarette use, particularly long-term effects, and available information often presents conflicting conclusions. In addition, an e-cigarette explosion and fire can pose a unique treatment challenge to the dental care provider because the oral cavity may be affected heavily. In this particular case, the patient's injuries included intraoral burns, luxation injuries, and alveolar fractures. This case report aims to help clinicians gain an increased knowledge about e-cigarette design, use, and risks; discuss the risk of spontaneous failure and explosion of e-cigarettes with patients; and understand the treatment challenges posed by an e-cigarette explosion. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly explosive nanosilicon-based composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, D.; Diener, J.; Gross, E.; Kuenzner, N.; Kovalev, D. [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department, James-Franck-Str., 85747 Garching (Germany); Timoshenko, V.Yu. [Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University, Physics Department, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-01

    We present a highly explosive binary system based on porous silicon layers with their pores filled with solid oxidizers. The porous layers are produced by a standard electrochemical etching process and exhibit properties that are different from other energetic materials. Its production is completely compatible with the standard silicon technology and full bulk silicon wafers can be processed and therefore a large number of explosive elements can be produced simultaneously. The application-relevant parameters: the efficiency and the long-term stability of various porous silicon/oxidizer systems have been studied in details. Structural properties of porous silicon, its surface termination, the atomic ratio of silicon to oxygen and the chosen oxidizers were optimized to achieve the highest efficiency of the explosive reaction. This explosive system reveals various possible applications in different industrial fields, e.g. as a novel, very fast airbag igniter. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Hamiltonian approach for explosive percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A A; Oliveira, E A; Reis, S D S; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

    2010-04-01

    We present a cluster growth process that provides a clear connection between equilibrium statistical mechanics and an explosive percolation model similar to the one recently proposed by D. Achlioptas [Science 323, 1453 (2009)]. We show that the following two ingredients are sufficient for obtaining an abrupt (first-order) transition in the fraction of the system occupied by the largest cluster: (i) the size of all growing clusters should be kept approximately the same, and (ii) the inclusion of merging bonds (i.e., bonds connecting vertices in different clusters) should dominate with respect to the redundant bonds (i.e., bonds connecting vertices in the same cluster). Moreover, in the extreme limit where only merging bonds are present, a complete enumeration scheme based on treelike graphs can be used to obtain an exact solution of our model that displays a first-order transition. Finally, the presented mechanism can be viewed as a generalization of standard percolation that discloses a family of models with potential application in growth and fragmentation processes of real network systems.

  15. Regional Seismic Methods of Identifying Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pasyanos, M.; Pyle, M. L.; Hauk, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    A lesson from the 2006, 2009 and 2013 DPRK declared nuclear explosion Ms:mb observations is that our historic collection of data may not be representative of future nuclear test signatures (e.g. Selby et al., 2012). To have confidence in identifying future explosions amongst the background of other seismic signals, we need to put our empirical methods on a firmer physical footing. Here we review the two of the main identification methods: 1) P/S ratios and 2) Moment Tensor techniques, which can be applied at the regional distance (200-1600 km) to very small events, improving nuclear explosion monitoring and confidence in verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Amplitude ratios of seismic P-to-S waves at sufficiently high frequencies (~>2 Hz) can identify explosions among a background of natural earthquakes (e.g. Walter et al., 1995). However the physical basis for the generation of explosion S-waves, and therefore the predictability of this P/S technique as a function of event properties such as size, depth, geology and path, remains incompletely understood. Calculated intermediate period (10-100s) waveforms from regional 1-D models can match data and provide moment tensor results that separate explosions from earthquakes and cavity collapses (e.g. Ford et al. 2009). However it has long been observed that some nuclear tests produce large Love waves and reversed Rayleigh waves that complicate moment tensor modeling. Again the physical basis for the generation of these effects from explosions remains incompletely understood. We are re-examining regional seismic data from a variety of nuclear test sites including the DPRK and the former Nevada Test Site (now the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)). Newer relative amplitude techniques can be employed to better quantify differences between explosions and used to understand those differences in term of depth, media and other properties. We are also making use of the Source Physics

  16. Effects of Explosions in Underground Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    values of confined explosion gas pressure for PETN in air at sea level.. 23 2.3 An example of the scaling procedure employed to predict peak pressures in...compared to -thoso currently eowployed in the 1980 Department of )fise, O0D) - Amunititon and Explosivo Safety Standards (Refotetce 1). The details are...comparisons of Proctor’s (1974, Reference 5) theoretical predictions with experimontal data for TNT and PETN explosives. Stromsoo (Reference 8) calculated

  17. Non-shock initiation of explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asay, B. W

    2010-01-01

    ... explosives. Before 1942, explosives were used in munitions and commercial pursuits that demanded proper chemistry and confinement for the necessary effect, but little else. The needs and requirements of the Manhattan project were of a much more precise and specific nature. Spatial and temporal specifications were reduced from centimeters and milliseconds to micrometers and nanoseconds. New theory and computational tools were required along with a raft of new experimental techniques and novel ways of interpreting...

  18. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laintz, Kenneth E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  19. Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    some concern was the occasional appearance of iron-Ta intermetallics near the liner-steel interface. This is a brittle phase and subject to...Montgomery JS, de Rosset WS. Examination of intermetallic phases and residual stresses resulting from explosive bonding of refractory metal gun tube...caliber smoothbore gun tube. The metallic bond produced by explosive bonding is extremely strong and presumably would keep the liner in place. In Phase

  20. Grain-scale Dynamics in Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2002-09-30

    High explosives can have reactions to external stimuli that range from mild pressure bursts to full detonation. The ability to predict these responses is important for understanding the performance as well as the safety and reliability of these important materials. At present, we have only relatively simple phenomenological computational models for the behavior of high explosives under these conditions. These models are limited by the assumption that the explosive can be treated as homogeneous. In reality the explosive is a highly heterogeneous composite of irregular crystallites and plastic binder. The heterogeneous nature of explosives is responsible for many of their unique mechanical and chemical properties. We use computational models to simulate the response of explosives to external mechanical stimuli at the grain-scale level. The ultimate goal of this work is to understand the detailed processes involved with the material response, so that we can develop realistic material models, which can be used in a hydrodynamics/multi-physics code to model real systems. The new material models will provide a more realistic description of the explosive system during the most critical period of ignition and initiation. The focus of this work is to use the results of grain-scale simulations to develop an advanced macroscopic reactive flow model that is consistent with our understanding of the grain-scale details, and that can incorporate such information quantitatively. The objective is to connect changes to observed properties of the explosive (grain size distribution, binder thickness distribution, void shape, size, and separation distribution, binder mechanical properties, etc.) with predictions of the resulting sensitivity and performance.

  1. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J

    2015-09-30

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  2. Statistical estimation of loads from gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiset, Stian

    1998-12-31

    In the design of structures in the offshore and process industries, the possibility of a gas explosion must always be considered. The main uncertainties in computerized simulation of gas explosions are the assumptions of the gas cloud, the location of the ignition point and the properties of the simulator itself. This thesis quantifies the levels of these uncertainties by performing a large number of simulations on three offshore modules and one onshore plant. It is found that (1) there is an approximate linear relation between pressure and gas volume, (2) it may be possible to find a linear relation between pressure and impulse, (3) there is an inverse relation between pressure and duration, (4) the response of offshore structures exposed to gas explosions are rarely in the impulsive regime, (5) loading rates vary widely in magnitude, (6) an assumption of a triangular explosion pulse is often correct, (7) louvres increase pressure, impulse and duration of an explosion. The effect of ignition point location is studied in detail. It is possible to derive an ignition point uncertainty load factor that shows predictable behaviour by generalizing the non-parametric properties of the explosion pressure. A model for taking into account the uncertainties regarding gas volume, ignition point location and simulator imperfectness is proposed. The model is intended to produce a characteristic load for structural design. 68 refs., 51 figs., 36 tabs.

  3. Experimental Explosive Characterization for Counterterrorist Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etayo, D.; Maestrojuan, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2013-08-01

    A THz spectral characterization of different explosives of special interest for the Spanish National Security Forces "Guardia Civil" is presented in this paper. This forensic analysis has been done in the frequency range from 0.060 THz to 3.5 THz using the Teraview TPS Spectra 3000 system in laboratory conditions. With this equipment the refractive index, absorbance and complex permittivity of the explosive samples have been obtained. In this study, some of the most common used explosives (Bullet gunpowder, mine gunpowder, PETN, TNT, RDX) are analysed paying special attention to differences related to the manufacturing process used to elaborate some of them and to the purity of the samples. The different fabrication processes of the explosives lead to the same spectral behaviour and characteristics. At the same time, the inclusion of some additives in the explosive samples does not alter their main electromagnetic properties. The sensitivity limit of the measurement system has been found to be to 10 mg of explosives. These results will be used to design future THz imaging systems that allow to detect and identify them in security and defence applications and/or to complete laboratory studies after a terrorist action.

  4. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-01-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium. PMID:27443235

  5. Solid Rocket Launch Vehicle Explosion Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, E. H.; Blackwood, J. M.; Hays, M. J.; Skinner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical explosion data from full scale solid rocket launch vehicle accidents and tests were collected from all available literature from the 1950s to the present. In general data included peak blast overpressure, blast impulse, fragment size, fragment speed, and fragment dispersion. Most propellants were 1.1 explosives but a few were 1.3. Oftentimes the data from a single accident was disjointed and/or missing key aspects. Despite this fact, once the data as a whole was digitized, categorized, and plotted clear trends appeared. Particular emphasis was placed on tests or accidents that would be applicable to scenarios from which a crew might need to escape. Therefore, such tests where a large quantity of high explosive was used to initiate the solid rocket explosion were differentiated. Also, high speed ground impacts or tests used to simulate such were also culled. It was found that the explosions from all accidents and applicable tests could be described using only the pressurized gas energy stored in the chamber at the time of failure. Additionally, fragmentation trends were produced. Only one accident mentioned the elusive "small" propellant fragments, but upon further analysis it was found that these were most likely produced as secondary fragments when larger primary fragments impacted the ground. Finally, a brief discussion of how this data is used in a new launch vehicle explosion model for improving crew/payload survival is presented.

  6. Green primary explosives: 5-Nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, My Hang V.; Coburn, Michael D.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Wetzler, Modi

    2006-01-01

    The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for mi...

  7. Volunteer trials of a novel improvised dry decontamination protocol for use during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK'S Initial Operational Response (IOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that rapid evacuation, disrobing and emergency decontamination can enhance the ability of emergency services and acute hospitals to effectively manage chemically-contaminated casualties. The purpose of this human volunteer study was to further optimise such an "Initial Operational Response" by (1 identifying an appropriate method for performing improvised skin decontamination and (2 providing guidance for use by first responders and casualties. The study was performed using two readily available, absorbent materials (paper towels and incontinence pads. The decontamination effectiveness of the test materials was measured by quantifying the amount of a chemical warfare agent simulant (methyl salicylate removed from each volunteer's forearm skin. Results from the first study demonstrated that simulant recovery was lower in all of the dry decontamination conditions when compared to matched controls, suggesting that dry decontamination serves to reduce chemical exposure. Blotting in combination with rubbing was the most effective form of decontamination. There was no difference in effectiveness between the two absorbent materials. In the following study, volunteers performed improvised dry decontamination, either with or without draft guidelines. Volunteers who received the guidance were able to carry out improvised dry decontamination more effectively, using more of the absorbent product (blue roll to ensure that all areas of the body were decontaminated and avoiding cross-contamination of other body areas by working systematically from the head downwards. Collectively, these two studies suggest that absorbent products that are available on ambulances and in acute healthcare settings may have generic applicability for improvised dry decontamination. Wherever possible, emergency responders and healthcare workers should guide casualties through decontamination steps; in the absence of explicit guidance and

  8. Artes de musicar e de improvisar na cultura popular The arts of composition and improvisation in popular culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Machado Pais

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo explora bases de sustentabilidade do valor patrimonial das chamadas culturas marginais, tomando como referente empírico as artes de musicar e de improvisar. aos preconceitos que associam a cultura popular à frivolidade se contrapõem evidências da sua criatividade. para isso, comparam-se tendências e influências musicais de um e outro lado do atlântico (portugal e brasil, na base de uma matriz partilhada de repentes e improvisações. os exemplos do fado e do samba são usados para ilustrar as variações simbólicas, no decurso do tempo, das produções culturais: dos antros de marginalidade podem emergir ícones de nacionalidade. em seguida, em um estudo de caso envolvendo jovens portugueses afrodescendentes, sem motivação extrínseca ou intrínseca para as aprendizagens do ensino formal, mostram-se reais possibilidades de emancipação através da música e da dança. finalmente, equaciona-se a possibilidade de a educação, dada a sua aposta no conhecimento, poder constituir uma importante plataforma de reconhecimento do valor patrimonial das culturas populares.The arts of composition and improvisation in popular culture. this article explores the bases of sustainability of the patrimonial value of the so-called marginal cultures, taking the arts of composition and improvisation as its empirical referent. the prejudices associating popular culture to shallowness are opposed by the evidences of its creativity. thus, the musical trends and influences on both sides of the atlantic (portugal and brazil are compared based on a shared matrix of repente melodies and improvisations. the examples of fado and samba are used to illustrate the symbolic variations of cultural production throughout the time: nationality icons may emerge from dens of marginality. subsequently, in a case study involving young portuguese afro-descendants who have no extrinsic or intrinsic motivation to take part in formal school learning, real possibilities

  9. Explosions in Majestic Spiral Beauties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Images of beautiful galaxies, and in particular of spiral brethren of our own Milky Way, leaves no-one unmoved. It is difficult indeed to resist the charm of these impressive grand structures. Astronomers at Paranal Observatory used the versatile VIMOS instrument on the Very Large Telescope to photograph two magnificent examples of such "island universes", both of which are seen in a southern constellation with an animal name. But more significantly, both galaxies harboured a particular type of supernova, the explosion of a massive star during a late and fatal evolutionary stage. The first image (PR Photo 33a/04) is of the impressive spiral galaxy NGC 6118 [1], located near the celestial equator, in the constellation Serpens (The Snake). It is a comparatively faint object of 13th magnitude with a rather low surface brightness, making it pretty hard to see in small telescopes. This shyness has prompted amateur astronomers to nickname NGC 6118 the "Blinking Galaxy" as it would appear to flick into existence when viewed through their telescopes in a certain orientation, and then suddenly disappear again as the eye position shifted. There is of course no such problem for the VLT's enormous light-collecting power and ability to produce sharp images, and this magnificent galaxy is here seen in unequalled detail. The colour photo is based on a series of exposures behind different optical filters, obtained with the VIMOS multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT Melipal telescope during several nights around August 21, 2004. About 80 million light-years away, NGC 6118 is a grand-design spiral seen at an angle, with a very small central bar and several rather tightly wound spiral arms (it is classified as of type "SA(s)cd" [2]) in which large numbers of bright bluish knots are visible. Most of them are active star-forming regions and in some, very luminous and young stars can be perceived. Of particular interest is the comparatively bright stellar-like object situated directly

  10. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2006-10-01

    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  11. Effects of a short duration, high dose contact improvisation dance workshop on Parkinson disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, David; Sylvester, Jennifer L; Earhart, Gammon M

    2010-10-01

    This study explored the feasibility and possible benefits of contact improvisation (CI) as an exercise intervention for individuals with PD. This was an uncontrolled pilot study. Eleven people with PD (H&Y=2.4 ± 0.4) participated in a workshop of 10 1.5-h CI classes over 2 weeks, dancing with previously trained student CI dancers. Measures of disease severity, balance, functional mobility, and gait were compared 1 week before and after the workshop. Participants demonstrated improvements on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-Motor Subsection and Berg balance scores, along with increased swing and decreased stance percentages during walking. Backward step length also increased. Participants expressed a high level of enjoyment and interest in taking future CI classes. This pilot study supports the feasibility of CI as an intervention to address mobility limitations associated with PD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neck of femur fracture fixation in a bilateral amputee: an uncommon condition requiring an improvised fracture table positioning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Andrew James; Bhatia, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    While neck of femur fractures are common it is rare to see this injury in a bilateral leg amputee. Special consideration needs to be given to the management of these patients. We report the case of a 58-year-old man with bilateral leg amputation who presented to the emergency department with left hip pain following a fall. A fracture of the left neck of femur with extension into the femoral shaft was diagnosed. Internal fixation was planned with a dynamic hip screw. Standard fracture table setup, which allows for traction of the fractured limb and positioning of the contralateral limb such that anteroposterior and lateral X-rays can be obtained, was not possible in this case due to the amputations. We highlight considerations that need to be made in positioning a bilateral amputee for neck of femur fracture fixation and also highlight an improvised technique that can be utilised by other surgeons. PMID:24563044

  13. Randomised controlled Trial of Improvisational Music therapy's Effectiveness for children with Autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either...... methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.......e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three...

  14. Verticality and containment in song and improvisation: an application of schema theory to Nordoff-Robbins music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigen, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This study illustrates the use of a new musicological method for analyzing music in music therapy. It examines two pieces of clinical music through the constructs of schema theory. It begins with an argument for enhanced musical analysis in music therapy as a means of elevating the status of explanation in music therapy. Schema theory is introduced as a means of integrating musical with clinical concerns. Some basic ideas in schema theory are explained and the schemas of VERTICALITY and CONTAINER are presented as central ones in the analysis of music. Two transcriptions-one of a composed song and one of an improvisation-are examined in detail to illustrate how decisions in the temporal, melodic, and harmonic dimensions of the music are linked to specific clinical goals. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of this type of musicological analysis for explanatory theory in music therapy.

  15. Simulating thermal explosion of RDX-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F; Tarver, C M

    2004-10-11

    We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two RDX-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in large scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

  16. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months). In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity) or three sessions (high-intensity) per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS) and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Discussion Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this study's results will also provide information on the relevance of session frequency for therapy

  17. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geretsegger Monika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months. In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity or three sessions (high-intensity per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Discussion Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this study's results will also provide information on the relevance of session

  18. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-05

    Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months). In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity) or three sessions (high-intensity) per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS) and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this study's results will also provide information on the relevance of session frequency for therapy outcome. Current Controlled Trials

  19. Thermal Impulse Sensors for use in Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Hergen; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Anderson, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    We have developed temperature and thermal impulse (temperature and duration) sensors for use in explosive fireballs. These sensors are seeded into an explosive fireball and record temperature and duration via morphological phase changes that are optically probed. The thermal impulse sensors include two sensor materials with different phase transition kinetics, and may include a reference material which does not undergo temperature-induced phase changes, and can aid in the optical analysis. Analyzing the sensor materials allows us to determine heating temperature and heating duration of an explosion. The temperature sensors and thermal impulse sensors were recently tested and showed promising results. However, we found that the different components of the thermal impulse sensors tend to get separated during the explosion. We are now evaluating several approaches for redesigning our thermal impulse sensors so that the components remain together during the explosion. These approaches include a core/shell assembly, crosslinking, and co-synthesis. The integrity of the chemically bonded components is evaluated by subjecting the sensors to dispersing forces, while temperature-dependent phase changes of these sensors are assessed by rapid heating using a CO2 laser.

  20. Forensic utility of isotope ratio analysis of the explosive urea nitrate and its precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Roman; Stern, Libby A; Dietz, Marianne E; McCormick, Meghan C; Barrow, Jason A; Mothershead, Robert F

    2011-03-20

    Urea nitrate (UN) is an improvised explosive made from readily available materials. The carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of UN and its component ions, urea and nitrate, could aid in a forensic investigation. A method was developed to separate UN into its component ions for δ(15)N measurements by dissolving the sample with KOH, drying the sample, followed by removal of the urea by dissolution into 100% methanol. UN was synthesized to assess for preservation of the carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of reactants (urea and nitric acid) and product UN. Based on nitrogen isotope mass balance, all UN samples contained varying amounts of excess nitric acid, making the ionic separation an essential step in the nitrogen isotope analysis. During UN synthesis experiments, isotopic composition of the reactants is preserved in the product UN, but the urea in the product UN is slightly enriched in (15)N (urea. Published isotopic compositions of UN reactants, urea and nitric acid, have large ranges (urea δ(15)N = -10.8 to +3.3‰; urea δ(13)C = -18.2 to -50.6‰; and nitric acid δ(15)N = -1.8 to +4.0‰). The preservation of isotopic composition of reactants in UN, along with a significant variability in isotopic composition of reactants, indicates that isotope ratio analysis may be used to test if urea or nitric acid collected during an investigation is a possible reactant for a specific UN sample. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios differ significantly between two field-collected UN samples, as well as the lab-synthesized UN samples. These observed variations suggest that this approach is useful for discriminating between materials which are otherwise chemically identical. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.