WorldWideScience

Sample records for victim confidentiality posed

  1. The rarity of "unusual" [corrected] dispositions of victim bodies: staging and posing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppel, Robert D; Weis, Joseph G

    2004-11-01

    The act of leaving a victim's body in an unusual position is a conscious criminal action by an offender to thwart an investigation, shock the finder and investigators of the crime scene, or give perverted pleasure to the killer. The unusual position concepts of posing and staging a murder victim have been documented thoroughly and have been accepted by the courts as a definable phenomenon. One staging case and one posing case are outlined and reveal characteristics of those homicides. From the Washington State Attorney General's Homicide Investigation and Tracking System's database on murder covering the years 1981-2000 (a total of 5,224 cases), the relative frequency of unusual body dispositions is revealed as a very rare occurrence. Only 1.3% of victims are left in an unusual position, with 0.3% being posed and 0.1% being staged. The characteristics of these types of murders also set them apart: compared to all other murders, in staged murders the victims and killers are, on average, older. All victims and offenders in the staged murders are white, with victims being disproportionately white in murders with any kind of unusual body disposition. Likewise, females stand out as victims when the body is posed, staged, or left in other unusual positions. Whereas posed bodies are more likely to include sexual assault, often in serial murders, there is no evidence of either in the staged cases. Lastly, when a body is left in an unusual position, binding is more likely, as well as the use of more "hands on" means of killing the victim, such as stabbing or cutting weapons, bludgeons, ligatures, or hands and feet.

  2. Problem Posing

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavá, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis concentrates on problem posing from the students' point of view. Problem posing can be either seen as a teaching method which can be used in the class, or it can be used as a tool for researchers or teachers to assess the level of students' understanding of the topic. In my research, I compare three classes, one mathematics specialist class and two generalist classes, in their ability of problem posing. As an assessment tool it seemed that mathemathics specialists were abl...

  3. Confidentiality and personal integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, A

    1994-06-01

    This paper uses the social theory of Erving Goffman in order to argue that confidentiality should be understood in relation to the mundane social skills by which individuals present and respect specific self-images of themselves and others during social interaction. The breaching of confidentiality is analysed in terms of one person's capacity to embarrass another, and so to expose that person as incompetent. Respecting confidentiality may at once serve to protect the vulnerable from an unjust society, and yet also protect the guilty from just accusation. Ethical reasoning about confidentiality must therefore recognize the dangers of prejudice and violence inherent in decisions to breach or to respect confidentiality. Case studies are used to illustrate the efficacy of this account, culminating with analyses of three examples from the UKCC document Confidentiality.

  4. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  5. Computer Security: Printing confidentially

    CERN Document Server

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever hesitated to print a confidential document using CERN printers? Or perhaps you have rushed quickly to the printer after hitting the “print” button in order to avoid someone else getting hold of and reading your document? These times are over now with the new printing infrastructure!   Indeed, many of us regularly print out confidential documents like our salary slips, MARS forms, tendering documents and drafts of preliminary papers. The upcoming CERN data protection policy will require all of us to respect the confidentiality of such documents and, as the word “confidential” implies, access to “confidential” or sensitive documents will be tightly controlled. What can we do about the public printers located in many buildings, floors and shared spaces - accessible not only to CERN staff and users but also to visitors and guests? Some printers are located in the vicinity of restaurants, cafeterias or close to paths taken b...

  6. Men as victims: "victim" identities, gay identities, and masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they thought they had resolved. Being victimized can reinvoke shame that is rooted in failure or unwillingness to uphold masculine norms. For some gay men, victimization therefore has connotations of nonmasculinity that make being a victim an undesirable status, yet that status must be claimed to obtain a response from criminal justice or victim services. Men who experience homophobic abuse are helped by accepting a victim identity, but only if they can quickly move on from it by reconstructing a masculine gay (nonvictim) identity. This process can be facilitated by agencies such as the police and victim services, provided they help men exercise agency in "fighting back," that is, resisting further victimization and recovering.

  7. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  8. Understanding victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes how economic and non-economic characteristics at the individual, household, and community level affect the risk of victimization in Mozambique. We use a countrywide representative household survey from Mozambique with unique individual level information and show...... that the probability of being victimized is increasing in income, but at a diminishing rate. The effect of income is dependent on the type of crime, and poorer households are vulnerable. While less at risk of victimization, they suffer relatively greater losses when such shocks occur. Lower inequality and increased...... community level employment emerge as effective avenues to less crime...

  9. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  10. Ombuds’ corner: Confidentiality

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2011-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.    Jane* came to the Ombuds to share her concerns about the actions of Mike*, one of her senior colleague supervisors, and insisted on the absolute confidentiality. The Ombuds promised to keep the information confidential following the terms of his mandate. During the discussion it appeared that the whole group was affected by the situation, spending a lot of time discussing how to resolve the problem instead of focusing on their main responsibilities. The risks for the Organization seemed very high and could possibly endanger the safety of the operations.  On one side, the Ombuds believed that it was essential to bring this matter to the attention of senior managem...

  11. Confidentiality Protection of User Data and Adaptive Resource Allocation for Managing Multiple Workflow Performance in Service-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, two interrelated problems of service-based systems (SBS) are addressed: protecting users' data confidentiality from service providers, and managing performance of multiple workflows in SBS. Current SBSs pose serious limitations to protecting users' data confidentiality. Since users' sensitive data is sent in…

  12. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-09-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  13. Cyberstalking victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Vida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global social networks contributed to the creation of new, inconspicuous, technically perfect shape of criminality which is hard to suppress because of its intangible characteristics. The most common forms of virtual communications’ abuse are: cyberstalking and harassment, identity theft, online fraud, manipulation and misuse of personal information and personal photos, monitoring e-mail accounts and spamming, interception and recording of chat rooms. Cyberstalking is defined as persistent and targeted harassment of an individual by using electronic communication. The victim becomes insecure, frightened, intimidated and does not figure out the best reaction which will terminate the harassment. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance and necessity of studying cyberstalking and to point out its forms in order to find the best ways to prevent this negative social phenomenon. Basic topics that will be analyzed in this paper are the various definitions of cyberstalking, forms of cyberstalking, and the most important characteristics of victims and perpetators.

  14. Confidential Business Information under TSCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website informs businesses, policymakers, and the public about the confidential business information (CBI) provisions of § 14 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act.

  15. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... the handles for each pose. Using Laplacian editing, the deformable parts are deformed to match the handles. In our animation system the user can constrain one or several handles in order to define a new pose. New poses are interpolated from the examples poses, by solving a small non-linear optimization...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  16. The art of problem posing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    1990-01-01

    Updated and expanded, this second edition satisfies the same philosophical objective as the first -- to show the importance of problem posing. Although interest in mathematical problem solving increased during the past decade, problem posing remained relatively ignored. The Art of Problem Posing draws attention to this equally important act and is the innovator in the field. Special features include: * an exploration ofthe logical relationship between problem posing and problem solving * a special chapter devoted to teaching problem posing as a separate course * sketches, drawings, diagrams, and cartoons that illustrate the schemes proposed * a special section on writing in mathematics.

  17. Confidentiality and integrity in crowdsourcing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ranj Bar, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Confidentiality and Integrity in Crowdsourcing Systems focuses on identity, privacy, and security related issues in crowdsourcing systems and in particular the confidentiality and integrity of online data created via crowdsourcing. This book begins with an introduction to crowdsourcing and then covers the privacy and security challenges of Confidentiality. The book examines integrity in these systems and the management and control of crowdsourcing systems.

  18. Problem posing reflections and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the editors' collaborative teaching at Harvard in the late 1960s, they produced a ground-breaking work -- The Art Of Problem Posing -- which related problem posing strategies to the already popular activity of problem solving. It took the concept of problem posing and created strategies for engaging in that activity as a central theme in mathematics education. Based in part upon that work and also upon a number of articles by its authors, other members of the mathematics education community began to apply and expand upon their ideas. This collection of thirty readings is a tes

  19. Confidentiality and the employee assistance program professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, E F; Inlow, L B

    1991-02-01

    During the last two decades EAPs have offered employees confidential assessment, counseling, and referral. Many occupational health nurses have taken on the role of EAP professional or function as the liaison between the EAP counselor and the employee. The occupational health nurse involved in any EAP issue must adhere to the standards of confidentiality. The federal and state laws, company policy, and professional codes of ethics regarding these clients must be clearly understood, especially related to the issue of confidentiality.

  20. Confidentiality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jacobien

    essential to the professional ethics of med- ical practitioners. ... promise-keeping and utility (or welfare). Autonomy. Autonomous beings are those that are capable of controlling their own lives.They ... private medical information is lim- ited: the ...

  1. 7 CFR 1280.634 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality. 1280.634 Section 1280.634 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... persons voting in the referendum and ballots shall be confidential and the contents of the ballots shall...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.107 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 1206.107 Section 1206.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Referendum Procedures. § 1206.107 Confidential information. The ballots and other information or...

  3. 7 CFR 1150.278 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Confidential treatment. 1150.278 Section 1150.278 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... of Milk Producer Organizations § 1150.278 Confidential treatment. All documents and other information...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.352 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1207.352 Section 1207.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Reports, Books, and Records § 1207.352 Confidential treatment...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.340 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1205.340 Section 1205.340 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1205.340 Confidential treatment. All...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.243 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1220.243 Section 1220.243 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Confidential treatment. Except as otherwise provided in the Act, financial or commercial information that is...

  7. The Confidentiality of Interlibrary Loan Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher W.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses potential problems for confidentiality within interlibrary loan requests, outlines legal issues related to confidentiality, and proposes guidelines intended to protect library users' rights to privacy. Interlibrary loan documentation procedures are considered; laws and professional standards are reviewed; and the disposition of…

  8. 40 CFR 716.55 - Confidentiality claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... confidential business information, health and safety studies of any substance or mixture that has been offered for commercial distribution (including for test marketing purposes and for use in research and... because disclosure would reveal a confidential process or quantitative mixture composition should briefly...

  9. 15 CFR 806.5 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality. 806.5 Section 806.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.5 Confidentiality. Information...

  10. 31 CFR 9.6 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 9.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury EFFECTS OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 9.6 Confidential information. Information submitted in confidence which... marked “Business Confidential.” [40 FR 50717, Oct. 31, 1975] ...

  11. 15 CFR 705.6 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EFFECT OF IMPORTED ARTICLES ON THE NATIONAL SECURITY § 705.6 Confidential information. (a) Any... the investigation that would disclose national security classified information or business... Security Classified” or “Business Confidential,” as appropriate, marked at the top of each sheet. Any...

  12. A challenge to unqualified medical confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    Medical personnel sometimes face a seeming conflict between a duty to respect patient confidentiality and a duty to warn or protect endangered third parties. The conventional answer to dilemmas of this sort is that, in certain circumstances, medical professionals have an obligation to breach confidentiality. Kenneth Kipnis has argued, however, that the conventional wisdom on the nature of medical confidentiality is mistaken. Kipnis argues that the obligation to respect patient confidentiality is unqualified or absolute, since unqualified policies can save more lives in the long run. In this paper, I identify the form of Kipnis's argument and present a challenge to it. I conclude that, as matters stand now, a qualified confidentiality policy is the more rational choice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  14. Is supergravity well-posed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenberg, J.; Bao, D.; Yasskin, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    One rather fundamental question concerning supergravity remains unresolved: Is supergravity a well-posed field theory? That is, does a set of certain (Cauchy) data specified on some initial spacelike surface determine a unique, causally propagating spacetime solution of the supergravity field equations (at least in some finite neighborhood of the initial surface)? In this paper, the authors give a very brief report on work directed towards answering this question. (Auth.)

  15. Confidentiality in psychological practice: a decrepit concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M; Knowles, A D

    1995-11-01

    Although the principle of confidentiality in the relationship between psychologists and client has been vaunted, and is emphasised in the Australian Psychological Society's Code of Professional Conduct (the APS code; 1994), the confidentiality of this relationship is circumscribed by the absence of legal protections, the ethical beliefs of psychologists, institutional practices, and the provisions of the APS code itself. Lack of privilege in judicial proceedings, and statutory obligations to report certain types of behaviour, mandate breaches of confidentiality in some circumstances. Ethical beliefs of psychologists may support disclosure, especially where it is believed that there is danger of serious physical harm to the client or others. Multidisciplinary teams and institutional settings require the exchange of information for optimal delivery of services. Recent amendments to the APS code may require disclosure without the client's consent when a client is believed to be suicidal. Such developments, when considered at all, are typically regarded as exceptions to a general obligation of confidentiality. However, discussion of exceptions presupposes agreement on fundamental principle: the significance of, and rationale for, confidentiality in the psychologist-client relationship. It is argued in this paper that the obligation of confidentiality has been assumed rather than vigorously analysed and empirically explored. A critical examination of this obligation is the most appropriate starting point for the rehabilitation of contemporary principles of confidentiality in the psychologist-client relationship.

  16. Privacy and confidentiality measures in genetic testing and counselling: arguing on genetic exceptionalism again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Magdalena M; Witt, Michał P

    2016-11-01

    Medical confidentiality in clinical genetics poses an important question about its scope, which would be in line with professional ethics and simple honesty. It is already known that the maintenance of absolute anonymity, bearing in mind the current progress of genetic techniques, is virtually impossible. On the other hand, our insight into the information contained in the human genome is increasing. This mini-review presents the authors' standpoint regarding this complex and difficult issue.

  17. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  18. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  19. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  20. 7 CFR 1425.5 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.5 Confidentiality. Information submitted to CCC related to trade secrets, financial or commercial operations, or the financial...

  1. Law and ethics in conflict over confidentiality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2000-09-01

    Ethical principles that require the preservation of patients' confidential information are reinforced by principles found in several areas of law, such as law on contracts, negligence, defamation and fiduciary duty. However, laws sometimes compel disclosures of medical confidences, and more often may justify or excuse disclosures. Legally contentious issues concern patients' confidences regarding possible unlawful conduct, such as pregnancy termination, and the risk of spread of HIV and other infections. This article reviews the various legal bases of the duty of confidentiality, and legal challenges to the ethical obligation of non-disclosure. It addresses the justifications and limits of exchange of patients' health information among healthcare professionals and trainees, and considers legally recognized limits of confidential duties, and the scope of legitimate disclosure. An underlying theme is how to determine whether physicians are ethically justified in employing the discretion the law sometimes affords them to breach patients' expectations of confidentiality.

  2. Audit, Accountability and Confidential Enquiries into Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Time for Action: Audit, Accountability and Confidential Enquiries ... provision of quality maternity services. Having such a ... services are more likely to be sustained if women can find ..... Donabedian A. An introduction to quality assurance in.

  3. 40 CFR 790.7 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... words “confidential business information,” “trade secret,” or another appropriate phrase indicating its... competitor use such information? How substantial would the harmful effects be? What is the causal...

  4. High school students' experiences of bullying and victimization and the association with school health center use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D

    2015-05-01

    Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of school-based bullying and victimization and their use of SHCs. Data was analyzed from 2063 high school students in 5 Northern California school districts using the 2009-2010 California Healthy Kids Survey. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to measure associations. Students who were bullied or victimized at school had significantly higher odds of using the SHCs compared with students who were not, and were also significantly more likely to report confidentiality concerns. The magnitude of associations was largest for Asian/Pacific Islander students, though this was likely due to greater statistical power. African American students reported victimization experiences at approximately the same rate as their peers, but were significantly less likely to indicate they experienced bullying. Findings suggest that SHCs may be an important place to address bullying and victimization at school, but confidentiality concerns are barriers that may be more common among bullied and victimized youth. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  5. Cyber-Victimized Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn N. Ryan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a common topic in the media and academic settings. Teachers are regularly expected to provide curriculum and intervene regarding all forms of bullying, including cyber-bullying. Altering the behaviors of those who bully is often the focus of interventions, with less attention being placed on victim impact. The purpose of this article was to provide educators with a review of evidence regarding the occurrence, impact, and interventions for victims of cyber-bullying. Evidence reveals that cyber-bullying can have emotional, social, and academic impacts but that there are very few documented, and even fewer evidence-based, programs for victims of cyber-bullying. We conclude by proposing that school-wide programs and support be developed and provided to victims.

  6. Victim-induced criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-02

    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  7. Statistical Model-Based Face Pose Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua

    2007-01-01

    A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  8. Confidential benchmarking based on multiparty computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Damgård, Kasper Lyneborg; Nielsen, Kurt

    We report on the design and implementation of a system that uses multiparty computation to enable banks to benchmark their customers' confidential performance data against a large representative set of confidential performance data from a consultancy house. The system ensures that both the banks......' and the consultancy house's data stays confidential, the banks as clients learn nothing but the computed benchmarking score. In the concrete business application, the developed prototype help Danish banks to find the most efficient customers among a large and challenging group of agricultural customers with too much...... debt. We propose a model based on linear programming for doing the benchmarking and implement it using the SPDZ protocol by Damgård et al., which we modify using a new idea that allows clients to supply data and get output without having to participate in the preprocessing phase and without keeping...

  9. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early......The present study set out to investigate predictors of first time adolescent peer-on-peer sexual victimization (APSV) among 238 female Grade 9 students from 30 schools in Denmark. A prospective research design was utilized to examine the relationship among five potential predictors as measured...... sexual onset and failing to signal sexual boundaries did not. The present study identifies specific risk factors for first time sexual victimization that are potentially changeable. Thus, the results may inform prevention initiatives targeting initial experiences of APSV....

  10. Victimization and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.

  11. 7 CFR 1210.607 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 1210.607 Section 1210.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... contents and all other information or reports furnished to, compiled by, or in possession of, the...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.352 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1210.352 Section 1210.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... treatment. (a) All information obtained from the books, records, or reports required to be maintained under...

  13. ML Confidential : machine learning on encrypted data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graepel, T.; Lauter, K.; Naehrig, M.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that by using a recently proposed somewhat homomorphic encryption (SHE) scheme it is possible to delegate the execution of a machine learning (ML) algorithm to a compute service while retaining confidentiality of the training and test data. Since the computational complexity of the

  14. 7 CFR 1150.173 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reports of the number of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Confidential treatment. 1150.173 Section 1150.173 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.127 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statistical data collected there from, which statements do not identify the information furnished by any... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1221.127 Section 1221.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  16. 7 CFR 1160.403 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statistical data collected from such sources, which statements do not identify the information furnished by... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Confidential treatment. 1160.403 Section 1160.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  17. 7 CFR 1250.354 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subject to this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1250.354 Section 1250.354 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  18. 7 CFR 1212.72 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statements based upon the reports of the number of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1212.72 Section 1212.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.203 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1260.203 Section 1260.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the information... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1216.62 Section 1216.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  1. 7 CFR 1209.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the information... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1209.62 Section 1209.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statements based upon the reports of the number of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1206.62 Section 1206.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  3. 7 CFR 1218.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the number of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data collected therefrom, which... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1218.62 Section 1218.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  4. 7 CFR 1215.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... persons subject to this part or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1215.62 Section 1215.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.63 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... upon the reports of the number of persons subject to this subpart or statistical data collected from... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1219.63 Section 1219.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  6. 7 CFR 1280.227 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the information furnished by any person... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality. 1280.227 Section 1280.227 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  7. 18 CFR 270.506 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality. 270.506 Section 270.506 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION...) through (9) of 5 U.S.C. 552(b). (b) Upon receipt of a request for disclosure of information treated as...

  8. 21 CFR 821.55 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... permission to release, the patient's name, address, telephone number, and social security number, or other... MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS Records and Inspections § 821.55 Confidentiality. (a) Any patient... identify patient or research subjects shall not be available for public disclosure except as provided in...

  9. 7 CFR 900.309 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conduct of Referenda To Determine Producer Approval of Milk Marketing Orders To Be Made Effective Pursuant to Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as Amended § 900.309 Confidential information. The... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  10. 7 CFR 984.79 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 984.79 Section 984.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... or disclosing the trade position, or financial condition or business operations of the handler shall...

  11. 7 CFR 993.71 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 993.71 Section 993.71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... information constituting a trade secret or disclosing of the trade position, financial condition, or business...

  12. 7 CFR 932.63 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 932.63 Section 932.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... from such reports and records which might affect the trade position, financial condition, or business...

  13. 7 CFR 929.65 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 929.65 Section 929.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... position, financial condition, or business operations of the particular handler from whom received, shall...

  14. 7 CFR 982.70 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 982.70 Section 982.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... trade secret or disclosing of the trade position, financial condition, or business operations of the...

  15. 7 CFR 930.73 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 930.73 Section 930.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... a trade secret or disclosing trade position, financial condition, or business operations of the...

  16. Confidentiality of Accounting Academics: Consequences of Nonconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, Emmanuel B.; Boateng, Peter Agyekum; Onuoha, Luke N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined ways by which nonconformity to confidentiality among accounting academics could lead to increased-recruitment-and-legal-costs to their employing universities in Ghana that offered accounting degree programmes. With a cross-sectional design, data collected from 1,225 accountants analysed via Cronbach's alpha,…

  17. 7 CFR 983.65 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 983.65 Section 983.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... the particular handler or their customers shall be received by, and at all times kept in the custody...

  18. 7 CFR 996.72 - Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential information. 996.72 Section 996.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... condition, or business operations of the particular handlers or their customers shall be received by, and at...

  19. 31 CFR 129.5 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality. 129.5 Section 129.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT SURVEY... contain data aggregated in such a way that neither the person supplying the information nor the investor...

  20. 40 CFR 710.58 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Any person submitting information under this subpart may assert a business confidentiality claim for... with reporting under this subpart? How could a competitor use such information? Would the effects of... that your competitors do not know it is being manufactured or imported for a commercial purpose by...

  1. 40 CFR 710.38 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... submitting information under this part may assert a business confidentiality claim for the information. The... with reporting under this part? How could a competitor use such information? Would the effects of... that your competitors do not know it is being manufactured or imported for a commercial purpose by...

  2. 38 CFR 1.462 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.462 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which §§ 1..., infection with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia may be acknowledged only if the patient's written consent is... with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia. (2) Any answer to a request for a disclosure of patient records...

  3. 42 CFR 93.108 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality. 93.108 Section 93.108 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  4. Between "Victims" and "Criminals"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the lives of Nigerian sex workers after deportation from Europe, as well as the institutions that intervene in their migration trajectories. In Europe, some of these women's situations fit the legal definitions of trafficking, and they were categorized as “victims of human...... trafficking”; others were categorized as undocumented migrants—“criminals” guilty of violating immigration laws. Despite the growing political attention devoted to protecting victims of trafficking, I argue that in areas of Nigeria prone to economic insecurity and gender-based violence, the categories...

  5. Perpetrator or victim?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... and identifies a legally informed matrix, which points out unequivocal positions of perpetrators and victims. The policy document mixes the definition practices, which derive from the Olweus tradition on bullying research, into a law informed kind of discourse. Subsequently the policy document iterates...

  6. 22 CFR 130.15 - Confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., confidential business information means commercial or financial information which by law is entitled to... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidential business information. 130.15... CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.15 Confidential business information. (a) Any person who is required...

  7. 15 CFR 718.3 - Disclosure of confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of confidential business... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION § 718.3 Disclosure of confidential business information. (a) General...

  8. Attracting Assault: Victims' Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Betty; Stein, Morris I.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study in which prison inmates convicted of assault identified potential victims from videotapes. A lab analysis code was used to determine which nonverbal body movement categories differentiated victims and nonvictims. (JMF)

  9. Pengenalan Pose Tangan Menggunakan HuMoment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Budhi Utami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision yang didasarkan pada pengenalan bentuk memiliki banyak potensi dalam interaksi manusia dan komputer. Pose tangan dapat dijadikan simbol interaksi manusia dengan komputer seperti halnya pada penggunaan berbagai pose tangan pada bahasa isyarat. Berbagai pose tangan dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan fungsi mouse, untuk mengendalikan robot, dan sebagainya. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada pembangunan sistem pengenalan pose tangan menggunakan HuMoment. Proses pengenalan pose tangan dimulai dengan melakukan segmentasi citra masukan untuk menghasilkan citra ROI (Region of Interest yaitu area telapak tangan. Selanjutnya dilakukan proses deteksi tepi. Kemudian dilakukan ekstraksi nilai HuMoment. Nilai HuMoment dikuantisasikan ke dalam bukukode yang dihasilkan dari proses pelatihan menggunakan K-Means. Proses kuantisasi dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai Euclidean Distance terkecil antara nilai HuMomment citra masukan dan bukukode. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, nilai akurasi sistem dalam mengenali pose tangan adalah 88.57%.

  10. Victims and Heroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Christian K.

    2010-01-01

    Victimization, autochthony and citizenship, power and nation-building constitute recurrent, interrelated themes in post-war Manding historical memory in the border area between Liberia and Guinea. While the perceived history of the Manding diverges from academic, historical knowledge as well...

  11. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  12. Safeguarding Confidentiality in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Akhil; Appel, Jacob M

    2017-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) offer significant advantages over paper charts, such as ease of portability, facilitated communication, and a decreased risk of medical errors; however, important ethical concerns related to patient confidentiality remain. Although legal protections have been implemented, in practice, EHRs may be still prone to breaches that threaten patient privacy. Potential safeguards are essential, and have been implemented especially in sensitive areas such as mental illness, substance abuse, and sexual health. Features of one institutional model are described that may illustrate the efforts to both ensure adequate transparency and ensure patient confidentiality. Trust and the therapeutic alliance are critical to the provider-patient relationship and quality healthcare services. All of the benefits of an EHR are only possible if patients retain confidence in the security and accuracy of their medical records.

  13. Immigrants as crime victims: Experiences of personal nonfatal victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Krista; Zhao, Weiyan; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2010-04-01

    Immigrants to the United States are disproportionately victims of homicide mortality in and outside the workplace. Examining their experiences with nonfatal victimization may be helpful in understanding immigrant vulnerability to violence. We compared the annual prevalence of nonfatal personal victimization experienced by immigrant and US-born adults by sociodemographics, employment, occupation, industry, smoking, alcohol and drug use using data from Wave 1 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults [3.84% (95% CI: 3.18-4.63) vs. 4.10% (95% CI: 3.77-4.44)]. Lower percentages of victimization experienced by immigrants were seen among the unmarried, those age 30-44 years, and among residents of central city areas as compared to those groups among the US-born. For immigrants entering the US as youth, the victimization prevalence declines with greater years of residency in US. Multivariate logistic regression models suggest that, the odds of victimization was significantly associated with age, family income, marital status, central city residency, smoking, and drug use while employment status was not a significant factor. Immigrant workers with farming/forestry occupations might face a higher risk of being victims of violence than their US-born counterparts. The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults. Employment status and industry/occupation overall were not significant risk factors for becoming victims of violence. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Improved Message Authentication and Confidentiality Checking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim, M.; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The most confusing areas of the secured network communications are the message authentication and confidentiality checking. The attacks and the counter measures have become so convoluted that the users in this area begin to account for all contingencies. Two session-key generation techniques are used here to generate two separate session keys K 1 and K 2 ; and both the sender and the reveiver share these keys for higher degree of authentication and confidentiality. For this, the message is first encrypted by the key K 1 , and then the intermediary message authenticatin code (MAC) is generated by encrypting the encrypted message using the key K 2 . Then, the encrypted message and the intermediary MAC is again encrypted by using the K 2 and concatenated with the encrypted message and sent to the destination. At the receiving end, first, the received ciphertext is encrypted by using key K 2 and compared to the received MAC. The received ciphertext again is decrypted by the key K 2 and compared with the first decrypted MAC twice by the key K 2 . The plaintext is obtained by decrypting the received ciphertext first by K 2 and then by K 1 , using the corresponding decryption techniques respectively. The encryption techniques with key K 2 provides the authentication and with key K 1 provides the confidentiality checking of the transmitted message. The developed technique can be applied to both academic and commercial applications in online or offline electronic transactions for security.(authors)

  15. Practical State Machine Replication with Confidentiality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Sisi [ORNL; Zhang, Haibin [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

    2016-01-01

    We study how to enable arbitrary randomized algorithms in Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) settings. We formalize a randomized BFT protocol and provide a simple and efficient construction that can be built on any existing BFT protocols while adding practically no overhead. We go one step further to revisit a confidential BFT protocol (Yin et al., SOSP '03). We show that their scheme is potentially susceptible to safety and confidentiality attacks. We then present a new protocol that is secure in the stronger model we formalize, by extending the idea of a randomized BFT protocol. Our protocol uses only efficient symmetric cryptography, while Yin et al.'s uses costly threshold signatures. We implemented and evaluated our protocols on microbenchmarks and real-world use cases. We show that our randomized BFT protocol is as efficient as conventional BFT protocols, and our confidential BFT protocol is two to three orders of magnitude faster than Yin et al.'s, which is less secure than ours.

  16. Access control and confidentiality in radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumeir, Rita; Chafik, Adil

    2005-04-01

    A medical record contains a large amount of data about the patient such as height, weight and blood pressure. It also contains sensitive information such as fertility, abortion, psychiatric data, sexually transmitted diseases and diagnostic results. Access to this information must be carefully controlled. Information technology has greatly improved patient care. The recent extensive deployment of digital medical images made diagnostic images promptly available to healthcare decision makers, regardless of their geographic location. Medical images are digitally archived, transferred on telecommunication networks, and visualized on computer screens. However, with the widespread use of computing and communication technologies in healthcare, the issue of data security has become increasingly important. Most of the work until now has focused on the security of data communication to ensure its integrity, authentication, confidentiality and user accountability. The mechanisms that have been proposed to achieve the security of data communication are not specific to healthcare. Data integrity can be achieved with data signature. Data authentication can be achieved with certificate exchange. Data confidentiality can be achieved with encryption. User accountability can be achieved with audits. Although these mechanisms are essential to ensure data security during its transfer on the network, access control is needed in order to ensure data confidentiality and privacy within the information system application. In this paper, we present and discuss an access control mechanism that takes into account the notion of a care process. Radiology information is categorized and a model to enforce data privacy is proposed.

  17. Manifolds for pose tracking from monocular video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saurav; Poulin, Joshua; Acton, Scott T.

    2015-03-01

    We formulate a simple human-pose tracking theory from monocular video based on the fundamental relationship between changes in pose and image motion vectors. We investigate the natural embedding of the low-dimensional body pose space into a high-dimensional space of body configurations that behaves locally in a linear manner. The embedded manifold facilitates the decomposition of the image motion vectors into basis motion vector fields of the tangent space to the manifold. This approach benefits from the style invariance of image motion flow vectors, and experiments to validate the fundamental theory show reasonable accuracy (within 4.9 deg of the ground truth).

  18. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...... adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze differences in self-reported health outcomes between male and female victims and corresponding controls. Gender differences are found in the reported prevalence of sexual victimization. Significantly more females than males reported forced sexual...... experiences in both samples. Associations between sexual victimization and poor health outcomes are found for both genders. Comparable patterns of association for men and women are found on a number of variables, particularly those pertaining to risk behavior....

  19. Students’ Creativity: Problem Posing in Structured Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalina, I. K.; Amirudin, M.; Budiarto, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    This is a qualitative research concerning on students’ creativity on problem posing task. The study aimed at describing the students’ creative thinking ability to pose the mathematics problem in structured situations with varied condition of given problems. In order to find out the students’ creative thinking ability, an analysis of mathematics problem posing test based on fluency, novelty, and flexibility and interview was applied for categorizing students’ responses on that task. The data analysis used the quality of problem posing and categorized in 4 level of creativity. The results revealed from 29 secondary students grade 8, a student in CTL (Creative Thinking Level) 1 met the fluency. A student in CTL 2 met the novelty, while a student in CTL 3 met both fluency and novelty and no one in CTL 4. These results are affected by students’ mathematical experience. The findings of this study highlight that student’s problem posing creativity are dependent on their experience in mathematics learning and from the point of view of which students start to pose problem.

  20. 13 CFR 120.1060 - Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other than SBA's Lender oversight and SBA's portfolio management purposes. An SBA Lender, Intermediary... conjunction with SBA's Lender Oversight Program and SBA's portfolio management (for purposes of this... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of Reports, Risk...

  1. Exemplar-based human action pose correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Deng, Ke; Bai, Xiang; Leyvand, Tommer; Guo, Baining; Tu, Zhuowen

    2014-07-01

    The launch of Xbox Kinect has built a very successful computer vision product and made a big impact on the gaming industry. This sheds lights onto a wide variety of potential applications related to action recognition. The accurate estimation of human poses from the depth image is universally a critical step. However, existing pose estimation systems exhibit failures when facing severe occlusion. In this paper, we propose an exemplar-based method to learn to correct the initially estimated poses. We learn an inhomogeneous systematic bias by leveraging the exemplar information within a specific human action domain. Furthermore, as an extension, we learn a conditional model by incorporation of pose tags to further increase the accuracy of pose correction. In the experiments, significant improvements on both joint-based skeleton correction and tag prediction are observed over the contemporary approaches, including what is delivered by the current Kinect system. Our experiments for the facial landmark correction also illustrate that our algorithm can improve the accuracy of other detection/estimation systems.

  2. Privacy, confidentiality and automated health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, H

    1977-12-01

    Professor Vuori's paper, first presented at the fourth Medico-legal Conference in Prague in the spring of this year, deals with the problem of the maintenance of confidentiality in computerized health records. Although more and more information is required, the hardware of the computer systems is so sophisticated that it would be very expensive indeed to 'break in' and steal from a modern data bank. Those concerned with programming computers are becoming more aware of their responsibilities concerning confidentiality and privacy, to the extent that a legal code of ethics for programmers is being formulated. They are also aware that the most sensitive of all relationships--the doctor-patient relationship--could be in danger if they failed to maintain high standards of integrity. An area of danger is where administrative boundaries between systems must be crossed--say between those of health and employment. Protection of privacy must be ensured by releasing full information about the type of data being stored, and by maintaining democratic control over the establishment of information systems.

  3. Ombuds’ corner: Open door and confidentiality

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    For the Open Days, CERN will be transparent for all visitors. It's also the occasion to remember that the Ombuds' door is fully open every day of the year for all persons working for or on behalf of CERN.   The door is open, but as soon as it's closed for a discussion, the office becomes a place where total confidentiality is preserved. This may appear as a contradiction, no? The Ombuds is available to help everyone in all circumstances, but his clause of confidentiality prevents him from acting without the consent of his “visitors”. How can he possibly resolve the in-house conflicts in groups, or units, if all the parties do not voluntarily participate in its resolution? The answer is clear: the job of the Ombuds is to help the parties resolve their conflict by themselves. He will provide a few rules of communication, a process of mutual respect, suggest some possibilities that the parties may want to follow, and mediate the dispute so that people...

  4. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be sent to...

  5. Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Confidential Declaration of Family Situation (CDFS) becomes a new computerized EDH form from October 2005 In accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, Staff Members and Fellows, married or separated, must notify any changes in their spouse's income or health insurance cover in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change. This is necessary for the Organization to determine if a supplementary contribution is payable to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) for the spouse's coverage and, if so, the amount. Until now a paper form called « Confidential Declaration of Family Situation » (CDFS) was used for that purpose.  From early October 2005 the CDFS will be computerized for the whole Organization. Henceforth, any changes in a spouse's income or health insurance cover must be notified using EDH (Electronic Document Handling). Additionally, annual updates of the declaration will be required and will be requested by automatic e-mail. Early October an email will be...

  6. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Marie Søndergaard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article centres on some of the dilemmas contained within victim positioning. Such dilemmas are often overlooked by the authorities involved with people subjected to relational aggression. 2 For example, when teachers rule out cases of bullying because the victim has 'participated in' or 'laughed at' some of the bullies' initiatives, or when a rape victim's status as a victim is questioned because, in the lead up to the assault, she was supposedly friendly to the rapist. In these cases, it could be useful to explore the reason for the bullying victim's apparent collusion or to better understand the premises for the rape victim's positioning options in relation to the perpetrator. In other words, it could be fruitful to explore the dynamics and dilemmas of the victim position. In this article, I aim to reflect on the motivational conditions of the victim phenomenon. These reflections are based on an analysis of qualitative data produced through interviews with school children as well as on relevant secondary literature.

  7. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  8. An improved silhouette for human pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Anthony H.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel method for analyzing images that exploits the natural lines of a human poses to find areas where self-occlusion could be present. Errors caused by self-occlusion cause several modern human pose estimation methods to mis-identify body parts, which reduces the performance of most action recognition algorithms. Our method is motivated by the observation that, in several cases, occlusion can be reasoned using only boundary lines of limbs. An intelligent edge detection algorithm based on the above principle could be used to augment the silhouette with information useful for pose estimation algorithms and push forward progress on occlusion handling for human action recognition. The algorithm described is applicable to computer vision scenarios involving 2D images and (appropriated flattened) 3D images.

  9. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to 'Power Poses'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Lantos, Dorottya; Bowden, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of 'power poses,' which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010). The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to 'high power' and 'low power' poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body ( n = 19), two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body ( n = 22), two expansive, high power poses ( n = 21), or two constrictive, low power poses ( n = 20) for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to 'power poses' increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses' association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.

  10. Non-standard and improperly posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian; Ames, William F

    1997-01-01

    Written by two international experts in the field, this book is the first unified survey of the advances made in the last 15 years on key non-standard and improperly posed problems for partial differential equations.This reference for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers provides an overview of the methodology typically used to study improperly posed problems. It focuses on structural stability--the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions and the modeling equations--and on problems for which data are only prescribed on part of the boundary.The book addresses continuou

  11. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces with Two Flat Poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Stachel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of polyhedral surfaces, which are continuously flexible and have not only an initial pose, where all faces are coplanar, but pass during their self-motion through another pose with coplanar faces (“flat pose”. These surfaces are examples of so-called rigid origami, since we only admit exact flexions, i.e., each face remains rigid during the motion; only the dihedral angles vary. We analyze the geometry behind Miura-ori and address Kokotsakis’ example of a flexible tessellation with the particular case of a cyclic quadrangle. Finally, we recall Bricard’s octahedra of Type 3 and their relation to strophoids.

  12. The nucleolus is well-posed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragnelli, Vito; Patrone, Fioravante; Torre, Anna

    2006-02-01

    The lexicographic order is not representable by a real-valued function, contrary to many other orders or preorders. So, standard tools and results for well-posed minimum problems cannot be used. We prove that under suitable hypotheses it is however possible to guarantee the well-posedness of a lexicographic minimum over a compact or convex set. This result allows us to prove that some game theoretical solution concepts, based on lexicographic order are well-posed: in particular, this is true for the nucleolus.

  13. Cyberbullying victimization in adolescents’ population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of communication technology and its wide use by the adolescents, cyberspace became a new risky environment for bullying manifestation and victimization. The significance of the problem lies in the fact that, unlike the traditional bullying, the cyberbullying victimization occurs also out of the school surroundings, it’s characterized by the possible anonymity of the bully, it’s harder to discover it and it could have a much bigger audience. Results of numerous studies show that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization is 10% to 40% during one school year and that it is related to different negative outcomes - from problems of lower self-esteem to severe psychological and behavioral problems. The aim of the paper is to present basic characteristics and negative outcomes of cyberbullying victimization and also to summarize possible factors which are associated with this form of bullying. Lastly, possible ways of preventive action and coping with cyberbullying victimization will be reviewed.

  14. 12 CFR 563g.13 - Public disclosure and confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure and confidential treatment. 563g.13 Section 563g.13 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.13 Public disclosure and confidential treatment. (a) Any offering circular...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.540 - Confidential books, records, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential books, records, and reports. 1205.540 Section 1205.540 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Confidential books, records, and reports. All information obtained from the books, records, and reports of...

  16. 19 CFR 210.5 - Confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidential business information. 210.5 Section 210.5 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Rules of General Applicability § 210.5 Confidential...

  17. Client confidentiality: Perspectives of students in a healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This moral dilemma is difficult for students to circumvent and therefore this paper presents healthcare students' perspectives of confidentiality. Methods. We aimed to explore healthcare students' views and experiences of confidentiality as an ethical principle by adopting a qualitative explorative approach. Purposeful ...

  18. Library Records: A Review of Confidentiality Laws and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Angela C.; Fisher, Kim N.

    1986-01-01

    Cites the importance of having a state law, knowing what it says, and having a library policy statement regarding the confidentiality of patron records. Discussion covers writing and implementing a policy, the role of automation, existing laws, library records defined, exceptions to confidentiality, and legal liability. Thirty-seven references are…

  19. 29 CFR 4010.13 - Confidentiality of information submitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.13 Confidentiality of information submitted. In accordance with § 4901.21(a)(3) of this chapter and ERISA section... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality of information submitted. 4010.13 Section...

  20. 20 CFR 726.113 - Disclosure of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.113 Disclosure of confidential... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of confidential information. 726... authorized self-insurer or applicant for the authorization of self-insurance obtained by the Office shall be...

  1. 15 CFR 718.2 - Identification of confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business information. 718.2 Section 718.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION 718.2 Identification of confidential business...

  2. 19 CFR 181.121 - Maintenance of confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 181.121 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Confidentiality of Business... possession of confidential business information collected pursuant to this part shall, in accordance with...

  3. 75 FR 75586 - Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...] RIN 1550-AC26 Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports AGENCY: The Office of Thrift Supervision... implementing the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) governing the confidentiality of a suspicious activity report (SAR) to... corporations regulated by the OTS, to keep certain records and make certain reports that have been determined...

  4. Confidentiality: From the Stacks to the Witness Stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janis M.; Smith, G. Guy

    1988-01-01

    A library director describes her experience of safeguarding the confidentiality of the circulation records of a woman who went on a shooting rampage at a shopping mall. The lawyer who represented the library discusses the legal responsibility of public and school libraries concerning confidentiality. (CLB)

  5. 50 CFR 600.130 - Protection of confidentiality of statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statistics. 600.130 Section 600.130 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Fishery Management Councils § 600.130 Protection of confidentiality of statistics. Each Council must establish appropriate procedures for ensuring the confidentiality of the statistics that may be submitted to...

  6. 42 CFR 35.11 - Clinical records; confidential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.11 Clinical records; confidential. A complete clinical record shall be maintained for each patient admitted to a station or hospital of the Service. Such... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical records; confidential. 35.11 Section 35.11...

  7. Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, José N.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

  8. Head Pose Estimation from Passive Stereo Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenstein, Michael D.; Jensen, Jeppe; Høilund, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    function. Our algorithm incorporates 2D and 3D cues to make the system robust to low-quality range images acquired by passive stereo systems. It handles large pose variations (of ±90 ° yaw and ±45 ° pitch rotation) and facial variations due to expressions or accessories. For a maximally allowed error of 30...

  9. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  10. Victims of cyberstalking in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research findings on prevalence and characteristics of cyberstalking in Serbia. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from a group of respondents who were recruited by snowball sampling via e-mail. A total of 237 respondents completed the online questionnaire. The aim of the first part of this paper is to determine the notion of cyberstalking as well as, to review research about the prevalence and the nature of stalking. The main results are the following: 39,6 % of respondents reported stalking; every fourth stalking victim is a victims of cyberstalking; mostly, cyberstalking victims were female and perpetrators were male. Victims were stalked by: persistent sending of unwanted e-mails and telephone calls, spreading rumors, abusive and negative comments and threats, encouraged other users to harass, threaten or insult, manipulating with victim's personal data, sending malicious programs and files, etc. In Serbia, cyberstalking is not criminalized yet and there are no organizations to whom victims may appeal and ask for help. We are hoping that this research will raise the awareness on cyberstalking and serve as a base for further research and legal reforms regarding cyberstalking victimization in Serbia.

  11. Do Hospitals Support Second Victims? Collective Insights From Patient Safety Leaders in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Hanan H; Morlock, Laura; Wu, Albert W

    2017-09-01

    Second victims-defined as health care providers who are emotionally traumatized after a patient adverse event-may not receive needed emotional support. Although most health care organizations have an employee assistance program (EAP), second victims may be reluctant to access this service because of worries about confidentiality. A study was conducted to describe the extent to which organizational support for second victims is perceived as desirable by patient safety officers in acute care hospitals in Maryland and to identify existing support programs. Semistructured interviews (using existing and newly developed questions) were conducted with 43 patient safety representatives from 38 of the 46 acute care hospitals in Maryland (83% response rate). All but one of the responding hospitals offered EAP services to their employees, but there were gaps in the services provided related to timeliness, EAP staff's ability to relate to clinical providers, and physical accessibility. There were no valid measures in place to assess the effectiveness of EAP services. Participants identified a need for peer support, both for the second victim and potentially for individuals who provide that support. Six (16%) of the 38 hospitals had second victim support programs, which varied in structure, accessibility, and outcomes, while an additional 5 hospitals (13%) were developing such a program. Patient safety officers thought their organizations should reevaluate the support currently provided by their EAPs, and consider additional peer support mechanisms. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Tridimensional pose estimation of a person head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Berenguer, Elisa; Soria, Carlos; Nasisi, Oscar; Mut, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a method for estimating 3-D motion parameters; this method provides an alternative way for 3D head pose estimation from image sequence in the current computer vision literature. This method is robust over extended sequences and large head motions and accurately extracts the orientation angles of head from a single view. Experimental results show that this tracking system works well for development a human-computer interface for people that possess severe motor incapacity

  14. Driver head pose tracking with thermal camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, S.; Fournier, C.; Lavergne, C.; Druart, G.; Lépine, T.

    2016-09-01

    Head pose can be seen as a coarse estimation of gaze direction. In automotive industry, knowledge about gaze direction could optimize Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Pose estimation systems are often based on camera when applications have to be contactless. In this paper, we explore uncooled thermal imagery (8-14μm) for its intrinsic night vision capabilities and for its invariance versus lighting variations. Two methods are implemented and compared, both are aided by a 3D model of the head. The 3D model, mapped with thermal texture, allows to synthesize a base of 2D projected models, differently oriented and labeled in yaw and pitch. The first method is based on keypoints. Keypoints of models are matched with those of the query image. These sets of matchings, aided with the 3D shape of the model, allow to estimate 3D pose. The second method is a global appearance approach. Among all 2D models of the base, algorithm searches the one which is the closest to the query image thanks to a weighted least squares difference.

  15. Physician Knowledge and Attitudes around Confidential Care for Minor Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Ahmed, Sana; Reed, Barbara D; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2015-08-01

    Minor adolescent patients have a legal right to access certain medical services confidentially without parental consent or notification. We sought to assess physicians' knowledge of these laws, attitudes around the provision of confidential care to minors, and barriers to providing confidential care. An anonymous online survey was sent to physicians in the Departments of Family Medicine, Internal Medicine-Pediatrics, Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Pediatrics at the University of Michigan. Response rate was 40% (259/650). The majority of physicians felt comfortable addressing sexual health, mental health, and substance use with adolescent patients. On average, physicians answered just over half of the legal knowledge questions correctly (mean 56.6% ± 16.7%). The majority of physicians approved of laws allowing minors to consent for confidential care (90.8% ± 1.7% approval), while substantially fewer (45.1% ± 4.5%) approved of laws allowing parental notification of this care at the physician's discretion. Most physicians agreed that assured access to confidential care should be a right for adolescents. After taking the survey most physicians (76.6%) felt they needed additional training on confidentiality laws. The provision of confidential care to minors was perceived to be most inhibited by insurance issues, parental concerns/relationships with the family, and issues with the electronic medical record. Physicians are comfortable discussing sensitive issues with adolescents and generally approve of minor consent laws, but lack knowledge about what services a minor can access confidentially. Further research is needed to assess best methods to educate physicians about minors' legal rights to confidential healthcare services. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  17. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in Environmental Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2010-01-01

    Environmental health researchers often need to make difficult decisions on how to protect privacy and confidentiality when they conduct research in the home or workplace. These dilemmas are different from those normally encountered in clinical research. Although protecting privacy and confidentiality is one of the most important principles of research involving human subjects, it can be overridden to prevent imminent harm to individuals or if required by law. Investigators should carefully consider the facts and circumstances and use good judgment when deciding whether to breach privacy or confidentiality.

  18. Victimization Experiences and the Stabilization of Victim Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eGollwitzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, victim sensitivity predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively - especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the Sensitivity to Mean Intentions (SeMI model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (ontogenetic stabilization and across social situations (actual-genetic stabilization. Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions. Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity.

  19. Ethics in health care: confidentiality and information technologies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information could result in confidential patient data falling ... Before the advent of the new communication and information technologies (NCITs), patient care was sometimes delayed .... computer system intended to be used and the security.

  20. Novel approach to information security management of confidential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Novel approach to information security management of confidential and propriety information ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... valuable information by using steganography it can have a major impact security management.

  1. Privacy Perspectives for Online Searchers: Confidentiality with Confidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberman, Josh; Beaudet, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Presents issues and questions involved in online privacy from the information professional's perspective. Topics include consumer concerns; query confidentiality; securing computers from intrusion; electronic mail; search engines; patents and intellectual property searches; government's role; Internet service providers; database mining; user…

  2. 7 CFR 983.9 - Confidential data or information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential data or information. 983.9 Section 983.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... customers. ...

  3. 40 CFR 86.615-84 - Treatment of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Selective Enforcement Auditing of New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86... part 2, subpart B. (b) Any claim of confidentiality must accompany the information at the time it is...

  4. Building Trust and Confidentiality in Cloud computing Distributed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    new technology, this new way of doing business brings with it new challenges, ... In this paper, we looked at data security, described the current state of data ... has the potential to solve many threats concerning confidentiality and adoption of

  5. Confidentiality, disclosure and doping in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, M; Phillips, N

    2011-03-01

    The manner in which healthcare and medical professionals serve their athlete patients is governed by a variety of relevant codes of conduct. A range of codified rules is presented that refer both the welfare of the patient and the maintaining of confidentiality, which is at the heart of trustworthy relations. The 2009 version of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC), however, appears to oblige all healthcare professionals not to assist athletes if they are known to be engaged in doping behaviours under fear of removal from working with athletes from the respective sports. In contrast, serving the best interests of their athlete patients may oblige healthcare professionals to give advice and guidance, not least in terms of harm minimisation. In so far as the professional conduct of a healthcare professional is guided both by professional code and World Anti-Doping Code, they are obliged to fall foul of one or the other. We call for urgent and pressing inter-professional dialogue with the World Anti-Doping Agency to clarify this situation.

  6. WTO confidential: the case of asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO), established in 1995, adjudicates "trade disputes" between member nations in cases with human rights, cultural, environmental, and public health significance. Throughout the resolution process and even after a case's conclusion, little of what happens is made accessible to the public. However, it is one thing to criticize the WTO for its lack of transparency from outside the process and another to critically examine what was withheld from disclosure and what dangers that presents. This is the inside story from a scientific adviser to one party in a WTO case, who analyzes what happened from a public health point of view. The analysis concludes that the public health justification for banning asbestos was accepted in the end by WTO economists, despite the WTO's bias in favor of the party (Canada) making the free trade challenge (to public health legislation), despite the WTO's lack of expertise in science, medicine, engineering, and public health, and despite important erroneous statements made to the WTO under the cover of confidentiality. The case nevertheless illustrates that the WTO's threat to national sovereignty could never withstand the light of day if the limitations and dangers of the process were open for all to see.

  7. Security without obscurity a guide to confidentiality, authentication, and integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Stapleton, JJ

    2014-01-01

    The traditional view of information security includes the three cornerstones: confidentiality, integrity, and availability; however the author asserts authentication is the third keystone. As the field continues to grow in complexity, novices and professionals need a reliable reference that clearly outlines the essentials. Security without Obscurity: A Guide to Confidentiality, Authentication, and Integrity fills this need. Rather than focusing on compliance or policies and procedures, this book takes a top-down approach. It shares the author's knowledge, insights, and observations about infor

  8. Analysis of LYSA-calculus with explicit confidentiality annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased research interest in applying process calculi in the verification of cryptographic protocols due to their ability to formally model protocols. This work presents LYSA with explicit confidentiality annotations for indicating the expected behavior of target...... malicious activities performed by attackers as specified by the confidentiality annotations. The proposed analysis approach is fully automatic without the need of human intervention and has been applied successfully to a number of protocols....

  9. Breaching confidentiality: medical mandatory reporting laws in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanifar, Alireza; Larijani, Bagher; Paykarzadeh, Parvaneh; Ashtari, Golanna; Mehdi Akhondi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Medical ethics is a realm where four important subjects of philosophy, medicine, theology and law are covered. Physicians and philosophers cooperation in this area will have great efficiency in the respective ethical rules formation. In addition to respect the autonomy of the patient, physician's obligation is to ensure that the medical intervention has benefit for the patient and the harm is minimal. There is an obvious conflict between duty of confidentiality and duty of mandatory reporting. Professional confidentiality is one of the basic components in building a constant physician-patient relationship which nowadays, beside the novelty, it is the subject of discussion. Legal obligation of confidentiality is not absolute. In physician-patient relationship, keeping patient's secrets and maintaining confidentiality is a legal and ethical duty, and disclosure of such secrets is mainly through specific statutes. Thus, there are a number of situations where breach of confidentiality is permitted in different legal systems. One of the situations where breaching confidentiality is permitted is the medical mandatory reporting to the relevant authority which is in accordance with many countries' legal systems. Some situations are considered in many countries legal systems' such as notification of births and deaths, infectious diseases, child abuse, sport and relevant events, medical errors, drug side effects and dangerous pregnancies. In this paper, we will examine and discuss medical mandatory reporting and its ethical and legal aspects in the judicial and legal system of Iran and few other countries. Finally we will suggest making Medical Mandatory Reporting Law in Iran.

  10. Protecting confidentiality rights: the need for an ethical practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mary Alice

    2008-01-01

    All psychologists must uphold the same ethical standards about confidentiality even though each state imposes different legal limits on their ability to protect clients' confidences. The resulting ethical-legal confusion is exacerbated by legally based confidentiality training that treats legal exceptions as if they were the rule and fosters the impression that attorneys are now the only real experts about this aspect of practice. This article provides an ethics-based confidentiality practice model that clarifies the ethical rule and puts its legal exceptions into ethical perspective. Like the Confidentiality section of the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, this outline would apply to all psychologists regardless of state laws, but the details of its implementation would vary according to role and setting. It can be used as a universal training outline, a consultation and supervision tool, a guide to professional practice, and a basis for clearer ongoing conversation about the ethics of "conditional confidentiality." Psychologists can use this practice model to regain their status as experts about the confidentiality ethics of their own profession. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Justice And Legal Certainty For Child Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Setiadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.

  12. Robotic-surgical instrument wrist pose estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, Stephan; Baek, Kyungim; Berkelman, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Lightweight Surgery Robot from the University of Hawaii includes two teleoperated instruments and one endoscope manipulator which act in accord to perform assisted interventional medicine. The relative positions and orientations of the robotic instruments and endoscope must be known to the teleoperation system so that the directions of the instrument motions can be controlled to correspond closely to the directions of the motions of the master manipulators, as seen by the the endoscope and displayed to the surgeon. If the manipulator bases are mounted in known locations and all manipulator joint variables are known, then the necessary coordinate transformations between the master and slave manipulators can be easily computed. The versatility and ease of use of the system can be increased, however, by allowing the endoscope or instrument manipulator bases to be moved to arbitrary positions and orientations without reinitializing each manipulator or remeasuring their relative positions. The aim of this work is to find the pose of the instrument end effectors using the video image from the endoscope camera. The P3P pose estimation algorithm is used with a Levenberg-Marquardt optimization to ensure convergence. The correct transformations between the master and slave coordinate frames can then be calculated and updated when the bases of the endoscope or instrument manipulators are moved to new, unknown, positions at any time before or during surgical procedures.

  13. Exploring the Characteristics of Personal Victims Using the National Crime Victimization Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jairam, Shashi

    1998-01-01

    .... Two statistical methods were used to investigate these hypotheses, logistical regression for victimization prevalence, and negative binomial regression for victimization incidence and concentration...

  14. Skill Levels of Prospective Physics Teachers on Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cildir, Sema; Sezen, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the topics which the educators thoroughly accentuate. Problem posing skill is defined as an introvert activity of a student's learning. In this study, skill levels of prospective physics teachers on problem posing were determined and their views on problem posing were evaluated. To this end, prospective teachers were given…

  15. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  16. Confidential donation confirmation as an alternative to confidential unit exclusion: 15 months experience of the HEMOMINAS foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristine Martineli Loureiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Confidential unit exclusion remains a controversial strategy to reduce the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze confidential unit exclusion from its development in a large institution in light of confidential donation confirmation. METHODS: Data of individuals who donated from October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were analyzed in a case-control study. The serological results and sociodemographic characteristics of donors who did not confirm their donations were compared to those who did. Variables with p-values < 0.20 in univariate analysis were included in a logistic multivariate analysis. RESULTS: In the univariate analysis there was a statically significant association between positive serological results and response to confidential donation confirmation of "No". Donation type, (firsttime or return donor - OR 1.69, CI 1.37-2.09, gender (OR 1.66, CI 1.35-2.04, education level (OR 2.82, CI 2.30-3.47 and ethnic background (OR 0.67, CI 0.55-0.82 were included in the final logistic regression model. In all logistic regression models analyzed, the serological suitability and confidential donation confirmation were not found to be statistically associated. The adoption of new measures of clinical classification such as audiovisual touch-screen computer-assisted self-administered interviews might be more effective than confidential unit exclusion in the identification of donor risk behavior. The requirement that transfusion services continue to use confidential unit exclusion needs to be debated in countries where more specific and sensitive clinical and serological screening methods are available. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there are not enough benefits to justify continued use of confidential donation confirmation in the analyzed institution.

  17. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  18. Relative Pose Estimation Algorithm with Gyroscope Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel vision and inertial fusion algorithm S2fM (Simplified Structure from Motion for camera relative pose estimation. Different from current existing algorithms, our algorithm estimates rotation parameter and translation parameter separately. S2fM employs gyroscopes to estimate camera rotation parameter, which is later fused with the image data to estimate camera translation parameter. Our contributions are in two aspects. (1 Under the circumstance that no inertial sensor can estimate accurately enough translation parameter, we propose a translation estimation algorithm by fusing gyroscope sensor and image data. (2 Our S2fM algorithm is efficient and suitable for smart devices. Experimental results validate efficiency of the proposed S2fM algorithm.

  19. The power of restorative apologies (real and imagined for victims and offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Lorenn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shame can be felt after causing harm and after being harmed by wrongdoing. Failure to address shame can increase the possibility of the victim-offender overlap, making victims more likely to offend and offenders more likely to be victimized. An online, individually applied, restorative apology process could help prevent the victim-offender overlap by helping heal harm. People who have caused harm are given the opportunity to be accountable and explore how they might help repair damage they have caused, while those harmed can address any violation and shame felt. Anecdotal evidence indicates restorative apologies delivered either personally, or only imagined, can help individuals heal from harm and trauma. Open access to restorative apology processes is provided at www.apologyletter.org. The purpose of this paper is to show how the confidential apology program can help people address harm and shame. Appendices A and B provide an imagined apology exercise and guidelines for preparing a combined apology and gratitude letter, which can assist individuals affected by wrongdoing.

  20. Evaluation in a competitive utility environment: the threat of confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Edward

    1997-01-01

    Utilities have become concerned that their competitors will desire access to energy-related data--including energy-efficiency data collected by utilities from their energy- efficiency programs--that they may regard as proprietary or confidential. In the future, disputes about confidentiality may focus more on costs and market information (as well as energy use and load data) than on energy-efficiency data per se. So far, the discussion has been limited to ratepayer-funded data. Consequently, many utilities are now requesting that the data (including evaluation data) they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to harm the evaluation community that depends on the free flow of information for improving the practice of evaluation as well as for disseminating the lessons learned from particular program evaluations. Confidentiality will also have significant policy implications. In response to these concerns, in late 1995 and early 1996, we conducted a survey of state public utility commissions (PUCs) in the U.S. to assess: (1) the relative importance of the issue of confidential data in the regulatory arena; (2) the regulatory response to utility requests for confidentiality (e.g., formal policies, guidelines, rules and procedures, and decisions); and (3) the type of data filed as confidential with PUCS. We focus on the first two objectives of this study. In addition to our interviews, we reviewed selected state statutes, judicial and PUC decisions, rules and procedures, protective orders, and interim policy documents. Evaluators need to understand the context of confidentiality as well as the response of the regulatory commissions to confidentiality, because evaluators will need to adapt to a new environment where energy-related data and information may be harder to obtain and distribute. We propose that regulators conduct the following activities as soon as possible: 1. Assess

  1. Victims of cybercrime in Europe : a review of victim surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reep-van den Bergh, Carin M.M.; Junger, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Review the evidence provided by victim surveys in order to provide a rough estimate of the personal crime prevalence of the main types of cybercrime. Methods: We performed a search in databases, searched online, and contacted several Offices for National Statistics in Europe and selected

  2. Can you keep a secret? Confidentiality in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younggren, Jeffrey N; Harris, Eric A

    2008-05-01

    Confidentiality is the secret-keeping duty that arises from the establishment of the professional relationship psychologists develop with their clients. It is a duty created by the professional relationship, it is set forth in the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct, and it is codified in many state regulations. However, the difference between confidentiality and legal privilege; how, why, and when it can be violated; and the reasons for so doing are not well understood by many practitioners. While on the surface confidentiality might seem to be an easy concept to apply to professional practice, in fact it is quite complex and filled with exceptions that frequently differ from circumstance to circumstance and from state to state. A lack of respect for and a lack of familiarity with the significance of these exceptions could have dire professional consequences. This article reviews the ethical imperative of confidentiality and then provides examples of legal cases that help to better understand its complexity. Then, we offer strategies designed to help metal health practitioners when they are confronted with questions regarding confidentiality and privilege.

  3. Improving Individual Acceptance of Health Clouds through Confidentiality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Tatiana; Fabian, Benjamin; Zarnekow, Rüdiger

    2016-10-26

    Cloud computing promises to essentially improve healthcare delivery performance. However, shifting sensitive medical records to third-party cloud providers could create an adoption hurdle because of security and privacy concerns. This study examines the effect of confidentiality assurance in a cloud-computing environment on individuals' willingness to accept the infrastructure for inter-organizational sharing of medical data. We empirically investigate our research question by a survey with over 260 full responses. For the setting with a high confidentiality assurance, we base on a recent multi-cloud architecture which provides very high confidentiality assurance through a secret-sharing mechanism: Health information is cryptographically encoded and distributed in a way that no single and no small group of cloud providers is able to decode it. Our results indicate the importance of confidentiality assurance in individuals' acceptance of health clouds for sensitive medical data. Specifically, this finding holds for a variety of practically relevant circumstances, i.e., in the absence and despite the presence of conventional offline alternatives and along with pseudonymization. On the other hand, we do not find support for the effect of confidentiality assurance in individuals' acceptance of health clouds for non-sensitive medical data. These results could support the process of privacy engineering for health-cloud solutions.

  4. Responding to Children Victimized by Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.

    2006-01-01

    Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…

  5. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  6. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  7. Prevention of victimization following sexual assaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine

    2004-01-01

    Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....

  8. Cyber and Traditional Bullying Victimization as a Risk Factor for Mental Health Problems and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. Results There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially

  9. Cyber and traditional bullying victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems and suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; de Waart, Frouwkje G; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially because early-onset mental health problems

  10. Cyber and traditional bullying victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems and suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rienke Bannink

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. METHODS: A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181. Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying

  11. Victimization Experiences and Adolescent Substance Use: Does the Type and Degree of Victimization Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates an association between victimization and adolescent substance use, but the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. Some research focuses solely on the consequences of experiencing indirect victimization (e.g., witnessing violence), others examine direct victimization (e.g., being personally victimized), and still others combine both forms of victimization without assessing the relative impact of each on substance use. Furthermore, many of these studies only asses...

  12. Computer Security: confidentiality is everybody’s business

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a zip file with confidential information was mistakenly made public on one of CERN’s websites. Although the file was only intended for members of an internal committee, when placing it onto the CERN website, someone made a mistake when setting the access permissions and, thus, made the file accessible to everyone visiting the site!   Unfortunately, this is but one example of such mistakes. We have seen other documents made accessible to a much wider audience than originally intended… CERN takes serious measures to ensure the confidentiality of data. Confidential or “sensitive” documents (following the nomenclature set out in the CERN Data Protection Policy) deserve professional handling and access protections given only to the people who really need to access them. As such, they must not be widely circulated as attachments in e-mails and, most definitely, must not be stored on random public websites for the sole purpose of shari...

  13. Victimization experiences and adolescent substance use: does the type and degree of victimization matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M; Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates an association between victimization and adolescent substance use, but the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. Some research focuses solely on the consequences of experiencing indirect victimization (e.g., witnessing violence), others examine direct victimization (e.g., being personally victimized), and still others combine both forms of victimization without assessing the relative impact of each on substance use. Furthermore, many of these studies only assess these relationships in the short-term using cross-sectional data. This study uses data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to explore the impact of experiencing only indirect victimization, only direct victimization, both forms of victimization, and no victimization on substance use at two time points during adolescence. We find that of those adolescents who are victimized, the majority experience indirect victimization only, followed by experiencing both forms of victimization, and experiencing direct victimization only. Each of the victimization experiences were associated with increased contemporaneous substance use, with the strongest effects for those experiencing multiple forms of violence. For all victims, however, the impact on substance use declined over time.

  14. Cyberbullying: who are the victims? A comparison of victimization in internet chatrooms and victimization in school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzer, C.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Belschak, F.

    2009-01-01

    Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet

  15. Independent consultants : fiduciary duties, trade secrets and confidential information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, B.; Wilhelmson, M.

    1999-01-01

    Because of cutbacks and downsizing within the petroleum industry, it has become one of the largest users of contract personnel to provide services that were previously provided by senior levels of management. This paper explored the application of common law fiduciary duties and the duty of confidence to the independent workforce. It examined to what extent fiduciary duties apply to independent consultants and the best way for the employer to protect itself from the potential misuse of confidential information. Part 1 of the paper described fiduciary duties. A fiduciary relationship was described as one that possesses the following three characteristics: (1) the fiduciary has scope for the exercise of some discretion of power, (2) the fiduciary can unilaterally exercise that power to affect the beneficiary's practical interests, and (3) the beneficiary is peculiarly vulnerable to the fiduciary holding the discretion of power. Three examples of how the courts treated some arguments regarding fiduciaries were presented. Part 2 of this paper discussed how trade secrets and confidential information should be handled. It was explained, that regardless of fiduciary duties, the unauthorized use of confidential information by an independent contractor can give rise to liability and an award of damages by the courts. Some examples where the Supreme Court of Canada found breach of confidence by a party were presented. Information communicated from an employer to an employee can be divided into the following three categories: (1) publicly accessible and not confidential, (2) confidential and must be treated as such while an employee is employed, but if learned becomes part of the employees skill and knowledge, and (3) specific confidential trade secrets that cannot lawfully be used for anyone's benefit but the employer's. Issues regarding defining rights and obligations by contract were also discussed

  16. Expectations of youth victims of violence regarding health care professionals leading them to wellness in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezihe L. Ahanonu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many youth victims of violence report for treatment at the health care facilities in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. It was unclear what the youth expected regarding how they could be led towards wellness by health care professionals following an incident of violence (R1.1. Objectives: This study sought to explore and describe the expectations of the youth victims of violence with regards to health care professionals (R1.2 leading them to wellness in a selected rural community. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Nine focus group discussions were conducted with 58 (23 males, 35 females purposefully selected youth victims of violence between the ages of 15 and 19. Data analysis was done through open coding. Ethics clearance was received from the University Ethics Committee prior to the study being conducted. Results: Findings indicated that the youth victims of violence expect the health care professionals (professional nurses, doctors and social workers working in their community to act as role models, demonstrate a professional attitude, provide health education, provide confidential counselling services, and establish school and community outreach programmes. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that youth victims of violence have important expectations from health care professionals concerning their wellness. Hence, health care professionals should focus on designing and implementing interventions targeting these expectations.

  17. University Students' Problem Posing Abilities and Attitudes towards Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmeier, Todd A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the problem posing abilities and attitudes towards mathematics of students in a university pre-calculus class and a university mathematical proof class. Reports a significant difference in numeric posing versus non-numeric posing ability in both classes. (Author/MM)

  18. Human action recognition based on estimated weak poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Gonzàlez, Jordi; Roca, Francesc Xavier

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel method for human action recognition (HAR) based on estimated poses from image sequences. We use 3D human pose data as additional information and propose a compact human pose representation, called a weak pose, in a low-dimensional space while still keeping the most discriminative information for a given pose. With predicted poses from image features, we map the problem from image feature space to pose space, where a Bag of Poses (BOP) model is learned for the final goal of HAR. The BOP model is a modified version of the classical bag of words pipeline by building the vocabulary based on the most representative weak poses for a given action. Compared with the standard k-means clustering, our vocabulary selection criteria is proven to be more efficient and robust against the inherent challenges of action recognition. Moreover, since for action recognition the ordering of the poses is discriminative, the BOP model incorporates temporal information: in essence, groups of consecutive poses are considered together when computing the vocabulary and assignment. We tested our method on two well-known datasets: HumanEva and IXMAS, to demonstrate that weak poses aid to improve action recognition accuracies. The proposed method is scene-independent and is comparable with the state-of-art method.

  19. 2D Methods for pose invariant face recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Ntabiseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognise face images under random pose is a task that is done effortlessly by human beings. However, for a computer system, recognising face images under varying poses still remains an open research area. Face recognition across pose...

  20. Transfer between Pose and Illumination Training in Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang Hong; Bhuiyan, Md. Al-Amin; Ward, James; Sui, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between pose and illumination learning in face recognition was examined in a yes-no recognition paradigm. The authors assessed whether pose training can transfer to a new illumination or vice versa. Results show that an extensive level of pose training through a face-name association task was able to generalize to a new…

  1. Enhanced Obfuscation Technique for Data Confidentiality in Public Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oli S. Arul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With an advent of cloud computing, data storage has become a boon in information technology. At the same time, data storage in remote places have become important issues. Lot of techniques are available to ensure protection of data confidentiality. These techniques do not completely serve the purpose in protecting data. The Obfuscation techniques come to rescue for protecting data from malicious attacks. This paper proposes an obfuscation technique to encrypt the desired data type on the cloud providing more protection from unknown hackers. The experimental results show that the time taken for obfuscation is low and the confidentiality percentage is high when compared with existing techniques.

  2. 78 FR 16298 - Comment Request for Information Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information Final Rule and... about the regulatory requirements of the Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment... Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S4524, Washington, DC 20210...

  3. 77 FR 1434 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for Data Elements Under the Mandatory Reporting of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Fluorinated Gas Production....... 325120 Industrial gases manufacturing facilities. Electrical Equipment Use... Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for Data Elements Under the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases...-proposes confidentiality determinations for the data elements under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  4. 77 FR 63537 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for Subpart I...-AR61 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for... Manufacturing, of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule. Proposed changes include revising certain calculation...

  5. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  6. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2015-01-01

    Based on a conceptualization of bullying and relational aggression in groups as an effect of social dynamics rather than individual deficits – this article reflects upon some of the intricate mechanisms and dilemmas involved in victim positioning. Victims of bullying and relational aggression often....... The hopes of (eventual) social belonging may in that sense work paradoxically as a strong agent in the denial of oppression and marginalization. The article is theoretically informed by poststructuralist conceptualizations and grounded in cases of bullying and marginalization (one of them involving rape......). One case is taken from the empirical data produced by the author and a research project on bullying among children (eXbus: Exploring Bullying in School). Two other cases are borrowed from publications of respectively B. Davies from Australia and A. Evaldsson from Shweden. The article opens insights...

  7. 18 CFR 706.410 - Confidentiality of statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use of information on the statements shall be limited to that necessary to carry out the purposes of... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.410 Confidentiality of statements. Each statement of employment and financial interests, and each supplementary...

  8. Effective verification of confidentiality for multi-threaded programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, Minh Tri; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Huisman, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how confidentiality properties of multi-threaded programs can be verified efficiently by a combination of newly developed and existing model checking algorithms. In particular, we study the verification of scheduler-specific observational determinism (SSOD), a property that

  9. 15 CFR 325.16 - Protecting confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protecting confidentiality of information. 325.16 Section 325.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS...

  10. 48 CFR 1415.207-71 - Confidentiality of proposal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and... evaluators and advisors shall sign a Conflict of Interest Certificate and a Confidentiality Certificate in a... outside the Government shall take into consideration requirements for avoiding individual conflicts of...

  11. Absolutism on Access and Confidentiality: Principled or Irresponsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, William E.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses issues involved in public access to library materials and facilities and patron confidentiality. Topics discussed include children's access to adult materials; parents' right to know about their children's materials; First and Fourth Amendment protections; the Library Bill of Rights; and American Library Association (ALA) documents that…

  12. 40 CFR 303.31 - Assurance of claimant confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assurance of claimant confidentiality. 303.31 Section 303.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... knowledge, shall be given access to the identity of, or information that would lead to the identity of, a...

  13. 18 CFR 1b.9 - Confidentiality of investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of investigations. 1b.9 Section 1b.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... pursuant to subpoena, and all investigative proceedings shall be treated as nonpublic by the Commission and...

  14. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1104.17 Section 1104.17 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED... of archaeological resource information. (a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the public...

  15. IT Confidentiality Risk Assessment for an Architecture-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, A.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Overbeek, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Information systems require awareness of risks and a good understanding of vulnerabilities and their exploitations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for the systematic assessment and analysis of confidentiality risks caused by disclosure of operational and functional information. The

  16. 12 CFR 19.181 - Confidentiality of formal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality of formal investigations. 19.181 Section 19.181 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF... only in accordance with the provisions of part 4 of this chapter. ...

  17. 19 CFR 210.72 - Confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of information. 210.72 Section 210.72 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Enforcement Procedures and Advisory Opinions § 210.72...

  18. 19 CFR 210.20 - Declassification of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declassification of confidential information. 210.20 Section 210.20 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.20 Declassification of...

  19. Zerber: r-Confidential Indexing for Distributed Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerr, Sergej; Demidova, Elena; Olmedilla, Daniel; Nejdl, Wolfgang; Winslett, Marianne; Mitra, Soumyadeb

    2008-01-01

    Zerr, S., Demidova, E., Olmedilla, D., Nejdl, W., Winslett, M., & Mitra, S. (2008). Zerber: r-Confidential Indexing for Distributed Documents. In J. Teubner (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Extending Database Technology (pp. 287-298). March, 25-29, 2008, Nantes, France.

  20. Meaningful Use of a Confidential Adolescent Patient Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Martinko, Thomas; Budd, Pamela; Mercado, Rebeccah; Schentrup, Anzeela M

    2016-02-01

    To design and evaluate the usage of an adolescent patient portal specifically adapted for adolescent health care needs that also satisfied institutional meaningful use guidelines regarding electronic health records. Key stakeholders at one academic health care center adopted an online portal and opted to designate a patient portal specifically for adolescents to maximize confidentiality in compliance with state privacy laws. This study analyzed aggregate electronic health record data of adolescents' (ages 12-17.9 years) uptake, usage, and functionality of this portal and compared it to parent portal usage for younger children (ages 0-11 years). Differences in means were calculated using paired t tests. The portal was used similarly between parents of young children and adolescents, with almost 1,000 enrollees in each group from September 1, 2012 to March 31, 2015. There were no gender differences in enrollment. Adolescents were less likely than parents of younger children to review appointments (73% vs. 85%), laboratory tests (67% vs. 79%), problem lists (40% vs. 78%), or allergies (45% vs. 77%, all p values adolescents sent 1,397 confidential messages. Institutional decisions for implementing meaningful use requirements can align with goals of adolescent health. Patient portals can enhance adolescent health care quality and adolescents readily use a confidential portal. Implementation of meaningful use requirements should be checked against adolescent health care needs to maximize confidentiality and promote health communication. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 31 CFR 31.217 - Confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality of information. 31.217 Section 31.217 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TROUBLED ASSET... from a source other than the retained entity. (b) Prohibitions. The retained entity shall not: (1...

  2. Decisions about Confidentiality in Medical Student Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenthal, Jacob Jay; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined responses of psychologists and psychiatrists in medical schools (N=59) to vignettes representing student problems. Results suggested practitioners were generally unwilling to break confidentiality in response to problems involving suicidal tendencies, sexual coercion/seduction, social transgressions, or falsifying data. Only suggestions…

  3. 75 FR 75576 - Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...-2010-0019] RIN 1557-AD17 Confidentiality of Suspicious Activity Reports AGENCY: The Office of the... suspicious activity report (SAR) to: clarify the scope of the statutory prohibition on the disclosure by a... institutions, including national banks regulated by the OCC, to keep certain records and make certain reports...

  4. Participants' safety versus confidentiality: A case study of HIV research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel; Feijoo-Cid, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Background When conducting qualitative research, participants usually share lots of personal and private information with the researcher. As researchers, we must preserve participants' identity and confidentiality of the data. Objective To critically analyze an ethical conflict encountered regarding confidentiality when doing qualitative research. Research design Case study. Findings and discussion one of the participants in a study aiming to explain the meaning of living with HIV verbalized his imminent intention to commit suicide because of stigma of other social problems arising from living with HIV. Given the life-threatening situation, the commitment related to not disclosing the participant's identity and/or the content of the interview had to be broken. To avoid or prevent suicide, the therapist in charge of the case was properly informed about the participant's intentions. One important question arises from this case: was it ethically appropriate to break the confidentiality commitment? Conclusion confidentiality could be broken if a life-threatening event is identified during data collection and participants must know that. This has to be clearly stated in the informed consent form.

  5. 12 CFR 404.7 - Confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential business information. 404.7 Section 404.7 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Procedures... involved, a general description of the related U.S. exports, and the country to which such exports are...

  6. [Confidentiality in medical oaths: (When the white crow becomes gray...)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, R J; Pérez, M L; Rancich, A M; Mainetti, J A

    2000-01-01

    Confidentiality, together with the ethical principles of beneficence and non-maleficence, is the most important rule in Medical Oaths at the present time. However, the scientific-technical advances in medicine have made this rule one of the most controversial ones because of its exceptions. In consequence, the aim of the present paper is to comparatively analyze the rule of confidentiality in Medical Oaths of different places, times, origins and in different versions of the Hippocratic Oath in order to determine what should be kept a secret and with what degree of commitment (absolute or "prima facie"). Of the thirty six analyzed Oaths, twenty-seven manifest this rule and nine do not. No relation was found between the manifestation of this rule and the place, time, origin and different versions of the Hippocratic Oath. Most pledges suggest not to reveal what has been seen or heard during the medical act, the same as in the Hippocratic Oath. Seven texts point out that confidentiality should be absolute and four give exceptions in connection with beneficence and justice principles and the moral duty of causing no damage to third parties. Two pledges specify protection of privacy. In conclusion, today confidentiality is considered to be a moral duty for the benefit of the patient and out of consideration for his autonomy; however, at the present time in medicine the duty of keeping absolute secrecy is being reconsidered.

  7. 49 CFR 805.735-21 - Confidentiality of statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-21 Confidentiality of statements. Subject to the provisions of § 805.735-24 concerning review of employee statements, each statement of... Personnel Officer is personally responsible for the retention of employee statements in confidence and may...

  8. 19 CFR 201.6 - Confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) of a type for which there is a clear and compelling need to withhold from disclosure. Special rules... the right to appeal to the Commission. (e) Appeals from denial of confidential treatment. (1) For good cause shown, the Commission may grant an appeal from a denial by the Secretary of a request for...

  9. Confidential data in a competitive utility environment: A regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.

    1996-08-01

    Historically, the electric utility industry has been regarded as one of the most open industries in the United States in sharing information but their reputation is being challenged by competitive energy providers, the general public, regulators, and other stakeholders. As the prospect of competition among electricity power providers has increased in recent years, many utilities have been requesting that the data they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to have serious and significant policy implications with respect to: (1) consumer education, the pursuit of truth, mutual respect among parties, and social cooperation; (2) the creation of a fair market for competitive energy services; (3) the regulatory balance; (4) regional and national assessments of energy-savings opportunities; (5) research and development; and (6) evaluations of utility programs, plans, and policies. In a telephone survey of all public utility commissions (PUCs) that regulate electric and gas utilities in the U.S., we found that almost all PUCs have received requests from utility companies for data to be filed as confidential, and confidential data filings appear to have increased (both in scope and in frequency) in those states where utility restructuring is being actively discussed. The most common types of data submitted as confidential by utilities dealt with specific customer data, market data, avoided costs, and utility costs.

  10. 40 CFR 85.1415 - Treatment of confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of confidential information. 85.1415 Section 85.1415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1415...

  11. Time for Action: Audit, Accountability and Confidential Enquiries into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the quality of care is essential for achieving reductions in maternal mortality. Audit is one of the methods which can be used to simultaneously assess as well as improve quality. This commentary discusses one type of audit – confidential enquiries into maternal death. We believe that the enthusiasm for ...

  12. CRAC : Confidentiality risk analysis and IT-architecture comparison of business networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, A.; Zambon, E.; Etalle, S.; Wieringa, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The leakage of confidential information (e.g. industrial secrets, patient records and user credentials) is one of the risks that have to be accounted for and mitigated by organizations dealing with confidential data. Unfortunately, assessing confidentiality risk is challenging, particularly in the

  13. 37 CFR 260.4 - Confidential information and statements of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Confidential information and statements of account. (a) For purposes of this part, confidential information shall include statements of account and any information pertaining to the statements of account... included on the statement of account. (d) Access to the confidential information pertaining to the royalty...

  14. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  15. Pose Planning for the Feed Support System of FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-cable driven parallel manipulator and an A-B rotator in the feed support system of the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST are adopted for realizing the position and pose of nine feeds. The six-cable driven parallel manipulator is a flexible mechanism, which may not be stably controlled due to a small cable tension. The A-B rotator is a rigid mechanism, and its stability and accuracy can be improved by small pose angle. Based on the different characteristics, a pose planning function is presented. The optimization target of the pose planning function is to get the smallest pose angle of the A-B rotator, and the constraint condition can reflect the controllability of the six-cable driven parallel manipulator. Then, the pose planning realization process of the feed support system is proposed. Based on the pose planning method, optimized pose angles of the feed support system for the nine feeds are obtained, which suggests that the pose angle of the six-cable driven parallel manipulator changes from 0° to 14° and the pose angle of the A-B rotator changes from 0° to 26.4°.

  16. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims.

  17. To Strike a Pose: No Stereotype Backlash for Power Posing Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rennung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power posing, the adoption of open and powerful postures, has effects that parallel those of actual social power. This study explored the social evaluation of adopting powerful versus powerless body postures in men and women regarding perceived warmth, competence, and the likelihood of eliciting admiration, envy, pity, and contempt. Previous findings suggest that the display of power by women may have side effects due to gender stereotyping, namely reduced warmth ratings and negative emotional reactions. An experiment (N = 2,473 asked participants to rate pictures of men and women who adopted high-power or low-power body postures. High-power posers were rated higher on competence, admiration, envy, and contempt compared to low-power posers, whereas the opposite was true for pity. There was no impact of power posing on perceived warmth. Contrary to expectations, the poser’s gender did not moderate any of the effects. These findings suggest that nonverbal displays of power do influence fundamental dimensions of social perception and their accompanying emotional reactions but result in comparably positive and negative evaluations for both genders.

  18. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  19. Head pose estimation algorithm based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuanming; Liu, Yijun

    2017-05-01

    Head pose estimation has been widely used in the field of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition and intelligent human-computer interaction and so on. Good head pose estimation algorithm should deal with light, noise, identity, shelter and other factors robustly, but so far how to improve the accuracy and robustness of attitude estimation remains a major challenge in the field of computer vision. A method based on deep learning for pose estimation is presented. Deep learning with a strong learning ability, it can extract high-level image features of the input image by through a series of non-linear operation, then classifying the input image using the extracted feature. Such characteristics have greater differences in pose, while they are robust of light, identity, occlusion and other factors. The proposed head pose estimation is evaluated on the CAS-PEAL data set. Experimental results show that this method is effective to improve the accuracy of pose estimation.

  20. Local Feature Learning for Face Recognition under Varying Poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....

  1. How to become a victim of crime

    OpenAIRE

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-01-01

    Victimization from crime – a higher degree of social vulnerability criminal, contributing to the commission of crimes against them in certain circumstances. Victimization takes place in space and time, and includes four stages: 1) the emergence of criminal threats; 2) increasing the degree of social vulnerability to criminal assault; 3) the harm to individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable state at appropriate conditions (situations); 4) increase the number of victims of crimes as regis...

  2. Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nikolas Aho, Marie Proczkowska Björklund, Carl Göran Svedin Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Abstract: The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652, of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV] proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. Keywords: victimization, childhood trauma, psychological symptoms, JVQ, TSCC

  3. Bullies and Victims: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.; Baxa, Gari-Vic C. O.; Miyose, Ross J.

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of a phenomenological study with sixteen elementary school children identified as bullies or victims. Implications for school counselors and educators are also discussed.

  4. The victim of the nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.B. de.

    1990-01-01

    This paper shows the effects of the nuclear accident in the victims, in their lives, changes in the behaviour, neurosis including all the psychological aspects. The author compare the victims with nuclear accident like AIDS patients, in terms of people's discrimination. There is another kind of victims. They are the people who gave helpness, for example physicians, firemen and everybody involved with the first aids that suffer together with the victims trying to safe them and to diminish their suffering, combating the danger, the discrimination and the no information. (L.M.J.)

  5. Identifying bully victims: definitional versus behavioral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Felix, Erika D; Sharkey, Jill D; Furlong, Michael J; Kras, Jennifer E

    2013-06-01

    Schools frequently assess bullying and the Olweus Bully/Victimization Questionnaire (BVQ; Olweus, 1996) is the most widely adopted tool for this purpose. The BVQ is a self-report survey that uses a definitional measurement method--describing "bullying" as involving repeated, intentional aggression in a relationship where there is an imbalance of power and then asking respondents to indicate how frequently they experienced this type of victimization. Few studies have examined BVQ validity and whether this definitional method truly identifies the repetition and power differential that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. This study examined the concurrent validity of the BVQ definitional question among 435 students reporting peer victimization. BVQ definitional responses were compared with responses to a behavioral measure that did not use the term "bullying" but, instead, included items that asked about its defining characteristics (repetition, intentionality, power imbalance). Concordance between the two approaches was moderate, with an area under the receiver operating curve of .72. BVQ responses were more strongly associated with students indicating repeated victimization and multiple forms of victimization, than with power imbalance in their relationship with the bully. Findings indicate that the BVQ is a valid measure of repeated victimization and a broad range of victimization experiences but may not detect the more subtle and complex power imbalances that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Health and Health Care From the Perspective of Intimate Partner Violence Adult Female Victims in Shelters: Impact of IPV, Unmet Needs, Barriers, Experiences, and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Pamela; Kothari, Catherine; Lubwama, Grace; Brown, Cathy L; Frank Benton, Jennifer

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) predicts poor health for victims and their children, but little is known about the perspective of victims. This study reports the perspectives of adult female IPV victims about the impact of IPV on their health and barriers of health care access for themselves and their children. The majority rated their health as good to excellent (69%). However, 83.5% indicated that IPV negatively affected their health; 53.5% had unmet health care needs. Mental health care was the most common unmet need for women; children's unmet needs were immunizations and preventive care. Transportation difficulties posed the biggest barrier to health care access.

  7. The lighter side of advertising: investigating posing and lighting biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole A; Burkitt, Jennifer A; Patrick, Regan E; Elias, Lorin J

    2008-11-01

    People tend to display the left cheek when posing for a portrait; however, this effect does not appear to generalise to advertising. The amount of body visible in the image and the sex of the poser might also contribute to the posing bias. Portraits also exhibit lateral lighting biases, with most images being lit from the left. This effect might also be present in advertisements. A total of 2801 full-page advertisements were sampled and coded for posing direction, lighting direction, sex of model, and amount of body showing. Images of females showed an overall leftward posing bias, but the biases in males depended on the amount of body visible. Males demonstrated rightward posing biases for head-only images. Overall, images tended to be lit from the top left corner. The two factors of posing and lighting biases appear to influence one another. Leftward-lit images had more leftward poses than rightward, while the opposite occurred for rightward-lit images. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the posing biases in advertisements are dependent on the amount of body showing in the image, and that biases in lighting direction interact with these posing biases.

  8. In-the-wild facial expression recognition in extreme poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Chi; Qiu, Guoping

    2018-04-01

    In the computer research area, facial expression recognition is a hot research problem. Recent years, the research has moved from the lab environment to in-the-wild circumstances. It is challenging, especially under extreme poses. But current expression detection systems are trying to avoid the pose effects and gain the general applicable ability. In this work, we solve the problem in the opposite approach. We consider the head poses and detect the expressions within special head poses. Our work includes two parts: detect the head pose and group it into one pre-defined head pose class; do facial expression recognize within each pose class. Our experiments show that the recognition results with pose class grouping are much better than that of direct recognition without considering poses. We combine the hand-crafted features, SIFT, LBP and geometric feature, with deep learning feature as the representation of the expressions. The handcrafted features are added into the deep learning framework along with the high level deep learning features. As a comparison, we implement SVM and random forest to as the prediction models. To train and test our methodology, we labeled the face dataset with 6 basic expressions.

  9. Bullies, Victims, and Bully/Victims: Distinct Groups of At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Denise L.; Nasel, Tonja; Eitel, Patricia; Crump, Aria Davis; Saylor, Keith; Yu, Kai; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed middle school students on incidents of bullying and victimization. Found that psychosocial and behavioral predictors such as problem behaviors, attitudes toward deviance, peer influences, depressive symptoms, school-related functioning, and parenting linearly separated never bullied or victimized students from the victim group, from the…

  10. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  11. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Berg, Mark T; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008-2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting.

  12. Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, V I O

    2009-02-01

    A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

  13. Posing Problems to Understand Children's Learning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ways in which problem posing activities aid our understanding of children's learning of addition of unlike fractions and product of proper fractions was examined. In particular, how a simple problem posing activity helps teachers take a second, deeper look at children's understanding of fraction concepts will be discussed. The…

  14. Standard diffusive systems are well-posed linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matignon, Denis; Zwart, Heiko J.

    2004-01-01

    The class of well-posed linear systems as introduced by Salamon has become a well-understood class of systems, see e.g. the work of Weiss and the book of Staffans. Many partial partial differential equations with boundary control and point observation can be formulated as a well-posed linear system.

  15. Formulas in inverse and ill-posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Anikonov, Yu E

    1997-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  16. Turkish Primary School Teachers' Opinions about Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2013-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the most important topics in a mathematics education. Through problem posing, students gain mathematical abilities and concepts and teachers can evaluate their students and arrange adequate learning environments. The aim of the present study is to investigate Turkish primary school teachers' opinions about problem posing…

  17. Confidentiality and its limits: some contributions from Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, I R

    2003-02-01

    The issue is whether Christianity, of its nature, would seek to prevent a justifiable breach of confidentiality or could endorse it, under certain circumstances, as the act which is fundamentally more loving or more truthful. The individualistic nature of Western Christianity is noted. The Lutheran theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer is used to show Christian support for dynamic rather than literal truth telling, and for awareness of the contexts and power relations within which persons stand.

  18. Enhanced Obfuscation Technique for Data Confidentiality in Public Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Oli S. Arul; Arockiam L.

    2016-01-01

    With an advent of cloud computing, data storage has become a boon in information technology. At the same time, data storage in remote places have become important issues. Lot of techniques are available to ensure protection of data confidentiality. These techniques do not completely serve the purpose in protecting data. The Obfuscation techniques come to rescue for protecting data from malicious attacks. This paper proposes an obfuscation technique to encrypt the desired data type on the clou...

  19. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standa...

  20. Face pose tracking using the four-point algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ho Yin; Wong, Kin Hong; Yu, Ying Kin; Tsui, Kwan Pang; Kam, Ho Chuen

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to track the pose of a human face robustly and efficiently. Face pose estimation is very useful in many applications such as building virtual reality systems and creating an alternative input method for the disabled. Firstly, we have modified a face detection toolbox called DLib for the detection of a face in front of a camera. The detected face features are passed to a pose estimation method, known as the four-point algorithm, for pose computation. The theory applied and the technical problems encountered during system development are discussed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the system is able to track the pose of a face in real time using a consumer grade laptop computer.

  1. Real-Time Head Pose Estimation on Mobile Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Ren

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many computer vision applications such as augmented reality require head pose estimation. As far as the real-time implementation of head pose estimation on relatively resource limited mobile platforms is concerned, it is required to satisfy real-time constraints while maintaining reasonable head pose estimation accuracy. The introduced head pose estimation approach in this paper is an attempt to meet this objective. The approach consists of the following components: Viola-Jones face detection, color-based face tracking using an online calibration procedure, and head pose estimation using Hu moment features and Fisher linear discriminant. Experimental results running on an actual mobile device are reported exhibiting both the real- time and accuracy aspects of the developed approach.

  2. Pose estimation for mobile robots working on turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.D.; Chen, Q.; Liu, J.J.; Sun, Z.G.; Zhang, W.Z. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-03-11

    This paper discussed a features point detection and matching task technique for mobile robots used in wind turbine blade applications. The vision-based scheme used visual information from the robot's surrounding environment to match successive image frames. An improved pose estimation algorithm based on a scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was developed to consider the characteristics of local images of turbine blades, pose estimation problems, and conditions. The method included a pre-subsampling technique for reducing computation and bidirectional matching for improving precision. A random sample consensus (RANSAC) method was used to estimate the robot's pose. Pose estimation conditions included a wide pose range; the distance between neighbouring blades; and mechanical, electromagnetic, and optical disturbances. An experimental platform was used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order that the invention solving a technical problem receives a patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. For the protection of confidential inventions which are important for defense and national security, a confidential patent application[1] must be filed. A confidential patent application is an important and complex document, the parts of which are,  in principle, exposed in an established order. For the preparation of patent applications, it is necessary to engage experts with higher education, primarily in the technical field the invention relates to. The contents of the patent application is a basis for examining whether the application meets the requirements for patentability and whether the right to patent protection is achieved. Besides theoretical discussions on patent application, the paper gives a short version of an example of an application regarding a protected confidential invention. Introduction The basic condition for the exercise of patent protection is filing a patent application, the test procedure and, eventually, depending on the test results - the recognition or rejection of the patent. The paper gives a description of all parts of the patent application on an example of a confidential invention already patented. The content of the confidential patent application The confidential patent application for confidential invention protection consists of the following parts: The application for a patent; description of the invention; the claims (indication of what is new and what is required to be protected by patenting; abstract (short summary of the invention  and a draft of the invention (to which the description and the claims are referred. The application for a patent The application for patent is filed on Form P-1 and a request for the petty patent on Form MP-1. The data entered in the file is, for example: the applicant; the lawyer; the name of the invention in Serbian and English; the inventor

  4. Privacy, confidentiality and abortion statistics: a question of public interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Jean V; Jones, June

    2012-01-01

    The precise nature and scope of healthcare confidentiality has long been the subject of debate. While the obligation of confidentiality is integral to professional ethical codes and is also safeguarded under English law through the equitable remedy of breach of confidence, underpinned by the right to privacy enshrined in Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, it has never been regarded as absolute. But when can and should personal information be made available for statistical and research purposes and what if the information in question is highly sensitive information, such as that relating to the termination of pregnancy after 24 weeks? This article explores the case of In the Matter of an Appeal to the Information Tribunal under section 57 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, concerning the decision of the Department of Health to withhold some statistical data from the publication of its annual abortion statistics. The specific data being withheld concerned the termination for serious fetal handicap under section 1(1)d of the Abortion Act 1967. The paper explores the implications of this case, which relate both to the nature and scope of personal privacy. It suggests that lessons can be drawn from this case about public interest and use of statistical information and also about general policy issues concerning the legal regulation of confidentiality and privacy in the future.

  5. The erosion of psychiatrist-patient confidentiality by subpoenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, John; Galambos, Gary; Skarbek, Yvonne

    2014-08-01

    We explore the reasons for the prolific use of subpoenas to gain access to psychiatric records in Australia. We examine the applicable legal principles and practices at the New South Wales (NSW) and Commonwealth levels, aiming to develop recommendations for Australian Governments to curb the inappropriate and harmful use of subpoenas. Unfettered legal access to psychiatric records is inconsistent with professional ethical guidelines and risks undermining the provision of quality psychiatric care to the community. The existing legal provisions are failing to protect psychiatrist-patient confidentiality. In NSW, the onus is placed on the psychiatrist and/or patient to make a complicated application to the court, to direct that a subpoena be set aside on the grounds of "Professional Confidential Relationship Privilege." An absence of Commonwealth legislation to protect psychiatrist-patient confidentiality is used by some litigants in family law proceedings to disadvantage patients by stigmatising them, because they have consulted psychiatrists. We recommend that uniform legislation be implemented, giving effect to a primary rule of privilege with exceptions. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  6. Conflicting duties over confidentiality in Argentina and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Mercedes

    2011-02-01

    The medical duty of confidentiality represents a key element for the provision of reproductive and sexual health services. In some Latin American countries, such as Argentina and Peru, the legal systems impose—or are interpreted as imposing—on health professionals the duty of confidentiality, but also the duty to report the commission of a public order offense that they know about owing to the practicing of their profession. In these countries, the conflicting duties and the criminalization of abortion cause severe public health and human rights problems when health professionals assist their patients for post-abortion treatment. Typically, patients are deterred from seeking prompt medical care, and their privacy, autonomy, and dignity are violated. A 2010 ruling from the Supreme Court of Argentina and a 2004 ruling from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights emerge as important instruments that grant a more adequate protection of medical confidentiality. © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Symbolic Victimization and Real World Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Examines the relationship between victimization of characters in television drama and susceptibility to the viewers' cultivation of a sense of personal risk in the real world. Found that viewers whose fictional counterparts are more likely to be shown as victims show stronger associations between viewing and perceived vulnerability. (PD)

  8. Debate of victims studies. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosovski, E.; Piedade Junior, H.; Mayr, E.

    1990-01-01

    This book shows some aspects and the effects of several types of accidents in the victims, including the psychological considerations, changes in theirs behaviour, concepts, clinical diagnostic, etc. Victims of nuclear, transit terrorism and work accidents are studied. (C.G.C.)

  9. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  10. Emergency Care of the Snakebite Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Carol N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes emergency care of snakebite victims, including noting signs and symptoms of venomous snakebites, keeping the victim calm, and seeking immediate medical attention. Provides information on variables that affect the amount of injected venom and how to distinguish nonpoisonous from poisonous snakes. (LP)

  11. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  12. 78 FR 52877 - VOCA Victim Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... these requirements has merely been re-worked for clarity. Under the proposed rule SAAs must identify... victim populations will allow OVC and SAAs to better tailor their training and technical assistance and... SAAs may use for these purposes. Funding victim service programs located in adjacent States. Program...

  13. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  14. Teacher Victimization in Authoritative School Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapa, Ryan R.; Luke, Jeremy; Moulthrop, Dorothy; Gimbert, Belinda

    2018-01-01

    Background: Victimization in schools is not limited to students. Teachers increasingly face threats and attacks from their students. An authoritative school environment, characterized by high structure and support, has been associated with lower rates of victimization. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between authoritative…

  15. Trafficking in persons : A victim's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny; Rijken, Conny; Piotrowicz, Ryszard; Uhl, Baerbel Heide

    2017-01-01

    Historically, protection and assistance to victims of human trafficking in many countries is anchored in migration law and dependent on whether or not a residence permit is granted to the victim. Apart from some limited exceptions, cooperation with law enforcement authorities in criminal

  16. Person-Independent Head Pose Estimation Using Biased Manifold Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Panchanathan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Head pose estimation has been an integral problem in the study of face recognition systems and human-computer interfaces, as part of biometric applications. A fine estimate of the head pose angle is necessary and useful for several face analysis applications. To determine the head pose, face images with varying pose angles can be considered to be lying on a smooth low-dimensional manifold in high-dimensional image feature space. However, when there are face images of multiple individuals with varying pose angles, manifold learning techniques often do not give accurate results. In this work, we propose a framework for a supervised form of manifold learning called Biased Manifold Embedding to obtain improved performance in head pose angle estimation. This framework goes beyond pose estimation, and can be applied to all regression applications. This framework, although formulated for a regression scenario, unifies other supervised approaches to manifold learning that have been proposed so far. Detailed studies of the proposed method are carried out on the FacePix database, which contains 181 face images each of 30 individuals with pose angle variations at a granularity of 1∘. Since biometric applications in the real world may not contain this level of granularity in training data, an analysis of the methodology is performed on sparsely sampled data to validate its effectiveness. We obtained up to 2∘ average pose angle estimation error in the results from our experiments, which matched the best results obtained for head pose estimation using related approaches.

  17. Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.

  18. Is patient confidentiality compromised with the electronic health record?: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ilse M

    2015-02-01

    In order for electronic health records to fulfill their expected benefits, protection of privacy of patient information is key. Lack of trust in confidentiality can lead to reluctance in disclosing all relevant information, which could have grave consequences. This position paper contemplates whether patient confidentiality is compromised by electronic health records. The position that confidentiality is compromised was supported by the four bioethical principles and argued that despite laws and various safeguards to protect patients' confidentiality, numerous data breaches have occurred. The position that confidentiality is not compromised was supported by virtue ethics and a utilitarian viewpoint and argued that safeguards keep information confidential and the public feels relatively safe with the electronic health record. The article concludes with an ethically superior position that confidentiality is compromised with the electronic health record. Although organizational and governmental ways of enhancing the confidentiality of patient information within the electronic health record facilitate confidentiality, the ultimate responsibility of maintaining confidentiality rests with the individual end-users and their ethical code of conduct. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for nurses calls for nurses to be watchful with data security in electronic communications.

  19. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a

  20. Design and implementation of a simulation exercise for teaching confidentiality of patient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J R

    1982-05-01

    Allied health students, making the transition from a purely academic to a professional school setting, are suddenly faced with judgment decisions about disclosure of medical information. Obscure guidelines and new interpersonal relationships with other members of the health care team complicate this transition and pose a threat to confidentiality of patient information. This article describes the design and implementation of a simulation exercise to reinforce lecture guidelines specifying disclosure of medical information without risk to the patient or student. The simulation is comprised of 10 critical incidents calling for responses ranging from logical to judgmental. Although written primarily for medical technologists, with emphasis on limitations governing release of patient laboratory data, the simulation approach is presented here as a model for other allied health professions. The use of a latent image format provides learners with positive or negative reinforcement as they learn the consequences of their decisions. The simulation activity described is easily adapted to small group discussion or computer-assisted instruction. While the simulation appears to be an accurate representation of reality, peer and real-life pressures could not be totally simulated.

  1. Navigating the legal and ethical foundations of informed consent and confidentiality in integrated primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Cathy; Rose, Sandra; Fifield, Peter Y; Arnault, Steve

    2013-03-01

    This article describes findings from ongoing research and analysis of current literature in addition to discussions with leaders in the field, communications with lawyers and administrators of advocacy and government agencies pertaining to integrated primary care (IPC). Standards of care are established based on a myriad of factors, including professional codes of ethics, case law, state and federal laws, professional standards, existing best practices, current professional guidelines, administrative rules and regulations, and licensing board regulations. Regulations may differ for behavioral health and medical providers, posing challenges in IPC settings. This article provides a review of these regulations, particularly 42CFR Part 2, a federal law governing confidentiality for substance abuse programs, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and state laws relevant to patient care in IPC settings. On the basis of findings from the study, the authors make recommendations related to patient care practices concerning informed consent and release of information procedures, treatment and warm hand-off protocols, documentation and electronic record keeping, agreements with other providers, and billing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Increasing the acceptability of HIV counseling and testing with three C's: convenience, confidentiality and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, Nicole; Bula, Agatha; Gaydosh, Lauren; Kimchi, Eitan Zeev; Thornton, Rebecca L; Yeatman, Sara E

    2009-06-01

    Agencies engaged in humanitarian efforts to prevent the further spread of HIV have emphasized the importance of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), and most high-prevalence countries now have facilities that offer testing free of charge. The utilization of these services is disappointingly low, however, despite high numbers reporting that they would like to be tested. Explanations of this discrepancy typically rely on responses to hypothetical questions posed in terms of psychological or social barriers; often, the explanation is that people fear learning that they are infected with a disease that they understand to be fatal and stigmatizing. Yet when we offered door-to-door rapid blood testing for HIV as part of a longitudinal study in rural Malawi, the overwhelming majority agreed to be tested and to receive their results immediately. Thus, in this paper, we ask: why are more people not getting tested? Using an explanatory research design, we find that rural Malawians are responsive to door-to-door HIV testing for the following reasons: it is convenient, confidential, and the rapid blood test is credible. Our study suggests that attention to these factors in VCT strategies may mitigate the fear of HIV testing, and ultimately increase uptake in rural African settings.

  3. Fast human pose estimation using 3D Zernike descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjón, Daniel; Morán, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Markerless video-based human pose estimation algorithms face a high-dimensional problem that is frequently broken down into several lower-dimensional ones by estimating the pose of each limb separately. However, in order to do so they need to reliably locate the torso, for which they typically rely on time coherence and tracking algorithms. Their losing track usually results in catastrophic failure of the process, requiring human intervention and thus precluding their usage in real-time applications. We propose a very fast rough pose estimation scheme based on global shape descriptors built on 3D Zernike moments. Using an articulated model that we configure in many poses, a large database of descriptor/pose pairs can be computed off-line. Thus, the only steps that must be done on-line are the extraction of the descriptors for each input volume and a search against the database to get the most likely poses. While the result of such process is not a fine pose estimation, it can be useful to help more sophisticated algorithms to regain track or make more educated guesses when creating new particles in particle-filter-based tracking schemes. We have achieved a performance of about ten fps on a single computer using a database of about one million entries.

  4. To Not Only Being Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Fantauzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hannah Arendt is against the idea that Jews were only the victims of history. Starting from the idea that the Age of Enlightenment and the Jewish emancipation put the Jewish tradition and history in crisis, she is adamant that this same history is not only full of suffering, but includes  a hidden tradition of activism that is important to uncover and to claim. The aim of these pages is to analyse the Arendtian thinking of the 30s and 40s in order to show some elements that can help us to understand what the loss of humanity means today and to indicate the possibilities of claiming and recovering it.

  5. Methods of RVD object pose estimation and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; He, Yan; Wang, Weihua; Yu, Qifeng

    2007-11-01

    Methods of measuring a RVD (rendezvous and docking) cooperative object's pose from monocular and binocular images respectively are presented. The methods solve the initial values first and optimize the object pose parameters by bundle adjustment. In the disturbance-rejecting binocular method, chosen measurement system parameters of one camera's exterior parameters are modified simultaneously. The methods need three or more cooperative target points to measure the object's pose accurately. Experimental data show that the methods converge quickly and stably, provide accurate results and do not need accurate initial values. Even when the chosen measurement system parameters are subjected to some amount of disturbance, the binocular method manages to provide fairly accurate results.

  6. Medical students and personal smartphones in the clinical environment: the impact on confidentiality of personal health information and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kim; Morra, Dante; Lo, Vivian; Quan, Sherman D; Abrams, Howard; Wu, Robert C

    2014-05-22

    Smartphones are becoming ubiquitous in health care settings. The increased adoption of mobile technology such as smartphones may be attributed to their use as a point-of-care information source and to perceived improvements in clinical communication and efficiency. However, little is known about medical students' use of personal smartphones for clinical work. The intent of the study was to examine final-year medical students' experience with and attitudes toward using personal mobile technology in the clinical environment, with respect to the perceived impact on patient confidentiality and provider professionalism. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by final-year medical students at the University of Toronto. Respondents were asked about the type of personal mobile phone they use, security features on their personal phone, experiences using their personal phone during clinical rotations, and attitudes about using their personal phone for clinical work purposes. The overall response rate was 45.4% (99/218). Smartphone ownership was prevalent (98%, 97/99) with the majority (86%, 85/99) of participants using their personal phones for patient-related communication during clinical rotations. A total of 26% (26/99) of participants reported not having any type of security feature on their personal phone, 94% (90/96) of participants agreed that using their personal phone for clinical work makes them more efficient, and 86% (82/95) agreed that their personal phone allows them to provide better patient care. Although 68% (65/95) of participants believe that the use of personal phones for patient-related communication with colleagues poses a risk to the privacy and confidentiality of patient health information, 22% (21/96) of participants still use their personal phone to text or email identifiable patient data to colleagues. Our findings suggest that the use of personal smartphones for clinical work by medical students is prevalent. There is a need to more fully address

  7. Moral reasoning and emotion attributions of adolescent bullies, victims, and bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents aged 12-18 (57% females) reported the frequency of involvement in bullying and victimization. Participants were categorized as bullies (14.3%), bully-victims (3.9%), and victims (9.7%). Moral judgment, moral justifications, and emotion attributions to a hypothetical perpetrator of a moral transgression (relational aggression) were assessed. Bullies showed more morally disengaged reasoning than non-involved students. Bully-victims more frequently indicated that violating moral rules is right. Victims produced more victim-oriented justifications (i.e., more empathy) but fewer moral rules. Among victims, the frequency of morally responsible justifications decreased and the frequency of deviant rules increased with age. The findings are discussed from an integrative moral developmental perspective. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  8. When and Why We See Victims as Responsible: The Impact of Ideology on Attitudes Toward Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane

    2016-09-01

    Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  10. ESPRIT: Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop ESPRIT: an Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, in support of NASA's effort in developing crew exercise technologies for...

  11. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  12. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Ayllón

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.

  13. Pose estimation of industrial objects towards robot operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jie; Zhou, Fuqiang; Tan, Haishu; Cao, Yu

    2017-10-01

    With the advantages of wide range, non-contact and high flexibility, the visual estimation technology of target pose has been widely applied in modern industry, robot guidance and other engineering practices. However, due to the influence of complicated industrial environment, outside interference factors, lack of object characteristics, restrictions of camera and other limitations, the visual estimation technology of target pose is still faced with many challenges. Focusing on the above problems, a pose estimation method of the industrial objects is developed based on 3D models of targets. By matching the extracted shape characteristics of objects with the priori 3D model database of targets, the method realizes the recognition of target. Thus a pose estimation of objects can be determined based on the monocular vision measuring model. The experimental results show that this method can be implemented to estimate the position of rigid objects based on poor images information, and provides guiding basis for the operation of the industrial robot.

  14. 24 CFR 5.2007 - Certification of status and confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within 14 business days from the date of receipt of the PHA, owner, or management agent's request, or..., or management agent may evict the tenant or a family member that commits lease violations that..., owner, or management agent presented with a claim for continued tenancy based on status as a victim of...

  15. Inverse and Ill-posed Problems Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kabanikhin, S I

    2011-01-01

    The text demonstrates the methods for proving the existence (if et all) and finding of inverse and ill-posed problems solutions in linear algebra, integral and operator equations, integral geometry, spectral inverse problems, and inverse scattering problems. It is given comprehensive background material for linear ill-posed problems and for coefficient inverse problems for hyperbolic, parabolic, and elliptic equations. A lot of examples for inverse problems from physics, geophysics, biology, medicine, and other areas of application of mathematics are included.

  16. Contactless and pose invariant biometric identification using hand surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhangad, Vivek; Kumar, Ajay; Zhang, David

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for hand matching that achieves significantly improved performance even in the presence of large hand pose variations. The proposed method utilizes a 3-D digitizer to simultaneously acquire intensity and range images of the user's hand presented to the system in an arbitrary pose. The approach involves determination of the orientation of the hand in 3-D space followed by pose normalization of the acquired 3-D and 2-D hand images. Multimodal (2-D as well as 3-D) palmprint and hand geometry features, which are simultaneously extracted from the user's pose normalized textured 3-D hand, are used for matching. Individual matching scores are then combined using a new dynamic fusion strategy. Our experimental results on the database of 114 subjects with significant pose variations yielded encouraging results. Consistent (across various hand features considered) performance improvement achieved with the pose correction demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach for hand based biometric systems with unconstrained and contact-free imaging. The experimental results also suggest that the dynamic fusion approach employed in this work helps to achieve performance improvement of 60% (in terms of EER) over the case when matching scores are combined using the weighted sum rule.

  17. Perspective projection for variance pose face recognition from camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhir, M. M.; Woo, W. L.; Chambers, J. A.; Dlay, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    Variance pose is an important research topic in face recognition. The alteration of distance parameters across variance pose face features is a challenging. We provide a solution for this problem using perspective projection for variance pose face recognition. Our method infers intrinsic camera parameters of the image which enable the projection of the image plane into 3D. After this, face box tracking and centre of eyes detection can be identified using our novel technique to verify the virtual face feature measurements. The coordinate system of the perspective projection for face tracking allows the holistic dimensions for the face to be fixed in different orientations. The training of frontal images and the rest of the poses on FERET database determine the distance from the centre of eyes to the corner of box face. The recognition system compares the gallery of images against different poses. The system initially utilises information on position of both eyes then focuses principally on closest eye in order to gather data with greater reliability. Differentiation between the distances and position of the right and left eyes is a unique feature of our work with our algorithm outperforming other state of the art algorithms thus enabling stable measurement in variance pose for each individual.

  18. Robust head pose estimation via supervised manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Song, Xubo

    2014-05-01

    Head poses can be automatically estimated using manifold learning algorithms, with the assumption that with the pose being the only variable, the face images should lie in a smooth and low-dimensional manifold. However, this estimation approach is challenging due to other appearance variations related to identity, head location in image, background clutter, facial expression, and illumination. To address the problem, we propose to incorporate supervised information (pose angles of training samples) into the process of manifold learning. The process has three stages: neighborhood construction, graph weight computation and projection learning. For the first two stages, we redefine inter-point distance for neighborhood construction as well as graph weight by constraining them with the pose angle information. For Stage 3, we present a supervised neighborhood-based linear feature transformation algorithm to keep the data points with similar pose angles close together but the data points with dissimilar pose angles far apart. The experimental results show that our method has higher estimation accuracy than the other state-of-art algorithms and is robust to identity and illumination variations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A victim-centered approach to justice? Victim satisfaction effects on third-party punishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M

    2012-10-01

    Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. THE INFORMATION CONFIDENTIALITY AND CYBER SECURITY IN MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABAU-POPA CLAUDIA DIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The information confidentiality and cyber security risk affects the right to confidentiality and privacy of the patient, as regulated in Romania by the Law 46/2002. The manifestation of the cyber security risk event affects the reputation of the healthcare institution and is becoming more and more complex and often due to the: development of network technology, the medical equipment connected to wifi and the electronic databases. The databases containing medical records were implemented due to automation. Thus, transforming data into medical knowledge contribute to a better understanding of the disease. Due to these factors, the measures taken by the hospital management for this type of risk are adapted to the cyber changes. The hospital objectives aim: the implementation of a robust information system, the early threats identifications and the incident reporting. Neglecting this type of risk can generate financial loss, inability to continue providing health care services for a certain period of time, providing an erroneous diagnosis, medical equipment errors etc. Thus, in a digital age the appropriate risk management for the information security and cyber risk represent a necessity. The main concern of hospitals worldwide is to align with international requirements and obtain credentials in terms of data security from the International Organisation for Standardization, which regulates the management of this type of risk. Romania is at the beginning in terms of concerns regarding the management, avoidance and mitigation of information security, the health system being most highly exposed to its manifestation. The present paper examines the concerns of the health system to the confidentiality of information and cyber security risk and its management arrangements. Thus, a set of key risk indicators is implemented and monitored for 2011-2013, using a user interface, a Dashboard, which acts as an early warning system of the manifestation of the

  1. Gossip, stories and friendship: confidentiality in midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S

    1995-12-01

    Women often seek midwifery care as an alternative to the maternity services that are readily available within the insured health care system in Alberta. Some aspects of community-based, primary care midwifery in Alberta that characterize this alternative are the use of story-telling as a form of knowledge, the development of social connections among women seeking midwifery care, and nonauthoritarian relationships between midwives and women. In this paper, the concept of confidentiality, as it relates to these aspects of midwifery practice, is explored, using traditional, caring and feminist models of ethics.

  2. Teaching Confidentiality through Comics at One Spanish Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanda, Mónica; Altisent, Rogelio; Delgado-Marroquín, Maria Teresa

    2018-02-01

    At the University of Zaragoza in Spain we developed an innovative way to teach the concept of confidentiality to medical students, which we tested by comparing the use of customized comics with more traditional methods. We proved that using comics is more attractive to students than lectures and class discussions, that it increases class participation and students' self-awareness of learning, and that it maintains the same academic results. We share our experience visually in a two-page comic. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Assessing the Biological Threat Posed by Suicide Bombers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    the test by about 350’, it is clear some aerosol particles “ surfed ” the shockwave from the blast and were carried a distance upwind. Had the sampling...projectiles implantation in victims of suicide bombings and implications for health and emergency care provideres: the 7/7 experience, Ann R Coll Surg Engl...Ebola in East Africa and Implications for Global Health and Security, Global Policy 2013. (8) Ustun, C.; Ozgurler, O., Ebola: A Significant Threat as

  4. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  5. Predictors and protective factors for adolescent Internet victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    2012-01-01

    To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....

  6. Victims of Rape: Repeated Assessment of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkeson, Beverly M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated depressive symptoms in rape victims (N=115) for one year following their assaults. Depressive symptoms were higher in victims than in controls. By four months postrape, depressive symptoms in the victim group had diminished, and the victims were no longer significantly different from the nonvictim control group. (Author)

  7. Cyber socializing and victimization of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Debarati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.01 has redefined the virtual life of ordinary individuals and has given wide opportunities to internet users including women to exchange ideas, interact with like minded people and participate in the development of virtual societies as per one's own choices. Social networking websites (SNWs, a segment of Web 2.0 is very popular among the internet users. However, there is a dark side of these SNW's too. They have become havens for offenders to victimize women, the most vulnerable targets in the internet, after children. In this paper, we examine the victimization of women in the social networking websites in general, analyze the trends of such victimization from socio - legal - victimological angle and ascertain the reasons for the growth of such victimization.

  8. La victime, acteur de la sécurité ? / The victim, a security actor ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu François

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the position of the victim in security policy? Only recently has the victim been the object, in France and elsewhere, of considerable attention by the social system, which has taken into account the different aspects of victimization. However, the victim is only partially associated to actions led in this domain, either as a source of data on the state of delinquency through public meetings and victimization surveys, or as an auxiliary to prevention with measure of community and situational prevention.Quelle est la place de la victime dans les politiques de sécurité ? Ce n’est que très récemment que la victime a fait l’objet, en France comma ailleurs, d’une attention plus soutenue de la part du système social, avec le développement d’une meilleure prise en charge des différents aspects de la victimisation. Pour autant, la victime n’est associée que très partiellement aux actions conduites en ce domaine, soit comme source de données sur l’état de la délinquance au moyen de réunions publiques et d’enquête de victimation, soit comme auxiliaire de la prévention avec les dispositifs de prévention communautaire et situationnelle.

  9. Stop Harassment!: men's reactions to victims' confrontation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Herrera, M.; Herrera, Antonio; Expósito, Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers' ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim's self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men's perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The st...

  10. Incendiari e vittime / Arsonists and Victims / Incendiaires et victimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bisi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Human beings need fire !Contrary to other living beings, mankind could not live without fire so it is quite astonishing to observe that most of the fires which burn on the earth are caused by man.Many fires spread all over the North Mediterranean area, from Portugal to Turkey, during the summer 2007.Human beings and fire: associated to the sacrifice of Titan Prometheus which was meant to be a sort of pattern to be followed by men to honour the gods.Fire is alive like water and air but it is difficult to capture it with the eyes: we can look at it for a long time before we discover that it never looks like itself.Fire has brought about important changes to human life, giving it much more security and comfort.However, the destructive power of fire is a real threat which not only takes many victims and results in wounded, intoxicated and homeless people but its force also wipes out and destroys places recognized as the heritage of mankind.Les hommes ont besoin du feu! Contrairement à tous les autres êtres vivants, les hommes ne pourraient pas vivre comme ils le font sans le feu; d'autre part, le fait que la plupart des feux qui brûlent sur la planète sont causés par l’homme, représente un aspect inquiétant.Pendant l’été 2007, beaucoup d’incendies ont frappé toute la zone du Nord de la Méditerranée, du Portugal à la Turquie. Hommes et feu : un binôme lié à la création du sacrifice du Titan Prométhée et qui aurait ainsi établi le modèle suivi par les hommes afin d'honorer les dieux.Le feu est vivant, comme l’eau et l'air, mais il est insaisissable au regard, c’est à dire que nous pouvons passer beaucoup de temps à le regarder mais il ne sera jamais égal à lui même. L’usage du feu a rendu la vie de l’homme plus sûre et plus confortable et il a modifié, au cours du temps, la face de la terre.Toutefois, la force déstructrice du feu représente une menace réelle qui fait des victimes, des blessés, des intoxiqu

  11. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  12. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  13. Role of radiology in the study and identification of casualty victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenstein, J.E.; Madewell, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Radiology is assuming an increasingly important role in the investigation of casualty victims. Radiographic screening for foreign bodies, personal effects, dental and surgical artifacts and occult skeletal injury has long been an established technique in forensic medicine. Positive radiographic identification of the victims by comparison with antemortem films and records in a more recent, important development. Large scale radiographic investigations may require improvised facilities posing unaccustomed technical and logistical problems. Radiologic experience gained from aviation accident investigation is found to apply in other casualty situations as well as in individual fatality investigations. Radiologic data may aid determination of the cause of incidents, resulting in improved safety procedures and design, as well as serving humanitarian and forensic functions. (orig.)

  14. Multi-task pose-invariant face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changxing; Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-03-01

    Face images captured in unconstrained environments usually contain significant pose variation, which dramatically degrades the performance of algorithms designed to recognize frontal faces. This paper proposes a novel face identification framework capable of handling the full range of pose variations within ±90° of yaw. The proposed framework first transforms the original pose-invariant face recognition problem into a partial frontal face recognition problem. A robust patch-based face representation scheme is then developed to represent the synthesized partial frontal faces. For each patch, a transformation dictionary is learnt under the proposed multi-task learning scheme. The transformation dictionary transforms the features of different poses into a discriminative subspace. Finally, face matching is performed at patch level rather than at the holistic level. Extensive and systematic experimentation on FERET, CMU-PIE, and Multi-PIE databases shows that the proposed method consistently outperforms single-task-based baselines as well as state-of-the-art methods for the pose problem. We further extend the proposed algorithm for the unconstrained face verification problem and achieve top-level performance on the challenging LFW data set.

  15. Students’ Mathematical Creative Thinking through Problem Posing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, U.; Prabawanto, S.; Jupri, A.

    2017-09-01

    The research aims to investigate the differences in enhancement of students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach assisted by manipulative media and students who received problem posing approach without manipulative media. This study was a quasi experimental research with non-equivalent control group design. Population of this research was third-grade students of a primary school in Bandung city in 2016/2017 academic year. Sample of this research was two classes as experiment class and control class. The instrument used is a test of mathematical creative thinking ability. Based on the results of the research, it is known that the enhancement of the students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach with manipulative media aid is higher than the ability of those who received problem posing approach without manipulative media aid. Students who get learning problem posing learning accustomed in arranging mathematical sentence become matter of story so it can facilitate students to comprehend about story

  16. Temporal subtraction of chest radiographs compensating pose differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Berg, Jens; Dworzak, Jalda; Klinder, Tobias; Manke, Dirk; Kreth, Adrian; Lamecker, Hans; Zachow, Stefan; Lorenz, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Temporal subtraction techniques using 2D image registration improve the detectability of interval changes from chest radiographs. Although such methods are well known for some time they are not widely used in radiologic practice. The reason is the occurrence of strong pose differences between two acquisitions with a time interval of months to years in between. Such strong perspective differences occur in a reasonable number of cases. They cannot be compensated by available image registration methods and thus mask interval changes to be undetectable. In this paper a method is proposed to estimate a 3D pose difference by the adaptation of a 3D rib cage model to both projections. The difference between both is then compensated for, thus producing a subtraction image with virtually no change in pose. The method generally assumes that no 3D image data is available from the patient. The accuracy of pose estimation is validated with chest phantom images acquired under controlled geometric conditions. A subtle interval change simulated by a piece of plastic foam attached to the phantom becomes visible in subtraction images generated with this technique even at strong angular pose differences like an anterior-posterior inclination of 13 degrees.

  17. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R

    2015-07-01

    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Pose estimation for augmented reality applications using genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying Kin; Wong, Kin Hong; Chang, Michael Ming Yuen

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes a genetic algorithm that tackles the pose-estimation problem in computer vision. Our genetic algorithm can find the rotation and translation of an object accurately when the three-dimensional structure of the object is given. In our implementation, each chromosome encodes both the pose and the indexes to the selected point features of the object. Instead of only searching for the pose as in the existing work, our algorithm, at the same time, searches for a set containing the most reliable feature points in the process. This mismatch filtering strategy successfully makes the algorithm more robust under the presence of point mismatches and outliers in the images. Our algorithm has been tested with both synthetic and real data with good results. The accuracy of the recovered pose is compared to the existing algorithms. Our approach outperformed the Lowe's method and the other two genetic algorithms under the presence of point mismatches and outliers. In addition, it has been used to estimate the pose of a real object. It is shown that the proposed method is applicable to augmented reality applications.

  19. Quantum key based burst confidentiality in optical burst switched networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A M; Sivasubramanian, A

    2014-01-01

    The optical burst switching (OBS) is an emergent result to the technology concern that could achieve a feasible network in future. They are endowed with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of those applications that require intensive bandwidth. There are more domains opening up in the OBS that evidently shows their advantages and their capability to face the future network traffic. However, the concept of OBS is still far from perfection facing issues in case of security threat. The transfer of optical switching paradigm to optical burst switching faces serious downfall in the fields of burst aggregation, routing, authentication, dispute resolution, and quality of service (QoS). This paper deals with employing RC4 (stream cipher) to encrypt and decrypt bursts thereby ensuring the confidentiality of the burst. Although the use of AES algorithm has already been proposed for the same issue, by contrasting the two algorithms under the parameters of burst encryption and decryption time, end-to-end delay, it was found that RC4 provided better results. This paper looks to provide a better solution for the confidentiality of the burst in OBS networks.

  20. Quantum Key Based Burst Confidentiality in Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Balamurugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS is an emergent result to the technology concern that could achieve a feasible network in future. They are endowed with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of those applications that require intensive bandwidth. There are more domains opening up in the OBS that evidently shows their advantages and their capability to face the future network traffic. However, the concept of OBS is still far from perfection facing issues in case of security threat. The transfer of optical switching paradigm to optical burst switching faces serious downfall in the fields of burst aggregation, routing, authentication, dispute resolution, and quality of service (QoS. This paper deals with employing RC4 (stream cipher to encrypt and decrypt bursts thereby ensuring the confidentiality of the burst. Although the use of AES algorithm has already been proposed for the same issue, by contrasting the two algorithms under the parameters of burst encryption and decryption time, end-to-end delay, it was found that RC4 provided better results. This paper looks to provide a better solution for the confidentiality of the burst in OBS networks.

  1. HIPAA-protecting patient confidentiality or covering something else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A case of a physician fired from the Veterans Administration (VA for violation of the Health Care Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA illustrates a problem with both the law and the VA. Anil Parikh, a VA physician at the Jesse Brown VA in Chicago, was dismissed on a charge of making unauthorized disclosures of confidential patient information on October 19, 2007. On January 3, 2011 the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB reversed Dr. Parikh’s removal. Dr. Parikh's initially made disclosures to the VA Office of Inspector General and to Senator Barack Obama and Congressman Luis Gutierrez, in whose district the Jesse Brown VA lies. Dr. Parikh alleged that there were systematic problems within the Jesse Brown VA that resulted in untimely and inadequate patient care. The confidential patient information Parikh disclosed included examples of the misdiagnoses and misdirection of patients within the hospital. Specifically, Dr. Parikh alleged that …

  2. Research Participants' Understanding of and Reactions to Certificates of Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, Laura M; Check, Devon K; Ammarell, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Certificates of Confidentiality are intended to facilitate participation in critical public health research by protecting against forced disclosure of identifying data in legal proceedings, but little is known about the effect of Certificate descriptions in consent forms. To gain preliminary insights, we conducted qualitative interviews with 50 HIV-positive individuals in Durham, North Carolina to explore their subjective understanding of Certificate descriptions and whether their reactions differed based on receiving a standard versus simplified description. Most interviewees were neither reassured nor alarmed by Certificate information, and most said it would not influence their willingness to participate or provide truthful information. However, compared with those receiving the simplified description, more who read the standard description said it raised new concerns, that their likelihood of participating would be lower, and that they might be less forthcoming. Most interviewees said they found the Certificate description clear, but standard-group participants often found particular words and phrases confusing, while simplified-group participants more often questioned the information's substance. Valid informed consent requires comprehension and voluntariness. Our findings highlight the importance of developing consent descriptions of Certificates and other confidentiality protections that are simple and accurate. These qualitative results provide rich detail to inform a larger, quantitative study that would permit further rigorous comparisons.

  3. Pose-Invariant Face Recognition via RGB-D Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Gaoli; Li, Jing; Zhao, Qijun

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) face models can intrinsically handle large pose face recognition problem. In this paper, we propose a novel pose-invariant face recognition method via RGB-D images. By employing depth, our method is able to handle self-occlusion and deformation, both of which are challenging problems in two-dimensional (2D) face recognition. Texture images in the gallery can be rendered to the same view as the probe via depth. Meanwhile, depth is also used for similarity measure via frontalization and symmetric filling. Finally, both texture and depth contribute to the final identity estimation. Experiments on Bosphorus, CurtinFaces, Eurecom, and Kiwi databases demonstrate that the additional depth information has improved the performance of face recognition with large pose variations and under even more challenging conditions.

  4. Privacy and Confidentiality in Exchange of Information Procedures : Some Uncertainties, Many Issues, but Few Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debelva, F.; Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2017-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to analyse the taxpayers’ rights to confidentiality and privacy in exchange of information including the new global standard of automatic exchange of information. Section 2 will analyse the state of the art regarding the right to privacy and confidentiality in

  5. 5 CFR 2634.901 - Policies of confidential financial disclosure reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) The confidential financial reporting system set forth in this subpart is designed to complement... Government duties involve the exercise of significant discretion in certain sensitive areas, report their... apparent conflicts of interest. The confidential financial disclosure system promotes that goal, with...

  6. 41 CFR 105-60.405 - Processing requests for confidential commercial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MATERIALS 60.4-Described Records § 105-60.405 Processing requests for confidential commercial information... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing requests for confidential commercial information. 105-60.405 Section 105-60.405 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  7. Attitude of Lithuanian residents to confidentiality of adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-01-01

    To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents.......To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents....

  8. University Student Expectations of Confidentiality When Disclosing Information to Their Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gregory E.; Dalton, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore university students' expectations of confidentiality when they make disclosures to their university professors. A secondary purpose was to consider if students have a higher expectation of confidentiality when talking with Psychology professors versus professors in other disciplines. Students were asked to…

  9. 40 CFR 260.2 - Availability of information; confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of information; confidentiality of information. 260.2 Section 260.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL General § 260.2 Availability of information; confidentiality of...

  10. Privacy and Confidentiality Practices In Adolescent Family Planning Care At Federally Qualified Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Tishra; Mead, Katherine H; Wood, Susan; Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Shin, Peter; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2016-03-01

    The confidentiality of family planning services remains a high priority to adolescents, but barriers to implementing confidentiality and privacy practices exist in settings designed for teenagers who are medically underserved, including federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). A sample of 423 FQHCs surveyed in 2011 provided information on their use of five selected privacy and confidentiality practices, which were examined separately and combined into an index. Regression modeling was used to assess whether various state policies and organizational characteristics were associated with FQHCs' scores on the index. In-depth case studies of six FQHCs were conducted to provide additional contextual information. Among FQHCs reporting on confidentiality, most reported providing written or verbal information regarding adolescents' rights to confidential care (81%) and limiting access to family planning and medical records to protect adolescents' confidentiality (84%). Far fewer reported maintaining separate medical records for family planning (10%), using a security block on electronic medical records to prevent disclosures (43%) or using separate contact information for communications regarding family planning services (50%). Index scores were higher among FQHCs that received Title X funding than among those that did not (coefficient, 0.70) and among FQHCs with the largest patient volumes than among those with the smallest caseloads (0.43). Case studies highlighted how a lack of guidelines and providers' confusion over relevant laws present a challenge in offering confidential care to adolescents. The organizational practices used to ensure adolescent family planning confidentiality in FQHCs are varied across organizations. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  11. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.13 Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in... systems in operation after October 1, 1997. (a) Information integrity and security. Have safeguards... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security and confidentiality for computerized...

  12. 6 CFR 25.10 - Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality and protection of Intellectual Property. 25.10 Section 25.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGULATIONS TO SUPPORT ANTI-TERRORISM BY FOSTERING EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 25.10 Confidentiality and...

  13. 5 CFR 1312.26 - Control of secret and confidential material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of secret and confidential... Accountability of Classified Information § 1312.26 Control of secret and confidential material. Classified... Document Control, will be used to establish accountability controls on all Secret material received or...

  14. 42 CFR 405.215 - Confidential commercial and trade secret information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidential commercial and trade secret information. 405.215 Section 405.215 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... trade secret information. To the extent that CMS relies on confidential commercial or trade secret...

  15. 40 CFR 370.64 - What information can I claim as trade secret or confidential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... secret or confidential? 370.64 Section 370.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... secret or confidential? (a) Trade secrets. You may be able to withhold the name of a specific chemical... trade secret. The requirements for withholding trade secret information are set forth in EPCRA section...

  16. 40 CFR 725.15 - Determining applicability when microorganism identity or use is confidential or uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW... appear on the public version of the Inventory, in § 725.239 or in subpart M of this part. Instead, it is contained in a confidential version held in EPA's Confidential Business Information Center (CBIC). The...

  17. 16 CFR 312.8 - Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidentiality, security, and integrity of... COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.8 Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children. The operator must...

  18. 77 FR 48072 - Final Confidentiality Determinations for Regulations Under the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Final Confidentiality Determinations for Regulations Under the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases... confidentiality determinations for certain data elements in regulations under the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Web site at http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ghgrulemaking.html...

  19. 17 CFR 200.83 - Confidential treatment procedures under the Freedom of Information Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Information... first received by the Commission (i) it is supplied segregated from information for which confidential..., 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC 20549. The person requesting confidential treatment may supply...

  20. Having Confidence in Therapeutic Work with Young People: Constraints and Challenges to Confidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Confidentiality presents particular challenges to practitioners working with young people, on account of the latter's vulnerability and emotional immaturity. Ethical codes place a key importance on confidentiality, from deontological and teleological perspectives. However, young clients may rely on a more pragmatic approach in deciding whether to…

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 718 - Confidential Business Information Declared or Reported *

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential Business Information... Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 718, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part...

  2. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of drug abuse patient records were initially authorized by section 408...

  3. 30 CFR 210.40 - Will MMS keep the information I provide confidential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS keep the information I provide... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS General Provisions § 210.40 Will MMS keep the information I provide confidential? The MMS will treat information obtained under this part as confidential to the...

  4. 30 CFR 291.111 - How does MMS treat the confidential information I provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS treat the confidential information... SHELF LANDS ACT § 291.111 How does MMS treat the confidential information I provide? (a) Any person who provides documents under this part in response to a request by MMS to inform a decision on whether open...

  5. 48 CFR 1552.235-71 - Treatment of confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business information. 1552.235-71 Section 1552.235-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.235-71 Treatment of confidential business information. As prescribed in 1535.007-70(b... determined that in the performance of a contract, EPA may furnish confidential business information to the...

  6. 48 CFR 1552.235-80 - Access to confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business information. 1552.235-80 Section 1552.235-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.235-80 Access to confidential business information. As prescribed in 1535.007-70(g), insert the following clause. Access to Confidential Business Information (OCT 2000) It is not anticipated...

  7. 48 CFR 1552.235-76 - Treatment of Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-76 Section 1552.235-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-76 Treatment of Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). As prescribed in 1535.007-70(c), insert the following clause: Treatment of Confidential Business Information (TSCA...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.235-70 - Screening business information for claims of confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Screening business... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-70 Screening business information for claims of confidentiality... proprietary or confidential by the business that has the right to the information. The following clause...

  9. Confidentiality with Minors: The Need for Policy To Promote and Protect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Carolyn; Isaacs, Madelyn L.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated school counselors' attitudes toward breaching confidentiality before and after the 1999 Columbine High School shootings. Surveys of demographically similar counselors indicated that the Columbine shootings affected counselors' predictions about their attitudes and behavior regarding confidentiality. Counselors were more reluctant to…

  10. 22 CFR 1101.5 - Security, confidentiality and protection of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Security, confidentiality and protection of... Bureau of Standard's booklet “Computer Security Guidelines for Implementing the Privacy Act of 1974” (May... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.5 Security, confidentiality and...

  11. Bystander Involvement in Peer Victimization: The Value of Looking beyond Aggressors and Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Brenda A.; Dempsey, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Peer victimization has been a focus of both research and prevention program development. This construct is typically measured from the victim and aggressor perspectives. However, prevention programming often includes an additional bystander perspective. The present study evaluated whether questions regarding witnessing peer victimization…

  12. When a victim becomes violent perpetrator: Violent victimization in childhood, violent criminal behavior in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous international research has identified that direct or indirect exposure to violent victimization in a familial context during childhood is a risk factor for violent criminal behavior of victimized children in adulthood. Studies of violent victimization of children in Serbia are rare, and are mostly directed at determining the prevalence, the main characteristics of or the immediate physical, psychological and behavioral consequences of victimization. Empirical analysis of the criminological consequences of early violent victimization in adulthood are an exception in scientific studies in Serbia. The aim of the paper is to present the results of research into the influence of early violent victimization on violent crime of adult men and women. After the introduction a brief overview of the worldwide research confirming the correlation between the experience of violent victimization and subsequent violent behavior is given. The results of the research conducted by the author will then be discussed. The results illustrate the possibility of predicting violent criminal behavior in adulthood based on indicators of direct and indirect victimization in childhood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i prevenciju

  13. Do victims only cry? Victim-survivors and their grassroots organizations in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waardt, M.F.; Ouweneel, A.

    2012-01-01

    De Waardt discusses associations of victims of the 1980s violent conflict in Peru, which she relates to the Peruvian cultural tradition of grassroots organizations. She conveys the substantial existence of victim-survivor associations, the social support its members find amongst each other, and the

  14. Victimization experiences of adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Wan-Yuen; Dunne, Michael P; Marret, Mary J; Fleming, Marylou; Wong, Yut-Lin

    2011-12-01

    There has been little community-based research regarding multiple-type victimization experiences of young people in Asia, and none in Malaysia. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, explore gender differences, as well as describe typical perpetrators and family and social risk factors among Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1,870 students was conducted in 20 randomly selected secondary schools in Selangor state (mean age: 16 years; 58.8% female). The questionnaire included items on individual, family, and social background and different types of victimization experiences in childhood. Emotional and physical types of victimization were most common. A significant proportion of adolescents (22.1%) were exposed to more than one type, with 3% reporting all four types. Compared with females, males reported more physical, emotional, and sexual victimization. The excess of sexual victimization among boys was due to higher exposure to noncontact events, whereas prevalence of forced intercourse was equal for both genders (3.0%). Although adult male perpetrators predominate, female adults and peers of both genders also contribute substantially. Low quality of parent-child relationships and poor school and neighborhood environments had the strongest associations with victimization. Family structure (parental divorce, presence of step-parent or single parent, or household size), parental drug use, and rural/urban location were not influential in this sample. This study extends the analysis of multiple-type victimization to a Malaysian population. Although some personal, familial, and social factors correlate with those found in western nations, there are cross-cultural differences, especially with regard to the nature of sexual violence based on gender and the influence of family structure. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Public expectations concerning confidentiality protection of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An adolescent's right to confidential healthcare is protected by international law and professional consensus. However, parental and social support for confidential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, in particular, varies greatly. This study documents Lithuanian residents......' expectations with regard to confidentiality protection for adolescents in this domain, and explores the factors related to the diversity of these expectations. METHODS: Two national surveys of Lithuanian residents completed in 2005 and 2012 using anonymous questionnaires. Participants rated their expectations...... for confidentiality using a five-point Likert scale for eight types of SRH consultations. RESULTS: Public anticipation for confidentiality depended on whether issues related to sexual behaviour or to its consequences were addressed during adolescent consultation. Only younger respondents had higher expectations...

  16. Psychosocial profile of bullies, victims, and bully-victims: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eLeiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.

  17. Pose-invariant face recognition using Markov random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Huy Tho; Chellappa, Rama

    2013-04-01

    One of the key challenges for current face recognition techniques is how to handle pose variations between the probe and gallery face images. In this paper, we present a method for reconstructing the virtual frontal view from a given nonfrontal face image using Markov random fields (MRFs) and an efficient variant of the belief propagation algorithm. In the proposed approach, the input face image is divided into a grid of overlapping patches, and a globally optimal set of local warps is estimated to synthesize the patches at the frontal view. A set of possible warps for each patch is obtained by aligning it with images from a training database of frontal faces. The alignments are performed efficiently in the Fourier domain using an extension of the Lucas-Kanade algorithm that can handle illumination variations. The problem of finding the optimal warps is then formulated as a discrete labeling problem using an MRF. The reconstructed frontal face image can then be used with any face recognition technique. The two main advantages of our method are that it does not require manually selected facial landmarks or head pose estimation. In order to improve the performance of our pose normalization method in face recognition, we also present an algorithm for classifying whether a given face image is at a frontal or nonfrontal pose. Experimental results on different datasets are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the conservation status of oceanic islands (e.g.. Williamson 1996). Subantarctic Prince Edward Island, the smaller of the two islands in the Prince Edward. Island group, has few introduced organisms; it is cur- rently known to support only three introduced animals.

  19. Full Body Pose Estimation During Occlusion using Multiple Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Cosar, Serhan

    people is a very challenging problem for methods based on pictorials structure as for any other monocular pose estimation method. In this report we present work on a multi-view approach based on pictorial structures that integrate low level information from multiple calibrated cameras to improve the 2D...

  20. Spontaneous and posed facial expression in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M C; Smith, M K; Ellgring, H

    1996-09-01

    Spontaneous and posed emotional facial expressions in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 12) were compared with those of healthy age-matched controls (n = 12). The intensity and amount of facial expression in PD patients were expected to be reduced for spontaneous but not posed expressions. Emotional stimuli were video clips selected from films, 2-5 min in duration, designed to elicit feelings of happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, or anger. Facial movements were coded using Ekman and Friesen's (1978) Facial Action Coding System (FACS). In addition, participants rated their emotional experience on 9-point Likert scales. The PD group showed significantly less overall facial reactivity than did controls when viewing the films. The predicted Group X Condition (spontaneous vs. posed) interaction effect on smile intensity was found when PD participants with more severe disease were compared with those with milder disease and with controls. In contrast, ratings of emotional experience were similar for both groups. Depression was positively associated with emotion rating but not with measures of facial activity. Spontaneous facial expression appears to be selectively affected in PD, whereas posed expression and emotional experience remain relatively intact.

  1. Enhancing Students' Communication Skills through Problem Posing and Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugito; E. S., Sri Mulyani; Hartono; Supartono

    2017-01-01

    This study was to explore how enhance communication skill through problem posing and presentation method. The subjects of this research were the seven grade students Junior High School, including 20 male and 14 female. This research was conducted in two cycles and each cycle consisted of four steps, they were: planning, action, observation, and…

  2. Binary classification posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binary classification is posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic problem and solved using the proposed method. Each class in the binary classification problem is modeled as a multidimensional ellipsoid to forma quadratic constraint in the problem. Particle swarms help in determining the optimal hyperplane or ...

  3. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, María F.; Gómez, Isabel A.; Ballesta-Claver, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas), flexibility (range of ideas),…

  4. Developing teachers' subject didactic competence through problem posing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Marie; Hošpesová, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-143 ISSN 0013-1954 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : professional development * primary school teachers * problem posing Subject RIV: AM - Education Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10649-012-9455-1

  5. The relative pose estimation of aircraft based on contour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tai; Sun, Xiangyi

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes a relative pose estimation approach based on object contour model. The first step is to obtain a two-dimensional (2D) projection of three-dimensional (3D)-model-based target, which will be divided into 40 forms by clustering and LDA analysis. Then we proceed by extracting the target contour in each image and computing their Pseudo-Zernike Moments (PZM), thus a model library is constructed in an offline mode. Next, we spot a projection contour that resembles the target silhouette most in the present image from the model library with reference of PZM; then similarity transformation parameters are generated as the shape context is applied to match the silhouette sampling location, from which the identification parameters of target can be further derived. Identification parameters are converted to relative pose parameters, in the premise that these values are the initial result calculated via iterative refinement algorithm, as the relative pose parameter is in the neighborhood of actual ones. At last, Distance Image Iterative Least Squares (DI-ILS) is employed to acquire the ultimate relative pose parameters.

  6. Optical neural network system for pose determination of spinning satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Casasent, David

    1990-01-01

    An optical neural network architecture and algorithm based on a Hopfield optimization network are presented for multitarget tracking. This tracker utilizes a neuron for every possible target track, and a quadratic energy function of neural activities which is minimized using gradient descent neural evolution. The neural net tracker is demonstrated as part of a system for determining position and orientation (pose) of spinning satellites with respect to a robotic spacecraft. The input to the system is time sequence video from a single camera. Novelty detection and filtering are utilized to locate and segment novel regions from the input images. The neural net multitarget tracker determines the correspondences (or tracks) of the novel regions as a function of time, and hence the paths of object (satellite) parts. The path traced out by a given part or region is approximately elliptical in image space, and the position, shape and orientation of the ellipse are functions of the satellite geometry and its pose. Having a geometric model of the satellite, and the elliptical path of a part in image space, the three-dimensional pose of the satellite is determined. Digital simulation results using this algorithm are presented for various satellite poses and lighting conditions.

  7. 3D Facial Landmarking under Expression, Pose, and Occlusion Variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dibeklioğ lu; A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); L. Akarun

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractAutomatic localization of 3D facial features is important for face recognition, tracking, modeling and expression analysis. Methods developed for 2D images were shown to have problems working across databases acquired with different illumination conditions. Expression variations, pose

  8. POSING THE HISTORICAL JESUS QUESTION AND THE GOAL OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mycl

    ... study recommended that. African scholars be allowed to develop and pose the Historical Jesus ... he is seen as the starting point for modern critical study of Jesus. (Burer). ... African anthropology and culture and the data of revelation, and how this theology ... Man” from two perspectives: that of a biblical culture in the first.

  9. Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in Geometry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, R.; Slamet, I.; Budiyono

    2017-09-01

    One of the difficulties of students in the learning of geometry is on the subject of plane that requires students to understand the abstract matter. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of Problem Posing learning model with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach in geometry learning. This quasi experimental research was conducted in one of the junior high schools in Karanganyar, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The results of this research indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students’ conceptual understanding significantly in geometry learning especially on plane topics. It is because students on the application of Problem Posing with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach are become to be active in constructing their knowledge, proposing, and problem solving in realistic, so it easier for students to understand concepts and solve the problems. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on geometry material. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.

  10. Zebra Mussels Pose a Threat to Virginia's Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A. (Louis Anthony), 1942-; Weigmann, Diana L.; Speenburgh, Renee M.; Neves, Richard J.; Kitchel, Lisie; Bruenderman, Sue A., 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Provides an brief introduction to the invasion of the zebra mussel into American waters, explains the economic consequences they pose, and discusses if Virginia will inherit the problem, what the public can do to help, the general lifecycle of the zebra mussel and if they can be controlled, and who is working on the zebra mussel problem.

  11. Effects of pose and image resolution on automatic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khan, Samee U.

    The popularity of face recognition systems have increased due to their use in widespread applications. Driven by the enormous number of potential application domains, several algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Face pose and image resolutions are among the two important factors that

  12. Meanings Given to Algebraic Symbolism in Problem-Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, María C.; Molina, Marta; del Río, Aurora

    2018-01-01

    Some errors in the learning of algebra suggest that students might have difficulties giving meaning to algebraic symbolism. In this paper, we use problem posing to analyze the students' capacity to assign meaning to algebraic symbolism and the difficulties that students encounter in this process, depending on the characteristics of the algebraic…

  13. 48 CFR 1552.235-73 - Access to Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-73 Section... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). As prescribed in... Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to perform duties under the contract, the...

  14. 48 CFR 1552.235-75 - Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-75 Section 1552.235-75 Federal... Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). As prescribed in 1535.007(b), insert the following provision: Access to Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to perform...

  15. Confidentiality in participatory research: Challenges from one study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elmira; Dewing, Jan; Camilleri, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    This article presents key ethical challenges that were encountered when conducting a participatory qualitative research project with a very specific, small group of nurses, in this case with practice development nurses in Malta. With the small number of nurses employed in practice development roles in Malta, there are numerous difficulties of maintaining confidentiality. Poorly constructed interventions by the researcher could have resulted in detrimental effects to research participants and the overall trustworthiness of the research. Generally, ethical guidelines for research exist to reinforce validity of research; however, there is not an established consensus on how these strategies can be utilised in some types of qualitative field work. The researcher used an exploratory case study methodology. The sample consisted of 10 participants who were interviewed twice using face-to-face interviews, over a period of 2 months. The study was ethically reviewed by the University Research Ethics Committee and the Faculty Research Ethics Committee, University of Malta. The participants referred to in this article have been given adequate information about the study and their consent has been obtained. Numerous strategies for ensuring confidentiality during recruitment of the participants, during data collection, during transcription and data analysis and during dissemination of research results assisted the researcher in responding to potential and actual ethical issues. This article emphasises the main strategies that can be used to respond to ethical challenges when researching with a small easily identifiable group. The learning discussed here may be relevant to or even transferable to other similar research studies or research contexts. These methods fostered a greater credibility throughout the research process and predisposed the participants to greater trust, and thus, they disclosed their experiences and speak more freely, thus enhancing the quality of the study

  16. How to become a victim of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Victimization from crime – a higher degree of social vulnerability criminal, contributing to the commission of crimes against them in certain circumstances. Victimization takes place in space and time, and includes four stages: 1 the emergence of criminal threats; 2 increasing the degree of social vulnerability to criminal assault; 3 the harm to individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable state at appropriate conditions (situations; 4 increase the number of victims of crimes as registered and latent, which helps re-victimization of some of them. As a result of our Internet survey of more than 3002 people (2015 defined the proportion of citizens who every year are victims of crime. By 2015 it is 37 %. However, one in seven respondents already had experience of victimization before. In our view, there is a threshold of permissible viktymizovanosti population not exceeding 40 % and is independent of the level of crime in a calendar year or an. Typically, victims of crime every year are new faces. Re-victimization experiences 15 % of citizens. The risk of becoming a victim of crime depends on the accuracy and timeliness of recognition of sources and types of criminal threats. Showed a rather stereotypical ideas of the criminal threat and showed a disorientation in identifying their sources. The last mentioned some time. Traditionally people cautious attitude to strangers, suspicious issued and may bear criminal intent (62 %; alarming stay at poorly attended locations in the dark (67 % and likelihood of falling into unpredictable situations (44 %. Only 15% of respondents sees the source of victimization in their own dangerous behavior. While the public understanding of the sources of victimization are largely abstract and false character. So, to our knowledge, most people are afraid of violent crime (64 %, but actually experiencing mercenary crimes (60 %. In the context of what has been said quite expected the place called criminal

  17. Sexually assaulted victims are getting younger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports produced by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), circumstances were...... extracted and analysed focussing on age, relationship, lesions, violence, location and alcohol intoxication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 184 girls and women over the age of 12 years were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: The median age of the victims was 20 years (range 12-89 years). 75.......5% were under 30 years of age. 53% knew the perpetrator. More than one perpetrator was reported in 11%. 46% of the assaulted victims had a total number of 1-5 observed lesions and these were observed in all types of perpetrator relationship. Eight victims with more than 20 lesions were assaulted...

  18. Pupils as Victims of Peer Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvek Mihaela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The school is an educational institution that has to provide appropriate control of adults over pupils, which they do. Nevertheless, violence cannot be avoided. Pupils encounter peer violence in different roles, as observers, victims, perpetrators, or both. The objective of our research was to examine how often pupils are victims of peer violence, and to what extent the latter depends on pupils’ gender and age. The results of the research made among pupils in the fifth, seventh, and eighth grades of various primary schools across Slovenia showed that 24.1 per cent of pupils had already been victims of peer violence. The ones that they tend to tell about such episodes are their parents. The results have also shown that school is really a place where violence is very common, and that psychological and verbal abuse are the most common types of violence used.

  19. Support for victims of crime: Analysis of the VDS info and victim support service in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available VDS info and victim support service is a victim support service, which was established in 2003 within the Victimology Society of Serbia. The service provides emotional support, information and, if necessary, referral to other relevant services, as well as witness support. The target group of the service are direct and indirect victims of all forms of crime, of both sexes, regardless of any personal characteristics. In addition, support is provided to victims in court, as well as to women victims of violence who are in prison. In most cases victim support is provided by volunteers who are trained to work with victims of crime. This paper analyzes the work of the service in 2010. Special attention is paid to the problems of workplace violence and domestic violence, which are the most common reasons for contacting the service. The aim of the paper is to present the work of the service in the past year, as well as to highlight the trends observed in comparison to the previous period.

  20. Peer Victimization and Dating Violence Victimization: The Mediating Role of Loneliness, Depressed Mood, and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, María-Jesús; Buelga, Sofía; Tomás, Inés

    2018-03-01

    Peer victimization and dating violence victimization have serious negative effects on adolescents' health, and they seem to be related. However, the mediating processes in this relationship have not been sufficiently analyzed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect relationships between peer victimization and dating violence victimization, considering the possible mediator role of loneliness, depressed mood, and life satisfaction. These relationships are analyzed in boys and girls, and in early and middle adolescence. From an initial sample of 1,038 Spanish adolescents, those who had or had had in the past 12 months a dating relationship (647 adolescents; 49.1% boys, M = 14.38, SD = 1.43) were included in this study. Multigroup structural equation modeling was used to test a double mediation model simultaneously for boys and girls, testing the invariance of the relationships among variables across genders. The same technique was used to test the model simultaneously for early and middle adolescence, testing the invariance of the relationships among variables across age groups. Results revealed a positive direct relationship between peer victimization and dating violence victimization, as well as the partial mediating role of loneliness and life satisfaction in this relationship. The mediator role of depressed mood was not supported. The same mediational model was confirmed in boys and girls, and in early and middle adolescence. These results highlight the important role of loneliness and life satisfaction to explain the link between peer victimization and dating violence victimization in adolescence. These findings may be useful for developing intervention programs aimed at preventing situations of multiple victimization during adolescence.

  1. Privacy and confidentiality: perspectives of mental health consumers and carers in pharmacy settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia; Knox, Kathy; Fejzic, Jasmina; McConnell, Denise; Fowler, Jane L; Mey, Amary; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-02-01

    The study aims to explore within the community pharmacy practice context the views of mental health stakeholders on: (1) current and past experiences of privacy, confidentiality and support; and (2) expectations and needs in relation to privacy and confidentiality. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted in three states in Australia, namely Queensland, the northern region of New South Wales and Western Australia, between December 2011 and March 2012. There were 98 participants consisting of consumers and carers (n = 74), health professionals (n = 13) and representatives from consumer organisations (n = 11). Participants highlighted a need for improved staff awareness. Consumers indicated a desire to receive information in a way that respects their privacy and confidentiality, in an appropriate space. Areas identified that require improved protection of privacy and confidentiality during pharmacy interactions were the number of staff having access to sensitive information, workflow models causing information exposure and pharmacies' layout not facilitating private discussions. Challenges experienced by carers created feelings of isolation which could impact on care. This study explored mental health stakeholders' experiences and expectations regarding privacy and confidentiality in the Australian community pharmacy context. A need for better pharmacy staff training about the importance of privacy and confidentiality and strategies to enhance compliance with national pharmacy practice requirements was identified. Findings provided insight into privacy and confidentiality needs and will assist in the development of pharmacy staff training material to better support consumers with sensitive conditions. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Bullying and victimization in elementary schools : A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    Research on bullying and victimization largely rests on univariate analyses and on reports from a single informant. Researchers may thus know too little about the simultaneous effects of various independent and dependent variables, and their research may be biased by shared method variance. The

  3. Pose tracking for augmented reality applications in outdoor archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Georges; Asmar, Daniel; Elhajj, Imad; Al-Harithy, Howayda

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, agencies around the world have invested huge amounts of effort toward digitizing many aspects of the world's cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the digitization of outdoor archaeological sites. In the spirit of valorization of this digital information, many groups have developed virtual or augmented reality (AR) computer applications themed around a particular archaeological object. The problem of pose tracking in outdoor AR applications is addressed. Different positional systems are analyzed, resulting in the selection of a monocular camera-based user tracker. The limitations that challenge this technique from map generation, scale, anchoring, to lighting conditions are analyzed and systematically addressed. Finally, as a case study, our pose tracking system is implemented within an AR experience in the Byblos Roman theater in Lebanon.

  4. Pose Estimation of Interacting People using Pictorial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Pose estimation of people have had great progress in recent years but so far research has dealt with single persons. In this paper we address some of the challenges that arise when doing pose estimation of interacting people. We build on the pictorial structures framework and make important...... contributions by combining color-based appearance and edge information using a measure of the local quality of the appearance feature. In this way we not only combine the two types of features but dynamically find the optimal weighting of them. We further enable the method to handle occlusions by searching...... a foreground mask for possible occluded body parts and then applying extra strong kinematic constraints to find the true occluded body parts. The effect of applying our two contributions are show through both qualitative and quantitative tests and show a clear improvement on the ability to correctly localize...

  5. Strategic management of health risks posed by buried transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jump, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A strategy is presented for reducing health risks at sites contaminated with buried transuranic (TRU) wastes by first taking measures to immobilize the contaminants until the second step, final action, becomes cost-effective and poses less risk to the remediation workers. The first step of this strategy does not preclude further action if it is warranted and is in harmony with environmental laws and regulations

  6. Sensing Strategies for Disambiguating among Multiple Objects in Known Poses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    ELEMENT. PROIECT. TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AE OKUI UBR 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 021.39 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...AD-Ali65 912 SENSING STRATEGIES FOR DISAMBIGURTING MONG MULTIPLE 1/1 OBJECTS IN KNOWN POSES(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL ...or Dist Special 1 ’ MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A. I. Memo 855 August, 1985 Sensing Strategies for

  7. Solution of linear ill-posed problems using overcomplete dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Pensky, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we consider application of overcomplete dictionaries to solution of general ill-posed linear inverse problems. Construction of an adaptive optimal solution for such problems usually relies either on a singular value decomposition or representation of the solution via an orthonormal basis. The shortcoming of both approaches lies in the fact that, in many situations, neither the eigenbasis of the linear operator nor a standard orthonormal basis constitutes an appropriate co...

  8. A latent class analysis of bullies, victims and aggressive victims in Chinese adolescence: relations with social and school adjustments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihui Shao

    Full Text Available This study used the latent class analysis (LCA to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1 Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2 There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3 Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionnaires. (4 As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children.

  9. Mining Key Skeleton Poses with Latent SVM for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human action recognition based on 3D skeleton has become an active research field in recent years with the recently developed commodity depth sensors. Most published methods analyze an entire 3D depth data, construct mid-level part representations, or use trajectory descriptor of spatial-temporal interest point for recognizing human activities. Unlike previous work, a novel and simple action representation is proposed in this paper which models the action as a sequence of inconsecutive and discriminative skeleton poses, named as key skeleton poses. The pairwise relative positions of skeleton joints are used as feature of the skeleton poses which are mined with the aid of the latent support vector machine (latent SVM. The advantage of our method is resisting against intraclass variation such as noise and large nonlinear temporal deformation of human action. We evaluate the proposed approach on three benchmark action datasets captured by Kinect devices: MSR Action 3D dataset, UTKinect Action dataset, and Florence 3D Action dataset. The detailed experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art skeleton-based action recognition methods.

  10. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  11. LEVELING STUDENTS’ CREATIVE THINKING IN SOLVING AND POSING MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree ofcreativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has beendiscussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinkingrefers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is basedon intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focusedon flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving andproblem posing. As students have various backgrounds and differentabilities, they possess different potential in thinking patterns,imagination, fantasy and performance; therefore, students have differentlevels of creative thinking. A research study was conducted in order todevelop a framework for students’ levels of creative thinking inmathematics. This research used a qualitative approach to describe thecharacteristics of the levels of creative thinking. Task-based interviewswere conducted to collect data with ten 8thgrade junior secondary schoolstudents. The results distinguished five levels of creative thinking,namely level 0 to level 4 with different characteristics in each level.These differences are based on fluency, flexibility, and novelty inmathematical problem solving and problem posing.Keywords: student’s creative thinking, problem posing, flexibility,fluency, novelty DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.794.17-40

  12. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher’s explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics.

  13. Preventing and Coping Strategies for Cyber Bullying and Cyber Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Erdinc Ozturk; Gizem Akcan

    2016-01-01

    Although there are several advantages of information and communication technologies, they cause some problems like cyber bullying and cyber victimization. Cyber bullying and cyber victimization have lots of negative effects on people. There are lots of different strategies to prevent cyber bullying and victimization. This study was conducted to provide information about the strategies that are used to prevent cyber bullying and cyber victimization. 120 (60 women, 60 men) university students w...

  14. The Victim Handling Model of Human Trafficking Through Economic Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Nuraeny, Henny; Utami, Tanti Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Human Trafficking is a modern trading of human slavery. Human Trafficking is also one of the worst forms of violation of human dignity that results in trauma to the victims. To that end, there should be a comprehensive treatment for victims. The problems that can be studied is whether a model that can be applied in the treatment of victims of trafficking in Cianjur and disseminating technical how models Handling of Victims of Human Trafficking in Cianjur. This study used normative juridical a...

  15. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  16. Teenagers as Victims in the Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gunvor; Lundstrom, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    Research into press reporting on young people has tended to concentrate on young people as offenders. In contrast, this article focuses on press coverage of teenagers as victims. Reports in two Swedish newspapers (a morning broadsheet and an evening tabloid) were studied over a period of four months and subjected to a qualitative analysis of…

  17. Psychological distress among adolescents victims of cyberbullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ortega-Barón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The information and communication technologies have rapidly been incorporated and expanded in our society. The age in which children and adolescents get access to electronic devices is decreasing. These devices have big advantages, but they can also be inappropriately used to molest and intimidate other children and, as a result, to cause severe psychological problems to other children. Taking this into consideration, the main objective of this study has been to describe the psychological distress shown by adolescents suffering from cyberbullying. In order to do this, the following variables were registered: depressive symptomatology, perceived stressed, isolation and life satisfaction. The initial sample was formed by 1360 adolescents. From these, 194 from 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.22, SD = 1.81 were selected according to their scores in cybervictimization (43.8 % boys. Participants were divided into three groups according to how intense their cyberbullying victimization was. These were: mild, moderated and severe. Our findings show that there were statistically significant differences between mild and severe victims. Adolescents who were severe cyberbullying victims scored higher in depressive symptomatology and perceived stress, and lower in life satisfaction compared to mild cyberbullying victims. These results and their implications are discussed in order to propose future strategies to prevent cyberbullying.

  18. Simulating Peer Support for Victims of Cyberbullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a design for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) that empowers victims of cyberbullying by simulating peer support. The anti-cyberbullying buddy helps a child to cope with negative emotions due to a cyberbullying incident and it shows the child how to deal with future

  19. Treating the Adolescent Victim-Turned-Offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, Nori J.

    1992-01-01

    Many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. Treatment primarily focuses on juvenile's criminal acts in confrontational, nonsympathetic manner. Surveyed 18 professionals in sexual abuse treatment field to assess attitudes toward juvenile sex offender treatment. Those in corrections field were greatest supporters of confrontational…

  20. The Perception of Cyberbullying in Adolescent Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcikova, Anna; Smahel, David; Otavova, Mlada

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore how victims of cyberbullying perceive online aggressive attacks and when they see them as harmful. Interviews were carried out with 16 cybervictimised participants aged 15-17 years. The findings showed differences in the perception of online victimisation when perpetrated by an anonymous Internet user versus…

  1. Always the victim : Israel's present wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    In the Israeli discourse, Israel has always been the innocent victim of vicious aggression from its neighbors. This perception of reality has only intensified with its two recent wars - against the Palestinians in Gaza and against Lebanon. On this view, in both cases Israel has manifested its good

  2. The Other Victims of the Nazis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ina R.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, 50 years after World War II, few people are aware that Jews were not the only Nazi victims. Describes Nazi persecution against Gypsies, homosexuals, blacks, political dissenters, and other groups. Contends that every new generation of students should learn about the devastating effects of prejudice. (CFR)

  3. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Miljan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total social cost of piracy. However, there are other categories of victims, such as those whose honor was besmirched as a result of piracy, and who suffer the consequences in the form of negative emotional reactions, loss of job as well as those who subsequently commit suicide. The object of this paper is to describe the effects of internet piracy on the victims of this phenomenon, and the goal is the analysis of the various direct and indirect effects of piracy on victims and their motivation for future creation, as well as analysis of prevention measures, with special emphasis on the Republic of Serbia.

  4. Global Human Trafficking and Child Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Bodrick, Nia

    2017-12-01

    Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation violates basic human rights and constitutes a major global public health problem. Pediatricians and other health care professionals may encounter victims who present with infections, injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidality, or a variety of other physical or behavioral health conditions. Preventing child trafficking, recognizing victimization, and intervening appropriately require a public health approach that incorporates rigorous research on the risk factors, health impact, and effective treatment options for child exploitation as well as implementation and evaluation of primary prevention programs. Health care professionals need training to recognize possible signs of exploitation and to intervene appropriately. They need to adopt a multidisciplinary, outward-focused approach to service provision, working with nonmedical professionals in the community to assist victims. Pediatricians also need to advocate for legislation and policies that promote child rights and victim services as well as those that address the social determinants of health, which influence the vulnerability to human trafficking. This policy statement outlines major issues regarding public policy, medical education, research, and collaboration in the area of child labor and sex trafficking and provides recommendations for future work. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. The Adolescent Victim of Crime and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, R. Barri

    Child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency have both been widely studied. While statistics on the number of cases of abuse or delinquency are quite high, they are considered conservative, and estimates of actual as opposed to reported cases are much higher. There are striking parallels between adolescent victimization and adolescent antisocial…

  6. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency.

  7. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  8. Mobbing in Slovenia: Prevalence, Mobbing Victim Characteristics, and the Connection with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumel Damijan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of organizations face the problem of mobbing, which represents a serious, widespread problem with numerous consequences for victims, organizations, and society. We also recognize the connection this phenomenon has with the emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. PTSD poses one of the most critical consequences for victims of mobbing, who mostly consist of employees at lower organizational levels. Our research focuses on the prevalence of mobbing in Slovenia, its correlation to PTSD, and some differences in the subjective and objective assessments of being exposed to mobbing. We found that the prevalence of mobbing in Slovenia can be compared to some previous assessments as well as data from other countries. Among the study's participants, 24% could be classified as regular victims of mobbing. For the first time, we link mobbing with PTSD using a Slovenian sample. We also recorded some interesting differences between subjective and objective assessments of mobbing, thereby indicating the importance of subjective conceptualizations of mobbing acts, which should be investigated in greater detail in future research.

  9. historical memory from Victims of armed conflict Construction and reconstruction of the political subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Villa Gómez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title of this article poses a transition between the victim who has been affected by armed conflict or who has suffered a violation of their fundamental rights, compared to being a particular political subject. This is a complex issue that is handled by multiple edges, therefore it is important to reconceptualize the process. The title is intentional to the extent that it does not want to talk about the victim simply because if you look more deeply, which can be seen in the armed conflict in this country is that victimization was not simply collateral damage in the conflict that has affected civilians, has not been a process of horizontal violence where civilians were indiscriminately involved, as Abad Orozco (2005 tried to point to Colombia. It is a dynamic clear conflict, which in most cases has meant the intention and determination to destroy the political subject, both the acting political subject, who openly mobilized in the political opposition, as one who was possible future or suspected of being or becoming a political actor, active political subject, before even be, as Martín-Baró (1989 when analyzing the specific logic of the dirty war and psychological warfare in Latin America (cf. . Martín-Beristain & Riera, 1994

  10. [Minor Victims of Violent Acts in the Context of the Victim Reparation Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Katharina; Kröger, Christoph; Franke, Stefanie; Wehrmeyer, Matthias; Heinrichs, Nina

    2018-03-01

    A descriptive analysis of victim compensation applications for children and adolescents as well as sociodemographic and trauma-specific information concerning victims and perpetrators. We did analysis of 100 victim-compensation application files based on a self-developed category system. The files included solely interpersonal trauma, 59 % of which are type II trauma. The most frequent form is sexual violence. The perpetrators stem mostly from children’s homes or peripherals. 79 % of the victims received a diagnosis of a mental disorder, most often posttraumatic stress disorder. Sexually abused children and adolescents make up the majority of the target population in OEG-related trauma outpatient units. Such outpatient units should therefore offer a specific expertise in treating sexually abused children and adolescents.

  11. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean

    2005-03-01

    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms.

  12. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  13. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Relations among School Connectedness, Hope, Life Satisfaction, and Bully Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael J.; Felix, Erika; Sharkey, Jill D.; Tanigawa, Diane; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the role of school connectedness in mediating the relation between students' sense of hope and life satisfaction for three groups: Bullied Victims, Peer Victims, and Nonvictims. Students in grades 5 to 12 (N = 866) completed the California Bully/Victim Scale, School Connectedness Scale, Children's Hope Scale, and Students'…

  15. Secrecy and persistent problems in sexual assault victims.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, B.J.; Winkel, F.W.; Berlo, van W.

    2001-01-01

    A substantial number of victims of sexual assault refrain from disclosing to others the victimizing episode and its emotional consequences. A prospective study (n = 36 rape victims reporting theirvictimization to the police) and a retrospective study (n = 33) were conducted to examine the

  16. Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…

  17. Professionals' conduct as a condition for minimizing secondary victimization of the victims of spouse abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of the 'administrative' aspects of experts' documentation kept by three services in one local community - the police station, the center for social welfare and the primary health care center, the possibility of reducing victimization of victims of partnership violence within the family is the subject of consideration. The results of the analysis point to the necessity of rationalization and standardization of recording and procedures by the professionals.

  18. A longitudinal study of the impact of cumulative violence victimization on comorbid posttraumatic stress and depression among female nurses and nursing personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Messing, Jill T

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the impact of cumulative violence victimization on health care workers' subsequent posttraumatic stress-depression comorbidity. Female nurses and nursing personnel (N = 1,044) answered questions about lifetime violence victimization (e.g., childhood abuse, intimate partner violence, and workplace violence) at baseline and completed the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) Disorder screen and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale 6 months later. Seven percent screened positive for comorbid posttraumatic stress-depression at 6-month monitoring. Workers who reported one, two, or three or more types of violence victimization at baseline had 2.41 (p .05), and 6.44 (p violence victimization at baseline. These results suggest the need to provide female nurses and nursing personnel with information about (1) the risk cumulative violence victimization poses for poorer mental health and functioning, and (2) evidence-based trauma informed treatment options outside their place of employment for those affected by violence victimization who develop mental health symptoms. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Observer reactions to emotional victims of serious crimes : Stereotypes and expectancy violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Alice; Mulder, Eva; Pemberton, Antony; Vingerhoets, Ad

    2018-01-01

    Negative observer reactions towards victims may be related to people’s expectations of the characteristics and demeanor of an ideal victim. We examined how expressed emotion, victim sex, and type of victimization influence observers’ perceptions of victim credibility, victim character, and harm. Our

  20. Revictimization of Victims Sexually Abused by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting

  1. 18 CFR 401.75 - Protection of trade secrets; Confidential information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., confidential statistical data, amount or source of any income, profits, losses, or expenditures of any person... States Code which provides: Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States or of any...

  2. 75 FR 56096 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPPT-2003-0004; FRL-8845-1] Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics Incorporated AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized contractor, Industrial Economics Incorporated (IEI) of...

  3. 75 FR 78238 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Business Information by Science Applications International Corporation and Its Identified Subcontractors..., Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of San Diego, CA, and Its Identified Subcontractors... Control Act (TSCA). Some of the information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential Business...

  4. Genetic privacy and confidentiality: why they are so hard to protect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, M A

    1998-01-01

    Author notes that widespread concerns have been raised about protecting genetic privacy and confidentiality in insurance and employment. He argues that effective protections are difficult because complicated issues, such as the right of access to health care, are invariably implicated.

  5. Developing an effective corrective action process : lessons learned from operating a confidential close call reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    In 2007, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) launched : C3RS, the Confidential Close Call Reporting System, as a : demonstration project to learn how to facilitate the effective : reporting and implementation of corrective actions, and assess t...

  6. 7 CFR 981.75 - Confidential nature of records and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 981.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS..., financial condition, or business operations of any handler shall be considered as confidential information...

  7. Confidentiality Enhancement of Highly Sensitive Nuclear Data Using Steganography with Chaotic Encryption over OFDM Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.; Ayad, N.; Elsayed, F.; Elbendary, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Due to the widespread usage of the internet and other wired and wireless communication methods, the security of the transmitted data has become a major requirement. Nuclear knowledge is mainly built upon the exchange of nuclear information which is considered highly sensitive information, so its security has to be enhanced by using high level security mechanisms. Data confidentiality is concerned with the achievement of higher protection for confidential information from unauthorized disclosure or access. Cryptography and steganography are famous and widely used techniques that process information in order to achieve its confidentiality, but sometimes, when used individually, they don’t satisfy a required level of security for highly sensitive data. In this paper, cryptography is accompanied with steganography for constituting a multilayer security techniques that can strengthen the level of security of highly confidential nuclear data that are archived or transmitted through different channel types and noise conditions. (author)

  8. 77 FR 12284 - Access to Confidential Business Information; Protection Strategies Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Business Information; Protection Strategies Incorporated AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Protection Strategies Incorporated (PSI) of... Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the confidential data occurred on or about February 16, 2012...

  9. 75 FR 57768 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified Subcontractor AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Eastern Research Group... the information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES...

  10. Privacy Act System of Records: Confidential Business Information Tracking System, EPA-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Confidential Business Information Tracking System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.

  11. 78 FR 54889 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Confidentiality Rules (Renewal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... received will be included in the public docket without change including any personal information provided, unless the comment includes profanity, threats, or information claimed to be Confidential Business... of appropriate automated electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or...

  12. 75 FR 8330 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPPT-2003-0004; FRL-8812-4] Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. [[Page 8331

  13. 12 CFR 261.20 - Confidential supervisory information made available to supervised financial institutions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... available to supervised financial institutions and financial institution supervisory agencies. 261.20... Supervised Institutions, Financial Institution Supervisory Agencies, Law Enforcement Agencies, and Others in... institutions and financial institution supervisory agencies. (a) Disclosure of confidential supervisory...

  14. Decreases in the proportion of bullying victims in the classroom: Effects on the adjustment of remaining victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, C.F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Sharing a classroom environment with other victimized peers has been shown to mitigate the adverse effects of peer victimization on children’s social and psychological adjustment. By extension, this study hypothesized that classroom reductions in the proportion of victims would be harmful for

  15. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valli, J.; Hakala, M.; Wanne, T.; Kantia, P.; Siren, T.

    2014-01-01

    In-depth knowledge of the in situ stress state at the Olkiluoto site is critical for stability assessment both prior to and after deposition of spent nuclear fuel in order to understand and avoid potential damage to the rock at the site. Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment (POSE) was designed specifically for this purpose with three primary goals: establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level and act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. Phases 1 and 2 of POSE are outlined in WR 2012-60. The objectives of the third phase of the POSE experiment are the same as the original objectives outlined above. This report outlines the execution and results of the third phase of the POSE experiment. The third phase of the experiment involved internally heating the third experimental hole (ONK-EH3) of the POSE niche in order to cause a symmetrical thermal stress increase around the hole due to the thermal expansion of rock. This thermomechanically induced stress increase, coupled with the estimated existing in situ stress state, should cause the maximum principal stress around the hole to exceed the predicted spalling strength of the rock around the hole. ONK-EH3 is located almost completely in pegmatitic granite. Four fractures near the top of the hole were mapped after boring ONK-EH3, and a tensile failure located at the contact between mica-rich gneiss and pegmatitic granite was observed 18 months after boring, prior to the experiment. Based on predictive calculations and the estimated in situ state of stress, the maximum principal stress magnitude should reach ca. 100 MPa when the temperature was just below 100 deg C after 12 weeks of heating. There were problems with the heater control unit at the beginning of the experiment, after which heating proceeded according to plan. The crack damage threshold of pegmatitic granite has been determined to be 85 ±17 MPa at Olkiluoto

  16. Relative Pose Estimation and Accuracy Verification of Spherical Panoramic Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Donghai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper improves the method of the traditional 5-point relative pose estimation algorithm, and proposes a relative pose estimation algorithm which is suitable for spherical panoramic images. The algorithm firstly computes the essential matrix, then decomposes the essential matrix to obtain the rotation matrix and the translation vector using SVD, and finally the reconstructed three-dimensional points are used to eliminate the error solution. The innovation of the algorithm lies the derivation of panorama epipolar formula and the use of the spherical distance from the point to the epipolar plane as the error term for the spherical panorama co-planarity function. The simulation experiment shows that when the random noise of the image feature points is within the range of pixel, the error of the three Euler angles is about 0.1°, and the error between the relative translational displacement and the simulated value is about 1.5°. The result of the experiment using the data obtained by the vehicle panorama camera and the POS shows that:the error of the roll angle and pitch angle can be within 0.2°, the error of the heading angle can be within 0.4°, and the error between the relative translational displacement and the POS can be within 2°. The result of our relative pose estimation algorithm is used to generate the spherical panoramic epipolar images, then we extract the key points between the spherical panoramic images and calculate the errors in the column direction. The result shows that the errors is less than 1 pixel.

  17. When security and medicine missions conflict: confidentiality in prison settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott A; Aburabi, Raed

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - It is a simple fact that prisons cannot exist - practically, legally, ethically or morally - without the support of physicians and other health professionals. Access to adequate healthcare is one of the fundamental measures of the legitimacy of a jail or prison. At the same time, there is a fundamental tension in the missions of the prison and doctor. The primary mission of the prison is security and often punishment. Reform and rehabilitation have intermittently been stated goals of prisons in the last century, but in practice those humane goals have rarely governed prison administrative culture. The primary mission of the physician is to promote the health and welfare of his or her patient. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - At times, what is required to serve the patient's best interest is at odds with the interests of security. Much of the work of the prison physician does not conflict with the operation of security. Indeed, much of the work of the prison physician is allowed to proceed without much interference from the security regime. But given the fundamental discord in the legitimate missions of security vs medicine, conflict between the doctor and the warden is inevitable. Findings - In this paper, the authors consider the example of patient confidentiality to illustrate this conflict, using case examples inspired by real cases from the experience of the authors. Originality/value - The authors provide an ethical and practical framework for health professionals to employ when confronting these inevitable conflicts in correctional settings.

  18. RESPECTING THE CONFIDENTIALITY AND ANONYMITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN SOCIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria OPREA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, a philosophical discipline, formulates a set of principles that must be followed, in respect of good and truth, fundamental values of humanity. The world of scientific research, of all kinds, also obeys moral imperatives and principles and is called upon to answer to society not only in relation to the discoveries themselves but, above all, in relation to the possible destructive effects on man or his life environment. The researcher in the sphere of social sciences is more involved in the act of responsibility, the more the topic subject of the study is the individual, the social group, the social environment. He must rigorously follow the principles and requirements of fair, honest, objective studies that do not harm the dignity of the human being. In line with the ethical rigors of scientific research, the article aims to highlight some aspects of respecting the principle of confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research in the field of sociology, with reference to the study of vulnerable groups in Arad County.

  19. Confidentiality Protection of Digital Health Records in Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyh-Wei; Chiang, Dai Lun; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Lai, Feipei; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Electronic medical records containing confidential information were uploaded to the cloud. The cloud allows medical crews to access and manage the data and integration of medical records easily. This data system provides relevant information to medical personnel and facilitates and improve electronic medical record management and data transmission. A structure of cloud-based and patient-centered personal health record (PHR) is proposed in this study. This technique helps patients to manage their health information, such as appointment date with doctor, health reports, and a completed understanding of their own health conditions. It will create patients a positive attitudes to maintain the health. The patients make decision on their own for those whom has access to their records over a specific span of time specified by the patients. Storing data in the cloud environment can reduce costs and enhance the share of information, but the potential threat of information security should be taken into consideration. This study is proposing the cloud-based secure transmission mechanism is suitable for multiple users (like nurse aides, patients, and family members).

  20. WTO confidential: the case of asbestos. World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO), created in 1995, adjudicates "trade disputes" between member nations in cases with great human rights, cultural, environmental, and public health significance. Throughout the process of dispute resolution and even after a case is concluded, very little of what happens is made accessible to the public. However, it is one thing to criticize the WTO for its lack of transparency from outside the process, and another to critically examine what was withheld from disclosure and what dangers that presents. This is the inside story from a scientific adviser to one of the parties in a WTO case, analyzing what happened from a public health point of view. This analysis concludes that the public health justification of banning asbestos was accepted in the end by the economists at the WTO, despite the WTO's bias in favoring the party (Canada) making the free trade challenge (to public health legislation, in this case) in numerous stages of the process, despite the WTO's utter lack of expertise in science, medicine, engineering, and public health, and despite important erroneous statements made to the WTO under the cover of confidentiality. Despite its result, this case illustrates that the WTO's threat to national sovereignty could never withstand the light of day, that the people of the world would reject this dangerous free trade fundamentalism if the limitations and dangers of the process were open for all to see.

  1. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to `sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to `hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a `digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers. PMID:12554559

  2. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to 'sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to 'hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a 'digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers.

  3. Nursing Students' Perceptions of Confidentiality, Accountability, and E-Professionalism in Relation to Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnable, Alexia; Cunning, Glenda; Parcon, Mariel

    This study examined nursing students' perceptions of confidentiality, accountability, and e-professionalism in relation to Facebook. All of the students were aware that posting patients' names and pictures of patients constituted a confidentiality breach. When comparing students based on educational status, there were differing opinions on whether employers should use Facebook profile information for hiring decisions. Nursing programs should provide current education, including clear and up-to-date policies, about social media use.

  4. THE POSSIBLE CONFIDENTIALITY: THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS PARTY IN THE ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Salles

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article debates the tension that exists between confidentiality, usual in ADRs, and the publicity principle, that rules the Public Administration in Brazil. As a solution points that the parameter of confidentiality when Public Administration is a party must be the preservation of accountability of the involved agencies, what means, the capacity to answer to its own goals and to obey the public control.

  5. Regularization theory for ill-posed problems selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Thismonograph is a valuable contribution to thehighly topical and extremly productive field ofregularisationmethods for inverse and ill-posed problems. The author is an internationally outstanding and acceptedmathematicianin this field. In his book he offers a well-balanced mixtureof basic and innovative aspects.He demonstrates new,differentiatedviewpoints, and important examples for applications. The bookdemontrates thecurrent developments inthe field of regularization theory,such as multiparameter regularization and regularization in learning theory. The book is written for graduate and PhDs

  6. The reciprocal relationship between sexual victimization and sexual assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2007-03-01

    Low sexual assertiveness has been proposed as a possible mechanism through which sexual revictimization occurs, yet evidence for this has been mixed. In this study, prospective path analysis was used to examine the relationship between sexual refusal assertiveness and sexual victimization over time among a community sample of women. Results provide support for a reciprocal relationship, with historical victimization predicting low sexual assertiveness and low sexual assertiveness predicting subsequent victimization. The effect of recent sexual victimization on subsequent sexual assertiveness also was replicated prospectively. These findings suggest that strengthening sexual assertiveness may help reduce vulnerability to future victimization.

  7. Gendered violence and restorative justice: the views of victim advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis-Fawley, Sarah; Daly, Kathleen

    2005-05-01

    The use of restorative justice for gendered violence has been debated in the feminist literature for some time. Critics warn that it is inappropriate because the process and outcomes are not sufficiently formal or stringent, and victims may be revictimized. Proponents assert that a restorative justice process may be better for victims than court because it holds offenders accountable and gives victims greater voice. This article presents what victim advocates in two Australian states think about using restorative justice for gendered violence. We find that although victim advocates have concerns and reservations about restorative justice, most saw positive elements.

  8. Attitudes toward medical and genetic confidentiality in the Saudi research biobank: An exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-03-01

    Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Victims of crime, with special emphasis on victims of work abuse and domestic violence: Analysis of the service VDS info and victim support for 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radaković Danica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the work of the VDS info and victim support service for the period January 1st 2009 - December 31st 2009. It contains the data about victims, type and quality of assistance and support provided by the Service, and also about institutions and organizations the victims contacted before or after contacting the Service and their satisfaction with the help they received.

  10. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Results Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. Conclusions These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. PMID:27743623

  11. Child victims and poly-victims in China: are they more at-risk of family violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2014-11-01

    Multiple forms of violence may co-occur on a child. These may include various forms of child victimization and different types of family violence. However, evidence that child victims are more likely to witness other types of family violence has been lacking in China. Using data of a large and diverse sample of children recruited from 6 regions in China during 2009 and 2010 (N=18,341; 47% girls; mean age=15.9 years), the associations between child victimization and family violence witnessed were examined. Descriptive statistics and the associations between child victimization, demographic characteristics, and family violence witnessed were analyzed. Lifetime and preceding-year rates were 71.7% and 60.0% for any form of child victimization and 14.0% and 9.2% for poly-victimization (having four or more types of victimization), respectively. Family disadvantages (i.e., lower socio-economic status, single parents, and having more than one child in the family) were associated with child victimization and poly-victimization. Witnessing of parental intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and in-law conflict also increased the likelihood of child victimization and poly-victimization, even after the adjustment of demographic factors. Possible mechanisms for the links between family violence and child victimization are discussed. The current findings indicated the need for focusing on the whole family rather than the victim only. For example, screening for different types of family violence when child victims are identified may help early detection of other victims within the family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Digital poly-victimization: The increasing importance of online crime and harassment to the burden of victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Sherry; Blount, Zach; Smith, Alli; Jones, Lisa; Mitchell, Kimberly; Taylor, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Many forms of victimization, including bullying and property crime, are increasingly moving online, but most studies of poly-victimization still primarily focus on in-person crime and violence. Few studies have examined the importance of incorporating technology-based victimizations for assessing the true burden of violence. The purpose of this study is to explore whether digital poly-victimization contributes to post-traumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms after controlling for in-person poly-victimization. Given that technology use and technology-based victimization are changing rapidly, a mixed methods approach was adopted. In the first two phases, focus groups and cognitive interviews (89 total participants) were used to identify the range of digital victimization and develop the Digital Poly-Victimization Scale. In the third phase, the new measure was included in a community survey (n = 478, 57.5% female; 62.6% earning under $50,000 per year) in a rural Southern region, along with measures of in-person poly-victimization, posttraumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms, and other outcomes and personal characteristics. A comprehensive measure of digital poly-victimization indicated that almost 3 in 4 participants (72.3%) had experienced at least one form of digital victimization. The results indicated that digital poly-victimization contributed unique variance to post-traumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms (p Digital victimization often presents fewer risks to perpetrators and can be expected to represent an increasing share of the societal burden of violence. Future research on poly-victimization should pay more attention to the role of digital victimization.

  13. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Novelty Detection for Interactive Pose Recognition by a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gonzalez-Pacheco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Active robot learners take an active role in their own learning by making queries to their human teachers when they receive new data. However, not every received input is useful for the robot, and asking for non-informative inputs or asking too many questions might worsen the user's perception of the robot. We present a novelty detection system that enables a robot to ask labels for new stimuli only when they seem both novel and interesting. Our system separates the decision process into two steps: first, it discriminates novel from known stimuli, and second, it estimates if these stimuli are likely to happen again. Our approach uses the notion of curiosity, which controls the eagerness with which the robot asks questions to the user. We evaluate our approach in the domain of pose learning by training our robot with a set of pointing poses able to detect up to 84%, 79%, and 78% of the observed novelties in three different experiments. Our approach enables robots to keep learning continuously, even after training is finished. The introduction of the curiosity parameter allows tuning, for the conditions in which the robot should want to learn more.

  15. Probabilistic Mapping of Human Visual Attention from Head Pose Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Veronese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective interaction between a human and a robot requires the bidirectional perception and interpretation of actions and behavior. While actions can be identified as a directly observable activity, this might not be sufficient to deduce actions in a scene. For example, orienting our face toward a book might suggest the action toward “reading.” For a human observer, this deduction requires the direction of gaze, the object identified as a book and the intersection between gaze and book. With this in mind, we aim to estimate and map human visual attention as directed to a scene, and assess how this relates to the detection of objects and their related actions. In particular, we consider human head pose as measurement to infer the attention of a human engaged in a task and study which prior knowledge should be included in such a detection system. In a user study, we show the successful detection of attention to objects in a typical office task scenario (i.e., reading, working with a computer, studying an object. Our system requires a single external RGB camera for head pose measurements and a pre-recorded 3D point cloud of the environment.

  16. Gaussian particle filter based pose and motion estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Determination of relative three-dimensional (3D) position, orientation, and relative motion between two reference frames is an important problem in robotic guidance, manipulation, and assembly as well as in other fields such as photogrammetry.A solution to pose and motion estimation problem that uses two-dimensional (2D) intensity images from a single camera is desirable for real-time applications. The difficulty in performing this measurement is that the process of projecting 3D object features to 2D images is a nonlinear transformation. In this paper, the 3D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimation providing six degrees-of-freedom motion and position values, using line features in image plane as measuring inputs and dual quaternion to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. A filtering method called the Gaussian particle filter (GPF) based on the particle filtering concept is presented for 3D pose and motion estimation of a moving target from monocular image sequences. The method has been implemented with simulated data, and simulation results are provided along with comparisons to the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to show the relative advantages of the GPF. Simulation results showed that GPF is a superior alternative to EKF and UKF.

  17. Laser Remediation of Threats Posed by Small Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Rogers, Jan R.; Hovater, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The continually increasing amount of orbital debris in near Earth space poses an increasing challenge to space situational awareness. Recent collisions of spacecraft caused abrupt increases in the density of both large and small debris in near Earth space. An especially challenging class of threats is that due to the increasing density of small (1 mm to 10 cm dimension) orbital debris. This small debris poses a serious threat since: (1) The high velocity enables even millimeter dimension debris to cause serious damage to vulnerable areas of space assets, e.g., detector windows; (2) The small size and large number of debris elements prevent adequate detection and cataloguing. We have identified solutions to this threat in the form of novel laser systems and novel ways of using these laser systems. While implementation of the solutions we identify is challenging we find approaches offering threat mitigation within time frames and at costs of practical interest. We base our analysis on the unique combination of coherent light specifically structured in both space and time and applied in novel ways entirely within the vacuum of space to deorbiting small debris. We compare and contrast laser based small debris removal strategies using ground based laser systems with strategies using space based laser systems. We find laser systems located and used entirely within space offer essential and decisive advantages over groundbased laser systems.

  18. Determining the Performances of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers in Problem Posing Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the problem posing strategies of pre-service primary school teachers in different problem posing situations (PPSs) and analysed the issues they encounter while posing problems. A problem posing task consisting of six PPSs (two free, two structured, and two semi-structured situations) was delivered to 40 participants.…

  19. Perception of secondary victimization in gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranda López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gender violence is a complex phenomenon that does not end with the removal of the abuser, as the abused person can experience secondary victimization. This study examined this process in a sample of 38 battered women. A multicausal approach was used to assess satisfaction with health system, the police, and the judiciary. The study also assessed the role of two variables that have remained unaddressed: family support and perceived danger. The results indicate that dissatisfaction with judicial treatment and legal action plays a key role in the perception of secondary victimization. It was also found that women who perceive less risk value the judicial system more because they do not need the system to take protective measures or other measures for them. Moreover, women who receive family support are more satisfied with the police system.

  20. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... on ASD severity and sexual problems following the rape accounted for only 28% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, the ASD diagnosis is not an optimal method for identifying those most at risk for PTSD. It remains to be seen whether a better way can be found....

  1. Maladaptive schemas as mediators of the relationship between previous victimizations in the family and dating violence victimization in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Fernández-Gonzalez, Liria; Orue, Izaskun; Borrajo, Erika

    2018-07-01

    This study examined whether exposure to family violence, both in the form of direct victimization and witnessing violence, predicted dating violence victimization in adolescents through maladaptive schemas. A sample of 933 adolescents (445 boys and 488 girls), aged between 13 and 18 (M = 15.10), participated in a three-year longitudinal study. They completed measures of exposure to family violence, maladaptive schemas of disconnection/rejection, and dating violence victimization. The findings indicate that witnessing family violence predicts the increase of dating violence victimization over time, through the mediation of maladaptive schemas in girls, but not in boys. Direct victimization in the family predicts dating violence victimization directly, without the mediation of schemas. In addition, maladaptive schemas contribute to the perpetuation of dating violence victimization over time. These findings provide new opportunities for preventive interventions, as maladaptive schemas can be modified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    Becomes Her: The Changing Roles of Women’s Role in Terror." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Winter/Spring 2010: 91-98. ———. Dying to Kill...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION . REPORT NUMBER Joint Forces Staff College Joint Advanced Warflghting School 7800 Hampton Blvd...STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in

  3. Internet piracy and consequences for victims

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Miljan; Petrović Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    After the evolution of technology made it possible to perform actions via the Internet that constitute copyright violations, the analysis of the effects of internet piracy on social welfare became the subject of academic polemics. The main and the biggest victims of Internet piracy are the holders of copyright and related rights, however, the damage that piracy causes them comes from multiple sources, is difficult to quantify and is only a part of the total...

  4. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS-Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Kantia, P. [Geofcon Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  5. Macrobend optical sensing for pose measurement in soft robot arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareh, Sina; Noh, Yohan; Liu, Hongbin; Althoefer, Kaspar; Li, Min; Ranzani, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a pose-sensing system for soft robot arms integrating a set of macrobend stretch sensors. The macrobend sensory design in this study consists of optical fibres and is based on the notion that bending an optical fibre modulates the intensity of the light transmitted through the fibre. This sensing method is capable of measuring bending, elongation and compression in soft continuum robots and is also applicable to wearable sensing technologies, e.g. pose sensing in the wrist joint of a human hand. In our arrangement, applied to a cylindrical soft robot arm, the optical fibres for macrobend sensing originate from the base, extend to the tip of the arm, and then loop back to the base. The connectors that link the fibres to the necessary opto-electronics are all placed at the base of the arm, resulting in a simplified overall design. The ability of this custom macrobend stretch sensor to flexibly adapt its configuration allows preserving the inherent softness and compliance of the robot which it is installed on. The macrobend sensing system is immune to electrical noise and magnetic fields, is safe (because no electricity is needed at the sensing site), and is suitable for modular implementation in multi-link soft continuum robotic arms. The measurable light outputs of the proposed stretch sensor vary due to bend-induced light attenuation (macrobend loss), which is a function of the fibre bend radius as well as the number of repeated turns. The experimental study conducted as part of this research revealed that the chosen bend radius has a far greater impact on the measured light intensity values than the number of turns (if greater than five). Taking into account that the bend radius is the only significantly influencing design parameter, the macrobend stretch sensors were developed to create a practical solution to the pose sensing in soft continuum robot arms. Henceforward, the proposed sensing design was benchmarked against an electromagnetic

  6. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Siren, T.; Hakala, M.; Kantia, P.

    2014-02-01

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  7. A TODAY VICTIM OF SECOND WORLD WAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.

  8. Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Samara, Muthanna; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    Being bullied has adverse effects on children's health. Children's family experiences and parenting behavior before entering school help shape their capacity to adapt and cope at school and have an impact on children's peer relationship, hence it is important to identify how parenting styles and parent-child relationship are related to victimization in order to develop intervention programs to prevent or mitigate victimization in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on parenting behavior and peer victimization using MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Eric and EMBASE from 1970 through the end of December 2012. We included prospective cohort studies and cross-sectional studies that investigated the association between parenting behavior and peer victimization. Both victims and those who both bully and are victims (bully/victims) were more likely to be exposed to negative parenting behavior including abuse and neglect and maladaptive parenting. The effects were generally small to moderate for victims (Hedge's g range: 0.10-0.31) but moderate for bully/victims (0.13-0.68). Positive parenting behavior including good communication of parents with the child, warm and affectionate relationship, parental involvement and support, and parental supervision were protective against peer victimization. The protective effects were generally small to moderate for both victims (Hedge's g: range: -0.12 to -0.22) and bully/victims (-0.17 to -0.42). Negative parenting behavior is related to a moderate increase of risk for becoming a bully/victim and small to moderate effects on victim status at school. Intervention programs against bullying should extend their focus beyond schools to include families and start before children enter school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EFEKTIVITAS PEMBELAJARAN MATEMATIKA DENGAN METODE PROBLEM POSING BERBASIS PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Lia Susanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah pembelajaran matematika dengan metode Problem Posing berbasis pendidikan karakter di laboratorium TeenZania pada materi garis singgung lingkaran efektif. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah peserta didik di SMP N 2 Pati. Sampel dalam penelitian ini diambil dengan teknik cluster random sampling. Variabel dalam penelitian ini yaitu keaktifan sebagai variabel independen dan prestasi belajar sebagai variabel dependen. Cara pengambilan data dengan lembar pengamatan dan tes. Data diolah dengan uji banding t dan uji pengaruh regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen (82,74 secara statistik melebihi KKM (75. Dengan uji regresi linear sederhana diperoleh persamaan regresi ?=-15,847 + 1,194X dan R^2=0,829. Koefisien X merupakan bilangan positif sehingga keaktifan berpengaruh positif pada prestasi belajar sebesar 82,9%. Rata-rata prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen (82,74 dan rata-rata prestasi belajar kelas kontrol (72,91. Secara uji stastistik prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada prestasi belajar kelas kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil analisis disimpulkan (1 pembelajaran mencapai tuntas belajar; (2 adanya pengaruh positif pada keaktifan terhadap prestasi belajar; dan (3 prestasi belajar kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada prestasi belajar kelas kontrol; sehingga pembelajaran matematika dengan metode problem posing berbasis pendidikan karakter di laboratorium TeenZania merupakan pembelajaran yang efektif. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the learning of mathematics by Problem Posing method in a TeenZania laboratory based character education in circle tangent material effectively. The population in this study were students in SMP N 2 Pati. The sample in this study were drawn by cluster random sampling technique. The variables in this study is the activity as an independent variable and learning achievement as the dependent variable

  10. Lavrentiev regularization method for nonlinear ill-posed problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinh, Nguyen Van

    2002-10-01

    In this paper we shall be concerned with Lavientiev regularization method to reconstruct solutions x 0 of non ill-posed problems F(x)=y o , where instead of y 0 noisy data y δ is an element of X with absolut(y δ -y 0 ) ≤ δ are given and F:X→X is an accretive nonlinear operator from a real reflexive Banach space X into itself. In this regularization method solutions x α δ are obtained by solving the singularly perturbed nonlinear operator equation F(x)+α(x-x*)=y δ with some initial guess x*. Assuming certain conditions concerning the operator F and the smoothness of the element x*-x 0 we derive stability estimates which show that the accuracy of the regularized solutions is order optimal provided that the regularization parameter α has been chosen properly. (author)

  11. Pose Tracking Algorithm of an Endoscopic Surgery Robot Wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Yin, H L; Meng, Q

    2006-01-01

    In recent two decades, more and more research on the endoscopic surgery has been carried out [2]. Most of the work focuses on the development of the robot in the field of robotics and the navigation of the surgery tools based on computer graphics. But the tracking and locating of the EndoWrist is also a very important aspect. This paper deals with the the tracking algorithm of the EndoWrist's pose (position and orientation). The linear tracking of the position is handled by the Kalman Filter. The quaternion-based nonlinear orientation tracking is implemented with the Extended Kalman Filter. The most innovative point of this paper is the parameterization of the motion model of the Extended Kalman Filter

  12. Pose Tracking Algorithm of an Endoscopic Surgery Robot Wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L [Chinese-German Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, Tongji University (China); Yin, H L [Chinese-German Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, Tongji University (China); Meng, Q [Shanghai University of Electric Power (China)

    2006-10-15

    In recent two decades, more and more research on the endoscopic surgery has been carried out [2]. Most of the work focuses on the development of the robot in the field of robotics and the navigation of the surgery tools based on computer graphics. But the tracking and locating of the EndoWrist is also a very important aspect. This paper deals with the the tracking algorithm of the EndoWrist's pose (position and orientation). The linear tracking of the position is handled by the Kalman Filter. The quaternion-based nonlinear orientation tracking is implemented with the Extended Kalman Filter. The most innovative point of this paper is the parameterization of the motion model of the Extended Kalman Filter.

  13. Challenges Posed by Novel Psychoactive Substances – Middle East Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej J. Bogusz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available New psychoactive substances (NPS are defined as substances of abuse, either in a pure form or a preparation, that are not controlled by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs or the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a public health threat. In this context, the term “new” does not necessarily refer to new inventions but to substances that have recently become available or popular in a given society or country. This definition indicates that the problem of NPS is not new; however, the availability of any information via new communication technologies in the 21st century has enabled the spread of unwanted and socially harmful information, like information on the commercial availability of various NPS, offered in rising amounts and brands.

  14. Level of environmental threat posed by horticultural trade in Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U

    2017-10-01

    Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and is a major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly challenging because it is considered the fifth most threatened large taxonomic group in the world; several species are among the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna and the 11 largest online auction sites selling cacti, we documented the international cactus trade. To provide an in-depth look at the dynamics of the industry, we surveyed the businesses involved in the cactus trade in South Africa (a hotspot of cactus trade and invasions). We purchased seeds of every available species and used DNA barcoding to identify species to the genus level. Although <20% of this trade involved threatened species and <3% involved known invasive species, many species were identified by a common name. However, only 0.02% of the globally traded cacti were collected from wild populations. Despite a large commercial network, all South African imports (of which 15% and 1.5% were of species listed as threatened and invasive, respectively) came from the same source. With DNA barcoding, we identified 24% of the species to genus level. Based on our results, we believe that if trade restrictions are placed on the small proportion of cacti that are invasive and there is no major increase in harvesting of native populations, then the commercial trade in cactus poses a negligible environmental threat. However, there are currently no effective methods for easily identifying which cacti are traded, and both the illicit harvesting of cacti from the wild and the informal trade in invasive taxa pose on-going conservation challenges. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.

  16. Network Exposure and Homicide Victimization in an African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association of an individual’s exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Methods. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Results. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood’s population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one’s odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Conclusions. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities. PMID:24228655

  17. Alcohol Involvement in Homicide Victimization in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S.; Xuan, Ziming; Cooper, Susanna E.; Coleman, Sharon M.; Hadland, Scott E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Heeren, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between alcohol and homicide is well documented, there has been no recent study of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization in U.S. states. The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence of alcohol involvement in homicide victimization and identify socio-demographic and other factors associated with alcohol involvement in homicide victimization. Methods Data from homicide victims with a reported blood alcohol content (BAC) level were analyzed from 17 states from 2010–12 using the National Violent Death Reporting System. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the odds of homicide victims having a BAC ≥0.08%. Results Among all homicide victims, 39.9% had a positive BAC including 13.7% with a BAC between 0.01%–0.79% and 26.2% of victims with a BAC ≥0.08%. Males were twice as likely as females to have a BAC ≥0.08% (29.1% vs. 15.2%; p homicide victims having a BAC ≥0.08 included male sex, American Indian/Alaska Native race, Hispanic ethnicity, history of intimate partner violence, and non-firearm homicides. Conclusions Alcohol is present in a substantial proportion of homicide victims in the U.S., with substantial variation by state, demographic and circumstantial characteristics. Future studies should explore the relationships between state-level alcohol policies and alcohol-involvement among perpetrators and victims of homicide. PMID:27676334

  18. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. THE PRINCIPLE OF CONFIDENTIALITY IN ARBITRATION. APPLICATION AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazil Oglindă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, arbitration has grown to be the preferred means of dispute resolution by commercial entities. One of the benefits that build the attraction for this system of dispute resolution was the principle of confidentiality. One issue that needs to be analyzed is about the reasons why confidentiality is so important in business. Confidentiality is a principle largely embraced in arbitration, but, as we will see, the principle is not an absolute one. There are a set of questions that needs to be answer to, like: Who is bound by the duty of confidentiality? Does this refer only to the parties or does it expands to other actors involved in the arbitral proceedings? What happens with the obligation of confidentiality when issues are brought before a court, taking in account the principle of open justice? We will see that in some countries are procedural laws allowing the courts to order an arbitration claim to be heard in public or in private. Another important aspect that has arisen in the last period is regarding the public policy and the protection of public interest as a limitation to confidentiality of arbitration. This is a sensitive matter especially when one of the parties is a state or a state entity. This study aims to explore the principle of confidentiality in arbitration by focusing on its domain and on its limits, both from the comparative approach and from the Romanian approach. Knowing all this aspects, we will realize the importance of having professional counseling when drafting an arbitration clause and how this can be the missing puzzle piece of your business.

  20. The Association Between Familial Homelessness, Aggression, and Victimization Among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetelina, Katelyn K; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Cuccaro, Paula M; Peskin, Melissa F; Elliott, Marc N; Coker, Tumaini R; Mrug, Sylvie; Davies, Susan L; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver. Children were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups: victim only, aggressor only, victim-aggressor, and neither victim nor aggressor at each time point using validated measures. Multinomial, multilevel mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship among periods of homelessness and longitudinal victimization, aggression, and victim aggression compared to children who were nonvictims and nonaggressors. Results suggest that children who experienced family homelessness were more likely than domiciled children to report aggression and victim aggression but not victimization only. Multivariate analyses suggested that even brief periods of homelessness were positively associated with aggression and victim aggression (relative to neither) compared to children who were never homeless. Furthermore, childhood victimization and victim aggression significantly decreased from 5th grade to 10th grade while aggression significantly increased in 10th grade. Children who experienced family homelessness for brief periods of time were significantly more likely to be a victim-aggressor or aggressor compared to those who were never homeless. Prevention efforts should target housing security and other important factors that may reduce children's likelihood of aggression and associated victimization. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Victimization by Siblings in Children with Disability or Weight Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna J; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    Children with a physical disability, psychological disorder, or of nonnormative weight are often targets of peer victimization. Sibling victimization, however, is more common than peer victimization, but rarely explored. We investigated linkages between sibling victimization and whether children had a physical disability, psychological disorder (i.e., internalizing disorder, attention deficit disorder/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), and were perceived by parents as being thinner than average or overweight. Also, we explored how the extent and kinds of sibling victimization experiences were related to these characteristics in childhood. A US probability sample of adult caregivers of a child aged 0 to 9 (N = 780; 50% women; mean age 4.58) in 2-child households who completed a telephone interview. Controlling for other forms of maltreatment and individual and family characteristics, children with a physical disability and parent-perceived children who are thinner than average and children who are overweight experienced more sibling victimization. Children with an internalizing disorder experienced less sibling victimization. Sibling victimization did not differ for children with and without ADHD. Children perceived to be overweight by parents and children with a physical disability were at increased risk of experiencing more types of sibling victimization. Children with a physical disability had greater odds of being victims of property victimization by a sibling. Children with a physical disability or perceived as different from average weight are at risk for sibling victimization. Using a nationally representative sample, this is the first study to highlight the importance of screening for sibling victimization in families of children with a disability and/or nonnormative weight status.

  2. Family as a factor of risk prevention and victim behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur A. Rean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines psychological factors victim behaviour. The definition of victim behaviour is given and it is emphasized that such conduct is not necessarily passivebehaviour of the victim. Victimization and behaviour can be active and aggressive. It is shown that antisocial, deviant behaviour of children and adolescents seriously increases the risk of victimization. Family as the most important institution of socialization is considered both as a preventing factor and risk factor of victim behaviour. The role of the family in shaping the victim behaviour is revealed in the following issues: aggressive, conflict behaviour is personal inclination or absence of the “proper” skills; interdependence of the severity of punishment and child aggression; punishment for child aggression (between siblings: what is the result?; ignoring aggression – is it the best solution?; victims of sexual violence and causes of victim behaviour; demonstrative accentuation as a risk factor in rape victim behaviour; happy family – can it be a risk factor for victim behaviour? For a long time, social deviant personality development has been believed to deal with structural deformation of the family, which is defined as a single-parent family, i.e. absence of one parent (usually the father. It is now proved that the major factor of family negative impact on personal development is not structural but psychosocial family deformation. A really happy family, psychologically happy family is the cornerstone of preventing victim behaviour. The victim behaviour being mainly determined by personal qualities does not negate this conclusion, but only strengthens it, as the qualities mentioned above are shaped in many respects within family socialization, are determined by family upbringing styles and features of interpersonal relationships inside the family.

  3. Rekonstruksi Pengaturan Confidential Principle bagi Komunikasi pada Mediasi Sengketa Perdata di Indonesia: Studi Perbandingan dengan Praktik di Amerika Serikat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peran mediasi sebagai penyelesaian sengketa alternatif untuk sengketa perdata yang semakin populer digunakan pada praktiknya belum berjalan maksimal. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah kekaburan pengaturan prinsip kerahasiaan confidential principle bagi komunikasi yang terjadi pada proses mediasi. Aturan hukum di Indonesia hanya menjelaskan bahwa mediasi dilangsungkan berdasarkan pada asas tertutup dan mediator berkewajiban menjaga kerahasiaan, baik dalam bentuk perkataan maupun catatan, yang terungkap pada mediasi. Sebagai perbandingan, aturan hukum di Amerika Serikat sudah diatur bahwa segala bentuk komunikasi yang terjadi dan berhubungan dengan pelaksanaan mediasi tunduk pada confidential principle, sehingga proses komunikasi mendapatkan hak istimewa (privilege dengan tidak dapat dijadikan barang bukti dan seluruh pihak yang terlibat dalam mediasi tidak dapat dijadikan saksi pada persidangan berikutnya. Dengan demikian, dibutuhkan rekonstruksi pengaturan terkait ruang lingkup komunikasi pada proses mediasi yang terkualifikasi sebagai confidential principle pengaturan terkait pelepasan hak istimewa komunikasi dari confidential principle; dan pengaturan terkait pengecualian terhadap komunikasi yang terkualifikasi sebagai confidential principle Abstract Although being popular, the role of mediation in resolving civil disputes is yet to be maximalized. One of the reasons is the the vague regulation concerning the confidential principle for communication in mediation. The existing regulation in Indonesia only explains that mediation is undertaken based on closed principle and the mediator is obliged to maintain confidentiality the confidentiality of any communication, either in oral or written forms, revealed during mediation. Whereas in comparison, the regulation in the United States of America stipulates that all forms of communications occured during mediation or is made for purposes of conducting or participating in mediation are subjects to the

  4. Lithuanian general practitioners' knowledge of confidentiality laws in adolescent sexual and reproductive healthcare: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania, the legislation addressing confidentiality in adolescent healthcare is contradictory and vague. Previous studies have also revealed that medico-legal knowledge among physicians is poor, and attitudes play a correspondingly greater role than legal knowledge in ensuring the confidenti......In Lithuania, the legislation addressing confidentiality in adolescent healthcare is contradictory and vague. Previous studies have also revealed that medico-legal knowledge among physicians is poor, and attitudes play a correspondingly greater role than legal knowledge in ensuring...

  5. Impact of sexual harassment victimization by peers on subsequent adolescent victimization and adjustment: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Debbie; Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire; Hughes, Ray; Jaffe, Peter

    2009-09-01

    To examine gender differences in prevalence and types of sexual harassment victimization experienced in grade 9 and how it contributes to relationship victimization and psychological adjustment 2.5 years later. A total of 1734 students from 23 schools completed self-report surveys at entry to grade 9 and end of grade 11. Self-report data were collected on victimization experiences (sexual harassment, physical dating violence, peer violence, and relational victimization) and adjustment (emotional distress, problem substance use, self-harm, suicidal thoughts, maladaptive dieting, feeling unsafe at school, and perpetration of violent delinquency). Separate analyses by sex were prespecified. Sexual harassment victimization was common among boys (42.4%) and girls (44.1%) in grade 9, with girls reporting more sexual jokes, comments, and unwanted touch than among boys, and with boys reporting more homosexual slurs or receiving unwanted sexual content. For girls, sexual harassment victimization in grade 9 was associated with elevated risk of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, maladaptive dieting, early dating, substance use, and feeling unsafe at school. A similar pattern of risk was found for boys, with the exception of dieting and self-harm behaviors. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated these students were significantly more likely than nonharassed students to report victimization by peers and dating partners 2.5 years later (AOR for boys and girls, respectively; all p harassment (AOR: 2.45; 2.9), physical dating violence (AOR: 2.02; 3.73), and physical peer violence (AOR: 2.75; 2.79). Gr 9 sexual harassment also contributed significantly to emotional distress (AOR: 2.09; 2.24), problem substance use (AOR: 1.79; 2.04), and violent delinquency perpetration (AOR: 2.1; 3.34) 2.5 years later (boys and girls, respectively; all p harassment at the beginning of high school is a strong predictor of future victimization by peers and dating partners for both girls and boys, and

  6. Nuclear tests: the late indemnification of victims; Essais nucleaire: l'indemnisation tardive des victimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, S. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 (France)

    2010-04-15

    The author briefly recalls the historical context of the creation of the CEA and outlines the silence and denial about the radioactive contamination of military personnel during the nuclear tests performed in the Algerian Sahara and in Polynesia. He also outlines the continuous action of the association of veterans and victims of these nuclear tests which gathered proofs of health consequences. He comments the content and scope of application of laws which have been lately adopted (in 2010) to acknowledge these facts and indemnify the victims

  7. Bullying among schoolchildren: differences between victims and aggressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Continente, Xavier; Pérez-Giménez, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Nebot Adell, Manel

    2013-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with bullying behaviors among adolescents by analyzing victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors separately. A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3,089 secondary school students (13-18 years old) in Barcelona (Spain). To define bullying behaviors, we used three questions about different types of mistreatment (jeering, attacking, marginalizing). Compared with secondary school students not involved in bullying, victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors were more likely to be boys and to report negative mood states. Victims were younger, were more overweight or obese and were lighter cannabis users, while aggressors were also younger but reported more antisocial behaviors and more cannabis and alcohol use. Victims/aggressors reported more antisocial behaviors and were overweight. Being involved in bullying, independently of the role adopted, was associated with health-related problems, which can lead to psychological disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of criminal justice involvement on victims' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jim; Bergin, Tiffany

    2010-04-01

    The aftermath of violent crime can leave victims with persistent emotional and mental health problems. Although research has shown the potential benefits of prosecuting cases through the courts, there is also a substantial literature that suggests that common features of the criminal justice system can exacerbate the impact of the initial crime, leading to a secondary victimization. The authors present a review of the research on the positive and negative impact of criminal justice involvement, and common points of failure in the efforts of justice institutions to meet the needs of victims. They conclude with recommendations for future work, including the need for research on restorative justice, victim impact statements, court notification systems, victim services, and victim advocates.

  9. Identifying victims of violence using register-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly we identified victims of violence in national registers and discussed strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Secondly we assessed the magnitude of violence and the characteristics of the victims using register-based data. METHODS: We used three...... nationwide registers to identify victims of violence: The National Patient Register, the Victim Statistics, and the Causes of Death Register. We merged these data and assessed the degree of overlap between data sources. We identified a reference population by selecting all individuals in Denmark over 15....... RESULTS: In 2006, 22,000 individuals were registered as having been exposed to violence. About 70% of these victims were men. Most victims were identified from emergency room contacts and police records, and few from the Causes of Death Register. There was some overlap between the two large data sources...

  10. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD VICTIMS AND WITNESSES OF CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mushevska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.

  11. METHODS FOR ASSESSING SECURITY THREATS CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION FOR THE INFORMATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Belokurova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the different approaches to assessing the safety of confidential information-term for information and telecommunication systems of various pre-appreciable destination in the presence of internal and external threats to its integrity and availability. The difficulty of ensuring the security of confidential information from exposure to information and telecommunication systems of external and internal threats at the present time, is of particular relevance. This problem is confirmed by the analysis of available statistical information on the impact of threats on the security circulating in the information and telecommunications system. Leak confidential information, intellectual property, information, know-how is the result of significant material and moral damage caused to the owner of the restricted information. The paper presents the structure of the indicators and criteria shows that the most promising are analytical criteria. However, their use to assess the level of security of confidential information is difficult due to the lack of appropriate mathematical models. The complexity of the problem is that existing traditional mathematical models are not always appropriate for the stated objectives. Therefore, it is necessary to develop mathematical models designed to assess the security of confidential information and its impact on information and telecommunication system threats.

  12. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, Unni Marie K.; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures, with a focus on the indirect losses and loss of stability for the population relying on the infrastructure. The model prescribes a three-level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. The focus is on a methodology for semi-quantitative analyses to be performed at the second level. The purpose of this type of analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures, identifying the most critical scenarios and investigating the need for further analyses (third level). The proposed semi-quantitative methodology considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability, including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself, and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale according to pre-defined ranking criteria. The proposed indicators, which characterise conditions that influence the probability of an infrastructure malfunctioning caused by a natural event, are defined as (1) robustness and buffer capacity, (2) level of protection, (3) quality/level of maintenance and renewal, (4) adaptability and quality of operational procedures and (5) transparency/complexity/degree of coupling. Further indicators describe conditions influencing the socio-economic consequences of the infrastructure malfunctioning, such as (1) redundancy and/or substitution, (2) cascading effects and dependencies, (3) preparedness and (4) early warning, emergency response and measures. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard, the potential duration of the infrastructure malfunctioning (e.g. depending on the required restoration effort) and the number of users of

  13. Invasive Lionfish (Pterosis volitans) Pose Public Health Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, a native of Indo-Pacific oceans, is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins. Lionfish were inadvertently introduced into the western Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s and have overpopulated and dispersed widely into the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Initiatives to control lionfish populations were launched, including the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-sponsored "Lionfish as Food Campaign".2 Recently, scientists from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that lionfish caught off the US Virgin Islands contained ciguatoxins and could cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP); a seafood-borne poisoning without an antidote or any specific treatment, and a potential for prolonged neurotoxicity. Lionfish pose several public health threats. New strategies to control the lionfish population explosion in coastal waters and offshore fisheries are needed now to ensure seafood safety and public health. The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, is native to the reefs of the western Indian and Pacific Oceans (Figure 1). Brightly colored with red, white, and black stripes and adorned with feathery fins, the lionfish is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins (Figure 2). Lionfish were introduced into the western North Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s after some specimens were discarded by dissatisfied amateur aquarists and others escaped from hurricane-flooded public aquariums.1 Since lionfish are voracious carnivores, have few natural predators, and reproduce prolifically, they have overpopulated and dispersed widely from Cape Hatteras to Florida, throughout the Caribbean Sea, and into the Gulf of Mexico.1 The population density of lionfish in its new, invaded territory now exceeds that of its native habitat.1 As a result, campaigns to control lionfish populations were launched in Florida and the Caribbean. Lionfish now pose several public

  14. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Domestic violence and the impact on its victims

    OpenAIRE

    Kirejevová, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence is one of the essential problems of our society. Domestic violence is determined by high prevalence, enormous latency and great victimization impact. The aim of my thesis is to describe the psychological aspects of the victims of domestic violence. I presume that long-term psychological and physical violence has a crucial influence on the psycho-somatic health of the victim. I am aware of the fact that this problem does not concern only battered women. Nevertheless I want to...

  16. A Latent Class Analysis of Victimization among Middle and High School Students in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Gilreath, Tamika D.

    2015-01-01

    School victimization is associated with negative social-emotional outcomes and risky behaviors. Most studies have provided definitions and measures of victimization, depicting a limited characterization of victimization in schools. More nuanced analyses of school victimization are needed to assess the heterogeneous pattern of victimization in…

  17. Victimisation and poverty: About victims and victimised in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić Milana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical analysis of the scientific and public discourse of victimization on the example of Serbia. The analysis has two objectives: to review the justification for the use of the concept of victim defined in the traditional way - within the legal framework; and in relation to this, to offer a different view on victimization. The process of becoming a victim is recognized as a social construct, created as a result of negotiations between the (non- formal social structure: institutions, the media, and the audience - those who stand aside, criminals and victims. In the process, some of the victims are assigned a status of justified, while others are sacrificed. There are rearely true parallels between them. Thus, unlike justified, whose suffering is perceived by public and political structures as a cause for the introduction of penal populism, the sacrificed rarely encounter any empathy. Even when they are victimized by conventional crime, the victims do not have the power to mobilize the public in a loud protest and call for change in legal practice. In the final score, it seems that the role victims are assigned largely depend of their social scale position.

  18. Victims of educator-targeted bullying: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on findings emanating from in-depth personal interviews with victims of educator-targeted bullying (ETB. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the narratives. The findings indicate that the victims of ETB were exposed repeatedly over time to verbal, non-verbal, psychological, and physical abuse during and after school hours. ETB had a negative influence on the victims' private lives, as well as on teaching and on learning. Lastly, I found that ETB may lead to a breakdown of relations between victims and the bullies' parents and the members of the community in which schools are situated.

  19. Commentary (Victim Participation in the International Criminal Court)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    Victim participation is one of the most innovative aspects introduced in the legal framework of the International Criminal Court (hereinafter – ICC), which has not featured in the practices of other international criminal courts and tribunals. The approach of the ad hoc tribunals to victims...... was very ‘consumer like’ because victims were solely used as witnesses to testify about the crimes attributed to the accused, but they were not granted broad participatory rights in the proceedings. The drafters of the Rome Statute acknowledged wide-ranging interests of victims who, apart from seeking...

  20. Modeling the mental health effects of victimization among homeless persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F.; Pollio, David

    2014-01-01

    Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults. PMID:18703266

  1. Modeling the mental health effects of victimization among homeless persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F; Pollio, David

    2008-11-01

    Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults.

  2. How older persons explain why they became victims of abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. SUBJECTS: six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. RESULTS: the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social...... with the perpetrator. Coping strategies mentioned by victims were seeking informal or professional help and using self-help strategies. CONCLUSION: older victims perceive abuse differently depending on the expected acceptability of the type(s) of abuse experienced and the anticipated stigma associated...

  3. Muslim women and foreign prostitutes: victim discourse, subjectivity, and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christine M; Stenvoll, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we juxtapose the ways “Muslim women” and “foreign prostitutes” are commonly constituted as victims in media and politics. We analyze the functions of these two prototypical female victims in terms of the role they play in epitomizing “the problems of globalization” and in reinforcing the existing social and political structures. Victim discourse, when tied to the transnational proliferation of the sex industry and of (radical) Islam, has depoliticizing effects because it places nonindividual causes of victimization outside of “our” polity and society and casts the state as protector and neutral arbiter of national and global inequalities, marginalization, and social conflict.

  4. Coping and Sexual Harassment: How Victims Cope across Multiple Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew

    2018-02-01

    The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.

  5. The STS-93 crew pose in front of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-93 crew pose in front of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia following their landing on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT on July 27. From left to right, they are Mission Specialists Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Commander Eileen Collins, and Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history. On this mission, Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander.

  6. STS-93 Commander Collins poses in front of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins poses in front of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia following her textbook landing on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT on July 27. On this mission, Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander. Also on board were her fellow STS-93 crew members: Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history.

  7. Real-time pose invariant logo and pattern detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Kottmann, Michal; Benesova, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    The detection of pose invariant planar patterns has many practical applications in computer vision and surveillance systems. The recognition of company logos is used in market studies to examine the visibility and frequency of logos in advertisement. Danger signs on vehicles could be detected to trigger warning systems in tunnels, or brand detection on transport vehicles can be used to count company-specific traffic. We present the results of a study on planar pattern detection which is based on keypoint detection and matching of distortion invariant 2d feature descriptors. Specifically we look at the keypoint detectors of type: i) Lowe's DoG approximation from the SURF algorithm, ii) the Harris Corner Detector, iii) the FAST Corner Detector and iv) Lepetit's keypoint detector. Our study then compares the feature descriptors SURF and compact signatures based on Random Ferns: we use 3 sets of sample images to detect and match 3 logos of different structure to find out which combinations of keypoint detector/feature descriptors work well. A real-world test tries to detect vehicles with a distinctive logo in an outdoor environment under realistic lighting and weather conditions: a camera was mounted on a suitable location for observing the entrance to a parking area so that incoming vehicles could be monitored. In this 2 hour long recording we can successfully detect a specific company logo without false positives.

  8. The role of the posed smile in overall facial esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, David C; McNamara, James A; Sigler, Lauren M; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the role of the posed smile in overall facial esthetics, as determined by laypersons and orthodontists. Twenty orthodontists and 20 lay evaluators were asked to perform six Q-sorts on different photographs of 48 white female subjects. The six Q-sorts consisted of three different photographs for each of two time points (pre- and posttreatment), as follows: (1) smile-only, (2) face without the smile, and (3) face with the smile. The evaluators determined a split-line for attractive and unattractive images at the end of each Q-sort. The proportions of attractive patients were compared across Q-sorts using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired data. The evaluators also ranked nine facial/dental characteristics at the completion of the six Q-sorts. Evaluators found the pretreatment face without the smile to be significantly more attractive than the face with the smile or the smile-only photographs. Dissimilar results were seen posttreatment; there was not a significant difference between the three posttreatment photographs. The two panels agreed on the proportion of "attractive" subjects but differed on the attractiveness level of each individual subject. The presence of a malocclusion has a negative impact on facial attractiveness. Orthodontic correction of a malocclusion affects overall facial esthetics positively. Laypeople and orthodontists agree on what is attractive. Overall facial harmony is the most important characteristic used in deciding facial attractiveness.

  9. Compensating Pose Uncertainties through Appropriate Gripper Finger Cutouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolniakowski Adam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gripper finger design is a recurring problem in many robotic grasping platforms used in industry. The task of switching the gripper configuration to accommodate for a new batch of objects typically requires engineering expertise, and is a lengthy and costly iterative trial-and-error process. One of the open challenges is the need for the gripper to compensate for uncertainties inherent to the workcell, e.g. due to errors in calibration, inaccurate pose estimation from the vision system, or object deformation. In this paper, we present an analysis of gripper uncertainty compensating capabilities in a sample industrial object grasping scenario for a finger that was designed using an automated simulation-based geometry optimization method (Wolniakowski et al., 2013, 2015. We test the developed gripper with a set of grasps subjected to structured perturbation in a simulation environment and in the real-world setting. We provide a comparison of the data obtained by using both of these approaches. We argue that the strong correspondence observed in results validates the use of dynamic simulation for the gripper finger design and optimization.

  10. Asynchronous vehicle pose correction using visual detection of ground features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnarinesingh, Randy E S; Syan, Chanan S

    2014-01-01

    The inherent noise associated with odometry manifests itself as errors in localization for autonomous vehicles. Visual odometry has been previously used in order to supplement classical vehicle odometry. However, visual odometry is limited in its ability to reduce errors in localization for large travel distances that entail the cumulative summing of individual frame-to-frame image errors. In this paper, a novel machine vision approach for tiled surfaces is proposed to address this problem. Tile edges in a laboratory environment are used to define a travel trajectory for the Quansar Qbot (autonomous vehicle) built on the iRobot iRoomba platform with a forward facing camera. Tile intersections are used to enable asynchronous error recovery for vehicle position and orientation. The proposed approach employs real-time image classification and is feasible for error mitigation for large travel distances. The average position error for an 8m travel distance using classical odometry was measured to be 0.28m. However, implementation of the proposed approach resulted in an error of 0.028m. The proposed approach therefore significantly reduces pose estimation error and could be used to supplement existing modalities such as GPS and Laser-based range sensors

  11. Mendalami Dasar-Dasar dalam Pengambilan Pose pada Pemotretan Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Paulina Gunawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many activities and numerous objects in this universe, which make them interesting for photographers to explore as their masterpiece. One of the things that has been enjoyed and is always developing over time is the use of human as an object, whether as a candid photography or as a posing model in accordance to photographer's concept and theme. Using human being as an object is always popular among beginners and professional photographers. Even nowadays people often hold photo shoot as a media in many social network sites. And so if they understand the simple theories in basic knowledge of using human object, the results will be maximized, and of course, much more interesting. The more a photographer does his job, the better his experience is, and his work will develop. Thus, it makes him more alert to the situation and character of a model, which will then become more observant in predicting their outcome in photography.   

  12. [Consent and confidentiality in occupational health practice: balance between legal requirements and ethical values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Erika; Franco, G

    2010-01-01

    The recently introduced Italian law on the protection of workers' health states that the occupational health physician (competent physician) is required to act according to the Code of Ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH). This paper aims at examining the articles of legislative decree 81/2008 dealing with informed consent and confidentiality compared with the corresponding points of the ICOH Ethics Code. Analysis of the relationship between articles 25 and 39 (informed consent) and 18, 20 and 39 (confidentiality) of the decree shows that there are some points of disagreement between the legal requirements and the Code of Ethics, in particular concerning prescribed health surveillance, consent based on appropriate information (points 8, 10 and 12 of the Code) and some aspects of confidentiality (points 10, 20, 21, 22 and 23 of the Code). Although the competent physician is required to act according to the law, the decisional process could lead to a violation of workers' autonomy.

  13. Confidentiality and parental involvement in adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We surveyed Lithuanian general practitioners' (GPs) views on the importance of confidentiality for adolescents and on their practices in informing parents about sexual and reproductive health consultations with this age group. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a 41-item questionnaire...... was sent to a random sample of 607 Lithuanian GPs. The purpose of this questionnaire was to gain knowledge about current practices of GPs in informing parents on the importance of confidentiality as well as in protecting the privacy of minors. GPs' knowledge of the current legal age limit...... consulting on general sexual issues, more than 70% stated that they would guarantee their minor patients confidentiality. However, when cases involved sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy, nearly the same percentage said they would inform the parents. 62.3% of GPs incorrectly believed that the law...

  14. Denying a patient's final will: public safety vs. medical confidentiality and patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Jan; Vent, Julia; Greinwald, Ralf; Rothschild, Markus A; Ostgathe, Christoph; Kessel, Rene; Voltz, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    Especially when caring for patients approaching the end of life, physicians and nursing staff feel committed to fulfilling as many patient desires as possible. However, sometimes a patient's "final will" may threaten public safety. This can lead to severe conflicts, outweighing the physician's obligation and dedication to care for the patient and to respect his autonomy. Yet, public safety can be threatened if confidentiality is not broken. This article provides a concise summary of the medicolegal and ethical fundamentals concerning this difficult situation. If the patient's and others' health and safety are at risk, physicians may (and in some countries must) break medical confidentiality and disclose confidential patient information to the police and other authorities. Physicians should be able to professionally deal with such a conflict in all patients, not only in patients with advanced illness. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Confidentiality, 'no blame culture' and whistleblowing, non-physician practice and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart M

    2006-12-01

    Confidentiality is a core tenet of medical professionalism, which enables the maintenance of trust in a doctor-patient relationship. However, both the amount of personal data stored and the number of third parties who might access this data have increased dramatically in the digital age, necessitating the introduction of various national data protection acts. Paradoxically, the Freedom of Information Act 2000 allows United Kingdom citizens to access information held by public bodies, including hospitals. Furthermore, the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 actively protects physicians who breach their duty of confidentiality in the name of public interest ('whistleblowing'). This article explores the evolution of the law and ethics in this area, and draws attention to the difficulties in balancing confidentiality against freedom of information. In addition, the role and responsibilities of the non-physician anaesthetist are examined.

  16. [Confidentiality in HIV-infection/AIDS--a comment on the Communicable Disease Control Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frich, J C

    1995-05-10

    The new Communicable Diseases Control Act has come into force in Norway. It makes it compulsory for a physician to warn a third party if it is obvious that a HIV-positive patient, with a high degree of certainty, puts the third party at risk of being infected with HIV. Some philosophers characterize medical confidentiality as an intransigent and absolute obligation, others as a prima facie duty. This article supports the latter view, but the author still argues that strict conditions have to be fulfilled before a physician should consider breaking medical confidentiality: The doctor must try repeatedly to gain the consent or co-operation of the patient involved. Possible negative long-term consequences for the preventive HIV-work support strict medical confidentiality.

  17. The Joint Development of Traditional Bullying and Victimization with Cyber Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.; Kljakovic, Moja; Scheib, Emma; Notter, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11-16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school,…

  18. Defending victimized peers : Opposing the bully, supporting the victim, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Aleva, Liesbeth; van der Meulen, Matty

    2016-01-01

    To reduce bullying, more knowledge on children defending their victimized peers is critical. In previous work, predominantly cross-sectional in nature, defending has typically been operationalized as one single, broad construct. However, there are good reasons to assume that attacking the bully

  19. Latent classes of childhood poly-victimization and associations with suicidal behavior among adult trauma victims: Moderating role of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charak, Ruby; Byllesby, Brianna M; Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Durham, Tory A; Ross, Jana; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e.g., poly-victimization) would endorse higher suicidal behavior, than the other less severe classes, and those in the most severe class with higher anger trait would have stronger association with suicidal behavior. Respondents were 346 adults (N=346; M age =35.0years; 55.9% female) who had experienced a lifetime traumatic event. Sixty four percent had experienced poly-victimization (four or more victimization experiences) and 38.8% met the cut-off score for suicidal behavior. Three distinct classes emerged namely, the Least victimization (Class 1), the Predominantly crime and sibling/peer victimization (Class 2), and the Poly-victimization (Class 3) classes. Regression analysis controlling for age and gender indicated that only the main effect of anger was significantly associated with suicidal behavior. The interaction term suggested that those in the Poly-victimization class were higher on suicidal behavior as a result of a stronger association between anger and suicidal behavior in contrast to the association found in Class 2. Clinical implications of findings entail imparting anger management skills to facilitate wellbeing among adult with childhood poly-victimization experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attitudes toward victim and victimization in the light of the just world theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeunović-Patić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses current empirical status of the Just world theory introduced several decades ago by Melvin Lerner, the content and functions of a just world belief as its central construct, and particularly, the relation between a just world belief and victim blaming and victim derogation phenomena. In the light of existing research evidence, a just world belief and a need to re-establish a “justice” when this belief is threatened, is considered to be an adaptive mechanism that protect a belief that a world is secure and the future is predictable, as well as a confidence in the purposefulness of selfdiscipline, long-term personal investments and social rules respecting. As proposed By the just world theory, when a person faces injustice, i.e. others’ (innocent victims’ suffering, his/her belief in a just world is threatened. Possible reactions to that threat comprise various rational victim helping activities, but also specific cognitive defensive strategies, including cognitive distortion, rationalization and reinterpretation of an event in order to minimize injustice or deny injustice happened at all. In the course of reinterpretation of injustice, victims are often blamed for their former actions, or derogated for their character, in order to indicate them responsible for their own fate and suffering. The findings of research studies suggest that the likelihood of employing cognitive defensive strategies rises if formal responses to crime and victimization lack or fail. This further suggests that an efficient and effective formal social response in terms of both sanctioning of offenders and reparation of victims should be considered highly important in reducing the risk of stigmatization and rejection of victims. Finally, the paper discusses the role of victim’s just world beliefs in post-trauma adaptation and coping processes. In virtue of findings from the existing research literature it may be concluded that victim