WorldWideScience

Sample records for victim protection act

  1. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST WOMEN VICTIMS BY THE INDONESIAN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT 23, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafi Arief

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic Violence, particularly against women is a social phenomenon which tends to increase from year to year and even from day to day. Many countries enacted special legislation to protect women from domestic violence based on the United Nation Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (CEDAW. Indonesia adopted the conventions based on the Indonesian Act No. 7 of 1984 on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and issued Presidential Decree No. 9 of 1998 concerning the Commission on Violence against Women. Indonesia then enacted special legislation on domestic violence in 2004, namely Domestic Violence Act 23, 2004. This paper aims to understand how the Domestic Violence Act 23, 2004 protects women victims of domestic violence. The sources of law study are the basic rules and regulations, international conventions which have binding force legally. This is a library research using normative judicial approach, and the analysis is descriptive qualitative. The legal protection of women victims of domestic violence is an obligation, especially for countries that uphold human rights, because of the domestic violence constitutes crimes against humanity that are outstanding. This crime happens at any time either known or not, so it is described as an iceberg phenomenon. In addition, because this matter is private, many people do not want to intervene the matter. The strong culture of not interfering ones’ affairs also influences the police in law enforcement. Police often gives less respect for the report of the victims, and even ask the victims to go back to her husband or family

  2. Legal protection of elderly persons and risk of their victimization by criminal acts with elements of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Filip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process is inevitable. It follows the individual from birth until death. Due to the inability of people to influence it, there is a greater obligation of society to provide the people in the „third age“ a dignified life, without any form of victimization. The author defines which people are considered old according to positive legal acts of the Republic of Serbia. The subject of this paper are the factors that increase the risk of victimization of the elderly within the family, taking into account the physical, psychological, sexual and economic violence against the elderly, as well as mechanisms for their legal protection from domestic violence, as one of the most effective tools of the state and society in general for protection of this particularly vulnerable social group. Relevant provisions of the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Serbia with a critical analysis of the incrimination of offenses with elements of domestic violence where the victim is usually an old person will be analyzed. From the subject defined in this manner, stems the paper‘ s mainly descriptive goal of describing the phenomenon through the analysis of the major forms of violence to which the elderly within the family are exposed (physical, psychological, economic and sexual violence. The purpose of the paper is also to analyze the factors that increase the risk of victimization of the elderly and the mechanisms for their legal protection from domestic violence, point out the harm of this type of violence and thus contribute to combating this negative social phenomenon.

  3. Underlying Motives, Moral Agendas and Unlikely Partnerships: The Formulation of the U.S. Trafficking in Victims Protection Act Through the Data and Voices of Key Policy Players

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Footen Bromfield; Moshoula Capous-Desyllas

    2012-01-01

    In response to the overwhelming amount of attention to human trafficking, the debates surrounding its definition, and its focus on the sex industry, the purpose of this study was to understand the motivations behind the formation of the Trafficking in Victims Protection Act (TVPA). Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as a model, data was collected and analyzed in order to examine the coalition identities of key players and their positions. Through the presentation of in-depth intervi...

  4. Underlying Motives, Moral Agendas and Unlikely Partnerships: The Formulation of the U.S. Trafficking in Victims Protection Act Through the Data and Voices of Key Policy Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Footen Bromfield

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the overwhelming amount of attention to human trafficking, the debates surrounding its definition, and its focus on the sex industry, the purpose of this study was to understand the motivations behind the formation of the Trafficking in Victims Protection Act (TVPA. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as a model, data was collected and analyzed in order to examine the coalition identities of key players and their positions. Through the presentation of in-depth interview data with key policy players involved in the making of the TVPA, this article illustrates how and why the TVPA was formulated, the implications of its development, and the necessity for critical analysis of its effects. The use of alternative frameworks of labor and migration for understanding trafficking is proposed. Further consideration is given to legislative changes to eliminate anti-prostitution ideology and to support anti-oppressive approaches to addressing forced or deceptive working conditions.

  5. Procedural protection of juvenile victims of negligence and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence against children is often designated as the worst form of domestic violence, and violence in general. Such a conclusion is a result of multiple factors: children's age and vulnerability, the distinctive features in their physical and mental development which makes them inferior to adults, the kinship (blood relations] and emotional bonds between parents and children, etc. The positive trend in the evolution of the social response to violence against children is reflected in the effort to discover and prevent the abuse, to punish the offenders and to protect the child/victim from secondary victimization during the criminal proceedings. In the Republic of Serbia, the procedural measures governing the protection of juvenile victims/witnesses are set out in Part III of the Juvenile Justice Act (Act on the Juvenile Offenders and Criminal Law Protection of Minors]. However, it was soon evident that there was a need to provide a better legislative framework than the one envisaged in this Act, particularly in terms of ensuring a better protection of minors in the course of criminal proceedings involving children who are victims of abuse and neglect. For this purpose, in 2004, the legislator adopted the National Action Plan on Children in Adversity. This document envisaged the adoption of the General Protocol on the protection of children from abuse and negligence, as well as the adoption of subject-specific protocols which would further regulate the specific procedures for the protection of children-victims in particular social circumstances (health, education, justice] by different social institutions (police, social services]. In this paper, the author analyses the legal framework governing the procedural protection of juvenile victims in the course of criminal proceedings. In addition, the author also explores the statutory provisions (by-laws] adopted in order to establish specific standards and ensure a higher level of protection of

  6. First Amendment — Ministerial Exception — Ninth Circuit Avoids Constitutional Question, Holding that Ministers Did Not State a Claim that Church of Scientology Violated Trafficking Victims Protection Act. — Headley v. Church of Scientology Int'l, 687 F.3d 1173 (9th Cir. 2012)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    .... Recently, in Headley v. Church of Scientology International, the Ninth Circuit confronted the question of whether the doctrine should exempt the defendant Church's relationship with its ministers from the constraints of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act.

  7. Predictors and protective factors for adolescent Internet victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    2012-01-01

    To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....

  8. Peer-Victimization and Mental Health Problems in Adolescents: Are Parental and School Support Protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Feifel, Julia; Rohrmann, Sonja; Vermeiren, Robert; Poustka, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems among adolescents. Parental and school support were assumed as protective factors that might interact with one another in acting as buffers for adolescents against the risk of peer-victimization. Besides these protective factors, age…

  9. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  10. First Amendment - ministerial exception - Ninth Circuit avoids constitutional question, holding that ministers did not state a claim that Church of Scientology violated Trafficking Victims Protection Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    ... broadly and have not established a mechanism to limit the types of laws to which it applies. (5) Recently, in Headley v. Church of Scientology International, (6) the Ninth Circuit confronted the question of whether the doctrine should exempt the defendant Church's relationship with its ministers from the constraints of the Trafficking Victims Prot...

  11. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD VICTIMS AND WITNESSES OF CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mushevska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.

  12. Protective factors promoting resilience in the relation between child sexual victimization and internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Alba; Guilera, Georgina; Pereda, Noemí; Jarne, Adolfo

    2017-10-01

    Sexual victimization has been one of the most frequently studied forms of child victimization. Its effects are common and diverse; however, not all children and youth exposed to sexual victimization eventually develop adjustment problems. A total of 1105 children and youth (590 male and 515 female) aged between 12 and 17 from northeastern Spain were assessed regarding their experiences of sexual victimization, symptoms of psychopathology, and protective factors. The results showed that all forms of sexual victimization were associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems. However, the presence of a low Negative Cognition, high Social Skills and high Confidence seem to act buffering internalizing problems. Additionally, a significant interaction between Sexual Victimization and low Negative Cognition was observed (pfactors in relation to externalizing symptoms, in this case without any interaction effect. The strong relationship found with emotional and behavioral problems highlights the importance of continuing the research on the protective factors underlying resilience in the relationship between sexual victimization and psychopathological symptoms. The findings also support the multi-dimensional and specific nature of resilience and identify some of the protective factors that should be regarded as key intervention targets in adolescents with a history of sexual victimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protecting Children Victims of Crimes of Human Trafficking in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the paper there were examined the main provisions of the European legislative act framework in the domain of protecting children victims of human trafficking offenses, with some critical remarks. The paper can be useful to the European and Romanian legislator, practitioners and academics in the field. The novelty consists of analyzing the provisions of the European legislative act, focusing on the practical ways provided for the protection of children victims of this kind of crime, and the formulated critical remarks.

  14. Mental health approaches to child victims of acts of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Ankur; Garakani, Amir; Billick, Stephen B

    2013-03-01

    It has long been recognized that human beings exposed to severe stress may develop psychological symptoms. With recent terrorist acts around the world including the New York City World Trade Center September 11, 2001 atrocity, there has been a growing interest in the specific impact of terrorist acts on the victims and witnesses. One area that has received less study is the specific impact on children. This paper reviews some of the general effects of traumatic stress on children and the history of the research in this area including a specific discussion of post-traumatic stress disorder in children. This is followed by a review of how children might react to the trauma of a terrorist attack differentiating between three different subgroups of children (preschool age children, school-age children, and adolescents). Then there is a review of what a comprehensive evaluation of childhood victims of terrorism should entail. Finally, treatment modalities that have been shown to be effective are reviewed.

  15. Prosocial behavior as a protective factor for children's peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R; Buhs, Eric S

    2014-07-01

    A majority of peer victimization research focuses on its associations with negative outcomes, yet efforts to understand possible protective factors that may mitigate these negative outcomes also require attention. The present study was an investigation of the potential moderating effect of prosocial behaviors on loneliness for youth who are peer victimized. Participants were fourth and fifth grade students (511 total; 49 % boys) who were primarily European American (43.4 %) and Hispanic (48.2 %). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the interaction of prosocial behavior and peer victimization (relational and overt forms) on loneliness 1 year later. The results indicated that prosocial behavior significantly moderated the relationship between peer victimization (for the relational form only) and loneliness while controlling for levels of perceived peer support. A multi-group comparison by gender further indicated the moderation was significant for boys only. Potential implications for intervention/prevention efforts focused on developing children's prosocial skills as a possible protective factor for relationally victimized youth are discussed.

  16. 24 CFR 960.103 - Equal opportunity requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protection for victims of domestic violence. 960.103 Section 960.103 Housing and Urban Development... requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence. (a) Applicable requirements. The PHA must..., domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking. ...

  17. Supporting and Protecting the Victims of Crime and the European Union. Some General Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Minodora Rusu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper there were examined, the general provisions of Directive 2012/29/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 establishing minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime and replacing the Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA. The paper continues other studies relating to international judicial cooperation in criminal matters, published in national or international journals or conference proceedings. Developed in a modern way that allows understanding the terms used by the European legislator and the described objectives, the paper can be useful to academics, practitioners or European legislator in terms of changing and supplementing this legislative act. The innovations consist in the brief examination, in the critical opinions and in formulating de lege ferenda, by which we propose a single act regulating the rights, supporting and protecting victims of crime by amending and completion of the examined document.

  18. 24 CFR 982.53 - Equal opportunity requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protection for victims of domestic violence. 982.53 Section 982.53 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence. (a) The tenant-based program requires compliance...) Protection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking. The PHA must apply 24 CFR part 5...

  19. Child Protection Victims and the “Evil Institutions”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolus van Nijnatten

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch child protection system has been the target of harsh criticism in recent decades. The legitimacy of child protection services seems to have eroded. In this article, we analyze this changing legitimacy of child protection against the background of declining parental authority and in relation to the disappearance of positive pedagogical ideologies and the mainly bureaucratic response of child protection agencies. Two recent inquiries in the Netherlands on child sexual abuse within child protection-related services have emphasized the position of children as vulnerable victims of negative pedagogical practices, mirroring a general trend of “victimization”. It is concluded that reinforcement of the professional role of child protection workers may be a start towards building new trust in child protection and establishing a newfound legitimacy.

  20. Who Gets Protection? A National Study of Multiple Victimization and Child Protection Among Taiwanese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Feng, Joyce Yen; Feng, Jui-Ying; Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Huang, Soar Ching-Yu; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to examine the prevalence of multiple types of child victimization and the effects of multiple types of victimization on children's mental health and behavior in Taiwan. The study also examines the child-protection rate and its correlates among children experiencing various types of victimization. This study collected data with a self-report questionnaire from a national proportionately stratified sample of 6,233 fourth-grade students covering every city and county in Taiwan in 2014. After calculating the 1-year prevalence of child victimization, the study found that bullying was the most prevalent (71%), followed by physical neglect (66%), psychological violence (43%), inter-parental violence (28%), community violence (22%), physical abuse (21%), and sexual violence (9%). As the number of victimization types increased, children were more likely to report greater posttraumatic symptoms, psychiatric symptoms, suicide ideation, self-harm thoughts, and violent behaviors. Gender, neonatal status, parental marital status, and other family risks were significantly associated with elevated incidences of the victimization types. Only 20.6% of the children who had experienced all seven types of victimization had received child protective services. A child was more likely to receive child protective services if he or she had experienced sexual violence, community violence, inter-parental violence exposure, higher family risks, higher suicidal ideation, or living in a single-parent or separated family. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the cumulative effects and the harmful effects that children's experience of multiple types of victimization can have on the children's mental health and behavior. The present findings also raise alarms regarding the severity of under-serving in child-victimization cases. These results underscore the importance of assessing, identifying, and helping children with multiple victimization experiences.

  1. The journalists’ obligation of protecting the victims of sexual assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Valeriu Voinea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The most debated media story of 2015 in Romania was related to a case of sexual assualt. On the 19th of July 2015 seven teenagers were released from house arrest in the case where they were accused of collectively raping an 18-year-old high school student. The Romania media landscape was quickly overtaken by this story: we had in depth media reports about the alleged assailaints and their home town, scandal regarding a facebook group created by a parent of one of the former mentioned and even a TV appearance from the victim and her mother on live television. The present article will attempt an analysis of the responsabilities that journalists have in protecting victims of sexual assault, according to the European law, Romanian legislation and in the media code of ethics. The questions we are starting from are these: were the Romanian journalists really disgusted by the actions of the seven or was it just a race for larger readership and viewership? What did the journalists do wrong when reporting n this story? What could they and should they have done more in order to protect a victim of sexual assault? And why was this case so widely reported while other cases of rape are constantly ignored by the Romanian media and society?

  2. Legal protection of child victims of sexual violence in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence against children is not a new phenomenon. In this regard, the forms in which it occurs as well as methods that allow it to have taken on an astonishing scale worldwide. Certainly, in this sense, sexual violence leaves the hardest and most complicated effects on the victim. Bearing in mind the complexity of sexual violence against children in the work we are going through an analysis of the criminalization of certain creatures that protect the sexual integrity of children from various forms of sexual violence, and analysis of his position of criminal attempt to answer the question of how the criminal justice system of protection that exists in our country can respond to this case.

  3. [Minor Victims of Violent Acts in the Context of the Victim Reparation Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Katharina; Kröger, Christoph; Franke, Stefanie; Wehrmeyer, Matthias; Heinrichs, Nina

    2017-02-06

    A descriptive analysis of victim compensation applications for children and adolescents as well as sociodemographic and trauma-specific information concerning victims and perpetrators. We did analysis of 100 victim-compensation application files based on a self-developed category System. The files included solely interpersonal trauma, 59 % of which are type II trauma. The most frequent form is sexual violence. The perpetrators stem mostly from children’s homes or peripherals. 79 % of the victims received a diagnosis of a mental disorder, most often posttraumatic stress disorder. Sexually abused children and adolescents make up the majority of the target population in OEG-related trauma outpatient units. Such outpatient units should therefore offer a specific expertise in treating sexually abused children and adolescents.

  4. Institutional shelter to protect adolescent victims of domestic violence: theory or practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diene Monique Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand and analyze, from the perspective of adolescent victims of domestic violence who were cared for in an institution in Campinas-SP, the protective factors to which they are submitted and / or have access. METHOD: This was qualitative research, with data collection occurring through focus groups with 17 adolescents, and semistructured interviews with seven of them; the data analysis was based on content analysis, using a thematic modality. RESULTS: Two themes emerged, entitled Four Walls and Trust. We discuss the context of institutional care, that despite the efforts made contemporaneously, still maintains an authoritarian environment; the importance of the bond and trust established with some employees, acting as protective factors for the adolescents and the protective aspect of religiosity. CONCLUSIONS: It is understood that these considerations should be valued and reinforced through the healthcare services provided to children and adolescents, as they contribute to the promotion of the physical and mental health of this population.

  5. 75 FR 43797 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, Subtitle D of the National Defense Authorization Act... President by section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, subtitle D) to make... of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United...

  6. Can Socially Adept Friends Protect Peer-Victimized Early Adolescents against Lower Academic Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined indices of friends' social adjustment (prosocial skills and social anxiety) that may protect against or exacerbate vulnerability to lower academic competence in the context of peer victimization during middle school (N=320). Peer victimization was assessed with peer nominations, social anxiety was measured with self…

  7. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  8. Sexual and physical violence victimization among senior high school students in Ghana: Risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Johnson, Kiana; Atunah-Jay, Sarah; Owusu, Andrew; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2015-12-01

    Violence in all forms poses a concern because of associations with multiple adverse effects including injuries and mental health problems. There is however limited data on violence in general and youth violence in particular in Ghana. To explore the nature and scope of youth violence in Ghana, we used the nationwide Global School-based Health Survey, conducted among senior high school students in Ghana, to explore risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and environmental levels associated with sexual and physical violence victimization. A fifth of these students reported being forced to have sex in their lifetime while two out of five had been a victim of a physical attack in the year preceding the survey. In final multivariate analysis, for sexual violence victimization, history of sexual activity with or without condom use at last sex, feeling sad or hopeless, and being a victim of bullying and electronic bullying were identified as risk factors, while having friends who were not sexually active was protective. Independent risk factors for physical violence victimization were attempting suicide in the last year, alcohol use in the past month, and bullying other students in the past month. Parent respect for privacy just reached significance as a protective factor for physical violence victimization in the final model. Recognition of the magnitude of violence victimization among Ghanaian students and associated factors must be used to guide development and implementation of appropriate concrete measures to prevent and address the problem.

  9. The impact of family and peer protective factors on girls' violence perpetration and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J; McMorris, Barbara J; Sieving, Renee E; Gower, Amy L

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates whether family and peer connections and prosocial norms buffer adolescent girls' violence involvement and whether a youth development intervention augments the power of these protective factors in reducing girls' risk for violence. Data were obtained from 253 13-17-year-olds enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of Prime Time, a youth development intervention offered through urban clinic settings to girls at high risk for pregnancy. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview survey at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months after enrollment. Protective factors included scales assessing family and peer connections and prosocial norms. Outcome variables were violence victimization and perpetration scales measured at 18 months. Family connections and prosocial norms independently protected girls against violence involvement. Peer prosocial norms also served as a protective buffer against violence perpetration and victimization; however, girls with strong peer connections had higher levels of violence perpetration. Participation in Prime Time augmented the protective effects of family and peer connections on girls' violence victimization but not perpetration. Prime Time participants who had high levels of family connections reported the lowest levels of violence victimization at 18 months. Prime Time participants with strong peer connections trended toward lower levels of violence victimization than other girls. Results suggest that effects of the Prime Time intervention on violence victimization were optimized among high-risk adolescent girls with strong connections to family and peers. The intervention was most potent in preventing violence victimization among girls with strong prosocial connections to family and peers. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying best practices for "Safe Harbor" legislation to protect child sex trafficking victims: Decriminalization alone is not sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Susan; Azzi, Veronica F; Ryan, Gery; Brook, Robert; Chung, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted "Safe Harbor" laws to redirect child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and child sex trafficking from the criminal justice system and into the child welfare system. No comprehensive studies of Safe Harbor law implementation exist. The nine state Safe Harbor laws enacted by 2012 were analyzed to guide state legislators, health professionals, law enforcement agents, child welfare providers, and other responders to the commercial sexual exploitation of children on the development and implementation of state Safe Harbor laws. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with Safe Harbor experts in these states. Participants conveyed that Safe Harbor legislation signified a critical paradigm shift, treating commercially sexually exploited youth not as criminals but as vulnerable children in need of services. However, Safe Harbor legislation varied widely and significant gaps in laws exist. Such laws alone were considered insufficient without adequate funding for necessary services. As a result, many well-meaning providers were going around the Safe Harbor laws by continuing to incarcerate commercially sexually exploited youth in the juvenile justice system regardless of Safe Harbor laws in place. This was done, to act, in their view, in what was the best interest of the victimized children. With imperfect laws and implementation, these findings suggest an important role for local and state responders to act together to protect victims from unnecessary criminalization and potential further traumatization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Peer victimization and subsequent disruptive behavior in school: The protective functions of anger regulation coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak, Ovgü; Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy; Jaggi, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is linked to adjustment problems in youth, including aggressive behavior, yet not all victimized youth are aggressive. The present study investigated whether youth's anger regulation coping might attenuate the positive association between peer victimization and subsequent aggressive behavior. Longitudinal data from 485 7th-grade students (55% female, mean age = 12.84 years) and their teachers were collected in the fall and six months later. Teacher ratings of youth aggressive behavior at follow-up were the primary outcome, with statistical adjustments for baseline aggressive behavior and demographics. Results from multilevel models showed significant interactive effects of baseline anger regulation and peer victimization on residualized teacher-rated aggressive behaviors that were consistent with the hypothesis that anger regulation played a protective role: under high levels of peer victimization, youth with higher levels of anger regulation displayed lower levels of aggressive behavior than their counterparts with lower levels of anger regulation. These findings suggest that targeting and improving students' ability to regulate their anger may be protective in the face of peer victimization and reduce subsequent aggressive behavior.

  12. Child Protection Victims and the ‘Evil Institutions’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nijnatten, Carol|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071920129; Hopman, Marit|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314013377; Knijn, Trudie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072101032

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch child protection system has been the target of harsh criticism in recent decades. The legitimacy of child protection services seems to have eroded. In this article, we analyze this changing legitimacy of child protection against the background of declining parental authority and in

  13. A district nurse's guide to the Forced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2009-01-01

    The government considers forced marriage to be a form of domestic abuse with some 3000 cases reported to the forced marriage unit each year in the UK. Both the Home Office and the Foreign and commonwealth office consider health professionals, such as district nurses, to be ideally placed to identify, help and support the victims of forced marriage. To do this effectively district nurses must be aware of the provisions of the Forced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007.

  14. 24 CFR 5.2005 - Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence in Public and Section 8 Housing § 5.2005 Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8 housing. (a) Domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking. An incident or incidents of actual...

  15. Peer Victimization among Young Children with Disabilities: Early Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Esther; Peterson, N. Andrew; Pottick, Kathleen J.; Zippay, Allison; Parish, Susan L.; Lohrmann, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk and protective factors of peer victimization among young children with disabilities. This study analyzed data from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (n =1,130) to test a path model that included child, family, and school characteristics at Year 1 and peer-relation difficulties and…

  16. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rien

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (revictimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients.

  17. The Protective Role of Friendship Quality on the Wellbeing of Adolescents Victimized by Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Olga; Berger, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Although studies on peer relations acknowledge that having friends constitutes a protective factor against being victimized by peers at school, it is not enough for this factor to operate. The quality of these friendships does play a role too. The present study explored the moderating role of friendship-quality dimensions (closeness, support, disclosure, and affection) on peer victimization and wellbeing. 614 young adolescents (4th to 6th graders, 50.1 % girls) were assessed three times over 1 year. Analyses were conducted to determine moderation effects, differentiated by gender. Results showed that only disclosure and support interact with victimization and affect wellbeing, especially for girls. Implications for studying peer relations, acknowledging gender differences, are discussed.

  18. Protective Factors Against Child Victimization in the School and Community: An Exploratory Systematic Review of Longitudinal Predictors and Interacting Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Vicki; Chou, Shihning; Browne, Kevin

    2015-10-22

    Protective factors against the victimization of children and young people within the school and community environments (extrafamilial victimization) have received less attention than risk factors. To date, there has been no systematic review on protective factors. This systematic review therefore aimed to synthesize the prospective longitudinal research findings on the protective factors against extrafamilial victimization. A systematic search of multiple sources led to the identification of 19,053 studies. Following application of a predefined inclusion and quality assessment criteria, 13 studies exploring protective factors against peer victimization and exposure to violence were included in this review. Across these studies, 19 protective factors were explored: 9 individual factors and 10 contextual factors. Four studies also explored the impact of mediating and moderating variables on the relationship between predictors and extrafamilial victimization. Findings highlight inconsistencies in the definition and measurement of victimization, along with bias in a number of areas. Nevertheless, a small number of variables (perceptions of social competence, physical strength, and aggression) were identified as potential protective factors against extrafamilial victimization. Additionally, mediating and moderating variables were identified, and the interaction between individual and contextual protective and risk factors were highlighted. These findings are explored under the theoretical framework of the ecological systems theory and their practical and research-based implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined…

  20. The Relationship between Bullying Victimization and School Avoidance: An Examination of Direct Associations, Protective Influences, and Aggravating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzell, Kirsten L.; Payne, Allison Ann

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of bullying victimization on school avoidance by proposing the following hypotheses: (1) Net of other factors, students who have experienced bullying victimization are more likely to engage in school avoidance behaviors; (2) There are protective factors that will decrease this relationship between bullying…

  1. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CIANJUR DISTRICT STUDIED BY HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Nuraeny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery. The eradication of human trafficking has been on the agenda in law enforcement because of its effects can interfere with social welfare. One form of trafficking in persons who lately is rampant child trafficking. The problems that can be studied is how the perspective of Human Rights in providing protection to children who are victims of trafficking and whether the implementation of legal protection for child victims of trafficking in Cianjur is in line with the concept of human rights. This study uses normative juridical approach and specification of descriptive analysis. Results from this study is the protection of child victims of trafficking in persons has been referred to the concept of human rights which the regional government make policies on prevention of trafficking, rehabilitation, counseling and empowerment of victims of human trafficking.

  2. fundamental consumer rights under the consumer protection act 68

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castle walk

    2 The purpose, interpretation and application of the Act. 2.1. Purpose of the Act. Existing consumer protection measures were outdated and fragmented. The consumer protection framework had to be ..... licences to use such intangible objects, legal interests in land or other immovable property, gas, water and electricity.

  3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  4. Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms Among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in China: The Protective Role of Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Ye

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer victimization can have a profound effect on children’s wellbeing and is a known risk factor for depression in childhood. Migrant children experience peer victimization at higher rates than non-migrant peers; however, limited research has examined psychological factors that may serve to reduce depression risk for this group. In particular, no studies have yet investigated whether resilience, including personal characteristics and a strong social support network, may moderate the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms for migrant children. This study utilized a latent interaction model to examine the effect of resilience on the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms among 721 rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China. Results indicated that peer victimization was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Resilience was found to be a protective factor for depressive symptoms and also mitigated the effects of peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Exploratory analyses suggest that enrollment in private migrant schools may be linked with poorer psychosocial outcomes for Chinese migrant children. Strengthening the internal resilience and social supports for all migrant children may be an effective strategy to lower their risk for depression. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  5. Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms Among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in China: The Protective Role of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi; Chen, Lihua; Harrison, Sayward E; Guo, Haiying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua

    2016-01-01

    Peer victimization can have a profound effect on children's wellbeing and is a known risk factor for depression in childhood. Migrant children experience peer victimization at higher rates than non-migrant peers; however, limited research has examined psychological factors that may serve to reduce depression risk for this group. In particular, no studies have yet investigated whether resilience, including personal characteristics, and a strong social support network, may moderate the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms for migrant children. This study utilized a latent interaction model to examine the effect of resilience on the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms among 721 rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China. Results indicated that peer victimization was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Resilience was found to be a protective factor for depressive symptoms and also mitigated the effects of peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Exploratory analyses suggest that enrollment in private migrant schools may be linked with poorer psychosocial outcomes for Chinese migrant children. Strengthening the internal resilience and social supports for all migrant children may be an effective strategy to lower their risk for depression. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  6. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  7. The Exposure of the Roma and the Remaining Istrian Population to Victimization by Criminal Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Radetić-Paić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether the Roma (N = 200 as a minority group in Istria were more exposed to criminal acts (more victimised than the remaining Istrian population (N = 200 in the observed period. It was assumed that the Roma were more exposed to criminal acts than the remaining Istrian population because of the fact that they were members of a minority group with a specific lifestyle and culture in Istria, who are significantly exposed to prejudices, resistance, marginalization and isolation. In data processing, the χ2 test and the discriminatory analysis were used, along with the calculation of marginal frequencies on all observed variables. The contribution of this paper is that it illuminates the larger problem of the Roma as a specific minority group’s exposure to certain criminal acts compared to the rest of the population. It is therefore necessary to devote more attention to Roma issues, and to encourage those in power systematically to solve the same at the international, national and local level in particular, and also to find the mechanisms for protection of human rights and suppression of discrimination and segregation of any kind.

  8. The effect of victimization, mental health, and protective factors on crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Swendener, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Although research has found high rates of child maltreatment, widespread victimization, and other negative outcomes among homeless youth and young adults, resiliency among this population has largely been understudied. Specifically, a gap remains in terms of how protective factors such as self-efficacy, low deviant beliefs, and religiosity operate among homeless youth and young adults. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between various forms of victimization, mental health, and protective factors with property and violent crime and illicit drug use among homeless young adults. Results from regression analyses indicate that running away from home more frequently, experiencing more physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs were associated with greater property crime. Significant correlates of violent crime included being male, running away from home more frequently, greater sexual and physical victimization on the street, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more deviant beliefs. Finally, being male, running away more frequently from home, greater child physical abuse and partner victimization, and more deviant beliefs were all associated with greater illicit drug use. Self-efficacy was positively related to both property and violent crime, suggesting that it may not operate for homeless young adults in the same manner as it does for normative populations.

  9. Risk and Protective Factors for Bullying Victimization among AIDS-Affected and Vulnerable Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether bullying is a risk factor for psychological distress among children in poor, urban South Africa. To determine risk and protective factors for bullying victimization. Method: One thousand and fifty children were interviewed in deprived neighborhoods, including orphans, AIDS-affected children, street children, and…

  10. Prior Victimization and Sexual and Contraceptive Self-Efficacy among Adolescent Females under Child Protective Services Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…

  11. 75 FR 66385 - Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act: Guidance on Notification Responsibilities Under the Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... provided by PTFA sunset on December 31, 2014. Section 1484 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and... protections to December 31, 2014. Section 1484 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection... the Act With Respect to Occupied Conveyance AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing...

  12. Acting on Observed Social Exclusion: Developmental Perspectives on Punishment of Excluders and Compensation of Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A.; van den Bos, Wouter; Güroglu, Berna

    2013-01-01

    This study examined punishment of excluders and compensation of victims after observing an instance of social exclusion at various phases of adolescent development. Participants (n = 183; age 9 to 22 years) were first included in a virtual ball-tossing game, Cyberball, and then "observed" the exclusion of a peer. Subsequently, they…

  13. A Bermuda Triangle?
    Balancing Protection, Participation and Proof in Criminal Proceedings affecting Child Victims and Witnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarieke Beijer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the adoption of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child in 1989, the right to participation has been recognised internationally as one of the general principles of children's legal status. It adds a new dimension to the existing and already problematic balance between the protection of the child victim and witness on the one hand and the fairness of the criminal proceedings on the other. In this article, we focus on the position of the child victim and witness in criminal proceedings and the complexity of the different roles he or she plays in this specific legal context, especially in child abuse cases: the child victim and witness that needs to be protected, the child as a vital source of information to the judicial authorities and the child as a person under the age of eighteen who has the right to participate. After having explored the meaning of the right to participate and its consequences for the way criminal proceedings should be conducted, we will address the position of the child witness in Europe and the United States of America. The rules and regulations regarding child witnesses in these two regions are based on different premises as do their assumptions on how to acquire the most reliable testimony. This article aims to clarify these premises in order to define the biggest challenges regarding the implementation of the right to participation of child victims and witnesses in criminal proceedings.

  14. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context.

  15. Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent harm to nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent harm to nutritional supplement users? Gary Gabriels, Mike Lambert, Pete Smith, Donavon Hiss. Background. There is no clear distinction between the regulation of food, supplements and medicines in South Africa. Consequently, grey areas exist in implementing the legislation, ...

  16. Exemption Clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RV

    EXEMPTION CLAUSES AND THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008: AN ASSESSMENT OF NAIDOO V BIRCHWOOD HOTEL 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ). Y Mupangavanhu*. 1. Introduction. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decision in Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel against the background of the previous ...

  17. The Extent to which Laws and Regulations on Environmental Liability Protect the Environment and Compensate the Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Maidment, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an examination and analysis of the laws and regulations on environmental liability, in light of the growing global concern of oil pollution of the marine environment. It considers several fundamental legal provisions that have attempted to protect the environment and compensate the victims of oil pollution and assesses the extent to which these provisions have achieved these aims. A recent high profile incident has reinstated the issue as a worldwide public concern and p...

  18. Victims of gender-based violence and their legal protection in Serbia: In relation to men's violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue in this work is men's violence against women as a hate crime. The author analyzes this through a feminist perspective considering the relevance of basic facts and concepts such as gender, gender roles and socialization, power, patriarchy and women's rights. The author analyzes the position of women victims of men's violence on both the international and national level, and their legal protection, in general and especially in Serbia, using a victimological approach.

  19. CHILD ABUSE IN MALAYSIA: LEGAL MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION OF THE CRIME AND PROTECTION OF THE VICTIM

    OpenAIRE

    Abas, Afridah Binti

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse is not a new phenomenon. It happens all over the world. From the statistic, the case of child abuse is not something that we should take it lightly. Even though many steps have been taken by the government, cases of child abuse keep increasing. Hence, it should be taken seriously and provide the way to protect the victim and to prevent it from happening. In Malaysia, many laws have been passed with the objective of protecting the welfare of the child. In the same time, the law is ...

  20. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neerav; Jha, Saurabh

    2012-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is comprehensive reform and by virtue of its comprehensiveness can be cumbersome to read and understand. This short piece is a succinct and irreverent glance at PPACA. The piece starts with a question and ends with the same question: Will PPACA break the iron triangle? Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 48811 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 AGENCY: Corporation for... Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended by the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of... Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (54 FR 25818, June 19, 1989), and OMB Circular No. A-130, ``Management of...

  2. An Investigation on Legal Protection for Women Victims of Climate Change; Studying African Regional Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mosaffa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, paying attention to the subject of Climate Change and its destructive effects on different countries around the world have caused regular activities as holding international conferences, and ratifying some international documents. Developing and non-developed countries have less facilities and infrastructures to protect themselves from climate change effects and are more vulnerable. Moreover, African countries due to their climate conditions are the most vulnerable. Even more, they have the main population of climate refugees. Although an increasing effort in Africa has resulted in more legal protection for victims of climate change especially women as the most volunrable people, and has been appeared in many regional treaties, but inconsistency and denial of responsibilities from developing countries have caused serious challenges for long term legal-protection of environmental refugees and displacements, especially women and children who are the most vulnerable of climate change victims. Since a sufficient protection of these people requires a common concern and responsibility between states, referring to the "common but different responsibility" principle is one of the most important legal pillar for burden sharing of the massive climate – change movements. تأثیرات تغییرات اقلیم در دهه‌های گذشته بسیار بزرگ بوده و توجه به این پدیده موجب انجام اقدامات معمول بین‌المللی از قبیل برگزاری کنفرانس، تشکیل نهادهـا و تنظیم اسناد گردیده است. در ایـن بین، کشورهای کمتر توسعه‌یافته از امکانات کمتری برای مقابله با این تغییرات برخوردار و در نتیجه آسیب پذیر‌ترند. منطقه آفریقا با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی خاص خود بیشترین آسیب را متحمل شده و هم

  3. Genocide, paramilitary and victims in Indonesia. A review of the documentary film The Act of Killing (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Alberto Díaz Boada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary documentary cinema continues to seek innovative ways to produce subjectivities. This paper centers around the Danish documentary film The act of killing (2012 made by two American filmmakers —Joshua Oppenheimer and Christine Cynn—, along with a third one, who does not disclose his/her identity appearing in the credits as Anonymous. The way in which a process of investigation conducted in Indonesia, a territory swarmed with impunity, can expose before the international community several decades afterwards the effects of a genocide that was orchestrated by huge economic and political forces and carried out by executors such as Anwar Congo, Herman Koto, gangsters and paramilitary groups who up to today have ties with the current democratic regime, is here commented and analyzed.  The documentary film is reviewed noting violence devices and the  continuity between violent acts and their representations and imagery in mass media and sometimes in artistic productions such as film and television programs. One of the questions raised has to do with the role of victims in the documentary, since they seem part of a backdrop while perpetrators are visually given a huge power.

  4. Risk and protective factors associated with being a victim of aggression in the health sector. Research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Parmigiani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: aggression against healthcare workers is an alarming issue worldwide. However, there is lack of data on psychological vulnerability factors (such as personality traits, attachment style which can constitute a risk or a protective factor for being a victim of an episode of violence in the health sector. Methods/design: the present protocol is a cross-sectional study on prevalence and characteristics of violent episodes experienced by nursing students in the clinical setting. Its aim is to identify risk and protective factors for becoming a victim of verbal and/or physical aggression among healthcare workers. Participants will undergo an intensive battery of psychometric tests, dealing with episodes of aggression in the previous year, attachment style, personality traits, perceived stress, health related quality of life and job strain. Conclusions: the findings derived from this study may be of value in identifying vulnerability factors in experiencing an episode of aggression in the health sector. In this respect, it is a step towards the development of valid training and support focused on health workers, aimed at teaching them how to modulate and manage their vulnerability factors in an efficient way.

  5. Protection against violence and discrimination: The case of Roma victims in member states of the council of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Axelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the key role and contribution of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR in protecting the rights of Roma against systemic patterns of violence and discrimination. It investigates the suitability of individual applications in front of international monitoring organs as a litigation strategy to address structural problems emerging at the national level, such as widespread attacks against members of vulnerable minority groups, and puts forward that this strategy has demonstrated to be successful in the case of Roma. The analysis shows that complaints introduced before the ECHR have at the same time helped in providing redress to individual victims, uncovering patterns of systemic abuses, offering solutions to prevent their resurgence, effectively encouraging the adoption of protective measures domestically, and developing the competences of international supervisory mechanisms. As such, it constitutes the most effective avenue so far to right those societal wrongs.

  6. [Utilization of complex technologies of molecular genetics for forensic expert identification of unidentified remains of victims of terrorist acts in Moscow in 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P L; Zharov, V V; Frolova, S A; Ryseva, E V; Kolmakova, M A; Trusova, G R; Tomilin, V V

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the first experience gained in Russia in expert identification practice with complex utilization of technologies of molecular genetic individualization of biological objects for solving identification tasks requiring the maximum complete armory of mutually supplementing means. This is particularly important for forensic expert personality identification in cases with many deaths, when indirect identification has to be resorted to, consisting in the use of biological samples from relatives of the victims as the identifying objects. Methodological approaches and concepts of expert studies, used for identification of the remains of people who died in terroristic acts committed in Moscow in September, 1999, are discussed. The results of this study and methodological experience notably extend the potentialities of expert evaluation as regards forensic medical identification of victims of overall disasters, terroristic acts, and war conflicts.

  7. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards... ] entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive this...

  8. 78 FR 31955 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security National Protection and Programs Directorate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security National Protection... extends administrative Privacy Act protections to all individuals when systems of records maintain...: Department of Homeland Security, Privacy Office. ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In...

  9. 75 FR 69693 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security National Protection and Programs Directorate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...-0086] Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security National Protection and Programs Directorate...-2182), Privacy Officer, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland Security... Privacy Act protections to all individuals where systems of records maintain information on U.S. citizens...

  10. 76 FR 55693 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security National Protection and Programs Directorate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security National Protection... contact: Emily Andrew (703-235-2182), Privacy Officer, National Protection and Programs Directorate... policy, DHS extends administrative Privacy Act protections to all individuals where systems of records...

  11. Social Risk and Peer Victimization in Elementary School Children: The Protective Role of Teacher-Student Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, L Christian; Elledge, Allison R; Newgent, Rebecca A; Cavell, Timothy A

    2016-05-01

    Children not accepted or actively rejected by peers are at greater risk for peer victimization. We examined whether a positive teacher-student relationship can potentially buffer these children from the risk of peer victimization. Participants were 361 elementary school children in the 4th or 5th grade. Peer-report measures were used to assess teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), social preference, and rejected sociometric status; peer victimization was assessed via self-, peer-, and teacher-reports. As expected, social preference assessed in the fall semester was a significant negative predictor of self- and peer-reported victimization measured in the spring, controlling for prior levels of peer victimization. TSRQ in the fall was not a significant unique predictor of self-, peer-, or teacher-reported victimization the following spring, controlling for fall victimization and social preference scores. We found a significant interaction between social preference and TSRQ in predicting self-, peer-, and teacher-reported peer victimization: Social preference significantly predicted peer victimization, but only for those children with relatively poor student-teacher relationships. Subgroup analysis revealed that children actively rejected by peers in the fall reported significantly less peer victimization in the spring (controlling for fall victimization scores) when their fall TSRQ scores were at or above the sample mean compared to rejected children whose TSRQ scores were low (i.e., relationship quality can buffer children at social risk for continued peer victimization.

  12. 78 FR 13101 - No FEAR Act Notice; Notice of Rights and Protections Available Under Federal Antidiscrimination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... OVERSIGHT BOARD No FEAR Act Notice; Notice of Rights and Protections Available Under Federal... FEAR Act. The Act requires that federal agencies provide notice to their employees, former employees.... 1214(f). Nothing in the No FEAR Act alters existing laws or permits an agency to take unfounded...

  13. Units for the protection of child victims and witnesses in the criminal proceedings: Domestic legislation and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević-Đukić Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Serbia has invested maximum efforts in adjusting national legislation with the international legal framework, as well in fulfilling its obligations foreseen in relevant international documents, including the Child Rights Convention. The purpose of this paper is to present Units for the Protection of Child Victims and Witnesses in the Criminal Proceedings that were developed within the IPA project “Improvement of Children's Right through the System of Justice and Social Protection in Serbia”, funded by the EU, and implemented by the UNCEF in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Labour, Employment, Veteran and Social Policy of the Republic of Serbia. The project was implemented from August 2014 to March 2017. The purpose of the Units is to ensure the best interest of children in situation when a child is identified as a victim or a witness of a crime and appears in the criminal or other court procedure. In this way, the state protects children who are important and infallible part of judicial proceedings from secondary victimization and traumatisation, given that the processes within institutions inevitably reflect on mental state of a child. Units were established in four cities: Belgrade, Niš, Novi Sad, and Kragujevac, and they operate at the regional level. This enables that all children, even those in rural areas, will be provided with adequate assistance and support during preparations for the hearing, during criminal proceedings, as well as in its aftermath. The role of the Units is multiple: along with the support to children, it also includes support to the judiciary agencies since the hearing may be performed with a help of professional personnel, psychologist, pedagogue or social worker. Since the members of the Units are trained for conducting forensic interviews according to the Protocol of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, their involvement by the judiciary becomes even

  14. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    .... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review; Final Rule #0;#0... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review AGENCY: Department of Health... health insurance premiums, guaranteed availability, guaranteed renewability, single risk pools, and...

  15. 77 FR 56860 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement Under the Park System Resource Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... DREAMS regarding claims for response costs and damages ] under the Park System Resource Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 19jj. The United States' claims arise from the grounding of the vessel COCKTAIL AND DREAMS... of Proposed Settlement Agreement Under the Park System Resource Protection Act Notice is hereby given...

  16. The Bald And Golden Eagle Protection Act, Species-Based Legal Protection And The Danger Of Misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to extend protection also to the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. The Bald Eagle was an Endangered Species, but the Golden Eagle was not formally listed as Endangered nationwide in the USA. One of the reasons for extending legal protection to the Golden Eagle under the Act was to strengthen the legal protection of the Bald Eagle, because immature Bald Eagles were being misidentified as Golden Eagles and shot. Additional factors relating to Golden Eagle mortality also made legal protection of the Golden Eagle desirable. The danger that a rare and legally protected species can be misidentified and mistaken for a more common and unprotected species can therefore serve as a reason for bestowing legal protection on the more common species as well. Other factors may also indicate that legal protection of the more common species is desirable, making the case more compelling. If this line of reasoning is applied in respect of South African birds of prey, a strong case can be made in favour of extending legal protection under the national biodiversity legislation to more species than the small number of species currently enjoying such protection. Species that are listed as Vulnerable under South African national biodiversity legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable.

  17. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi

    2010-08-01

    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The fight against trafficking in human beings in EU: promoting legal cooperation and victims' protection [booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Equipo de trabajo del Proyecto THB:COOPtoFight

    2014-01-01

    With the financial support from the Prevention of and Fight against Crime Programme of the European Union | European Commission - Directorate-General Home Affairs. CooptoFight: Research Context and Objectives | Brief Glossary on THB | The Legal Key-stages of THB Fighting and Victims’ Protection | Brief Conclusions | Links to access to the International and European Legal Framework and so-me important Institutional Recommendations on THB | References

  19. 77 FR 39748 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-16384] RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988.... General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503), amended the Privacy... amended the Privacy Act regarding protection for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the...

  20. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Theunissen, J.; Van, R.; Duurkoop, P.; Kikkert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a

  1. 28 CFR 1100.31 - Procedures for protecting and providing services to victims of severe forms of trafficking in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... risk of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases to the victim. Other forms of mental health... sexually transmitted diseases in cases involving sexual assault or trafficking into the sex industry, as... services to victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons in federal custody. 1100.31 Section 1100.31...

  2. [The profile of violence against children and adolescents according to Child Protection Council records: victims, aggressors and patterns of violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; Cabral de Carvalho, Rosely; Santa Bárbara, Josele de F R; Santos, Carlos Antonio S T; de A Gomes, Waldelene; Lima de Sousa, Heloísa

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of violence against children and adolescents through the records of Child Protection Councils, associating this violence with the age of the victims and their links with the aggressor. Data were collected from the records and the prevalence rates were calculated through the Prevalence Ratio (PR), together with the associations among variables, with a critical level of 5%. Out of 1,293 records of violence, 1,011 (78.1%), originated in the home. The most frequent types of violence were: neglect (727), failure to provide basic care (304) and abandonment (259); physical violence (455), beatings (392) between 2 and 13 years old; psychological violence (374) through threats (219); sexual violence (68) through abuse (58), mainly among adolescents. Denunciations were mainly (398) anonymous (30.8%); the aggressors through neglect were the parents; through physical violence, the stepmother and "other aggressors"; through sexual violence, the stepfather and "other relatives / aggressors"; psychological violence was prevalent among all aggressor categories. The findings indicate the need to extend the Anti-Violence Hot-line facilities, training Council Members in terms of keeping proper records, and implementing policies designed to prevent violence against children and adolescents.

  3. 77 FR 34233 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Congressional Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). Final Paperwork Reduction of 1995 Analysis Document FCC 12... not charged. Nothing in the record or the Commission's analysis of consumer complaints provides it a... would determine whether the call includes an advertisement. The Commission provided that if the call...

  4. Fundamental Consumer Rights Under the Consumer Protection Act ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of the Act, consumers obtain several new rights and some existing rights are broadened and reinforced. These rights are: the right to equality in the consumer market; privacy; choice; disclosure and information; fair and responsible marketing; fair and honest dealing; fair, just and reasonable terms and conditions; ...

  5. Why victims of domestic violence retract from the criminal justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2008/9 MOSAIC,1 with the assistance of the Gender, Health & Justice Research Unit (UCT), embarked on research that sought to identify the factors that contribute to domestic violence victims withdrawing from the legal process before they finalise protection orders (POs) applied for under the Domestic. Violence Act ...

  6. 28 CFR 1100.37 - Requirements to train appropriate personnel in identifying and protecting victims of severe forms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... severe forms of trafficking in persons regardless of their immigration status; (6) Particular needs of... specialized needs of victims who may face cultural, language, and/or other obstacles that impede their ability...

  7. Risk and protective factors for peer victimization: a 1-year follow-up study of urban American students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Elisabeth; Stickley, Andrew; Lindblad, Frank; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether internalizing problems, parental warmth and teacher support were associated with adolescents' experience of future peer victimization in school. Data were drawn from two rounds of the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Study subjects comprised 593 US urban adolescents (aged 13.8 ± 0.8 years; 56 % female). Results showed that there was a substantial degree of continuity in peer victimization over a 1-year period. The presence of internalizing (anxiety, depressive and somatic) symptoms at baseline was associated with an increased risk of peer victimization over time. Both parental warmth and teacher support were uniquely associated with a lower risk for peer victimization. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

  8. JC Knobel THE BALD AND GOLDEN EAGLE PROTECTION ACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds of the World 20-30; Dickinson and Remsen Checklist xiv; Liebesman and Petersen. Endangered Species ..... jurisdiction, it is probably good that the smallest possible number of species is legally protected. ..... species include rodents, seed-eating birds, larger mammals like monkeys and dassies that can cause ...

  9. 77 FR 18309 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards... Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services..., 2011 rule titled Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans (``Exchange establishment...

  10. 75 FR 63524 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State Medicare... required by the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of ] 1988, the RRB is issuing a public notice... Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, Public Law 100-503, requires a Federal agency participating in...

  11. 77 FR 42658 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data Collection To Support Standards Related to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... their plan design must include pediatric oral services, issuers need to know if stand-alone dental plans... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 156 RIN 0938-AR36 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Data Collection... Services (the Secretary). The Affordable Care Act directs that the EHB reflect the scope of benefits...

  12. Did the Pension Protection Act (PPA) of 2006 Resolve the Pension Crisis in Corporate America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, John J.

    2009-01-01

    On August 17, 2006, President George W. Bush signed into law the Pension Protection Act (PL 109-280). The 907-page federal law has been referred to as the most comprehensive reform of the nation's pension law since the enactment of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974 (Lucas, 2008). This paper will examine the major…

  13. 78 FR 41835 - Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... 3150-AJ25 Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations AGENCY... deferred premiums specified in the Price-Anderson Act for inflation at least once during each 5-year period... first periodic inflation adjustments on September 29, 2008 (73 FR 56451). This final rule makes the...

  14. Judicial protection of the rights of the victim (bank-creditor after the conclusion of the agreement of assignment of the right (requirements in the conditions of the intentional bankruptcy of the debtor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Truntsevsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of analysis in the paper is Russian insolvency legislation? As well as rules ofRussian Criminal Code about insolvency crimes.The purpose of the article is to analyze methods of the judicial protection of the rights ofthe victim (creditor-bank after the conclusion of the contract of cession of rights (claimsin the context of deliberate bankruptcy of the debtor.The methodology of research includes: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, survey,and statistical method.The results, scope of application. Intentional bankruptcy (Art. 196 of the Russian CriminalCode violates the legitimate property interests of creditors. In particular, the Bank has theright to appeal to law enforcement agencies with a statement about criminal acts committedagainst the Bank that caused damage to the Bank. The creditor has the right to applyfor recognition as an injured person. Such a creditor is harmed by a crime. In the event thatthe Bank deliberately bankruptcy of the debtor harmed, and there is a causal relationshipbetween such actions and the socially dangerous consequences that have occurred, then,as follows from Part 1 of Art. 44 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, this circumstance is aprerequisite for the recognition of the Bank as a civil plaintiff. Such a bank has the right todeclare in the criminal case a civil claim for damages to the bank. The purpose of this articleis to provide judicial protection of the rights of the victim (creditor bank after concludingthe contract of assignment of the right (claims in the circumstances of the debtor's deliberatebankruptcy. The research methods are: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction,questioning and statistical method. The conclusion is drawn that the assignment of claimsunder a civil law contract is not grounds for refusing to recognize the Bank as a victim anda civil plaintiff in a criminal case under Art. 196 of the Criminal Code.Conclusions. The assignment of claims under civil contract is not

  15. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...In a final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse protection regulations to require horse industry organizations or associations that license Designated Qualified Persons to assess and enforce minimum penalties for violations of the Horse Protection Act. This document corrects an error in that final rule.

  16. 8 CFR 214.14 - Alien victims of certain qualifying criminal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States: Rape; torture; trafficking; incest; domestic violence; sexual assault; abusive... 2000 of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, div. B, Violence Against Women Act of 2000, tit. V, Pub. L. 106-386, 114 Stat. 1464, (2000), amended by Violence Against Women and...

  17. Multiple centrally acting antidotes protect against severe organophosphate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bird, Steven B; Lo, Jean C Y; Dickson, Eric W

    2006-04-01

    Accumulation of acetylcholine in the central nervous system is believed to account for the rapid lethality of organophosphate pesticides and chemical nerve agents. Diazepam is known to supplement atropine therapy, but its specific mechanism of action is uncertain. To test four centrally acting agents for early antidotal efficacy in severe dichlorvos poisoning in the murine model. The up-and-down method was used to dose four candidate antidotes: diazepam, xylazine, morphine, and ketamine. Antidotes were administered subcutaneously to unsedated adult Sprague-Dawley rats who were pretreated with 3 mg/kg intraperitoneal glycopyrrolate. All animals received 20 mg/kg of dichlorvos subcutaneously 5 minutes later. A blinded observer adjudicated the outcomes of 10-minute mortality and survival time. All animals pretreated with either no antidote (8/8 deaths) or glycopyrrolate alone (8/8) died within 10 minutes of dichlorvos injection. Pretreatment with diazepam (3/9 deaths), or xylazine (3/9), decreased lethality substantially (Fisher p = 0.007; median effective doses, 0.12 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg, respectively). Intermediate doses of morphine (3.1 to 5.5 mg/kg) resulted in survival, but higher doses did not, presumably because of excessive respiratory depression (7/11 deaths; p = 0.09). Ketamine (7/8 deaths) was ineffective as an antidote. Survival times also were prolonged in the diazepam and xylazine groups (log-rank p mechanisms are each sufficient to avert lethality. These findings suggest new possibilities for prophylaxis or therapy.

  18. State Employment Protection Statutes for Victims of Domestic Violence: Public Policy's Response to Domestic Violence as an Employment Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Ojha, Mamta U.; Macke, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that domestic violence has negative consequences on victims' employment; yet employers lag in recognizing this as a workplace issue. To address the problem, some states have established several policy solutions. To understand the scope of the public sector's response to domestic violence as a workplace issue, a content analysis…

  19. PROTECTING EGG DONORS AND HUMAN EMBRYOS-THE FAILURE OF THE SOUTH KOREAN BIOETHICS AND BIOSAFETY ACT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukta Jhalani

    2008-01-01

    ... Korea passed the Bioethics and Biosafety Act to regulate biotechnology research. In its current form, the Bioethics and Biosafety Act fails to adequately protect egg donors and human embryos. The Bioethics and Biosafety Act does not have adequate safeguards to protect egg donors, such as a requirement of voluntary consent and a requirement tha...

  20. The Effects of the Uniformed Services Former Spouses’ Protection Act on Military Retirement Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    81 pages. The Uniformed Services Former Spouses’ Protection Act ( USFSPA ) allows state courts to treat military retirement pay as property for... USFSPA , to ensure just compensation for both military members and military spouses in court-ordered divorce settlements? This thesis examines the divorce...the USFSPA by state courts in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and perceived inequities of the act. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page APPROVAL

  1. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  2. Protection of the Human Rights of Victims of Sexual Abuse: An Approach from the Field of Jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Estrada Jaramillo

    2012-08-01

    of the legislation and main rulings issued by the Colombian Supreme Court of Justice and the Constitutional Court, as well as by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. This issue is of great interdisciplinary relevance since victims require the support of professionals from the fields of law, forensic medicine, psychology, and social work so that their rights are recognized and valued by society and the administration of justice.

  3. To protect or to publish: confidentiality and the fate of the mentally ill victims of Nazi euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, R D

    2009-06-01

    In Nazi Germany, approximately 200 000 mentally ill people were murdered under the guise of euthanasia. Relatively little is known regarding the fate of the Jewish mentally ill patients targeted in this process, long before the Holocaust officially began. For the Nazis, Jewish mentally ill patients were doubly cursed since they embodied both "precarious genes" and "racial toxin". To preserve the memory of the victims, Yad Vashem, the leading institution dedicated to documentation of the Holocaust, actively collects information and documents the fate of victims in an open online database. Recently, a list of approximately 1200 names of Jewish mentally ill euthanasia victims has been compiled from hospital archives. Their fate remains unknown to surviving family members. Given the duty to preserve medical confidentiality, can this list be publicised for public interest and for notifying families-publicising names and death circumstances, including where "killed" would immediately indicate that the person had had a mental illness? Does the right to medical confidentiality lapse upon death? Is time elapsed since death a factor? Can opposing obligations of preserving victims' memory over-ride medical confidentiality? What if a family member objects to a grandparent's name being exposed on the list of mentally ill patients? This article considers these issues as well as the "rational" and "non-rational" factors in ethical decisional making surrounding this unique dilemma. Several possible solutions are proposed including preserving the list in a locked database for access by families and researchers, publicising in the media that such a list exists, publishing the information online without any identifiers and submitting the information to historians, allowing them to process the data as they see fit.

  4. Peer Victimization of Children with Disabilities: Examining Prevalence and Early Risk and Protective Factors among a National Sample of Children Receiving Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization is a serious social problem that can negatively affect a child's psychosocial development and school adjustment, and may have lasting effects for victims. Previous studies on peer victimization have suggested that children with disabilities (CWD) are likely to be more frequent targets of peer victimization. This longitudinal…

  5. [Mitochondrial DNA typing--a new level for solving identification problems in forensic medical expert identification of unidentified remains of victims of terrorist acts in Moscow and the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P L; Frolova, S A; Orekhov, V A; Iankovskiĭ, N K; Zemskova, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    Two large-scale episodes described in this paper reflect the first in Russia use of molecular genetic matrilinear markers (analysis of polymorphism of sequences of amplified fragments of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable locuses) in solution of a complex identification problem: forensic medical identification of unidentified fragments of victims of explosions of houses in Moscow in September, 1999, and of soldiers dead in the war conflict in the Chechen Republic in 1994-1996. The results of this work and methodological experience gained in it essentially extend the potentialities of expert studies as regards forensic medical identification of victims of large scale disasters, terroristic acts, and war conflicts.

  6. 76 FR 20569 - Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Society of the United States, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the American... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are...

  7. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  8. 78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148) and the Health Care and Education... to undertake certain recordkeeping and self-auditing activities to ensure compliance with Federal requirements, such as those governing eligibility determinations for advance payments of the premium tax [[Page...

  9. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN WATER ACT TO PROTECT A NATIONAL TREASURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inh...

  10. 76 FR 51201 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions in the Individual Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... for students under the Medicaid program, which is not consistent with our approach for the Exchange... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions in the Individual Market: Eligibility Determinations; Exchange Standards for Employers; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 159 / Wednesday...

  11. Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act: Forestry contractors' model operating plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Bremer

    2007-01-01

    The Model Operating Plan for forestry contractors is a voluntary plan for compliance with the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) of 1983, with amendments passed in 1996 and 1997. This plan is designed as a guide for forestry contractors who wish to comply with all federal, state, and local rules and regulations that govern their employer/...

  12. Community wildfire protection planning: is the Healthy Forests Restoration Act's vagueness genius?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Kristen C. Nelson; Sherry A. Enzler; Sam Burns; Antony S. Cheng; Victoria Sturtevant; Daniel R. Williams; Alexander Bujak; Rachel F. Brummel; Stephanie Grayzeck-Souter; Emily. Staychock

    2011-01-01

    The Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003 (HFRA) encourages communities to develop community wildfire protection plans (CWPPs) to reduce their wildland fire risk and promote healthier forested ecosystems. Communities who have developed CWPPs have done so using many different processes, resulting in plans with varied form and content. We analysed data from 13 case-...

  13. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... risk sharing protections against adverse selection--risk adjustment and risk corridors--are likely to... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Proposed Rule #0...; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Health and Human...

  14. The Bipartisan Patient Protection Act: greater liability on managed care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Urura W

    2003-01-01

    Mrs. Mayers' article notes the substantial differences that exist between the Senate and the House of Representatives' version of the Bipartisan Patient Protection Act of 2001. While observing the remedies made available to participants, beneficiaries, or enrollees under both bills, she shows that the Senate bill places greater liability on managed care plans because it favors consumer protection, while the House of Representatives' bill does not. In order to develop an understanding of why an act of this nature is needed, Mrs. Mayers provides a brief historical overview of how managed care entities developed. She also examines the Employee Retirement Income Security Act ("ERISA") and proposes amendments to them. She concludes her article by raising an even deeper concern, and that is: what happens to individuals without access to health care coverage.

  15. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; health insurance market rules. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed availability, guaranteed renewability, single risk pools, and catastrophic plans, consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The final rule clarifies the approach used to enforce the applicable requirements of the Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal governmental plans. This final rule also amends the standards for health insurance issuers and states regarding reporting, utilization, and collection of data under the federal rate review program, and revises the timeline for states to propose state-specific thresholds for review and approval by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).

  16. Justice And Legal Certainty For Child Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Setiadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.

  17. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  18. 75 FR 22731 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act for imports of fish and fish products. NMFS is seeking advance... International Affairs, Attn: MMPA Fish Import Provisions, NMFS, F/IA, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD...

  19. 76 FR 20870 - Protective Regulations for Killer Whales in the Northwest Region Under the Endangered Species Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Killer Whales in the Northwest Region Under the Endangered Species Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act... from approaching killer whales within 200 yards (182.9 m) and from parking in the path of whales when... of this final rule is to protect killer whales from interference and noise associated with vessels...

  20. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD in adolescent victims of sexual abuse: resilience and social support as protection factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin

    2014-03-01

    This analysis examined the contribution of personal, family (maternal and paternal support; sibling support) and extra-familiar (peer support; other adults) resilience to the prediction of clinical levels of PTSD symptoms in adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Controls were established for abuse-related variables (type of abuse, severity and multiple abuse) in a representative sample of high schools students in the province of Quebec. A total of 15.2% of adolescent females and 4.4% adolescent males in high school reported a history of sexual abuse in childhood. Sexually abused adolescent females (27.8%) were more likely than adolescent males (14.9%) to achieve scores with high clinical levels of PTSD. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that over and above the characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced, resilience factors (maternal and peer support) contributed to the prediction of symptoms of PTSD attaining the clinical threshold. Alternative intervention and prevention practices geared to adolescent victims of sexual assault are discussed.

  1. Understanding victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  2. Understanding Victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show that the proba......This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...

  3. Dark Side of Information Systems and Protection of Children Online: Examining Predatory Behavior and Victimization of Children within Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Connie S.

    2014-01-01

    Protecting children online from sexual predators has been a focus of research in psychiatry, sociology, computer science, and information systems (IS) for many years. However, the anonymity afforded by social media has made finding a solution to the problem of child protection difficult. Pedophiles manipulate conversation (discourse) with children…

  4. Gender Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Oluwole Ayodele

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Badagry is the first community to receive the Christian religion in Nigeria. For this, every good reason exists to suppose that its coming into early contact with the missionaries should have caused the Ogu people to acquire a healthier understanding of fair play in the context of widowhood practices. Regrettably, they seem to respond more slowly to change in their attitudes to widows. Thus, despite the overwhelming presence of Christian relics in the ancient town of Badagry, traditional customs such as wife inheritance and widowhood rites have continued to appear significantly associated with violence against which women are not well-protected. “Gender Victimization: A Study of Widowhood Practices” among Ogu People of Lagos is the focus of this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for the study. Thus, five in-depth interviews and three focus group discussion instruments were used to collect primary data, which were used to complement quantitative data. Although quantitative data were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, qualitative data were cleaned, reorganized into themes and analyzed. The study found that much as the Ogu people of Lagos acknowledge the position of the scriptures on society’s non-criminal relation with widows, they still believe that their culture comfortably drives the greater proportion of their widow-friendly interactions. This study suggests that the adoption of cultural best practices in handling women and their peculiar issues will tone down violence in customary widowhood practices and enable women who lost their husbands in circumstances beyond their controls access community-based support.

  5. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD in adolescent victims of sexual abuse: resilience and social support as protection factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hébert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This analysis examined the contribution of personal, family (maternal and paternal support; sibling support and extra-familiar (peer support; other adults resilience to the prediction of clinical levels of PTSD symptoms in adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Controls were established for abuse-related variables (type of abuse, severity and multiple abuse in a representative sample of high schools students in the province of Quebec. A total of 15.2% of adolescent females and 4.4% adolescent males in high school reported a history of sexual abuse in childhood. Sexually abused adolescent females (27.8% were more likely than adolescent males (14.9% to achieve scores with high clinical levels of PTSD. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that over and above the characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced, resilience factors (maternal and peer support contributed to the prediction of symptoms of PTSD attaining the clinical threshold. Alternative intervention and prevention practices geared to adolescent victims of sexual assault are discussed.

  6. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD in adolescent victims of sexual abuse: resilience and social support as protection factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The present analysis explored the contribution of personal (resilience), familial (maternal and paternal support, sibling support) and extra-familial (peer support, other adult) to the prediction of clinical levels of PTSD symptoms in teenagers reporting sexual abuse while controlling for abuse-related variables (type of abuse, severity, and multiple abuse). In a representative sample of high schools students in the province of Quebec, a total of 15.2% of high school girls and 4.4% of high school boys reported a history of child sexual abuse. Sexually abused girls (27.8%) were more likely than boys (14.9%) to obtain scores reaching clinical levels of PTSD symptoms. A logistic hierarchical regression revealed that over and above the characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced, resilience, maternal as well as peer support contributed to the prediction of symptoms of PTSD reaching the clinical threshold. Avenues for intervention practices and prevention among adolescent victims of sexual assault are discussed. PMID:24714884

  7. An Evaluation of Law Enforcement Application of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act 3P Strategy from 2003 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    from Mexico and Central and South America. The social, economic, and internal security conditions in these regions have worsened or improved very...indigenous group, illiteracy, a history of physical or sexual abuse, homelessness , drug use, and gang membership. The State Department added to the...fraud, and coercion and related offenses arising from his scheme to exploit seven women for prostitution in the Middle 42 East, Australia , and the

  8. Social indicators and gender violence: victim protection and social change in the EU / Indicadores sociales y violencia de género: protección de las víctimas y cambio social en la UE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Montiel Roig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the legal changes EU legislation on gender violence. Specifically, it deals with the process of defining and categorization in the context of the recent entry into force of the "European protection order for victims". In this sense, the article makes a critical analysis of the construction of indicators and the definition and coordination of EU policies on the eradication of gender-based violence and care for victims. From this perspective, the text analyzes the sources developed by several European institutions on this matter.

  9. On the molluscan fauna of Lakshadweep included in various schedules of Wildlife (Protection Act of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bijukumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 24 species of marine molluscs included in Schedule I and IV of the Wildlife (Protection Act (WPA of India, 19 species were recorded from the coastal waters of Lakshadweep.  A recent survey conducted by the authors recorded the presence of 14 scheduled molluscs in Lakshadweep.  Scheduled species such as Placuna placenta (recorded from Kavaratti and Tudicla spirillus (recorded from Kalpeni are new records from Lakshadweep.  The paper provides details for taxonomic identification of scheduled molluscs and discusses strategies for conservation of scheduled molluscs of Lakshadweep. 

  10. A critical analysis of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform and consumer protection act

    OpenAIRE

    Clowes, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act which was passed into law in the United States on July 21, 2010 in response to the recent financial crisis. It particularly focuses on the parts of the bill related to the markets for structured financial products and credit ratings agencies. The paper reviews the issues that led to the crisis as well as the theory that helps to explain the causes of these issues. It then goes on to analyze the recently passed...

  11. Adaptive Management to Protect Biodiversity: Best Available Science and the Endangered Species Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Odom Green

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although flawed, the most powerful tool for protecting biodiversity in the United States is the Endangered Species Act, which requires the use of the best available science to ensure that endangered and threatened species are not put in jeopardy of extinction. Unfortunately, the best available science mandate is virtually meaningless and imposes no additional scientific rigor in agency decision making beyond what is normally required of administrative procedures. In this paper, we propose to define best available science in a way that shifts from a way of using science to a way of doing science, and a sound method of doing science for wildlife management and climate change is via the principles of adaptive management [1]. Adaptive management, as a means of data accumulation and continuous learning, can fulfill and give teeth to the best available science mandate while increasing the adaptive capacity of wildlife management agencies to protect biodiversity in an unpredictably dynamic environment.

  12. Notification: Audit of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Compliance with the Federal Information Security Management Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY14-0135, February 10, 2014. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin fieldwork for an audit of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's compliance with the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA).

  13. 78 FR 29786 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State Medicare... computer matching program due to expire on May 24, 2013. SUMMARY: As required by the Privacy Act of 1974.... Grant, Chief Privacy Officer, Railroad Retirement Board, 844 North Rush Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611...

  14. Improving anti-bullying laws and policies to protect youth from weight-based victimization: parental support for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Suh, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-01

    Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015. Identical online questionnaires were completed by two independent national samples of parents in 2014 and 2015 (N = 1804). Parental support for all policy actions was high (at least 81%) and significantly increased from 2014 to 2015 for legal measures that would a) require state anti-bullying laws to add protections against weight-based bullying, and b) enact a federal anti-bullying law that includes weight-based bullying. These findings can inform policy discourse about remedies for youth bullying, and suggest that parental support for improved legal protections against weight-based bullying is present, consistent, and strong. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS IN CONSUMER CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, the concept "contractual fairness" can be narrowed down, described and analysed with reference to the two interdependent types of fairness – substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness in contracts address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. One could say that a contract is procedurally fair where its terms are transparent and do not mislead as to aspects of the goods, service, price and terms. Despite the noble aims of legislative measures aimed at procedural fairness there are certain limits to the efficacy of procedural measures and transparency. The special procedural measures which must be considered in terms of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 in order to decide if a contract is fair are analysed in this article, as are other measures contained in the Act, which may also increase procedural fairness, and are discussed so as to allow suppliers to predict whether their contracts will be procedurally fair or not in terms of the Act. The special procedural measures can be categorised under measures requiring disclosure and/or mandatory terms, and measures addressing bargaining position and choice. It is concluded that owing to the nature of all these factors and measures related to procedural fairness, it is clear that openness and transparency are required by the CPA.

  16. Adults Make a Difference: The Protective Effects of Parent and Teacher Emotional Support on Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Peer-Victimized Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Rachel; Leadbeater, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the associations between peer victimization and maladaptive outcomes (emotional and behavioral problems) among 580 adolescents concurrently and across a 2-year period, and proposed that adult emotional support moderated this association. Peer victimization and maladaptive outcomes were assessed from…

  17. Gewalt beenden, Opfer schützen, Täter belangen End violence, protect victims, prosecute culprits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Fuchs

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Heinz stellt in ihrem Buch Interventionsprojekte gegen häusliche Gewalt in Deutschland vor, die seit den 1990er Jahren entstehen. Anhand von Materialien der Projekte selbst und wissenschaftlicher Begleitforschungen werden die einzelnen Projekte sowie ihre Arbeitsschwerpunkte vorgestellt und deren Wirkungen diskutiert. Die Arbeit zeigt, wie wirkungsvoll diese Kooperationsbündnisse von Staat und Zivilgesellschaft für den Schutz vor Gewalt sind. Doch es wird auch deutlich, dass diese Errungenschaften noch nicht dauerhaft gesichert sind.Heinz’s book presents projects against domestic violence which have been established in Germany since the 1990s. Relying on the grey material from these projects, the study discusses their strategies and results. It shows that co-operation between state and civil society does make a difference in respect to women’s protection from violence. However, it also makes clear that these achievements must still not be assumed to have become permanently established.

  18. Acting like a Tough Guy: Violent-Sexist Video Games, Identification with Game Characters, Masculine Beliefs, & Empathy for Female Violence Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.

    2016-01-01

    Empathy—putting oneself in another’s shoes—has been described as the “social glue” that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would reduce empathy toward female violence victims. Participants (N = 154) were randomly assigned to play a violent-sexist game, a violent-only game, or a non-violent game. After gameplay, measures of identification with the game character, traditional masculine beliefs, and empathy for female violence victims were assessed. We found that participants’ gender and their identification with the violent male video game character moderated the effects of the exposure to sexist-violent video games on masculine beliefs. Our results supported the prediction that playing violent-sexist video games increases masculine beliefs, which occurred for male (but not female) participants who were highly identified with the game character. Masculine beliefs, in turn, negatively predicted empathic feelings for female violence victims. Overall, our study shows who is most affected by the exposure to sexist-violent video games, and why the effects occur. (200 words) PMID:27074057

  19. Acting like a Tough Guy: Violent-Sexist Video Games, Identification with Game Characters, Masculine Beliefs, & Empathy for Female Violence Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2016-01-01

    Empathy--putting oneself in another's shoes--has been described as the "social glue" that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would reduce empathy toward female violence victims. Participants (N = 154) were randomly assigned to play a violent-sexist game, a violent-only game, or a non-violent game. After gameplay, measures of identification with the game character, traditional masculine beliefs, and empathy for female violence victims were assessed. We found that participants' gender and their identification with the violent male video game character moderated the effects of the exposure to sexist-violent video games on masculine beliefs. Our results supported the prediction that playing violent-sexist video games increases masculine beliefs, which occurred for male (but not female) participants who were highly identified with the game character. Masculine beliefs, in turn, negatively predicted empathic feelings for female violence victims. Overall, our study shows who is most affected by the exposure to sexist-violent video games, and why the effects occur. (200 words).

  20. Cyberstalking victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Vida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.

  1. Post-acute care and vertical integration after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Patrick D; Mick, Stephen S

    2013-01-01

    The anticipated changes resulting from the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act-including the proposed adoption of bundled payment systems and the promotion of accountable care organizations-have generated considerable controversy as U.S. healthcare industry observers debate whether such changes will motivate vertical integration activity. Using examples of accountable care organizations and bundled payment systems in the American post-acute healthcare sector, this article applies economic and sociological perspectives from organization theory to predict that as acute care organizations vary in the degree to which they experience environmental uncertainty, asset specificity, and network embeddedness, their motivation to integrate post-acute care services will also vary, resulting in a spectrum of integrative behavior.

  2. Integrating community health workers within Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nadia; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Zahn, Deborah; Skillman, Megan; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (PPACA) emphasis on community-based initiatives affords a unique opportunity to disseminate and scale up evidence-based community health worker (CHW) models that integrate CHWs within health care delivery teams and programs. Community health workers have unique access and local knowledge that can inform program development and evaluation, improve service delivery and care coordination, and expand health care access. As a member of the PPACA-defined health care workforce, CHWs have the potential to positively impact numerous programs and reduce costs. This article discusses different strategies for integrating CHW models within PPACA implementation through facilitated enrollment strategies, patient-centered medical homes, coordination and expansion of health information technology (HIT) efforts, and also discusses payment options for such integration. Title V of the PPACA outlines a plan to improve access to and delivery of health care services for all individuals, particularly low-income, underserved, uninsured, minority, health disparity, and rural populations. Community health workers' role as trusted community leaders can facilitate accurate data collection, program enrollment, and provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate, patient- and family-centered care. Because CHWs already support disease management and care coordination services, they will be critical to delivering and expanding patient-centered medical homes and Health Home services, especially for communities that suffer disproportionately from multiple chronic diseases. Community health workers' unique expertise in conducting outreach make them well positioned to help enroll people in Medicaid or insurance offered by Health Benefit Exchanges. New payment models provide opportunities to fund and sustain CHWs. Community health workers can support the effective implementation of PPACA if the capacity and potential of CHWs to serve as cultural

  3. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among Doctors in Udaipur City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the awareness of provisions of consumer protection act among dental and medical professionals in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India.Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, a total of 448 professionals (253 males, 195 females belonging to dental (222 and medical (226 categories were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 22questions about the awareness of consumer protection art (CPA and whether these professionals were following the recommendations of CPA. The student’s t-test, ANOVA test,and Scheffe’s test were used as tests of significance.Results: The awareness scores were significantly higher for medical professionals compared with those of dental professionals. Similarly, postgraduates showed more awareness in both the professions and it was found that private practitioners significantly have more awareness than the academic sector.Conclusion: Though medical professionals have more awareness of CPA compared to dental professionals, considering the present scenario, better knowledge of CPA is necessary for both professionals in order to be on the safer side.

  4. Acting like a Tough Guy: Violent-Sexist Video Games, Identification with Game Characters, Masculine Beliefs, & Empathy for Female Violence Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbiadini, A; Riva, P; Andrighetto, L; Volpato, C.; Bushman, B

    2016-01-01

    Empathy?putting oneself in another?s shoes?has been described as the ?social glue? that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would r...

  5. Acting like a tough guy: Violent-Sexist video games, identification with game characters, masculine beliefs, & empathy for female violence victims

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Gabbiadini; Paolo Riva; Luca Andrighetto; Chiara Volpato; Bushman, Brad J.

    2016-01-01

    Empathy--putting oneself in another's shoes--has been described as the "social glue" that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would...

  6. Employers' Statutory Vicarious Liability in Terms of the Protection of Personal Information Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleen Millard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A person whose privacy has been infringed upon through the unlawful, culpable processing of his or her personal information can sue the infringer's employer based on vicarious liability or institute action based on the Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI. Section 99(1 of POPI provides a person (a "data subject" whose privacy has been infringed upon with the right to institute a civil action against the responsible party. POPI defines the responsible party as the person who determines the purpose of and means for the processing of the personal information of data subjects. Although POPI does not equate a responsible party to an employer, the term "responsible party" is undoubtedly a synonym for "employer" in this context. By holding an employer accountable for its employees' unlawful processing of a data subject's personal information, POPI creates a form of statutory vicarious liability. Since the defences available to an employer at common law and developed by case law differ from the statutory defences available to an employer in terms of POPI, it is necessary to compare the impact this new statute has on employers. From a risk perspective, employers must be aware of the serious implications of POPI. The question that arises is whether the Act perhaps takes matters too far. This article takes a critical look at the statutory defences available to an employer in vindication of a vicarious liability action brought by a data subject in terms of section 99(1 of POPI. It compares the defences found in section 99(2 of POPI and the common-law defences available to an employer fending off a delictual claim founded on the doctrine of vicarious liability. To support the argument that the statutory vicarious liability created by POPI is too harsh, the defences contained in section 99(2 of POPI are further analogised with those available to an employer in terms of section 60(4 of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA and other

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 ON THE COMMON LAW WARRANTY AGAINST EVICTION: A COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Barnard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA has great implications for the South African common law of sale. In this contribution the influence of the CPA on the seller’s common law duty to warrant the buyer against eviction is investigated. Upon evaluation of the relevant provisions of the CPA, the legal position in the United Kingdom – specifically the provisions of the Sales of Goods Act of 1979 – is investigated.

  8. Undeclared baggage: Do tourists act as vectors for seed dispersal in fynbos protected areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth H. Bouchard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Encroachment by alien species is the second greatest threat to biodiversity worldwide. As South Africa’s Cape Floristic Region has a botanical endemism of nearly 70%, conservation efforts are a high priority. Estimates suggest that alien species cost the country over R6.5 billion per year. Despite significant research on alien species dispersal, the role of tourists as seed dispersers requires further exploration. To investigate the potential role tourists play in introducing alien seeds into protected areas, long-bristle brushes were used to scrape seeds off the shoes of hikers, dog walkers and cyclists, as well as the wheels of mountain bikes and dogs themselves, upon entering the Silvermine Nature Reserve section of the Table Mountain National Park in the Western Cape province, South Africa. In addition, a vegetation survey was conducted. This comprised 18 transects at various distances from the recreational paths in the park, and used a prioritisation ranking system that identified the alien species of greatest concern. It was concluded that the greatest number of alien plant species could be found along dog paths, in comparison to the hiking trails and cycling trails. This corresponded to the findings that dog walkers had the highest incidence of seeds on their shoes, suggesting that tourists were possibly dispersing seeds from their gardens. Alien species significantly covered more of the vegetation transects closer to the trails than they did in transects further into the matrix. Because more alien species were present in areas susceptible to human disturbance, the data suggest that tourists can act as vectors for alien seed dispersal. These findings emphasise the need for active tourism management in line with the South African National Parks Biodiversity Monitoring Programme in order to prevent the introduction and spread of alien species into South Africa’s protected areas.Conservation implications: Tourism is the main source of

  9. The constitutional protection of trade secrets and patents under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 ("Biosimilars Act") is for the field of pharmaceutical products the single most important legislative development since passage of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 ("Hatch-Waxman Act"), on which portions of the Biosimilars Act are clearly patterned. Congress revised section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) to create a pathway for FDA approval of "biosimilar" biological products. Each biosimilar applicant is required to cite in its application a "reference product" that was approved on the basis of a full application containing testing data and manufacturing information, which is owned and was submitted by another company and much of which constitutes trade secret information subject to constitutional protection. Because the Biosimilars Act authorizes biosimilar applicants to cite these previously approved applications, the implementation of the new legislative scheme raises critical issues under the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution, pursuant to which private property--trade secrets included--may not be taken for public use, without "just compensation." FDA must confront those issues as it implements the scheme set out in the Biosimilars Act. This article will discuss these issues, after providing a brief overview of the Biosimilars Act and a more detailed examination of the law of trade secrets.

  10. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: implications for pediatric plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Megan M; Meara, John G

    2012-01-01

    Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) has stimulated wide debate in the medical and surgical community. Endorsed by the American Medical Association and a number of primary care-focused organizations, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and nearly all other surgical associations opposed the bill. This divergence stems not from direct disagreement over provisions in the bill but from opposition to or support of certain provisions with direct implications for the physicians represented by a given organization, as well as the relative importance of provisions for which these organizations share a common opinion. Regarding the field of pediatric plastic surgery, the surgical perspective of the ACS and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the medical perspective of the American Academy of Pediatrics align on many issues. Given the lack of specificity of any of the provisions for a field as specialized as pediatric plastic surgery, this review will focus on broader implications of the PPACA both for medical and surgical needs of pediatric patients and for the surgeons providing their care. The provisions of the PPACA are distributed along an implementation timeline, with some major changes having already occurred. The popularity of some of the early provisions, many pertaining to the pediatric population, has implications for any attempt at repeal of the law as a whole in coming years. Despite its daunting length, the PPACA can be approached by considering its provisions in 4 major categories: increased consumer protections, increased accountability for insurers, increased access to affordable care, and quality and cost improvement.

  11. Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.

  12. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  13. Polarized stakeholders and institutional vulnerabilities: the enduring politics of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Daniel; Rocco, Philip; Waddan, Alex

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a comparative study of how state-level political stakeholders affected the implementation of 3 major reforms within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Our goal was to analyze the effects of policy legacy, institutional fragmentation, and public sentiments on state obstruction of the reform. We gathered quantitative and qualitative evidence to generate cross-case comparisons of state implementation of 3 reform streams within the ACA: health insurance exchanges, Medicaid expansion, and regulatory reform. Our sources included secondary literature, analysis of official decisions, and background interviews with experts and public officials. We found that state-level opponents of the ACA were most likely to be successful in challenging reforms with few preexisting policy legacies, high institutional fragmentation, and negative public sentiments. Reforms that built on existing state legislation, avoided state veto points or offered lucrative fiscal incentives, and elicited less negative public reaction were less likely to be contested. Our findings point to the importance of institutional design for the role of political stakeholders in implementing reforms to improve the cost, quality, and availability of medical treatments. Although other research has found that political polarization has shaped early ACA outcomes, comparative analysis suggests political stakeholders have had the highest effect on reforms that were particularly vulnerable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Daniel J; Thomas, Steven; Puscas, Liana; Lee, Walter T

    2014-02-01

    To assess otolaryngology physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and compare the association of bias toward the PPACA with knowledge of the provisions of the PPACA. Cross-sectional survey. Nationwide assessment. Members of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Otolaryngology physicians answered 10 true/false questions about major provisions of the PPACA. They also indicated their level of agreement with 9 statements about health care and the PPACA. Basic demographic information was collected. Email solicitation was sent to 9972 otolaryngologists and 647 responses were obtained (6.5% response rate). Overall correct response rate was 74%. Fewer than 60% of physicians correctly answered questions on whether small businesses receive tax credits for providing health insurance, the effect of the PPACA on Medicare benefits, and whether a government-run health insurance plan was created. Academic center practice setting, bias toward the PPACA, and Democratic Party affiliation were associated with significantly more correct responses. Overall physician knowledge of the PPACA is assessed as fair, although better than the general public in 2010. There are several areas where knowledge of physicians regarding the PPACA is poor, and this knowledge deficit is more pronounced within certain subgroups. These knowledge issues should be addressed by individual physicians and medical societies.

  15. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) site-specific projects: 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the classification of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change.

  16. A systems thinking approach to analysis of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John C

    2015-01-01

    The public health community is challenged with understanding the many complexities presented by systems thinking and its applications in systems modeling. The model presented encompasses multiple variables needed (eg, model building) for the construction of a conceptual system model of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The model tracks the ACA from inception, through passage, March 2010, to its current state. Justification for the need to reform the current health care system rests, in part, on the heels of social justice. Proponents of the ACA have long argued that health reform was needed by the millions of uninsured person who suffered from health disparities, took little advantage of health prevention advice, and faced issues of access to providers as well as insurers. In addition the ACA seeks to address our uncontrollable spending on health care delivery. This article highlights the ACA from a systems perspective. The conceptual model presented encompasses both health reform variables (eg, health care provisions, key legislative components, system environment) and system variables (eg, inputs, outputs, feedback, and throughput) needed to understand current health care reform efforts from a systems perspective. The model presented shows how the interrelationships and interconnections of elements of a system come together to achieve its purpose or goal.

  17. Passive immunization with anti-ActA and anti-listeriolysin O antibodies protects against Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Krisana; Sashinami, Hiroshi; Osanai, Arihiro; Hirose, Shouhei; Ono, Hisaya K; Narita, Kouji; Hu, Dong-Liang; Nakane, Akio

    2016-12-22

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that causes listeriosis. Due to its intracellular niche, L. monocytogenes has evolved to limit immune recognition and response to infection. Antibodies that are slightly induced by listerial infection are completely unable to protect re-infection of L. monocytogenes. Thus, a role of antibody on the protective effect against L. monocytogenes infection has been neglected for a long time. In the present study, we reported that passive immunization with an excessive amount of antibodies against ActA and listeriolysin O (LLO) attenuates severity of L. monocytogenes infection. Combination of these antibodies improved survival of L. monocytogenes infected mice. Bacterial load in spleen and liver of listerial infected mice and infected RAW264.7 cells were significantly reduced by administration of anti-ActA and anti-LLO antibodies. In addition, anti-LLO antibody neutralized LLO activity and inhibited the bacterial escape from the lysosomal compartments. Moreover, anti-ActA antibody neutralized ActA activity and suppressed actin tail formation and cell-to-cell spread. Thus, our studies reveal that passive immunization with the excessive amount of anti-ActA and -LLO antibodies has potential to provide the protective effect against listerial infection.

  18. 75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... for imports of fish and fish products. On April 30, 2010, NMFS published the advance notice of...: Director, Office of International Affairs, Attn: MMPA Fish Import Provisions, NMFS, F/IA, 1315 East-West...

  19. 47 CFR 54.520 - Children's Internet Protection Act certifications required from recipients of discounts under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... certifications required from recipients of discounts under the federal universal service support mechanism for... Libraries § 54.520 Children's Internet Protection Act certifications required from recipients of discounts... discounts for Internet access and internal connections services under the federal universal service support...

  20. Repatriation in the United States: The Current State of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daehnke, Jon; Lonetree, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Repatriation in the United States today is synonymous with the passage of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Although repatriations of Native American ancestral remains and cultural objects certainly occurred--and continue to occur--outside of the purview of NAGPRA, this law remains the centerpiece of repatriation…

  1. 78 FR 52786 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Park System Resource Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... costs, and response costs pursuant to the Park System Resource Protection Act, 16 U.S.C. 19jj et seq...,000 for park system resource damages, assessment costs, and response costs as alleged in the Complaint.... Defendants will also supply water and equipment to water the trees. The publication of this notice opens a...

  2. COPPA (Children's Online Privacy Protection Act): The First Year--A Survey of Sites. A Report on Web Site Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Media Education, Washington, DC.

    The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) went into effect on April 21, 2000. The first Federal online privacy law, COPPA regulates the collection, use, and disclosure by commercial Web sites and online services of personally identifiable information from children under age 13. To mark the first anniversary of COPPA's implementation, a…

  3. Research and Legal Perspectives on the Implications of the Family Privacy Protection Act for Research and Evaluation Involving Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renger, Ralph; Gotkin, Vicki; Crago, Marjorie; Shisslak, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the Family Privacy Protection Act of 1995 and its potential impact on research and evaluation involving minors. Although this legislation was not passed, the issues related to both active and passive parental consent for the participation of minors in research are very much alive. (SLD)

  4. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.

  5. 76 FR 61227 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Explosives (ATF) when enforcing the Gun Control Act of 1968. Because the purpose of the Select Agent Program differs from ATF's enforcement actions under the Gun Control Act, we do not believe that these terms must be defined exactly the same. The Gun Control Act regulates access to firearms, while the Bioterrorism...

  6. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Utilization of Preventive Health Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Eno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined how (a health insurance coverage, and (b familiarity with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA’s or ObamaCare mandate of cost-free access to preventive health services, affect the use of preventive services by residents of a minority community. It was based on primary data collected from a survey conducted during March to April 2012 among a sample of self-identified African American adults in Tallahassee-Leon County area of northwest Florida. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22 was used for running frequency analysis on the data set and multivariable regression modeling. The results showed that of 524 respondents, 382 (73% had health insurance while 142 (27% lacked insurance. Majority of insured respondents, 332 (87%, used preventive health services. However, the remaining 13% of respondents did not use preventive services because they were unfamiliar with the ACA provision of free access to preventive services for insured people. Regression analysis showed a high (91.04% probability that, among the insured, the use of preventive health services depended on the person’s age, income, and education. For uninsured residents, the lack of health insurance was the key reason for non-use of preventive health services, while among the insured, lack of knowledge about the ACA benefit of free access contributed to non-use of preventive services. Expansion of Medicaid eligibility can increase insurance coverage rates among African Americans and other minority populations. Health promotion and awareness campaigns about the law’s benefits by local and state health departments can enhance the use of preventive services.

  7. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act site-specific projects: 2008 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the analysis of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change. Several challenges are associated with the land-water interpretation process. Primarily, land-water classifications are often complicated by the presence of floating aquatic vegetation that occurs throughout the freshwater systems of coastal Louisiana and that is sometimes difficult to differentiate from emergent marsh. Other challenges include tidal fluctuations and water movement from strong winds, which may result in flooding and inundation of emergent marsh during certain conditions. Compensating for these events is difficult but possible by using other sources of imagery to verify marsh conditions for other

  8. Clairvoyance vs. common sense: therapist's duty to warn and protect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkin, D J

    1986-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of a therapist's duty to warn and protect victims of domestic violence. In three different cases, California courts have found therapists liable for violent acts perpetrated by clients in their care. Based on the landmark Tarasoff case that mandated the therapist to report threats made by their clients regarding a specific victim, the courts have now extended the therapist's duty to include the reporting of those clients they assess as dangerous but who have not made specific threats, as well as the protection of unintended victims of violence, such as children. Therapists are concerned that the courts are expecting them to be clairvoyant and that psychologists may not be able to predict dangerousness. This article will discuss these concerns in light of the current state of the art regarding the prediction of dangerousness and its relationship to domestic violence. The author suggests specific clinical interventions for victims and perpetrators of domestic violence.

  9. Gender and victimization by intimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L E; Browne, A

    1985-06-01

    Recent data demonstrate that, although gender has an impact upon the experience of being a victim of an intimate's violence, there is no particular personality pattern that leads one to become a victim. Rather, women--who are socialized to adapt and submit, and who are likely to become victims of men's sexual violence or physical abuse--may not develop adequate self-protection skills as children, especially if they come from childhood homes in which females are victimized, leading to a later vulnerability to physical and sexual abuse. Men, however, socialized to express anger and aggression in an outward manner, learn to model the abuse witnessed or experienced in childhood and often learn that women are the "appropriate" recipients of this violence. Social learning theories of modeling and aggression are used to explain how such personality patterns develop, and the theory of learned helplessness is used to explain battered women's coping responses to their partners' abusive behavior. The extreme situation, in which a battered woman kills her partner in self-defense, is analyzed in order to understand women victims' sense of desperation and entrapment in severely abusive relationships and the extent to which their behaviors are in reaction to the abuse perpetrated by the mate.

  10. The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, species-based legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable. Keywords: environmental law; legal protection; biodiversity; species; misidentification; Bald Eagle; Golden Eagle; bird of prey; raptor; South Africa ...

  11. Equal Protection of the Law: The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Bain

    2016-10-01

    This analysis of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, examines the nature and scope of equal rights and whether the Act provides adequate enforcement. The aim of the provisions is to restrict discrimination against persons with disabilities by providing opportunities on an equal basis and to require persons having dealings with the disabled to accommodate their needs. It is questionable whether the Act fulfils its purpose and whether penalties for failure to comply with the Act are adequate, as there is a lacuna or gap in the law, which hinders purposeful rights.

  12. 75 FR 37187 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Preexisting Condition Exclusions, Lifetime and Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... categories: ambulatory patient services; emergency services; hospitalization; maternity and newborn care... status and evidence of insurability-- including acts of domestic violence or disability. They also...

  13. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  14. 78 FR 76212 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... enacted on March 23, 2010. The Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-152... CMS's belief that this interim final rule does not reach this economic threshold and thus is not..., Sunshine Act, Technical Assistance, Women, and Youth. For the reasons set forth in the preamble, the...

  15. [The victim within the framework of criminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaro, P

    1978-01-01

    The Author makes a 'tour d'horizon', albeit summarized, of the problems brought about by the victim "from crime" in the exclusive picture of criminology. After defining the dogmatic relations between criminology and victimology, stating that such a (new) discipline highlights the entirety of the criminal event centering upon the dyad criminal-victim, the latest classifications of the victim viewed individually and also in his manifold relationships with the acting subject, are reviewed, in the attempt of identifying, on the basis of the various situations of victimization as they occur, if not some causal laws proper, at least some constants and some emerging lines susceptible of an in-depth analysis. After hinting to the problems brought about by the victim in the supranational prospect, and by the crimes so-called without a victim, the importance of the victim from the criminalistics and criminal execution angle, is outlined, and the Author closes up, by way of conclusion, and at the operational level, broadly hinting to the most suitable methods for the prevention and repairing in regard of the victims of crime.

  16. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Aihui; Liang, Lichan; Yuan, Chunyong; Bian, Yufang

    2014-01-01

    This study used the latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1) Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2) There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3) Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4) As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  17. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihui Shao

    Full Text Available This study used the latent class analysis (LCA to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1 Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2 There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3 Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4 As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  18. 48 CFR 1252.228-73 - Notification of Miller Act payment bond protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employees, suppliers, and subcontractors a right to sue the bonding surety under the Miller Act for amounts... the Federal Government, or create any relationship, contractual or otherwise, between the Federal...

  19. Victims of Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Slachtoffers van criminaliteit. More than three million people in the Netherlands are victims of crime each year. Are all Dutch citizens equally at risk of becoming victims? And of those who become victims, which report the offence to the police, and what motivates them to do

  20. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's (APHIS) administration of the Horse Protection Program and...); (2) show or exhibit a horse at a horse show, public auction, or exhibition such as a college football...

  1. 75 FR 12377 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations-Disposition of Culturally...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... objects and objects of cultural patrimony. Among other things, the Act: --Established the Native American..., disposition of human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony removed from... the repatriation of human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony...

  2. 48 CFR 352.242-72 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cultural patrimony), as defined in the Act during contract performance, the Contractor shall— (i... individuals and organizations when they discover Native American cultural items (including human remains) on Federal or Tribal lands. (b) In the event the Contractor discovers Native American cultural items...

  3. 78 FR 65045 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...). Specifically, this final rule outlines financial integrity and oversight standards with respect to Affordable...). This final rule sets forth oversight and financial integrity standards with respect to Exchanges... Affordable Care Act, provides the Secretary with the authority to oversee financial integrity, compliance...

  4. 78 FR 33233 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ...; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Small Business Health Options Program AGENCY: Centers for... Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers... proposed in the Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans; Small Business Health Options...

  5. Servicemembers Civil Relief Act: Information on Mortgage Protections and Related Education Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    agencies and nonprofit organizations to help provide financial education to servicemembers, but limited information on the effectiveness of these...Relief Act DOD has entered into partnerships with many federal agencies and nonprofit organizations to help provide financial education to...servicemembers of their SCRA rights. DOD also has entered into partnerships with many other federal agencies and nonprofit organizations to help provide

  6. 76 FR 77392 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... health plans available in the Exchanges with a focus on integrated care and greater plan accountability... Act, (Pub. L. 111-148), enacted on March 23, 2010, and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation... CO-OP program also seeks to promote improved models of care. Existing health insurance cooperatives...

  7. Animosity towards Acid Attacks - Critical Study on Acid Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekar, S.V; Eldo Johny

    2017-01-01

    Animosity to acid attacks is deliberated as foulest acts, a form of gender terrorism within the feminist read. It’s a form of vicious violence outlined as acid throwing or Vitriolage. In India, there are component varied incident were reported, as most precarious victimization of individuals by deforming their body. The condition of victims of acid attacks is unit in serious frustrating their entire life. Acid victimization has deliberated globally and even several countries area unit sensiti...

  8. The patient protection and Affordable Care Act: a primer for hand surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is the largest and most comprehensive overhaul of the United States health care industry since the inception of the Medicare and Medicaid. Contained within the 10 titles are a multitude of provisions that will change how hand surgeons practice medicine and how they are reimbursed. It is imperative that surgeons are equipped with the knowledge of how this law will affect all physician practices and hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 37031 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, Premium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule sets forth financial integrity and... standards, which include financial integrity provisions and protections against fraud and abuse, are... forth oversight and financial integrity standards with respect to Exchanges, QHP issuers in Federally...

  10. 77 FR 15379 - Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act: Additional Guidance on Notification Responsibilities Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... or speech challenges may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Information... completion of foreclosure, the mortgagee must confirm the identity of all occupants, determine each occupant... is 877-622- 8525; its email address is [email protected] . Persons with hearing or speech...

  11. An inventory of archaeological sites and collections in the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge under the provisions of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) requires Federal agencies and museums receiving federal funds to inventory human remains,...

  12. ActRII blockade protects mice from cancer cachexia and prolongs survival in the presence of anti-cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Shinji; Summermatter, Serge; Jourdain, Marie; Melly, Stefan; Minetti, Giulia C; Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia affects the majority of patients with advanced cancer and is associated with reduced treatment tolerance, response to therapy, quality of life, and life expectancy. Cachectic patients with advanced cancer often receive anti-cancer therapies against their specific cancer type as a standard of care, and whether specific ActRII inhibition is efficacious when combined with anti-cancer agents has not been elucidated yet. In this study, we evaluated interactions between ActRII blockade and anti-cancer agents in CT-26 mouse colon cancer-induced cachexia model. CDD866 (murinized version of bimagrumab) is a neutralizing antibody against the activin receptor type II (ActRII) preventing binding of ligands such as myostatin and activin A, which are involved in cancer cachexia. CDD866 was evaluated in association with cisplatin as a standard cytotoxic agent or with everolimus, a molecular-targeted agent against mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In the early studies, the treatment effect on cachexia was investigated, and in the additional studies, the treatment effect on progression of cancer and the associated cachexia was evaluated using body weight loss or tumor volume as interruption criteria. Cisplatin accelerated body weight loss and tended to exacerbate skeletal muscle loss in cachectic animals, likely due to some toxicity of this anti-cancer agent. Administration of CDD866 alone or in combination with cisplatin protected from skeletal muscle weight loss compared to animals receiving only cisplatin, corroborating that ActRII inhibition remains fully efficacious under cisplatin treatment. In contrast, everolimus treatment alone significantly protected the tumor-bearing mice against skeletal muscle weight loss caused by CT-26 tumor. CDD866 not only remains efficacious in the presence of everolimus but also showed a non-significant trend for an additive effect on reversing skeletal muscle weight loss. Importantly, both combination therapies slowed down time

  13. Victims and contemporary tendencies in crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soković Snežana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Victimological dimension of new criminality forms is a specific challenge for contemporary criminal law systems; new time brings new forms of criminality, new victims, but also new ways and opportunities for more efficient protection of victims. At the same time with review and improvement of existing standards of victims` protection, contemporary criminality control systems show strong tendency toward compromising the general position of the victim. Victim’s interests are being instrumentalized because of the justification of changes in criminality control in the direction of significant strengthening of criminal law repression. The crime which is emotionalized with the affective media presentation of the victim justifies stricter penal policy and provides the populist support for repressive criminality control strategies and criminal law expansionism. The aim of the paper is the analysis of the mechanisms of victim “use“ in contemporary criminality control and the examination of its consequences, with special review on domestic circumstances through analysis of the Code on special measures for prevention of crimes against sexual freedom towards juveniles (Marija`s Code.

  14. Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Samara, Muthanna; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    Being bullied has adverse effects on children's health. Children's family experiences and parenting behavior before entering school help shape their capacity to adapt and cope at school and have an impact on children's peer relationship, hence it is important to identify how parenting styles and parent-child relationship are related to victimization in order to develop intervention programs to prevent or mitigate victimization in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on parenting behavior and peer victimization using MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Eric and EMBASE from 1970 through the end of December 2012. We included prospective cohort studies and cross-sectional studies that investigated the association between parenting behavior and peer victimization. Both victims and those who both bully and are victims (bully/victims) were more likely to be exposed to negative parenting behavior including abuse and neglect and maladaptive parenting. The effects were generally small to moderate for victims (Hedge's g range: 0.10-0.31) but moderate for bully/victims (0.13-0.68). Positive parenting behavior including good communication of parents with the child, warm and affectionate relationship, parental involvement and support, and parental supervision were protective against peer victimization. The protective effects were generally small to moderate for both victims (Hedge's g: range: -0.12 to -0.22) and bully/victims (-0.17 to -0.42). Negative parenting behavior is related to a moderate increase of risk for becoming a bully/victim and small to moderate effects on victim status at school. Intervention programs against bullying should extend their focus beyond schools to include families and start before children enter school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107...... secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  16. Pesticides used in forest nursery management in the United States and the impact of the Food Quality Protection Act and other regulatory actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus A. Cota

    2002-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 has placed new standards on the registration and regulation of pesticides intended to protect children. The most significant changed mandated by FQPA relate to the registration process termed the "Risk Cup." This approach to risk analysis has resulted in greater restrictions on the application of pesticides used...

  17. Differences in High School and College Students' Basic Knowledge and Perceived Education of Internet Safety: Do High School Students Really Benefit from the Children's Internet Protection Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA; 2000) requires an Internet filtering and public awareness strategy to protect children under 17 from harmful visual Internet depictions. This study compared high school students who went online with the CIPA restriction and college students who went online without the restriction in order to…

  18. 77 FR 44642 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection-DHS/CBP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... (Number, Street, City, State); Whether the individual has a communicable disease, physical or mental... protections of the Privacy Act at the time they provide their information. However, given the importance of... protecting the vital health interests of a data subject or other persons (e.g., to assist such agencies or...

  19. Mycotoxins in the silage: Causes of creating, aftermath and protection from acting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Milan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of appearance of mold in the silage, genus and species of fungi which biosynthesize mycotoxins, acting consequences of micotoxins, prevention of fungi growth and possibilities to prevent their negative effects are shown in this paper. Also, the results of mycotoxins presence in the silage (corn and lucerne in Vojvodina in the period 2000-2004 are presented. The most commonly found mycotoxins were zearale-none in 60.6% of analyzed samples and DAS in 30.3% of samples. Silage contamination with ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin was between 15.2 and 21.2%. The content of mycotoxins DAS and T2 toxin was above the values allowed by regulative. The solutions which contribute to the prevention of development of the molds and elimination of negative effects of mycotoxins in silage were analyzed and suggested.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE NEW LEGAL ACTS ON MOBBING PROTECTION OF THE EMPLOYEES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Denkova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Emotional abuse in the work place, psychological terror, social isolation, are terms well known to the Labor Union organizations. They all refer to harassment in the work place, which is actually mobbing. The word “mobbing” denotes a wide range of complex activities which represent harassment of the employees in their work places, in all social spheres. Therefore the consequences range from mild disturbances to disappointing repercussions to the employees. Those consequences mostly reflect badly on the family of the harassed employee, as well on the organization and the society in general. For that reason, the subject of this article is to analyze the regulations of the Law on Labor Relations which refer to protection of employees from harassment in the work place and to analyze the new “Law on Harassment Protection in the work place” adopted recently, in order to increase the protection measures against harassment in the work place on a higher level. The efficiency of this law is to be comprehended through professional and scientific approach, where the research should emphasize the efficiency of the new legal acts. The purpose of this article is not only to analyze the abovementioned laws on harassment protection in the work place in the Republic of Macedonia, but also to present a critique of the eventual mistakes that might occur during implementation and to identify legal gaps as obstacles against mobbing evidence. The methodological approach of this article is directed towards implementation of the qualitative methodanalyzing content founded on scientific and expert competence as well as on previously established real state of affairs by the adopted law regulations in order to present our own point of view. The conclusion of this article refers to the fact that weaknesses in some of the legal acts on the Law on Labor Relations and the Law on Harassment Protection could be noticed. Those cracks might be misinterpreted by the people

  1. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; exchange and insurance market standards for 2015 and beyond. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-27

    This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to health insurance issuers, Affordable Insurance Exchanges (``Exchanges''), Navigators, non-Navigator assistance personnel, and other entities under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). Specifically, the rule establishes standards related to product discontinuation and renewal, quality reporting, non-discrimination standards, minimum certification standards and responsibilities of qualified health plan (QHP) issuers, the Small Business Health Options Program, and enforcement remedies in Federally-facilitated Exchanges. It also finalizes: A modification of HHS's allocation of reinsurance collections if those collections do not meet our projections; certain changes to allowable administrative expenses in the risk corridors calculation; modifications to the way we calculate the annual limit on cost sharing so that we round this parameter down to the nearest $50 increment; an approach to index the required contribution used to determine eligibility for an exemption from the shared responsibility payment under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code; grounds for imposing civil money penalties on persons who provide false or fraudulent information to the Exchange and on persons who improperly use or disclose information; updated standards for the consumer assistance programs; standards related to the opt-out provisions for self-funded, non-Federal governmental plans and related to the individual market provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 including excepted benefits; standards regarding how enrollees may request access to non-formulary drugs under exigent circumstances; amendments to Exchange appeals standards and coverage enrollment and termination standards; and time-limited adjustments to the standards relating to the medical loss ratio

  2. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  3. [The elderly as victims of violent crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlf, E H

    1994-01-01

    Up to now, victimology has only dealt with partial aspects of the situation of the elderly as victims of violent crime. Nevertheless, the Police Crime Statistics enable us to make the following three basic statements: In general, old people are less likely to become victims of violent crime (than young people). The acts of violence committed against the elderly are mainly ones in which there was a relationship between offender and victim before the offense. Elderly women are disproportionately more often victims of purse snatching. The increasing social isolation of old people constitutes not only a specific form of victimization, it probably also increases their susceptibility to become victims. The theory that old people have "a particularly pronounced fear of crime" cannot be generally proven. This question must be considered from differing points of view and depends largely on the individual vulnerability of the old people. In Germany, there has hardly been any empirical study of violence towards the elderly in institutions and in family households (so-called domestic violence). It is believed that more violence takes place in both than in generally assumed.

  4. Restraining orders among victims of intimate partner homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, K A; Sorenson, S B

    2008-06-01

    Most intimate partner homicides (IPHs) follow a long history of violence and occur while the victim is ending the relationship. Restraining orders are a common legal recourse by which to seek protection from an abusive partner. This study expands on prior research by examining the restraining order history of IPH victims by characteristics of the victim, assailant, and homicide. State-wide databases containing information about restraining orders and homicides were linked, and bivariate and multivariate statistics were then calculated to identify differences between IPH victims who had and had not been issued a restraining order. About 11% of 231 women killed by male intimates had been issued a restraining order. About one-fifth of the female IPH victims who had a restraining order were killed within 2 days of the order being issued; about one-third were killed within a month. Nearly half of those with a restraining order had been protected by multiple orders. Victims killed in a shared residence (versus elsewhere) had lower odds of having a restraining order, whereas victims from rural (versus urban) counties, married (versus dating) victims, and Latino (versus non-Latino) victim-offender dyads had higher odds of having a restraining order. The type of weapon used was not associated with whether the victim had been under the protection of a restraining order. Most female IPH victims did not have a restraining order when they were killed. Further research is needed to determine whether restraining orders protect against IPH and, if they do, on how to increase their utilization.

  5. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  6. Yoga and victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the findings of literature review and explorative empirical research of yoga application in the work with victims of various forms of sufferings is presented. The largest notion of victim is accepted, which encompasses victims of crime, victims of human rights violations (including convicted persons, as well as victims of war, natural disasters and other sufferings. After determination of the notion of victim and yoga, the review and analyses of research findings and direct experiences with the application of yoga in victim support and victimisation prevention worldwide and in Serbia, is done. The author’s research findings as well as personal experiences with the application of yoga in the work with prisoners in prison for women in Pozarevac (Serbia, within the workshops that Victimology Society of Serbia implemented during 2012/2013, are presented as well. In the conclusions, contribution of yoga to holistic approach to victim support as well as important role that yoga may have in prevention of victimisation and criminalisation, is stressed. The importance of yoga for support of prisoners as the part of preparation for re-entry and with the aim to prevent recidivism, as well as to enable their more successful reintegration into the society, is particularly emphasised. The paper is based on the research implemented by the author for the purpose of writing the final essey at the course for yoga instructors on International yoga academy, Yoga Allience of Serbia.

  7. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  8. Behind the scenes of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: the making of a health care co-op.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaimo, Susan

    2013-06-01

    A primary goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is to reduce the number of uninsured by making health insurance more affordable for small businesses and individuals. Toward that end, the PPACA encourages the creation of nonprofit, member-owned health insurance cooperatives to operate inside each state exchange. Co-ops face significant challenges in entering mature insurance markets, but they also possess unique characteristics that may help them survive and thrive. Using Common Ground Healthcare Cooperative in Wisconsin as a case study, this article traces the origins of co-ops in health care reform at national and state levels and analyzes the political and technical challenges and opportunities facing these organizations.

  9. Assessment of the toxicity of a substance under Canadian environmental protection act, a case study. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, B.; Germain, A.; Coillie, R. van [Environment Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances. A Priority Substances List containing 44 substances was developed and their assessments had to determine if they were `toxic`, according to the CEPA definition. This definition states that `a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions (a) having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment, (b) constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or (c) constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life of health.` This presentation use the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an example of this procedure. (author)

  10. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  11. Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.

  12. Gene-environment processes linking peer victimization and physical health problems: a longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Pérusse, Daniel; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether (a) a genetic disposition for physical health problems increases the risk of peer victimization and (b) peer victimization interacts with genetic vulnerability in explaining physical health problems. Participants were 167 monozygotic and 119 dizyogtic twin pairs. Physical symptoms were assessed in early childhood and early adolescence. Peer victimization was assessed in middle childhood. Genetic vulnerability for physical health problems in early childhood was unrelated to later peer victimization, but genetic vulnerability for physical health problems during early adolescence increased the risk of victimization. Victimization did not interact with genetic factors in predicting physical symptoms. Environmental, not genetic, factors had the greatest influence on the development of physical symptoms in victims. Genetic vulnerability for physical health problems in early adolescence increases the risk of peer victimization. Whether victims suffer a further increase in physical symptoms depends on the presence of protective environmental factors.

  13. Overexpressed Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Act Synergistically to Protect the Repair of PSII during Photoinhibition in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Tang, Penporn; Hihara, Yukako; Yumoto, Isao; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka

    2016-09-01

    The repair of PSII under strong light is particularly sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and these ROS are efficiently scavenged by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In the present study, we generated transformants of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 that overexpressed an iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803; a highly active catalase (VktA) from Vibrio rumoiensis; and both enzymes together. Then we examined the sensitivity of PSII to photoinhibition in the three strains. In cells that overexpressed either Fe-SOD or VktA, PSII was more tolerant to strong light than it was in wild-type cells. Moreover, in cells that overexpressed both Fe-SOD and VktA, PSII was even more tolerant to strong light. However, the rate of photodamage to PSII, as monitored in the presence of chloramphenicol, was similar in all three transformant strains and in wild-type cells, suggesting that the overexpression of these ROS-scavenging enzymes might not protect PSII from photodamage but might protect the repair of PSII. Under strong light, intracellular levels of ROS fell significantly, and the synthesis de novo of proteins that are required for the repair of PSII, such as the D1 protein, was enhanced. Our observations suggest that overexpressed Fe-SOD and VktA might act synergistically to alleviate the photoinhibition of PSII by reducing intracellular levels of ROS, with resultant protection of the repair of PSII from oxidative inhibition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Is the victim blameless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, E A

    1990-01-01

    The study concerned 50 cases occurring throughout Austria between 1950 and 1962 where murder was committed for the purpose of robbing the victim. Fifty-nine convicted killers and 61 victims were involved and 1950 was chosen as the starting point of the research in order to avoid undue influence from the extraordinary factors affecting criminality during and immediately following the Second World War. Cases were consecutive and unselected apart from a very small number excluded through unavailability of their files for legal reasons at the time when the data were collected. Unsuccessful murder attempts were not excluded since there is no difference between crimes actually carried out and those merely attempted as regards criminogenic factors, the pre-criminal situation, the choice of victim, the relationship and interaction between criminal and victim, and the recourse to homicide. However, the inquiry was confined to cases where guilt had been proven because of the aim to study not only the crime and the victim, but also the relationship of the criminal and victim. The latter is obviously not possible where the murderer remains unknown. Accordingly, since the material comprises a large number of cases over a fairly long period (more than a decade) from all over Austria, it is fair to claim that it provides an overview of the criminality of murder with intent to rob, and of the killers and the victims, for an entire country and over a significant epoch.

  15. The Effects of Victim Age, Perceiver Gender, and Parental Status on Perceptions of Victim Culpability When Girls or Women Are Sexually Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettke, Bianca; Mellor, David

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated perceptions of victim culpability in sexual assaults against girls and women according to victim age, perceiver gender, and perceiver parental status. Overall, 420 jury-eligible participants completed an online survey recording their attributions of guilt, responsibility, and blame toward 10-, 15-, and 20-year-old girls and women in relation to sexual assault. Attributions of culpability were affected by whether the victim physically or verbally resisted the abuse, wore sexually revealing clothes, or was described as having acted promiscuously. Fifteen-year-old victims were perceived as more culpable for the abuse than 10-year-old victims. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzemer, Michael J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  17. Possibilities for improvement of the position of victims of trafficking in people within criminal procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škulić Milan Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper main possibilities for improvement of the position of victims of trafficking in people within criminal procedure are discussed. The special focus of the analysis is on the issues regarding theoretical base for improvement of the position of victim in criminal procedure. Also, the analysis of international documents related to the protection of victims within criminal procedure, review of laws which allow for organized crime to be proved easier and of legal possibilities (within Yugoslav and comparative law for prevention of secondary victimization, i.e. for protection of victims, is done.

  18. Violent Victimization and Perpetration: Joint and Distinctive Implications for Adolescent Development

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Patricia L.; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine A.

    2010-01-01

    To date few reports have provided direct comparison of psychosocial vulnerability and resources among youth with victimization and perpetration histories. Within a racially diverse, high-risk adolescent sample (n = 849), this study undertakes MANCOVA tests on a multidimensional set of risk and protective factors contrasting youth with histories of 1) neither violent victimization nor perpetration, 2) victimization only , 3) both perpetration only, and 4) both victimization and perpetration. A...

  19. Brief report: Identifying defenders of peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meter, Diana J; Card, Noel A

    2016-06-01

    Betweenness centrality quantifies the amount of network flow that a network member controls as hypothetical traffic passes between network members. Those with high betweenness centrality within the peer social network based on nominations of liking may be especially important connectors between individuals who do not like each other. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals' betweenness centrality would predict their defending of victimized peers. After controlling for popularity, perception of being liked, and defenders' victimization, betweenness centrality predicted defending. Those found to be connectors within the peer group were more likely to be those who defend peer victims. This investigation showed that analysis of betweenness centrality is a viable way to identify potential defenders in research and also those who could potentially act as mediators. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GENDER-BASED RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS OF VIOELENCE AGAINST WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive law is less oriented towards the protection of victims, especially women. Restorative justice appears to protect and resolve problems with the interests of the victim-oriented. This article discuss the form of legal protection for victims of violence against women, gender-based and describe the form of restorative justice for victims of gender-based violence against women. Positive criminal law does not accommodate both the interests of the victim to determine the crime against him self and to restore his suffering. This is caused due to the dominance of retributive justice in the settlement mind set crime through the criminal law. The restorative justice allows for an active role in the completion of a crime victim who happens also allows the imposition of sanctions that are beneficial to the recovery of the suffering of the victims.

  1. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of exchanges and qualified health plans; exchange standards for employers. Final rule, Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    This final rule will implement the new Affordable Insurance Exchanges ("Exchanges"), consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The Exchanges will provide competitive marketplaces for individuals and small employers to directly compare available private health insurance options on the basis of price, quality, and other factors. The Exchanges, which will become operational by January 1, 2014, will help enhance competition in the health insurance market, improve choice of affordable health insurance, and give small businesses the same purchasing clout as large businesses.

  2. Cyber-Victimized Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.

  3. Violent victimization among state prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldredge, John; Steiner, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Violent victimization in prison may enhance inmates' cynicism toward legal authority and the risk of subsequent criminality. Both micro- and macro-level effects on the prevalence and incidence of inmate-on-inmate physical assault during a 6-month period were examined for random samples of inmates (n1 = 5,640) from all state prisons in Ohio and Kentucky (n2 = 46). Findings revealed that nonprovoked assaults were more common among inmates with lifestyles that might have increased their vulnerability to victimization (less time spent in structured activities, committed violent acts themselves, etc.), and in prisons with larger populations and officers who practice lax rule enforcement. A supplementary analysis of violent offending also revealed that inmate offenders and victims may look less like each other compared to offenders and victims in the general population. Policies focused on increasing inmates' involvement in structured prison activities, enhancing professionalism among officers, and lowering prison populations may be most effective for minimizing the risk of violent victimization.

  4. Exploring Bullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Adolescent Girls in the Child Welfare System: Bully-Only, Victim-Only, Bully-Victim, and Noninvolved Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzing, Paul R; Auslander, Wendy F; Ratliff, G Allen; Gerke, Donald R; Edmond, Tonya; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Childhood abuse is a common experience for youth in the child welfare system, increasing their risk of bullying perpetration and victimization. Little research exists that has examined the rates of bullying perpetration and victimization for child welfare-involved adolescent girls. The study addressed the following aims: (a) to generate frequency estimates of physical, nonphysical, and relational forms of bullying perpetration and victimization; (b) to identify the frequency of bully-only, victim-only, bully-victim, and noninvolved roles; and (c) to identify risk and protective factors that correlate with these bullying role types. Participants were 236 girls (12-19 years) in the child welfare system from a Midwestern urban area. Participants were referred to the study to join a trauma-focused group program. Seventy-five percent of the total sample were youth of color, with the remaining 25% identifying as White, non-Hispanic. Data were collected through baseline surveys that assessed childhood abuse, bullying perpetration and victimization, posttraumatic stress, substance misuse, aggression-related beliefs and self-efficacy, placement type, placement instability, and mental health service use. Child welfare-involved adolescent girls were found to assume all four major role types: bully-only (6.4%, n = 15), victim-only (20.3%, n = 48), bully-victim (44.1%, n = 104), and nonvictims (29.2%, n = 69). The bully-victim rate was approximately 7 times higher than the rate found in a nationally representative sample of non-child welfare-involved youth. The current study identified posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, anger self-efficacy, and alcohol use as significant correlates of bullying roles. The identification of a substantially higher rate of bully-victims has important practice implications, suggesting child welfare and school systems adopt trauma-informed systems of care. Bully-victims are very likely traumatized children who are in need of effective

  5. A Study on the preparation of environmental act system in Korea II - concentrated on the preparation of environmental policy fundamental act, protection of water supply source, and greenbelt area act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is to propose to reform environmental policy fundamental act and land related act into future-oriented direction. First of all, the environmental policy fundamental act presented the direction of reforming water supply, national parks, and greenbelt related acts in environmental preservation perspective. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  6. The effect of victims' responses to overt bullying on same-sex peer bystander reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Nicole; Bussey, Kay; Rapee, Ronald M

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of victims' responses to overt bullying on peer bystanders' attitudes and reactions. Fifth- and seventh-grade students (N = 206; M(age) = 11.13 and 13.18 years, respectively) completed online questionnaires about gender-consistent videotaped hypothetical bullying scenarios in which the victims' responses (angry, sad, confident, ignoring) were experimentally manipulated. Victims' responses significantly influenced bystanders' attitudes towards the victim, perceptions of the victimization, emotional reactions, and behavioral intentions. In general, angry victims elicited more negative reactions, sad victims elicited greater intentions to act, while incidents involving confident victims were perceived as less serious. Several variations depending on the bullying type and students' grade, gender, and personal experiences with bullying were evident. Implications for individual-level and peer-level anti-bullying interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceptions of Occupational Therapists on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Five Years After Its Enactment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K; Spicher, Hillary S; Semon, Madelyn R; Winwood, Leah M; Dudgeon, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of occupational therapists regarding the impact and implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA or ACA) on occupational therapy practice. Fifteen occupational therapists participated in an interview to answer open-ended questions related to their thoughts and perceptions regarding the impact and implications of the ACA on their practice. The participants were practicing in eight different states and worked in five different settings with clinical experience ranging from 3 to 38 years; their positions ranged from staff therapist to owner of a free-standing outpatient clinic. Qualitative content analysis was used to synthesize the interview transcripts. Results showed that therapists did not have sufficient knowledge on the various mandates and provisions of the ACA, or were uncertain about what implications the ACA would have on practice, with the ACA affecting some settings more than others. Data revealed the perceived impacts of the ACA on occupational therapy practice include greater attention on documenting outcome-focused care, external accountability pressures on productivity, conscientiousness about clients' insurance coverage, uncertainty about collaborative care delivery, and survival of small businesses. Findings suggest training regarding knowledge about and implications of different elements of the ACA is needed as well as practices needing to promote the services that occupational therapists can provide to improve cost-effectiveness and outcomes in collaborative care environments.

  8. Areas of Potential Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on EMS: A Synthesis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Ostermayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This comprehensive review synthesizes the existing literature on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA as it relates to emergency medical services (EMS in order to provide guidance for navigating current and future healthcare changes. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review to identify all existing literature related to the ACA and EMS and all sections within the federal law pertaining to EMS. Results: Many changes enacted by the ACA directly affect emergency care with potential indirect effects on EMS systems. New Medicaid enrollees and changes to existing coverage plans may alter EMS transport volumes. Reimbursement changes such as adjustments to the ambulance inflation factor (AIF alter the yearly increases in EMS reimbursement by incorporating the multifactor productivity value into yearly reimbursement adjustments. New initiatives, funded by the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation are exploring novel and cost-effective prehospital care delivery opportunities while EMS agencies individually explore partnerships with healthcare systems. Conclusion: EMS systems should be aware of the direct and indirect impact of ACA on prehospital care due to the potential for changes in financial reimbursement, acuity and volume changes, and ongoing new care delivery initiatives.[West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(3446-453.

  9. Victims of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

  10. The incongruity of workplace bullying victimization and inclusive excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Gillen, Patricia

    Bullying occurs frequently-and with significant negative outcomes-in workplace settings. Once established, bullying endures in the workplace, requiring the interaction of a bully perpetrator and an intended target who takes on the role of victim. Not every target becomes a victim, however. The purpose of this study is to investigate the processes by which targets, intended objects of bullies' affronts, become victims, those individuals who experience ongoing emotional injury in response to bullies' affronts, and to clarify how bullying victimization impedes inclusive excellence in the workplace. The design for this study was pragmatic utility, an inductive research approach grounded in assumptions of hermeneutics. The pragmatic utility process involved the investigators' synthesis of descriptions from a broad, interdisciplinary published literature. Integrating knowledge from their previous research and practice experiences with the pragmatic utility process, they derived qualitative features of victims' experiences, differentiating target from victim in bullying encounters. For those targets who ultimately are victimized, response to bullies' affronts extends far beyond the immediate present. Redolence of personal, lived experience revives bygone vulnerabilities, and naïve communication and relationship expectations reinforce a long-standing, impoverished sense. That sense couples with workplace dynamics to augment a context of exclusion. Findings suggest that, as Heidegger contended, we are our histories. Personal history demonstrates a significance influence on the manifestation of bullying victimization, acting to distance them from their workplace peers and to impede inclusive excellence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Older women: victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyra, P A

    1993-05-01

    Older female rape victims usually live alone, are raped by strangers, experience physical force and injury, and also are robbed. Rape trauma syndrome, a nursing diagnosis, consists of an acute phase of disorganization, and a long-term phase of reorganization of the victim's lifestyle. Rape victims experience emotional, physical, and cognitive reactions to the trauma of rape. Nursing actions can include providing specific interventions to victims during the acute phase, identifying victims during routine exams, referring victims for ongoing counseling, conducting community education programs on primary prevention and available services, and participating in longitudinal rape studies.

  12. Victimization and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.

  13. Measuring Poly-Victimization Using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.; Hamby, Sherry L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Children who experience multiple victimizations (referred to in this paper as poly-victims) need to be identified because they are at particularly high risk of additional victimization and traumatic psychological effects. This paper compares alternative ways of identifying such children using questions from the Juvenile Victimization…

  14. Poly-Victimization: A Neglected Component in Child Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…

  15. Coinjection of a vaccine and anti-viral agents can provide fast-acting protection from foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Choi, Joo-Hyung; Park, Gundo; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2017-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the cause of an economically devastating animal disease. With commercial inactivated FMD vaccines, the protection against FMD virus (FMDV) begins a minimum of 4 days post vaccination (dpv). Therefore, antiviral agents could be proposed for rapid protection and to reduce the spread of FMDV during outbreaks until vaccine-induced protective immunity occurs. In previous studies, we have developed two recombinant adenoviruses that simultaneously express porcine interferon-α and interferon-γ (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) and multiple siRNAs that target the non-structural protein-regions of FMDV (Ad-3siRNA), and we have shown that the combination of the two antiviral agents (referred to here as Ad combination) induced robust protection against FMDV in pigs. In an attempt to provide complete protection against FMDV, we co-administered Ad combination and the FMD vaccine to mice and pigs. In the C57BL/6 mice model, we observed rapid and continuous protection against homologous FMDV challenge from 1 to 3 dpv-the period in which vaccine-mediated immunity is absent. In the pig experiments, we found that most of the pigs (five out of six) that received vaccine + Ad combination and were challenged with FMDV at 1 or 2 dpv were clinically protected from FMDV. In addition, most of the pigs that received vaccine + Ad combination and all pigs inoculated with the vaccine only were clinically protected from an FMDV challenge at 7 dpv. We believe that the antiviral agent ensures early protection from FMDV, and the vaccine participates in protection after 7 dpv. Therefore, we can say that the combination of the FMD vaccine and effective antiviral agents may offer both fast-acting and continuous protection against FMDV. In further studies, we plan to design coadministration of Ad combination and novel vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...

  17. Do Social Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem Moderate the Relationship between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Rubiano, Sherry; Offen, Ilanit; Wayland, Ann Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Victimization by peers has been associated with low academic performance and internalizing problems. Still, not all students who experience peer victimization report a reduction in performance. The current study examines the potential protective nature of self-esteem and social self-efficacy in the relationship between peer victimization and…

  18. Sexually Victimized Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The documented incidence of sexual abuse of boys is reported. Though prevalence rates varied from different sources, all sources agreed that reported cases reflect only a fraction of the actual prevalence. The paper also discusses characteristics of the abusers, risk factors of victims, the effects of abuse, and the coping styles of the young male…

  19. Victims and Heroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Christian K.

    2010-01-01

    Victimization, autochthony and citizenship, power and nation-building constitute recurrent, interrelated themes in post-war Manding historical memory in the border area between Liberia and Guinea. While the perceived history of the Manding diverges from academic, historical knowledge as well...

  20. Between "Victims" and "Criminals"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as “victims of human...

  1. First Person Victim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2010-01-01

    of violent interactive shooter experiences by allowing the participants to experience the feeling of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implementation indicated that participants experienced free spatial interaction, while still being able to acquire an understanding of the theme being mediated....

  2. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...

  3. Disaster victim identification: Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Arveen

    2005-04-23

    In the aftermath of the devastating tsunami that hit South East Asia last December, a huge operation to try to identify thousands of victims got underway, with the help of many overseas medical and dental professionals. British dentist Gareth Pearson went to Thailand to try and help in this task and here recounts his experience.

  4. [The war victim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugeux, P; Barouti, H

    1994-10-01

    Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.

  5. Self- and Peer-Identified Victims in Late Childhood: Differences in Perceptions of the School Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Molly; Chen, Chin-Chih; Farmer, Thomas W; Hamm, Jill V

    2017-11-01

    Patterns of adjustment for youth victimized by peers vary depending on whether youth are identified as victims through self-reports, peer-reports, or both. In order to provide more targeted strategies that may help mitigate negative consequences associated with specific victimization groups, more information is needed about how these youth perceive their school ecology (bullying and academic ecology), their feelings of school belonging, and their valuing of school. Based on the convergence of self- and peer-reports of victimization, we identified four victim groups from a sample of students in 5th grade classrooms (N = 1360; 52.8% girls, 53.1% White, 34.6% Black or Hispanic, 12.2% Native American, Asian, or other) using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA): convergent victims (high self- and peer-reports), self-identified victims (high self-, low peer-reports), peer-identified victims (low self-, high peer-reports), and nonvictims (low self- and peer-reports). Convergent victims' perceptions were similar to nonvictims with key differences being convergent victims' greater willingness to protect peers being bullied but lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Peer-identified and self-identified victims perceived differences in the bullying and academic ecology including peer-identified victims' greater willingness to protect peers and expectations for more peers to encourage bulling against them compared to self-identified victims. However, both peer- and self-identified victims perceived greater emotional risk of participating in class and had lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Implications for supporting youth with divergent self- and peer-reported victimization status as they transition to middle school are discussed.

  6. The effect of immigration and acculturation on victimization among a national sample of Latino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of immigrant status, acculturation, and the interaction of acculturation and immigrant status on self-reported victimization in the United States among Latino women, including physical assault, sexual assault, stalking, and threatened violence. In addition, immigrant status, acculturation, gender role ideology, and religious intensity were examined as predictors of the count of victimization among the victimized subsample. The Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) Study surveyed 2,000 adult Latino women who lived in high-density Latino neighborhoods in 2008. The present study reports findings for a subsample of women who were victimized in the United States (n = 568). Immigrant women reported significantly less victimization than U.S.-born Latino women in bivariate analyses. Multivariate models showed that Anglo orientation was associated with greater odds of all forms of victimization, whereas both Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with lower odds of all forms of victimization. Latino orientation was more protective for immigrant women than for U.S.-born Latino women with regard to sexual victimization. Among the victimized subsample, being an immigrant, Anglo acculturation, and masculine gender role were associated with a higher victimization count, whereas Latino orientation and religious intensity were associated with a lower victimization count. The findings point to the risk associated with being a U.S. minority, the protective value of Latino cultural maintenance, and the need for services to reach out to Anglo acculturated Latino women.

  7. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act dependent coverage expansion: Disparities in impact among young adult oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Elysia M; Keegan, Theresa H; Johnston, Emily E; Haile, Robert; Sanders, Lee; Wise, Paul H; Saynina, Olga; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2018-01-01

    Private health insurance is associated with improved outcomes in patients with cancer. However, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Expansion (ACA-DCE), which extended private insurance to young adults (to age 26 years) beginning in 2010, on the insurance status of young adults with cancer. The current study was a retrospective, population-based analysis of hospitalized young adult oncology patients (aged 22-30 years) in California during 2006 through 2014 (11,062 patients). Multivariable regression analyses examined factors associated with having private insurance. Results were presented as adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A difference-in-difference analysis examined the influence of the ACA-DCE on insurance coverage by race/ethnicity and federal poverty level. Multivariable regression demonstrated that patients of black and Hispanic race/ethnicity were less likely to have private insurance before and after the ACA-DCE, compared with white patients. Younger age (22-25 years) was associated with having private insurance after implementation of the ACA-DCE (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.35). In the difference-in-difference analysis, private insurance increased among white patients aged 22 to 25 years who were living in medium-income (2006-2009: 64.6% vs 2011-2014: 69.1%; P = .003) and high-income (80.4% vs 82%; P = .043) zip codes and among Asians aged 22 to 25 years living in high-income zip codes (73.2 vs 85.7%; P = .022). Private insurance decreased for all Hispanic patients aged 22 to 25 years between the 2 time periods. The ACA-DCE provision increased insurance coverage, but not among all patients. Private insurance increased for white and Asian patients in higher income neighborhoods, potentially widening social disparities in private insurance coverage among young adults with cancer. Cancer 2018;124:110-7. © 2017 American

  8. 76 FR 67755 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection DHS/CBP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 the Department of Homeland Security proposes to establish a new Department of Homeland Security system of records notice titled ``Department of Homeland Security/U.S Customs and Border Protection--003 Credit/Debit Card Data System of Records.'' This system allows U.S. Customs and Border Protection to collect, use, and maintain records related to any credit and debit card transactions with it has with individuals. Additionally, the Department of Homeland Security is issuing a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to exempt this system of records from certain provisions of the Privacy Act, concurrent with this system of records elsewhere in the Federal Register. This newly established system will be included in the Department of Homeland Security's inventory of record systems.

  9. Antecedents of sexual victimization: factors discriminating victims from nonvictims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synovitz, L B; Byrne, T J

    1998-01-01

    A sexual victimization survey was used to assess the factors that would discriminate between victims and nonvictims of sexual assault. The sample consisted of 241 female college students at a large midwestern university. Victimization status was ascertained from the 13-question Sexual Experiences Survey developed by Koss and Gidycz and Koss and Oros. Data eliciting information about possible associated factors (demographics, dating history, sexual history, personality characteristics and traits) and victimization status were obtained by adapting several scales and instruments into a single Dating and Relationship Survey. Of the 241 women, 102 reported they had been victimized. Discriminant function analysis was used to develop a set of variables that significantly identified victimization status. The variables found to be related to women's being sexually victimized were (a) number of different lifetime sexual partners, (b) provocative dress, and (c) alcohol use.

  10. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  11. A Question of Respect: A Qualitative Text Analysis of the Canadian Parliamentary Committee Hearings on The Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Genevieve Fuji; Mary BURNS; Porth, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the Canadian parliamentary hearings on The Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act to determine whether respectful and fair deliberation occurred.  Our focus is on the content, tone, and nature of each question posed by committee members in hearings in both chambers.  We find that, on the whole, the vast majority of questions met this baseline, but that committee members were biased toward witnesses in agreement with their position and against witnesses in op...

  12. Weight perceptions, misperceptions, and dating violence victimization among U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2015-05-01

    Dating violence is a major public health issue among youth. Overweight/obese adolescents experience peer victimization and discrimination and may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. Furthermore, given the stigma associated with overweight/obesity, perceptions and misperceptions of overweight may be more important than actual weight status for dating violence victimization. This study examines the association of three weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, and weight perception accuracy) with psychological and physical dating violence victimization. The 2010 baseline survey of the 7-year NEXT Generation Health Study used a three-stage stratified clustered sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of U.S. 10th-grade students (n = 1,983). Participants who have had a boyfriend/girlfriend reported dating violence victimization and perceived weight. Weight status was computed from measured height/weight. Weight perception accuracy (accurate/underestimate/overestimate) was calculated by comparing weight status and perceived weight. Gender-stratified regressions examined the association of weight indices and dating violence victimization. Racial/ethnic differences were also examined. The association of weight indices with dating violence victimization significantly differed by gender. Overall, among boys, no associations were observed. Among girls, weight status was not associated with dating violence victimization, nor with number of dating violence victimization acts; however, perceived weight and weight perception accuracy were significantly associated with dating violence victimization, type of victimization, and number of victimization acts. Post hoc analyses revealed significant racial/ethnic differences. White girls who perceive themselves (accurately or not) to be overweight, and Hispanic girls who are overweight, may be at increased risk of dating violence victimization. These findings suggest a targeted approach to

  13. [Interviewing victims of sexual crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Catarina

    2007-01-01

    The approach to victims of sexual crimes is of special complexity due to the nature of this kind of crime, the impact of victimization and the specificity of judicial investigation procedures. The absence of physical evidence and the secrecy that characterizes the majority of sexual victimization cases frequently lead the victim's story to be used as one of few proof elements. Given the importance of the information supplied by the victim in the criminal inquiry, it is essential to create strategies to optimise the interview process, not only to preserve evidence, but also to prevent a secondary victimization process. This review discusses in a brief manner the extent to which information given by victims can be considered relevant forensic evidence, and then presents the methodological guidelines for interview that should be used in this type of expertise.

  14. 75 FR 48974 - Notice of Intent To Award Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Funding to Approved But...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... provisions of Recovery Act, all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors on projects... associated risk factors. CDC will provide justification for any decision to fund out of rank order. CDC will...

  15. Revictimization of Victims Sexually Abused by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting

  16. Teen victimization: prevalence and consequences of traditional and cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tammy; Adesman, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, there has been increased recognition that the experiences of youth who have endured bullying cannot be ignored or dismissed as harmless acts by 'kids being kids'. The present article reviews several key risks and consequences of bullying for adolescent victims. Bullying victimization has been linked with a number of adverse health and social outcomes, including mental health issues, weapon-carrying, substance abuse, academic problems, and other adverse consequences - some of which may persist into adulthood. Recent findings on cyberbullying, in particular, highlight the real-life consequences of virtual victimization. Pediatricians play a critical role in identifying and supporting victims of bullying and counseling parents about surveillance and intervention strategies.

  17. Disaster victim identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Eleanor A M

    2006-09-01

    In the event of any mass fatality incident, despite the cause, disaster victim identification must be undertaken; the humanitarian and legal responsibility for this falls on the forensic community. Mass fatality incidents can be natural (e.g., tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes), accidental (e.g., building collapse, ship sinking) or can occur as a result of a terrorist attack. Terrorism alone has been responsible for thousands of deaths in recent years and can be encountered in many forms (e.g., suicide bombings, airplane hijackings). In mass fatality situations, the experitise of many specialities are called on to assist in the identification efforts and to allow for the speedy return of recovered human remains to the relatives of the deceased. Today, DNA plays a vital but never solitary role in disaster victim identification.

  18. Cyber-Victimized Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan; Tracey Curwen

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrenc...

  19. Bullying and Victimization: The Effect of Close Companionship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Sabine A M; van Bergen, Elsje; de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike

    2017-02-01

    Peer bullying and victimization are a widespread phenomenon among school-age children and can have detrimental effects on the development of children. To examine whether having a close companion during childhood increases or decreases risk of victimization and bullying, this study compared twins to singleton children. A large group of twins (n = 9,909) were included who were compared to their related non-twin siblings (n = 1,534) aged 7-12 from the Netherlands Twin Register, thus creating optimal matching between twins and non-twins. Bullying and victimization were each based on a four-item scale filled out by their teachers. Prevalence rates for either bullying or victimization did not differ between twins and singletons. In total, in the past couple of months, 36% of children bullied peers moderately to severely, and 35% suffered moderately to severely from victimization. Boys were more likely to bully and were more prone to becoming a victim than girls. The most notable finding is that female twin pairs placed together in the same classroom did not bully more often, but were victimized less often, thus pointing to a protective effect of having a close companion in the classroom.

  20. Toward establishing basic rights of victims in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosawa Hidemichi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author talks about improving victim rights in Japan and his important role in it. A period of Victims’ Renaissance in Japan began in the 1990s when the Japanese Association of Victimology and Mito Victim Assistance Cener, first non-governmental community-based integrated victim support center in Japan were established. Since May 1999 to May 2004, four laws such as “Crime Victim Protection Law”, “Child Abuse Prevention Law”, “Law for Proscribing Stalking Behavior” and so on were enacted and six laws were reformed. The word “rights of victim”, did not appear in any laws. After 2000, the National Association of Crime Victims and Surviving Families (NAVS played an important role. This Association achieved a great success in securing victims a position as the subject of rights. In June 2007, Japan changed the Criminal Procedure Law. This new law will be effective on six months after the day of promulgation. Japanese Government will promulgate it till the end of 2007. Under this new law, crime victims will be allowed to take part in criminal trials, and also make statements during trials.

  1. The Voiceless Victim: A critical analysis of the impact of enhanced victim participation in the criminal justice process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Moynihan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to many European jurisdictions, the victim of an alleged crime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is denied any form of meaningful participation at the trial stage of the criminal justice process. This is by reason of the unyielding structure of the Anglo-American adversarial system, which facilitates a dispute between two parties only - the prosecution, acting on behalf of the collective public interest and the defence. In recent years, however, the victims’ movement has gained momentum as advocates of victims’ rights have been engaged in an impassioned campaign to enhance the participatory rights of victims in the criminal justice process. Fervent arguments have been articulated pertaining to the value of various forms of victim input. This paper cogitates some of these arguments and critically evaluates how enhanced victim participation in the criminal justice process has the potential to undercut the integrity of the Anglo- American adversarial system; a system with objective adjudication at its core.

  2. Emotional disclosure and victim blaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Kent D; Podolski, Peter; Williams, Christian H

    2015-10-01

    Victim blaming occurs when people are unfairly held responsible for their misfortunes. According to just world theory, witnessing another's victimization threatens just world beliefs, which arouses distress. Victim blaming redeems just world beliefs, thereby reducing distress. However, negative emotions can also be resolved through emotional disclosure, suggesting that disclosure can prevent victim blaming. Two experiments confirmed this prediction. In Study 1 participants viewed a woman being victimized or a woman in a nonvictimizing conflict. Participants then disclosed or suppressed the emotions aroused by these scenes and 1 week later evaluated the woman they had viewed. Disclosure reduced blaming of the victim but did not affect blaming of the nonvictim. Further, the more distress participants disclosed, the less they blamed the victim. Study 2 replicated the primary results of Study 1 and also showed that (a) disclosure exclusively reduces blaming of victims; it does not moderate judgments of victimizers, and (b) the effects of disclosure on blaming applies across genders. These 2 studies confirm that victim blaming is a form of emotion management (per just world theory), and that emotional disclosure prevents blaming by supplying an alternative mode of emotion management. This research also suggests that emotional disclosure moderates social perception, in general. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. 75 FR 20893 - National Day of Service and Remembrance for Victims and Survivors of Terrorism, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... and Survivors of Terrorism, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation There... Remembrance for Victims and Survivors of Terrorism, we pause to remember victims of terrorism at home and... terrorism and their families, though bound at first by anguish and loss, are united by extraordinary acts of...

  4. Report: Opportunities to Improve Data Quality and Children’s Health through the Food Quality Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2006-P-00009, January 10, 2006. To meet the requirements of FQPA, EPA instituted numerous data requirements designed to provide infants and children with better protection against the health risks of pesticides.

  5. The nurse-patient relationship and victims of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Vicarious traumatization is a phenomenon that recognizes that the exposure of persons, other than the victim, to the specifics of trauma material or the reenactment of traumatic experiences transmits the emotionally laden aspects of the original violence and thus is a source of emotional arousal and distress for the nurse working with victims of violence. This source of emotional arousal shapes the underlying approach--avoidance dynamic of countertransference responses that strain the empathic connection necessary for a safe and constructive nurse-patient relationship. Case consultation and supervision are necessary to protect the integrity of the nurse-patient relationship. The current isolating changes in the work setting cut the nurse off from needed support and guidance in working with victims of violence. The emotional risks inherent in working with victims of violence require that the nurse seek professional support for the interpersonal aspects of practice.

  6. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults: Findings from a prospective community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep Maria; Donovan, Robert J; Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke

    2017-05-01

    The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program designed to promote mental health. The campaign targets individuals to engage in mentally healthy activities, while at the same time, encouraging community organizations that offer such activities, to increase participation in their activities. Using nationally-representative data from Ireland, the aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Data from two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 6098 adults aged ≥50years. Validated scales for depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment were used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used as an indicator of Act, social network integration as an indicator of Belong, and frequency of participation in these social/recreational activities as an indicator of Commit. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between baseline indicators of Act-Belong-Commit and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment at two-year follow-up. The adjusted model showed that each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. The same was the case for social network integration (Belong); that is, being well integrated into social networks was a significant protective factor against all mental health outcomes. Finally, frequency of participation in social/recreational activities (Commit) significantly and inversely predicted the onset of depression and anxiety, while the protective effect against cognitive impairment was only marginally significant. Act-Belong-Commit indicators are shown to be protective against mental disorders and cognitive

  7. Unresolved attachment and agency in women victims of intimate partner violence: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallini, Susanna; Alfani, Agnese; Marech, Lucrezia; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2017-06-01

    Women victims of IPV are more likely insecurely attached and have experienced childhood abuse, which according to the attachment theory is deeply related to disorganized attachment. This case-control study was performed with the aim to compare the attachment status and the defensive processing patterns of women victims of IPV (cases) with women with no experiences of IPV (controls). Cases were 16 women with an age range from 26 years to 51 years. The control group included 16 women with an age range from 26 years to 59 years. Women's states of mind in regard to attachment were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, which allows classifying attachment status and defensive mechanisms. Compared with control group, most IPV women resulted having an unresolved attachment status and describing characters less capable to draw upon internal resources, that is, internalized secure base, and less capable to act than controls. Women victims of IPV used significantly more words referring danger and failed protection than controls. The results evidenced the strong effectiveness of the AAP on analysing the psychological attitudes of women victims of IPV. The dramatic events lived by the women victims of IPV are so dominant in their minds that they invade their stories. This could represent a clue of emotional dysregulation. The use of AAP improves the understanding of the agency of self and of the specific levels of trauma experienced by IPV victims, on clarifying their frightening/frightened dynamic, typical of the disorganized attachment relationship, which undermines their activity of mentalization. The therapist will assume the stance of a secure base and then both promoting exploration and contrasting impotence, humiliation, and subordination that IPV women have experienced. This therapeutic interpersonal context will be functional to reach two different but related therapeutic goals: (1) to facilitate the rebuilding of agency (through an

  8. Chimeric anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B antibodies and lovastatin act synergistically to provide in vivo protection against lethal doses of SEB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem E Tilahun

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB is one of a family of toxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus that act as superantigens, activating a large fraction of the T-cell population and inducing production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines that can cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS and death. Extracellular engagement of the TCR of T-cells and class II MHC of antigen presenting cells by SEB triggers the activation of many intracellular signaling processes. We engineered chimeric antibodies to block the extracellular engagement of cellular receptors by SEB and used a statin to inhibit intracellular signaling. Chimeric human-mouse antibodies directed against different neutralizing epitopes of SEB synergistically inhibited its activation of human T-cells in vitro. In the in vivo model of lethal toxic shock syndrome (TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice, two of these antibodies conferred significant partial protection when administered individually, but offered complete protection in a synergistic manner when given together. Similarly, in vivo, lovastatin alone conferred only partial protection from TSS similar to single anti-SEB antibodies. However, used in combination with one chimeric neutralizing anti-SEB antibody, lovastatin provided complete protection against lethal TSS in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice. These experiments demonstrate that in vivo protection against lethal doses of SEB can be achieved by a statin of proven clinical safety and chimeric human-mouse antibodies, agents now widely used and known to be of low immunogenicity in human hosts.

  9. [Identifying victims of a disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status.

  10. Further victimization of child sexual abuse victims: A latent class typology of re-victimization trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James R P; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E; Mann, Emily

    2017-04-01

    The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways. The data were collected as part of a large-scale data-linkage study in which the medical records of 2759 cases of contact-CSA between 1964 and 1995 were linked, between 13 and 44 years following abuse, to police and public psychiatric databases; cases were compared to a matched community sample (n=2677). Using a subsample of 510 (401 victims; 109 comparisons) individuals with an interpersonal (re)victimization history, we examined the aggregate 'age-(re)victimization' curves for CSA victims and comparisons, respectively. Further, we applied longitudinal latent class analysis to explore heterogeneity in re-victimization trajectories among abuse survivors across their early life-course. Four latent pathways were identified, labeled: Normative; Childhood-Limited; Emerging-Adulthood; and Chronic re-victimization trajectories. Older age at abuse, a criminal history, and mental health problems were uniquely predictive of membership to the more problematic and persistent re-victimization trajectories. Findings indicate that individuals exposed to CSA during adolescence may be particularly vulnerable to poorer re-victimization trajectories, characterized by multiple risk indices, and thus may warrant increased service provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reforming the Regulation of Therapeutic Products in Canada: The Protecting of Canadians from Unsafe Drugs Act (Vanessa’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Fierlbeck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enacted November 2014, Vanessa’s Law amends the Food and Drugs Act to give Health Canada greater powers to compel the disclosure of information, recall drugs and devices, impose fines and injunctions, and collect post-market safety information. The Act amends seriously outdated legislation that had been in place since 1954. While the explicit goals of the Act are to improve patient safety and provide transparency, it also establishes a regulatory framework that facilitates investment in the burgeoning field of biotechnology. While regulatory reform was already on the public agenda, public awareness of litigation against large pharmaceutical firms combined with the championing of the legislation by Conservative MP Terence Young, whose daughter Vanessa died from an adverse drug reaction, pushed the legislation through to implementation. Many key aspects of the Act depend upon the precise nature of supporting regulations that are still to be implemented. Despite the new powers conferred by the legislation on the Minister of Health, there is some concern that these discretionary powers may not be exercised, and that Health Canada may not have sufficient resources to take advantage of these new powers. Given experience to date since enactment, the new legislation, designed to provide greater transparency vis-à-vis therapeutic products, may actually have a chilling effect on independent scrutiny.

  12. Evaluation of online resources on the implementation of the protection of personal information act in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available . This paper examines online resources available for individuals, organisations and governmental departments to comply with the PoPI Act. The approach used will be to examine content made available through popular social media platforms such as YouTube (YouTube...

  13. 78 FR 66653 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... MLRs fall short of the applicable MLR standard for the reporting year.'' is corrected to read ``Issuers must provide rebates if their MLRs fall short of the applicable MLR standard for the reporting year... 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive this notice...

  14. Handicapped Children's Protection Act of 1986. House of Representatives, 99th Congress, Second Session Conference Report [To Accompany S. 415].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Augustus F.

    The conference report presents the text of an amendment to the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) to authorize the awarding of reasonable attorneys' fees as part of the costs to the parents or guardian of a handicapped child or youth who is the prevailing party in a settlement. The General Accounting Office is directed to conduct a study of…

  15. 78 FR 57402 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Customs and Border Protection-019 Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Public Law 104-208; Presidential Directive 47/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 16 (NSPD-47/HSPD- 16); and DHS Delegation No. 7010.3 (May 11, 2006). DHS is... ] (including vehicle type, tail numbers, license plate numbers, etc.) and remarks by Detection Enforcement...

  16. Victims of human rights violations and victims of human rights restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Axelle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of international human rights law is to protect basic individual rights and provide to the victims of violations legal remedies against the authors of the abuses. One major difficulty faced in this context originates in the limiting clauses that states insert in international conventions. This paper looks at their compatibility with human rights agreements, in the view of strengthening the legal avenues open to the victims and the possibility for them to obtain redress. The crucial position of human rights at the core of the notion of international public order conditions the approach to adopt in relation to most issues that touch upon the scope and substance of protected rights, including withdrawal from treaties, reservations, implied limitations, overtly broad or inappropriate restrictions, misguided interpretations and failure to apply the relevant provisions. It is put forward that limiting clauses should be narrowly construed and most restrictions discarded altogether.

  17. "I Did What I Was Directed to Do but He Didn't Touch Me": The Impact of Being a Victim of Internet Offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Marcella Mary

    2010-01-01

    The trauma of being a victim of sexual abuse is very difficult to live with, but for victims of internet offending there are added complexities for him/her in trying to make sense of what has happened. They are often "directed" by the offender to perform sexual acts on themselves and/or others, which creates huge confusion for the victim in terms…

  18. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  19. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos

    2017-01-01

    such activities, to increase participation in their activities. Using nationally-representative data from Ireland, the aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Data from...... two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 6098 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Validated scales for depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment were used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used......-Belong-Commit and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment at two-year follow-up. The adjusted model showed that each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. The same was the case for social network...

  20. Victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in daily routines in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in routines. METHODS The 8,170 subjects of both sexes (49.9% women and 50.1% men aged between 12 and 60 years, selected from a proportional stratified sampling, participated in this study. The measuring instrument was an adaptation of the National Survey on Victimization and Perception of Public Security. Chi-square tests were performed. RESULTS The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures. 13.1% of those interviewed claimed to have been victims of a crime in the past 12 months. 52.7% of women considered their municipality as unsafe or very unsafe. In the case of men, this percentage was 58.2%. Female victims reported significant restrictions in everyday activities when compared to non-victims. In relation to men, the percentage of victims with a high restriction of activities was higher in male victims than non-victims. In the group of victimized women, the segment of women who opted for increased measures of protection against crime was larger than expected, while those of non-victims who took less protective measures was lower than expected. These same results were observed in the group of men. CONCLUSIONS The experience of victimization implies a greater perception of insecurity. However, the climate of insecurity is widespread in a large number of citizens. Gender differences in a high-crime environment show the importance of investigating in depth the roles of both genders in the perception of insecurity and changes in routines.

  1. Disability and Violent Victimization in a National Sample of Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Jung, Sejong; Yoo, Jusung

    2015-01-01

    In the victimization literature, a significant association has been consistently observed between disability and the victimization of children and adolescents. It is largely unknown, however, whether individuals with disabilities continue to suffer from a heightened risk of violent victimization when they reach young adulthood and adulthood. In addition, despite the close nexus between victimization and perpetration, prior studies have generally failed to control for violent acts perpetrated by individuals with disabilities. This study addresses these issues by drawing on the panel design nature of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results show that although physical disability is not linked to victimization risk, learning disability is significantly associated with an elevated risk of violent victimization.

  2. Sympathy and Callousness: The Impact of Deliberative Thought on Donations to Identifiable and Statistical Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.; Loewenstein, George; Slovic, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When donating to charitable causes, people do not value lives consistently. Money is often concentrated on a single victim even though more people would be helped, if resources were dispersed or spent protecting future victims. We examine the impact of deliberating about donation decisions on generosity. In a series of field experiments, we show…

  3. 75 FR 36654 - Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... AGENCY Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability; Extension of Comment... Pesticide Poisoning Victims United that asks the Agency to undertake a number of actions to protect potentially affected individuals in Lane County, OR from pesticides applied to surrounding forestlands. This...

  4. A Sorrow Shared Is a Sorrow Halved: Moral Judgments of Harm to Single versus Multiple Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konis, Daffie; Haran, Uriel; Saporta, Kelly; Ayal, Shahar

    2016-01-01

    We describe a bias in moral judgment in which the mere existence of other victims reduces assessments of the harm suffered by each harmed individual. Three experiments support the seemingly paradoxical relationship between the number of harmed individuals and the perceived severity of the harming act. In Experiment 1a, participants expressed lower punitive intentions toward a perpetrator of an unethical act that hurt multiple people and assigned lower monetary compensation to each victim than did those who judged a similar act that harmed only one person. In Experiment 1b, participants displayed greater emotional involvement in the case of a single victim than when there were multiple victims, regardless of whether the victims were unrelated and unaware of each other or constituted a group. Experiment 2 measured the responses of the victims themselves. Participants received false performance feedback on a task before being informed that they had been deceived. Victims who were deceived alone reported more negative feelings and judged the deception as more immoral than did those who knew that others had been deceived as well. Taken together, these results suggest that a victim’s plight is perceived as less severe when others share it, and this bias is common to both third-party judges and victims. PMID:27531988

  5. Peer Victimization and DRD4 Genotype Influence Problem Behaviors in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher; Bersted, Kyle; John, Sufna Gheyara

    2015-08-01

    Decades of research supports the presence of significant genetic influences on children's internalizing (emotional), externalizing (acting out), and social difficulties, including victimization. Additionally, being victimized has been shown to relate to further behavioral problems. The current study assessed the nature of the gene-environment relationships between the DRD4 gene, peer victimization, and externalizing and internalizing difficulties in 6- to 10-year-old children. 174 children (56 % girls; 88.6 % Caucasian, 3.4 % African American, 8 % mixed race or Mayan) and their parents were administered victimization and problem behavior questionnaires, and DRD4 was genotyped for the children. An interaction between genes (DRD4) and environment (victimization) was significant and supported the differential susceptibility model for verbal victimization and child-reported externalizing behaviors. Children with the DRD4 7-repeat allele were differentially responsive to the verbal victimization environment, such that those experiencing little to no victimization reported significantly lower levels of externalizing behaviors, but if they experienced high amounts of victimization, they reported the highest levels of externalizing behaviors. Thus, consideration of how genes and environment affect children's experiences of victimization prior to adolescence is essential for understanding the trajectory of both externalizing and internalizing behaviors during adolescent development.

  6. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  7. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Marie Søndergaard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article centres on some of the dilemmas contained within victim positioning. Such dilemmas are often overlooked by the authorities involved with people subjected to relational aggression. 2 For example, when teachers rule out cases of bullying because the victim has 'participated in' or 'laughed at' some of the bullies' initiatives, or when a rape victim's status as a victim is questioned because, in the lead up to the assault, she was supposedly friendly to the rapist. In these cases, it could be useful to explore the reason for the bullying victim's apparent collusion or to better understand the premises for the rape victim's positioning options in relation to the perpetrator. In other words, it could be fruitful to explore the dynamics and dilemmas of the victim position. In this article, I aim to reflect on the motivational conditions of the victim phenomenon. These reflections are based on an analysis of qualitative data produced through interviews with school children as well as on relevant secondary literature.

  8. A Bill to Amend the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 to Improve . . . Strengthening of State and Local Offices of Consumer Protection. H.R. 2198. 95th Congress, 1st Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This U.S. House of Representatives bill (H.R. 2198), to be cited, if enacted, as the Intergovernmental Consumer Assistance Act, would add a new title to the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968: Title VII-Intergovernmental Cooperation with Respect to Consumer Assistance and Protection. The objective is to establish greater cooperation among…

  9. Double Parricide: An In-Depth Look at Two Victim Homicides Involving Parents as Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegadel, Averi R; Heide, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    The majority of studies examining the killing of parents and step-parents by biological and stepchildren involve a single victim and single offender. Little is known when parricide incidents involve multiple victims or multiple offenders. Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this study examined double parricide incidents involving single or multiple offenders over the 20-year period 1991-2010 with the aim of investigating juvenile and adult involvement. Forty-five incidents of double parricide were identified and verified; in 35 of these cases, the offenders acted alone. Frequencies reported include offender, victim, and incident characteristics. The results indicated that the typical double parricide offender who acted alone was a White male approximately 30 years of age. When multiple offenders were involved, the offenders tended to be younger and were more likely to include a female accomplice. Newspapers were utilized to augment available case information. Study limitations, implications, and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Cyberbullying victimization in adolescents’ population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of communication technology and its wide use by the adolescents, cyberspace became a new risky environment for bullying manifestation and victimization. The significance of the problem lies in the fact that, unlike the traditional bullying, the cyberbullying victimization occurs also out of the school surroundings, it’s characterized by the possible anonymity of the bully, it’s harder to discover it and it could have a much bigger audience. Results of numerous studies show that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization is 10% to 40% during one school year and that it is related to different negative outcomes - from problems of lower self-esteem to severe psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of the paper is to present basic characteristics and negative outcomes of cyberbullying victimization and also to summarize possible factors which are associated with this form of bullying. Lastly, possible ways of preventive action and coping with cyberbullying victimization will be reviewed.

  11. The Influence of Gender Ideology, Victim Resistance, and Spiking a Drink on Acquaintance Rape Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Smith, Danielle

    2016-02-24

    The current study examined observer's attributions about the victim and perpetrator of an alleged acquaintance rape. Participants included 504 college students from a public university in the northeastern United States who read a brief crime report and completed a series of questionnaires for course credit. While men tended to attribute more blame to the victim than women, gender ideology emerged as a stronger predictor of rape attributions, and some types of sexist beliefs were associated with greater victim blaming and others with less victim blaming. Endorsement of hostile sexism, rape myths, and heterosexual intimacy was generally associated with the attribution of greater victim culpability, as well as less perpetrator culpability, perpetrator criminality, and victim credibility. However, complementary gender differentiation was associated with greater perpetrator culpability and criminality, while protective paternalism was associated with greater victim credibility. Observers attributed lower victim culpability and greater perpetrator criminality when the victim's drink was spiked, and attributed greater perpetrator culpability when the victim verbally resisted the perpetrator's advances. Given the implications that observer attitudes can have on professional and personal support for survivors, as well as juror decision making, the ongoing examination of the complex interplay between the person and situational factors affecting attributions of rape is essential. Sexual assault prevention programs may also benefit from a psychoeducational component that targets reducing traditional gender ideology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Health care professionals as second victims after adverse events: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Deborah; Wu, Albert W; Van Gerven, Eva; Vleugels, Arthur; Euwema, Martin; Panella, Massimiliano; Scott, Susan D; Conway, James; Sermeus, Walter; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2013-06-01

    Adverse events within health care settings can lead to two victims. The first victim is the patient and family and the second victim is the involved health care professional. The latter is the focus of this review. The objectives are to determine definitions of this concept, research the prevalence and the impact of the adverse event on the second victim, and the used coping strategies. Therefore a literature research was performed by using a three-step search procedure. A total of 32 research articles and 9 nonresearch articles were identified. The second victim phenomenon was first described by Wu in 2000. In 2009, Scott et al. introduced a detailed definition of second victims. The prevalence of second victims after an adverse event varied from 10.4% up to 43.3%. Common reactions can be emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. The coping strategies used by second victims have an impact on their patients, colleagues, and themselves. After the adverse event, defensive as well as constructive changes have been reported in practice. The second victim phenomenon has a significant impact on clinicians, colleagues, and subsequent patients. Because of this broad impact it is important to offer support for second victims. When an adverse event occurs, it is critical that support networks are in place to protect both the patient and involved health care providers.

  13. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents’ peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents’ depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents’ symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897

  14. Emotional Profile of Women Victims of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Sinanovic, Osman

    2017-06-01

    Research indicates that women victims of domestic violence show significant cognitive changes, emotional numbing, and avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this research was to analyze emotional profile of women victims of domestic violence, and to determine the relationship between dimensions of emotions and frequency of women exposure to domestic violence. The research was conducted on the sample of 169 women, 111 were victims of domestic violence and 58 were women who did not experience domestic violence. Plutchik's Emotions Profile Index (EPI) was used for measuring of the emotion profile, and the Modified Inventory of Domestic Violence for measuring experiences of different types of violence. Basic socio-demographic data were also collected. Significant differences between women victims of domestic violence and women who did not experience domestic violence were found in a few dimensions of emotional profile. Women victims of domestic violence had higher results in the dimensions of deprivation/depression and aggression/destruction, while women who did not experience domestic violence had higher results in dimensions of reproduction and incorporation. Aggression was in significant negative correlation with reproduction, incorporation and self protection, whereas it was significant positive correlation with deprivation and opposition. There were significant and positive correlation between the dimensions of aggression and deprivation and frequency of all three forms of domestic violence and age of women. According to results obtained in this research, it can be concluded that women victims of domestic violence have significantly more intensive negative emotional dimensions in comparison to women who were not abused. Women victims of domestic violence with higher frequency of abuse describe themselves as more sad, apathetic, lonely, angry, quarrelsome and less sociable. Prominence of negative emotions, deprivation and aggression, can be factor of

  15. "She deserved it": Effects of sexism norms, type of violence, and victim's pre-assault behavior on blame attributions toward female victims and approval of the aggressor's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Sabrina; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-04-01

    Effects of ambivalent sexism, sexism norms, victim behavior, and type of violence on male students' reactions to male violence against women in intimate relationships were examined. Participants judged a scenario depicting an act of sexual or non-sexual violence against a female partner who had either shown overtly sexual or non-sexual behavior toward another man. Generally, high (vs. low) hostile sexism, high (vs. low) hostile sexism norm feedback, and victim's overtly sexual (vs. non-sexual) behavior led to stronger victim blame and perceived approval of the aggressor's behavior. The victim of non-sexual violence was blamed more than the rape victim, particularly if she had behaved in an overtly sexual manner.

  16. The Children's Internet Protection Act and E-Rate Policies in Louisiana: A Comparison of Policy Interpretations in Region III and Their Impact on Learning Opportunities of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautreaux, Madge L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2000, President Bill Clinton enacted the "Children's Internet Protection Act" (CIPA) which requires all K-12 schools and publicly funded libraries to use Internet filters to protect children from pornography and other obscene or potentially harmful online content as a stipulation for receiving E-Rate funding. The varying…

  17. Bullying Victimization and Suicide Ideation and Behavior Among Adolescents in Europe: A 10-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Apter, Alan; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael; Bobes, Julio; Saiz, Pilar; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Banzer, Raphaela; Corcoran, Paul; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Postuvan, Vita; Podlogar, Tina; Sisask, Merike; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2017-08-01

    To examine risk and protective factors moderating the associations between three types of bullying victimization (physical, verbal, and relational bullying) with suicide ideation/attempts in a large representative sample of European adolescents. We analyzed cross-sectional data on 11,110 students (mean age = 14.9, standard deviation = .89) recruited from 168 schools in 10 European Union countries involved in the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study. A self-report questionnaire was used to measure victimization types, depression, anxiety, parental and peer support, and suicide ideation and attempts. For each outcome, we applied hierarchical nonlinear models controlling for sociodemographics. Prevalence of victimization was 9.4% physical, 36.1% verbal, and 33.0% relational. Boys were more likely to be physically and verbally victimized, whereas girls were more prone to relational victimization. Physical victimization was associated with suicide ideation, and relational victimization was associated with suicide attempts. Other associations between victimization and suicidality (ideation/attempts) were identified through analysis of interactions with additional risk and protective factors. Specifically, verbal victimization was associated with suicide ideation among adolescents with depression who perceived low parental support. Similarly, low peer support increased the associations between verbal victimization and suicide ideation. Verbal victimization was associated with suicide attempts among adolescents with anxiety who perceived low parental support. Findings support the development of prevention strategies for adolescent victims of bullying who may be at elevated risk for suicide ideation/behavior, by taking into account gender, the type of bullying, symptomatology, and availability of interpersonal support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Urban Inequality and Racial Differences in Risk for Violent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like, Toya Z.

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that racial inequality in urban areas--Black and White residential segregation and economic inequality--is associated with increased levels of homicide offending and that victimization among Blacks yet serves as a protection mechanism against such violence among Whites. However, few studies have considered alternative…

  19. Workplace bullying and legal protection of employees in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace bullying is a subtle manifestation of disturbed relationships in the working collective. This form of victimization of employees in the Czech Republic has, according to independent surveys, expanding dimensions. Empirical evidence generally tends to reveal the prevalence, forms and direction of aggression as well as numerous psychological, health and other consequences of victimization, especially in terms of various socio-demographic indicators. The presented study verifies extensive psychological survey on the sample of N = 3746 employees from the private, public and non-profit sectors in the Czech Republic, using a questionnaire of negative acts NAQ (Negative Act Questionnaire and a status questionnaire. The research confirmed a 12, 14% prevalence of bullying in the workplace in the Czech Republic. There is a balanced representation of men and women in the incidence of bullying, while the highest rates of bullying are reported within the state sector. Victimization in the workplace affects mostly ordinary workers, aged around 42 years, with secondary or higher education. The Czech Republic has not yet made workplace bullying an illegal practise, especially in comparison with other industrialized countries, where since 1990, mobbing is considered a criminal offense. Existing laws in the Czech Republic also do not recognise the concept of mobbing or bossing and therefore do not define these concepts closer. The prohibition of bullying in the workplace necessarily derives from the general provisions of the Anti- Discrimination Act, of the Civil Code, the Labour Code and the laws arising from administrative law. Victims of workplace bullying also get protection by some provisions of the Criminal Code, which protects the victim from aggressor offenses. The relevant legal norm is intended to act as a social regulator, partly preventively in terms of taking measures for the successful identification and elimination of conditions of a

  20. Perpetrator or victim?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... on bullying, and 2. teacher strategies in relation to bullying practices among children. The paper analyses the relationship between policy documents and their implied discourses on the one hand and the discourses and understandings taken up by teaches in their everyday interaction with children...... and colleagues on the other hand. The paper is based on empirical data including surveys among 253 teachers from 10 schools, interview with 12 teachers, and observations among teachers in their respectively class and staff rooms. In the analyses punishment and sanctions appear to work as general strategies...

  1. First Person Victim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2010-01-01

    in the “First Person Victim” experience to create awareness about the consequences of war for civilians. The paper will also explain how our “Interactive Dramatic Experience Model” organizes the various events of the experience and mediates an emergent narrative by the use of the first person shooter form......Scientific and psychological studies claim a variety of triggers in video games with violent content may promote aggression. To oppose the violent behavior of players in these games, this paper will describe how the sources of aggression and first person shooter conventions have been exploited....... The theme is communicated through the use of tragedy, and turns the roles around to let the participants encounter a realistic war-scenario while being confronted with ethical issues, by enacting the experience of being a victim of war. An evaluation of the implemented experience indicated...

  2. Smad Nuclear Interacting Protein 1 Acts as a Protective Regulator of Pressure Overload-Induced Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu-Yan; Xu, Da-Chun; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Zhu, Guo-Fu; Zhu, Meng-Yun; Liu, Wei-Jing; Yu, Xue-Jing; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Xu, Ya-Wei

    2016-10-26

    Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1) plays a critical role in cell proliferation, transformation of embryonic fibroblasts, and immune regulation. However, the role of SNIP1 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. Here we examined the role of SNIP1 in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and its mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that SNIP1 expression was downregulated in human dilated cardiomyopathic hearts, aortic banding-induced mice hearts, and angiotensin II-treated cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, SNIP1 deficiency significantly exacerbated aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction, whereas cardiac-specific overexpression of SNIP1 markedly recovered pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Besides that, SNIP1 protected neonatal rat cardiomyocytes against angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy in vitro. Moreover, we identified that SNIP1 suppressed nuclear factor-κB signaling during pathological cardiac hypertrophy, and inhibition of nuclear factor-κB signaling by a cardiac-specific conditional inhibitor of κB S 32A/S36A transgene blocked these adverse effects of SNIP1 deficiency on hearts. Together, our findings demonstrated that SNIP1 had protective effects in pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB signaling. Thus, SNIP1 may be a novel approach for the treatment of heart failure. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. An Argument for States to Outlaw 'Revenge Porn' and for Congress to Amend 47 U.S.C. §230: How Our Current Laws Do Little to Protect Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Martinez

    2014-01-01

    This note examines the intersection of law and technology as it relates to the issue of revenge porn.  Revenge porn comes in many forms but most commonly refers to the online posting of sexually explicit photos or videos of past lovers, without their consent, after the relationship has ended.  The author explains how the current legal framework has left many victims without legal recourse to punish those who have posted their intimate photos or videos without consent, and few options to have ...

  4. Victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in daily routines in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ávila, María Elena; Martínez-Ferrer, Belén; Vera, Alejandro; Bahena, Alejandro; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    .... Chi-square tests were performed. RESULTS The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures. 13.1...

  5. Victims of cyberstalking in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research findings on prevalence and characteristics of cyberstalking in Serbia. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from a group of respondents who were recruited by snowball sampling via e-mail. A total of 237 respondents completed the online questionnaire. The aim of the first part of this paper is to determine the notion of cyberstalking as well as, to review research about the prevalence and the nature of stalking. The main results are the following: 39,6 % of respondents reported stalking; every fourth stalking victim is a victims of cyberstalking; mostly, cyberstalking victims were female and perpetrators were male. Victims were stalked by: persistent sending of unwanted e-mails and telephone calls, spreading rumors, abusive and negative comments and threats, encouraged other users to harass, threaten or insult, manipulating with victim's personal data, sending malicious programs and files, etc. In Serbia, cyberstalking is not criminalized yet and there are no organizations to whom victims may appeal and ask for help. We are hoping that this research will raise the awareness on cyberstalking and serve as a base for further research and legal reforms regarding cyberstalking victimization in Serbia.

  6. The Importance of Investigating Abuser Characteristics in Elder Emotional/Psychological Abuse: Results from Adult Protective Services Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pi-Ju; Conrad, Kendon J; Beach, Scott R; Iris, Madelyn; Schiamberg, Lawrence B

    2017-05-17

    Elder emotional/psychological abuse is the infliction of mental anguish on older adults through verbal or non-verbal acts. Using indicators based on existing literature, theoretically important abuser characteristics and victim vulnerabilities were collected using the Elder Abuse Decision Support System (EADSS) to test a theory of emotional/psychological abuse. Eight-hundred-and-ten alleged emotional/psychological abuse cases were investigated by caseworkers in six Illinois adult protective services (APS) agencies; 466 individuals endorsed at least one item on the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM). Bivariate ordinary linear regression results established that all abuser characteristics were predictive of emotional/psychological abuse scores. In the hierarchical regression model where abuser characteristics were entered after victim vulnerabilities, abuser characteristics predicted emotional/psychological abuse above and beyond victim vulnerabilities (ΔR2 = 0.349, p < .001). Abuser risk and abuser's negative attitudes towards victims remained as significant predictors in the final model. Post hoc analysis identified significant items of abuser risk and negative attitudes, including: an emotionally draining relationship between abuser and victim, abuser's poor temper control, and abuser's angry feelings towards victims. Abuser weaknesses and strengths as highlighted in the theoretical framework should be further investigated for future prevention and intervention in cases of emotional/psychological abuse.

  7. Base rates of hate crime victimization among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Earleywine, Mitchell; Davison, Gerald C

    2003-10-01

    This study uses the unmatched count technique (UCT) to estimate base rates for hate crime victimization in college students and compares the results with estimates found using conventional methods. Hate crimes, criminal acts perpetrated against individuals or members of specific stigmatized groups, intend to express condemnation, hate, disapproval, dislike, or distrust for a group. The UCT is a promising tool in the investigation of hate crime because it does not require participants to directly answer sensitive questions. This may provide more accurate responses than other methods. The UCT revealed higher estimates for a variety of serious hate crimes, including physical and sexual assault. These higher estimates provide a better feel for the level of hate crime victimization and point to the increased need for hate crime victims' assistance programs on college campuses.

  8. Supporting children: Victims of crime, within victim support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walle Vande Ilse

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available All too often, the victimization of children is automatically associated with child abuse and sexual abuse. However, children are also confronted, either directly or indirectly, with other kinds of criminality. In spite of that children usually do not get appropriate support and assistance. In this paper, the establishment and development of services for the support of children-victims of crime in Belgium, as well as European cooperation in this regard, are described.

  9. Victims and Their Defenders: A Dyadic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social status. Analyses on victim-defender dyads showed…

  10. PROTOCOL PROPOSAL FOR PRERECORDING EVIDENCE FROM ESPECIALLY VULNERABLE VICTIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González1

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prerecorded evidence is a legal form which has basic two purposes in especially vulnerable victims: on one hand, protecting the victim’s testimony (cognitive evidence from deterioration derived from many different, inadequate approaches, and on the other, avoiding revictimization by the police and justice system. Aware of the assistance that forensic psychology can provide in carrying out these proceedings, this article describes a proposal for prerecording evidence based on knowledge of the psychology of testimony and of psychology of criminal victimization, in addition to the practical experience of criminal psychologists and forensic psychologists.

  11. Bullying and victimization among African American adolescents: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-05-01

    Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The epidemiology of self-defense gun use: evidence from the National Crime Victimization Surveys 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J

    2015-10-01

    To describe the epidemiology of self-defense gun use (SDGU) and the relative effectiveness of SDGU in preventing injury and property loss. Data come from the National Crime Victimization Survey for 2007-2011, focusing on personal contact crimes. For property loss, we examined incidents where the intent was to steal property. Multivariate analyses controlled for age, gender of offender and victim, if offender had a gun, urbanicity, and thirteen types of self-protective action. Of over 14,000 incidents in which the victim was present, 127 (0.9%) involved a SDGU. SDGU was more common among males, in rural areas, away from home, against male offenders and against offenders with a gun. After any protective action, 4.2% of victims were injured; after SDGU, 4.1% of victims were injured. In property crimes, 55.9% of victims who took protective action lost property, 38.5 of SDGU victims lost property, and 34.9% of victims who used a weapon other than a gun lost property. Compared to other protective actions, the National Crime Victimization Surveys provide little evidence that SDGU is uniquely beneficial in reducing the likelihood of injury or property loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Staphylococcus aureus polysaccharide capsule and Efb-dependent fibrinogen shield act in concert to protect against phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Annemarie; Stapels, Daphne A C; Weerwind, Lleroy T; Ko, Ya-Ping; Ruyken, Maartje; Lee, Jean C; van Kessel, Kok P M; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has developed many mechanisms to escape from human immune responses. To resist phagocytic clearance, S. aureus expresses a polysaccharide capsule, which effectively masks the bacterial surface and surface-associated proteins, such as opsonins, from recognition by phagocytic cells. Additionally, secretion of the extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) potently blocks phagocytic uptake of the pathogen. Efb creates a fibrinogen shield surrounding the bacteria by simultaneously binding complement C3b and fibrinogen at the bacterial surface. By means of neutrophil phagocytosis assays with fluorescently labelled encapsulated serotype 5 (CP5) and serotype 8 (CP8) strains we compare the immune-modulating function of these shielding mechanisms. The data indicate that, in highly encapsulated S. aureus strains, the polysaccharide capsule is able to prevent phagocytic uptake at plasma concentrations capsule-negative and encapsulated strains at all tested plasma concentrations. Furthermore, the results suggest that both shielding mechanisms can exist simultaneously and collaborate to provide optimal protection against phagocytosis at a broad range of plasma concentrations. As opsonizing antibodies will be shielded from recognition by either mechanism, incorporating both capsular polysaccharides and Efb in future vaccines could be of great importance.

  14. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PL 111-148): an analysis of maternal-child health home visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Denise K; Clark, Mary Jo; Howland, Lois C; Mueller, Mary-Rose

    2011-08-01

    On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, setting in motion a historic and, for many, a long-awaited radical change to the current American health care system. Section 2951 of the PPACA addresses provision and funding of maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting programs. The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the legislative odyssey of home visitation services to at-risk prenatal and postpartum women and children as delineated in the PPACA and to discuss the nursing practice and research implications of this landmark legislation. Few question the need for more rigorous methodology in all phases of home visitation research. Public health nursing may provide the comprehensive approach to evaluating effective home visitation programs.

  15. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  16. [Health consequence of stalking victimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, R; Hintz, E; Blättner, B

    2012-05-01

    Life time prevalence of stalking is about 12-20%, while females are more often affected than male. Stalking is a statutory offense. However, it is not an assault of victims' law. For the purpose of health consequences for stalking victims, research in following database were conducted: EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. English and German published studies of the years 2002-2010 were included. 17 primary studies and 2 meta-analyses were identified. Direct physiological consequences are relatively rare; however stalking victims report a poorer physiological health status. Almost every second stalking victim shows impairments on his/her psychical well-being. Impairments of social well-being are common, too. As a result, there is still a lot of research, especially in long-term studies, required. Socio-legal reassessment of stalking will probably benefit only a few of the affected people. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Freedom of conscience and health care in the United States of america: the conflict between public health and religious liberty in the patient protection and affordable care act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Oram, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The recent confirmation of the constitutionality of the Obama administration's Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) by the US Supreme Court has brought to the fore long-standing debates over individual liberty and religious freedom. Advocates of personal liberty are often critical, particularly in the USA, of public health measures which they deem to be overly restrictive of personal choice. In addition to the alleged restrictions of individual freedom of choice when it comes to the question of whether or not to purchase health insurance, opponents to the PPACA also argue that certain requirements of the Act violate the right to freedom of conscience by mandating support for services deemed immoral by religious groups. These issues continue the long running debate surrounding the demands of religious groups for special consideration in the realm of health care provision. In this paper I examine the requirements of the PPACA, and the impacts that religious, and other ideological, exemptions can have on public health, and argue that the exemptions provided for by the PPACA do not in fact impose unreasonable restrictions on religious freedom, but rather concede too much and in so doing endanger public health and some important individual liberties.

  18. Media coverage of women victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović-Vilić, Slobodanka; Žunić, Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Mass media seem to be playing the central role in our everyday life and the media impact is so overpowering nowadays that we live in a mediasaturated culture. Not only are mass media an inseparable part of our contemporary life but they also significantly define and shape our daily existence. In order to explain the cultural impact that the media coverage of crime and victimization has in our society, it is necessary to understand the relationship between crime, victimization and mass media. ...

  19. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves rela...

  20. Protecting Children's Online Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresses, Mamie

    2001-01-01

    Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

  1. Predictors of Traditional and Cyber-Bullying Victimization: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present article is to compare the individual, peer, family, and school risk and protective factors for both traditional and cyber-bullying victimization. This article draws on data from 673 students from Victoria, Australia, to examine Grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying victimization in Grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Participants completed a modified version of the Communities That Care youth survey. There were few similarities and important differences in the predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying victimization. For Grade 9 cyber-bullying victimization, in the fully adjusted model, having been a victim of traditional bullying in Grade 7 and emotional control in Grade 7 were predictors. For Grade 9 traditional bullying victimization, predictors were Grade 7 traditional bullying victimization, association with antisocial peers, and family conflict, with family attachment and emotional control marginally statistically significant. The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of both traditional and cyber-bullying victimization, as is the implementation of programs to assist students to regulate their emotions effectively. In addition, traditional bullying victimization may be reduced by addressing association with antisocial friends, family conflict, and bonding to families. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Family poly-victimization and cyberbullying among adolescents in a Chinese school sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, QiQi; Lo, Camilla K M; Zhu, Yuhong; Cheung, Anne; Chan, Ko Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    The sustained increase in their use of social networking facilitates the development of adolescents but comes with the risk of cyberbullying, which creates new challenges in regard to adolescent protection. Past evidence shows that family victimization may play an essential role in the way adolescents learn cyberbullying behaviors. Yet, research on the co-occurrence of family victimization and cyberbullying is limited. This study aims to investigate the associations between cyberbullying and family victimization among adolescents, and to examine the health correlates of cyberbullying and family poly-victimization. A large sample of 18,341 students, aged 15-17, from six cities in China, collected between 2009 and 2010 is employed in the present study, which investigated the association between various kinds of family victimization and adolescent cyberbullying. Data analysis was conducted in 2017. In-law conflict, intimate partner violence, elder abuse and neglect, and child maltreatment were associated with a higher possibility of children becoming internet victims. Parents' divorce and separation, low family income, mother's low level of education, and father's unemployment were all associated with cyberbullying victimization. Cyber victimization was positively correlated to symptoms of PTSD and depression, self-harm, and other physical and mental health variables. Possible explanations for the relationships found in this study are discussed and implications for future research and services are provided. Proactive screening for family poly-victimization and cyberbullying is suggested. Schools are highly recommended to cooperate with parents to promote cyber safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Satisfaction with life, victimization, and perception of insecurity in Morelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Martínez-Ferrer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examines the influence of victimization, perceived insecurity and restrictions on daily routines in life satisfaction. Materials and methods. Participants were 7 535 (50.2% men aged between 12 and 60, selected from a proportional stratified sampling. MANOVA and polyto- mous logistic regression model were calculated. Results. We found significant differences in victimization, perceived insecurity and restrictions on daily routines in relation with life satisfaction levels. Also, physical protective measures, control of personal information, perception of insecurity in public areas and restrictions on daily routines were related to lower levels of satisfaction with life. Conclusions. Lowest levels of satisfaction with life were associated with victimization, perception of insecurity in public areas, and restrictions on daily routines

  4. Previous Emergency Medical Services Use by Victims of Child Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, Rohit P; Nassif, Anriada; Camp, Elizabeth A; Pereira, Faria A

    2017-03-27

    The medical diagnoses and frequency of emergency department visits made by children who are later given a diagnosis of maltreatment do not differ much from those of nonabused children. However, the type of medical complaints and frequency of emergency medical services (EMS) use by child homicide victims before their death are not known. We compared EMS use between child homicide victims and children who died from natural causes before their death. This was a retrospective case-control study of children 0 to 5 years old who died in Houston, Texas, from 2005 to 2010. Cases were child homicide victims. Controls were children who died from natural causes. We reviewed death data and EMS and child protective services (CPS) encounter information before the victim's death. The association between death type (natural vs homicide) and EMS use was assessed using Poisson regression with EMS count adjusted for exposure time. There were 89 child homicides and 183 natural deaths. Age at death was significantly higher for homicides than natural deaths (1.1 vs 0.2 y, P Homicide victims used EMS services (39% vs 14%, P homicide group had more EMS calls than the natural death group (β = 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-1.07; P = 0.03). However, the EMS use frequency and working assessments were not helpful in identifying maltreatment victims. Child homicide victims use EMS more often and have a higher number of CPS investigations before their death than children who die from natural causes. However, the frequency and nature of EMS medical complaints are not helpful in identifying maltreatment.

  5. Delivering community benefits acts as insurance for the survival of small protected areas such as the Abe Bailey Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Abe Bailey Nature Reserve (ABNR in the Gauteng Province of South Africa is largely unknown and offers little to attract visitors. The biological integrity of the ABNR is challenged by the urban poverty in Khutsong, the reserve’s immediate neighbour. Relations between Khutsong and the nature reserve had been hostile for decades as a result of the ‘fortress’ style of conservation protection used for the ABNR. However, this situation provided the Gauteng Directorate of Nature Conservation with an opportunity to experiment with identifying and transferring benefits to the community, as well as establishing an effective buffer zone between the nature reserve and the informal settlements of Khutsong. Following an initial rapid rural appraisal and ongoing liaison through specifically appointed project managers, an outreach programme containing two natural resource-based projects was developed. As a result, better relations were established between the ABNR and its neighbouring community for the first time since the nature reserve was established in 1977. This acted as ‘insurance’ during violent public protests and vandalism in the Khutsong border demarcation dispute (2005–2007, but may not be enough to secure the nature reserve into the future. Conservation implications: Small protected areas may not be effective in ensuring their biological integrity in the long term, but working cooperatively with existing and future neighbours is an essential strategy to optimise conservation activities in small reserves such as the ABNR.

  6. Victimization experiences and the stabilization of victim sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Süssenbach, Philipp; Hannuschke, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, "victim sensitivity" predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively-especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the sensitivity to mean intentions (SeMI) model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model's prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span ("ontogenetic stabilization") and across social situations ("actual-genetic stabilization"). Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a) how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions) become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b) why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c) how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people's intentions). Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  7. Victimization Experiences and the Stabilization of Victim Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eGollwitzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, victim sensitivity predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively - especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the Sensitivity to Mean Intentions (SeMI model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (ontogenetic stabilization and across social situations (actual-genetic stabilization. Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions. Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  8. Employer Self-Insurance Decisions and the Implications of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as Modified by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (ACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibner, Christine; Girosi, Federico; Miller, Amalia; Cordova, Amado; McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Pace, Nicholas M; Price, Carter C; Vardavas, Raffaele; Gresenz, Carole Roan

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (ACA) changes the regulatory environment within which health insurance policies on the small-group market are bought and sold. New regulations include rate bands that limit premium price variation, risk-adjustment policies that will transfer funds from low-actuarial-risk to high-actuarial-risk plans, and requirements that plans include "essential health benefits." While the new regulations will be applied to all non-grandfathered fully insured policies purchased by businesses with 100 or fewer workers, self-insured plans are exempt from these regulations. As a result, some firms may have a stronger incentive to offer self-insured plans after the ACA takes full effect. In this article we identify factors that influence employers' decisions to self-insure and estimate how the ACA will influence self-insurance rates. We also consider the implications of higher self-insurance rates for adverse selection in the non-self-insured small-group market and whether enrollees in self-insured plans receive different benefits than enrollees in fully-insured plans. Results are based on data analysis, literature review, findings from discussions with stakeholders, and microsimulation analysis using the COMPARE model. Overall, we find little evidence that self-insured plans differ systematically from fully insured plans in terms of benefit generosity, price, or claims denial rates. Stakeholders expressed significant concern about adverse selection in the health insurance exchanges due to regulatory exemptions for self-insured plans. However, our microsimulation analysis predicts a sizable increase in self-insurance only if comprehensive stop-loss policies become widely available after the ACA takes full effect and the expected cost of self-insuring with stop-loss is comparable to the cost of being fully insured in a market without rating regulations.

  9. Victims’ rights are human rights: The importance of recognizing victims as persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wemmers Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that victims’ rights are human rights. Criminal law typically views victims as witnesses to a crime against the state, thus shutting them out of the criminal justice process and only allowing them in when they are needed to testify. This is a major source of dissatisfaction for victims who seek validation in the criminal justice system. Victims are persons with rights and privileges. Crimes constitute violations of their rights as well as acts against society or the state. While human rights instruments, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, do not mention crime victims specifically, a number of rights are identified, which can be viewed from the victim’s perspective. As individuals with dignity, victims have the right to recognition as persons before the law. However, such rights are only meaningful if they can be enforced.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of school age bullying victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Danilo Rolim de; Cruz, Ana Catarina Nova; Quevedo, Luciana de Ávila

    2011-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of bullying victims, the characteristics of those victims and their associated symptoms in the domains of emotion, behavior, hyperactivity and peer relationships. This was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort that assesses disorders of reading, writing and arithmetic in 1,075 students enrolled in the first to eighth grades of two public schools in a lower-middle-class neighborhood of the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. The KIDSCAPE questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of bullying and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess victims' behavioral characteristics. The prevalence of bullying was 17.6%. The most prevalent type of intimidation was verbal, followed by physical, emotional, racial and sexual. After adjustment for confounding factors, bullying was still associated with male sex (PR 1.49 95%CI 1.14-1.96), hyperactivity (PR 1.89 95%CI 1.25-2.87) and peer relationship problems (PR 1.85 95%CI 1.24-2.76). Among the victims of bullying, 47.1% had also initiated bullying. This study has identified the behavioral characteristics of bullying victims which may prove useful for local policies designed to protect the targets of bullying.

  11. Place of the victim in records of violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of identifying the scope, prevalence and incidence of violence against children, at the national and international level, is determined by the way of measurement and the kind of information available on this type of crime. The starting point for successful preventive and combative measures of victimization of children is an efficient system of recording and presenting the data on violence to which they are exposed to, based on the information from the incident, the family, the perpetrator and the victim. This paper aims to identify and analyze ways of recording and the type of available data on violence against children, as well as the place of child victim in the officially presented data at the global and national level. In doing so, the paper was based on the research of relevant international and national literature in the field of judicial and social protection statistics, publications based on data from the judiciary, those based on the use of victimization surveys and other prospective or retrospective research of violent victimization experiences in childhood. At the very least an analysis of the Serbian approach to this area is given. [PR Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji - fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije

  12. The Second Victim: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, B; Powell, D; Higgins, M F

    2017-06-01

    Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be "never events" and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved - the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims). If the perceived expectation of patients on all clinicians is that of perfection, then clinicians may suffer the consequences of adverse outcomes in isolation and silence. More recently identification and discussion on the phenomenon of the second victim has become a popular research topic. This review aimed to study not only the phenomenon of second victim in general medical care but to also concentrate on maternity care where the expectation of perfection may be argued to be greater. Risk factors, prevalence and effect of second victims were identified from a thorough search of the literature on the topic. The review focuses on the recent research of the effect on maternity staff of adverse outcomes and discusses topical issues of resilience, disclosure, support systems as well as Learning from Excellence. It is now well documented that when staff members are supported in their disclosure of errors this domino effect is less traumatic. It is the responsibility of everyone working in healthcare to support all the victims of an error, as an ethical duty and to have a supportive culture of disclosure. In addition, balance can be provided by developing a culture of learning from excellence as well as from errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk and protective factors in the resource network for children and adolescences victims of sexual violence / Fatores de risco e de proteção na rede de atendimento a crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência sexual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa F. Habigzang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence against children and adolescences is a public health concern, characterized by a complex dynamics, which involves psychological, social and legal aspects, demanding the coordinated intervention of different institutions. This study presents the mapping of risk and protective factors in resource network for children and adolescences victims of sexual violence, who were identified in the 1992-1998 judicial processes of the Ministério Público (District Attorney's Office of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The analysis of 71 files present the interventions that were performed by the institutions that composed the network. The results pointed out the difficulty of the protection services to intervene in the cases. The lack of communication among the institutions to articulate the necessary protection measures and to follow-up on their implementation was verified. These results suggest the need to qualify the services of the network, seeking the real understanding of the cases, as well as performing appropriate interventions.

  14. Exploring the Characteristics of Personal Victims Using the National Crime Victimization Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jairam, Shashi

    1998-01-01

    .... Two statistical methods were used to investigate these hypotheses, logistical regression for victimization prevalence, and negative binomial regression for victimization incidence and concentration...

  15. A Systematic Review of Research Strategies Used in Qualitative Studies on School Bullying and Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Desmond Upton; Hong, Jun Sung; Patel, Sadiq; Kral, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    School bullying and victimization are serious social problems in schools. Most empirical studies on bullying and peer victimization are quantitative and examine the prevalence of bullying, associated risk and protective factors, and negative outcomes. Conversely, there is limited qualitative research on the experiences of children and adolescents related to school bullying and victimization. We review qualitative research on school bullying and victimization published between 2004 and 2014. Twenty-four empirical research studies using qualitative methods were reviewed. We organize the findings from these studies into (1) emic, (2) context specific, (3) iterative, (4) power relations, and (5) naturalistic inquiry. We find that qualitative researchers have focused on elaborating on and explicating the experiences of bully perpetrators, victims, and bystanders in their own words. Directions for research and practice are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Psychological characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakulich T.M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analysis of psychological factors and characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence. We considered prerequisites for the formation of victim behavior in women, motives and psychological implication of protective mechanisms of women in a dysfunctional family. It is noted that the victimized women are inclined to sacrifice their "I" in order to be accepted by family system and this characteristic belongs to the general features of victimization, which manifests itself in disadaptive behavior of subjects. We revealed and described the psychological characteristics of victim behavior of women in situations of domestic violence, including neuroticism, affective functions disorder, state of learned helplessness, cognitive disorders, deformed self-perception and low self-esteem, proneness to conflict and contradictions, post-traumatic stress disorder, boundary violations of “Ego”, traumatic childhood experiences and behaviors of parents.

  17. Female stalkers and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Boyd, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Demographic, clinical, and forensic data were gathered in an archival study of 82 female stalkers from the United States, Canada, and Australia. Female stalkers were predominantly single, heterosexual, educated individuals in their mid 30s who had pursued their victims for more than a year. Major mental disorder and personality disorder were suggested, especially borderline personality disorder. They usually threatened violence, and if they did threaten, were more likely to be violent. Frequency of interpersonal violence was 25 percent, but there was limited use of weapons, and injuries were minor. Stalking victims were most likely to be slightly older male acquaintances; but if the victim was a prior sexual intimate of the female stalker, her risk of being violent toward him exceeded 50 percent. Unlike male stalkers who often pursue their victims to restore intimacy, these female stalkers often pursued their victims to establish intimacy. Common emotions and motivations included anger, obsessional thoughts, rage at abandonment, loneliness, dependency, jealousy, and perceived betrayal. Results are interpreted from a clinical and risk management perspective.

  18. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  19. Informing victims about the release of perpetrators from serving their prison sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamer-Vidmar Nikica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the practice of informing victims about the release of offenders who serve their prison sentences for crimes against sexual freedom, against life and limb or criminal acts with elements of violence in the Republic of Croatia. Tasks of informing victims about the offender‘s release on the basis of the Law on Amendments to the Law on Enforcement of Prison Sentence perform the Ministry of Justice, the Independent Service for Victims and Witnesses Support. The Independent Service for Victims and Witnesses Support developed the system of informing victims based on the practice of other countries and improves it continuously. The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of informing victims about the release of offenders, as well as the survey findings about the extent to which victims take advantage of some form of psychosocial support that is available, reactions of victims upon receiving information of the offender’s release as well as about victims’ needs for additional psychosocial support.

  20. The Citizen-Victim: Expansion, Opening and Regulation Laws on Vulnerable Lives (Spain, 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gatti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Spain has enacted legislation that addresses victims of different kinds. From victims of ETA terrorist acts to others of varying origins, these laws addressed an ever broadening range of vulnerabilities for the average everyday individual. In this article, we are interested in discussing the emergence and increase of this kind of legislation, as a trend that promotes the construction of a new subjective type: the victim. Victims in contemporary societies seem to be gaining ground as central figures simultaneously, integrating themselves alongside the average citizen. We will analyze the broadening aspects of the Victims using three distinct stages: first focusing on their political nature, showing a breaking point with the monopoly of ETA victims in public perception, which led to progressive legislative awareness and concern of other kinds of victims. This became a ongoing political trigger. Secondly, broadening the definition of Victim brought it closer to situations, directly connected to “vulnerable citizens”. Lastly, addressing the category itself through a new expression of “citizen-victim”.

  1. Victimization and the general theory of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Theories of victimization developed independently of theories of offending, in spite of consistent findings of similarities between offenders and victims of crime. This study examines whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime, typically used to predict offending, also has relevance in understanding juvenile victimization. The data for this project are drawn from a sample of over 1,200 middle and high school students. Using structural equation models, the findings suggest that higher self-control does directly decrease victimization and that self-control also affects victimization indirectly though opportunities (peer deviance). Implications for the studies of victimization as well as the general theory of crime are discussed.

  2. The success of the citizen suit: protecting consumers from inaccurate food labeling by amending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, James

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("FDCA"), amended in 1990 by the Nutrition Education and Labeling Act ("NLEA"), established a national framework for the administration and promulgation of uniform food labeling standards. Specifically, the NLEA created affirmative obligations for the food--requiring detailed disclosure of food content and strict adherence to regulations governing the use of health and nutritional claims on food packaging. To accomplish these goals, Congress tasked the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") with the sole responsibility of the enforcement of these new requirements. Under the statutory framework of the FDCA, the United States Supreme Court ("Court") has held that there is no private right of action, of which extended to the enforcement of NLEA standards. This interpretation has left individuals with no federal outlet for relief in the enforcement of federal food labeling standards. Adherence to this interpretation is especially concerning when the FDA currently faces exponential growth in administrative responsibilities while simultaneously experiencing employment reduction, a $206 million "Sequester," and a recent government-wide shutdown. As a result, the American people are left to depend on an Agency that is struggling with drastic resource reduction while being accountable for ever increasing enforcement responsibilities. To ensure consumer protection, this Article argues that Congress should amend the FDCA to include a citizen suit provision in order to provide individuals with a right of private action for the enforcement of NLEA standards. Borrowing from the successes realized under similar citizen suit provisions found in environmental legislation, this Article argues that a citizen suit provision is amendable to the FDCA and would relieve fiscal pressures, strengthen the current enforcement framework of the FDCA, encourage more robust enforcement by the FDA and states, and ensure uniform interpretation of NLEA

  3. The Violent Victimization of Children, Adolescents, Adults, and the Elderly: Situational Characteristics and Victim Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsay, James D; Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob; Ward, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics-including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim-offender relationship-of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury. Results indicate that victim injury is most prevalent among adult victims and that the situational characteristics of violent incidents vary by victim age, as do the correlates of victim injury. These findings suggest that of the nature of violent victimization should be examined within the context of victim age, and supports research by scholars who have proposed a model of developmental victimology to identify age-specific victimization patterns.

  4. Women in alcoholic partnerships: Victimized and stigmatized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić-Labaš Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we strived to examine and therefore gain a deeper insight into the stigmatization and victimization of women living with an alcoholic partner by taking into account various perspectives. The association between alcohol consumption and violence against women has long been recognized, but wider social and legal support and protection followed rather late. Especially in developing countries, this serious problem has become one of the biggest health issues that is nonetheless still insufficiently investigated. High rates of aggressive and violent behavior of men towards women in partnerships have deep cultural and social roots, and this is additionally enhanced by the use of alcohol. The use of alcohol enhances violence against women and is therefore often justified which is obviously unacceptable. Women are victimized regardless of the position in these type of partnerships, namely irrespective of whether they themselves or addicts or are partners of addicted partners or husbands, because they often suffer psychological, physical and sexual violence. Several case studies drawn from our practice and presented below will partly illuminate dark side of a violent alcoholic partnership. In order to better understand the link between alcohol and violence it seems necessary to consider both social and structural factors involved.

  5. Long-acting genipin derivative protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress models in vitro and in vivo through the Nrf2/antioxidant response element signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Yoshiki; Chiba, Kenzo; Yamazaki, Matsumi; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Muramoto, Ken-ichiro; Kato, Satoru

    2010-10-01

    Previously, we reported that genipin, a herbal iridoid, had neuritogenic and neuroprotective actions on PC12 cells. Although nitric oxide (NO)-activated signalings were proposed to be neuritogenic, the neuroprotective action of genipin remains to be elucidated. From the standpoint of NO activation, we tested a possible protective mechanism through the nitrosative Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap1)/NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element pathway in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cells) in culture, and in vivo, against hydrogen peroxide and optic nerve injury (ONI), respectively, using a long-acting (1R)-isoPropyloxygenipin (IPRG001). IPRG001 induced NO generation and the expressions of antioxidative enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in RGC-5 cells. The protective action of IPRG001 depended on HO-1 and NO induction. We found that S-nitrosylation of Keap1 by IPRG001 may contribute to translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus and triggered transcriptional activation of antioxidative enzymes. Furthermore, apoptotic cells were increased and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was accumulated in rat retina following ONI. Pre-treatment with IPRG001 almost completely suppressed apoptosis and accumulation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in RGCs following ONI accompanied by HO-1 induction. These data demonstrate for the first time that IPRG001 exerts neuroprotective action in RGCs in vitro and in vivo, through the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway by S-nitrosylation against oxidative stress. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization--national intimate partner and sexual violence survey, United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Matthew J; Smith, Sharon G; Basile, Kathleen C; Walters, Mikel L; Chen, Jieru; Merrick, Melissa T

    2014-09-05

    intimate partner (including acts such as being hit with something hard, being kicked or beaten, or being burned on purpose) was experienced by an estimated 22.3% of women and 14.0% of men during their lifetimes and by an estimated 2.3% of women and 2.1% of men in the 12 months before taking the survey. Finally, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of stalking by an intimate partner for women was an estimated 9.2% and 2.4%, respectively, while the lifetime and 12-month prevalence for men was an estimated 2.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Many victims of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence were first victimized at a young age. Among female victims of completed rape, an estimated 78.7% were first raped before age 25 years (40.4% before age 18 years). Among male victims who were made to penetrate a perpetrator, an estimated 71.0% were victimized before age 25 years (21.3% before age 18 years). In addition, an estimated 53.8% of female stalking victims and 47.7% of male stalking victims were first stalked before age 25 years (16.3% of female victims and 20.5% of male victims before age 18 years). Finally, among victims of contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner, an estimated 71.1% of women and 58.2% of men first experienced these or other forms of intimate partner violence before age 25 years (23.2% of female victims and 14.1% of male victims before age 18 years). A substantial proportion of U.S. female and male adults have experienced some form of sexual violence, stalking, or intimate partner violence at least once during their lifetimes, and the sex of perpetrators varied by the specific form of violence examined. In addition, a substantial number of U.S. adults experienced sexual violence, stalking, or intimate partner violence during the 12 months preceding the 2011 survey. Consistent with previous studies, the overall pattern of results suggest that women, in particular, are heavily impacted over their lifetime

  7. The Voiceless Victim: A critical analysis of the impact of enhanced victim participation in the criminal justice process

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Moynihan

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to many European jurisdictions, the victim of an alleged crime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is denied any form of meaningful participation at the trial stage of the criminal justice process. This is by reason of the unyielding structure of the Anglo-American adversarial system, which facilitates a dispute between two parties only - the prosecution, acting on behalf of the collective public interest and the defence. In recent years, however, the victims’ movement has gain...

  8. Bully/Victim Profiles' Differential Risk for Worsening Peer Acceptance: The Role of Friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochel, Karen P; Ladd, Gary W; Bagwell, Catherine L; Yabko, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    Study aims were to: (1) evaluate the association between bully/victim profiles, derived via latent profile analysis (LPA), and changes in peer acceptance from the fall to spring of 7 th grade, and (2) investigate the likelihood of friendlessness, and the protective function of mutual friendship, among identified profiles. Participants were 2,587 7 th graders; peer nomination and rating-scale data were collected in the fall and spring. Four profiles, including bullies, victims, bully-victims, and uninvolved adolescents, were identified at each time point. Findings showed that for victims, more so than for bullies and uninvolved profiles, acceptance scores worsened over time. Results further revealed that bully-victim and victim profiles included a greater proportion of friendless youth relative to the bully profile, which, in turn, contained a greater proportion of friendless adolescents than the uninvolved profile. Findings also provided evidence for the buffering role of friendship among all bully/victim profiles and among bully-victims especially.

  9. Bully/Victim Profiles’ Differential Risk for Worsening Peer Acceptance: The Role of Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochel, Karen P.; Ladd, Gary W.; Bagwell, Catherine L.; Yabko, Brandon A.

    2015-01-01

    Study aims were to: (1) evaluate the association between bully/victim profiles, derived via latent profile analysis (LPA), and changes in peer acceptance from the fall to spring of 7th grade, and (2) investigate the likelihood of friendlessness, and the protective function of mutual friendship, among identified profiles. Participants were 2,587 7th graders; peer nomination and rating-scale data were collected in the fall and spring. Four profiles, including bullies, victims, bully-victims, and uninvolved adolescents, were identified at each time point. Findings showed that for victims, more so than for bullies and uninvolved profiles, acceptance scores worsened over time. Results further revealed that bully-victim and victim profiles included a greater proportion of friendless youth relative to the bully profile, which, in turn, contained a greater proportion of friendless adolescents than the uninvolved profile. Findings also provided evidence for the buffering role of friendship among all bully/victim profiles and among bully-victims especially. PMID:26309346

  10. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  11. Commentary: Personalized health planning and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: an opportunity for academic medicine to lead health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Michaela A; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Snyderman, Ralph

    2010-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) mandates the exploration of new approaches to coordinated health care delivery--such as patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and disease management programs--in which reimbursement is aligned with desired outcomes. PPACA does not, however, delineate a standardized approach to improve the delivery process or a specific means to quantify performance for value-based reimbursement; these details are left to administrative agencies to develop and implement. The authors propose that coordinated care can be implemented more effectively and performance quantified more accurately by using personalized health planning, which employs individualized strategic health planning and care relevant to the patient's specific needs. Personalized health plans, developed by providers in collaboration with their patients, quantify patients' health and health risks over time, identify strategies to mitigate risks and/or treat disease, deliver personalized care, engage patients in their care, and measure outcomes. Personalized health planning is a core clinical process that can standardize coordinated care approaches while providing the data needed for performance-based reimbursement. The authors argue that academic health centers have a significant opportunity to lead true health care reform by adopting personalized health planning to coordinate care delivery while conducting the research and education necessary to enable its broad clinical application.

  12. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasjleti, Maria

    1980-01-01

    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  13. For Better or Worse: Friendship Choices and Peer Victimization among Ethnically Diverse Youth in the First Year of Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children’s own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3,000 6th grade students (52% female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type—reciprocal, desired, and undesired—and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends’ victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children’s own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends’ victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority. PMID:27272516

  14. For Better or Worse: Friendship Choices and Peer Victimization Among Ethnically Diverse Youth in the First Year of Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children's own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3000 6th grade students (52 % female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type-reciprocal, desired, and undesired-and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends' victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children's own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends' victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority.

  15. Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration Among Male and Female College Students in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Schuster

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1,136, to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S, which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure, three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers, and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts such as oral sex. Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration

  16. Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration among Male and Female College Students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Isabell; Krahé, Barbara; Ilabaca Baeza, Paola; Muñoz-Reyes, José A

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1135), to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S), which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure), three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers), and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts, such as oral sex). Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization, only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, particularly

  17. Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration among Male and Female College Students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Isabell; Krahé, Barbara; Ilabaca Baeza, Paola; Muñoz-Reyes, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1135), to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S), which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure), three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers), and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts, such as oral sex). Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization, only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, particularly

  18. Bullying Victimization and Perpetration Among Adolescent Sport Teammates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Blair; Adler, Ashley; Macdonald, Dany; Côté, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Bullying is a specific pattern of repeated victimization explored with great frequency in school-based literature, but receiving little attention within sport. The current study explored the prevalence of bullying in sport, and examined whether bullying experiences were associated with perceptions about relationships with peers and coaches. Adolescent sport team members (n = 359, 64% female) with an average age of 14.47 years (SD = 1.34) completed a pen-and-paper or online questionnaire assessing how frequently they perpetrated or were victimized by bullying during school and sport generally, as well as recent experiences with 16 bullying behaviors on their sport team. Participants also reported on relationships with their coach and teammates. Bullying was less prevalent in sport compared with school, and occurred at a relatively low frequency overall. However, by identifying participants who reported experiencing one or more act of bullying on their team recently, results revealed that those victimized through bullying reported weaker connections with peers, whereas those perpetrating bullying only reported weaker coach relationships. With the underlying message that bullying may occur in adolescent sport through negative teammate interactions, sport researchers should build upon these findings to develop approaches to mitigate peer victimization in sport.

  19. Forgiveness: The Victim's Prerogative | Govier | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores and offers a qualified defence of the claim that the entitlement to forgive a wrongdoer belongs to the victim of the wrong. A summary account of forgiveness is given, followed by arguments in favor of the victim's prerogative to forgive. Primary, or direct victims are then distinguished from secondary and ...

  20. Prevention of victimization following sexual assaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine

    2004-01-01

    Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...

  1. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  2. Victims and their defenders : A dyadic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social

  3. Systemic Patterns in Bullying and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, John H. F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a new non-anonymous questionnaire and a nomination method by which victims were asked to name their aggressors, Chan (2002) collated the responses from individual victims to produce name-clusters that were studied for systemic patterns of bullying and victimization within the whole-school community. Three such patterns emerged: serial…

  4. Hidden Forms of Victimization in Elementary Students Involved in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K.; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that bullies, victims of bullying, and bully-victims (i.e., youth who both perpetrate and are victims of bullying) are at increased risk for victimization in four other domains: conventional crime, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, and witnessing or indirect victimization. It also evaluated the extent to…

  5. The rights of Victims under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to examine the role of victims before the ICC criminal justice system by giving a general overview of their role and participation. It also focuses on examining some specific rights of victims before international criminal court such as right to participation, the right to protection and the right to reparations which represent one of the greatest advances made by the international criminal justice system and a significant challenge that the Court has already faced in its early hearings. The right of victims to participate in the proceedings of the Court, as being the primary right granted by the Statute, shall be a crucial topic in this paper. Explanation will be given during this study regarding the various elements that need to be considered to understand the scope of this right, as well as when this right will be excercised. Therefore, through this paper a specific attention shall have the right of victims to legal representation before the Court and how to guarantee the indipendency by he Court of the representatives. Finally, some conclusions and recommendation will be given at the end of this paper concerning how to improve vicitims access and participation in the International Criminal Court proceedings.

  6. Psychiatric and Psychological Support to Reduce the Psychological Effects Incurred to Female Victim in the Crime of Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sedaqat Far

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern world with all the blessings of easier and more pleasant life is a world full of unsolved contradictions and complexities. industrialization of communities, the expansion of class gap and poverty, lack of proper management systems, lack of proper sanitation and lack of access to home and many other things have caused irreparable social damage on the body of society. One of these injuries is the problem of sexual violence against women and rape and deliberate and widespread harassment of women in different environments, including enterprises, community, neighborhood, streets and more. Rape is a wrong act and is punished hard in the Iranian criminal law or social convention. Yet, in the meantime, the women affected by this type of sexual violence not only do not enjoy the legal protections but also face identity crisis due to participation in family and community. So the issue of Psychiatric and psychological support for the female victims should be put on the priority of law and women's rights organization committed to ending violence. Methods: this study has been conducted via descriptive and analytical method and library and Internet tools. To describe the psychiatric and psychological support to reduce the psychological effects incurred to female victim in the crime of rape, female victims were interviewed using a case study. To complete the obtained information and analyze research findings using interview, some of the findings of provincial criminal court judges, public courts prosecutors, psychologists and psychiatrists were examined. Finding: The best legal action in support of women victim is psychiatric and psychological supports for these women in safe houses. Women who are suffering from this scourge often commit suicide or live with the fear of this event or their natural life is seriously disrupted. Therefore, it is incumbent on legislators to approve strong support rules in helping and supporting the victim and raped

  7. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current article was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a statewide representative sample in Grade 5 (age, 10-11 years) in 2002 and followed-up to age 18-19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization and young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyberbullying perpetration only, 5.0% reported cyberbullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyberbullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyberbullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure that they set clear rules and monitor adolescents' behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current paper was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Methods Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a state-wide representative sample in Grade 5 (age 10–11 years) in 2002 and followed up to age 18–19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Results As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 5.0% cyber-bullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyber-bullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyber-bullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber-) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure they set clear rules and monitor adolescent’s behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. PMID:24939014

  9. Cyberbullying: who are the victims? A comparison of victimization in internet chatrooms and victimization in school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzer, C.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.

    2009-01-01

    Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet

  10. Spaced Education and the Importance of Raising Awareness of the Personal Data Protection Act: A Medical Student Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daruwalla, Zubin J; Loh, Jing L; Dong, Chaoyan

    2016-08-09

    The Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) of Singapore was first passed in 2012, with subsequent enforcement regulations effective in 2014. Although medical education via digital platforms is not often used in medical schools in Singapore as of yet, many current means of communication at all levels in the medical community from medical schools to clinics to hospitals are unsecure and noncompliant with the PDPA. This pilot study will assess the effectiveness of MyDoc, a secure, mobile telehealth application and messaging platform, as an educational tool, secure communications tool, and a tool to raise awareness of the PDPA. By replacing current methods of communication with MyDoc and using weekly clinical case discussions in the form of unidentifiable clinical photos and questions and answers, we raised awareness the PDPA among medical students and gained feedback and determined user satisfaction with this innovative system via questionnaires handed to 240 medical students who experienced using MyDoc over a 6-week period. All 240 questionnaires were answered with very positive and promising results, including all 100 students who were not familiar with the PDPA prior to the study attributing their awareness of it to MyDoc. Potential uses of MyDoc in a medical school setting include PDPA-compliant student-to-student and student-to-doctor communication and clinical group case discussions with the sharing of patient-sensitive data, including clinical images and/or videos of hospital patients that students may benefit from viewing from an educational perspective. With our pilot study having excellent results in terms of acceptance and satisfaction from medical students and raising awareness of the PDPA, the integration of a secure, mobile digital health application and messaging platform is something all medical schools should consider, because our students of today are our doctors of tomorrow.

  11. The tumor suppressor gene Trp53 protects the mouse lens against posterior subcapsular cataracts and the BMP receptor Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A. Wiley

    2011-07-01

    We previously found that lenses lacking the Acvr1 gene, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP receptor, had abnormal proliferation and cell death in epithelial and cortical fiber cells. We tested whether the tumor suppressor protein p53 (encoded by Trp53 affected this phenotype. Acvr1 conditional knockout (Acvr1CKO mouse fiber cells had increased numbers of nuclei that stained for p53 phosphorylated on serine 15, an indicator of p53 stabilization and activation. Deletion of Trp53 rescued the Acvr1CKO cell death phenotype in embryos and reduced Acvr1-dependent apoptosis in postnatal lenses. However, deletion of Trp53 alone increased the number of fiber cells that failed to withdraw from the cell cycle. Trp53CKO and Acvr1;Trp53DCKO (double conditional knockout, but not Acvr1CKO, lenses developed abnormal collections of cells at the posterior of the lens that resembled posterior subcapsular cataracts. Cells from human posterior subcapsular cataracts had morphological and molecular characteristics similar to the cells at the posterior of mouse lenses lacking Trp53. In Trp53CKO lenses, cells in the posterior plaques did not proliferate but, in Acvr1;Trp53DCKO lenses, many cells in the posterior plaques continued to proliferate, eventually forming vascularized tumor-like masses at the posterior of the lens. We conclude that p53 protects the lens against posterior subcapsular cataract formation by suppressing the proliferation of fiber cells and promoting the death of any fiber cells that enter the cell cycle. Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens. Enhancing p53 function in the lens could contribute to the prevention of steroid- and radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataracts.

  12. Victim Empowerment, Safety, and Perpetrator Accountability Through Collaboration: A Crisis to Transformation Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jacquelyn W; Sienkiewicz, Holly C

    2017-12-01

    This article describes the development of the Victim Empowerment, Safety, and Perpetrator Accountability through Collaboration (VESPAC) model based on a grounded theory analysis of congressionally mandated and permissible purpose areas for grants authorized by the Violence Against Women Act. These areas are reflective of ongoing and emerging needs of victims and agencies serving victims and are rooted in the expertise, insight, and concerns of those who work most closely with victims and perpetrators on a regular basis. Analysis resulted in five overarching and interconnected themes: Community Readiness, Victim Services, Justice Responses, Coordinated Community Responses, and Cultural Relevance. The final model emphasizes the centrality of coordinated community responses to ensure that the remaining components of the model work in tandem across time to achieve victim safety and perpetrator accountability in a culturally appropriate way. The model also may help agencies, coalitions, and communities think "big" and consider more strategically about where their strengths best fit in the vast scope of victim needs necessary to meet safety goals and where they might benefit most from the expertise of partners.

  13. The "second injury" to victims of violent acts. 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Martin

    2010-03-01

    This paper, originally published in 1980, is a significant contribution to the study of psychological trauma and its treatment; particularly countertransference aspects of that treatment. Initially it was widely cited but then became little known, largely because of the inaccessibility of the original publication. The three major concepts in Symond's approach are: (1) self-hate and shame are the key dynamics in post traumatic distress; (2) ordinary professional attitudes of those who are supposed to help often intensify the traumatized person's self-hate and shame. Martin Symonds called this is the second injury; and (3) to counteract the self-hate and the shame, the professional must adopt a much more active attitude and behavior-in contrast to the previous experience the traumatized individual has had with the world of helpers (including family and friends). Here, Symonds addresses the analysts' vulnerability and shame and their role as active instruments against self-hate and shame.

  14. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2015-01-01

    Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits – this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often....... The hopes of (eventual) social belonging may in that sense work paradoxically as a strong agent in the denial of oppression and marginalization. The article is theoretically informed by poststructuralist conceptualizations and grounded in cases of bullying and marginalization (one of them involving rape......). One case is taken from the empirical data produced by the author and a research project on bullying among children (eXbus: Exploring Bullying in School). Two other cases are borrowed from publications of respectively B. Davies from Australia and A. Evaldsson from Shweden. The article opens insights...

  15. Models of resistance: "victims" lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Theresa M

    2006-01-01

    This author has found through professional and personal experience that throughout the world, women directly affected by injustice have led demands for accountability. The purpose of this article is to challenge mainstream human rights groups to create a different type of partnership between themselves and the people for whom they advocate by seeking the involvement of "victims", including leaders of successful "victim-led" initiatives. This approach will result in more appropriate policy recommendations and will enhance both entities' capacity for outreach. Moreover, it will bring mainstream human rights organizations into greater compliance with their own stated values, as well as exemplifying the same respect, flexibility, and accommodation that these groups often recommend to governmental, political, and institutional entities.

  16. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  17. Bullying in schools: the power of bullies and the plight of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a pervasive problem affecting school-age children. Reviewing the latest findings on bullying perpetration and victimization, we highlight the social dominance function of bullying, the inflated self-views of bullies, and the effects of their behaviors on victims. Illuminating the plight of the victim, we review evidence on the cyclical processes between the risk factors and consequences of victimization and the mechanisms that can account for elevated emotional distress and health problems. Placing bullying in context, we consider the unique features of electronic communication that give rise to cyberbullying and the specific characteristics of schools that affect the rates and consequences of victimization. We then offer a critique of the main intervention approaches designed to reduce school bullying and its harmful effects. Finally, we discuss future directions that underscore the need to consider victimization a social stigma, conduct longitudinal research on protective factors, identify school context factors that shape the experience of victimization, and take a more nuanced approach to school-based interventions.

  18. No safe haven: locations of harassment and bullying victimization in middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H Wesley; Perkins, Jessica M; Craig, David W

    2014-12-01

    Given that adolescent bullying victimization is a significant concern for secondary education and adolescent development, identifying school contexts in which victimization is most likely to occur is salient. An anonymous online survey assessed the prevalence of being harassed or bullied in various locations within 20 middle schools (grades 5-9) in New Jersey and New York (N = 10,668). Seven types of bullying-related victimization (teased in an unfriendly way, called hurtful names, physically abused, excluded from a group to hurt feelings, belongings taken/damaged, threatened to be hurt, and negative rumors spread) were examined in 7 locations where each type of victimization could occur (classroom, lunchroom, hallways, gym, playground, bus, or bathroom). Prevalence of victimization types ranged from 4% to 38% depending on location. Prevalence of overall victimization was equal or greater in classrooms compared with other school locations (highest prevalence rates in hallways, classrooms, and lunchrooms), regardless of school demographic characteristics. Victimization in classrooms compared with other school settings was most highly associated with feelings of being unsafe. Vigilant attention to bullying is needed across all school environments and especially in the classroom context, which may mistakenly be perceived as a more protected area. Indeed, middle school classrooms are not safe havens. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  19. The complexity of victim-questioning attitudes by rape victim advocates: exploring some gray areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L

    2012-12-01

    Despite efforts to educate and create community awareness, rape myths and victim-blaming attitudes persist in society. This research explores whether advocates express victim-questioning attitudes or questions, negative judgment, or frustration regarding victims' behavior or choices. Data from interviews with 58 advocates reveal that the majority (76%) of advocates never expressed any victim-questioning attitudes during the interview. However, responses from 14 advocates (24%) show that victim-questioning has evolved into a much more complex, subtle form than historical victim blaming or acceptance of rape myths.

  20. The Victims of Road Traffic in the Territory of Kosovo and the Way of Their Compensation-Indemnity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Halim Kuliqi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that in the world the road traffic accidents happen very often and go up to very large numbers, which often are also very disturbing, then there is an indispensable need to study this problem, because without identifying the problem and its causes then it can neither be fought nor prevented. The significance of this paper lays on the presentation of some data regarding the number of accidents and their victims, the ways of compensation for the damage and the presentation of some measures in order to protect the victims of accidents from secondary victimization. This paper fills a scientific gap for victims of accidents and their way of compensation, which until now for the case of Kosovo has been not addressed significantly in terms of theory and practice also. For the presentation and the development of this issue have been used statistical method, comparative method and among others also the case study methods. In other words, the main purpose of this paper is to present data that expose the difficulties for the realization of the right of victims after suffering accidents and also to propose some norms that would protect the victims from secondary victimization, as victims after suffering a traffic accident may be hurt again until the realization of their demand for compensation according to the law.

  1. Physical Dating Violence Victimization in College Women in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. Methods A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Results Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Conclusions The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings

  2. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  3. Does Medicaid Insurance Confer Adequate Access to Adult Orthopaedic Care in the Era of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Joseph T; Paziuk, Taylor; Rihn, Theresa C; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Rihn, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    A current appraisal of access to orthopaedic care for the adult patient receiving Medicaid is important, since Medicaid expansion was written into law by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). (1) Do orthopaedic practices provide varying access to orthopaedic care for simulated patients with Medicaid insurance versus private insurance in a blinded survey? (2) What are the surveyed state-by-state Medicaid acceptance rates for adult orthopaedic practices in the current era of Medicaid expansion set forth by the PPACA? (3) Do surveyed rates of access to orthopaedic care in the adult patient population vary across practice setting (private vs academic) or vary with different Medicaid physician reimbursement rates? (4) Are there differences in the surveyed Medicaid acceptance rates for adult orthopaedic practices in states that have expanded Medicaid coverage versus states that have foregone expansion? Simulated Patient Survey: We performed a telephone survey study of orthopaedic offices in four states with Medicaid expansion. In the survey, the caller assumed a fictitious identity as a 38-year-old male who experienced an ankle fracture 1 day before calling, and attempted to secure an appointment within 2 weeks. During initial contact, the fictitious patient reported Medicaid insurance status. One month later, the fictitious patient contacted the same orthopaedic practice and reported private insurance coverage status. National Orthopaedic Survey: Private and academic orthopaedic practices operating in each state in the United States were called and asked to complete a survey assessing their practice model of Medicaid insurance acceptance. State reimbursement rates for three different Current Procedural Terminology (CPT®) codes were collected from state Medicaid agencies. Results Simulated Patient Survey: Offices were less likely to accept Medicaid than commercial insurance (30 of 64 [47%] versus 62 of 64 [97%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.0145; 95% CI, 0

  4. Osteopathic medical students' understanding of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: a first step toward a policy-informed curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Elizabeth Ann; Skinner, Daniel; Bianco, Joseph A; Ice, Gillian H

    2015-03-01

    Current osteopathic medical students will play an important role in implementing, modifying, and advocating for or against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Accordingly, medical educators will need to address curricular gaps specific to the ACA and medical practice. Research that gauges osteopathic medical students' level of understanding of the ACA is needed to inform an evidence-based curriculum. To assess first- and second-year osteopathic medical students' beliefs about the ACA. In this descriptive cross-sectional survey-based study, first- and second-year students were recruited because their responses would be indicative of what, if any, information about the ACA was being covered in the preclinical curriculum. A 30-item survey was distributed in November 2013, after the health insurance exchanges launched on October 1, 2013. A total of 239 first- and second-year osteopathic medical students completed the survey. One hundred ten students (46%) disagreed and 103 (43.1%) agreed that the ACA would provide health insurance coverage for all US citizens. The ACA was predicted to lead to lower wages and fewer jobs (73 students [30.5%]), as well as small business bankruptcy because of employees' health insurance costs (96 [40.2%]). Regarding Medicare recipients, 113 students (47.3%) did not know whether these individuals would be required to buy insurance through the health insurance exchanges. The majority of students knew that the ACA would require US citizens to pay a penalty if they did not have health insurance (198 [82.8%]) and understood that not everyone would be required to purchase health insurance through health insurance exchanges (137 [57.3%]). Although students took note of certain clinical benefits for patients offered by the ACA, they remained concerned about the ACA's impact on their professional prospects, particularly in the area of primary care. These findings build on the existing literature that emphasize the need for

  5. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.

  6. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  7. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  8. Being (almost invisible: Victims of crime in the Italian juvenile criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzadini Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2013 the author has been a Special Judge in the Juvenile Criminal Court of the Emilia Romagna Region. From that privileged perspective, it was possible to observe the dynamics of how victims of underage offenders were considered before the law, no differences if they are adults or minors, too. The reflections presented will first consider EU and UN provision on victims of crime; then, the normative framework supporting the Italian criminal juvenile justice system will be considered by an examining of the difficulties victims meet in that peculiar context. The implementation of juvenile criminal law shows the paradox victims of crime have to cope with. The Juvenile Criminal Court in Bologna recently started to promote a wide use of restorative justice measures as an attempt to correct the unfair consequences in the application of law, with judicial discretion interpreted as an instrument to favour victims’ harm recognition and to protect their dignity as persons.

  9. Support groups for older victims of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R S

    2001-01-01

    A 1997 nationwide (US and Canada) search to identify support groups for older victims of domestic violence located 16 sponsored by domestic violence programs and 14 sponsored by aging services. Interviews with group leaders indicated more similarities than differences between the two types of sponsorship in group purpose, leadership, numbers served, content of support group sessions, and success in accomplishing goals. Resistance of elders to participate in a group experience was cited by leaders as a major barrier. Recommendations for future groups include insuring accessibility of meeting site; using a leader and co-leader, at least one of whom is older or familiar with aging issues; allocating resources for recruitment; and seeking a steady source of funding. A policy of collaboration among the state's domestic violence coalition, state unit on aging, adult protective services, and victim assistance program may help in promoting support group development and utilization.

  10. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  11. Society as a victim of corruption: Political corruption in Serbia as an obstacle on the road to membership in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of corruption in Serbia, as a dangerous phenomenon that is usually classified as a victimless crime, although the damage it causes is enormous and its consequences affect an indefinite and large number of victims. Corruption leads to the expansion of economic inequalities, it slows down and hinders economic growth and development, destroys the legitimacy of institutions, endangers the protection of basic human rights and freedoms and undermines the fundamental values on which the society is based. Particular attention is devoted to the issue od political corruption because it is the most dangerous form of corruption and this problem has been marked by the European Commission as the biggest obstacle on the way of our country towards European integrations. It has been pointed out that the most dangerous crimes of corruption are under-detected and rarely prosecuted, which is influenced by the very fact that corruption is an essential link between the world of politics and economics and that the perpetrators of these acts are persons that are holding prominent positions in the government or an exceptional power in society, and on the other hand, the victims of these acts are all citizens of Serbia.

  12. Effects of perpetrator gender and victim sexuality on blame toward male victims of sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Pollard, Paul; Archer, John

    2006-06-01

    Most researchers who have investigated attributions of blame toward victims in sexual-assault depictions have considered only female victims of male perpetrators. Few researchers have investigated the effects of perpetrator gender or victim sexual orientation on blame attributions toward male victims. The present authors investigated those two variables. Participants were 161 undergraduates at a British university in social science courses, each of whom read one scenario of a set in which perpetrator gender and victim sexual orientation were varied between subjects, and who completed a questionnaire measuring their blame toward the victim and the perpetrator. The present results showed that male participants blamed the victim more if a person of the gender that he was normally attracted to assaulted him. Male participants also regarded the female perpetrator in more favorable terms than they did the male perpetrator regardless of the victim's sexual orientation. The authors discussed the present results in relation to gender role stereotypes.

  13. Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC

  14. Peer and self-reported victimization: Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René

    2015-08-01

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age=13.27, SD age=0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who according to their self-reports had been victimized (referred to as receivers). Using a dyadic approach, characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad (i.e., gender similarity) and of the reporter (i.e., reporters' behavior during bullying episodes) that were possibly associated with reporter-receiver agreement were investigated. Descriptive analyses suggested that numerous students who were self-reported victims were not perceived as victimized by their non-victimized classmates. Three-level logistic regression models (reporter-receiver dyads nested in reporters within classrooms) demonstrated greater reporter-receiver agreement in same-gender dyads, especially when the reporter and the receiver were boys. Furthermore, reporters who behaved as outsiders during bullying episodes (i.e., reporters who actively shied away from the bullying) were less likely to agree on the receiver's self-reported victimization, and in contrast, reporters who behaved as defenders (i.e., reporters who helped and supported victims) were more likely to agree on the victimization. Moreover, the results demonstrated that reporters gave fewer victimization nominations to receivers who reported they had been victimized sometimes than to receivers who reported they had been victimized often/very often. Finally, this study suggested that reporter-receiver agreement may not only depend on characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad and of the reporter, but on classroom characteristics as well (e.g., the number of students in the classroom). Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bonobos protect and console friends and kin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Palagi

    Full Text Available Post-conflict third-party affiliation has been reported to have different functional meanings, one of them being consolation. Here, we tested the main hypotheses that have been put forth to explain the presence of this phenomenon at a functional level in the bonobo: Self-Protection Hypothesis, Victim-Protection Hypothesis, Relationship-Repair or Substitute for Reconciliation Hypothesis, and Consolation Hypothesis. By analyzing the data collected over 10 years, we investigated what factors affected the distribution of both spontaneous third party affiliation (initiated by the bystander and solicited third party affiliation (initiated by the victim. We considered factors related to the individual features (sex, rank, age of victim and bystander, their relationship quality (kinship, affiliation, and the effect that third party affiliation had on the victim (such as protection against further attacks and anxiety reduction. Both spontaneous and solicited third party affiliation reduced the probability of further aggression by group members on the victim (Victim-Protection Hypothesis supported. Yet, only spontaneous affiliation reduced victim anxiety (measured via self-scratching, thus suggesting that the spontaneous gesture--more than the protection itself--works in calming the distressed subject. The victim may perceive the motivational autonomy of the bystander, who does not require an invitation to provide post-conflict affiliative contact. Moreover, spontaneous--but not solicited--third party affiliation was affected by the bond between consoler and victim, being the relationship between consoler and aggressor irrelevant to the phenomenon distribution (Consolation Hypothesis supported. Spontaneous affiliation followed the empathic gradient described for humans, being mostly offered to kin, then friends, then acquaintances. Overall, our findings do not only indicate the consolatory function of spontaneous third-party affiliation but they also

  16. Bonobos protect and console friends and kin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Norscia, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Post-conflict third-party affiliation has been reported to have different functional meanings, one of them being consolation. Here, we tested the main hypotheses that have been put forth to explain the presence of this phenomenon at a functional level in the bonobo: Self-Protection Hypothesis, Victim-Protection Hypothesis, Relationship-Repair or Substitute for Reconciliation Hypothesis, and Consolation Hypothesis. By analyzing the data collected over 10 years, we investigated what factors affected the distribution of both spontaneous third party affiliation (initiated by the bystander) and solicited third party affiliation (initiated by the victim). We considered factors related to the individual features (sex, rank, age) of victim and bystander, their relationship quality (kinship, affiliation), and the effect that third party affiliation had on the victim (such as protection against further attacks and anxiety reduction). Both spontaneous and solicited third party affiliation reduced the probability of further aggression by group members on the victim (Victim-Protection Hypothesis supported). Yet, only spontaneous affiliation reduced victim anxiety (measured via self-scratching), thus suggesting that the spontaneous gesture--more than the protection itself--works in calming the distressed subject. The victim may perceive the motivational autonomy of the bystander, who does not require an invitation to provide post-conflict affiliative contact. Moreover, spontaneous--but not solicited--third party affiliation was affected by the bond between consoler and victim, being the relationship between consoler and aggressor irrelevant to the phenomenon distribution (Consolation Hypothesis supported). Spontaneous affiliation followed the empathic gradient described for humans, being mostly offered to kin, then friends, then acquaintances. Overall, our findings do not only indicate the consolatory function of spontaneous third-party affiliation but they also suggest that

  17. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults: Findings from a prospective community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos

    2017-01-01

    The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program designed to promote mental health. The campaign targets individuals to engage in mentally healthy activities, while at the same time, encouraging community organizations that offer such act......-ranging implications for preventing the deterioration of mental health and cognitive decline in the aging community.......The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program designed to promote mental health. The campaign targets individuals to engage in mentally healthy activities, while at the same time, encouraging community organizations that offer...

  18. 75 FR 59238 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ..., Department of Veterans Affairs benefit forms, physical evaluation board proceedings, military occupational... service requirements, retired benefits, application for review by physical evaluation and disability... punishment, administrative separation), with the exception of victims and witnesses identified as protected...

  19. The Moderating Effect of Physical Activity on the Association Between ADHD Symptoms and Peer Victimization in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tarrah B; Cooley, John L; Evans, Spencer C; Fite, Paula J

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with higher levels of victimization, but little is known about protective factors. The purpose of the study was to examine whether physical activity attenuated the associations among ADHD symptoms and physical and relational victimization 1.5 years later. Participants included 168 s through fourth grade students (M age = 8.43; 52.4 % boys) who completed self-reports of physical activity and victimization; teachers provided ratings of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms predicted subsequent increases in physical, but not relational, victimization among children who reported engaging in moderate/high levels of physical activity, especially out of the school context (moderate: β = .26, p = .03; high: β = .55, p victimization that they might experience.

  20. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  1. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  2. Clouding the Judgment of Domestic Violence Law: Victim Blaming by Institutional Stakeholders in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickell, Katherine

    2015-06-15

    This article examines victims' purported complicity in the judicial failures of domestic violence law to protect them in Cambodia. It is based on 3 years (2012-2014) of research in Siem Reap and Pursat Provinces on the everyday politics of the 2005 "Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and the Protection of the Victims" (DV Law). The project questioned why investments in DV Law are faltering and took a multi-stakeholder approach to do so. In addition to 40 interviews with female domestic violence victims, the research included 50 interviews with legal and health professionals, NGO workers, low- and high-ranking police officers, religious figures, and local government authority leaders who each have an occupational investment in the implementation and enforcement of DV Law. Forming the backbone of the article, the findings from this latter sample reveal how women are construed not only as barriers "clouding the judgment of law" but also as actors denying the agency of institutional stakeholders (and law itself) to bring perpetrators to account. The findings suggest that DV Law has the potential to entrench, rather than diminish, an environment of victim blaming. In turn, the article signals the importance of research on, and better professional support of, intermediaries who (discursively) administrate the relationship between DV Law and the victims/citizens it seeks to protect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. New rules to ensure the protection of animals in Spain. Spanish Animal Welfare Act. 32/2007. 7th November (BOE. 268, 8th November 2007. Number 19321)

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez-Candela, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Law 32/2007, on 7th November for the care of animals in their exploitation, transport, experimentation and sacrifice. The law ist composed of an Preamble and structured in three titles, completed by an additional provision and six final provisions. This Act provides, in compliance with the Community mandate, a set of principles on the Animal care and schedule off offenses and penalties that gives legal effect to the obligations under current regulations. The Act also provides the foundation f...

  4. Potential of criminological research in evaluation of victim-focused policy and legislation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefunková Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For effective victim-focused legislation, evidence-based knowledge is essential, thus making criminological research of great importance. Victimization surveys represent a globally recognized type of criminological investigation. Although they are primarily focused on measuring the dark figure of crime, they can also provide a broad spectrum of information on victimization-related issues. The latest victimization survey was carried out in the Czech Republic by the Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention in 2013. Through face to face interviews, victimization was explored through eight selected offences in the period of 12 months prior the survey. The representative sample included 3000 respondents 15 years of age and older. The next round is planned for 2017. Since 2013, a new Act no. 45/2013 Coll., on Victims of Crime has come into effect in the Czech Republic. This paper will discuss how victimization surveys can enrich the knowledge on victimization-related issues and how they can help in the evaluation of criminal policy.

  5. Serotonin Transporter Gene Moderates the Development of Emotional Problems among Children Following Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Karen; Arseneault, Louise; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Williams, Benjamin; Caspi, Avshalom

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Bullying is the act of intentionally and repeatedly causing harm to someone who has difficulty defending him- or herself, and is a relatively widespread school-age phenomenon. Being the victim of bullying is associated with a broad spectrum of emotional problems; however, not all children who are bullied go on to develop such problems.…

  6. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  7. How the families of the victims of suicide through self-incineration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Durkheim defines suicide as all death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim himself or herself, which he or she knows will produce this result. Suicide is as old as human history itself. It is most frequently seen as a fatal sequel of psychiatric illnesses and it is thought that suicide ...

  8. The Situational Context of Adolescent Homicide Victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan

    2015-11-05

    Although studies have described the incidence and epidemiology of adolescent homicide victimization in South Africa, little is known about the situational contexts in which they occur. This study aimed to describe the victim, offender, and event characteristics of adolescent homicide and to generate a typology based on the particular types of situational contexts associated with adolescent homicide in South Africa. Data on homicides among adolescents (15-19 years) that occurred in Johannesburg (South Africa) during the period 2001-2007 were obtained from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (NIMSS) and police case records. Of the 195 cases available for analysis, 81% of the victims were male. Most of the offenders were male (90%), comprising of strangers (42%) and friends/acquaintances (37%). Arguments (33%) were the most common precipitating circumstances, followed by revenge (11%), robbery (11%), and acts of vigilantism/retribution for a crime (8%). Through the use of cluster analysis, the study identified three categories of adolescent homicide: (a) male victims killed by strangers during a crime-related event, (b) male victims killed by a friend/acquaintance during an argument, and (c) female victims killed by male offenders. The results can serve to inform the development of tailored and focused strategies for the prevention of adolescent homicide. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Social Ecology of Bullying and Peer Victimization of Latino and Asian Youth in the United States: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Peguero, Anthony A.; Choi, Shinwoo; Lanesskog, Deirdre; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Lee, Na Youn

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on bullying and peer victimization among school-age youth focuses on identifying risk and protective factors, developing interventions, and assessing outcomes to address this pervasive problem. This article reviews research on bullying and victimization of Latino and Asian youth. The review suggests that risk and protective…

  10. Fatores de risco e de proteção na rede de atendimento a crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência sexual Risk and protective factors in the resource network for children and adolescences victims of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa F. Habigzang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes é um problema de saúde pública, caracterizado por uma dinâmica complexa, que envolve aspectos psicológicos, sociais e legais, exigindo a intervenção coordenada de diferentes instituições. Este estudo apresenta o mapeamento de fatores de risco e de proteção na rede de atendimento a crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência sexual identificados nos processos jurídicos do Ministério Público do Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil por violência sexual, no período entre 1992 e 1998. A análise de 71 expedientes apresenta as intervenções realizadas pelas instituições que compuseram a rede. Os resultados apontaram a dificuldade dos órgãos de proteção intervirem efetivamente nos casos. Verificou-se a falta de comunicação entre as instituições para articular as medidas de proteção necessárias e acompanhar seu cumprimento. Estes resultados sugerem a necessidade de capacitar a rede de atendimento, visando a compreensão real dos casos, bem como a condução de intervenções adequadas.Sexual violence against children and adolescences is a public health concern, characterized by a complex dynamics, which involves psychological, social and legal aspects, demanding the coordinated intervention of different institutions. This study presents the mapping of risk and protective factors in resource network for children and adolescences victims of sexual violence, who were identified in the 1992-1998 judicial processes of the Ministério Público (District Attorney's Office of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The analysis of 71 files present the interventions that were performed by the institutions that composed the network. The results pointed out the difficulty of the protection services to intervene in the cases. The lack of communication among the institutions to articulate the necessary protection measures and to follow-up on their implementation was verified. These results

  11. Crime Victimization and Suicidal Ideation Among Colombian College Students: The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Familism, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata Roblyer, Martha I; Betancourth Zambrano, Sonia

    2017-03-01

    Crime victimization is one of the most pressing public health concerns in Latin America. Young people in the region are at particularly high risk of victimization. The present study examined exposure to crime victimization as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, and the protective effects of familism and social support in a community sample of Colombian college students. Data ( N = 424) came from the Juventud Project (The Emergent Adults Project), a cross-sectional study of college students, 18 to 29 years old ( M = 20.8, SD = 2.5; 63% female; 75.5% lived with their families), attending an urban public university in Southern Colombia. Data were collected between March and June of 2014 through anonymous, self-administered surveys. Conditional process analysis was used to test a model in which crime victimization was directly and indirectly associated with suicidal ideation via depressive symptoms, with familism and social support as moderators of this association while controlling for gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Overall, 58.9% of participants reported at least one crime victimization event in the past year. The most common types of victimization were being robbed without the threat of harm (29.8%) and being robbed with a weapon (24.8%). Male participants reported more instances of crime victimization than female participants. Levels of depressive symptoms that could be clinically significant were reported by 30.2% of participants, and suicidal ideation was reported by 31% of participants. The association between crime victimization and suicidal ideation was fully mediated by depressive symptoms. Social support, but not familism, moderated this association; social support weakened the link between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Findings suggest that crime victimization may be a significant risk for depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among college students in Colombia, and that social support may protect from the

  12. Adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, and peer liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-01-01

    A three-wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9-11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer-domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls. © 2013 Wiley

  13. 40 CFR 1508.2 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 1508.2 Section 1508.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.2 Act. Act means the National Environmental Policy Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.) which is also referred to as “NEPA.” ...

  14. Potential Health Implications of Medication Therapy Management Eligibility Criteria in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Across Racial and Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Qiao, Yanru; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Jarrett-Jamison, JoEllen; Spivey, Christina A; Wan, Jim Y; White-Means, Shelley I; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Cushman, William C; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2015-11-01

    The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act requires Part D plans to establish programs to provide medication therapy management (MTM) services starting from 2006. MTM services have been found to improve patient outcomes from pharmacotherapy, reduce emergency room visits and hospitalizations, and reduce health care costs in a cost-effective fashion. However, previous research found that non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) and Hispanics may be less likely to be eligible for MTM services than non-Hispanic whites (whites) among the Medicare population, according to current Medicare MTM eligibility criteria. This finding is because Medicare MTM eligibility criteria are predominantly based on medication use and costs, and blacks and Hispanics tend to use fewer prescription medications and incur lower prescription medication costs. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) laid out a set of MTM eligibility criteria for eligible entities to target patients for MTM services: "(1) take 4 or more prescribed medications ...; (2) take any 'high risk' medications; (3) have 2 or more chronic diseases ... or (4) have undergone a transition of care, or other factors ... that are likely to create a high risk of medication-related problems." To (a) examine racial/ethnic disparities in meeting the eligibility criteria for MTM services in PPACA among the Medicare population and (b) determine whether there would be greater disparities in health and economic outcomes among MTM-ineligible than MTM-eligible groups. This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the Medicare Current Beneficiaries Survey (2007-2008). To determine medication characteristics, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Electronic Orange Book was also used. Proportions of the population eligible for MTM services based on PPACA MTM eligibility criteria were compared across racial and ethnic groups using a chi-square test; a logistic regression model was used to adjust for

  15. The rarity of "unusual" [corrected] dispositions of victim bodies: staging and posing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppel, Robert D; Weis, Joseph G

    2004-11-01

    The act of leaving a victim's body in an unusual position is a conscious criminal action by an offender to thwart an investigation, shock the finder and investigators of the crime scene, or give perverted pleasure to the killer. The unusual position concepts of posing and staging a murder victim have been documented thoroughly and have been accepted by the courts as a definable phenomenon. One staging case and one posing case are outlined and reveal characteristics of those homicides. From the Washington State Attorney General's Homicide Investigation and Tracking System's database on murder covering the years 1981-2000 (a total of 5,224 cases), the relative frequency of unusual body dispositions is revealed as a very rare occurrence. Only 1.3% of victims are left in an unusual position, with 0.3% being posed and 0.1% being staged. The characteristics of these types of murders also set them apart: compared to all other murders, in staged murders the victims and killers are, on average, older. All victims and offenders in the staged murders are white, with victims being disproportionately white in murders with any kind of unusual body disposition. Likewise, females stand out as victims when the body is posed, staged, or left in other unusual positions. Whereas posed bodies are more likely to include sexual assault, often in serial murders, there is no evidence of either in the staged cases. Lastly, when a body is left in an unusual position, binding is more likely, as well as the use of more "hands on" means of killing the victim, such as stabbing or cutting weapons, bludgeons, ligatures, or hands and feet.

  16. Depression as a cause and consequence of victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Danijela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I tried to show cause-and-consequence relationship between depression, as one of very frequent and specific mental disorders, and different forms of victimization. I wanted to make a modest contribution to the statement that depression, taken in a historic and temporal sequence despite our will and quite unexpectedly was transformed into some kind of "collective madness". At the beginning, it was a synonym for melancholy, a specific state into which those who were weaker were falling. But step by step and parallel with the global network of changes in all fields of human life, it got a character of world "infection" which spreading was being followed by the expansion of cardiovascular or malignant diseases, but without so obvious physical manifestations. Depression, as a long-term and "painful state of human soul" is often looking for shelter and rescue in abusing psychoactive substances, drugs and alcohols, and is often finding a way out in suicide behaviour, and therefore it becomes one of its dominant causes. Before that, it is, of course, usually manifested as a consequence of different forms of victimization; generally, it implies social conditions, either at macro or micro levels, and inadequate response of a person to them, but also criminal or any other negative acts, doings or omissions that could endanger or destruct any human good and put the man in a position of victim. In this way, depression "is closing its magic circle of causes and consequences", in which the man has three allies: himself community or other people, and time. Strength, quality and duration of allied assistance are reversely proportional to victimization dimension of depression.

  17. Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking at Hotspots by Focusing on People Smuggled to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Ventrella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that smuggling of migrants is associated with human trafficking. Hence, victims of human trafficking amongst smuggled migrants should be identified by EU Member States at hotspots established by the European Commission, to overcome the migrant and refugee crisis. Identified victims should be given a visa and a programme of protection to escape their traffickers. In order to achieve these objectives, research suggests that EU law on migrant smuggling should be amended and the Temporary Protection Directive should be applied to smuggled persons when there is an indication that they may be victims of human trafficking. This approach should be adopted by the EASO in cooperation with police forces investigating smuggling and trafficking at hotspots.

  18. Association between victimization by bullying and direct self injurious behavior among adolescence in Europe: a ten-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Snir, Avigal; Apter, Alan; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kaess, Michael; Postuvan, Vita; Sisask, Merike; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Žiberna, Janina; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have examined the association between victimization by bullying and both suicide ideation and suicide attempts. The current study examined the association between victimization by bullying and direct-self-injurious behavior (D-SIB) among a large representative sample of male and female adolescents in Europe. This study is part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study and includes 168 schools, with 11,110 students (mean age = 14.9, SD = 0.89). Students were administered a self-report survey within the classroom, in which they were asked about three types of victimization by bullying (physical, verbal and relational) as well as direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB). Additional risk factors (symptoms of depression and anxiety, suicide ideation, suicide attempts, loneliness, alcohol consumption, drug consumption), and protective factors (parent support, peer support, pro-social behavior) were included. The three types of victimization examined were associated with D-SIB. Examination of gender as moderator of the association between victimization (relational, verbal, and physical) and D-SIB yielded no significant results. As for the risk factors, depression, but not anxiety, partially mediated the effect of relational victimization and verbal victimization on D-SIB. As for the protective factors, students with parent and peer support and those with pro-social behaviors were at significantly lower risk of engaging in D-SIB after being victimized compared to students without support/pro-social behaviors. This large-scale study has clearly demonstrated the cross-sectional association between specific types of victimization with self-injurious behavior among adolescents and what may be part of the risk and protective factors in this complex association.

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  20. A Transactional Model of Bullying and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Fanti, Kostas A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a transactional model, based on longitudinal data, capable to describe the existing interrelation between maternal behavior and child bullying and victimization experiences over time. The results confirmed the existence of such a model for bullying, but not for victimization in terms of…

  1. Disasters, Victimization, and Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David

    2010-01-01

    In a representative sample of 2,030 U.S. children aged 2-17, 13.9% report lifetime exposure to disaster, and 4.1% report experiencing a disaster in the past year. Disaster exposure was associated with some forms of victimization and adversity. Victimization was associated with depression among 2- to 9-year-old disaster survivors, and with…

  2. Rape victim assessment: Findings by psychiatrists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    valid at the lower end of the IQ range. The assessment of rape victims is a sensitive matter and poses a number of challenges to the clinician. Rape victims are often traumatised by their experience, and this can make them reluctant to talk about the incident. In a study done by Elklit et al.,[2] it was found that ~70% of sexual ...

  3. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  4. Incest Victims: Inadequate Help by Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…

  5. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  6. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  7. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  8. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  9. 78 FR 52877 - VOCA Victim Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... child abuse. In addition, the definition clarifies that child pornography related offenses are a form of... used terms, including ``crime victim'', ``State administering agency'', ``victim of child abuse'', and... Guidelines. OVC proposes a new definition of the undefined statutory term ``child abuse'' that is intended to...

  10. Emergency Care of the Snakebite Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Carol N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)

  11. Peer and self-reported victimization : Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Elisabeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age = 13.27, SD age = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who

  12. Peer and self-reported victimization : Do non-victimized students give victimization nominations to classmates who are self-reported victims?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Barrera, Davide; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meulen, Matty; Vermande, Marjolijn; Aleva, Liesbeth; Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age. = 13.27, SD age. = 0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who

  13. Serial rapists and their victims: reenactment and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, A W; Hazelwood, R R; Rokous, F E; Hartman, C R; Burgess, A G

    1988-01-01

    The major finding in this study of 41 serial rapists is the large numbers of reported and unreported victims. For over 1200 attempted and completed rapes, there were 200 convictions. The hidden rapes or earliest nonreported victims of these men as boys and adolescents were identified from their families, their neighborhood, and their schools. Examining the possible link between childhood sexual abuse and criminal behavior in this sample of 41 serial rapists, 56.1% were judged to have at least one forced or exploitive abuse experience in boyhood, as compared to a study of 2,972 college males reporting 7.3% experiencing boyhood sexual abuse. Looking within the abused samples, 56.1% of the rapists reported forced sex, compared to the college sample's 30.4%. Also, the rapist sample revealed higher rates of family member as abuser (48.4%), compared to 22.2% for the college sample. Retrospective reconstruction of the sexual activities and assertive behaviors of these men as boys reveals that 51% of the boys reenact the abuse as a preadolescent with their earliest victims being known to them (48% as neighborhood girls), family (25% as sisters), or girlfriend (25%). The onset of rape fantasies in midadolescence (mean age 16.9) crystalizes the earlier sexually initiated behaviors into juvenile behaviors of spying, fetish burglaries, molestations, and rapes. Repetition of these juvenile behaviors set their criminal patters on strangers--their next group of victims. To reduce victimization, serial rapists need to be identified early and stopped. This means acknowledging and reporting boy sexual abuse. This includes being sensitive to the reenactment behaviors noted in the initiated activities of abused children, which in turn need to be differentiated from peer play. Closer attention needs to be paid to families with incest behavior to insure that younger children are protected. Adolescents showing early repetitive juvenile delinquent behaviors must be assessed for physical

  14. Revealing Victimization: The Impact of Methodological Features in the National Crime Victimization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jennifer Gatewood

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the impact of methodological features of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) on respondent willingness to report violent, serious violent, and property victimizations to the NCVS. Bounded and unbounded data from the 1999-2005 NCVS are used to create a longitudinal file of respondents, and survey-weighted logistic regression models are used to assess the factors associated with the reporting of victimization. Net of sociodemographic control variables, unbounded interviews produced higher estimates of serious violence (72%), violence (66%), and property victimization (67%). Mobile respondents reported higher estimates than nonmobile respondents of serious violence (48%), violence (35%), and property victimization (15%). Compared with in-person interviews, interviewing by telephone increased reporting for serious violence (7%), violence (12%), and property victimization (17%). This study highlights the importance of controlling for these factors in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses to estimate victimization risk.

  15. Stalking Victimization, Labeling, and Reporting: Findings From the NCVS Stalking Victimization Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Kim S; Cox, Amanda K

    2016-05-01

    Using the National Crime Victimization Survey 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement (NCVS-SVS) and guided by Greenberg and Ruback's social influence model, this study examines the effects of individual (e.g., severity, sex, victim-offender relationship) and contextual (e.g., location) factors on stalking victimization risk, victim labeling and help seeking, and victim and third-party police contacts. Logistic regression results suggest individual and contextual characteristics matter. Consistent with prior research and the theoretical model, the positive effects of severity and sex (female) were significant across all dependent variables, whereas the interaction effect of victim-offender relationship and location held only for third-party police contacts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The impact of weight-related victimization on peer relationships: the female adolescent perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Lucy J; Page, Angie S

    2008-11-01

    Obesity is associated with undesirable psychological and social consequences. This qualitative study examined the relationship between obesity and victimization, and the impact this has on peer relationships. Five obese female adolescents participated in multiple, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Interview transcriptions were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Weight-related victimization experiences were common and their impact on peer relationships was complex. Low self-confidence, isolation, and peer anxiety were all identified as resulting from victimization and were all barriers to developing peer relationships. Participants sought protection from victimization by seeking the "ideal" nonjudgmental empathetic best friend(s) and supportive family members to shield them from negative experiences. However there was also evidence that, while they were guarded with their own feelings, the experience of victimization increased empathy in these obese female adolescents. Social and psychological consequences of obesity in female adolescents are widespread, suggesting the importance of listening to those affected. Peer relationships have the opportunity to both amplify and reduce the psychological impact of living with obesity and victimization. Greater understanding of the social networks of obese adolescents and their impact on well-being is needed, as well as methods to reduce negative experiences through childhood obesity treatment and school-based prevention programs.

  17. Poly-victimization and resilience portfolios: Trends in violence research that can enhance the understanding and prevention of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Sherry; Smith, Alli; Mitchell, Kimberly; Turner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This literature review assesses the current state of knowledge about elder abuse and mistreatment, focusing on the lack of incorporation of all forms of elder victimization and the benefits of a poly-victimization framework. This review also includes existing knowledge on risk factors and calls for a greater focus on protective factors and a greater inclusion on family and community factors. Future research, prevention, and intervention would benefit from considering the true burden of elder victimization and a greater implementation of strengths-based approaches to programs.

  18. 78 FR 17403 - No FEAR Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, marital status, or political... you believe that you have been the victim of unlawful discrimination on the basis of race, color... provisions of law specified in 5 U.S.C. 2302(d). Dated: March 12, 2013. Edward J. DeMarco, Acting Director...

  19. 75 FR 7312 - No FEAR Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or genetic information... Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA), 42 U.S.C. 2000ff et seq. If you believe that you have been the victim of unlawful discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national...

  20. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of

  1. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  2. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang A.; Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth H.; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was…

  3. To Not Only Being Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Fantauzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hannah Arendt is against the idea that Jews were only the victims of history. Starting from the idea that the Age of Enlightenment and the Jewish emancipation put the Jewish tradition and history in crisis, she is adamant that this same history is not only full of suffering, but includes  a hidden tradition of activism that is important to uncover and to claim. The aim of these pages is to analyse the Arendtian thinking of the 30s and 40s in order to show some elements that can help us to understand what the loss of humanity means today and to indicate the possibilities of claiming and recovering it.

  4. RELIGION AND DISASTER VICTIM IDENTIFICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Jay; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-12-01

    Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) is a triangle, the components of which are secular law, religious law and custom and professional methods. In cases of single non-criminal deaths, identification often rests with a hospital or a medical authority. When dealing with criminal or mass death incidents, the law, in many jurisdictions, assigns identification to the coroner/medical examiner, who typically uses professional methods and only answers the religious requirements of the deceased's next-of-kin according to his personal judgment. This article discusses religious considerations regarding scientific methods and their limitations, as well as the ethical issues involved in the government coroner/medical examiner's becoming involved in clarifying and answering the next-of-kin's religious requirements.

  5. Profiling perpetrators of interpersonal violence against children in sport based on a victim survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Uzieblo, Kasia; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2017-01-01

    The current article reports on perpetrator characteristics gathered in the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using retrospective web survey design, 4043 adults answered questions on their experiences in youth sport. The study looks at the number of perpetrators as well as individual descriptive characteristics (sex, age, and role in the sport organization) of perpetrators of psychological, physical and sexual violence as reported retrospectively by victim-respondents. This information was then clustered to provide an overview of the most common perpetrator profiles. Results show that in all types of interpersonal violence in sport, perpetrators are predominantly male peer athletes who frequently operate together in (impromptu) groups. Several differences between the three types of interpersonal violence are highlighted. While incidents of physical violence perpetrated by coaches tend to be less severe compared to those by other perpetrators, acts of sexual violence committed by a coach are significantly more severe. The presented findings shed new light on perpetrators of interpersonal violence in sport, nuancing the predominant belief that the male coach is the main perpetrator while providing nuanced information that can be utilized to improve prevention and child protection measures and other safeguarding initiatives in sport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human trafficking for organ removal in India: a victim-centered, evidence-based report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra A; Raja, Kallakurichi Rajendiran; Findley, Katie C; Kerketta, Ponsian; Anand, Vijay

    2014-02-27

    Enhancements in the national transplant law to prohibit commercial transplants in India have curbed the trade. Yet, the human rights abuse of human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) continues in various transplant centers throughout India. Beginning in September 2010 until May 2012, in-depth interviews were conducted with 103 victims of HTOR in India in which victims described their experiences of a commercial kidney removal in compelling detail. Victims were located in Tamil Nadu, and reference is made to the broader study that included 50 additional victims in small towns and villages in West Bengal and Karnataka. Fourteen cases (14%) in Tamil Nadu and an additional 20 cases (40%) from West Bengal and Karnataka occurred between 2009 to May 2012. The cases in Tamil Nadu ranged in age from 19 to 55 years, with an average age of 33 years in Erode and 36 years in Chennai. Fifty-seven percent of the victims in Erode are female, and 87% of the victims in Chennai are female. Twelve percent of the individuals were widowed or abandoned, 79% were married, and 91% were parents with an average of two kids. Of those interviewed, 28% had no formal education, 19% had some primary schooling, 22% had some secondary schooling, and no individuals reported schooling above high school. All victims interviewed lived in abject poverty with monthly income levels well below the national average. The majority of victims reported long lasting health, economic, social, and psychological consequences. No matter the reason expressed for an organ sale, all victims reported that they would not have agreed to the organ removal if their economic circumstances were not so dire. One hundred percent of the victims interviewed expressed that they need assistance to cope with these consequences. Human trafficking for an organ removal continues in private transplant centers throughout India, service to foreign patients is ongoing, and victims' consequences are long lasting. A rights-based response

  7. Peer Preference and Friendship Quantity in Children with Externalizing Behavior: Distinct Influences on Bully Status and Victim Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mary; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the predictive relations between externalizing behavior, peer preference and friendship quantity, and bully status and victim status among children becoming acquainted with one another for the first time. Children ages 6.8-9.8 years (24 with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; 113 typically developing; 72 girls) attended a 2-week summer day camp grouped into same-age, same-sex classrooms with previously unacquainted peers. Externalizing behavior (via parent and teacher ratings) was measured before the start of camp; peer preference and friendship quantity (via peer nominations) were measured in the middle of camp, and bully status and victim status (via peer nominations) were measured at the end of camp. Low peer preference mediated the positive association between externalizing behavior and bully status. Both peer preference and friendship quantity moderated the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as between externalizing behavior and victim status; whereas high peer preference protected against both bully status and victim status, friendship quantity protected against victim status but exacerbated bully status. Some gender differences were found within these pathways. Peer preference, compared to friendship quantity, appears to have a more consistently protective role in the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as victim status.

  8. Reporting Crimes to the Police Depends on Relationship Networks: Effects of Ties Among Victims, Advisors, and Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoth, Lauren K; Ruback, R Barry

    2016-08-01

    A victim's decision to report a crime to the police is typically made after talking with someone else, usually a friend or relative, but sometimes a stranger. The advice this person gives depends primarily on the seriousness of the crime, and to some extent on the gender and age of the victim. The present research, which used experimental vignettes, examined the role of social networks in reporting: How do the relationships among a victim, the advisor, and the offender affect the advice to report or not to report a violent or nonviolent crime? Results from Study 1 indicated that relationships matter: Crimes are least likely to be reported if the offender is part of the same triad as the victim and the advisor, and crimes are most likely to be reported if the victim, the advisor, and the offender are all strangers. Study 1 also found that males are more likely to protect friends who are offenders (by advising against reporting), while females are more likely to protect friends who are victims (by advising them to report). Study 2 found that the effect of these relationships on reporting is conditioned by the nature of the organization to which the offender belongs, such that males are particularly likely to protect their friends in athletic organizations and fraternities when accused of minor property crimes. Both studies found that gender differences in the advice to report are moderated by characteristics of the crime and triad structure.

  9. When and Why We See Victims as Responsible: The Impact of Ideology on Attitudes Toward Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane

    2016-09-01

    Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  11. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. A Post-September 11th Balancing Act: Public Access to U.S. Government Information versus Protection of Sensitive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest realistic guidelines that balance public access to government information and the need to protect sensitive data. Emphasis is on lessons learned from a 1979 case where the government attempted to prohibit the Progressive Magazine from publishing an article about making a hydrogen bomb and government…

  13. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke

    2016-02-01

    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. 75 FR 19377 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ...; 18 U.S.C. 922, Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1994; 42 U.S.C. 10601, Victim Rights and Restitution Act of 1990; 10 U.S.C. 1562,Database on Domestic Violence Incidents and E.O. 9397 (SSN), as... THE SYSTEM: STORAGE: Records may be stored on paper records and/or on electronic storage media...

  15. Circumstances Preceding Homicide-Suicides Involving Child Victims: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kristin M; Brown, Sabrina V; Hall, Jeffrey E; Logan, Joseph E

    2018-02-01

    Homicide-suicide incidents involving child victims can have a detrimental impact on survivors of the violence, family members and friends of the decedents, and other community members, but the rare occurrence of these acts makes using quantitative data to examine their associated antecedents challenging. Therefore, using qualitative data from the 2003-2011 National Violent Death Reporting System, we examined 175 cases of homicide-suicide involving child victims in an effort to better understand the complex situational factors of these events. Our findings indicate that 98% of homicide-suicides with child victims are perpetrated by adults (mostly parents) and propelled by the perpetrators' intimate partner problems, mental health problems, and criminal/legal problems. These events are often premeditated, and plans for the violence are sometimes disclosed prior to its occurrence. Findings provide support for several theoretical perspectives, and implications for prevention are discussed.

  16. Victim identification and family support in mass casualties: the Massachusetts model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R J; Peters, C D; Flannery, R B

    1999-01-01

    The Aviation Disaster Family Assistance Act of 1996 requires the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), air carriers, and the American Red Cross (ARC) to provide an integrated family assistance center to offer support to family survivors of mass casualties. A central component of post-incident response is the timely identification of victims and their personal belongings. This identification process occurs through antemortem interviews with family survivors. ARC of Massachusetts Bay determined that ARC volunteers would not play a major role in conducting antemortem interviews, and deferred primary responsibility for this task to the Massachusetts Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCMB). This paper presents the Massachusetts model for victim identification and family support at the local level. The structure and services of this model for on-site forensic processing, the fielding of antemortem interviewers, and a comprehensive training curriculum in psychological trauma and victim identification are presented. The implications are discussed.

  17. A victim-centered approach to justice? Victim satisfaction effects on third-party punishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M

    2012-10-01

    Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Child protection from trafficking in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Žegarac Nevenka

    2005-01-01

    Trafficking in children is particularly severe form of exploitation and breach of the children rights, while security and welfare of children that are exposed to trafficking are obligations of state authorities, services and organizations of civil society. System of protection and support to children victims of trafficking should contain following: criteria for proper identification of child-victim of trafficking, mechanisms for immediate referring of a child to specialized services, procedur...

  19. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  20. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims.

  1. The Dimensionality of Social Victimization: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Sohn McCormick, Anita L.; Hayes, DeMarquis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the dimensionality of social victimization and to assess the relation between social victimization and classmate social support in a sample of 260 students. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded four dimensions of peer victimization: overt, verbal social, and nonverbal social victimization and peer…

  2. Perpetrators' and Victims' Attributions for IPV: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Angela M; Edwards, Katie M

    2015-09-06

    Research shows that there are a variety of reasons why people self-report engaging in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, but few studies report victims' attributions for their partners' IPV perpetration. Because there are two acting partners in relationships, as well as the IPV incidents that occur in the relationships, to fully understand the dynamics of IPV, both partners' perceptions of why the incidents occur must be understood. The authors of this article systematically reviewed the available empirical evidence regarding male and female perpetrators' endorsed attributions for their IPV perpetration, as well victims' attributions for their partners' IPV perpetration. Several literature databases were explored, resulting in 50 articles that met the criteria for inclusion in this review. IPV perpetrators' commonly endorsed attributions for physical and psychological IPV consisted of control, anger, retaliation, self-defense, to get attention, and an inability to express oneself verbally. Research has not examined endorsed attributions for coercive control. The few studies examining attributions for sexual IPV found that it was attributed to dominance or hedonism. Themes regarding victims' attributions were largely similar to those of the perpetrators, however, there were some differences. Victims' attributions for physical IPV perpetration consisted of anger, control, jealousy, and the influence of drugs/alcohol, which are similar to perpetrators' self-reported attributions for engaging in IPV perpetration. Victims' attributions for their partners' psychological IPV perpetration consisted of the perpetrator's personality, relationship dissolution, alcohol, and their partners' jealousy. Victims' attributions for their partners' sexual IPV perpetration, however, differed from perpetrators' attributions, consisting of the victim believing that the perpetrator thought they wanted it, being under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and doing it out of love

  3. Second thoughts about who is first: the medical triage of violent perpetrators and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Azgad; Strous, Rael D

    2017-05-01

    Extreme intentional and deliberate violence against innocent people, including acts of terror and school shootings, poses various ethical challenges, some related to the practice of medicine. We discuss a dilemma relating to deliberate violence, in this case the aftermath of a terror attack, in which there are multiple injured individuals, including the terror perpetrator. Normally, the priority of medical treatment is determined based on need. However, in the case of a terror attack, there is reason to question this. Should the perpetrator of extreme violence receive medical treatment on the scene before the victims if he or she is designated as the most seriously injured? Or rather, should victims receive medical care priority if they are also in some life-threatening danger, although not at the same level of severity as the perpetrator? We present two opposing approaches: the conventional 'no-exceptions' approach, which gives priority to the terrorist, and the justice-oriented 'victim first' approach, which gives priority to the victims. Invoking concepts of retributive justice, distributive justice and corrective justice, this latter approach suggests that 'value-neutrality' can lead to injustice. Perpetrators of terror-like violence should be treated as an act of humanism and good ethical medical practice. However, in clear and obvious terror-like situations, to treat the perpetrators of violence before their victims may be unjust. Thus, in some specific situations, the 'victim first' approach may be considered a legitimate alternative triage policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Persistent versus periodic experiences of social victimization: predictors of adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Lisa H; Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Gentsch, Joanna K; Wharton, Michelle E; Rahdar, Ahrareh

    2009-07-01

    This study examined self-reports of social victimization and parent reports of adjustment for a sample followed from fourth through seventh grades. Different patterns of social victimization experiences were identified; of the 153 students (79 girls) with complete data, 24% reported chronic social victimization, 23% reported transient experiences of social victimization, and 53% reported being socially victimized at no more than one time point. We examined whether students who experienced persistent and periodic social victimization were at greater risk for internalizing problems than nonvictims. Persistently victimized children demonstrated continuously elevated levels of internalizing problems. Children who were not originally victimized by social aggression but became victimized with time did not demonstrate higher levels of internalizing problems than did nonvictims. Findings were mixed for those who escaped social victimization during this period.

  5. Fear of property crime: examining the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carrie L; Fox, Kathleen A

    2011-01-01

    Fear of crime research has primarily focused on fear of crime in general or on fear of specific types of violent crimes. This study builds from this line of research by focusing exclusively on the night fear of six types of property crimes, including fear of burglary while away from home, vehicle theft, bicycle theft, property theft, vandalism, and vehicle burglary. This study examines the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk on fear of property crime. Survey data from college students reveal that victimization and vicarious victimization were not significant predictors of fear of property crime, whereas perceived risk was a consistent and significant predictor of fear of all property crimes.

  6. La victime, acteur de la sécurité ? / The victim, a security actor ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu François

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.

  7. Drawings by Child Victims of Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Alayne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Child victims of incest were judged to have more poorly developed impulse controls, a defensive structure which emphasizes repression, and were significantly more variable in the degree to which they expressed sexual features in the drawings. (Author/CL)

  8. Treatment of Child Victims of Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, Bonny; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reviews three treatment methods (individual, group, and family therapy) used over a five-year period for child incest victims. Presents common themes, issues, and pitfalls that arose during therapy. Stresses potential benefits of psychotherapy to this population. (Author)

  9. Construct validity and reliability of Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire – Brazilian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Guimarães Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ is among the few bullying assessment instruments with well-established psychometric properties in different countries. Nevertheless, the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version (Questionário de Bullying de Olweus - QBO have not been determined. We aimed at verifying the construct validity and reliability of the bully and victim scales of the QBO. To achieve that goal, the victim and bully scales were assessed using polytomous item response theory (IRT. The best fit was obtained with a generalized partial credit model that is capable of measuring the specific discriminating power for each item in these scales. The QBO was administered to 703 public school students (mean age: 13 years; standard deviation = 1.58. Based on IRT analysis, the number of response categories in each item was reduced from four to three. Cronbach reliability scores were satisfactory: α = 0.85 (victim scale and α = 0.87 (bully scale. In this study, hurtful comments, persecution, or threats had high power to discriminate victims and bullies. For both QBO scales, higher severity parameters were observed for direct bullying items. The results also show that the construct of both QBO scales measures the same construct proposed for the overall instrument. Thus, the QBO can be administered to different Brazilian populations to assess the main characteristics of bullying: repetition of behavior over time and intentionally acting to humiliate, threaten, or harm somebody.

  10. Decreases in the Proportion of Bullying Victims in the Classroom: Effects on the Adjustment of Remaining Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Sharing a classroom environment with other victimized peers has been shown to mitigate the adverse effects of peer victimization on children's social and psychological adjustment. By extension, this study hypothesized that classroom reductions in the proportion of victims would be harmful for children who remain victimized. Data were collected at…

  11. Simulating Peer Support for Victims of Cyberbullying

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future incidents of cyberbullying. The buddy interacts with the victim in three stages: first the child communicates her emotional state, next the buddy gathers information about the situation at hand, then the b...

  12. Psychodynamics and treatment of sexual assualt victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuker, E

    1979-10-01

    This paper discusses (1) how my own interest in the treatment of sexual assualt victims developed and how I view the scope of this problem; (2) myths and facts about sexual assault; (3) common reactions of those who work with rape victims; (4) the rape trauma syndrome; (5) an approach to immediate and short-term treatment; and (6) the long-term effects of sexual assault and related treatment issues.

  13. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  14. Cybercrime Victimization and Subjective Well-Being: An Examination of the Buffering Effect Hypothesis Among Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka; Oksanen, Atte

    2017-10-19

    The wealth of beneficial tools for online interaction, consumption, and access to others also bring new risks for harmful experiences online. This study examines the association between cybercrime victimization and subjective well-being (SWB) and, based on the buffering effect hypothesis, tests the assumption of the protective function of social belonging in cybercrime victimization. Cross-national data from the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Finland (N = 3,557; Internet users aged 15-30 years; 49.85 percent female) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and main and moderation effect models. Results show that cybercrime victimization has a negative association with SWB after adjusting for a number of confounding factors. This association concerns both general cybercrime victimization and subcategories such as victimization to offensive cybercrime and cyberfraud. In line with the buffering effect hypothesis, social belonging to offline groups was shown to moderate the negative association between SWB and cybercrime victimization. The same effect was not found in the social belonging to online groups. Overall, the study indicates that, analogously to crime victimization in the offline context, cybercrime is a harmful experience whose negative effects mainly concern those users who have weak social ties offline to aid in coping with such stressors.

  15. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The effect of acculturation and immigration on the victimization and psychological distress link in a national sample of Latino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A

    2012-05-01

    Distinct bodies of research have examined the link between victimization and psychological distress and cultural variables and psychological health, but little is known about how cultural variables affect psychological distress among Latino victims. Substantial research has concluded that Latino women are more likely than non-Latino women to experience trauma-related symptoms following victimization. In addition, examination of different types of cultural adaptation has found results supporting the idea that maintaining ties with one's culture of origin may be protective against negative mental health outcomes. The present study evaluates the effect of victimization, immigrant status, and both Anglo and Latino orientation on psychological distress in a national sample of Latino women. Results indicate that along with the total count of victimization experiences, Anglo and/or Latino orientation were strong predictors of all forms of psychological distress. Anglo orientation also functioned as a moderator between victimization and psychological distress measures for anger, dissociation, and anxiety. The results suggest a more nuanced and complex interaction between cultural factors, victimization, and psychological distress.

  17. Types of aggressive victims in bullying situations at secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Del Moral, Gonzalo; Suárez, Cristian; Villareal, Mª Elena; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    El artículo está en inglés y en castellano The distinction between subtypes of passive and aggressive victims in studies of bullying has been a cornerstone of research in recent decades. However, some aspects of victimization still need further elaboration, such as the differentiation of subtypes of aggressive victims of bullying, the dynamics of the process of victimization, and the perceptions that participants have of their victimized classmates. The objective of this qualitative resear...

  18. Institutional shelter to protect adolescent victims of domestic violence: theory or practice? Albergue institucional para proteger a adolescentes víctimas de violencia doméstica: ¿la teoría o la práctica? O acolhimento institucional como proteção a adolescentes vítimas de violência doméstica: teoria ou prática?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diene Monique Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand and analyze, from the perspective of adolescent victims of domestic violence who were cared for in an institution in Campinas-SP, the protective factors to which they are submitted and / or have access. METHOD: This was qualitative research, with data collection occurring through focus groups with 17 adolescents, and semistructured interviews with seven of them; the data analysis was based on content analysis, using a thematic modality. RESULTS: Two themes emerged, entitled Four Walls and Trust. We discuss the context of institutional care, that despite the efforts made contemporaneously, still maintains an authoritarian environment; the importance of the bond and trust established with some employees, acting as protective factors for the adolescents and the protective aspect of religiosity. CONCLUSIONS: It is understood that these considerations should be valued and reinforced through the healthcare services provided to children and adolescents, as they contribute to the promotion of the physical and mental health of this population. OBJETIVO: Comprender y analizar, desde la perspectiva de adolescentes víctimas de violencia doméstica que fueron atendidas en una institución en Campinas-SP, los factores de protección que se les proponen, y / o tienen acceso. MÉTODO: Esta fue una investigación cualitativa, la recopilación de datos de produjo a través de grupos focales con 17 adolescentes, y con entrevistas semi-estructuradas con siete de ellos; el análisis de los datos se basó en el análisis de contenido, usando una modalidad temática. RESULTADOS: Emergieron dos temas, titulados Cuatro Paredes y Confianza. Se discute el contexto de un albergue institucional, que a pesar de los esfuerzos realizados contemporáneamente, todavía mantiene un ambiente autoritario; la importancia del vínculo y la confianza establecida con algunos empleados, actuando como factores de protección para los adolescentes y el aspecto de

  19. [Forensic procedures for interview physical exam and evidence collection in children and young people victims of physical and/or sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Jardim, Patrícia; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2011-01-01

    The public nature of child abuse crime (domestic violence, maltreatment and sexual crimes) implies the opening of a criminal enquiry as soon as facts likely to be considered as such are known. Professionals who suspect of these cases are considered mandatory reporters as is the case of health care professionals. The work with abused children and youth involves several courses of action between institutions, namely as to the starting procedures to follow in case triage, reporting of suspicion, diagnosis and preservation of evidence for penal purposes, as well as to the protection of the victim(s), all of which still lack a clear definition in Portugal. Several professionals often take part simultaneously in these early procedures and it is crucial that their own personal intervention be articulated with one another's. With the aim of promoting that adequate articulation between the professionals and the acting services, technical orientations to be followed have to be established, namely as far as the articulation between the medicolegal services and the health care services are concerned. These orientations should aim at: ruling the reporting of the occurrence in good time; guarantee an appropriate collection of evidence; guarantee good medical procedures in medical exams and evidence collection; avoid repetition of exams of the victims, preventing secondary victimisation and cross-contamination of child report. Based on the internationally accepted rules for the matter and taking into consideration the Portuguese reality, namely in legal terms, the authors made a proposition concerning the procedures for the intervention in such cases that are herewith presented and were approved as General Recommendations for the Examination in Cases of Suspicion of Domestic Violence, Maltreatment or Sexual Crime Against Children by the National Institute of Legal Medicine, in January 2010. These were later confirmed by the Specialty College of Legal Medicine of the Medical Board

  20. Schizophrenia—A Victim's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone “coma treatment” and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983–1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of “iatrogenic” psychiatric treatment—iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me—an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind. PMID:18775845

  1. Schizophrenia--a victim's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpa, K

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on my own personal experience of having undergone "coma treatment" and being given approximately 37 coma injections between the period 1983-1993 despite the fact that I was not psychotic and was normal in every way. The experiences I had following the injections and the forcible administration of innumerable antipsychotics and drugs have shaped my perspective of what it is to be a victim of "iatrogenic" psychiatric treatment-iatrogenic because it induced symptoms of schizophrenia or at the least schizoidism in a normal person like me-an inability to think, feel, and reason, over time. I have also with my own eyes seen at least 7 or 8 women who look me (my clones) that has reinforced my belief that the injections split me. The British psychiatrist, Richard David Laing (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 DVD [DVD]) also theorized that it is the division of the self that leads to the symptoms of schizophrenia such as splitting and fragmentation of the mind.

  2. Incendiari e vittime / Arsonists and Victims / Incendiaires et victimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bisi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Human beings need fire !Contrary to other living beings, mankind could not live without fire so it is quite astonishing to observe that most of the fires which burn on the earth are caused by man.Many fires spread all over the North Mediterranean area, from Portugal to Turkey, during the summer 2007.Human beings and fire: associated to the sacrifice of Titan Prometheus which was meant to be a sort of pattern to be followed by men to honour the gods.Fire is alive like water and air but it is difficult to capture it with the eyes: we can look at it for a long time before we discover that it never looks like itself.Fire has brought about important changes to human life, giving it much more security and comfort.However, the destructive power of fire is a real threat which not only takes many victims and results in wounded, intoxicated and homeless people but its force also wipes out and destroys places recognized as the heritage of mankind.Les hommes ont besoin du feu! Contrairement à tous les autres êtres vivants, les hommes ne pourraient pas vivre comme ils le font sans le feu; d'autre part, le fait que la plupart des feux qui brûlent sur la planète sont causés par l’homme, représente un aspect inquiétant.Pendant l’été 2007, beaucoup d’incendies ont frappé toute la zone du Nord de la Méditerranée, du Portugal à la Turquie. Hommes et feu : un binôme lié à la création du sacrifice du Titan Prométhée et qui aurait ainsi établi le modèle suivi par les hommes afin d'honorer les dieux.Le feu est vivant, comme l’eau et l'air, mais il est insaisissable au regard, c’est à dire que nous pouvons passer beaucoup de temps à le regarder mais il ne sera jamais égal à lui même. L’usage du feu a rendu la vie de l’homme plus sûre et plus confortable et il a modifié, au cours du temps, la face de la terre.Toutefois, la force déstructrice du feu représente une menace réelle qui fait des victimes, des blessés, des intoxiqu

  3. When homes are torture chambers. Vimochana's work with victims of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishwar, M

    1999-01-01

    Providing legal, emotional or other forms of assistance to women in distress, especially those who are victims of domestic violence, is difficult, particularly in countries where police and courts offer very little relief. Even government sectors add to the injustice by protecting those committing violence. Yet there are still organizations such as Vimochana of Banglore, India, that are able to live up to their commitment to bring justice for female victims despite all the hardships they face, not only from external forces but also from individuals that they try to help. This article presents an interview with Celine Suguna of Vimochana and offers a glimpse of the very difficult and complex task of working with women who are victims of domestic violence.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Women's Past-Year Physical IPV Perpetration and Victimization in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Bianka M; Chen, May S; Nekkanti, Manali; Mulawa, Marta I

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) in high-resource countries suggest that men and women may perpetrate similar rates of violence against their partners, yet the prevalence and etiology of female-perpetrated IPV, especially in comparison with IPV victimization among females, remains largely understudied in low-resource, high-prevalence countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Using multivariate logistic regression models, the current study examines the prevalence of and risk factors associated with past 12-month experiences of isolated physical IPV perpetration (i.e., violence perpetrated against an intimate partner not in self-defense) and physical IPV victimization among a nationally representative sample of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) from Tanzania who completed the Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey Domestic Violence Module ( n = 5,372). Approximately 1.5% reported perpetrating violence in the past 12 months, whereas 35% reported victimization in the same time period. Risk factors of past 12-month IPV perpetration included past 12-month IPV victimization, making cash or in-kind earnings, having autonomy in decision making, and acceptance of justifications for wife beating. Women much younger than their partners had lower odds of IPV perpetration. Risk factors of past 12-month IPV victimization included past 12-month IPV perpetration, educational attainment, having children, partner's alcohol consumption, partner's decision making, acceptance of justifications for wife beating, and exposure to parental IPV. Making cash or in-kind earnings was the only protective factor against victimization. Findings suggest that female IPV perpetration and victimization may result from a combination of factors including power differentials between partners and attitudes about the acceptability of using violence. Future research directions and implications for policy and prevention efforts to reduce IPV in Tanzania are discussed.

  5. Alcohol Policies and Alcohol-Involved Homicide Victimization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Coleman, Sharon M; Lira, Marlene C; Hadland, Scott E; Cooper, Susanna E; Heeren, Timothy C; Swahn, Monica H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the alcohol policy environment and alcohol involvement in homicide victims in the United States, overall and by sociodemographic groups. To characterize the alcohol policy environment, the presence, efficacy, and degree of implementation of 29 alcohol policies were used to determine Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores by state and year. Data about homicide victims from 17 states from 2003 to 2012 were obtained from the National Violent Death Reporting System. APS scores were used as lagged exposure variables in generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to predict the individual-level odds of alcohol involvement (i.e., blood alcohol concentration [BAC] > 0.00% vs. = 0.00% and BAC ≥ 0.08% vs. ≤ 0.079%) among homicide victims. A 10 percentage point increase in APS score (representing a more restrictive policy environment) was associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide with BAC greater than 0.00% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.89, 95% CI [0.82, 0.99]) and BAC of 0.08% or more (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.82, 1.02]). In stratified analyses of homicide victims, more restrictive policy environments were significantly protective of alcohol involvement at both BAC levels among those who were female, ages 21-29 years, Hispanic, unmarried, victims of firearm homicides, and victims of homicides related to intimate partner violence. More restrictive alcohol policy environments were associated with reduced odds of alcohol-involved homicide victimization overall and among groups at high risk of homicide. Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising homicide prevention strategy.

  6. Cyberbullying victimization and mental health in adolescents and the moderating role of family dinners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Napoletano, Anthony; Saul, Grace; Dirks, Melanie A; Craig, Wendy; Poteat, V Paul; Holt, Melissa; Koenig, Brian W

    2014-11-01

    This study presents evidence that cyberbullying victimization relates to internalizing, externalizing, and substance use problems in adolescents and that the frequency of family dinners attenuate these associations. To examine the unique association between cyberbullying victimization and adolescent mental health (after controlling differences in involvement in traditional, face-to-face bullying) and to explore the potential moderating role of family contact in this association. This cross-sectional, observational study used survey data on 18,834 students (aged 12-18 years) from 49 schools in a Midwestern US state. Logistic regression analysis tested associations between cyberbullying victimization and the likelihood of mental health and substance use problems. Negative binomial regression analysis tested direct and synergistic contributions of cyberbullying victimization and family dinners on the rates of mental health and substance use problems. Frequency of cyberbullying victimization during the previous 12 months; victimization by traditional (face-to-face) bullying; and perpetration of traditional bullying. Five internalizing mental health problems (anxiety, depression, self-harm, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt), 2 externalizing problems (fighting and vandalism), and 4 substance use problems (frequent alcohol use, frequent binge drinking, prescription drug misuse, and over-the-counter drug misuse). About one-fifth (18.6%) of the sample experienced cyberbullying during the previous 12 months. The frequency of cyberbullying positively related to all 11 internalizing, externalizing, and substance use problems (odds ratios from 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7-3.8] to 4.5 [95% CI, 3.0-6.6]). However, victimization related more closely to rates of problems in adolescents that had fewer family dinners. Cyberbullying relates to mental health and substance use problems in adolescents, even after their involvement in face-to-face bullying is taken into account. Although

  7. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 184 U.S. Customs and Border Protection Laboratory, Houston, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-09-30

    This report documents the findings of an on-site energy audit of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The focus of the audit was to identify various no-cost and low-cost energy efficiency opportunities that, once implemented, would reduce electricity and gas consumption and increase the operational efficiency of the building. This audit also provided an opportunity to identify potential capital cost projects that should be considered in the future to acquire additional energy (electric and gas) and water savings to further increase the operational efficiency of the building.

  8. Nerve growth factor acts through the TrkA receptor to protect sensory neurons from the damaging effects of the HIV-1 viral protein, Vpr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, C A; Salame, J; Luu, G-L S; Acharjee, S; Ruangkittisakul, A; Martinez, J A; Jalali, H; Watts, R; Ballanyi, K; Guo, G F; Zochodne, D W; Power, C

    2013-11-12

    Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) with associated neuropathic pain is the most common neurological disorder affecting patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Viral protein R (Vpr) is a neurotoxic protein encoded by HIV-1 and secreted by infected macrophages. Vpr reduces neuronal viability, increases cytosolic calcium and membrane excitability of cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons, and is associated with mechanical allodynia in vivo. A clinical trial with HIV/AIDS patients demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) reduced the severity of DSP-associated neuropathic pain, a problem linked to damage to small diameter, potentially NGF-responsive fibers. Herein, the actions of NGF were investigated in our Vpr model of DSP and we demonstrated that NGF significantly protected sensory neurons from the effects of Vpr. Footpads of immunodeficient Vpr transgenic (vpr/RAG1(-/-)) mice displayed allodynia (pneuronal perikarya decreased distal neurite extension (pneurons from the Vpr-induced effect on their cell bodies. NGF prevented Vpr-induced attenuation of the phosphorylated glycogen synthase-3 axon extension pathway and tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor expression in DRG neurons (pneurons (pneurons (pneurons. Overall, NGF/TrkA signaling or p75 receptor inhibition protects somatic sensory neurons exposed to Vpr, thus laying the groundwork for potential therapeutic options for HIV/AIDS patients suffering from DSP. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual murderers with adult or child victims: are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehr, Aranke; Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Briken, Peer; Berner, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates characteristics differentiating sexually motivated murderers targeting child victims (CV; n = 35) from those with only adult victims (AV; n = 100). In the initial phase, psychiatric court reports were evaluated using standardized instruments (SCID-II, PCL-R, HCR-20, SVR-20, Static-99). In the second phase, data on duration of detention and reconviction rates were obtained from German federal criminal records. The CV group showed more often diagnostic criteria of pedophilia (43% vs. 4%) and less often alcohol abuse and drug dependency (31% vs. 55%), sexual dysfunctions (9% vs. 29%) and narcissistic personality disorder (0% vs. 13%). No significant differences were found regarding PCL-R and total risk assessment scores. Child victim perpetrators were more likely to have committed acts of sexual child abuse before the sexual homicide (46% vs. 16%) but were less likely to have committed rape or sexual assault (17% vs. 42%) or caused bodily injury (26% vs. 50%). The CV group was detained more frequently in forensic psychiatric hospitals (59% vs. 26%), but the two groups showed the same rates of release and reconviction for sexual (22% for both groups), nonsexual violent (CV 25% vs. AV 15%) and nonviolent offenses (CV 63% vs. AV 59%). Although well-known differences between nonhomicidal sexual child abusers and rapists were replicated in this study on sexual homicide perpetrators, the groups showed more similarities than differences. The high prevalence of violence and antisocial personality disorder in both groups seem to be important risk factors for committing a (sexual) homicide and might have outweighed other differences.

  10. 76 FR 77472 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial Protection...

  11. 75 FR 82382 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... AGENCY Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act to better protect...

  12. 75 FR 1373 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Water Act (CWA) as amended by the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act... Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 amends the Clean Water Act to better protect...

  13. Blame Attributions of Victims and Perpetrators: Effects of Victim Gender, Perpetrator Gender, and Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Erin E; Kotary, Brandy; Hetz, Maria

    2015-08-11

    Although research has been conducted on rape myth acceptance (RMA) and other factors associated with attribution formation, researchers have not yet determined how the combination of such factors simultaneously affects levels of victim blame and perpetrator blame. The current investigation recruited 221 students from an all-women's college to examine differences in blame attributions across RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender, and the relationship between the two parties (i.e., stranger vs. acquaintance). Results suggested that RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender account for a significant amount of variance in blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators. In sum, victim blame with female perpetrators was relatively consistent across levels of RMA, but increased substantially for male perpetrators as individuals endorsed higher levels of RMA. Perpetrator blame, however, was highest with male perpetrators when individuals endorsed low levels of RMA and lowest for male perpetrators when individuals endorsed relatively higher levels of RMA. Findings demonstrate the continued influence of RMA on blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators, and the stigma faced by male victims. More research is needed on the differing attributions of male and female victims and perpetrators, as well as differing attributions based on type of relationship. Such research will lead to a better and more thorough understanding of sexual assault and rape. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Determining Police Response to Domestic Violence Victims. The Role of Victim Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzawa, Eve S.; Austin, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 110 Detroit (Michigan) domestic assault cases to determine whether victim preference about arrest of the assailant had an impact on police behavior and the recurrence of violence. Finds that mandatory arrest policies reduces police discretion and ignores victim preference. (CFR)

  15. Bystander Involvement in Peer Victimization: The Value of Looking beyond Aggressors and Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Brenda A.; Dempsey, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Peer victimization has been a focus of both research and prevention program development. This construct is typically measured from the victim and aggressor perspectives. However, prevention programming often includes an additional bystander perspective. The present study evaluated whether questions regarding witnessing peer victimization…

  16. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  17. Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Students in Minnesota: Associations With Family Violence, Unsafe Schools, and Resources for Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Alicia A; Brady, Sonya S

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines whether being a victim of violence by an adult in the household, witnessing intra-familial physical violence, and feeling unsafe at school are associated with physical dating violence victimization. It also examines whether extracurricular activity involvement and perceived care by parents, teachers, and friends attenuate those relationships, consistent with a stress-buffering model. Participants were 75,590 ninth-and twelfth-grade students (51% female, 77% White, 24% receiving free/reduced price lunch) who completed the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey. Overall, 8.5% of students reported being victims of dating violence. Significant differences were found by gender, grade, ethnicity, and free/reduced price lunch status. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that being a victim of violence by an adult in the household, witnessing intra-familial physical violence, feeling unsafe at school, and low perceived care by parents were strongly associated with dating violence victimization. Associations of moderate strength were found for low perceived care by teachers and friends. Little to no extracurricular activity involvement was weakly associated with dating violence victimization. Attenuating effects of perceived care and extracurricular activity involvement on associations between risk factors (victimization by a family adult, witnessing intra-familial violence, feeling unsafe at school) and dating violence victimization were smaller in magnitude than main effects. Findings are thus more consistent with an additive model of risk and protective factors in relation to dating violence victimization than a stress-buffering model. Health promotion efforts should attempt to minimize family violence exposure, create safer school environments, and encourage parental involvement and support. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Victimization experiences of adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Wan-Yuen; Dunne, Michael P; Marret, Mary J; Fleming, Marylou; Wong, Yut-Lin

    2011-12-01

    There has been little community-based research regarding multiple-type victimization experiences of young people in Asia, and none in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, explore gender differences, as well as describe typical perpetrators and family and social risk factors among Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1,870 students was conducted in 20 randomly selected secondary schools in Selangor state (mean age: 16 years; 58.8% female). The questionnaire included items on individual, family, and social background and different types of victimization experiences in childhood. Emotional and physical types of victimization were most common. A significant proportion of adolescents (22.1%) were exposed to more than one type, with 3% reporting all four types. Compared with females, males reported more physical, emotional, and sexual victimization. The excess of sexual victimization among boys was due to higher exposure to noncontact events, whereas prevalence of forced intercourse was equal for both genders (3.0%). Although adult male perpetrators predominate, female adults and peers of both genders also contribute substantially. Low quality of parent-child relationships and poor school and neighborhood environments had the strongest associations with victimization. Family structure (parental divorce, presence of step-parent or single parent, or household size), parental drug use, and rural/urban location were not influential in this sample. This study extends the analysis of multiple-type victimization to a Malaysian population. Although some personal, familial, and social factors correlate with those found in western nations, there are cross-cultural differences, especially with regard to the nature of sexual violence based on gender and the influence of family structure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 Has Undermined US Refugee Protection Obligations and Wasted Government Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Acer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seeking asylum is a human right, enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (“Refugee Convention” and its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (“1967 Protocol” prohibit the United States from returning refugees to persecution, and the 1980 Refugee Act set up a formal process for applying for asylum in the United States. However, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA created a barrage of new barriers to asylum. These impediments have blocked many refugees from accessing asylum in the United States and inserted additional layers of technicalities, screening, and processing, undermining the effectiveness of the US asylum system. The barriers imposed by IIRIRA are significant. They include a filing deadline on asylum applications, which prevents genuine refugees from receiving asylum if they cannot prove they have filed the application within one year of arriving in the United States. IIRIRA also established summary deportation procedures, including “expedited removal” and “reinstatement of removal,” which block asylum seekers from even applying for asylum or accessing an immigration court removal hearing, unless they first pass through a screening process. Finally, IIRIRA imposed “mandatory detention” on certain immigrants, including asylum seekers who are placed in expedited removal proceedings upon their arrival at a US port of entry. Each of these provisions imposed new processes and procedures that have contributed to an increasingly ineffective immigration system. The current backlog in the immigration courts has reached a record high, surpassing half a million cases, while the backlog of affirmative asylum cases before the Asylum Division of US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS has increased by a factor of six [check] in just three years. Backlogs, which lead to long delays in adjudication

  20. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...