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Sample records for vicinity properties identification characterization inclusion

  1. β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex to Improve Physicochemical Properties of Pipemidic Acid: Characterization and Bioactivity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Malgieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aptitude of cyclodextrins (CDs to form host-guest complexes has prompted an increase in the development of new drug formulations. In this study, the inclusion complexes of pipemidic acid (HPPA, a therapeutic agent for urinary tract infections, with native β-CD were prepared in solid state by kneading method and confirmed by FT-IR and 1H NMR. The inclusion complex formation was also characterized in aqueous solution at different pH via UV-Vis titration and phase solubility studies obtaining the stability constant. The 1:1 stoichiometry was established by a Job plot and the inclusion mechanism was clarified using docking experiments. Finally, the antibacterial activity of HPPA and its inclusion complex was tested on P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. aureus to determine the respective EC50s and EC90s. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of HPPA:β-CD against E. coli and S. aureus is higher than that of HPPA. Furthermore, HPPA and HPPA:β-CD, tested on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines by MTT assay, exhibited, for the first time, antitumor activities, and the complex revealed a higher activity than that of HPPA. The use of β-CD allows an increase in the aqueous solubility of the drug, its bioavailability and then its bioactivity.

  2. Wall Turbulence with Designer Properties: Identification, Characterization and Manipulation of Energy Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Wall turbulence with designer properties: Identification, characterization & manipulation of energy pathways 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... University of Texas) Sheplak, M. ( University of Florida) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...identification, characterization and manipulation of energy pathways in wall turbulence. The objectives were pursued separately and collaboratively by the

  3. Physicochemical Characterization of Inclusion Complex of Catechin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the suitability of glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin (G-β-CD) to form inclusion complex with catechin, and characterize the physicochemical properties of the inclusion complex of catechin and G-β-CD. Methods: Catechin and G-β-CD was mixed in water at the same molar ratio, stirred at 20 °C for 48 h and ...

  4. Modified β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to improve the physicochemical properties of albendazole. complete in vitro evaluation and characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina García

    Full Text Available The potential use of natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been studied extensively in pharmaceutical research and development to modify certain properties of hydrophobic drugs. The ability of these host molecules of including guest molecules within their cavities improves notably the physicochemical properties of poorly soluble drugs, such as albendazole, the first chosen drug to treat gastrointestinal helminthic infections. Thus, the aim of this work was to synthesize a beta cyclodextrin citrate derivative, to analyze its ability to form complexes with albendazole and to evaluate its solubility and dissolution rate. The synthesis progress of the cyclodextrin derivative was followed by electrospray mass spectrometry and the acid-base titration of the product. The derivative exhibited an important drug affinity. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments demonstrated that the tail and the aromatic ring of the drug were inside the cavity of the cyclodextrin derivative. The inclusion complex was prepared by spray drying and full characterized. The drug dissolution rate displayed exceptional results, achieving 100% drug release after 20 minutes. The studies indicated that the inclusion complex with the cyclodextrin derivative improved remarkably the physicochemical properties of albendazole, being a suitable excipient to design oral dosage forms.

  5. Tactile sensation imaging system for inclusion characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Garcia-Acosta, Nathalia; Te, Kenny; Won, Chang-Hee

    2011-03-01

    Characterizing and locating sub-surface tumors will greatly enhance the detection and treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, a novel tactile sensation imaging system, that is capable of detecting and characterizing the subsurface object, was designed, implemented, and tested. A multi-layer Polydimethylsiloxane optical waveguide has been fabricated as the sensing probe. The light was illuminated below the acceptance angle to totally reflect within the flexible and transparent waveguide. When a waveguide is compressed by an external force, the contact area of the waveguide deforms and causes the light to scatter. The scattered light is captured by a high resolution camera and saved as an image. Using the salient features of the captured image, we estimated inclusion characteristics such as size, depth, and Young's modulus. To test the performance of the proposed system, we use a realistic tissue phantom with embedded stiff inclusions. The experimental results showed that the proposed system can detect inclusions and provide the relative values of inclusion's mechanical properties. Using these relative values, we can discern malignant and benign tumors.

  6. Identification of inclusions in lung tissue with a Raman microprobe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, H.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Mud, J.; Greve, Jan

    1984-01-01

    Inhaled particles smaller than 4 μm can cause damage to lung tissue, a disease called silicosis. We present an investigation on the use of a Raman microspectrometer for the identification of inclusions in lung tissue. We measured Raman spectra of such inclusions in lung tissue of a patient whose

  7. Postsecondary Disability Issues: An Inclusive Identification Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farone, Mark C; Hall, Elizabeth W.; Costello, James J.

    1998-01-01

    A qualitative study of contemporary problems and issues encountered by college students with disabilities used a nominal group process to incorporate student perspectives into the assessment. Critical issues and suggested solutions were identified in six categories: physical/sensory access; service provision; information access; social inclusion;…

  8. Identification and characterization of polyclonal αβ-T cells with dendritic cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuka, Mirela; Munitic, Ivana; Ashwell, Jonathan D

    2012-01-01

    An efficient immune response requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity, which act through cells different in origin and function. Here we report the identification of thymus-derived αβ-T-cell receptor+ cells that express CD11c and major histocompatibility complex class II, and require FLT3 ligand for development (T(DC)). T(DC) express genes heretofore found uniquely in T cells or dendritic cells, as well as a distinctive signature of cytotoxicity-related genes. Unlike other innate T-cell subsets, T(DC) have a polyclonal T-cell receptor repertoire and respond to cognate antigens. However, they differ from conventional T cells in that they do not require help from antigen-presenting cells, respond to Toll-like receptor-mediated stimulation by producing interleukin-12 and process and present antigen. The physiological relevance of T(DC), found in mice and humans, is still under investigation, but the fact that they combine key features of T and dendritic cells suggests that they provide a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems.

  9. Identification and characterization of polyclonal αβ T cells with dendritic cell properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuka, Mirela; Munitic, Ivana; Ashwell, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient immune response requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity, which act through cells different in origin and function. Here we report the identification of thymus-derived αβ TCR+ cells that express CD11c and MHC class II, and require FLT3L for development (TDC). TDC express genes heretofore found uniquely in T cells or DC, as well as a distinctive signature of cytotoxicity-related genes. Unlike other innate T cell subsets, TDC have a polyclonal TCR repertoire andrespond to cognate antigens. However, they differ from conventional T cells in that they do not require help from antigen-presenting cells, respond to TLR-mediated stimulation by producing IL-12 and process and present antigen. The physiologic relevance of TDC, found in mice and humans, is still under investigation, but the fact that they combine key features of T and DC cells suggests that they provide a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. PMID:23187623

  10. Characterization of interactions between inclusion membrane proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Emilie eGauliard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. The bacteria grow in an intracellular vesicle called an inclusion, the membrane of which is heavily modified by chlamydial proteins called Incs (Inclusion membrane proteins. Incs represent 7-10% of the genomes of Chlamydia and, given their localization at the interface between the host and the pathogen, likely play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of the bacterium. However, their functions remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction properties between various Inc proteins of C. trachomatis, using a bacterial two-hybrid (BACTH method suitable for detecting interactions between integral membrane proteins. To validate this approach, we first examined the oligomerization properties of the well-characterized IncA protein and showed that both the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane region independently contribute to IncA oligomerization. We then analyzed a set of Inc proteins and identified novel interactions between these components. Two small Incs, IncF and Ct222, were found here to interact with many other Inc proteins and may thus represent interaction nodes within the inclusion membrane. Our data suggest that the Inc proteins may assemble in the membrane of the inclusion to form specific multi-molecular complexes in an hierarchical and temporal manner. These studies will help to better define the putative functions of the Inc proteins in the infectious process of Chlamydia.

  11. Experimental photophysical characterization of fluorophores in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, J P; Baptista, P V [CIGMH, Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lima, J C, E-mail: pmvb@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: lima@dq.fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-10-14

    We propose an experimental-based tool for dealing with fluorescence modulation close to nanoparticles for application in studies of fluorophores in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), typically addressed via theoretical models. We performed a photophysical characterization of fluorophores in the vicinity of AuNPs, showing that correct {Phi}{sub F} determination suffers from a local pH effect, and address the observed radiative enhancement. Our approach is based on the experimental assurance that the reference fluorophores are in the same optical conditions as those of the AuNP-fluorophore conjugates. We demonstrate the relevance for introducing corrections for the inner filter effect and the reabsorption of the emitted light caused by AuNPs. The proposed approach could circumvent the need for theoretical based corrections and allow for more accurate determination of fluorescence emission in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles.

  12. Properties of Soils and Plants Uptake within the Vicinity of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backyard farming is becoming popular among the auto mechanics near their workshops where spent engine oil and carcass of vehicles are continuously dumped in Nigeria. The properties of soil and maize plants sampled from the vicinity of selected auto mechanic workshops in Ile-Ife, Nigeria were investigated. The results ...

  13. Preparation and characterization of artemether inclusion complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commercial brands, showing 3.9-, 1.8- and 1.6-fold increases, respectively, over a period of 15 min. Conclusion: Inclusion complexation of artemether ... of natural cyclodextrins – alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ) with six, seven and eight ... 0.427 nm for alpha and gamma cyclodextrins respectively [2,3]. Inclusion complex ...

  14. Preparation and characterization of artemether inclusion complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate experimentally the inclusion of artemether into the cavity of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and examine its effect on the solubility and dissolution rate of the drug. Methods: Inclusion complexes of artemether with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin of molar ratios 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 were prepared using the ...

  15. Structure and properties of molybdenum disulfide : based inclusion materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cetnarowski, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    The use of exfoliated MoS2 layers as surfaces for adsorption have been examined. The properties of exfoliated and restacked MoS2-malachite green (MG) inclusion compounds have been examined to provide insight into the MG-MoS2 interactions that characterize these materials. The results of X-ray diffraction experiments indicate that MG included into the restacked structure adopts a flat orientation approximately parallel to the MoS2 sheets. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) experiments conducted ...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF RUTIN-CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine the potential of beta-cyclodextrin to improve the solubility of rutin and obtain inclusion compounds that were analyzed by different techniques: UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis. The presence of β-cyclodextrin raises the content of rutin in water. The inclusion compounds were prepared by dry mixing, complexation in semisolid and liquid medium in 1:2 molar ratio rutin - β-cyclodextrin. The UV-Vis and IR analysis demonstrated the obtaining of inclusion compounds and the thermal analysis show that these compounds are more stable than the parent substance.

  17. Optical characterization of gold chains and steps on the vicinal Si(557) surface: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Conor [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Struttura della Materia, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); McAlinden, Niall; McGilp, John F. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2012-06-15

    We present a joint experimental-theoretical study of the reflectance anisotropy of clean and gold-covered Si(557), a vicinal surface of Si(111) upon which gold forms quasi-one-dimensional (1D) chains parallel to the steps. By means of first-principles calculations, we analyse the close relationship between the various surface structural motifs and the optical properties. Good agreement is found between experimental and computed spectra of single-step models of both clean and Au-adsorbed surfaces. Spectral fingerprints of monoatomic gold chains and silicon step edges are identified. The role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the surface optical properties is examined, and found to have little effect. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Vibrational characterization of different benzene phases on flat and vicinal Si(100) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Borislav; Widdra, Wolf

    2007-10-21

    Based on high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy and temperature-programmable desorption, benzene chemisorption on vicinal and nominally flat Si(100) surfaces has been studied for various adsorption, annealing, and site blocking treatments. Three different chemisorbed benzene (C6H6 and C6D6) phases with distinct thermal desorption characteristics and different vibrational spectra have been separated and characterized on both substrates. All three phases are identified as 1,4-cyclohexadiene-like structures with butterfly geometry. Whereas the dominant phase is di-sigma bonded to the two Si atoms of a single Si-Si dimer, the benzene orientation (double bond orientation) in the other phases is rotated. Di-sigma bonding to Si atoms of adjacent Si-Si dimer for the latter cases is most likely. Coverage and temperature dependent conversions between the different phases have been addressed by vibrational spectroscopy.

  19. Electrical impedance characterization of ceramic-matrix composites with various inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansom, Supaporn

    A thorough understanding of the AC electrical behavior vs. microstructure relationships in short fiber-reinforced composites should enable the use of AC-impedance spectroscopy (AC-IS) as a diagnostic tool to characterize composite microstructure. This work explores the use of an electrical AC-IS technique to characterize microstructure of composites with various inclusions, including short fibers, disc-shaped inclusions, fiber-bridged cracks, and carbon nanotubes. AC-IS is sensitive to the presence of conductive fibers and other shapes of inclusions (e.g., spheres or disc-shaped inclusions, both conductive and insulating) in specific type of composites. The requirements for such composites include a highly conductive inclusion in a moderately conductive matrix, and a high-impedance interface or coating between them. Due to the ease of fabrication, cement-based composites were used as a model system to establish the AC-IS characterization method. However, the developed AC-IS technique is quite general and can be extended to other ceramic-matrix composites satisfying the above requirements. Below percolation, composite theory describes the relationship between the composite conductivity and volume fraction of the inclusions in terms of the intrinsic conductivity, which is a function of shape, orientation and electrical properties of the inclusions. Such relationships (for example, for spherical inclusions, fibers, and oblate spheroidal inclusions) can be related to the resistance values derived from the AC-IS measurements to establish a foundation for AC-IS electrical characterization. Based on the intrinsic conductivity approach, a universal equivalent circuit model was developed to quantitatively describe the impedance response of composites containing particulates or discontinuous fibers. Deviations from the behavior predicted by the model is an indication of inhomogeneity and/or preferred orientation of the inclusions. The various microstructural issues that were

  20. Characterization of Inclusion Populations in Mn-Si Deoxidized Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carbajal, Alfonso; Herrera-Trejo, Martín; Castro-Cedeño, Edgar-Ivan; Castro-Román, Manuel; Martinez-Enriquez, Arturo-Isaias

    2017-12-01

    Four plant heats of Mn-Si deoxidized steel were conducted to follow the evolution of the inclusion population through ladle furnace (LF) treatment and subsequent vacuum treatment (VT). The liquid steel was sampled, and the chemical composition and size distribution of the inclusion populations were characterized. The Gumbel generalized extreme-value (GEV) and generalized Pareto (GP) distributions were used for the statistical analysis of the inclusion size distributions. The inclusions found at the beginning of the LF treatment were mostly fully liquid SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions, which then evolved into fully liquid SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO and partly liquid SiO2-CaO-MgO-(Al2O3-MgO) inclusions detected at the end of the VT. The final fully liquid inclusions had a desirable chemical composition for plastic behavior in subsequent metallurgical operations. The GP distribution was found to be undesirable for statistical analysis. The GEV distribution approach led to shape parameter values different from the zero value hypothesized from the Gumbel distribution. According to the GEV approach, some of the final inclusion size distributions had statistically significant differences, whereas the Gumbel approach predicted no statistically significant differences. The heats were organized according to indicators of inclusion cleanliness and a statistical comparison of the size distributions.

  1. Characterization of Inclusion Populations in Mn-Si Deoxidized Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carbajal, Alfonso; Herrera-Trejo, Martín; Castro-Cedeño, Edgar-Ivan; Castro-Román, Manuel; Martinez-Enriquez, Arturo-Isaias

    2017-08-01

    Four plant heats of Mn-Si deoxidized steel were conducted to follow the evolution of the inclusion population through ladle furnace (LF) treatment and subsequent vacuum treatment (VT). The liquid steel was sampled, and the chemical composition and size distribution of the inclusion populations were characterized. The Gumbel generalized extreme-value (GEV) and generalized Pareto (GP) distributions were used for the statistical analysis of the inclusion size distributions. The inclusions found at the beginning of the LF treatment were mostly fully liquid SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions, which then evolved into fully liquid SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO and partly liquid SiO2-CaO-MgO-(Al2O3-MgO) inclusions detected at the end of the VT. The final fully liquid inclusions had a desirable chemical composition for plastic behavior in subsequent metallurgical operations. The GP distribution was found to be undesirable for statistical analysis. The GEV distribution approach led to shape parameter values different from the zero value hypothesized from the Gumbel distribution. According to the GEV approach, some of the final inclusion size distributions had statistically significant differences, whereas the Gumbel approach predicted no statistically significant differences. The heats were organized according to indicators of inclusion cleanliness and a statistical comparison of the size distributions.

  2. Structural and dynamic properties of urea and thiourea inclusion compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenneth D. M.

    1996-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest in the chemistry and physics of solid inclusion compounds as a consequence of the wide range of important physico-chemical properties associated with them. In part, scientific interest in these materials is motivated by the desire to compare the structural, dynamic, and chemical properties of organic "guest" molecules embedded within different crystalline environments, and to investigate how the properties of the guest molecule may be influenced by the structural characteristics of its environment. This paper is focused upon urea and thiourea inclusion compounds containing a variety of different types of organic guest molecule. Aspects of the structural and dynamic properties of these inclusion compounds have been probed using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, EXAFS spectroscopy, incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering, Raman spectroscopy, computer simulation and mathematical modelling. On the basis of the results from these investigations, the current level of understanding of the structural and dynamic properties of these materials is assessed.

  3. Characterization of geologic deposits in the vicinity of US Ecology, Amargosa Basin, southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple approaches have been applied to better understand the characteristics of geologic units exposed at the surface and buried at depth in the vicinity of US Ecology (USE), a low-level commercial waste site in the northern Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Techniques include surficial geologic mapping and interpretation of the subsurface using borehole data. Dated deposits at depth were used to estimate rates of sediment accumulation. The subsurface lithologies have been modeled in three dimensions. Lithologic cross sections have been created from the three-dimensional model and have been compared to resistivity data at the same location. Where deposits appear offset, a fault was suspected. Global Positioning System elevation transects were measured and trenches were excavated to locate a strand of the Carrara Fault. The presence of the fault helps to better understand the shape of the potentiometric surface. These data will be used to better understand the hydrologic parameters controlling the containment of the waste at US Ecology.Quaternary geologic units exposed at the surface, in the vicinity of US Ecology, are derived from the alluvium shed off the adjacent range front and the Amargosa River. These deposits vary from modern to early Pleistocene in age. At depth, heterogeneous sands and gravel occur. Observed in deep trenches and boreholes, the subsurface deposits are characterized as fining-upward sequence of sediment from 5- to 8-meters thick. No volcanic units or fine-grained playa deposits were described in the boreholes to a depth of 200 meters. Based on Infrared Stimulated Luminescence dated core samples, short-term rates of sediment accumulation (Ecology successfully exposed offset Quaternary deposits on a splay of the Carrara Fault. Holocene deposits do not appear to be faulted, however, a fault zone does intersect middle and late Pleistocene aged units.

  4. Almandine: Crystal Chemistry, Defects, Inclusions and Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C. A.; Brearley, A. J.; Dachs, E.; Tippelt, G.

    2013-12-01

    Almandine-rich garnet is important in various metamorphic rocks of Earth's crust and garnet in the upper mantle contains a substantial almandine component (Fe3Al2Si3O12). In order to better understand almandine's chemical and physical properties, crystals were synthesized at high pressures and temperatures under different fO2 conditions with different starting materials. The synthetic products were carefully characterized and the role of defects and solid inclusions were given special attention. Almandine in both polycrystalline and in single-crystal form was obtained in the synthesis experiments. Hydrothermal experiments yielded almandine single crystals from roughly 5 microns in size up to approximately one millimeter and show varying physical properties. Fine-grained polycrystalline almandine in the form of compact pellets was obtained from water-free syntheses made in graphite capsules. The crystals were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, electron microprobe and TEM analysis, and using 57Fe Mössbauer and IR single-crystal spectroscopy. BSE photos on different polycrystalline almandines, synthesized without water, show a variety of fine inclusions and unreacted starting material. TEM results show certain nanosized, 100 nm to less then 10 nm, magnetite inclusions in some synthetic almandines, similar to those observed in natural garnet crystals. A room temperature FTIR single-crystal spectrum of a hydrothermally grown almandine shows two broad OH stretching bands at 3613 cm-1 and approximately 3490 cm-1, both of which split into more bands at 77 K. 57Fe Mössbauer measurements show small but various amounts of Fe3+ in octahedral coordination for many synthetic almandines and whose concentration depends on the synthesis experiment. Various possible local defects in almandine are analyzed using Kröger-Vink notation. The origin of tiny, minor included phases that have been observed in synthetic as well as in natural crystals may be related to defect

  5. Noninteracting, vicinal frustrated P/B-Lewis pair at the norbornane framework: synthesis, characterization, and reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Kehr, Gerald; Wiegand, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut; Schwickert, Christian; Pöttgen, Rainer; Cardenas, Allan Jay P; Warren, Timothy H; Fröhlich, Roland; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Erker, Gerhard

    2013-06-19

    Hydroboration of dimesitylnorbornenylphosphane with Piers' borane [HB(C6F5)2] gave the frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) 4 in good yield. It has the -PMes2 Lewis base attached at the 2-endo position and the -B(C6F5)2 group 3-exo oriented at the norbornane framework. The vicinal FLP 4 was shown by X-ray diffraction and by spectroscopy to be a rare example of an intramolecular noninteracting pair of a Lewis acid and Lewis base functionality. The FLP 4 rapidly splits dihydrogen heterolytically at ambient temperature to yield the phosphonium/hydrido borate zwitterion 5. It adds to the carbonyl group of benzaldehyde and to carbon dioxide to yield the adducts 6 and 7, respectively. Compounds 5-7 were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Compound 4 adds to the S═O function of sulfur dioxide to give a pair of diastereomeric heterocyclic six-membered ring products due to the newly formed sulfur chirality center, annulated with the norbornane skeleton, which were investigated by (31)P/(11)B single and double resonance solid state NMR experiments. Compound 8 was also characterized by X-ray diffraction. The FLP 4 undergoes a clean N,N-addition to nitric oxide (NO) to give a norbornane annulated five-membered heterocyclic persistent FLP-NO aminoxyl radical 12 (characterized, e.g., by X-ray diffraction and EPR spectroscopy). Additionally, the FLP radical was characterized by (1)H solid state NMR spectroscopy. The radical 12 undergoes a H-atom abstraction reaction with 1,4-cyclohexadiene to yield the respective diamagnetic FLP-NOH product 13, which was also characterized by X-ray diffraction and solid state NMR spectroscopy.

  6. Optical Properties of Small Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Geier, M.; Arienti, M.

    2013-12-01

    The optical properties of ice crystals play a fundamental role in modeling atmospheric radiation and hydrological cycle, which are critical in monitoring climate change. While Black Carbon (BC) is recognized as the dominant absorber with positive radiative forcing (warming) (Ramanathan & Carmichael, 2008), in-situ observations (Cappa, et al, 2012) indicate that the characterization of the mixing state of BC with ice crystals and other non-BC particles in global climate models (Ghan & Schwartz, 2007) needs further investigation. The limitation in the available mixing models is due to the drastically different absorbing properties of BC compared to other aerosols. We explore the scattering properties of ice crystals (in shapes commonly found in cirrus clouds and contrails - Yang, et al. 2012) with the inclusion of BC particles. The Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) (Yurkin & Hoekstra, 2011) is utilized to directly calculate the optical properties of the crystals with multiple BC inclusions, modeled as a distribution of spheres. The results are then compared with the most popular models of internal and external mixing (Liou, et al. 2011). The DDA calculations are carried out over a broad range of BC particle sizes and volume fractions within the crystal at the 532 nm wavelength and for ice crystals smaller than 50 μm. The computationally intensive database generated in this study is critical for understanding the effect of different types of BC inclusions on the atmosphere radiative forcing. Examples will be discussed to illustrate the modification of BC optical properties by encapsulation in ice crystals and how the parameterization of the BC mixing state in global climate models can be improved. Acknowledgements Support by Sandia National Laboratories' LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) is gratefully acknowledged. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of

  7. Characterizing the air quality in the vicinity of a fast-growing Asian airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Juang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Many studies have shown that air quality in the vicinity of major airports could be directly influenced by aircraft emissions, airport activities, and other forms of intense transportation in proximity to airports. There are two types of pollutants emitted within the confines of airports: one is directly emitted from aircraft engines, and the other is from ground support equipment (GSE). Such pollutants include aromatic hydrocarbon, ultrafine particles (UFP) , black carbon (BC) , nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, and sulfides and could immiately impact the air quality in areas downwind. Although the impact of airport emissions on surrounding communities has been studied in some major airports in North America and Europe, scant attention has been paid to airport pollution issues in Asia despite the surging growth of air travel and of airports. Commercial air traffic in Taiwan has been dramatically growing in the last two decades because of rapid economic growth and is expected to continue surging into the next decades due to increasing trade and travel with China and other countries. In this study, the air quality in the vicinity of Taiwan’s Taoyuan International Airport (TPE Airport) is analyzed to further characterize air quality in the region of a fast-growing Asian airport. Monitoring data from the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) is used in the study to investigate long-term trends in air quality. The first step of this research is to analyze the data from six stations close to TPE Airport during the last ten years and to filter the attributes (wind field, geography, and so on) which could impact that air quality. Second, we characterize the relationship between data from different monitoring stations by using cluster analysis and then use the air pollution model (Industrial Source Complex-ISC3 and Cal-Puff) to identify why serious pollution events occur. Finally, we use model binds with a GIS system containing population-activity and

  8. Characterization of geologic deposits in the vicinity of US Ecology, Amargosa Basin, southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple approaches have been applied to better understand the characteristics of geologic units exposed at the surface and buried at depth in the vicinity of US Ecology (USE), a low-level commercial waste site in the northern Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Techniques include surficial geologic mapping and interpretation of the subsurface using borehole data. Dated deposits at depth were used to estimate rates of sediment accumulation. The subsurface lithologies have been modeled in three dimensions. Lithologic cross sections have been created from the three-dimensional model and have been compared to resistivity data at the same location. Where deposits appear offset, a fault was suspected. Global Positioning System elevation transects were measured and trenches were excavated to locate a strand of the Carrara Fault. The presence of the fault helps to better understand the shape of the potentiometric surface. These data will be used to better understand the hydrologic parameters controlling the containment of the waste at US Ecology. Quaternary geologic units exposed at the surface, in the vicinity of US Ecology, are derived from the alluvium shed off the adjacent range front and the Amargosa River. These deposits vary from modern to early Pleistocene in age. At depth, heterogeneous sands and gravel occur. Observed in deep trenches and boreholes, the subsurface deposits are characterized as fining-upward sequence of sediment from 5- to 8-meters thick. No volcanic units or fine-grained playa deposits were described in the boreholes to a depth of 200 meters. Based on Infrared Stimulated Luminescence dated core samples, short-term rates of sediment accumulation (data, when compared to lithologic cross sections, generally are consistent with lithology grain size and probable soil carbonate accumulations. Surface resistivity displays a fining-upward sequence of sediments at the surface with a soil carbonate imprint. Finally, trenching north of US Ecology successfully exposed

  9. Physicochemical Characterization of Efavirenz–Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Sathigari, Sateeshkumar; Chadha, Gurkishan; Lee, Y-H. Phillip; Wright, Nydeia; Parsons, Daniel L.; Rangari, Vijay K.; Fasina, Oladiran; Babu, R. Jayachandra

    2009-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is an oral antihuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug with extremely poor aqueous solubility. Thus, its gastrointestinal absorption is limited by the dissolution rate of the drug. The objective of this study was to characterize the inclusion complexes of EFV with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl β-CD (HPβCD), and randomly methylated β-CD (RMβCD) to improve the solubility and dissolution of EFV. The inclusion complexation of EFV with cyclodextrins in the liquid state was ...

  10. Microstructural characterization of halite inclusion in a glass-bonded ceramic waste form.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, J. S.; Ebert, W. L.

    2000-12-14

    A glass-bonded ceramic waste form is being developed to immobilize radioactively contaminated chloride waste salts generated during the conditioning of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal. The waste salt is first mixed with zeolite A to occlude the salt into cavities in the zeolite structure. The salt-loaded zeolite is then mixed with a borosilicate glass and consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. During this process, the zeolite converts to the mineral sodalite, which retains most of the waste salt, and small amounts of halite are generated. Halite inclusions have been observed within micron- to submicron-sized pores that form within the glass phase in the vicinity of the sodalite/glass interface. These inclusions are important because they may contain small amounts of radionuclide contaminants (eg {sup 135}Cs and {sup 129}I),and may affect the corrosion behavior of the waste form. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the chemical nature and distribution of halite inclusions in the waste form.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Teachers' Attitude toward Inclusion Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Boyle, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measure that updates and extends Larrivee and Cook's (1979) Opinions Relative to Mainstreaming Scale in terms of structure, terminology, and language. The revised scale was tested using a sample of 106 teachers based in inclusive mainstream schools. Using Principal Component…

  12. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, S.M., E-mail: smarta@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lage, J. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernández, B. [Global R& D, ArcelorMittal, Avilés (Spain); Garcia, S. [Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, Av. Prof. Dr. Cavaco Silva, 33, 2740-120 Porto Salvo (Portugal); Reis, M.A.; Chaves, P.C. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM{sub 10} levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5–10} were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM{sub 10} were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM{sub 10}. Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%). - Highlights: • Emissions from steelworks are very complex. • The larger steelworks contribution to PM{sub 10} was from blast furnace and sinter plant. • Sinter plant stack emissions contributed for 12% of the PM{sub 10} mass. • Secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace contributed for 19% of the PM{sub 10}. • Fugitive dust emissions highly contribute to PM{sub 10} mass.

  13. Inclusion complex of nateglinide with sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin: Preparation, characterization and water solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingna; Zhang, Yimin; Li, Xiayang; Zheng, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Due to the poor solubility of nateglinide (NTG), its application was seriously limited. In this paper, a novel inclusion complex of nateglinide with sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBE7-β-CD) was synthesized by freeze-drying method, aiming to improve its properties. The phase solubility study was performed to obtain the stoichiometry and stability constant. Then, the solid inclusion complex was characterized by means of FT-IR, DSC, PXRD, SEM, 1H and 2D NMR. The results showed that nateglinide embedded into the cavity of SBE-β-CD from the secondary face partly, forming an inclusion complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry. The stability constants at different temperatures (27, 37, and 50 °C) were 2940 M-1, 2607 M-1, 2156 M-1, separately. Moreover, the NTG-SBE-β-CD inclusion complex displayed higher aqueous solubility compared with free NTG, suggesting its potential application in medicine.

  14. Characterization of the hydrogeology and stress state in the vicinity of the homestake mine, Lead, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenhack, Johnathan Foss

    around the Homestake mine. This was done by varying the rock density, Poisson's ratio, the effective Young's modulus of the workings region, and including initial stresses until predicted stresses best fit in-situ stress data. The changing mechanical properties in the workings and dewatering cause changes to the stress around the mine. The mining process typically causes increased compression laterally around the workings and decreased compression above, below, and within the workings. The greatest changes in total stress are near the base of the mine and reach roughly 40 MPa between the ore bodies and in the lower portions of the West Ore Body. The softening of the mine region because of material removal and decreased fluid pressure in the workings results in deformation in the vicinity of the mine. Subsidence occurs above the mine region and is greatest near the surface and decreases with depth; above the shallowest workings subsidence can reach approximately 0.18 m. There is also uplift along the footwall of the workings in the deeper portions of the mine that can reach up to 0.022 m. Horizontal displacements of as much as several centimeters occur around the mine and with displacement towards the workings region. Deformation in the vicinity of the mine results in tilt that is towards the workings with the greatest tilts near the surface. A fault that intersects the West Ore Body was considered as a location for an experiment into the mechanics of earthquake nucleation, so the stress state in the vicinity of this feature was of particular interest. This simulation shows that mining and dewatering reduce fluid pressure and change stresses along the fault. The shear stress along the fault typically increases along most of the fault and decreases in the region where the fault and West Ore Body intersect. Increased shear is typically on the order of 1 to 2 MPa but can reach as much as 5 MPa in areas around the intersection of the fault and West Ore Body. In the region

  15. Identification of Intestinal Ion Transport Defects in Microvillus Inclusion Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kravtsov, Dmitri V; Ahsan, Kaimul; Kumari, Vandana; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D; Reyes-Mugica, Miguel; Kumar, Anoop; Gujral, Tarunmeet; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Ameen, Nadia A

    2016-01-01

    Loss of function mutations in the actin motor Myosin Vb (Myo5b) lead to Microvillus Inclusion Disease (MVID) and death in newborns and children. MVID results in secretory diarrhea (SD), brush border (BB) defects, villus atrophy and microvillus inclusions (MVIs) in enterocytes. How loss of Myo5b

  16. Identification and characterization of a new agar-degrading strain with the novel properties of saccharides inhibition and nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Chen, Guiguang; Bian, Yaxi; Zeng, Wei; Sun, Bihong; Liang, Zhiqun

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a new agar-degrading strain was isolated from soil with agar as a sole carbon source and energy. Based on its morphological, physiological, biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA sequence, the strain was identified as Streptomyces lavendulae UN-8. The extracellular agarase activity reached 0.03 U/ml after fermentation in shake flask (250 ml), which was close to other reported non-marine microorganisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that the growth of UN-8 would be inhibited by glucose (40 g/L) and maltose (40 g/L) with the inhibitory rate of 100% and 70%, respectively. Besides, UN-8 could be grown on the solid medium without any nitrogen sources, then the possible nitrogen fixation gene nifU was cloned from its genomic DNA. The deduced amino acid sequence of nifU has high similarity (98%) with nitrogen fixation protein NifU from Streptomyces sp. NRRL S-104 (KJY22454.1) and Streptomyces sp. NRRL F-4428 (KJK52526.1) based on NCBI blast. It is suggested that the nifU gene of UN-8 also encoded nitrogen fixation protein NifU. These results provided some new information for the further understanding of agar-degrading strain.

  17. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, Lorie M. [Hattenburg Dilley & Linnell, LLC, Anchorage, AL (United States)

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this project was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between geothermal fluid processes and the compositions of the fluid inclusion gases trapped in the reservoir rocks; and 2) develop methodologies for interpreting fluid inclusion gas data in terms of the chemical, thermal and hydrological properties of geothermal reservoirs. Phase 1 of this project was designed to conduct the following: 1) model the effects of boiling, condensation, conductive cooling and mixing on selected gaseous species; using fluid compositions obtained from geothermal wells, 2) evaluate, using quantitative analyses provided by New Mexico Tech (NMT), how these processes are recorded by fluid inclusions trapped in individual crystals; and 3) determine if the results obtained on individual crystals can be applied to the bulk fluid inclusion analyses determined by Fluid Inclusion Technology (FIT). Our initial studies however, suggested that numerical modeling of the data would be premature. We observed that the gas compositions, determined on bulk and individual samples were not the same as those discharged by the geothermal wells. Gases discharged from geothermal wells are CO2-rich and contain low concentrations of light gases (i.e. H2, He, N, Ar, CH4). In contrast many of our samples displayed enrichments in these light gases. Efforts were initiated to evaluate the reasons for the observed gas distributions. As a first step, we examined the potential importance of different reservoir processes using a variety of commonly employed gas ratios (e.g. Giggenbach plots). The second technical target was the development of interpretational methodologies. We have develop methodologies for the interpretation of fluid inclusion gas data, based on the results of Phase 1, geologic interpretation of fluid inclusion data, and integration of the data. These methodologies can be used in conjunction with the relevant geological and hydrological information on the system to

  18. Inclusiveness of identification among farmers in The Netherlands and Galicia (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, P.G.; Sabucedo, J.M.; Rodriguez, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss inclusiveness of identification among farmers in Galicia (Spain) and The Netherlands. Identification with three nested categories - farmers in the local community, farmers in the country, and farmers in Europe was assessed among 167 Dutch and 248 Galician farmers at three

  19. Characterization of solid airborne particles deposited in snow in the vicinity of urban fossil fuel thermal power plant (Western Siberia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, A V; Yazikov, E G; Filimonenko, E A; Lata, J-C; Kim, J; Shakhova, T S

    2017-07-20

    Recognition and detailed characterization of solid particles emitted from thermal power plants into the environment is highly important due to their potential detrimental effects on human health. Snow cover is used for the identification of anthropogenic emissions in the environment. However, little is known about types, physical and chemical properties of solid airborne particles (SAP) deposited in snow around thermal power plants. The purpose of this study is to quantify and characterize in detail the traceable SAP deposited in snow near fossil fuel thermal power plant in order to identify its emissions into the environment. Applying the scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, mineral and anthropogenic phase groups in SAP deposited in snow near the plant and in fly ash were observed. We identified quartz, albite and mullite as most abundant mineral phases and carbonaceous matter, slag and spherical particles as dominate anthropogenic phases. This is the first study reporting that zircon and anthropogenic sulphide-bearing, metal oxide-bearing, intermetallic compound-bearing and rare-earth element-bearing particles were detected in snow deposits near thermal power plant. The identified mineral and anthropogenic phases can be used as tracers for fossil fuel combustion emissions, especially with regard to their possible effect on human health.

  20. Whole-Genome Identification and Expression Pattern of the Vicinal Oxygen Chelate Family in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Wan, Neng; Cheng, Zao; Mo, Yufeng; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Hui; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Yin, Yongtai; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Vicinal oxygen chelate proteins (VOC) are members of the metalloenzyme superfamily, which plays roles in many biological reactions. Some members of the VOC superfamily have been systematically characterized but not in Brassica napus. In this study, 38 VOC genes were identified based on their conserved domains. The present results revealed that most of the BnaVOC genes have few introns, and all contained the typical VOC structure of βαβββ modules. The BnaVOC genes are distributed unevenly across 15 chromosomes in B. napus and occur as gene clusters on chromosomes C5 and A6. The synteny and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the VOC gene family is a consequence of mesopolyploidy events that occurred in Brassica evolution, and whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication played a major role in the expansion of the BnaVOC gene family. The expression profile analysis indicated that the expression of most BnaVOCs was increased in the leaves and late stage seeds. Further results indicated that seeds of B. napus with a high oil content show higher expression levels under drought stress conditions, suggesting that BnaVOCs not only respond to abiotic stress but may also affect lipid metabolism in drought stress. This present study provides a comprehensive overview of the VOC gene family and provides new insights into their biological function in B. napus evolution. PMID:28536594

  1. The identification and inclusion of students with characteristics of high abilities/giftedness: relevant discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Negrini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking about education in general and about the advances that have been coming up, brings us to reflect on the proposal of the inclusive school. The Brazilian educational policies point in this direction and new propositions appear to the school in order to understand how to make significant changes in the daily education. Accordingly, this article is to hold a discussion regarding the identification of students with high abilities/giftedness, articulating with some ideas proposed by the inclusive education. It is with that highlight the importance of identifying these students for a more genuine inclusion of these students in the educational context. In this sense, is used as input theoretical Gardner (1995, Renzulli (2004, Perez (2004, Virgolim (2007, Vieira (2005, among other authors who assist in the discussion of this issue. The considerations made about the high abilities and their process of identification highlight the importance of a great attention facing the process of identification and relevance of this to the actual inclusion of students with high skills in the educational context. Since they are not identified, these students may not be receiving the necessary guidance to learn and develop their potential, often distancing themselves from colleagues and friends. Thus, it is a debate about the appropriate identification of these students and how it can contribute to the inclusion of them.

  2. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer to Characterize the Hydration of Regolith in the Vicinity of a Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Andrey; Fedorova, Anna; Korablev, Oleg; Mantsevich, Sergey; Stepanov, Alexander; Kalinnikov, Yury

    Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Globe (Luna 25) and Luna-Resurce (Luna 27) Russian surface missions. It is a pencil-beam spectrometer to be pointed by a robotic arm of the landing module, and is intended for study of the lunar surface composition in the vicinity of the lander. The instrument’s field of view (FOV) of 1(°) is co-aligned with the FOV (45(°) ) of a stereo TV camera. The spectrometer will provide measurements of selected surface areas in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 mum. The spectral selection is provided by acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), which scans the spectral range sequentially. Electrical command of the AOTF allows selecting the spectral sampling, and permits a random access if needed. The spectral resolution is better than 25 cm (-1) . The instrument’s mass is 1.3 kg. The primary goal of the experiment is to detect the regolith hydration at 3mum, identifying its form from the shape of the spectrum, and to follow its changes during the day/shadow pattern. Also, LIS will allow to study the mineralogical composition from mineral signatures within the spectral range, and will serve for selection of samples to be analyzed by other instruments.

  3. Characterizing the interior of 67P in the vicinity of Abydos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarletti, V.; Lasue, J.; Lemonnier, F.; Herique, A.; Kofman, W. W.; Guiffaut, C.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Plettemeier, D.

    2016-12-01

    Since the arrival of Rosetta at comet 67P, numerous pictures have been delivered by the cameras onboard both the main spacecraft and the Philae lander. They revealed, at the nucleus' surface and inside the walls of the deep pits, few-meters scale repeating structures, thus providing hints about the internal structure of the nucleus, and suggesting that primordial 'cometesimals' may be objects around 3m in size. The CONSERT (Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission) experiment is a radar that has been designed to specifically sound the interior of the nucleus and to provide information on the nucleus internal structure. The work presented here is based on the CONSERT data collected during the First Science Sequence (FSS) and marginally during Philae's Separation Descent and Landing (SDL) for comparison. During FFS, the smaller lobe of the nucleus in the vicinity of Abydos has been actually sounded by CONSERT's electromagnetic waves at 90 MHz with a spatial resolution around 10 m. The propagation delays measured during FSS are consistent with a very low bulk permittivity value for the investigated cometary material, which confirms the high porosity of the nucleus. The sharp shape of the received pulses indicates that the electromagnetic waves suffered weak scattering when propagating through the nucleus. This suggests that the sounded part nucleus is thus fairly homogeneous on a spatial scale of tens of meters. We will present further results on the variation of the CONSERT's pulse shape transmitted through the small lobe of the nucleus. For a more accurate analysis and interpretation of the data, we split the FSS data into two distinct sets corresponding to soundings performed West and East of Philae in order to investigate potential differences. Tentative interpretation in terms of nucleus internal structure based on propagation simulations performed in non-homogeneous nucleus numerical models will be presented.

  4. Identification as Incentive to Care: Pre-Service Teachers' Orientation towards Inclusion in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedžune, Inga

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes identification with nature as a pedagogical technique in teacher education for sustainability to facilitate commitment to care about nonhuman nature, such care being an important underpinning of an inclusive and hence sustainable human-nature relationship. 29 pre-service teachers participated in a series of learning activities…

  5. Characterizing Cavities in Model Inclusion Fullerenes: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The fullerene-82 cavity is selected as a model system in order to test several methods for characterizing inclusion molecules. The methods are based on different technical foundations such as a square and triangular tessellation of the molecular surface, spherical tessellation of the molecular surface, numerical integration of the atomic volumes and surfaces, triangular tessellation of the molecular surface, and cubic lattice approach to the molecular volume. Accurate measures of the molecular volume and surface area have been performed with the pseudorandom Monte Carlo (MCVS and uniform Monte Carlo (UMCVS methods. These calculations serve as a reference for the rest of the methods. The SURMO2 method does not recognize the cavity and may not be convenient for intercalation compounds. The programs that detect the cavities never exceed 1% deviation relative to the reference value for molecular volume and 5% for surface area. The GEPOL algorithm, alone or combined with TOPO, shows results in good agreement with those of the UMCVS reference. The uniform random number generator provides the fastest convergence for UMCVS and a correct estimate of the standard deviations. The effect of the internal cavity on the solvent-accessible surfaces has been calculated. Fullerene-82 is compared with fullerene-60 and -70.

  6. Identification, molecular characterization, and analysis of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lin et al. 2016). So, structural and functional analysis of carp SoxF genes is of great scientific value for aquaculture. In this study, we describe the identification and molecular characterization of genes of the carp SoxF subgroup, we investigated ...

  7. Novel water-soluble fisetin/cyclodextrins inclusion complexes: Preparation, characterization, molecular docking and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Jiang, Kun-Ming; An, Kun; Ren, Si-Hao; Xie, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Yi; Lin, Jun

    2015-12-11

    Novel water-soluble inclusion complexes for fisetin (FIT) were developed by introducing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and γ-CD. Properties of the obtained complexes, as well as the interactions between each component, were systematically investigated in both solution and solid states by means of ESI-MS, NMR, FT-IR, XRD, DSC, SEM etc. All characterization information demonstrated that FIT/CDs inclusion complexes were formed, and exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from FIT. A complex with 1:1 stoichiometry of FIT and CDs was confirmed with Job's method. Meanwhile, as supported by molecular modeling calculations, we suggested that phenyl group (C ring) of FIT molecule was included in the CDs cavity from the wide side. Moreover, the water solubility of FIT/CDs was successfully improved from 2.8 mg/mL (in ethanol aqueous solution) to 4.5 mg/mL (FIT/β-CD complex) and 7.8 mg/mL (FIT/γ-CD complex), and higher thermal stability results were shown by thermal analysis for those complexes. Notably, the inclusion complexes displayed almost two times higher cytotoxicity compared to free FIT against Hela and MCF-7 cells. These results suggested that FIT/CDs complexes could be potentially useful in food industry and healthcare area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solubility, spectroscopic properties and photostability of Rhein/cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralito, Stefania; Zanardi, Iacopo; Memoli, Adriana; Annesini, Maria Cristina; Travagli, Valter

    2009-12-01

    The host-guest interaction between Rhein (Rh) - an anthraquinonic drug characterized by low water solubility and recently considered for its potential antidiabetic and antitumoral activities other than for the well-established anti-inflammatory properties - with cyclodextrins (CDs) was investigated using phase-solubility diagrams. The typical A L phase-solubility profiles suggest the formation of the 1:1 inclusion complexes between Rh and the two CDs investigated, namely β-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and the resulting constant values of complex formation, Kc, were estimated. Due to the higher Kc value, complex of Rhein with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was chosen for further investigation. Characterization in solution of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin/Rhein complex was achieved both by fluorescence and visible spectroscopic techniques. These results confirm the formation of inclusion complexes in solution and the 1:1 stoichiometry of the binary system. With respect to Rhein aqueous solution behavior, the inclusion complex appears to be able: (i) to enhance Rhein solubility; (ii) to control its neutral/anionic equilibrium; (iii) to affect both its electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra. Finally, the photostability of Rhein in the presence of cyclodextrins was evaluated.

  9. Alpha- and Beta-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes with 5-Fluorouracil: Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Di Donato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are natural macrocyclic oligosaccharides able to form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of guests, affecting their physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties. In order to obtain an improvement of the bioavailability and solubility of 5-fluorouracil, a pyrimidine analogue used as chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of the colon, liver, and stomac cancers, the drug was complexed with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin. The inclusion complexes were prepared in the solid state by kneading method and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry. In solution, the 1:1 stoichiometry for all the inclusion complexes was established by the Job plot method and the binding constants were determined at different pHs by UV-VIS titration. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity of 5-fluorouracil and its complexation products were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line, Hep G2 (hepatocyte carcinoma cell line, Caco-2 (colon adenocarcinoma cell line, and A-549 (alveolar basal epithelial carcinoma cell line. The results showed that both inclusion complexes increased the 5-fluorouracil capability of inhibiting cell growth. In particular, 5-fluorouracil complexed with beta-cyclodextrin had the highest cytotoxic activity on MCF-7; with alpha-cyclodextrin the highest cytotoxic activity was observed on A-549. The IC50 values were equal to 31 and 73 µM at 72 h, respectively. Our results underline the possibility of using these inclusion complexes in pharmaceutical formulations for improving 5-fluorouracil therapeutic efficacy.

  10. Alpha- and Beta-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes with 5-Fluorouracil: Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Cristina; Lavorgna, Margherita; Fattorusso, Roberto; Isernia, Carla; Isidori, Marina; Malgieri, Gaetano; Piscitelli, Concetta; Russo, Chiara; Russo, Luigi; Iacovino, Rosa

    2016-12-01

    Cyclodextrins are natural macrocyclic oligosaccharides able to form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of guests, affecting their physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties. In order to obtain an improvement of the bioavailability and solubility of 5-fluorouracil, a pyrimidine analogue used as chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of the colon, liver, and stomac cancers, the drug was complexed with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin. The inclusion complexes were prepared in the solid state by kneading method and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry. In solution, the 1:1 stoichiometry for all the inclusion complexes was established by the Job plot method and the binding constants were determined at different pHs by UV-VIS titration. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity of 5-fluorouracil and its complexation products were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line), Hep G2 (hepatocyte carcinoma cell line), Caco-2 (colon adenocarcinoma cell line), and A-549 (alveolar basal epithelial carcinoma cell line). The results showed that both inclusion complexes increased the 5-fluorouracil capability of inhibiting cell growth. In particular, 5-fluorouracil complexed with beta-cyclodextrin had the highest cytotoxic activity on MCF-7; with alpha-cyclodextrin the highest cytotoxic activity was observed on A-549. The IC 50 values were equal to 31 and 73 µM at 72 h, respectively. Our results underline the possibility of using these inclusion complexes in pharmaceutical formulations for improving 5-fluorouracil therapeutic efficacy.

  11. Structural characterization of inclusion complex of arbutin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyclodextrin. Yun Li, Fang Li, Hongyan Cai, Xuan Chen, Wei Sun, Wangyang Shen. Abstract. Purpose: To improve the solubility and stability of arbutin and to expand its application by preparing its inclusion complex with hydroxypropyl-β- ...

  12. Scenarios constructed for basaltic igneous activity at Yucca Mountain and vicinity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, G.E.; Dunn, E.; Dockery, H.; Barnard, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valentine, G.; Crowe, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Basaltic volcanism has been identified as a possible future event initiating a release of radionuclides from a potential repository at the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository site. The performance assessment method set forth in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE, 1988) requires that a set of scenarios encompassing all significant radionuclide release paths to the accessible environment be described. This report attempts to catalogue the details of the interactions between the features and processes produced by basaltic volcanism in the presence of the presumed groundwater flow system and a repository structure, the engineered barrier system (EBS), and waste. This catalogue is developed in the form of scenarios. We define a scenario as a well-posed problem, starting from an initiating event or process and proceeding through a logically connected and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes (FEPs) to the release of contaminants.

  13. Influence of non-metal inclusions on mechanical properties of CLAM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shaojun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)], E-mail: sjliu@ipp.ac.cn; Huang Qunying [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Li Chunjing; Huang Bo [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The effect of the size and distribution of non-metal inclusions on mechanical properties of the China low activation martensitic steel (CLAM) was investigated. The tensile and Charpy V-notch impact tests showed that electroslag remelting improved the tensile properties and reduced the ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Inclusion detection of CLAM by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope showed that both the dimensions and quantities of the alumina inclusions decreased and their distributions became more uniform after remelting. The better refinement and distribution uniformity of alumina inclusions were considered as the main possible reasons for the improvement of the mechanical properties of CLAM steel after remelting.

  14. Preparation and characterization of debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Luo, Zhigang; Li, Lin; Fu, Xiong

    2015-01-21

    In this study, debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes were prepared. The effect of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, and addition amount of phosphatidylcholine on the phosphatidylcholine payload and inclusion rate was investigated. The phosphatidylcholine payload and inclusion rate prepared under the optimal conditions were 106 mg/g and 84.8%, respectively. The formation of debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes was confirmed by the results of XRD and FT-IR. Furthermore, the molecular, cluster, and fractal structures of the complexes were investigated using (13)C CP/MAS NMR and SAXS. The results indicated that the inclusion complexes were formed by hydrophobic interactions between alkyl chain of phosphatidylcholine and debranched-starch helix cavity. The complexes possessed a mass fractal structure, and a semicrystalline structure with a Bragg distance of 19.04 nm formed. After complexation, the stability of phosphatidylcholine was significantly improved, and phosphatidylcholine of the complexes can be gradually released with pancreatin treatment. This study revealed that debranched-starch can be used as an effective carrier of phosphatidylcholine for the purpose of improving its stability.

  15. Identification and characterization of delamination in polymer coated metal sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, M. J.; Schreurs, P. J. G.; Geers, M. G. D.

    In this paper, a mixed numerical-experimental approach is adopted to quantitatively investigate and characterize delamination in polymer coated steel. The integral bi-material system is analysed and special attention is given to the constitutive modelling of the polymer coating, the interface and the determination of all involved parameters. An extended cohesive zone model for large displacements is proposed, allowing for a mode-dependent behaviour in large deformations. Finally, peel tests are used to characterize the interface, whereby the interfacial properties are determined through an inverse parameter identification procedure.

  16. Characterization of manganese-bearing particles in the vicinities of a manganese alloy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pellón, Ana; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Ledoux, Frédéric; Courcot, Lucie; Courcot, Dominique

    2017-05-01

    Numerous studies have associated air manganese (Mn) exposure with negative health effects, primarily neurotoxic disorders. Despite there is not a specific European regulation, institutions such as the World Health Organization (WHO) have proposed an annual average guideline value of 150 ng/m 3 . Bioaccessibility and toxicity mechanisms of Mn remain unclear, however it is generally agreed that adverse health effects are strongly linked to particle size and morphology, chemical composition and oxidation state. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the physico-chemical characteristics of PM 10 and deposition samples collected in an urban area in the proximities of a ferromanganese alloy plant. Total Mn content was determined by ICP-MS after a microwave-assisted acid digestion. The size, morphology and chemical composition of individual particles were studied by SEM-EDX. XRD was used to identify the major crystalline phases. Most of the particles observed by SEM-EDX contain Mn. 60% of Mn-PM 10 particles were spheres of small size and were attributed to condensation processes at the smelting unit. Mn-bearing particles present in deposition were characterized by irregular shapes and bigger sizes, most of them consisting of SiMn slags and Mn ores and alloys, and attributed to diffuse emissions from raw material and product handling and processing. Due to the differences in the characteristics of Mn-bearing particles found in the different matrices, further studies on the potential toxicity and health effects of these particles should be done, especially in relation with the small and spherical particles present in PM 10 , which are expected to be more problematic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working definition of social inclusion as an overarching

  18. A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourn, Ben; Martin, Robyn; Buchanan, Angus; Chung, Donna; Speyer, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Improving social inclusion opportunities for population health has been identified as a priority area for international policy. There is a need to comprehensively examine and evaluate the quality of psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion that are used to guide social policy and outcomes. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on all current measures of social inclusion for any population group, to evaluate the quality of the psychometric properties of identified measures, and to evaluate if they capture the construct of social inclusion. Methods A systematic search was performed using five electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and Pubmed and grey literature were sourced to identify measures of social inclusion. The psychometric properties of the social inclusion measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Of the 109 measures identified, twenty-five measures, involving twenty-five studies and one manual met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the reviewed measures was variable, with the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short, Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Inclusion Scale demonstrating the strongest evidence for sound psychometric quality. The most common domain included in the measures was connectedness (21), followed by participation (19); the domain of citizenship was covered by the least number of measures (10). No single instrument measured all aspects within the three domains of social inclusion. Of the measures with sound psychometric evidence, the Social and Community Opportunities Profile-Short captured the construct of social inclusion best. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties demonstrate that the current suite of available instruments for the measurement of social inclusion are promising but need further refinement. There is a need for a universal working

  19. Denture identification using individual national identification number of Saudi Arabia: An innovative inclusion method of casted metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Atul; Priya, M. S.; Kannan, S. Karthiga; Singh, Smita; Ahmed Shaikh, Saquib B.; Fadaleh, Mousa Abu

    2017-01-01

    Context: Forensic odontology is one of the branches of dentistry, which played a very important role in identification of individuals in accident, natural and mass disaster, and civil unrest and in genocide crimes. In the absence of natural teeth, marking or labeling of denture plays a vital role in the personal identification. Background: Various types of marking or labeling methods are reported. However, many are not according to the criteria put forth by American Dental Association or other professional association. Majority of these techniques may be time consuming and expansive, may not be standardized, long lasting and do not permit the incorporation of a large amount of information. Aim: The aim of this study is to find out a denture identification technique that should be easy, less expensive, long lasting, and standardized. Materials and Methods: This article illustrates an inclusion denture casted metal technique of the individual national identification number printed in the patient's residence number or iquama or national identity card issued by the ministry of interior, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is used as a denture marker in the lingual surface of mandibular denture. Results: The label in this method is durable and can withstand high temperature, less chances of deterioration, visible radiographically, and provide all important information about individual that is standardized, reliable, and also accessible from any remote location. Conclusion: Hence, the proposed technique is an easy, less expensive, long lasting, radiographically visible, and standardized method of identification. PMID:28584470

  20. Denture identification using individual national identification number of Saudi Arabia: An innovative inclusion method of casted metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Atul; Priya, M S; Kannan, S Karthiga; Singh, Smita; Ahmed Shaikh, Saquib B; Fadaleh, Mousa Abu

    2017-01-01

    Forensic odontology is one of the branches of dentistry, which played a very important role in identification of individuals in accident, natural and mass disaster, and civil unrest and in genocide crimes. In the absence of natural teeth, marking or labeling of denture plays a vital role in the personal identification. Various types of marking or labeling methods are reported. However, many are not according to the criteria put forth by American Dental Association or other professional association. Majority of these techniques may be time consuming and expansive, may not be standardized, long lasting and do not permit the incorporation of a large amount of information. The aim of this study is to find out a denture identification technique that should be easy, less expensive, long lasting, and standardized. This article illustrates an inclusion denture casted metal technique of the individual national identification number printed in the patient's residence number or iquama or national identity card issued by the ministry of interior, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is used as a denture marker in the lingual surface of mandibular denture. The label in this method is durable and can withstand high temperature, less chances of deterioration, visible radiographically, and provide all important information about individual that is standardized, reliable, and also accessible from any remote location. Hence, the proposed technique is an easy, less expensive, long lasting, radiographically visible, and standardized method of identification.

  1. Anisotropic viscoelastic properties of quartz and quartzite in the vicinity of the α- β phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumbach, Steffen; Schilling, Frank R.

    2017-10-01

    In this study we performed high-temperature, dynamic (i.e. sinusoidal), three-point bending experiments of quartz single crystals and quartzite samples within the frequency range of seismic surveys (i.e. 0.1-20 Hz). At constant temperature close to the α- β phase transition we observed a unique complex elastic behaviour of both quartz and quartzite. We find a frequency dependence of the complex Young's modulus of α-quartz, including a dissipation maximum at ≈1 Hz supposedly related to the formation and variation of Dauphiné twin domains. Based on our experimental results for different crystallographic directions and additional modelling, we are able to describe the complex Young's modulus of quartz at its α- β phase transition in a 3D diagram. We derive a frequency-dependent elasticity tensor, using a three-element equivalent circuit, composed of two springs E 1 and E 2 as well as a dashpot η. E 1 and η are connected parallel to each other, E 2 is added in series. Compliance coefficients yield ( S 11) E 1 = 572 GPa, E 2 = 70.0 GPa, η = 64.6 GPa·s, ( S 33) E 1 = 127 GPa, E 2 = 52.1 GPa, η = 22.9 GPa·s, ( S 44) E 1 = 204 GPa, E 2 = 37.5 GPa, η = 26.4 GPa·s, ( S 12) E 1 = 612 GPa, E 2 = 106.7 GPa, η = 78.5 GPa·s, ( S 13) E 1 = 1546 GPa, E 2 = 284 GPa, η = 200 GPa·s; S 14 ≈-0.0024 GPa-1. We use the derived direction-dependent coefficients to predict the frequency-dependent complex elastic properties of isotropic polycrystalline quartz. These predictions agree well with the experimental results of the investigated quartzite. Finally, we explore the potential of using the anomalous frequency-dependent complex elastic properties of quartz at the α- β phase transition that we observed as an in situ temperature probe for seismic studies of the Earth's continental crust.

  2. Evolution of magnetic properties in the vicinity of the Verwey transition in Fe3O4 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. H.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2017-09-01

    We have systematically studied the evolution of magnetic properties, especially the coercivity and the remanence ratio in the vicinity of the Verwey transition temperature (TV), of high-quality epitaxial Fe3O4 thin films grown on MgO (001), MgAl2O4 (MAO) (001), and SrTiO3 (STO) (001) substrates. We observed rapid change of magnetization, coercivity, and remanence ratio at TV, which are consistent with the behaviors of resistivity versus temperature [ρ (T )] curves for the different thin films. In particular, we found quite different magnetic behaviors for the thin films on MgO from those on MAO and STO, in which the domain size and the strain state play very important roles. The coercivity is mainly determined by the domain size but the demagnetization process is mainly dependent on the strain state. Furthermore, we observed a reversal of remanence ratio at TV with thickness for the thin films grown on MgO: from a rapid enhancement for 40-nm- to a sharp drop for 200-nm-thick film, and the critical thickness is about 80 nm. Finally, we found an obvious hysteretic loop of coercivity (or remanence ratio) with temperature around TV, corresponding to the hysteretic loop of the ρ (T ) curve, in Fe3O4 thin film grown on MgO.

  3. Tunable Properties of Inclusion Complexes Between Amylose and Polytetrahydrofuran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachmawati, Rachmawati; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    Amylose and polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) are mixed in an aqueous solution to form inclusion complexes. DSC shows that immediate mixing results in complexes having lower melting temperatures compared with complexes prepared with longer mixing times. The washed complexes melt at higher temperatures

  4. Physical Properties of the Interface between a Mineral Inclusion and the Host Mineral: Monazite Inclusions in Fluorapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlov, D. E.; Wirth, R.; Foerster, H.

    2003-12-01

    , the monazite inclusions are characterized by an enrichment in Cl along their rims in contact with the amorphous interface suggesting the presence of Cl-rich fluids. The composition of the amorphous layer consists of elements generally incompatible with the crystal chemistry of Th- and U-poor monazite. These include predominantly SiO2 followed by MgO, FeO, CaO, and F; in essence all by-product elements not required by the monazite grains during metasomatically induced growth.

  5. Formation of natamycin:cyclodextrin inclusion complexes and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, John L; Marcy, Joseph E

    2003-11-19

    Natamycin is a broad spectrum antimycotic with very low water solubility, which is used to extend the shelf life of shredded cheese products. beta-Cyclodextrin (beta-CD), hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HP beta-CD), and gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD) were found to form inclusion complexes with natamycin in aqueous solution. The increase in solubility of natamycin with added beta-CD was observed to be linear (type A(L) phase solubility diagram). The 1:1 stability constant of natamycin:beta-CD complex was estimated from its phase solubility diagram to be 1010 M(-1). The phase solubility diagrams of both gamma-CD and HP beta-CD exhibited negative deviation from linearity (type A(N) diagram) and, therefore, did not allow the estimation of binding constants. The water solubility of natamycin was increased 16-fold, 73-fold, and 152-fold with beta-CD, gamma-CD, and HP beta-CD, respectively. The natamycin:CD inclusion complexes resulted in in vitro antifungal activity nearly equivalent to that of natamycin in its free state.

  6. Preparation and structural characterization of corn starch-aroma compound inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Zhou, Yibin; Jin, Shanshan; Meng, Xin; Yang, Liping; Wang, Haisong

    2017-01-01

    Six corn starch inclusion complexes were synthesized using small nonpolar or weak polar aroma compounds (heptanolide, carvone and menthone) and small polar aroma compounds (linalool, heptanol and menthol). The objectives of this study were to (a) investigate the ability of corn starch to form inclusion complexes with these aroma compounds and (b) characterize the structure of the corn starch inclusion complexes. The resulting inclusion ratios were 75.6, 36.9, 43.8, 91.9, 67.2 and 54.7% for heptanolide, carvone, menthone, linalool, heptanol and menthol respectively. The inclusion complexes had laminated structures with a certain amount of holes or blocky constructions. Compared with gelatinized corn starch, the transition temperatures, peak temperatures and enthalpies of the inclusion complexes were significantly different. The major peak of CO at 1771 cm-1 and significant peak shifts revealed the formation of inclusion complexes. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analyses revealed that the crystallinity of corn starch-polar aroma compound inclusion complexes increased. Based on cross-polarization magic angle spinning 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS 13 C NMR) results, novel peaks and chemical shifts were attributed to the presence of small aroma compounds, thereby confirming the formation of corn starch inclusion complexes. Small nonpolar and polar aroma compounds can be complexed to corn starch. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Tunable properties of inclusion complexes between amylose and polytetrahydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Rachmawati; Woortman, Albert J J; Loos, Katja

    2013-06-01

    Amylose and polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) are mixed in an aqueous solution to form inclusion complexes. DSC shows that immediate mixing results in complexes having lower melting temperatures compared with complexes prepared with longer mixing times. The washed complexes melt at higher temperatures compared with the corresponding unwashed complexes. XRD indicates that amylose-PTHF complexes diffract similar to amylose-fatty acids complexes (V6I -amylose helices), with additional diffractions correlating with amylose-alcohol complexes (V6II -amylose helices). This suggests that the structure of amylose-PTHF complexes is an intermediate or a mixture between V6I - and V6II -amylose. This shows that, besides residing inside the amylose helices, some PTHF chains are located in between the amylose helices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Preparation and characterization of inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate extracted from papaya seed with β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Ning; Du, Yideng; Zhu, Huaping

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion complex of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), extracted from papaya seed with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was prepared. Different analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, particle size distribution analysis and (1)H Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, were used to investigate the characterization of the inclusion complex (BITC-β-CD). All these approaches indicated that the inclusion complex was capable of being formed. The inclusion complex exhibited different spectroscopic and thermodynamic features and properties from BITC, and we deduced the possible inclusion modes for BITC-β-CD. The calculated apparent stability constant of the BITC-β-CD was 600.8l/mol, and the aqueous solubility of BITC was indistinctively improved by phase solubility studies. The results illustrated that β-CD was a proper excipient for increasing the stability and controlled release of BITC. Thus, β-CD complexation technology would be a promising approach, in expanding the application of BITC as a food antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deposition and properties of Fe(Se,Te) thin films on vicinal CaF2 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryja, Hagen; Hühne, Ruben; Iida, Kazumasa; Molatta, Sebastian; Sala, Alberto; Putti, Marina; Schultz, Ludwig; Nielsch, Kornelius; Hänisch, Jens

    2017-11-01

    We report on the growth of epitaxial Fe1+δ Se0.5Te0.5 thin films on 0°, 5°, 10°, 15° and 20° vicinal cut CaF2 single crystals by pulsed laser deposition. In situ electron and ex situ x-ray diffraction studies reveal a tilted growth of the Fe1+δ Se0.5Te0.5 films, whereby under optimized deposition conditions the c-axis alignment coincides with the substrate [001] tilted axis up to a vicinal angle of 10°. Atomic force microscopy shows a flat island growth for all films. From resistivity measurements in longitudinal and transversal directions, the ab- and c-axis components of resistivity are derived and the mass anisotropy parameter is determined. Analysis of the critical current density indicates that no effective c-axis correlated defects are generated by vicinal growth, and pinning by normal point core defects dominates. However, for H∣∣ab the effective pinning centers change from surface defects to point core defects near the superconducting transition due to the vicinal cut. Furthermore, we show in angular-dependent critical current density data a shift of the ab-planes maxima position with the magnetic field strength.

  10. Characterization of identification errors and uses in localization of poor modal correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guillaume; Balmes, Etienne; Chancelier, Thierry

    2017-05-01

    While modal identification is a mature subject, very few studies address the characterization of errors associated with components of a mode shape. This is particularly important in test/analysis correlation procedures, where the Modal Assurance Criterion is used to pair modes and to localize at which sensors discrepancies occur. Poor correlation is usually attributed to modeling errors, but clearly identification errors also occur. In particular with 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer measurement, many transfer functions are measured. As a result individual validation of each measurement cannot be performed manually in a reasonable time frame and a notable fraction of measurements is expected to be fairly noisy leading to poor identification of the associated mode shape components. The paper first addresses measurements and introduces multiple criteria. The error measures the difference between test and synthesized transfer functions around each resonance and can be used to localize poorly identified modal components. For intermediate error values, diagnostic of the origin of the error is needed. The level evaluates the transfer function amplitude in the vicinity of a given mode and can be used to eliminate sensors with low responses. A Noise Over Signal indicator, product of error and level, is then shown to be relevant to detect poorly excited modes and errors due to modal property shifts between test batches. Finally, a contribution is introduced to evaluate the visibility of a mode in each transfer. Using tests on a drum brake component, these indicators are shown to provide relevant insight into the quality of measurements. In a second part, test/analysis correlation is addressed with a focus on the localization of sources of poor mode shape correlation. The MACCo algorithm, which sorts sensors by the impact of their removal on a MAC computation, is shown to be particularly relevant. Combined with the error it avoids keeping erroneous modal components

  11. The Use of Web Based Expert System Application for Identification and Intervention of Children with Special Needs in Inclusive School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Atnantomi Wiliyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to determine the effectiveness of web based expert system application for identification and intervention of children with special needs in inclusive school. 40 teachers of inclusive school in Surakarta participated in this research. The result showed that: (1 web based expert system application was suitable with the needs of teachers/officers, had 50% (excellence criteria, (2 web based expert system application was worthwhile for identification of children with special needs, had 50% (excellence criteria, (3 web based expert system application was easy to use, had 52.5% (good criteria, and (4 web based expert system application had result accuracy in making decision, had 52.5% (good criteria. It shows that the use of web based expert system application is effective to be used by teachers in inclusive school in conducting identification and intervention with percentage on average was more than 50%.

  12. Characterization of Dust Properties during ACE-Asia and PRIDE: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Ji, Q. Jack

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentration over particular pathways around the globe. For example, the ACE-Asia (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia) was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). The PRIDE (Puerto RIco Dust Experiment, July 2000) was designed to measure the properties of Saharan dust transported across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean. Dust particles typically originate in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of dust aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the ocean. During ACE-Asia and PRIDE we had measured aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from ground-based remote sensing. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. We will present the results and discuss their implications in regional climatic effects.

  13. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization and biomimetic properties of new copper, manganese, zinc complexes: identification of possible superoxide-dismutase mimics bearing hydroxyl radical generating/scavenging abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupidi, Giulio; Marchetti, Fabio; Masciocchi, Norberto; Reger, Daniel L; Tabassum, Sartaj; Astolfi, Paola; Damiani, Elisabetta; Pettinari, Claudio

    2010-08-01

    A series of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Mn(II) coordination compounds has been synthesized by reaction of the corresponding metal salts and pyrazolyl-based ligands, i.e. the neutral 1-(2-(4-((2,2,2-tri(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethoxy)methyl)benzyloxy)-1,1-di(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethyl)-1H-pyrazole {p-C(6)H(4)[CH(2)OCH(2)C(pz)(3)](2), (L(1)), and the anionic hydridotris(3-phenyl-5-methylpyrazolyl)borate (L(2))(-), bis(pyrazolyl)acetate (L(3)) and bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)acetate (L(4))(-): the species [L(1)(CuCl(2))(2)] (1), [L(1)(Cu(OAc)(2))(2)] (2), [L(1)(Zn(OAc)(2))(2)] (3), [(CuCl(L(2))(Hpz(Ph,Me))] (4), [Mn(L(3))(2)].2H(2)O, (5), [ZnCl(L(3))(imH)].MeOH [CuCl(L(4))(imH)].2H(2)O (7) have been obtained (Hpz(Ph,Me)=3-phenyl-5-methylpyrazole, imH=imidazole). Complexes 1 and 4 have been structurally characterized, also using less conventional powder diffraction methods. The superoxide scavenging activity has been characterized by indirect assays including EPR analysis. All complexes exhibit superoxide scavenging activity with IC(50) in the microM range and they protect against the oxidative action of peroxynitrite in different ways. 1, 4 and 7 exert both an anti- and pro-oxidant effect depending on their concentration as evaluated by EPR and fluorescence methods. The pro-oxidative effects are absent in Zn(II) and Mn(II) complexes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and characterization of icosahedral metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Samuel; Serena, Pedro A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Guerrero, Carlo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Paredes, Ricardo [Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apto. 20632, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela); Garcia-Mochales, Pedro [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, c/Tomas y Valiente 7, Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    We present and discuss an algorithm to identify ans characterize the long icosahedral structures (staggered pentagonal nanowires with 1-5-1-5 atomic structure) that appear in Molecular Dynamics simulations of metallic nanowires of different species subjected to stretching. The use of the algorithm allows the identification of pentagonal rings forming the icosahedral structure as well as the determination of its number n{sub p}, and the maximum length of the pentagonal nanowire L{sub p}{sup m}. The algorithm is tested with some ideal structures to show its ability to discriminate between pentagonal rings and other ring structures. We applied the algorithm to Ni nanowires with temperatures ranging between 4 K and 865 K, stretched along the[100] direction. We studied statistically the formation of pentagonal nanowires obtaining the distributions of length L{sub p}{sup m} and number of rings n{sub p} as function of the temperature. The L{sub p}{sup m} distribution presents a peaked shape, with peaks locate at fixes distances whose separation corresponds to the distance between two consecutive pentagonal rings. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Mechanical properties of forgings depending on the changes in shape and chemical composition of inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Híreš

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with mechanical properties of forgings used for special technology in cannon barrels production. The forgings are treated by elctroslag remelting technology (ESR to enhance its plastic properties and yield point. Described experiments are focused on mechanical properties and metallurgical quality (microstructure of steels from which are the forgings made. The article includes microstructure photographs and description of inclusions located in examined steels. Experimental results compare forgings treated by ESR and next ones without ESR.

  16. Polymer inclusion membrane containing a tripodaldiglycolamide (T-DGA): characterization and sorption isotherm studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahanty, B.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Raut, D.R.; Das, D.K.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, M.; Verboom, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) of the composition, 25.6% T-DGA (tripodal diglycolamide), 53.9% NPOE (2-nitrophenyloctyl ether), and 20.5% CTA (cellulose triacetate) were prepared and characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic

  17. Facile Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Amylose-Fatty Acid Inclusion Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Zheng; Woortman, Albert; Rudolf, Petra; Loos, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Amylose-fatty acid inclusion complexes can be easily prepared by simple mixing in hot aqueous solutions. Above a critical chain length (C6) of the fatty acid insoluble complexes between amylose and each fatty acid (C8, C10, C12, C14, C16) were precipitated from the solution, and characterized by

  18. Identification and characterization of a bacterial glutamic peptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamic peptidases, from the MEROPS family G1, are a distinct group of peptidases characterized by a catalytic dyad consisting of a glutamate and a glutamine residue, optimal activity at acidic pH and insensitivity towards the microbial derived protease inhibitor, pepstatin. Previously, only glutamic peptidases derived from filamentous fungi have been characterized. Results We report the first characterization of a bacterial glutamic peptidase (pepG1, derived from the thermoacidophilic bacteria Alicyclobacillus sp. DSM 15716. The amino acid sequence identity between pepG1 and known fungal glutamic peptidases is only 24-30% but homology modeling, the presence of the glutamate/glutamine catalytic dyad and a number of highly conserved motifs strongly support the inclusion of pepG1 as a glutamic peptidase. Phylogenetic analysis places pepG1 and other putative bacterial and archaeal glutamic peptidases in a cluster separate from the fungal glutamic peptidases, indicating a divergent and independent evolution of bacterial and fungal glutamic peptidases. Purification of pepG1, heterologously expressed in Bacillus subtilis, was performed using hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The purified peptidase was characterized with respect to its physical properties. Temperature and pH optimums were found to be 60°C and pH 3-4, in agreement with the values observed for the fungal members of family G1. In addition, pepG1 was found to be pepstatin-insensitive, a characteristic signature of glutamic peptidases. Conclusions Based on the obtained results, we suggest that pepG1 can be added to the MEROPS family G1 as the first characterized bacterial member.

  19. Inclusion mechanical property estimation using tactile images, finite element method, and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Won, Chang-Hee

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a methodology for estimating three parameters of tissue inclusion: size, depth, and Young's modulus from the tactile data obtained at the tissue surface with the tactile sensation imaging system. The estimation method consists of the forward algorithm using finite element method, and inversion algorithm using artificial neural network. The forward algorithm is designed to comprehensively predict the tactile data based on the mechanical properties of the tissue inclusion. This forward information is used to develop an inversion algorithm that will be used to extract the size, depth, and Young's modulus of a tissue inclusion from the tactile image. The proposed method is then validated with custom made tissue phantoms with matching elasticities of typical human breast tissues. The experimental results showed that the proposed estimation method estimates the size, depth, and Young's modulus of tissue inclusions with root mean squared errors of 1.25 mm, 2.09 mm, and 28.65 kPa, respectively.

  20. Characterization of authigenic idiomorphous lignite and saliniferous quartz crystals by inclusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruth, M.; Blankenburg, H.J.

    1992-12-01

    Classic microthermometry has been carried out on gas-fluid-inclusions in euhedral quartz crystals in a lignite at open cast mines Espenhain, Zwenkau and Cospuden to the south of Leipzig (called lignite quartz crystals and stub quartz crystals) and in a Stassfurt seam at the Southern Harz Potasch area (called saliniferous quartz crystals). The inclusions are classified after their shape homogenization temperatures and content of the solutions. 1. The isolated gas-fluid- and gas-fluid-solid-inclusions, with a regular shape are found in lignite quartz crystals and in saliniferous quartz crystals which probably formed in carnallitic saltrocks and kieseritic 'Hartsalz'. The inclusions of stub quartz crystals and the other saliniferous quartzes investigated are characterized by irregular thin shape. 2. By the aid of thermometry stub quartz crystals are classified into two quartz generations. The homogenization temperatures of gas-fluid-inclusions in lignite quartz crystals give a mean TH/F41[degree]C. The primary gas-fluid-inclusions of saliniferous quartz crystals can be distinguished such as: carnallitic saltrocks44[degree]C; kieseritic 'Hartsalz'76[degree]C; langbeinitic 'Hartsalz'85[degree]C; glaseritic 'Hartsalz'63[degree]C; polyhaliti 'Hartsalz'71[degree]C; anhydritic 'Hartsalz'61[degree]C; impoverishment44[degree]C. 3. Both generations of stub quartz crystals contain in their gas-fluid-inclusions NaCl-solutions. Highly saline MgCL[sub 2]-solutions were trapped in euhedral quartz crytals selected from lignite directly. The primary gas-fluid-inclusions of saliniferous quartz crystals accumulated highly saline CaCl[sub 2]/MgCl[sub 2]-solutions.

  1. Characterization of intracellular inclusions in the urothelium of mice exposed to inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodmane, Puttappa R; Arnold, Lora L; Muirhead, David E; Suzuki, Shugo; Yokohira, Masanao; Pennington, Karen L; Dave, Bhavana J; Lu, Xiufen; Le, X Chris; Cohen, Samuel M

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a known human carcinogen at high exposures, increasing the incidences of urinary bladder, skin, and lung cancers. In most mammalian species, ingested iAs is excreted mainly through urine primarily as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). In wild-type (WT) mice, iAs, DMA(V), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) exposures induce formation of intramitochondrial urothelial inclusions. Arsenite (iAs(III)) also induced intranuclear inclusions in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout (As3mt KO) mice. The arsenic-induced formation of inclusions in the mouse urothelium was dose and time dependent. The inclusions do not occur in iAs-treated rats and do not appear to be related to arsenic-induced urothelial cytotoxicity. Similar inclusions in exfoliated urothelial cells from humans exposed to iAs have been incorrectly identified as micronuclei. We have characterized the urothelial inclusions using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), DNA-specific 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and non-DNA-specific Giemsa staining and determined the arsenical content. The mouse inclusions stained with Giemsa but not with the DAPI stain. Analysis of urothelial mitochondrial- and nuclear-enriched fractions isolated from WT (C57BL/6) and As3mt KO mice exposed to arsenate (iAs(V)) for 4 weeks showed higher levels of iAs(V) in the treated groups. iAs(III) was the major arsenical present in the enriched nuclear fraction from iAs(V)-treated As3mt KO mice. In conclusion, the urothelial cell inclusions induced by arsenicals appear to serve as a detoxifying sequestration mechanism similar to other metals, and they do not represent micronuclei.

  2. Distribution of Inclusion-Initiated Fatigue Cracking in Powder Metallurgy Udimet 720 Characterized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kantzos, Pete T.; Barrie, Robert; Telesman, Jack; Ghosn, Louis J.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of extrinsic surface damage, the fatigue life of metals is often dictated by the distribution of intrinsic defects. In powder metallurgy (PM) alloys, relatively large defects occur rarely enough that a typical characterization with a limited number of small volume fatigue test specimens will not adequately sample inclusion-initiated damage. Counterintuitively, inclusion-initiated failure has a greater impact on the distribution in PM alloy fatigue lives because they tend to have fewer defects than their cast and wrought counterparts. Although the relative paucity of defects in PM alloys leads to higher mean fatigue lives, the distribution in observed lives tends to be broader. In order to study this important failure initiation mechanism without expending an inordinate number of specimens, a study was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center where known populations of artificial inclusions (seeds) were introduced to production powder. Fatigue specimens were machined from forgings produced from the seeded powder. Considerable effort has been expended in characterizing the crack growth rate from inclusion-initiated cracks in seeded PM alloys. A rotating and translating positioning system, with associated software, was devised to map the surface inclusions in low-cycle fatigue (LCF) test bars and to monitor the crack growth from these inclusions. The preceding graph illustrates the measured extension in fatigue cracks from inclusions on a seeded LCF test bar subjected to cyclic loading at a strain range of 0.8 percent and a strain ratio (max/min) of zero. Notice that the observed inclusions fall into three categories: some do not propagate at all (arrest), some propagate with a decreasing crack growth rate, and a few propagate at increasing rates that can be modeled by fracture mechanics. The following graph shows the measured inclusion-initiated crack growth rates from 10 interrupted LCF tests plotted against stress intensities calculated for semi

  3. Magnetic and electrical transport properties of LaBaCo2O(5.5+δ) thin films on vicinal (001) SrTiO3 surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunrui; Liu, Ming; Collins, Gregory; Wang, Haibin; Bao, Shanyong; Xu, Xing; Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Chonglin; Lin, Yuan; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-23

    Highly epitaxial LaBaCo(2)O(5.5+δ) thin films were grown on the vicinal (001) SrTiO(3) substrates with miscut angles of 0.5°, 3.0°, and 5.0° to systemically study strain effect on its physical properties. The electronic transport properties and magnetic behaviors of these films are strongly dependent on the miscut angles. With increasing the miscut angle, the transport property of the film changes from semiconducting to semimetallic, which results most probably from the locally strained domains induced by the surface step terraces. In addition, a very large magnetoresistance (34% at 60 K) was achieved for the 0.5°-miscut film, which is ~30% larger than that for the film grown on the regular (001) SrTiO(3) substrates.

  4. Frequency selective properties of coaxial transmission lines loaded with combined artificial inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Francisco; Gil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The properties of a modified coaxial transmission line by periodic inclusions will be discussed. The introduction of split ring resonators, conductor stubs, air gaps, and combination of these gives rise to new frequency selective properties, such as stopband or passband behavior, observable in planar as well as volumetric metamaterial structures. These results envisage new potential applications and implementation of devices in coaxial transmission line technology.

  5. Frequency Selective Properties of Coaxial Transmission Lines Loaded with Combined Artificial Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Falcone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a modified coaxial transmission line by periodic inclusions will be discussed. The introduction of split ring resonators, conductor stubs, air gaps, and combination of these gives rise to new frequency selective properties, such as stopband or passband behavior, observable in planar as well as volumetric metamaterial structures. These results envisage new potential applications and implementation of devices in coaxial transmission line technology.

  6. Facile synthesis and structural characterization of amylose-Fatty Acid inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Woortman, Albert J J; Rudolf, Petra; Loos, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Amylose-fatty acid inclusion complexes can be easily prepared by simple mixing in hot aqueous solutions. Above a critical chain length (C6) of the fatty acid insoluble complexes between amylose and each fatty acid (C8, C10, C12, C14, C16) were precipitated from the solution, and characterized by FT-IR, XRD, DSC, and SEC. The presence of the characteristic (CO) FT-IR absorption peak at 1 710 cm(-1) confirmed the inclusion of the fatty acids inside the amylose helix. XRD showed the same characteristic features of the V amylose single helical structure. Both SEC and DSC revealed that longer fatty acids can form inclusion complexes with amylose fractions having higher degree of polymerization, leading to greater yields, and higher thermal stability (higher melting temperature and enthalpy) of the amylose-complexes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Self-sensing and thermal energy experimental characterization of multifunctional cement-matrix composites with carbon nano-inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A.; Pisello, A. L.; Sambuco, Sara; Ubertini, F.; Asdrubali, F.; Materazzi, A. L.; Cotana, F.

    2016-04-01

    The recent progress of Nanotechnology allowed the development of new smart materials in several fields of engineering. In particular, innovative construction materials with multifunctional enhanced properties can be produced. The paper presents an experimental characterization on cement-matrix pastes doped with Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Nano-fibers, Carbon Black and Graphene Nano-platelets. Both electro-mechanical and thermo-physical investigations have been carried out. The conductive nano-inclusions provide the cementitious matrix with piezo-resistive properties allowing the detection of external strain and stress changes. Thereby, traditional building materials, such as concrete and cementitious materials in general, would be capable of self-monitoring the state of deformation they are subject to, giving rise to diffuse sensing systems of structural integrity. Besides supplying self-sensing abilities, carbon nano-fillers may change mechanical, physical and thermal properties of cementitious composites. The experimental tests of the research have been mainly concentrated on the thermal conductivity and the optical properties of the different nano-modified materials, in order to make a critical comparison between them. The aim of the work is the characterization of an innovative multifunctional composite capable of combining self-monitoring properties with proper mechanical and thermal-energy efficiency characteristics. The potential applications of these nano-modified materials cover a wide range of possibilities, such as structural elements, floors, geothermal piles, radiant systems and more.

  8. Influence of non-metal inclusions on mechanical properties of Clam steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S.; Huang, Q.; Li, C. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui (China)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: With good irradiation swelling resistance, thermo-physical and thermo-mechanical properties, the RAFMs (Reduced Activation Ferritic / Martensitic steels) have been considered as the primary candidate structural materials for application in fusion systems in the near future. The China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM) based on the nominal compositions of 9Cr1.5WVTa is being developed in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) under wide collaboration with many other institutes and universities in domestic and overseas. The heat treatment of CLAM is quenching at 980 deg. C for 30 minutes and then cooled by air or water and tempering at 760 deg. C for 90 minutes and then cooled by air. Mechanical properties of CLAM were strongly affected by the size and distribution of non-metal inclusions as most steels, and its effects on mechanical properties of CLAM steel has been investigated. The evaluation of the non-metallic inclusions in CLAM has been done by optical microscopy observation, electron microscopy observation and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The results showed that most of the non-metal inclusions in CLAM were brittle alumina phase with large size and non-uniform distribution and those were no good to the mechanical properties of CLAM. So electroslag remelting process was chosen to remelt the ingot which was smelted previously by vacuum induction furnace. Inclusion detection by optical microscopy showed that both of the dimensions and quantity of the inclusions decreased and their distributions became more uniform compared with the case before. And the tensile tests and Charpy V-notch impact tests indicated that electroslag remelting improved the tensile properties and impact toughness of CLAM steel. (authors)

  9. Characterization of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes containing an essential oil component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Romina L; Rodríguez, Francisco J; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, María J; Bruna, Julio E

    2016-04-01

    An important issue in food technology is that antimicrobial compounds can be used for various applications, such as the development of antimicrobial active packaging materials. Yet most antimicrobial compounds are volatile and require protection. In the present study, the inclusion complexes of 2-nonanone (2-NN) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), were prepared by a co-precipitation method. Entrapment efficiency (EE), thermal analysis (DSC and TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), sorption isotherms and antifungal activity were evaluated for the characterization of the inclusion complex (β-CD:2-NN). A higher EE was obtained (34.8%) for the inclusion complex 1:0.5 than for other molar rates. Both DSC and TGA of the inclusion complexes showed the presence of endothermic peaks between 80 °C and 150 °C, attributed to a complexation phenomenon. Antimicrobial tests for mycelial growth reduction under atmospheric conditions proved the fungistatic behaviour of the inclusion complexes against Botrytis cinerea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating of the Elastic Properties of the Composite with Anisotropic Ball Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope composites as structural materials sensing mechanical stresses are largely determined by a complex of their elastic properties. Described in the article of review papers devoted to the elastic properties of the composite, it follows that the problem of theoretical evaluation of these characteristics, remains relevant. When considering composites reinforced with spherical inclusions, most famous works of the composite matrix and the inclusion is considered to be isotropic. However, for use as inclusions of metal particles and nanostructured elements often need to consider the anisotropy of the elastic characteristics.In the article for a composite with anisotropic spherical inclusions built two types of estimates of values of the bulk modulus and shear modulus . As background information used elastic properties of the matrix and the inclusions and their content by volume in the composite.The first type is classified as two-sided estimates of desired values that are based on the dual variational formulation of the linear elasticity problem of an inhomogeneous solid body containing alternative functionals (Lagrange and Castigliano. These functionals on the true distribution of strains and stresses in an inhomogeneous body reach the same meaning extremes (minimum and maximum respectively. On the convergence of the distribution of the Lagrange functional application allows you to get an upper bound of desired values, and the use of functional Castigliano - their lower bound.The second type of assessment is built by self-consistency, this method allows for the interaction of a single particle on or matrix composite with a homogeneous isotropic medium having measured the elastic moduli. Averaging over the volume of the composite disturbances arising strains and stresses in the inclusions and matrix particles makes it possible to obtain the calculated dependences for the bulk modulus and shear modulus of the composite. Comparison of these

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of Copper Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar Vidal, Noelia

    2013-01-01

    This study displays the electrochemical synthesis of different copper clusters (CuCLs) sizes, their characterization and possible applications. These CuCLs exhibit great photoluminescence and catalytic properties, making them promising materials in a wide range of applications.

  12. Chemical evolution of 244Pu in the solar vicinity and its implications for the properties of r-process production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Bekki, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Meteoritic abundances of r-process elements are analyzed to deduce the history of chemical enrichment by the r-process, from the beginning of disk formation to the present time in the solar vicinity. Our analysis combines the abundance information from short-lived radioactive nuclei such as 244Pu with the abundance information from stable r-process nuclei such as Eu. These two types of nuclei can be associated with one r-process event and an accumulation of events until the formation of the solar system, respectively. With the help of the observed local star formation (SF) history, we deduce the chemical evolution of 244Pu and obtain three main results: (I) the last r-process event occurred 130-140 Myr before the formation of the solar system; (II) the present-day low 244Pu abundance as measured in deep-sea reservoirs results from the low recent SF rate compared to ˜4.5-5 Gyr ago; and (III) there were ˜15 r-process events in the solar vicinity from the formation of the Galaxy to the time of solar system’s formation and ˜30 r-process events to the present time. Then, adopting the hypothesis that a neutron star (NS) merger is the r-process production site, we find that the ejected r-process elements are extensively spread out and mixed with interstellar matter, with a mass of ˜ 3.5× {10}6 M⊙, which is about 100 times larger than that for supernova ejecta. In addition, the event frequency of r-process production is estimated to be 1 per ~1400 core-collapse supernovae, which is identical to the frequency of NS mergers estimated from the analysis of stellar abundances.

  13. A Study of the Optical Properties of Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, Marco [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Xiaoyuan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kopacz, Adrian M [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The report focu ses on the modification of the optical properties of ice crystals due to atmospheric black car bon (BC) contamination : the objective is to advance the predictive capabilities of climate models through an improved understanding of the radiative properties of compound particles . The shape of the ice crystal (as commonly found in cirrus clouds and cont rails) , the volume fraction of the BC inclusion , and its location inside the crystal are the three factors examined in this study. In the multiscale description of this problem, where a small absorbing inclusion modifies the optical properties of a much la rger non - absorbing particle, state - of - the - art discretization techniques are combined to provide the best compromise of flexibility and accuracy over a broad range of sizes .

  14. ESTIMATION OF THE DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF EPOXY GLASS FABRIC COMPOSITES WITH NATURAL RUBBER PARTICLE INCLUSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ravi Sankar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional materials are being replaced in the field of engineering by composite materials, due to their tailorable properties and high specific properties. These materials are extensively used in structural applications. Damping is one of the important properties of the materials used in structures, and needs to be enhanced in order to reduce structural vibrations. In the present work, the improvement of the material damping of glass fabric epoxy composites with particle rubber inclusions is studied. The effect of particle size on the damping and stiffness parameters at different frequencies and temperatures is studied experimentally. Considerable enhancement in damping without significant reduction in stiffness is observed at lower particle sizes. The damping property in both bending and shear modes is more with 0.254 mm rubber particle inclusions among the selected sizes. A lower reduction in stiffness is observed with the inclusion of lower particle sizes (0.254 mm and 0.09 mm when compared with higher particle sizes. An ANN-based prediction model is developed to predict these properties for a given frequency/temperature and particle size. The predicted values are very close to the experimental values with an maximum error of 5%.

  15. Accelerated Characterization of Polymer Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wroczynski; l. Brewer; D. Buckley; M. Burrell; R. Potyrailo

    2003-07-30

    This report describes the efforts to develop a suite of microanalysis techniques that can rapidly measure a variety of polymer properties of industrial importance, including thermal, photo-oxidative, and color stability; as well as ductility, viscosity, and mechanical and antistatic properties. Additional goals of the project were to direct the development of these techniques toward simultaneous measurements of multiple polymer samples of small size in real time using non-destructive and/or parallel or rapid sequential measurements, to develop microcompounding techniques for preparing polymers with additives, and to demonstrate that samples prepared in the microcompounder could be analyzed directly or used in rapid off-line measurements. These enabling technologies are the crucial precursors to the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies for the polymer additives industry whereby the rate of development of new additives and polymer formulations can be greatly accelerated.

  16. Evaluation of the inclusion of circular RNAs in mRNA profiling in forensic body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqi; Liu, Baonian; Shao, Chengchen; Xu, Hongmei; Xue, Aimin; Zhao, Ziqin; Shen, Yiwen; Tang, Qiqun; Xie, Jianhui

    2017-09-25

    The use of messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling is considered a promising method in the identification of forensically relevant body fluids which can provide crucial information for reconstructing a potential crime. However, casework samples are usually of limited quantity or have been subjected to degradation, which requires improvement of body fluid identification. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a class of products from the backsplicing of pre-mRNAs, are shown to have high abundance, remarkable stability, and cell type-specific expression in human cells. In this study, we investigated whether the inclusion of circRNAs in mRNA profiling improve the detection of biomarkers including δ-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2) and matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) in body fluid identification. The major circRNAs of ALAS2 and MMP7 were first identified and primer sets for the simultaneous detection of linear and circular transcripts were developed. The inclusion of circRNAs in mRNA profiling showed improved detection sensitivity and stability of biomarkers revealed by using serial dilutions, mixed samples, and menstrual bloodstains as well as degraded and aged samples. Therefore, the inclusion of circRNAs in mRNA profiling should facilitate the detection of mRNA markers in forensic body fluid identification.

  17. Characterization of intracellular inclusions formed by Pseudomonas oleovorans during growth on octane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, M J; Eggink, G; Witholt, B; Kingma, J; Wynberg, H

    1983-01-01

    The growth of Pseudomonas oleovorans on n-octane was characterized by the formation of intracellular structures. These inclusions were isolated and characterized. Morphologically, they resembled the poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules found in Bacillus cereus, as shown by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. The elemental analysis of isolated granules showed, however, that they do not contain poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Instead, the analysis was consistent with a C8 polyester, which interpretation was supported by the fatty acid analysis of hydrolyzed granules. From the evidence presented here, we conclude that P. oleovorans forms poly-beta-hydroxyoctanoate granules when grown on n-octane. Images PMID:6841319

  18. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators : Example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heege, Jan; Zijp, Mart; Nelskamp, Susanne; Douma, Lisanne; Verreussel, Roel; Ten Veen, Johan; de Bruin, Geert; Peters, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and

  19. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators: example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Nelskamp, S.; Douma, L.A.N.R.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Veen, J.H. ten; Bruin, G. de; Peters, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and

  20. Distribution and properties of gunshot residue originating from a Luger 9 mm ammunition in the vicinity of the shooting gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2009-01-10

    Examinations of various features of gunshot residue (GSR) collected from targets in a function of the shooting distance as well as from hands and the forearm, front and back parts of the upper clothing of the shooting person were performed with SEM-EDX. GSR samples were obtained using Walther P-99 pistol and Luger 9 mm ammunition of Polish production. The experiments were designed in such a manner that the substrates for collecting GSR reminded the ones usually obtained for examinations within criminal cases. Results of the performed examinations in the form of parameters describing GSR particles: the number of GSR, proportions of their chemical classes as well as their sizes revealed a dependence on the shooting distance both, in the direction of shooting and backwards, i.e. on the shooting person. The analysis of the distribution of particles in the vicinity of the shooting gun may be utilised in description of the general rules of the dispersion of GSR as well as in the reconstruction of a real shooting case.

  1. Genotypic identification and technological characterization of lactic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(28), pp. 7218-7226, 5 April, 2012 ... Key words: Lactic acid bacteria, genotypic characterization, technological characterization, tulum cheese. INTRODUCTION. Kargi tulum ... traditional production method of Kargi tulum cheese begins with fresh raw milk that is coagulated by adding.

  2. Black Phosphorus: Optical Characterization, Properties and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengxi; Ling, Xi

    2017-10-01

    The rise of black phosphorus (BP) as a new family member of two-dimensional (2D) materials brings new concepts and applications to the field, because of the infrared band gap and anisotropic properties of such materials. Among many excellent properties of BP, the optical property attracts special attention in recent years. Optical methods have been widely and successfully used in characterizing BP, not only to obtain the structural information (such as thickness and crystalline orientation), but also to probe the fundamental properties of BP in terms of the behavior of electrons, phonons, excitons etc. In this Review, a comprehensive understanding about the optical characterization of BP such as Raman, absorption, and photoluminescence is presented. Also, the unique optical properties and applications explored in recent years are reviewed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. TL/OSL properties of crystalline inclusions from heavy, barytes loaded, concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyak, Nafiye G., E-mail: kiyak@isikun.edu.t [ISIK University, Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, 34980 Sile, Istanbul (Turkey); Polymeris, George S. [ISIK University, Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, 34980 Sile, Istanbul (Turkey); R.C. ' ATHENA' , Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, Archaeometry Laboratory, Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, George [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    In the present work, we report the luminescence data obtained from heavy, barytes loaded, concrete containing many crystalline inclusions, extracted from a shielding block located at CERN. The use of both Thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signals, resulting from a specific trap at about 200 {sup o}C, is investigated for retrospective dosimetry purposes. By applying thermal cleaning experiments the TL signal of interest was isolated. Basic TL and OSL properties as thermal and optical stability, repeatability and mainly the linearity of the TL and OSL signals as a function of beta dose were investigated. The implications of all these luminescence properties to retrospective dosimetry are also briefly discussed.

  4. Properties and characterization of modern materials

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on robust characterization and prediction methods for materials in technical applications as well as the materials’ safety features during operation. In particular, it presents methods for reliably predicting material properties, an aspect that is becoming increasingly important as engineering materials are pushed closer and closer to their limits to boost the performance of machines and structures. To increase their engineering value, components are now designed under the consideration of their multiphysical properties and functions, which requires much more intensive investigation and characterization of these materials. The materials covered in this monograph range from metal-based groups such as lightweight alloys, to advanced high-strength steels and modern titanium alloys. Furthermore, a wide range of polymers and composite materials (e.g. with micro- and nanoparticles or fibres) is covered. The book explores methods for property prediction from classical mechanical characterization-...

  5. Physico-chemical characterization and antibacterial activity of inclusion complexes of Hyptis martiusii Benth essential oil in β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Tatianny A; Freitas, Thiago S; Araújo, Francielly O; Menezes, Paula P; Dória, Grace Anne A; Rabelo, Alessandra S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Santos, Márcio R V; Bezerra, Daniel P; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Irwin Rose A; Nunes, Paula Santos; Araújo, Adriano A S; Costa, Maria S; Campina, Fábia F; Santos, Antonia T L; Silva, Ana R P; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2017-05-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been used as important pharmaceutical excipients for improve the physicochemical properties of the drugs of low solubility as the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii. This oil is important therapeutically, but the low solubility and bioavailability compromises your use. Therein, the aim of this study was to obtain and to characterize physico-chemically the samples obtained by physical mixture (PM), paste complexation (PC) and slurry complexation (SC) of the essential oil Hyptis martiusii (EOHM) in β-CD, and to compare the antibacterial and modulatory-antibiotic activity of products obtained and oil free. The physicochemical characterization was performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Karl Fischer titration. Additionally, the antibacterial tests were performed by microdilution technique. Thus, it was observed that the PM method showed low complexing capacity, unlike PC and SC in which it was observed the formation of inclusion complexes. In addition, the second stage of the TG/DTG curves showed that SC was the best method inclusion with mass loss of 6.9% over the PC that was 6.0%. The XRD results corroborate with the results above suggesting the formation of new solid phase and the SEM photomicrographs showed the porous surface of the samples PC and SC. The essential oil alone demonstrated an antibacterial and modulatory effect against the S. aureus and the Gram negative strain, respectively. However, the β-CD and the inclusion complex did not demonstrate any biological activity in the performed antibacterial assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The identification of group II inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites by electron probe microanalysis of perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The technique developed by Kornacki (1984) for identifying group II Ca/Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites by electron-microprobe analysis of the ZrO2 or Y2O3 content of their perovskite component is demonstrated using material from 20 Allende inclusions. The results are presented in tables and graphs and compared with findings obtained by other procedures. Group II inclusions are found to have perovskites generally containing less than 0.10 wt pct ZrO2 and/or Y2O3 (average of several grains), while those of groups I, III, V, and VI have more than 0.25 wt pct ZrO2. Analysis of data on eight Allende Ca/Al-rich inclusions shows that 75 percent of the fine-grained inclusions belong to group II. The implications of these findings for fractionation processes in the primitive solar nebula are indicated.

  7. Identification and characterization of putative conserved IAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We identified in this tree, a clade that contained sequences from species across the plant kingdom suggesting that AMI is conserved and may have a primary role in plant growth and development. This clade contained the isolated and well characterized Arabidopsis and Nicotiana AMIs. The preliminary reverse transcriptase ...

  8. Morphological characterization and identification of Phytophthora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequent outbreaks of citrus gummosis in Kenyan citrus orchards have been reported, yet the identity and distribution of the Phytophthora species causing the disease are unknown. Work was carried out to (i) characterize and identify Phytophthora species associated with citrus gummosis based on cultural and ...

  9. Meteor Shower Identification and Characterization with Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea

    2015-01-01

    The short development time associated with Python and the number of astronomical packages available have led to increased usage within NASA. The Meteoroid Environment Office in particular uses the Python language for a number of applications, including daily meteor shower activity reporting, searches for potential parent bodies of meteor showers, and short dynamical simulations. We present our development of a meteor shower identification code that identifies statistically significant groups of meteors on similar orbits. This code overcomes several challenging characteristics of meteor showers such as drastic differences in uncertainties between meteors and between the orbital elements of a single meteor, and the variation of shower characteristics such as duration with age or planetary perturbations. This code has been proven to successfully and quickly identify unusual meteor activity such as the 2014 kappa Cygnid outburst. We present our algorithm along with these successes and discuss our plans for further code development.

  10. Isolation, identification and characterization of Leuconostoc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intestinal microflora of snakehead (Channa striatus) fish was studied to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria as new probiotic. A total of five lactic acid bacteria were isolated from intestine to evaluate with probiotic properties. Leuconostoc mesenteroides sp. mesenteroides with more ability to inhibit growth of ...

  11. Characterization and Enhanced Antioxidant Activity of the Cysteinyl β-Cyclodextrin-Baicalein Inclusion Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanhee Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Baicalein is a type of flavonoid isolated from the roots of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis. Although it has attracted considerable attention due to its antiviral, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, its limited aqueous solubility inhibits the clinical application of this flavonoid. The present study aimed to prepare and characterize a host-guest complex in an effort to improve the solubility and antioxidant activity of baicalein. The host molecule is a macrocyclic β-cyclodextrin (β-CD functionalized with cysteine for a synergetic effect. The structure of the synthesized cysteinyl β-CD was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The inclusion complex with baicalein was studied by UV-vis, NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry. The formed cysteinyl β-CD/baicalein inclusion complex efficiently improved the solubility and antioxidant ability of baicalein. Therefore, we suggest that the present cysteinyl β-CD is a potential host molecule for inclusion complexation and for bioavailability augmentation.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Novel Biocontrol Bacterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Because bacterial isolates from only a few genera have been developed commercially as biopesticides, discovery and characterization of novel bacterial strains will be a key to market expansion. Our previous screen using plant bioassays identified 24 novel biocontrol isolates representing 12 different genera. In this study, we characterized the 3 isolates showing the best biocontrol activities. The isolates were Pantoea dispersa WCU35, Proteus myxofaciens WCU244, and Exiguobacterium acetylicum WCU292 based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed differential production of extracellular enzymes, antimicrobial activity against various fungal or bacterial plant pathogens, and induced systemic resistance activity against tomato gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. E. acetylicum WCU292 lacked strong in vitro antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, but induced systemic resistance against tomato gray mold disease. These results confirm that the trait of biological control is found in a wide variety of bacterial genera

  13. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of binary systems of pyrimethamine and 2- hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. ... (PYR), a drug effective against protozoan parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum, is poorly water soluble and exhibits marked variation in oral bioavailability.

  14. Influence of vicinal sapphire substrate on the properties of N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhiyu; Zhang, Jincheng, E-mail: jchzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Xu, Shengrui; Chen, Zhibin; Yang, Shuangyong; Tian, Kun; Hao, Yue [Key Lab of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Su, Xujun [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Shi, Xuefang [School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2014-08-25

    The influence of vicinal sapphire substrates on the growth of N-polar GaN films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is investigated. Smooth GaN films without hexagonal surface feature are obtained on vicinal substrate. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that basal-plane stacking faults are formed in GaN on vicinal substrate, leading to a reduction in threading dislocation density. Furthermore, it has been found that there is a weaker yellow luminescence in GaN on vicinal substrate than that on (0001) substrate, which might be explained by the different trends of the carbon impurity incorporation.

  15. Preparation, characterization and in vitro dissolution study of Nitrazepam: Cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of Nitrazepam, a water-insoluble drug. The phase solubility profile of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin was an AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature Nitrazepam solubilization and their value decreased with increase in the cyclodextrin concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of Nitrazepam were prepared with cyclodextrin using various methods such as physical mixing, kneading, spray-drying and lyophilization. The complexes were characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction studies. These studies indicated that a complex prepared by lyophilization had successful inclusion of the Nitrazepam molecule into the cyclodextrin cavity. Complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility and wettability of Nitrazepam. Among all the samples, a complex prepared with Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin by lyophilization had the greatest improvement in the in vitro rate of Nitrazepam dissolution. The mean dissolution time for Nitrazepam decreased significantly after preparing complexes. The similarity factor indicated a significant difference between the release profiles of Nitrazepam from complexes, physical mixtures and plain Nitrazepam. To conclude that, the tablets containing complexes prepared with Cyclodextrins had significant improvement in the release profile of Nitrazepam as compared to tablets containing Nitrazepam without cyclodextrin.

  16. In silico identification and characterization of effector catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.

    2012-01-01

    Many characterized fungal effector proteins are small secreted proteins. Effectors are defined as those proteins that alter host cell structure and/or function by facilitating pathogen infection. The identification of effectors by molecular and cell biology techniques is a difficult task. However,

  17. Characterization and identification of glioblastoma progression on preoperative multimodal MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Jiun-Lin; van der Hoorn, A.; Boonzaier, N. R.; Larkin, T. J.; Matys, T.; Price, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The treatment failure of Glioblastoma (GBM) is mostly due to the inadequate identification of its invasive margin. We aimed to characterize the peri-tumoral area, the predominant site of tumor progression by using multi-modal MRI. Thereafter, a robust method to preoperatively identify

  18. Identification and characterization of acidity-tolerant and aluminum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and characterization of acidity-tolerant and aluminum-resistant bacterium isolated from tea soil. NTT Chau, LV Thien, S Kanazawa. Abstract. An acidity-tolerant, aluminum resistant bacterium was isolated from tea soils in Kagoshima Experimental Station (Japan). Based on the morphological, physiological and ...

  19. Identification and characterization of a Bacillus subtilis strain TS06 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replant disease is a major limitation for strawberry production in greenhouse. Bio-control may be a good way to cope with the replant diseases. Here, we report identification and characterization of a bacterial strain TS06 that may be used as a bio-control agent against the replant diseases in strawberry. TS06 was identified ...

  20. Identification and characterization of key stakeholders in the fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and characterization of key stakeholders in the fish-marketing network of the Lake Chad Basin fisheries and the impact of fish trade on livelihoods. SI Ovie, BMB Ladu, OD Sule. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries Vol. 4 (2) 2007: pp. 198-206. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  1. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  2. Robotic palpation and mechanical property characterization for abnormal tissue localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Bummo; Kim, Yeongjin; Oh, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Jung

    2012-09-01

    Palpation is an intuitive examination procedure in which the kinesthetic and tactile sensations of the physician are used. Although it has been widely used to detect and localize diseased tissues in many clinical fields, the procedure is subjective and dependent on the experience of the individual physician. Palpation results and biomechanics-based mechanical property characterization are possible solutions that can enable the acquisition of objective and quantitative information on abnormal tissue localization during diagnosis and surgery. This paper presents an integrated approach for robotic palpation combined with biomechanical soft tissue characterization. In particular, we propose a new palpation method that is inspired by the actual finger motions that occur during palpation procedures. To validate the proposed method, robotic palpation experiments on silicone soft tissue phantoms with embedded hard inclusions were performed and the force responses of the phantoms were measured using a robotic palpation system. Furthermore, we carried out a numerical analysis, simulating the experiments and estimating the objective and quantitative properties of the tissues. The results indicate that the proposed approach can differentiate diseased tissue from normal tissue and can characterize the mechanical information of diseased tissue, which means that this method can be applied as a means of abnormality localization to diagnose prostate cancers.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of planar nanowire arrays of Co grown on oxidized vicinal silicon (111) templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, S. K.; O'Dowd, B. J.; Nistor, C.; Balashov, T.; Ballesteros, B.; Lodi Rizzini, A.; Kavich, J. J.; Dhesi, S. S.; Gambardella, P.; Shvets, I. V.

    2012-04-01

    We fabricated planar arrays of Co nanowires (NWs) on oxidized step-bunched Si (111) templates using shallow angle deposition. These planar NW arrays exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature for NW widths down to 25 nm. The NWs possess polycrystalline character with hcp-crystal structure, and present a lightly oxidized interface when capped with MgO. The magnetic anisotropy of the NW array is dominated by the shape anisotropy, which keeps the magnetization in-plane with easy axis parallel to the wires. By reducing the inter-wire separation, we obtain NW arrays with reduced coercivity demonstrating the importance of magneto-static interactions in determining the magnetic properties of the NWs.

  4. Contemporary nucleic acid-based molecular techniques for detection, identification, and characterization of Bifidobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mianzhi, Yao; Shah, Nagendra P

    2017-03-24

    Bifidobacteria are one of the most important bacterial groups found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Medical and food industry researchers have focused on bifidobacteria because of their health-promoting properties. Researchers have historically relied on classic phenotypic approaches (culture and biochemical tests) for detection and identification of bifidobacteria. Those approaches still have values for the identification and detection of some bifidobacterial species, but they are often labor-intensive and time-consuming and can be problematic in differentiating closely related species. Rapid, accurate, and reliable methods for detection, identification, and characterization of bifidobacteria in a mixed bacterial population have become a major challenge. The advent of nucleic acid-based molecular techniques has significantly advanced isolation and detection of bifidobacteria. Diverse nucleic acid-based molecular techniques have been employed, including hybridization, target amplification, and fingerprinting. Certain techniques enable the detection, characterization, and identification at genus-, species-, and strains-levels, whereas others allow typing of species or strains of bifidobacteria. In this review, an overview of methodological principle, technique complexity, and application of various nucleic acid-based molecular techniques for detection, identification, and characterization of bifidobacteria is presented. Advantages and limitations of each technique are discussed, and significant findings based on particular techniques are also highlighted.

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of both aqueous and solid-state diacerhein/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralito, Stefania; Zanardi, Iacopo; Spera, Romina; Memoli, Adriana; Travagli, Valter

    2014-06-01

    Diacerhein, a poorly water soluble antirheumatic prodrug, was spectroscopically characterized to form inclusion complexes with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) in both aqueous solution and in solid phase. Complexation with the hydrophilic carriers was used to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of the compound. The kinetics of the prodrug degradation to the active rhein in aqueous buffer solution were also investigated as a function of HPβCD concentration. The solid complexes prepared by different methods such as physical mixture, kneading, co-evaporation method and freeze dried method in 1:1 M ratio, were characterized by DSC and FTIR. The dissolution profiles of solid complexes were determined and compared with diacerhein alone and their physical mixture, in the simulated intestinal fluid at 37 °C. The accurate molecular spectroscopic characterization of diacerhein in the presence of different amounts of aqueous cyclodextrins was essential to determine the correct binding constants for the diacerhein/HPβCD system. The binding constants were also validated by UV spectrometry and HPLC procedure in order to compare the values from the different methods. Higuchi-Connors phase solubility method has proved not suitable when either the free or/and the complexed prodrug degrade in aqueous solution.

  6. Size characterization of inclusion bodies by sedimentation field-flow fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margreiter, Gerd; Messner, Paul; Caldwell, Karin D.; Bayer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentation field-flow fractionation (sedFFF) was evaluated to characterize the size of Δ(4–23)TEM-β-lactamase inclusion bodies (IBs) overexpressed in fed-batch cultivations of Escherichia coli. Heterologous Δ(4–23)TEM-β-lactamase protein formed different sizes of IBs, depending upon the induction conditions. In the early phases of recombinant protein expression, induced with low concentrations of IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside), IB masses were larger than expected and showed heterogeneous size distributions. During cultivation, IB sizes showed a Gaussian distribution and reached a broad range by the end of the fed-batch cultivations. The obtained result proved the aptitude of sedFFF to rapidly assess the size distribution of IBs in a culture. PMID:18760314

  7. NMR spectroscopic characterization of {beta}-cyclodextrin inclusion complex with vanillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirnau, Adrian; Bogdan, Mircea; Floare, Calin G, E-mail: adrian.pirnau@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The inclusion of vanillin by {beta}-cyclodextrin was investigated by {sup 1}H NMR. The continuous variation technique was used to evidence the formation of soluble 1:1 complex in aqueous solution. The association constant of vanillin with {beta}-cyclodextrin has been obtained at 298 K by fitting the experimental chemical shifts differences, {Delta}{delta}{sub obs} {delta}{sub free} - {delta}{sub obs} of the observed guest and host protons, with a non-linear regression method. Besides the effective association constant, the fitting procedure allows a precise determination of all chemical shift parameters characterizing the pure complex. They can by used for an analysis of the geometry of the molecular complex in solution.

  8. Inclusion probability for DNA mixtures is a subjective one-sided match statistic unrelated to identification information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark William Perlin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: DNA mixtures of two or more people are a common type of forensic crime scene evidence. A match statistic that connects the evidence to a criminal defendant is usually needed for court. Jurors rely on this strength of match to help decide guilt or innocence. However, the reliability of unsophisticated match statistics for DNA mixtures has been questioned. Materials and Methods: The most prevalent match statistic for DNA mixtures is the combined probability of inclusion (CPI, used by crime labs for over 15 years. When testing 13 short tandem repeat (STR genetic loci, the CPI -1 value is typically around a million, regardless of DNA mixture composition. However, actual identification information, as measured by a likelihood ratio (LR, spans a much broader range. This study examined probability of inclusion (PI mixture statistics for 517 locus experiments drawn from 16 reported cases and compared them with LR locus information calculated independently on the same data. The log(PI -1 values were examined and compared with corresponding log(LR values. Results: The LR and CPI methods were compared in case examples of false inclusion, false exclusion, a homicide, and criminal justice outcomes. Statistical analysis of crime laboratory STR data shows that inclusion match statistics exhibit a truncated normal distribution having zero center, with little correlation to actual identification information. By the law of large numbers (LLN, CPI -1 increases with the number of tested genetic loci, regardless of DNA mixture composition or match information. These statistical findings explain why CPI is relatively constant, with implications for DNA policy, criminal justice, cost of crime, and crime prevention. Conclusions: Forensic crime laboratories have generated CPI statistics on hundreds of thousands of DNA mixture evidence items. However, this commonly used match statistic behaves like a random generator of inclusionary values, following the LLN

  9. Experimental Identification and Characterization of Multirotor UAV Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarski, Denis; Krznar, Matija; Piljek, Petar; Simunic, Nikola

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, an experimental procedure for the identification and characterization of multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion is presented. Propulsion configuration needs to be defined precisely in order to achieve required flight performance. Based on the accurate dynamic model and empirical measurements of multirotor propulsion physical parameters, it is possible to design diverse configurations with different characteristics for various purposes. As a case study, we investigated design considerations for a micro indoor multirotor which is suitable for control algorithm implementation in structured environment. It consists of open source autopilot, sensors for indoor flight, “take off the shelf” propulsion components and frame. The series of experiments were conducted to show the process of parameters identification and the procedure for analysis and propulsion characterization. Additionally, we explore battery performance in terms of mass and specific energy. Experimental results show identified and estimated propulsion parameters through which blade element theory is verified.

  10. An identification and characterization of biodiesel fatty acid based by using dielectric sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati; Djatna, T.; Noor, E.; Irzaman

    2017-05-01

    The fatty acids composition is identified by a gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS), then it is characterized in saturated and unsaturated components. This paper investigates biodiesel fatty acid by using dielectric constant measurements and focuses on dielectric sensor based on biodiesel chemical properties characterization. The objectives of this paper are identification fatty acids and determination of correlation dielectric properties and biodiesel fatty acid characterization. The proposed method is dielectric constant by using capacitance sensor are applied to determine the response dielectric sensor from the fatty acid composition. Sixteen fatty acid methyl esters were identified and two characterizations the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty ester fractions. The model parameter was determined by regression analysis for estimating the relationships among fatty acid content and dielectric properties. The results show that measurements of electrical properties, successfully used for the characterization of fatty acids. The dielectric constant of biodiesel was found increasing as the saturated decreases. This relationship becomes calibration for the assessment of the quality of biodiesel based on the dielectric sensor. The model reveals that the fatty acid composition affects the value of the biodiesel dielectric and show that dielectric sensor potentially to handle for characterization of biodiesel fatty acid content.

  11. Statistical comparison of properties of simulated and observed cumulus clouds in the vicinity of Houston during the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongli; Feingold, Graham; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Lu, Miao-Ling; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2008-07-01

    We present statistical comparisons of properties of clouds generated by Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with aircraft observations of nonprecipitating, warm cumulus clouds made in the vicinity of Houston, TX during the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), carried out in the summer of 2006. Aircraft data were sampled with the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter airplane. Five flights (days) that are most suitable for studying aerosol-cloud interactions are selected from the 22 flights. The model simulations are initiated with observed environmental profiles. The simulations are used to generate an ensemble of thousands of cumulus clouds for statistically meaningful evaluations. Statistical comparisons focus on the properties of a set of dynamical and thermodynamical variables, sampled either in the cloud or the cloud updraft core. The set of variables includes cloud liquid water content (LWC), number mixing ratio of cloud droplets (Nd), cloud effective radius (re), updraft velocity (w), and the distribution of cloud sizes. In general, good agreement between the simulated and observed clouds is achieved in the normalized frequency distribution functions, the profiles averaged over the cloudy regions, the cross-cloud averages, and the cloud size distributions, despite big differences in sample size between the model output and the aircraft data. Some unresolved differences in frequency distributions of w and possible differences in cloud fraction are noted. These comparisons suggest that the LES is able to successfully generate the cumulus cloud populations that were present during GoMACCS. The extent to which this is true will depend on the specific application.

  12. Iron sulfide (troilite) inclusion extracted from Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite: Composition, structure and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M.I., E-mail: oshtrakh@gmail.com [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Klencsár, Z. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar tudósok körútja 2, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Petrova, E.V.; Grokhovsky, V.I. [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Chukin, A.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Shtoltz, A.K. [Department of Electrophysics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Maksimova, A.A. [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Felner, I. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); Kuzmann, E.; Homonnay, Z. [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest (Hungary); Semionkin, V.A. [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-01

    Iron sulfide (troilite) inclusion extracted from Sikhote-Alin IIAB iron meteorite was examined for its composition, structure and magnetic properties by means of several complementary analytical techniques such as: powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, magnetization measurements, ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The applied techniques consistently indicated the presence of daubréelite (FeCr{sub 2}S{sub 4}) as a minority phase beside troilite proper (FeS). As revealed by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, the Fe atoms in troilite were in different microenvironments associated with either the ideal FeS structure or that of a slightly iron deficient Fe{sub 1–x}S. Phase transitions of troilite were detected above room temperature by ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. A novel analysis of 295 and 90 K {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra was carried out and the hyperfine parameters associated with the ideal structure of troilite were determined by considering the orientation of the hyperfine magnetic field in the eigensystem of the electric field gradient at the {sup 57}Fe nucleus. - Highlights: • The presence of daubréelite in iron sulfide inclusion in Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite. • The presence of the ideal FeS and iron deficient Fe{sub 1–x}S in iron sulfide inclusion. • New way of the iron sulfide Mössbauer spectrum approximation.

  13. NMR CHARACTERIZATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF HETEROGENEOUS MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.T. Philip Chang; Changho Choi; Jeromy T. Hollenshead; Rudi Michalak; Jack Phan; Ramon Saavedra; John C. Slattery; Jinsoo Uh; Randi Valestrand; A. Ted Watson; Song Xue

    2005-01-01

    A critical and long-standing need within the petroleum industry is the specification of suitable petrophysical properties for mathematical simulation of fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs (i.e., reservoir characterization). The development of accurate reservoir characterizations is extremely challenging. Property variations may be described on many scales, and the information available from measurements reflect different scales. In fact, experiments on laboratory core samples, well-log data, well-test data, and reservoir-production data all represent information potentially valuable to reservoir characterization, yet they all reflect information about spatial variations of properties at different scales. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) provide enormous potential for developing new descriptions and understandings of heterogeneous media. NMR has the rare capability to probe permeable media non-invasively, with spatial resolution, and it provides unique information about molecular motions and interactions that are sensitive to morphology. NMR well-logging provides the best opportunity ever to resolve permeability distributions within petroleum reservoirs. We develop MRI methods to determine, for the first time, spatially resolved distributions of porosity and permeability within permeable media samples that approach the intrinsic scale: the finest resolution of these macroscopic properties possible. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the permeability is actually resolved at a scale smaller than the sample. In order to do this, we have developed a robust method to determine of relaxation distributions from NMR experiments and a novel implementation and analysis of MRI experiments to determine the amount of fluid corresponding to imaging regions, which are in turn used to determine porosity and saturation distributions. We have developed a novel MRI experiment to determine velocity distributions within flowing experiments, and

  14. Optical and elastic properties of diamond-like carbon with metallic inclusions: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Mathioudakis, Christos; Kelires, Pantelis C.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2012-11-01

    A tough material commonly used in coatings is diamond-like carbon (DLC), that is, amorphous carbon with content in four-fold coordinated C higher than ˜70%, and its composites with metal inclusions. This study aims to offer useful guidelines for the design and development of metal-containing DLC coatings for solar collectors, where the efficiency of the collector depends critically on the performance of the absorber coating. We use first-principles calculations based on density functional theory to study the structural, electronic, optical, and elastic properties of DLC and its composites with Ag and Cu inclusions at 1.5% and 3.0% atomic concentration, to evaluate their suitability for solar thermal energy harvesting. We find that with increasing metal concentration optical absorption is significantly enhanced while at the same time, the composite retains good mechanical strength: DLC with 70-80% content in four-fold coordinated C and small metal concentrations (Young's modulus higher than 300 and 500 GPa, respectively).

  15. Broadband optical characterization of material properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann

    the applicability of optical techniques for this purpose, the fermentation of milk into yogurt has been used as a model system. Studies have been conducted on commercially available products, but also of on-line measurement of the fermentation process. The second process is from the aquaculture industry...... to develop and investigate the applicability of optical broadband characterization techniques in industrially relevant production process. Both combined broad and high resolution techniques have the potential to provide important information on scattering properties related to particle size distributions......, as well as details of the absorption spectrum which relate to chemical composition. The thesis focuses on two production process from the food industry. The first process is from the dairy industry where discrimination between chemical and structural properties is of importance. To explore...

  16. Theoretical study of structural and electronic properties of poly(vinyl chloride nanotube inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assad Kareen Edaan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The structural and electronic properties of inclusion or interconnection between NT and PVC were studied by quantum semiepirical approximation method using (PM3 self-consistent ?eld molecular orbital method. The total structural energy, HOMO level energy, LUMO level energy, band gap?(E?_g ?=E?_HOMO-E_LUMO, and dipole moment of the compounds were calculated. Increasing the distance between NT and PVC led to decline the total energy difference which led to better interconnection between NT and PVC and vice versa when the distant is decreased. Therefore the more stable compound is f. The best electronic energies were obtained at the structures 3c and 3b in the first distance respectively. The dipole moments for all structures have the following trend: b> d > c > e > f > a> g.

  17. Graphene optoelectronics synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    bin M Yusoff, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This first book on emerging applications for this innovative material gives an up-to-date account of the many opportunities graphene offers high-end optoelectronics.The text focuses on potential as well as already realized applications, discussing metallic and passive components, such as transparent conductors and smart windows, as well as high-frequency devices, spintronics, photonics, and terahertz devices. Also included are sections on the fundamental properties, synthesis, and characterization of graphene. With its unique coverage, this book will be welcomed by materials scientists, solid-

  18. Identification of emission sources of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovčić Nataša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in ambient air accessed at selected locations in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, have been presented and analyzed in order to determine seasonal and spatial variations and to identify emission sources of particle-bound PAHs. Previous studies have demonstrated that the major contributors of PAHs in urban areas are the emissions from vehicle exhaust, and emissions releases from industrial processes like aluminium production, creosote and wood preservation, waste incineration, cement manufacture, petrochemical and related industries, commercial heat/power production etc. The sampling campaigns have been conducted at three sampling sites, during the two 14-day periods. The first site was situated near industrial area, with a refinery, power plant and heavy-traffic road in the vicinity. The second site was located nearby the heavy traffic area, especially busy during the rush hour. The third site was residential district. Summer sampling period lasted from June 26th to July 10th 2008, while sampling of ambient air during the winter was undertaken from January 22nd to February 5th 2009. Eighty-four (84 air samples were collected using a high volume air sampler TCR Tecora H0649010/ECHO. 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in all samples using a gas chromatographer with a mass spectrometer as a detector (Shimatzu MDGC/GCMS-2010. The total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 1.21 to 1.77 ng/m3 during the summer period and from 6.31 to 7.25 ng/m3 in the winter. Various techniques, including diagnostic ratio (DR and principal component analysis (PCA, have been used to define and evaluate potential emission sources of PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that vehicles, diesel or/and gasoline, industrial and combustion emissions were sources of PAHs in the vicinity of the industrial zone. Additionally, principal component analysis was used

  19. Studies on inclusion resolution : gaining insight into chemical and physical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Simona

    2003-01-01

    Inclusion is a process where two or more compounds crystallise together in a mixed, but regular, crystal lattice. Inclusion resolution is a relatively new way for separating enantiomers from a racemic mixture which employs inclusion with enantiopure compounds as hosts. An enantiopure host compound

  20. Preparation, characterization, and thermal stability of β-cyclodextrin/soybean lecithin inclusion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinge; Luo, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhigang

    2014-01-30

    β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD), which is widely used to increase the stability, solubility, and bioavailability of guests, can form host-guest inclusion complexes with a wide variety of organic molecules. In this study the β-CD/soybean lecithin inclusion complex was prepared. The effect of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time and the molar ratio of β-CD/soybean lecithin on inclusion ratio were studied. The inclusion ratio of the product prepared under the optimal conditions of β-CD/soybean lecithin molar ratio 2:1, reaction temperature 60°C reaction time 2h was 40.2%. The results of UV-vis, DSC, XRD and FT-IR spectrum indicated the formation of inclusion complex. The thermal stability experiment indicated that the thermal stability of soybean lecithin in inclusion complex was significantly improved compared with free soybean lecithin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation, characterization and molecular modeling studies of the inclusion complex of Caffeine with Beta-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Samikannu; Swaminathan, Meenakshisundaram; Sivakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Rajamohan, Rajaram

    2015-11-01

    The formation through supramolecular interaction of a host-guest inclusion complex of caffeine (CA) with nano-hydrophobic cavity beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is achieved by a physical mixture, a kneading method and a co-precipitation method. The formation of the inclusion complex of CA with β-CD in solution state is confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer and time-resolved fluorescence spectrophotometer. The stoichiometry of the inclusion complex is 1:1; the imidazole ring and pyrimidine ring of caffeine is deeply entrapped in the beta-cyclodextrin as confirmed by spectral shifts. The Benesi-Hildebrand plot is used to calculate the binding constant of the inclusion complex of CA with β-CD at room temperature. The Gibbs free energy change of the inclusion complex process is calculated and the process is found to be spontaneous. The thermal stability of the inclusion complex of CA with β-CD is analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry. The crystal structure modification of a solid inclusion complex is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy image analysis. The formation of the inclusion complex of CA with β-CD in the solid phase is also confirmed by FT-IR and XRD. The formation of the inclusion complex between CA and β-CD, as confirmed by molecular docking studies, is in good relationship with the results obtained through different experimental methods.

  2. The influence of inclusions on the low cycle fatigue properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.H.; Kima, S.W. [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Energy Science (Japan); Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hirose, T. [Blanket Engineering Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., lnstitute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels, such as F82H, are the primary near-term candidate for the blanket structural material of nuclear fusion reactors. During operation, blanket structural materials will be subjected to cyclic loading caused by start-up and shut-down procedure or plasma disruption. Therefore, investigation of fatigue property is essential to reactor design. It is considered that fatigue properties depend on the material factor such as the inclusion distribution, surface morphology and so on. Especially, many experimental results show that inclusions become the fracture origin in a given volume of material subjected to cyclic stress, and fracture failure is most likely to initiate at the largest inclusion in the volume. Therefore, the prediction of the size of maximum inclusion and its impact on fatigue properties would be essential to the fusion reactor materials development and application. This paper examines the possible relation between fatigue life and inclusion parameters such as size, shape, distribution and composition. The low cycle fatigue behavior of F82H steel at room temperature in air condition under fully reversed push-pull triangular wave was studied using miniaturized hourglass-type specimens with 1.25 mm in diameter. Total strain range is selected from 0.8% to 2.4%, and the strain rate was 0.04%/s. To examine the size and composition of the inclusions, fracture surfaces and crack initiation region were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDS. The inclusions such as TaO{sub x}, TaO{sub x}- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the size below 10 {mu}m are observed on specimen surface. The surface observation of the specimen which discontinued testing at 20 and 500 cycle tested at the strain range of 1.4% revealed that fatigue loading induced separation of inclusions from the matrix in initial stage, then micro-crack induced around the inclusions

  3. Optical properties and inclusion of an organic fluorophore in organized media of micellar solutions and beta-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Yusif S.

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we prepared a new chalcone compound (3-(4'-diethylaminophenyl)-1-(2-pyridinyl) prop-2-en-1-one abbreviated as DEAPPP) and examined its characterization and photophysical properties such as singlet absorption, molar absorptivity, fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence quantum yield (ϕf). DEAPPP dye exhibited a large red shift in both absorption and emission spectra as solvent polarity increases, indicating a large change in dipole moment of molecule upon excitation. Also, the fluorescence quantum yield was solvent dependent. The absorption and fluorescence emission spectral properties of DEAPPP have been investigated in organized media of aqueous micellar and β-cyclodextrin (CD) solutions. While the absorption spectra were less sensitive to the nature of the added surfactant or CD, the characteristics of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) fluorescence were highly sensitive to the properties of the medium. The ICT maximum was strongly blue-shifted with a great enhancement in the fluorescence quantum yield on adding micellar or CD. This indicated that the solubilization of DEAPPP increased in the micellar core and an inclusion complex with β-CD was formed. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) as well as the polarity of the micellar core of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 (TX-100) have been determined. The CMC values were in good agreement with the reported values while the polarity was lower indicating that DEAPPP molecules were incorporated in the micellar core not at the micellar interface. The binding constants of DEAPPP: micelles or DEAPPP: CD complexes have been also determined.

  4. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... inclusion complex and a stability constant value of 914 M-1. Solubility and dissolution ... the co-evaporated and freeze-dried systems indicated strong drug amorphization and/or inclusion of. PYR in the CD cavities. .... 50 mg of PYR, to 5 ml simulated gastric fluid (without enzyme) pH. 1.2 [containing 2.0 g/L ...

  5. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of tissue slices with tumour inclusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hagan, Joseph J; Samani, Abbas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)], E-mail: asamani@uwo.ca

    2008-12-21

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community as there are several applications where parameters characterizing these properties are critical for a reliable outcome. This includes applications such as surgery planning, needle biopsy and cancer diagnosis using medical imaging. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in slice specimens. In this paper, we present a method of measuring the hyperelastic parameters of tissue slice samples with tumours. In this method, to measure the hyperelastic properties of a tumour within a slice sample, the tumour was indented to acquire its force-displacement response while the slice remained intact. To calculate the hyperelastic parameters from the acquired data, we developed two inversion techniques that use the slice nonlinear finite element model as their forward problem solver. One of these techniques was based on nonlinear optimization while the other is a novel iterative technique that processes the variable slopes of the force-displacement response to calculate the hyperelastic parameters. The latter was developed specifically for the Yeoh and the second-order polynomial hyperelastic models, since we found that the other optimization-based inversion technique did not perform well with these models. To validate the proposed techniques, we performed numerical and phantom experiments. While we were able to achieve convergence with wide ranges of parameters of initial guesses to within 1% error with the numerical simulation experiments, we achieved convergence to within errors of around 5% with the tissue mimicking phantoms. Moreover, we successfully applied these techniques to data we acquired from nine pathological breast tissue slice specimens where the goal was to

  6. Mass spectrometric identification of proteins and characterization of their post-translational modifications in proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, P; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2001-01-01

    dominant strategies for identification of proteins from gels based on peptide mass spectrometric fingerprinting and partial sequencing by mass spectrometry are described. After identification of the proteins the next challenge in proteome analysis is characterization of their post-translational...

  7. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šuranská

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.

  9. Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel before and after immersion in a neutral pH bicarbonate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingbo; Liu, Jie [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Deng, Yida [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Han, Xiaopeng [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hu, Wenbin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhong, Cheng, E-mail: cheng.zhong@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The initiation of corrosion pits in pipeline steels plays an important role in the development of stress corrosion cracking. In order to reveal the effect of inclusions on corrosion initiation sites and also to clarify contradictory results from previous literature, we proposed an ex situ characterization method that is allowed to characterize exactly the same inclusion or location of the surface of steel before and after corrosion tests. The time-dependent corrosion behaviour of the inclusions and the surrounding X100 steel matrix at the same area before and after early stage immersion in a near-neutral pH bicarbonate solution was investigated by ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS). The sizes of most inclusions in X100 steel are below 3 μm. The results challenge the long-held opinion of previous work that corrosion pit initiations are related with the inclusions. It has been found that most of the inclusions remain stable (intact) during the whole testing time although severe corrosion occurs on the matrix of the steel. The chemical composition of the inclusion greatly affects the chemical stability of the inclusion. SiO{sub 2} inclusions and complex inclusions with a high SiO{sub 2} content remain intact although obvious general corrosion occurs on the steel matrix under the investigated immersion period. Inclusions with little Si, such as Al–Mg–Ca–O enriched inclusions, totally disappear after certain immersion time. During the immersion, the corrosion product tends to deposit at the interstice between the inclusion and steel matrix. - Highlights: • Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel. • The pipeline steel was immersed in neutral pH bicarbonate solution. • Majority of inclusions remain stable during the whole testing time. • The chemical stability of metallurgical inclusions depends on the SiO{sub 2

  10. Novel metallomesogenic polyurethanes: Synthesis, characterization and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, Natarajan, E-mail: nskumar77@yahoo.com [Production Technology Research Center, Samsung Cheil Industries, 62 Pyeongyeo-dong, Yeosu-si, JeonNam 555-210 (Korea, Republic of); Narasimhaswamy, Tanneru [Polymer Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600 020 (India); Kim, Il-Jin [Production Technology Research Center, Samsung Cheil Industries, 62 Pyeongyeo-dong, Yeosu-si, JeonNam 555-210 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-01

    A series of tetradentate Schiff base metallomesogenic diols were synthesized from two simple dihydroxy benzenes. The metallomesogenic diol was constructed from three ring containing mesogen linked through ester and azomethine with terminal hydroxy group. This upon complexation with copper(II) formed metallomesogenic diol with varying terminal chain length. A series of metallomesogenic polyurethanes were synthesized using these metallomesogenic diols as chain extenders for the prepolymers based on polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG) of varying molecular weight (M{sub n} = 650, 2000) and 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI), or 4,4 Prime -methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI). The molar ratio of metallomesogenic diol and PTMG were varied in the polyurethane to find their role in liquid crystalline and mechanical properties. Extensive characterization of all metallomesogenic compounds and intermediates were carried out by FT-IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, EPR, VSM, Mass (EI and FAB) and UV-visible spectroscopy. Hot stage polarizing microscope and differential scanning calorimetry were used to ensure the phase characteristics such as nature of phase, melting and clearing temperatures and phase range. The appearance of enantiotropic smectic A phases indicated high molecular polarizability of the core due to the metal ion. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design and synthesis of metallomesogenic diols. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallomesogenic polyurethanes were prepared using these diols as chain extenders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liquid crystalline and mechanical properties were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A square pyramidal structure for the copper(II) complexes have been proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyurethanes exhibited enantiotropic smectic A phases.

  11. Inclusion complex of amiodarone hydrochloride with cyclodextrins: preparation, characterization and dissolution rate evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Machado Rubim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to improve the water solubility of amiodarone hydrochloride (AMH via inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Inclusion complexes were developed by physical mixture, coevaporation, spray-drying and freeze-drying. Solid state analysis was performed using X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electronic microscopy. Thermodynamic studies demonstrate that the inclusion complexes of drug into different cyclodextrins were an exothermic process that occurred spontaneously. Water solubility and drug dissolution rates were significantly increased after the formation of inclusion complexes with the cyclodextrins evaluated in relation to the physical mixture and pure drug. The present study provides useful information for the potential application of complexation with amiodarone HCl. This may be a good strategy for the development of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  12. Preparation and characterization of polymer inclusion membrane based optode for determination of Al{sup 3+} ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suah, Faiz Bukhari Mohd, E-mail: fsuah@usm.my [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Ahmad, Musa [Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, 71800, Bandar Baru Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia)

    2017-01-25

    The use of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) as a sensing material is a new approach to overcome the selectivity and stability drawbacks of the optical chemical sensor (optode). In this study, non-plasticized PIM containing poly(vinyl chloride) as a support base, sodium morin-5-sulfonate (NaMSA) as a reagent and Aliquat 336 as a fixed carrier (ionophore) was prepared and its performance was tested for application in an optode to determine Al{sup 3+} ions. The results showed that PIM properties are greatly influenced by the membrane composition. The studies revealed that the optode response was dependent on film thickness, the presence of plasticizer, stirring effect, concentration of NaMSA, concentration of Aliquat 336 and pH of the aqueous solution used. The dynamic range of Al{sup 3+} ions concentration determined using this optode was linear from 5.19 × 10{sup −7} to 6.00 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} and the calculated limit of detection (L.O.D.) was found to be 4.07 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}. The maximum emission wavelength (λ{sub em}) for the PIM based optode was 512 nm. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the PIM revealed that a dense texture was formed. Fourier transform infra-red and thermal gravimetry analysis characterizations proved that all of the constituents of the PIM remain within the membrane. The PIM developed in this work was found to be stable, has good mechanical strength, and is sensitive and reusable. Lastly, the PIM was successfully applied as an optical sensor for determination of Al{sup 3+} ions in an aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A novel non-plasticized polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) based optode has been developed for determination of Al{sup 3+} ions. • A novel use of sulphonated morin (NaMSA) for determination of Al{sup 3+} ions by using fluorescence technique. • The optode is fully reversible. • It shows good repeatability and reproducibility without significant decrease in fluorescence

  13. Machine Learning Identification of Protein Properties Useful for Specific Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah

    2016-03-31

    Proteins play critical roles in cellular processes of living organisms. It is therefore important to identify and characterize their key properties associated with their functions. Correlating protein’s structural, sequence and physicochemical properties of its amino acids (aa) with protein functions could identify some of the critical factors governing the specific functionality. We point out that not all functions of even well studied proteins are known. This, complemented by the huge increase in the number of newly discovered and predicted proteins, makes challenging the experimental characterization of the whole spectrum of possible protein functions for all proteins of interest. Consequently, the use of computational methods has become more attractive. Here we address two questions. The first one is how to use protein aa sequence and physicochemical properties to characterize a family of proteins. The second one focuses on how to use transcription factor (TF) protein’s domains to enhance accuracy of predicting TF DNA binding sites (TFBSs). To address the first question, we developed a novel method using computational representation of proteins based on characteristics of different protein regions (N-terminal, M-region and C-terminal) and combined these with the properties of protein aa sequences. We show that this description provides important biological insight about characterization of the protein functional groups. Using feature selection techniques, we identified key properties of proteins that allow for very accurate characterization of different protein families. We demonstrated efficiency of our method in application to a number of antimicrobial peptide families. To address the second question we developed another novel method that uses a combination of aa properties of DNA binding domains of TFs and their TFBS properties to develop machine learning models for predicting TFBSs. Feature selection is used to identify the most relevant characteristics

  14. Automatic Language Identification with Discriminative Language Characterization Based on SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Hongbin; Li, Ming; Lu, Ping; Yan, Yonghong

    Robust automatic language identification (LID) is the task of identifying the language from a short utterance spoken by an unknown speaker. The mainstream approaches include parallel phone recognition language modeling (PPRLM), support vector machine (SVM) and the general Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). These systems map the cepstral features of spoken utterances into high level scores by classifiers. In this paper, in order to increase the dimension of the score vector and alleviate the inter-speaker variability within the same language, multiple data groups based on supervised speaker clustering are employed to generate the discriminative language characterization score vectors (DLCSV). The back-end SVM classifiers are used to model the probability distribution of each target language in the DLCSV space. Finally, the output scores of back-end classifiers are calibrated by a pair-wise posterior probability estimation (PPPE) algorithm. The proposed language identification frameworks are evaluated on 2003 NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (LRE) databases and the experiments show that the system described in this paper produces comparable results to the existing systems. Especially, the SVM framework achieves an equal error rate (EER) of 4.0% in the 30-second task and outperforms the state-of-art systems by more than 30% relative error reduction. Besides, the performances of proposed PPRLM and GMMs algorithms achieve an EER of 5.1% and 5.0% respectively.

  15. Vortex identification from local properties of the vorticity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, J. H.; Moriconi, L.

    2017-01-01

    A number of systematic procedures for the identification of vortices/coherent structures have been developed as a way to address their possible kinematical and dynamical roles in structural formulations of turbulence. It has been broadly acknowledged, however, that vortex detection algorithms, usually based on linear-algebraic properties of the velocity gradient tensor, can be plagued with severe shortcomings and may become, in practical terms, dependent on the choice of subjective threshold parameters in their implementations. In two-dimensions, a large class of standard vortex identification prescriptions turn out to be equivalent to the "swirling strength criterion" (λc i-criterion), which is critically revisited in this work. We classify the instances where the accuracy of the λc i-criterion is affected by nonlinear superposition effects and propose an alternative vortex detection scheme based on the local curvature properties of the vorticity graph (x ,y ,ω ) —the "vorticity curvature criterion" (λω-criterion)—which improves over the results obtained with the λc i-criterion in controlled Monte Carlo tests. A particularly problematic issue, given its importance in wall-bounded flows, is the eventual inadequacy of the λc i-criterion for many-vortex configurations in the presence of strong background shear. We show that the λω-criterion is able to cope with these cases as well, if a subtraction of the mean velocity field background is performed, in the spirit of the Reynolds decomposition procedure. A realistic comparative study for vortex identification is then carried out for a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent channel flow, including a three-dimensional extension of the λω-criterion. In contrast to the λc i-criterion, the λω-criterion indicates in a consistent way the existence of small scale isotropic turbulent fluctuations in the logarithmic layer, in consonance with long-standing assumptions commonly taken in turbulent boundary

  16. Design of Genomic Signatures of Pathogen Identification & Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, T; Gardner, S; Allen, J; Vitalis, E; Jaing, C

    2010-02-09

    This chapter will address some of the many issues associated with the identification of signatures based on genomic DNA/RNA, which can be used to identify and characterize pathogens for biodefense and microbial forensic goals. For the purposes of this chapter, we define a signature as one or more strings of contiguous genomic DNA or RNA bases that are sufficient to identify a pathogenic target of interest at the desired resolution and which could be instantiated with particular detection chemistry on a particular platform. The target may be a whole organism, an individual functional mechanism (e.g., a toxin gene), or simply a nucleic acid indicative of the organism. The desired resolution will vary with each program's goals but could easily range from family to genus to species to strain to isolate. The resolution may not be taxonomically based but rather pan-mechanistic in nature: detecting virulence or antibiotic-resistance genes shared by multiple microbes. Entire industries exist around different detection chemistries and instrument platforms for identification of pathogens, and we will only briefly mention a few of the techniques that we have used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to support our biosecurity-related work since 2000. Most nucleic acid based detection chemistries involve the ability to isolate and amplify the signature target region(s), combined with a technique to detect the amplification. Genomic signature based identification techniques have the advantage of being precise, highly sensitive and relatively fast in comparison to biochemical typing methods and protein signatures. Classical biochemical typing methods were developed long before knowledge of DNA and resulted in dozens of tests (Gram's stain, differential growth characteristics media, etc.) that could be used to roughly characterize the major known pathogens (of course some are uncultivable). These tests could take many days to complete and precise resolution

  17. Phase Structure and Properties of a Biodegradable Block Copolymer Coalesced from It's Crystalline Inclusion Compound Formed with alpha-Cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Xintao; Wei, Min; Probeni, Francis; Bullions, Todd A.; Shin, I. Daniel; Tonelli, Alan E.

    2002-03-01

    A well-defined biodegradable block copolymer of poly(epsilon caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized and characterized and then included as a guest in an inclusion compound (IC) formed with the host alpha-cyclodextrin (CD). The PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was subsequently coalesced from it's CD-IC crystals by either treatment with hot water (50 C) or an aqueous amylase solution at 25 C. The coalesced PCL-b-PLLA was examined by FTIR, DSC, TGA, and WAXD and was found to be much more homogeneosly organized, with much less segregation and crystallinity of the PCL and PLLA microphases. The morpholgy, crystallization kinetics, thermal behavior, and biodegradability of the coalesced PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was studied by comparison to similar observations made on as-synthesized PCL-b-PLLA, PCL and PLLA homopolymers, and their solution-cast blend. The PCL and PLLA blocks are found to be more intimately mixed, with less phase segregation, in the coalesced diblock copolymer, and this leads to homogeneous bulk crystallization, which is not observed for the as-synthesized diblock copolymer. The coalesced PCL-b-PLLA was also found to be more quickly biodegraded (lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus)than the as-synthesized PCL-b-PLLA or the physical blend of PCL and PLLA homopolymers. Overall, the coalescence of the inherently phase segregated diblock copolymer PCL-b-PLLA results in a small amount of compact, chain-extended PCL and PLLA crystals embedded in an amorphous phase, largely consisting of well-mixed PCL and PLLA blocks. Thus, we have demonstrated that it is possible to control the morpholgy of a biodegradable diblock copolymer, thereby significantly modifying it's properties, by coalescence from it's CD-IC crystals.

  18. Ammonium across a Selective Polymer Inclusion Membrane : Characterization, Transport, and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casadella, Anna; Schaetzle, Olivier; Loos, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of ammonium from urine requires distinguishing and excluding sodium and potassium. A polymer inclusion membrane selective for ammonium is developed using an ionophore based on pyrazole substituted benzene. The interactions of the components are studied, as well as their effect on

  19. Inclusion complex of butachlor with beta-cyclodextrin: characterization, solubility, and speciation-dependent adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Haitao; Chen, Jingwen; Cai, Xiyun; Liu, Ping; Liu, Huihui; Qiao, Xianliang; Huang, Liping

    2009-08-26

    Due to soil adsorption, higher amounts of the herbicide butachlor are necessary to achieve its herbicidal activity, hence increasing its environmental risks. In this study, the effects of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) on solubility and soil adsorption of butachlor were investigated. Formation of a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex between them with an apparent stability constant of 443 L mol(-1) was confirmed in the solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the (N-CO) amide bond and alkyl ether moiety of butachlor molecule could enter into the cavity of beta-CD, but the double-substituted aromatic ring was excluded because it was larger size than the cavity. Significant enhancing dissolution of butachlor in the inclusion complex occurred in comparison to the free herbicide. The adsorption of butachlor on soil was reduced with an increase of beta-CD concentration because of the formation of the inclusion complex with low adsorption potency. Although the sorption distribution coefficient of complexed butachlor (i.e., butachlor/beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex) (K(d,c) = 6.14) was about 14% of that of the free herbicide (K(d,f) = 44.54), the proportion of the adsorbed amount of complexed butachlor to the total adsorbed amount rose with the increase of beta-CD concentration. Thus, the adsorption of inclusion complex cannot be neglected in the presence of high concentrations cyclodextrins, although its water solubility was much higher than that of the free herbicide. These results indicate that beta-CD may be used as a formation additive to improve the solubility of butachlor, reduce its adsorption on soil, and increase the availability of butachlor for weeds.

  20. Inclusion Complexes of Copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne) Oleoresin and Cyclodextrins: Physicochemical Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Jonas Gabriel de Oliveira; Tavares, Emanuella de Aragão; Silva, Sofia Santos da; Félix Silva, Juliana; Carvalho, Yasmim Maria Barbosa Gomes de; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Barbosa, Euzébio Guimarães; Fernandes Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Azevedo, Eduardo Pereira de; Veiga Júnior, Valdir Florêncio da; Lima, Ádley Antonini Neves de

    2017-11-18

    Complexation with cyclodextrins (CDs) is a technique that has been extensively used to increase the aqueous solubility of oils and improve their stability. In addition, this technique has been used to convert oils into solid materials. This work aims to develop inclusion complexes of Copaifera multijuga oleoresin (CMO), which presents anti-inflammatory activity, with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) by kneading (KND) and slurry (SL) methods. Physicochemical characterization was performed to verify the occurrence of interactions between CMO and the cyclodextrins. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in mice was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of CMO alone as well as complexed with CDs. Physicochemical characterization confirmed the formation of inclusion complex of CMO with both β-CD and HP-β-CD by KND and SL methods. Carrageenan-induced paw edema test showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of CMO was maintained after complexation with β-CD and HP-β-CD, where they were able to decrease the levels of nitrite and myeloperoxidase. In conclusion, this study showed that it is possible to produce inclusion complexes of CMO with CDs by KND and SL methods without any change in CMO's anti-inflammatory activity.

  1. Inclusion Complexes of Copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne Oleoresin and Cyclodextrins: Physicochemical Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gabriel de Oliveira Pinheiro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Complexation with cyclodextrins (CDs is a technique that has been extensively used to increase the aqueous solubility of oils and improve their stability. In addition, this technique has been used to convert oils into solid materials. This work aims to develop inclusion complexes of Copaifera multijuga oleoresin (CMO, which presents anti-inflammatory activity, with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD by kneading (KND and slurry (SL methods. Physicochemical characterization was performed to verify the occurrence of interactions between CMO and the cyclodextrins. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in mice was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of CMO alone as well as complexed with CDs. Physicochemical characterization confirmed the formation of inclusion complex of CMO with both β-CD and HP-β-CD by KND and SL methods. Carrageenan-induced paw edema test showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of CMO was maintained after complexation with β-CD and HP-β-CD, where they were able to decrease the levels of nitrite and myeloperoxidase. In conclusion, this study showed that it is possible to produce inclusion complexes of CMO with CDs by KND and SL methods without any change in CMO’s anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. Inclusion complexes of cefuroxime axetil with β-cyclodextrin: Physicochemical characterization, molecular modeling and effect of l-arginine on complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Sapte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion complexes of poorly water-soluble cephalosporin, cefuroxime axetil (CFA, were prepared with β-cyclodextrin (βCD with or without addition of l-arginine (ARG to improve its physicochemical properties. We also investigated the effect of ARG on complexation efficiency (CE of βCD towards CFA in an aqueous medium through phase solubility behaviour according to Higuchi and Connors. Although phase solubility studies showed AL (linear type of solubility curve in presence and absence of ARG, the CE and association constant (Ks of βCD towards CFA were significantly promoted in presence of ARG, justifying its use as a ternary component. The solid systems of CFA with βCD were obtained by spray drying technique with or without incorporation of ARG and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and saturation solubility and dissolution studies. The molecular modeling studies provided a better insight into geometry and inclusion mode of CFA inside βCD cavity. The solubility and dissolution rate of CFA were significantly improved upon complexation with βCD as compared to CFA alone. However, ternary system incorporated with ARG performed better than binary system in physicochemical evaluation. In conclusion, ARG could be exploited as a ternary component to improve the physicochemical properties of CFA via βCD complexation.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and electrical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The anticorrosive property of a coating of PANI/[Co(mea)2(H2O)2Cl2] composite on mild steel coupon in 3 M HNO3 was evaluated using weight loss measurement and compared with pure polyaniline coating. The said composite has shown anticorrosive property and can thus, act as a potent dopant for enhancing corrosion ...

  4. Identification of source contributions to visibility-reducing organic aerosols in the vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park. Interim final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hallock, K.A.; Leach, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mason-Jones, M.; Mason-Jones, H.; Salmon, L.G.; Winner, D.A.; Cass, G.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science

    1993-06-01

    Sulfates and carbonaceous aerosols are the largest contributors to the fine particle burden in the atmosphere near Grand Canyon National Park. While the effects of sulfate particles on visibility at the Grand Canyon has been extensively studied, much less is known about the nature and origin of the carbonaceous aerosols that are present. This disparity in understanding arises from at least two causes: aerosol carbon data for the region are less plentiful and many of the sources that could contribute to that organic aerosol are both diverse and not well characterized. The objective of this present study is to examine the origin of the carbonaceous aerosol at Grand Canyon National Park during the summer season based on molecular tracer techniques applied to source and ambient samples collected specifically for this purpose.

  5. Characterization of mitotane (o,p'-DDD)--cyclodextrin inclusion complexes: phase-solubility method and NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, R; Attivi, D; Astier, A; Socha, M; Morice, S; Gibaud, S

    2013-05-01

    Mitotane (o,p'-dichlorodimethyl dichloroethane [o,p'-DDD]) is used for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer and occasionally Cushing's syndrome. This drug is very poorly soluble in water, and following oral administration, approximately 60% of the dose is recovered in the feces unaltered. The preparation of a soluble formulation (i.e. by complexation with cyclodextrins) with improved bioavailability is the aim of this work. The inclusion of mitotane in methyl-ß-cyclodextrins was studied using both phase-solubility methods and NMR experiments. To elucidate the inclusion mechanism, o,p'-DDD was compared to its regioisomer (i.e. p,p'-DDD). It was demonstrated that two dimethyl-ß-cyclodextrins (DMßCD) can complex with the aromatic rings. From the phase-solubility diagrams, we observe that both cases are very different: K(1:1) is between 37 000 and 85 000 mol.l(-1), whereas K(1:2) is between 5.3 and 32 mol.l(-1). The NMR experiments confirmed the inclusion but it also gave an insight into the kinetics of the dissociation: the ortho-chloro moiety is in slow exchange on the NMR time scale, whereas the para-chloro moiety is in fast exchange rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of spray drying on the properties of amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water soluble amylose-hexadecyl ammonium chloride complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and hexadecyl ammonium chloride by excess steam jet cooking. Amylose inclusion complexes were spray dried to determine the viability of spray drying as a production method. The variables tested in...

  7. Enhancement of thermoelectric properties in the Nb–Co–Sn half-Heusler/Heusler system through spontaneous inclusion of a coherent second phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffon, Malinda L. C., E-mail: mandibuffon@mrl.ucsb.edu; Verma, Nisha; Lamontagne, Leo; Pollock, Tresa M. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Laurita, Geneva [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ghadbeigi, Leila; Sparks, Taylor D. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Lloyd, Demetrious L. [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Seshadri, Ram [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Half-Heusler XYZ compounds with an 18 valence electron count are promising thermoelectric materials, being thermally and chemically stable, deriving from relatively earth-abundant components, and possessing appropriate electrical transport properties. The typical drawback with this family of compounds is their high thermal conductivity. A strategy for reducing thermal conductivity is through the inclusion of secondary phases designed to minimize negative impact on other properties. Here, we achieve this through the addition of excess Co to half-Heusler NbCoSn, which introduces precipitates of a semi-coherent NbCo{sub 2}Sn Heusler phase. A series of NbCo{sub 1+x}Sn materials are characterized here using X-ray and neutron diffraction studies and electron microscopy. Electrical and thermal transport measurements and electronic structure calculations are used to understand property evolution. We find that annealing has an important role to play in determining antisite ordering and properties. Antisite disorder in the as-prepared samples improves thermoelectric performance through the reduction of thermal conductivity, but annealing during the measurement degrades properties to resemble those of the annealed samples. Similar to the more widely studied TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn system, Co addition to the NbCoSn phase results in improved thermoelectric performance through a decrease in thermal conductivity which results in a 20% improvement in the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT.

  8. Identification and Initial Characterization of Prophages in Vibrio campbellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lorenz

    Full Text Available Phages are bacteria targeting viruses and represent the most abundant biological entities on earth. Marine environments are exceptionally rich in bacteriophages, harboring a total of 4x1030 viruses. Nevertheless, marine phages remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the identification of intact prophage sequences in the genome of the marine γ-proteobacterium Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 (formerly known as V. harveyi ATCC BAA-1116, which presumably belong to the family of Myoviridae. One prophage was found on chromosome I and shows significant similarities to the previously identified phage ΦHAP-1. The second prophage region is located on chromosome II and is related to Vibrio phage kappa. Exposure of V. campbellii to mitomycin C induced the lytic cycle of two morphologically distinct phages and, as expected, extracellular DNA from induced cultures was found to be specifically enriched for the sequences previously identified as prophage regions. Heat stress (50°C, 30 min was also found to induce phage release in V. campbellii. Notably, promoter activity of two representative phage genes indicated heterogeneous phage induction within the population.

  9. Identification and functional characterization of lysine methyltransferases of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbolla-Vázquez, Jessica; Orozco, Esther; Medina-Gómez, Christian; Martínez-Higuera, Aarón; Javier-Reyna, Rosario; Chávez, Bibiana; Betanzos, Abigail; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2016-07-01

    Lysine methylation of histones, a posttranslational modification catalyzed by lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs), plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of transcription. Lysine methylation of non-histone proteins also impacts the biological function of proteins. Previously it has been shown that lysine methylation of histones of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite that infects 50 million people worldwide each year and causing up to 100,000 deaths annually, is implicated in the epigenetic machinery of this microorganism. However, the identification and characterization of HKMTs in this parasite had not yet been determined. In this work we identified four HKMTs in E. histolytica (EhHKMT1 to EhHKMT4) that are expressed by trophozoites. Enzymatic assays indicated that all of them are able to transfer methyl groups to commercial histones. EhHKMT1, EhHKMT2 and EhHKMT4 were detected in nucleus and cytoplasm of trophozoites. In addition EhHKMT2 and EhHKMT4 were located in vesicles containing ingested cells during phagocytosis, and they co-immunoprecipitated with EhADH, a protein involved in the phagocytosis of this parasite. Results suggest that E. histolytica uses its HKMTs to regulate transcription by epigenetic mechanisms, and at least two of them could also be implicated in methylation of proteins that participate in phagocytosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Characterizing Optical Properties of Disturbed Surface Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    thermal properties. These properties include the particle size distribution and shapes of the grains that compose the soil as well as the roughness...of the surface to include the number and shape of rock shards and soil aggregates. Sometimes there are changes in the larger scale topography, the...location, also had significant clasts of schist and other metamorphic rocks, which added mica grains to the soil. There was little organic plant

  11. Modeling mechanical behaviors of composites with various ratios of matrix–inclusion properties using movable cellular automaton method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Smolin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two classes of composite materials are considered: classical metal–ceramic composites with reinforcing hard inclusions as well as hard ceramics matrix with soft gel inclusions. Movable cellular automaton method is used for modeling the mechanical behaviors of such different heterogeneous materials. The method is based on particle approach and may be considered as a kind of discrete element method. The main feature of the method is the use of many-body forces of inter-element interaction within the formalism of simply deformable element approximation. It was shown that the strength of reinforcing particles and the width of particle-binder interphase boundaries had determining influence on the service characteristics of metal–ceramic composite. In particular, the increasing of strength of carbide inclusions may lead to significant increase in the strength and ultimate strain of composite material. On the example of porous zirconia ceramics it was shown that the change in the mechanical properties of pore surface leads to the corresponding change in effective elastic modulus and strength limit of the ceramic sample. The less is the pore size, the more is this effect. The increase in the elastic properties of pore surface of ceramics may reduce its fracture energy.

  12. Characterization of Mode I Fracture and Morphological Properties of PLLA Blends with Addition of Lysine Triisocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannaladsaysy, Vilay; Todo, Mitsugu

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was toughened by blending with three different ductile biopolymers such as poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(butylene succinate-co-e-caprolactone) (PBSC), poly (butylene succinate-co-L-lactate) (PBSL). The blend ratio was fixed to 50:50. Lysine triisocyanate (LTI) was added to the blends as a compatibilizer. Characterizations such as Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field-emission electron microscope (FE-SEM), and mode I fracture test were used to characterize the effectiveness of LTI on the mechanical and morphological properties of various PLLA blends. It was found that PLLA/PCL blend shows the highest toughness energy among the binary blends. On the other hand, addition of LTI in PLLA/PBSC blend exhibits the best toughness property. Based on the FE-SEM observation, fractured surfaces of PLLA blends with LTI indicate ductile fracture with dense elongated fibrils. The largest damage zone is generated in the vicinity of crack-trip, suggesting that high energy dissipation occurred in the crack-trip region. FT-IR analysis also suggested that the NCO groups of LTI were acted as a compatibilizer, as the results of interaction between the two phases of the polymer blends.

  13. Modeling and characterization of dielectrophoretically structured piezoelectric composites using piezoceramic particle inclusions with high aspect ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Maier, R.A.; Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Zwaag, S. van der; Randall, C.A.; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the piezoelectric properties at high electric fields of dielectrophoretically aligned PZT - polymer composites containing high aspect ratio particles (such as short fibers) are presented. Polarization and strain as a function of electric field are evaluated. The properties of the

  14. Synthesis, characterization, sintering and dielectric properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanoparticles of barium gadolinium antimonate (Ba2GdSbO6), a complex perovskite-type oxide, has been synthesized using an auto ignition combustion process for the first time. The nanoparticles thus obtained have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, ...

  15. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of a new nano hybrid of 5,10,15,20-mesotetra(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (TAP) functionalized with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through an amide linkage is reported for the first time. ThisMWCNT-TAP hybrid was characterized by Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmissionelectron ...

  16. Characterization And Dissolution Properties Of Ruthenium Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthenium oxides (RuO2•1.10H2O and RuO2) have been synthesized by forced hydrolysis and oxidation of ruthenium chloride. The resulting materials were extensively characterized to determine the crystallinity, surface area, and ruthenium oxidation ...

  17. Preparation, characterization and luminescent properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) were used to characterize the resulting nanoparticles. The powder X-ray diffraction peaks could be indexed as a rhombohedral cell. The results of FT–IR spectra were in agreement with those of XRD.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of thiosalicylate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The compounds were characterized by Infra Red (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and mass spectra (ESI-MS). Their glass-transition temperatures, ... Fadwa Babiker Mustafa1. Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia ...

  19. Synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The material has been characterized on the basis of chemical composition, pH titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis. The effect on the exchange capacity of drying the exchanger at different temperatures has been studied. The analytical importance of the material has been ...

  20. Synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    zirconium(IV) oxychloride. Its ion exchange capacity for Na+ and K+ was found to be 2⋅20 and 2⋅35 meq g–1 dry exchanger, respectively. The material has been characterized on the basis of chemical composition, pH titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis. The effect on the.

  1. Characterization of ZnO thin film grown on c-plane substrates by MO-CVD: Effect of substrate annealing temperature, vicinal-cut angle and miscut direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadhaba, M. A.; Fouzri, A.; Sallet, V.; Hassani, S. S.; Amiri, G.; Lusson, A.; Oumezzine, M.

    2015-09-01

    The annealing effects of c-plane sapphire (α-Al2O3) substrate with a nominally vicinal-cut angle α (α ZnO films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) were studied. The atomic steps formed on sapphire substrate surface by annealing at high temperature were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The annealing and the miscut direction of sapphire substrate on the microstructural and optical properties for ZnO films were examined by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). Experimental results indicate that the film quality is strongly affected by annealing treatment and miscut direction of the sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction study revealed that all films exhibit a wurtzite phase and have a c-axis orientation. ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrate (α ZnO layer deposited on annealed sapphire substrate with increase the annealing substrate temperature for all samples. AFM image show significant differences between morphologies of samples depending on annealing treatment and miscut direction of substrates but no significant differences on surface roughness have been found. Sapphire annealing at 1100 °C with a nominally vicinal-cut angle α = 0.25° toward the m-plane (1 0 1 bar 0), provides the best optical quality of ZnO film.

  2. Transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence characterization of InGaAs strained quantum wires on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, B R; Ota, T; Kobayashi, K; Maehashi, K; Nakashima, H; Lee, S Y

    1999-01-01

    We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) to study InGaAs/AlGaAs strained quantum wires (QWRs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates. The cross-sectional TEM image reveals that InGaAs QWRs structures are naturally formed on AlGaAs giant steps. In the plan-view TEM images, the fringe pattern in the giant-step region is observed for In sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As layers with x<= 0.4 We measured the separation of the fringe in the plan-view TEM images and compared the result with the calculated fringe separation. From this result, we conclude that the fringes observed in the plan-view TEM images are moire fringes. PL spectra of the InGaAs QWRs samples reveal 80-meV shifts to lower energy with respect to the spectrum of a quantum well (QWL) grown on a (001) substrate under the same conditions. We also measured the polarization anisotropy of the PL spectra from the QWRs. The PL peak shifts systematically toward higher energy with decreasing...

  3. Characterization of dynamic properties of ballistic clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Broos, J.P.F.; Halls, V.; Zheng, J.

    2014-01-01

    In order use material models in (numerical) calculations, the mechanical properties of all materials involved should be known. At TNO an indirect method to determine the dynamic flow stress of materials has been generated by a combination of ballistic penetration tests with an energy-based

  4. Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing property of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    substitute material in orthopedics and dentistry due to its excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteoconduc- tion properties (Park et al 1998a,b). Hydroxyapatite has a wider scope of applications in diverse fields like chroma- tography (Morales et al 2000), solid state ionics (Aizawa et al 1999, 2000), catalyst (Sugiyama ...

  5. Characterization and Morphological Properties of Glass Fiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    reinforcement of composites, coatings of materials, and other engineering formations. These materials are known to provide flexible design application with high ..... nanoparticles and the physical properties of epoxy matrix nanocomposites, Composites Sci. Technol. 70: 1120-25. Natarajan, K; Padma, CB (2014). Study of ...

  6. Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Properties of Silver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effect of chitosan molecular weight on the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of silver-chitosan nanoparticles. Methods: A series of silver-chitosan nanoparticles of different sizes were produced using various molecular weight (MW) grades of chitosan by an aqueous chemical reduction ...

  7. Characterization of the inclusion complex ropivacaine: {beta}-cyclodextrin; Caracterizacao do complexo de inclusso ropivacaina: {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental]. E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br; Goncalves, Marcos Moises [Universidade de Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Moraes, Carolina Morales; Araujo, Daniele Ribeiro de; Zanella, Luciana; Paula, Eneida de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Bioquimica; Pertinhez, Thelma de Aguiar [Universidade de Parma (Italy). Dept. de Medicina Experimental

    2007-09-15

    Ropivacaine (RVC) is a widely used local anesthetic. The complexation of RVC with {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) is of great interest for the development of more efficient local anesthetic formulations. The present work focuses on the characterization of the RVC:{beta}-CD complex by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The stoichiometry of the complex is 1:2 RVC:{beta}-CD. DOSY-NMR shows that the association constant is 55.5 M{sup -1}. Longitudinal relaxation time results show that RVC changes its mobility in the presence of {beta}-CD. This study is focused on the physicochemical characterization of inclusion complexes that are potentials options for pain treatment. (author)

  8. Spectroscopic remote sensing for material identification, vegetation characterization, and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Lewis, Paul E.; Shen, Sylvia S.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying materials by measuring and analyzing their reflectance spectra has been an important procedure in analytical chemistry for decades. Airborne and space-based imaging spectrometers allow materials to be mapped across the landscape. With many existing airborne sensors and new satellite-borne sensors planned for the future, robust methods are needed to fully exploit the information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data. A method of identifying and mapping materials using spectral feature analyses of reflectance data in an expert-system framework called MICA (Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm) is described. MICA is a module of the PRISM (Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements) software, available to the public from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1155/. The core concepts of MICA include continuum removal and linear regression to compare key diagnostic absorption features in reference laboratory/field spectra and the spectra being analyzed. The reference spectra, diagnostic features, and threshold constraints are defined within a user-developed MICA command file (MCF). Building on several decades of experience in mineral mapping, a broadly-applicable MCF was developed to detect a set of minerals frequently occurring on the Earth's surface and applied to map minerals in the country-wide coverage of the 2007 Afghanistan HyMap data set. MICA has also been applied to detect sub-pixel oil contamination in marshes impacted by the Deepwater Horizon incident by discriminating the C-H absorption features in oil residues from background vegetation. These two recent examples demonstrate the utility of a spectroscopic approach to remote sensing for identifying and mapping the distributions of materials in imaging spectrometer data.

  9. Native Cellulose: Structure, Characterization and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Poletto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the relationship between cellulose crystallinity, the influence of extractive content on lignocellulosic fiber degradation, the correlation between chemical composition and the physical properties of ten types of natural fibers were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry techniques. The results showed that higher extractive contents associated with lower crystallinity and lower cellulose crystallite size can accelerate the degradation process and reduce the thermal stability of the lignocellulosic fibers studied. On the other hand, the thermal decomposition of natural fibers is shifted to higher temperatures with increasing the cellulose crystallinity and crystallite size. These results indicated that the cellulose crystallite size affects the thermal degradation temperature of natural fibers. This study showed that through the methods used, previous information about the structure and properties of lignocellulosic fibers can be obtained before use in composite formulations.

  10. characterization of geotechnical properties of lateritic soil-bentonite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Abstract. The purpose of this study was to characterize lateritic soil bentonite mixtures intended for use as low-permeability barrier in municipal waste disposal landfill. Characterization of the soil mix- tures included measurement of Atterberg limits, compaction properties, hydraulic conductivity,.

  11. Encapsulation of Oregano (Origanum onites L.) Essential Oil in β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD): Synthesis and Characterization of the Inclusion Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotronia, Margarita; Kavetsou, Eleni; Loupassaki, Sofia; Vouyiouka, Stamatina; Detsi, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the encapsulation of Origanum onites L. essential oil (oregano EO) in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion complexes (ICs), using the co-precipitation method. The formed β-CD–oregano EO ICs were characterized by diverse methods, such as Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), FT-IR spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis spectroscopy was used for the determination of the inclusion efficacy and the study of the encapsulated oregano EO release profile. The interactions between host (β-CD) and guest (oregano EO) in the formed ICs were proven by the FT-IR, DSC, TG and NMR analyses. The ICs, which derived from different batches, presented nanoscale size (531.8 ± 7.7 nm and 450.3 ± 11.5 nm, respectively), good size dispersion (0.308 ± 0.062 and 0.484 ± 0.029, respectively) and satisfactory stability in suspension (ζ-potential = −21.5 ± 1.2 mV and −30.7 ± 1.8 mV). Inclusion efficiency reached up to 26%, whereas the oregano EO release from the ICs followed a continuous delivery profile for up to 11 days, based on in vitro experiments. The formed ICs can find diverse applications, such as in the preparation of films for active packaging of food products, in personal care products for the improvement of their properties (e.g., antioxidant, antimicrobial, etc.), as well as in insect repellent products. PMID:28952553

  12. Encapsulation of Oregano (Origanum onites L.) Essential Oil in β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD): Synthesis and Characterization of the Inclusion Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotronia, Margarita; Kavetsou, Eleni; Loupassaki, Sofia; Kikionis, Stefanos; Vouyiouka, Stamatina; Detsi, Anastasia

    2017-09-09

    The aim of the present work was to study the encapsulation of Origanum onites L. essential oil (oregano EO) in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion complexes (ICs), using the co-precipitation method. The formed β-CD-oregano EO ICs were characterized by diverse methods, such as Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), FT-IR spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis spectroscopy was used for the determination of the inclusion efficacy and the study of the encapsulated oregano EO release profile. The interactions between host (β-CD) and guest (oregano EO) in the formed ICs were proven by the FT-IR, DSC, TG and NMR analyses. The ICs, which derived from different batches, presented nanoscale size (531.8 ± 7.7 nm and 450.3 ± 11.5 nm, respectively), good size dispersion (0.308 ± 0.062 and 0.484 ± 0.029, respectively) and satisfactory stability in suspension (ζ-potential = -21.5 ± 1.2 mV and -30.7 ± 1.8 mV). Inclusion efficiency reached up to 26%, whereas the oregano EO release from the ICs followed a continuous delivery profile for up to 11 days, based on in vitro experiments. The formed ICs can find diverse applications, such as in the preparation of films for active packaging of food products, in personal care products for the improvement of their properties (e.g., antioxidant, antimicrobial, etc.), as well as in insect repellent products.

  13. Characterization of mechanical properties of Inconel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Hyung; Kim, Hee Young; Sohn, Woong Hee; Ahn, Young Chul [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 60 and Inconel 690 steam generator tube test-produced by Sammi Steel Co. Ltd. were analyzed to develop the Inconel steam generator tube for nuclear power plant. 2. The mechanical properties such as yield strength, tensile strength and elongation= satisfied the requirement of Combustion Engineering specification, but the yield strength is needed to be decreased. The effect of the carbon content on the mechanical properties in the range of 0.019-0.030 % were not observed. The effects of grain size on the yield strength and tensile strength were well agreed with Hall-Petch relationship. the creep rupture life of Inconel 690 were almost same in, and it is similar to the Inconel 690 first test-produced by Sammi Steel Co., Ltd. It was suggested that the master curve which could be predict the creep life with varying the temperature and stress from Larson-Miller parameter. The stress exponents were measured as 4 and the activation energy for creep were similar to the activation energy for self diffusion of self diffusion. It is analyzed that the creep deformation of Inconel 690 alloy were controlled by the dislocation climb. The solution temperature of carbides precipitates was measured in Inconel 600 and Inconel 690 and the optimum annealing temperature and time to obtain required grain size were suggested. The grain boundary carbides could be controlled by thermal treatment at 700 deg C. The serrations of stress were observed at temperature ranged 300-600 deg C in the stress strain curves. The strain rate sensitivities exhibited the negative value in the serrated region. The temperature range of Inconel 690 showing the serration in stress strain curve is higher than that of Inconel 600 about 50 deg C. (Author) 45 refs., 8 tabs., 33 figs.

  14. Characterization and properties of barium bismuth titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena D. Bobić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBiT was prepared from stoichiometric amounts of BaTiO3 (BT and Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT obtained via mechanochemical synthesis. Mechanochemical synthesis was performed in air atmosphere in a planetary ball mill. BBiTceramics were sintered at 1100°C, 1110°C and 1120°C for 1 h without pre-calcination step. The formation of phase and crystal structure of BT, BIT and BBiT were verified using X-ray analysis. The morphology of obtained powders and microstructure were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of sintered samples were carried out and BBiT shows behaviour typical for relaxor ferroelectrics and dielectric constant at room temperature is approximately 93.

  15. Characterization of physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingzhao; Liu, Xin; Luan, Jimei; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-10-13

    A series of carboxymethyl agars (CMAs) with different degree of substitution (DS) were prepared, and their properties were determined and analyzed. The results showed that with the increase of DS, the dissolving temperature, the gelling temperature, the gel melting temperature, the gel strength, the gel hardness, the gel fracturability, and the solution apparent viscosity of CMA all decreased, except that its gel cohesiveness and gel springiness increased. The variation process of agar molecules in solution from coil to helix could be observed by measuring the optical rotation of the solution at such a low concentration, at which even the solution could not form a gel. The gel skeleton microstructures of both agar and CMA were of porous network structure, and the pore size of CMA became smaller and denser with the increase of its DS. After carboxymethylation, the agar hygroscopicity was improved, but its thermal stability was lowered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and characterization of a novel Co(II optode based on polymer inclusion membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Bukhari Mohd Suah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A greener analytical procedure based on automated flow through system with an optical sensor is proposed for determination of Co(II. The flow through system consisted of polymer inclusion membrane (PIM containing potassium thiocyanate (KSCN that was placed between the measuring cell and fixed with optical sensor probe as an optical sensor for monitoring of Co(II at 625 nm. In the presence of Co(II ions, the colourless membrane changes to blue. The sensing membrane was prepared by incorporating SCN into a non plasticized PIM. The prepared PIM were found to be homogenous, transparent and mechanically stable. The optode shows reversible optical response in the range of 1.00 × 10−6 – 1.00 × 10−3 mol L−1 with detection limit of 6.10 × 10−7 mol L−1. The optode can be regenerated by using 0.1 mol L−1 of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. The main parameters of the computer controlled flow system incorporating the flow-through optode, a multi-port selection valve and peristaltic pump were optimized too. The calculated Relative Standard Deviation (R.S.D of the repeatability and reproducibility of the method are 0.76% and 4.73%, respectively. This green system has been applied to the determination of Co(II in wastewater samples with reduced reagents and samples consumption and minimum waste generation.

  17. Study on inclusion complexation between plant growth regulator 6-benzylaminopurine and β-cyclodextrin: Preparation, characterization and molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xia; He, Jiang; Yang, Ying; Qi, Fengming; Huang, Zheng; Lu, Ruihua; Huang, Lizhen; Yao, Xiaojun

    2011-05-01

    An inclusion complex between the plant growth regulator 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was prepared. A 1:1 host-guest stoichiometry was conformed by elemental analysis and Job's plot. From phase solubility diagram, a calculated apparent stability constant was 259.49 L/mol. The obtained complex was found to significantly improve the water solubility of 6-BA, and there was a 4.1-fold increase in the presence of 12 mmol/L β-CD as compared with the free 6-BA. Thermoanalysis, NMR and IR spectra were applied to characterize the complex. 1H NMR and ROESY results indicated that the benzene ring of 6-BA was included into the β-CD cavity, which was in agreement with the most predominant configuration optimized by molecular modeling.

  18. Preparation, characterization and thermal studies of polymer inclusion cellulose acetate membrane with calix[4]resorcinarenes as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benosmane, Nadjib [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee (Groupe Heterocycles Associe CRAPC), Faculte de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Guedioura, Bouzid [Division reacteur/Centre de Recherche Nucleaire de Draria, CRND, BP 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Hamdi, Safouane Mohammed [Laboratoire de Biochimie-Purpan, Institut Federatif de Biologie, CHU Toulouse 330, avenue de Grande-Bretagne - F-31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Hamdi, Maamar [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee (Groupe Heterocycles Associe CRAPC), Faculte de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Boutemeur, Baya, E-mail: bayakheddis@hotmail.com [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee (Groupe Heterocycles Associe CRAPC), Faculte de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)

    2010-07-20

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) system with cellulose acetate polymer as support and calix[4]resorcinarenes as carriers has been developed. Special attention was paid to PIM characterization using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infra-red study, X-ray scattering and thermogravimetric analyses. The efficiency of the membrane transport was optimized as a function of pH, stirring speed, aqueous phases and membrane composition. The results suggested that the transport mechanism is a counter-transport of protons, the mechanism was mainly controlled by the diffusion of the complex formed in the membrane core. Analysis of lead(II) transport through these PIMs was performed. It was found that calix[4]resorcinarenes containing membranes were flexible, resistant and heterogeneous without plasticizer addition.

  19. Morphology and thermal properties of compatibilized PA12/PP blends with boehmite alumina nanofiller inclusions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ogunniran, ES

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available that the nanoparticles interfere with the interfacial activity at 5 wt% nanoparticle loading. All results are compared between the neat polymers and the compatibilized blend and show that despite a slight increase in dispersed-phase domain size, all other properties...

  20. Inferential Processing and Meta-Knowledge as the Bases for Property Inclusion in Combined Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Past research has found that the judged likelihood of properties of modified nouns (baby ducks have webbed feet) is reduced relative to unmodified nouns (ducks have webbed feet). Experiments 1-3 replicate the modification effect and demonstrate that this effect is obtained when participants make dichotomous decisions about the truth of such…

  1. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Low-Carbon Steel with Magnesium-Based Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Feng, Pei-Hsien; Pan, Yan-Chi; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Su, Yen-Hao; Lu, Muh-Jung

    2016-10-01

    The effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-containing (7 ppm), low-carbon commercial steel (SS400) were investigated. Twenty different heat treatment paths were performed using a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator. It was observed by using an optical microscope that as the cooling rate increased and holding temperature decreased, the volume fractions of pearlite, Widmanstätten ferrite, and grain boundary allotriomorphs ferrite fell, whereas that of acicular ferrite (AF) increased. Quantifying the fractions of AF and other phases by using electron backscatter diffraction shows that the heat treatment path with a cooling rate of 20 K/s and holding temperature of 723 K (450 °C) induced the highest volume fraction (44 pct) of AF. As such, the toughness of the sample was increased 12.4 times compared with that observed in the sample containing 4 pct AF. Typical inclusions were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed that the magnesium-based complex inclusions could act as nucleation sites of AF. Inclusions with a size of about 5 μm can serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for AF. Mg-containing SS400 steel also has excellent hot-ductility in the temperature range of 973 K to 1273 K (700 °C to 1000 °C), and the minimum percentage reduction in area (R.A pct) value of around 63 pct at 1073 K (800 °C).

  2. Identification and characterization of biomarkers in atherosclerosis and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Nieddu, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and atherosclerosis are two chronic pathologies which prevalence is constantly growing worldwide, leading to disability and life-threatening complications. Since their consequences represent major causes of mortality and morbidity in developed countries, the identification and characterisation of new potential biomarkers may contribute to revealing the underlying mechanisms of pathology onset and progression, and to improving the diagnostic methodologies and the therapeutic approache...

  3. Identification and characterization of tsunami deposits off southeast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 4. Identification and ... http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jess/123/04/0905-0921 ... Tamil Nadu, India. Institute of Environmental Geosciences, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Pukyong National University, Busan 608737, South Korea.

  4. A Preliminary Study on Light Transmittance Properties of Translucent Concrete Panels with Coarse Waste Glass Inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Verso, Valerio Roberto Maria; Torta, Annalisa; Pagliolico, Simonetta Lucia

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential reuse of coarse glass wastes as insert in a high performance cement matrix to produce translucent concrete panels for architectural applications such as interior walls. The effects of the addition of glass scraps on chemical and optical properties of concrete were studied. Alkali-silica reactivity resistance tests were carried out to evaluate the reactivity between amorphous waste glass and alkaline concrete pore solution. Light transmittance LT was evalu...

  5. Szeged Matrix Property Indices as Descriptors to Characterize Fullerenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäntschi Lorentz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenes are class of allotropes of carbon organized as closed cages or tubes of carbon atoms. The fullerenes with small number of atoms were not frequently investigated. This paper presents a detailed treatment of total strain energy as function of structural feature extracted from isomers of C40 fullerene using Szeged Matrix Property Indices (SMPI. The paper has a two-fold structure. First, the total strain energy of C40 fullerene isomers (40 structures was linked with SMPI descriptors under two scenarios, one which incorporate just the SMPI descriptors and the other one which contains also five calculated properties (dipole moment, scf-binding-energy, scf-core-energy, scf-electronic-energy, and heat of formation. Second, the performing models identified on C40 fullerene family or the descriptors of these models were used to predict the total strain energy on C42 fullerene isomers. The obtained results show that the inclusion of properties in the pool of descriptors led to the reduction of accurate linear models. One property, namely scf-binding-energy proved a significant contribution to total strain energy of C40 fullerene isomers. However, the top-three most performing models contain just SMPI descriptors. A model with four descriptors proved most accurate model and show fair abilities in prediction of the same property on C42 fullerene isomers when the approach considered the descriptors identified on C40 as the predicting descriptors for C42 fullerene isomers.

  6. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment.

  7. Preparation and tribological properties of inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin/dialkyl pentasulfide as additive in PEG-600 aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jiju; Xu, Xuefeng, E-mail: xuxuefeng@zjut.edu.cn; Li, Gan; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-15

    The inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and dialkyl pentasulfide (DPS), in which DPS was incorporated into β-CD cavities, was prepared by a co-precipitation method. The tribological properties of the complex used as lubricant additive in PEG 600 aqueous solution were investigated by a four-ball tester. The complex exhibited better tribological properties than β-CD under different loads, and also showed better anti-friction performance than DPS in the latter half of the test duration. The tribological action mechanism of the complex on a steel surface was studied according to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The β-CD molecules of the complexes were decomposed into various molecular fragments and the DPS molecules were released under the friction condition. It revealed that thiolate and ferrous sulfide (FeS) films formed by DPS played a major role, and iron alkoxide and carbon deposition films formed by the friction fragments of β-CD mainly exhibited anti-friction property on FeS-to-FeS interface. The interactions among different films led to the formation of a mixed boundary lubrication film.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of gradient polymer composites with nano-inclusions fabricated by laser assisted sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkovsky, I. V.; Scherbakov, V. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Ionin, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) was used to prepare porous gradient polymer nanocomposites consisting of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix doped with alternating layers of Ni and Cu nanoparticles. Optimal regimes of such 3D-fabrication were determined. The functional graded (FG) structure of sintered parts was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy and EDX microanalysis. Temperature dependence of electro-physical properties was studied for alternating ferromagnetic/non-magnetic layers (up to 10 layers) into 3D-graded samples derived from Ni-PEEK-Cu powders. Temperature dependences for the real part of the dielectric permeability and loss tangent were found to have a hysteresis character.

  9. Fuzzy Similarity and Fuzzy Inclusion Measures in Polyline Matching: A Case Study of Potential Streams Identification for Archaeological Modelling in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuračiová, Renata; Rášová, Alexandra; Lieskovský, Tibor

    2017-12-01

    When combining spatial data from various sources, it is often important to determine similarity or identity of spatial objects. Besides the differences in geometry, representations of spatial objects are inevitably more or less uncertain. Fuzzy set theory can be used to address both modelling of the spatial objects uncertainty and determining the identity, similarity, and inclusion of two sets as fuzzy identity, fuzzy similarity, and fuzzy inclusion. In this paper, we propose to use fuzzy measures to determine the similarity or identity of two uncertain spatial object representations in geographic information systems. Labelling the spatial objects by the degree of their similarity or inclusion measure makes the process of their identification more efficient. It reduces the need for a manual control. This leads to a more simple process of spatial datasets update from external data sources. We use this approach to get an accurate and correct representation of historical streams, which is derived from contemporary digital elevation model, i.e. we identify the segments that are similar to the streams depicted on historical maps.

  10. Thermophysical property characterization of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, Allan N. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Cabahug, Denise Irene V. [School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Li Menghui, E-mail: mhli@cycu.edu.t [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    In this present work, a thermophysical property characterization of aqueous solution of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS), a biological buffer, was done. The investigated properties were refractive index (n), density ({rho}), and electrolytic conductivity ({kappa}). These properties were measured for temperatures up to 353.15 K (at normal atmospheric condition) and for the entire composition range where TRIS is still soluble in water. The measured properties were reported as functions of temperature and composition. A modified form of the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation which leads to an Arrhenius-type asymptotic exponential function was used to generally correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the considered properties and satisfactory results were obtained.

  11. A molecular inclusion complex of atenolol with 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin; the production and characterization thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA NIKOLIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular inclusion complex of atenolol with 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cy­clodextrin was synthesized using the coprecipitation method. The complex obtained was characterized by FT-IR, 1H‑NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, as well as by DSC and X-ray diffraction analysis. The DSC analysis confirmed the existence of the com­plex with the endothermic atenolol melting peak at about 155 ºC disappearing. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the complex and 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin were very similar, thus confirming the complete inclusion of the atenolol molecule within the cavity of the 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin. The peaks originating from ate­nolol were completely absent in the diffractogram of the complex. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra showed certain changes in the chemical shifts of protons and C atoms from atenolol and 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin, indicating that a complex had been formed and also which protons participated in the hydrogen bonds which formed the complex. The atenolol solubility in water was improved (254 mg com­plex cm-3, i.e., 37.5 mg atenolol cm-3, and in pH 3 HCl solution (251 mg com­plex cm-3, i.e., 37 mg atenolol cm-3 when compared to pure atenolol, and even when compared to the atenolol complex with b-cyclodextrin. The increased solubility en­sures greater bioavailability of the active component and, due to the low solubility, significantly corrects for the lack of the basic active substance and, simultaneously, increases its overall therapeutic effect, combined with reduced side effects.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and emission properties of quinolin-8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 116; Issue 5. Synthesis, characterization and emission properties of quinolin-8-olato chelated ruthenium ... Author Affiliations. Bikash Kumar Panda1. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700 032, India ...

  13. Synthesis, characterization and emission properties of quinolin-8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis, characterization and emission properties of quinolin-8-olato chelated ruthenium organometallics. BIKASH KUMAR PANDA. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700 032,. India e-mail: b_panda@hotmail.com. MS received 2 June 2004; revised 21 July 2004.

  14. Characterization and optical properties of Pr2O3-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Stability of the glass doped with Pr3+ is found to be moderate (∼40). The results are discussed using the structural model of Mo–lead-borate glass. Keywords. Praseodymium-doped glasses; optical energy band gap; absorption spectrum. 1. Introduction. Characterization and study of properties of glasses ...

  15. Synthesis, surface characterization and optical properties of 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 34; Issue 5. Synthesis, surface characterization and optical properties of 3-thiopropionic acid capped ZnS:Cu nanocrystals ... The optical studies were done using UV-VIS spectroscopy and particle size and diameter polydispersity index (DPI) were calculated.

  16. Characterization of structural and free energy properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... Characterization of structural and free energy properties of promoters associated with Primary and Operon TSS in Helicobacter pylori genome and their orthologs. ADITYA KUMAR and MANJU BANSAL*. Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. *Corresponding ...

  17. Characterization through distributional properties of dual generalized order statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Khan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributional properties of two non-adjacent dual generalized order statistics have been used to characterize distributions. Further, one sided contraction and dilation for the dual generalized order statistics are discussed and then the results are deduced for generalized order statistics, order statistics, lower record statistics, upper record statistics and adjacent dual generalized order statistics.

  18. Crystal structure, characterization and magnetic properties of a 1D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 6. Crystal structure, characterization and magnetic properties of a 1D copper(II) polymer incorporating a Schiff base with carboxylate side arm. SHYAMAPADA SHIT MADHUSUDAN NANDY CORRADO RIZZOLI CÉDRIC DESPLANCHES SAMIRAN MITRA.

  19. Polymer-free nanofibers from vanillin/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes: high thermal stability, enhanced solubility and antioxidant property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebioglu, Asli; Kayaci-Senirmak, Fatma; İpek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Uyar, Tamer

    2016-07-13

    Vanillin/cyclodextrin inclusion complex nanofibers (vanillin/CD-IC NFs) were successfully obtained from three modified CD types (HPβCD, HPγCD and MβCD) in three different solvent systems (water, DMF and DMAc) via an electrospinning technique without using a carrier polymeric matrix. Vanillin/CD-IC NFs with uniform and bead-free fiber morphology were successfully produced and their free-standing nanofibrous webs were obtained. The polymer-free CD/vanillin-IC-NFs allow us to accomplish a much higher vanillin loading (∼12%, w/w) when compared to electrospun polymeric nanofibers containing CD/vanillin-IC (∼5%, w/w). Vanillin has a volatile nature yet, after electrospinning, a significant amount of vanillin was preserved due to complex formation depending on the CD types. Maximum preservation of vanillin was observed for vanillin/MβCD-IC NFs which is up to ∼85% w/w, besides, a considerable amount of vanillin (∼75% w/w) was also preserved for vanillin/HPβCD-IC NFs and vanillin/HPγCD-IC NFs. Phase solubility studies suggested a 1 : 1 molar complexation tendency between guest vanillin and host CD molecules. Molecular modelling studies and experimental findings revealed that vanillin : CD complexation was strongest for MβCD when compared to HPβCD and HPγCD in vanillin/CD-IC NFs. For vanillin/CD-IC NFs, water solubility and the antioxidant property of vanillin was improved significantly owing to inclusion complexation. In brief, polymer-free vanillin/CD-IC NFs are capable of incorporating a much higher loading of vanillin and effectively preserve volatile vanillin. Hence, encapsulation of volatile active agents such as flavor, fragrance and essential oils in electrospun polymer-free CD-IC NFs may have potential for food related applications by integrating the particularly large surface area of NFs with the non-toxic nature of CD and inclusion complexation benefits, such as high temperature stability, improved water solubility and an enhanced

  20. Characterization, inclusion mode, phase-solubility and in vitro release studies of inclusion binary complexes with cyclodextrins and meglumine using sulfamerazine as model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Carolina; Gomes de Oliveira, Anselmo; Longhi, Marcela

    2014-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect on the aqueous solubility and release rate of sulfamerazine (SMR) as model drug, inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin (βCD), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and a binary system with meglumine (MEG) were developed. The formation of 1:1 inclusion complexes of SMR with the CDs and a SMR:MEG binary system in solution and in solid state was revealed by phase solubility studies (PSS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis and X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) studies. The CDs solubilization of SMR could be improved by ionization of the drug molecule through pH adjustments. The higher apparent stability constants of SMR:CDs complexes were obtained in pH 2.00, demonstrating that CDs present more affinity for the unionized drug. The best approach for SMR solubility enhancement results from the combination of MEG and pH adjustment, with a 34-fold increment and a Smax of 54.8 mg/ml. The permeability of the drug was reduced due to the presence of βCD, MβCD, HPβCD and MEG when used as solubilizers. The study then suggests interesting applications of CD or MEG complexes for modulating the release rate of SMR through semipermeable membranes.

  1. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosić, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health.

  2. Characterization and Identification of Bituminous Materials Modified with Montmorillonite Nanoclay

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Montmorillonite (Mt) nanoclay is a layered silicate mineral with a 2:1-type layer structure, two tetrahedrals sandwiching one octahedral. In recent decades, it is successfully introduced into polymer systems to form polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCN) in which the silicate layers of the Mt are randomly and homogeneously dispersed at a molecular level in the polymer matrix. Due to the addition of Mt, some properties of PCN, such as the mechanical, thermal and gas barrier properties, were superio...

  3. College Writing, Identification, and the Production of Intellectual Property: Voices from the Stanford Study of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Andrea A.; Fishman, Jenn; Liew, Warren M.

    2013-01-01

    When, why, and how do college students come to value their writing as intellectual property? How do their conceptions of intellectual property reflect broader understandings and personal engagements with concepts of authorship, collaboration, identification, and capital? We address these questions based on findings from the Stanford Study of…

  4. Identification and characterization of potential impurities in raloxifene hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Reguri Buchi; Goud, Thirumani Venkateshwar; Nagamani, Nagabushanam; Kumar, Nutakki Pavan; Alagudurai, Anandan; Murugan, Raman; Parthasarathy, Kannabiran; Karthikeyan, Vinayagam; Balaji, Perumal

    2012-01-01

    During the synthesis of the bulk drug Raloxifene hydrochloride, eight impurities were observed, four of which were found to be new. All of the impurities were detected using the gradient high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method, whose area percentages ranged from 0.05 to 0.1%. LCMS was performed to identify the mass number of these impurities, and a systematic study was carried out to characterize them. These impurities were synthesized and characterized by spectral data, subjected to co-injection in HPLC, and were found to be matching with the impurities present in the sample. Based on their spectral data (IR, NMR, and Mass), these impurities were characterized as Raloxifene-N-Oxide [Impurity: 1]; EP impurity A [Impurity: 2]; EP impurity B [Impurity: 3]; Raloxifene Dimer [Impurity: 4]; HABT (6-Acetoxy-2-[4-hydroxyphenyl]-1-benzothiophene or 6-Hydroxy-2-[4-acetoxyphenyl]-1-benzothiophene) [Impurity: 5]; PEBE (Methyl[4-[2-(piperidin-1-yl)ethoxy

  5. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  6. Genetic Characterization of a French Cohort of GNE-mutation negative inclusion body myopathy patients with exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerino, Mathieu; Gorokhova, Svetlana; Laforet, Pascal; Ben Yaou, Rabah; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Pouget, Jean; Attarian, Shahram; Eymard, Bruno; Deleuze, Jean-François; Boland, Anne; Behin, Anthony; Stojkovic, Tanya; Bonne, Gisele; Levy, Nicolas; Bartoli, Marc; Krahn, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Hereditary inclusion body myopathy (hIBM) refers to a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases. The overlapping histochemical features of hIBM with other genetic disorders lead to low diagnostic rates with targeted single-gene sequencing. This is true for the most prevalent form of hIBM, GNEpathy. Therefore, we used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to determine whether a cohort of clinically suspected GNEpathy patients undiagnosed by targeted GNE analysis could be genetically characterized. Twenty patients with hIBM but undiagnosed by targeted GNE sequencing were analyzed by WES before data filtering on 306 genes associated with neuromuscular disorders. Seven patients out of 20 were found to have disease-causing mutations in genes associated with hIBM or genes allowing for hIBM in the differential diagnosis or associated with unexpected diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing is an efficient strategy in the context of hIBM, resulting in a molecular diagnosis for 35% of the patients initially undiagnosed by targeted GNE analysis. Muscle Nerve 56: 993-997, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Two-dimensional carbon fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yihong, Wu; Ting, Yu

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the fundamental properties of graphene, this book focuses on synthesis, characterization and application of various types of two-dimensional (2D) nanocarbons ranging from single/few layer graphene to carbon nanowalls and graphene oxides. Three major synthesis techniques are covered: epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC, chemical synthesis of graphene on metal, and chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets or nanowalls. One chapter is dedicated to characterization of 2D nanocarbon using Raman spectroscopy. It provides extensive coverage for a

  8. Identification and Characterization of Adult Porcine Muscle Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, tissue-specific stem cell research has been emerging. Stem cells are characterized by a long-term expansion and a broad developmental potential in vitro. Pre-clinical studies appear promising, but still many limitations have to be overcome before broad therapeutic use of stem

  9. Characterization and identification of Russula firmula and Russula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two ectomycorrhizal species of genus Russula: Russula postiana and Russula firmula (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) have been characterized and identified from Kashmir Himalaya using morpho-anatomical and molecular methods targeting its rDNA. The target internal transcribe spacer (ITS)-rDNA of both species was ...

  10. Identification and characterization of organic nanoparticles in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.; Dam, ten G.; Bouwmeester, H.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Allmaier, G.; Kammer, van den F.; Ramsch, R.; Solans, C.; Tomaniova, T.; Hajslova, J.; Weigel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in nanoparticles (NPs) has increased explosively over the past two decades. Using NPs, high loadings of vitamins and health-benefit actives can be achieved in food, and stable flavors as well as natural food-coloring dispersions can be developed. Detection and characterization of NPs are

  11. Identification of internal properties of fibres and micro-swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouraboué, Franck; Thiam, E. Ibrahima; Delmotte, Blaise; Climent, Eric

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the identifiability of constitutive parameters of passive or active micro-swimmers. We first present a general framework for describing fibres or micro-swimmers using a bead-model description. Using a kinematic constraint formulation to describe fibres, flagellum or cilia, we find explicit linear relationship between elastic constitutive parameters and generalized velocities from computing contact forces. This linear formulation then permits one to address explicitly identifiability conditions and solve for parameter identification. We show that both active forcing and passive parameters are both identifiable independently but not simultaneously. We also provide unbiased estimators for generalized elastic parameters in the presence of Langevin-like forcing with Gaussian noise using a Bayesian approach. These theoretical results are illustrated in various configurations showing the efficiency of the proposed approach for direct parameter identification. The convergence of the proposed estimators is successfully tested numerically.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Flocculation Properties of Branched Cationic Polyacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A water soluble branched cationic polyacrylamide (BCPAM was synthesized using solution polymerization. The polymerization was initiated using potassium diperiodatocuprate, K5[Cu(HIO62](Cu(III, initiating the self-condensing vinyl copolymerization of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC monomer. The resulting copolymer was characterized by the use of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Its flocculation properties were evaluated with standard jar tests of sewage. The effects of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction temperature, and the mass ratio of monomers on intrinsic viscosity and flocculation properties of the product were determined using single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiment.

  13. Identification and Characterization of the Grape WRKY Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors have functions in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Many studies have focused on functional identification of WRKY transcription factors, but little is known about the molecular phylogeny or global expression patterns of the complete WRKY family. In this study, we identified 80 WRKY proteins encoded in the grape genome. Based on the structural features of these proteins, the grape WRKY genes were classified into three groups (groups 1–3. Analysis of WRKY genes expression profiles indicated that 28 WRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to biotic stress caused by grape whiterot and/or salicylic acid (SA. In that 16 WRKY genes upregulated both by whiterot pathogenic bacteria and SA. The results indicated that 16 WRKY proteins participated in SA-dependent defense signal pathway. This study provides a basis for cloning genes with specific functions from grape.

  14. Identification and characterization of the grape WRKY family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Feng, Jian Can

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors have functions in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Many studies have focused on functional identification of WRKY transcription factors, but little is known about the molecular phylogeny or global expression patterns of the complete WRKY family. In this study, we identified 80 WRKY proteins encoded in the grape genome. Based on the structural features of these proteins, the grape WRKY genes were classified into three groups (groups 1-3). Analysis of WRKY genes expression profiles indicated that 28 WRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to biotic stress caused by grape whiterot and/or salicylic acid (SA). In that 16 WRKY genes upregulated both by whiterot pathogenic bacteria and SA. The results indicated that 16 WRKY proteins participated in SA-dependent defense signal pathway. This study provides a basis for cloning genes with specific functions from grape.

  15. Identification and characterization of a novel legume-like lectin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    logical research (Pinto et al. 2009). Many lectins are useful for viral inhibitors, such as N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin extracted from the stinging nettle root of Urtica dioica, which has displayed pronounced antiviral properties (Shibuya et al. 1986). Also, mannose-binding lectins, such as cyanovirin-N derived from the ...

  16. Novel Technique for Online Characterization of Cartilaginous Tissue Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Tai-Yi; Huang, Chun-Yuh; Yong Gu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The goal of tissue engineering is to use substitutes to repair and restore organ function. Bioreactors are an indispensable tool for monitoring and controlling the unique environment for engineered constructs to grow. However, in order to determine the biochemical properties of engineered constructs, samples need to be destroyed. In this study, we developed a novel technique to nondestructively online-characterize the water content and fixed charge density of cartilaginous tissues. A new tech...

  17. Characterization of hydrogeologic units using matrix properties, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flint, L.E.

    1998-09-01

    Determination of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste requires the use of numerical flow and transport models. Input for these models includes parameters that describe hydrologic properties and the initial and boundary conditions for all rock materials within the unsaturated zone, as well as some of the upper rocks in the saturated zone. There are 30 hydrogeologic units in the unsaturated zone, and each unit is defined by limited ranges where a discrete volume of rock contains similar hydrogeologic properties. These hydrogeologic units can be easily located in space by using three-dimensional lithostratigraphic models based on relationships of the properties with the lithostratigraphy. Physical properties of bulk density, porosity, and particle density; flow properties of saturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture-retention characteristics; and the state variables (variables describing the current state of field conditions) of saturation and water potential were determined for each unit. Units were defined using (1) a data base developed from 4,892 rock samples collected from the coring of 23 shallow and 8 deep boreholes, (2) described lithostratigraphic boundaries and corresponding relations to porosity, (3) recognition of transition zones with pronounced changes in properties over short vertical distances, (4) characterization of the influence of mineral alteration on hydrologic properties such as permeability and moisture-retention characteristics, and (5) a statistical analysis to evaluate where boundaries should be adjusted to minimize the variance within layers. This study describes the correlation of hydrologic properties to porosity, a property that is well related to the lithostratigraphy and depositional and cooling history of the volcanic deposits and can, therefore, be modeled to be distributed laterally.

  18. Pigment identification and antioxidant properties of red dragon fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hylocereus polyrhizus) and to further investigate the antioxidant properties in this fruit. Pigment was identified using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and results confirmed the presence of betanin in sample at a retention time ...

  19. Identification and Characterization of Extremophile Microorganisms with Significance to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bej, Asim K.

    2003-01-01

    It is now well recognized that microorganisms thrive in extreme ecological conditions such as geothermal vents, polar region, acid and alkaline lakes, and the cold pressurized depth of the ocean floor of this planet. Morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic adaptations to extreme environments by these extremophile microorganisms have generated immense interest amongst astrobiologists who increasingly believe in the existence of extraterrestrial life. The evidence collected by NASA's space probe Galileo suggested the presence of liquid water and volcanic activity on Mars and Jupiter's satellite Europa. Volcanic activity provides some of the heat necessary to keep the water on Europa from freezing that could provide important dissolved chemicals needed by living organisms. The possibility of the existence of hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters on Mars, and a layer of liquid water under the ice on Europa provide sufficient 'raison d'etre' to study microorganisms in similar extreme environments on Earth, which could provide us with a model that would help establish the existence of extraterrestrial life on other planetary bodies. The objectives of the summer research project were as follows: (1) application of molecular approaches to help establish new species of extremophile microorganisms isolated from a hypersaline alkaline lake; and (2) identification of a major cold-shock gene (cspA) homolog from a psychrotolerant microorganism, PmagG1.

  20. Identification and characterization of transcription networks in environmentally significant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Charles E.; McCue, Lee Ann

    2005-11-30

    Understanding the regulation of gene expression, transcription regulation in particular, is one of the grand challenges of molecular biology. Transcription regulation is arguably the most important foundation of cellular function, since it exerts the most fundamental control of the abundance of virtually all of a cell's functional macromolecules. Nevertheless, this process, perhaps because of its difficulty, has been the subject of only a limited number of genomic level analyses. We have undertaken bioinformatics projects to address this issue by developing (1) a cross-species comparison method (i.e. phylogenetic footprinting) for the identification of transcription factor binding sites, (2) a Bayesian clustering method to identify regulons, (3) an improved scanning algorithm that uses a position weight matrix and several related species sequence data to locate transcription factor binding sites, and (4) a method to predict cognate binding sites for transcription factors of unknown specificity. These bioinformatics methods were developed using the model proteobacterium Escherichia coli, with further applications to the genomes of environmentally significant microbes (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Shewanella oneidensis) in later years of the grant.

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Identification, Characterization, and Linkage Mapping in Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Maughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa ( Willd. is an important seed crop throughout the Andean region of South America. It is important as a regional food security crop for millions of impoverished rural inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano (high plains. Efforts to improve the crop have led to an increased focus on genetic research. We report the identification of 14,178 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using a genomic reduction protocol as well as the development of 511 functional SNP assays. The SNP assays are based on KASPar genotyping chemistry and were detected using the Fluidigm dynamic array platform. A diversity screen of 113 quinoa accessions showed that the minor allele frequency (MAF of the SNPs ranged from 0.02 to 0.50, with an average MAF of 0.28. Structure analysis of the quinoa diversity panel uncovered the two major subgroups corresponding to the Andean and coastal quinoa ecotypes. Linkage mapping of the SNPs in two recombinant inbred line populations produced an integrated linkage map consisting of 29 linkage groups with 20 large linkage groups, spanning 1404 cM with a marker density of 3.1 cM per SNP marker. The SNPs identified here represent important genomic tools needed in emerging plant breeding programs for advanced genetic analysis of agronomic traits in quinoa.

  2. Morphological-anatomical characterization and identification of Tomentella ectomycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakucs, Erzsébet; Eros-Honti, Zsolt

    2008-09-01

    Over the last two decades, much information has been gathered on the ectomycorrhizal fungus community composition of plant associations of boreal, temperate, and tropical regions. Worldwide, Tomentella ectomycorrhizas (ECM) are often common and dominant in the mycorrhizosphere of coniferous and deciduous forests. They are present under different environmental conditions and associate with diverse plant hosts. Tomentella sporocarps, however, are rarely found aboveground, so Tomentella species are often missing from fungus community studies based on fruit-body presence. Tomentella is a resupinate genus of Thelephoraceae (Basidiomycota) forming black-brown, brown, yellow, or ochre ECM on the roots of gymnosperm and angiosperm trees, distinguished by typical morphological-anatomical characteristics (clamped hyphae, angular mantle, surface network, special rhizomorphs and cystidia). In this paper, we review the taxonomic position and morphological-anatomical characteristics of Tomentella ECM. A short summary of the microscopic features used for distinguishing tomentelloids during morphotyping and identification is presented in order to support molecular and ecological studies of ectomycorrhizal fungus communities.

  3. Graphene-based materials: synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Yin, Zongyou; Wu, Shixin; Qi, Xiaoying; He, Qiyuan; Zhang, Qichun; Yan, Qingyu; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Hua

    2011-07-18

    Graphene, a two-dimensional, single-layer sheet of sp(2) hybridized carbon atoms, has attracted tremendous attention and research interest, owing to its exceptional physical properties, such as high electronic conductivity, good thermal stability, and excellent mechanical strength. Other forms of graphene-related materials, including graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and exfoliated graphite, have been reliably produced in large scale. The promising properties together with the ease of processibility and functionalization make graphene-based materials ideal candidates for incorporation into a variety of functional materials. Importantly, graphene and its derivatives have been explored in a wide range of applications, such as electronic and photonic devices, clean energy, and sensors. In this review, after a general introduction to graphene and its derivatives, the synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications of graphene-based materials are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Piezoelectricity of 2D nanomaterials: characterization, properties, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Meguid, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    The discovery of piezoelectricity in 2D nanomaterials represents a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future technologies. This article reviews recent progress in the characterization, properties evaluation, and applications of piezoelectricity of 2D piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs). To begin, an introduction to the existing 2D PNs, which exhibit a wide range of atomic structures and configurations, is presented. The nanoscale measurements and associated experimental techniques as well as the atomic simulations of the piezoelectric properties of 2D PNs are then summarized. Some of the pertinent parameters, which govern the piezoelectric properties of 2D PNs, are discussed. Furthermore, our article concludes with some potential applications including piezotronics, piezophototronics, and energy harvesting of 2D PNs, which can open the doors to the innovative design of next-generation nanoelectronics and nanodevices. Finally, we highlight perspectives and challenges for the future development of 2D PNs.

  5. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  6. [Identification and biological characterization of an acetonitrile degrading strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Xiong, Minghua; Cheng, Xiaosong; Sun, Jing; Zang, Hailian; Pan, Junbo; Li, Chunyan

    2012-02-04

    To identify and characterize an acetonitrile degrading strain BX2, thus to assess its potentials in the treatment of acetonitrile containing wastewater. By means of phenotype and physio-biochemical characterization as well as phylogenetic analysis, we identified strain BX2. The optimum culture conditions of the strain were studied with single factor test, and the degradation of acetonitrile under the optimal growth conditions was determined. Additionally, NaCl tolerance was investigated. The phenotype and physio-biochemical characteristics of strain BX2 were similar to those of Rhodococcus sp.. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, gyrB and secA1 gene suggested strain BX2 was the closest relative of Rhodococcus rhodochrous with 99.37%, 99.29% and 97.87% sequence similarity respectively. The optimal conditions for cell growth were 35 degrees C, initial pH 7.5, and 1% inoculum. Under these conditions, the degradation rate of acetonitrile was 95.87% (800mg/L) within 16 h. Strain BX2 was able to grow in defined medium containing NaCl up to 6%. Strain BX2 was identified as Rhodococcus rhodochrous and named Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2. It showed great environmental adaptation and high capability of degrading acetonitrile.

  7. Identification and characterization of a bacterial hydrosulphide ion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyzewski, Bryan K.; Wang, Da-Neng (NYUSM)

    2012-10-26

    The hydrosulphide ion (HS{sup -}) and its undissociated form, hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), which are believed to have been critical to the origin of life on Earth, remain important in physiology and cellular signalling. As a major metabolite in anaerobic bacterial growth, hydrogen sulphide is a product of both assimilatory and dissimilatory sulphate reduction. These pathways can reduce various oxidized sulphur compounds including sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate. The dissimilatory sulphate reduction pathway uses this molecule as the terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, in which process it produces excess amounts of H{sub 2}S. The reduction of sulphite is a key intermediate step in all sulphate reduction pathways. In Clostridium and Salmonella, an inducible sulphite reductase is directly linked to the regeneration of NAD{sup +}, which has been suggested to have a role in energy production and growth, as well as in the detoxification of sulphite. Above a certain concentration threshold, both H{sub 2}S and HS{sup -} inhibit cell growth by binding the metal centres of enzymes and cytochrome oxidase, necessitating a release mechanism for the export of this toxic metabolite from the cell. Here we report the identification of a hydrosulphide ion channel in the pathogen Clostridium difficile through a combination of genetic, biochemical and functional approaches. The HS{sup -} channel is a member of the formate/nitrite transport family, in which about 50 hydrosulphide ion channels form a third subfamily alongside those for formate (FocA) and for nitrite (NirC). The hydrosulphide ion channel is permeable to formate and nitrite as well as to HS{sup -} ions. Such polyspecificity can be explained by the conserved ion selectivity filter observed in the channel's crystal structure. The channel has a low open probability and is tightly regulated, to avoid decoupling of the membrane proton gradient.

  8. Real-time characterization of non-metallic inclusions by optical scanning and milling of steel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Johannes; Buck, Christoph; Thurau, Matthias; Pauli, Josef; Luther, Wolfram

    2012-04-01

    The cleanliness of steel is described by the amount, size, composition, morphology, and distribution of nonmetallic inclusions (NMIs). These nonmetals are present because of natural physical-chemical effects, and because during continuous casting steel is accidentally contaminated with slag, refractories, and materials from casting moulds. NMIs influence the properties of steel. Therefore, in this paper, a combined milling and image processing system is proposed that mills and scans slices of steel samples to retrieve volumetric information about NMIs. The system is capable of scanning steel samples of 300 × 100 × 90mm3 in size at spatial resolutions of either 3, 5, 10, or 20μm and a volumetric resolution of 10μm within a few hours. After each milling operation the steel surface is captured by a moving large-area CCD image sensor. The optical system further consists of a distortion-free macro lens and diffuse coaxial lighting for brightfield illumination. Additional results using dome lighting are also presented. The interaction of an NMI with the milling cutter results in non-homogeneous NMI reflectances which carry information about the NMI's mass density and chemical compound. Although the steel surface is highly reflective, the milling cutter creates a periodic pattern of moldings which is accentuated by patterns of shadow and light. An adaptive wedge filter in the Fourier space dampens those artifacts. NMIs are binarized separately in every image by local thresholding. In order to reduce segmentation artifacts neighboring slices in the volumetric stack of images are filtered using morphological operators. A statistical analysis of the segmentation results estimates the macro cleanliness. Furthermore an interactive 3D visualization enables the exploration of NMIs and their distribution within the sample. Different viewing, filtering and sorting capabilities are implemented, like ordering NMIs with regard to their shape factor. It is expected that the study

  9. Identification and Characterization of Yeast Isolates from Pharmaceutical Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Recek

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop an efficient an system for waste water pretreatment, the isolation of indigenous population of microorganisms from pharmaceutical waste water was done. We obtained pure cultures of 16 yeast isolates that differed slightly in colony morphology. Ten out of 16 isolates efficiently reduced COD in pharmaceutical waste water. Initial physiological characterization failed to match the 10 yeast isolates to either Pichia anomala or Pichia ciferrii. Restriction analysis of rDNA (rDNA-RFLP using three different restriction enzymes: HaeIII, MspI and CfoI, showed identical patterns of the isolates and Pichia anomala type strain. Separation of chromosomal DNAs of yeast isolates by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the 10 isolates could be grouped into 6 karyotypes. Growth characteristics of the 6 isolates with distinct karyotypes were then studied in batch cultivation in pharmaceutical waste water for 80 hours.

  10. Identification and characterization of the surface proteins of Clostridium difficile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailey, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Several clostridial proteins were detected on the clostridial cell surface by sensitive radioiodination techniques. Two major proteins and six minor proteins comprised the radioiodinated proteins on the clostridial cell surface. Cellular fractionation of surface radiolabeled C. difficile determined that the radioiodinated proteins were found in the cell wall fraction of C. difficile and surprisingly were also present in the clostridial membrane. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon of disulfide-crosslinking of the cell surface proteins of C. difficile was observed. Disulfide-linked protein complexes were found in both the membrane and cell wall fractions. In addition, the cell surface proteins of C. difficile were found to be released into the culture medium. In attempts to further characterize the clostridial proteins recombinant DNA techniques were employed. In addition, the role of the clostridial cell surface proteins in the interactions of C. difficile with human PMNs was also investigated.

  11. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fazal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf, Origanum vulgare (aerial parts, Paeonia emodi (tubers, and Peganum harmala (seeds was also carried out for the first time.

  12. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznickova, A., E-mail: alena.reznickova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Orendac, M., E-mail: martin.orendac@upjs.sk [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Kolska, Z., E-mail: zdenka.kolska@seznam.cz [Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Cizmar, E., E-mail: erik.cizmar@upjs.sk [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Dendisova, M., E-mail: vyskovsm@vscht.cz [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svorcik, V., E-mail: vaclav.svorcik@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Polyethylene (PE) surface was activated by argon plasma discharge. • Copper nanoparticles were coated on polyethylene via dithiol interlayer. • Prepared samples exhibit excellent structural and magnetic properties. • Studied properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of electronic devices. - Abstract: We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV–vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  13. Isolation, Characterization and Identification of Microalgae from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Luque Alanís, Patricio

    2013-05-01

    Eukaryotic microalgae from the Red Sea were isolated, characterized and identified with the purpose of building a culture collection that will serve future research activities in the area of industrial microbiology. Seven sampling locations were surveyed using an in-house designed isolation protocol. Microalgae enrichment was carried out in vitro using the streak plate method and fluorescence activated cell sorting approaches. Colonial and cellular microscopy, growth media preference assays, as well as temperature, pH and salinity tolerance tests were carried out to describe the isolates. DNA extraction, PCR amplification, template sequencing and in silico analyses were carried out to identify the isolates and arrange them in a proper phylogenetic description. In total, 129 isolates were obtained. From these, only 39 were selected for characterization given their increased ability of accumulating large amounts of biomass in solid and liquid media in relatively short periods of time. All of these have a green color, are unicellular, non-motile, photosynthetic organisms and have a cell size ranging from 5 to 8 µm. More than half of them showed growth preference in Walne media, followed by F/2, MN and BG-11 SW. Maximum temperature tolerance of all organisms was around 38 ºC, while optimum growth was observed close to 25 ºC. pH preference was diverse and three groups were identified: acidic (6), intermediate (8 - 9) and alkaline (> 10) growing isolates. Salinity tests showed an overall growth preference at 25 PSU, approximately 10 units lower than that found at the sampling stations. Most isolates showed diminished growth at high salinity and high pH, except for OS3S1b which grew well in both cases, and could be an interesting strain to study further. Twenty four isolates were related to Ulvophyceae sp. MBIC10591 by BLAST approaches with a maximum identity of 96 - 97%. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was created for these isolates, relative to the BLAST hits

  14. Identification and Characterization of Adolescent Internet User's Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, Antonio; Gómez, Patricia; Picón, Eduardo; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús

    2015-07-14

    The percentages of adolescent Internet use in general terms have been measured for nearly two decades now; however, it might be thought that not every teenager behaves online in the same way. This study aims to identify the different types or profiles of adolescents and to characterize them from an attitudinal, behavioral and socio-demographic viewpoint. A questionnaire was applied to a representative sample of 2,339 Compulsory Secondary School students (M = 13.77 years old) from Galicia (a North-Western region of Spain) for this purpose. A two-stage cluster analysis, based on the response pattern in relation to their attitudes toward Internet, was carried out. Four different segments with specific characteristics were identified: the first steppers, the trainees, the sensible users, and the heavy users. Besides the relevance of descriptive data, these results are of particular interest at an applied level, because they could lead to a better fit of programs to prevent risky behaviors and problematic Internet use in adolescents.

  15. Isolation, identification and characterization of an electrogenic microalgae strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Wu

    Full Text Available Extracellular electron transfer involving microbes is important as it closely reflects the ability of cells to communicate with the environment. However, there are few reports on electron transfer mechanisms of pure microalgae and a lack of any model alga to study the transfer processes. In the present study, nine green microalgae species were isolated from wastewater and characterized in terms of their ability to transfer electrons between cells and an electrode. One species showed direct electron transfer via membrane-associated proteins and indirect electron transfer via secreted oxygen. The microalga was identified as Desmodesmus sp. based on phylogenetic analysis and electron microscopy. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that Desmodesmus sp. was able to act as a cathodic microorganism. Stable current densities of -0.24, 35.54 and 170 mA m(-2 were achieved at potentials of +0.2, -0.2 and -0.4 V, respectively, under illumination. Dissolved oxygen concentration measurement showed gradients within the microalgae biofilm: 18.3 mg L(-1 in light decreasing to 4.29 mg L(-1 in the dark. This study diversified the exoelectrogen library and provided a potential model microalga to explore the associated mechanism of extracellular electron transfer.

  16. Identification and characterization of a new bocavirus species in gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kapoor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel parvovirus, provisionally named Gorilla Bocavirus species 1 (GBoV1, was identified in four stool samples from Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla with acute enteritis. The complete genomic sequence of the new parvovirus revealed three open reading frames (ORFs with an organization similar to that of known bocaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis using complete capsid and non structural (NS gene sequence suggested that the new parvovirus is most closely related to human bocaviruses (HBoV. However, the NS ORF is more similar in length to the NS ORF found in canine minute virus and bovine parvovirus than in HBoV. Comparative genetic analysis using GBoV and HBoV genomes enabled characterization of unique splice donor and acceptor sites that appear to be highly conserved among all four HBoV species, and provided evidence for expression of two different NS proteins in all primate bocaviruses. GBoV is the first non-human primate bocavirus identified and provides new insights into the genetic diversity and evolution of this highly prevalent and recently discovered group of parvoviruses.

  17. Molecular characterization and identification of biocontrol isolates of Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosa, M R; Grondona, I; Iturriaga, E A; Diaz-Minguez, J M; Castro, C; Monte, E; Garcia-Acha, I

    2000-05-01

    The most common biological control agents (BCAs) of the genus Trichoderma have been reported to be strains of Trichoderma virens, T. harzianum, and T. viride. Since Trichoderma BCAs use different mechanisms of biocontrol, it is very important to explore the synergistic effects expressed by different genotypes for their practical use in agriculture. Characterization of 16 biocontrol strains, previously identified as "Trichoderma harzianum" Rifai and one biocontrol strain recognized as T. viride, was carried out using several molecular techniques. A certain degree of polymorphism was detected in hybridizations using a probe of mitochondrial DNA. Sequencing of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) revealed three different ITS lengths and four different sequence types. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS1 sequences, including type strains of different species, clustered the 17 biocontrol strains into four groups: T. harzianum-T. inhamatum complex, T. longibrachiatum, T. asperellum, and T. atroviride-T. koningii complex. ITS2 sequences were also useful for locating the biocontrol strains in T. atroviride within the complex T. atroviride-T. koningii. None of the biocontrol strains studied corresponded to biotypes Th2 or Th4 of T. harzianum, which cause mushroom green mold. Correlation between different genotypes and potential biocontrol activity was studied under dual culturing of 17 BCAs in the presence of the phytopathogenic fungi Phoma betae, Rosellinia necatrix, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in three different media.

  18. Identification and characterization of nuclease activities in anaerobic environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, T R; Andrews, S; Smith, G B

    2000-08-01

    DNA-degrading activity from anaerobic samples of bovine ruminal fluid, primary anaerobic digestor wastewater, freshwater sediments, and marine sediments was observed in the presence of 5 mM EDTA. Nuclease activity experiments involved exposing salmon chromosomal DNA to the environmental samples in 50 mM pH 7.2 buffer, incubating at 37 degrees C, and subjecting the products to electrophoresis. The same stock and concentration of EDTA used in these assays (5 mM) completely inhibited commercial grade DNase. Nuclease activity in two of the samples, ruminal fluid and wastewater, was further characterized. DNA degradation in the ruminal sample was significantly reduced when EDTA or citrate concentrations were increased to 50 mM or above. DNA degradation activity in ruminal fluid was associated with material that passed through a 0.22-micron filter, but wastewater activity was associated with material retained by a 3-micron filter. Degradation activity in the wastewater was resistant to heat pretreatment, whereas the rumen activity was heat-labile (70 degrees C, 60 min). These results demonstrated the biochemical complexity of these two environments and that high molecular weight DNA has a short half-life in these anaerobic environments.

  19. ZYMOGRAPHIC IDENTIFICATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CHITINASE AGAINST PHYTOFUNGAL PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urja Pandya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An endospore forming Gram positive bacterium (MBCU4 was isolated from a vermicompost amended soil, and confirmed as Bacillus subtilis through the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. An extracellular chitinase was detected from this strain of B. subtilis under specific environmental condition. An attempt was made to purify the enzyme by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by DEAE sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. The purified enzyme was demonstrated as a single band, having the molecular weight 31kDa on SDS PAGE analysis and its activity in the gel was determined by clear zone on zymogram. Further characterization of the isolated enzymes has showed that this enzyme is most active at pH 6.0 and at the optimized temperature of 50 0C. The purified chitinase exhibited high degree of antifungal activity particularly by degrading their cell wall components of plant pathogens Macrophomina phaseolina (69.0% and Rhizoctonia solani (52.0%. It infers that the chitinase produced by B. subtilis could play an important role for biopesticidal activity.

  20. Identification and characterization of peptide: N- glycanase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosain Anuradha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptide: N- glycanase (PNGase enzyme cleaves oligosaccharides from the misfolded glycoproteins and prepares them for degradation. This enzyme plays a role in the endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD pathway in yeast and mice but its biological importance and role in multicellular development remain largely unknown. Results In this study, the PNGase from the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum (DdPNGase was identified based on the presence of a common TG (transglutaminase core domain and its sequence homology with the known PNGases. The domain architecture and the sequence comparison validated the presence of probable functional domains in DdPNGase. The tertiary structure matched with the mouse PNGase. Here we show that DdPNGase is an essential protein, required for aggregation during multicellular development and a knockout strain of it results in small sized aggregates, all of which did not form fruiting bodies. The in situ hybridization and RT-PCR results show higher level of expression during the aggregate stage. The expression gets restricted to the prestalk region during later developmental stages. DdPNGase is a functional peptide:N-glycanase enzyme possessing deglycosylation activity, but does not possess any significant transamidation activity. Conclusions We have identified and characterized a novel PNGase from D. discoideum and confirmed its deglycosylation activity. The results emphasize the importance of PNGase in aggregation during multicellular development of this organism.

  1. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Arizona. Outcrop analogs are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah which displays large-scale dunal cross-strata with excellent reservoir properties and interdunal features such as oases, wadi, and playa lithofacies with poor reservoir properties. Hydrocarbons in the Paradox Formation are stratigraphically trapped in carbonate buildups (or phylloid-algal mounds). Similar carbonate buildups are exposed in the Paradox along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. Reservoir-quality porosity may develop in the types of facies associated with buildups such as troughs, detrital wedges, and fans, identified from these outcrops. When combined with subsurface geological and production data, these outcrop analogs can improve (1) development drilling and production strategies such as horizontal drilling, (2) reservoir-simulation models, (3) reserve calculations, and (4) design and implementation of secondary/tertiary oil recovery programs and other best practices used in the oil fields of Utah and vicinity. During this quarter, technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting the project plans, objectives, and products at a booth at the 2003 annual convention of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  2. Kalman Filter for Mass Property and Thrust Identification (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four identically instrumented, spin-stabilized observatories, elliptically orbiting the Earth in a tetrahedron formation. For the operational success of the mission, on-board systems must be able to deliver high-precision orbital adjustment maneuvers. On MMS, this is accomplished using feedback from on-board star sensors in tandem with accelerometers whose measurements are dynamically corrected for errors associated with a spinning platform. In order to determine the required corrections to the measured acceleration, precise estimates of attitude, rate, and mass-properties is necessary. To this end, both an on-board and ground-based Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) were formulated and implemented in order to estimate the dynamic and quasi-static properties of the spacecraft.

  3. Identification of material properties of sandwich structure with piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemčík R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on light-weight sandwich structures made of carbon-epoxy skins and foam core which have unique bending stiffness compared to conventional materials. The skins are manufactured by vacuum autoclave technology from unidirectional prepregs and the sandwich is then glued together. The resulting material properties of the structure usually differ from those provided by manufacturer or even those obtained from experimental tests on separate materials, which makes computational models unreliable. Therefore, the properties are identified using the combination of experimental analysis of the sandwich with attached piezoelectric transducer and corresponding static and modal finite element analyses. Simple mathematical optimization with repetitive finite element solution is used. The model is then verified by transient analysis when the piezoelectric patch is excited by harmonic signals covering the first two eigen-frequencies and the induced oscillations are measured by laser sensor.

  4. Identification and characterization of a phage display-derived peptide for orthopoxvirus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lilija; Michel, Janine; Vogt, Guido; Döllinger, Jörg; Stern, Daniel; Piesker, Janett; Nitsche, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable diagnostic assays are required for a resilient detection of clinical infections or biothreat-relevant pathogens. While PCR has proven to be the gold standard for nucleic acid detection, the identification of pathogen particles is still challenging and depends on the availability of well-characterized, chemically stable, and selective recognition molecules. Here, we report the screening of a phage display random peptide library for vaccinia virus-binding peptides. The identified peptide was extensively characterized using peptide-probe ELISA, surface plasmon resonance, nLC-MS/MS, Western Blot, peptide-based immunofluorescence assay, and electron microscopy. Following identification, the phage-free, synthetic peptide, designated αVACVpep05, was shown to bind to vaccinia virus and other orthopoxviruses. We can demonstrate that the highly conserved orthopoxvirus surface protein D8 is the interaction partner of αVACVpep05, thus enabling the peptide to bind to other orthopoxviruses, including cowpox virus and monkeypox virus, viruses that cause clinically relevant zoonotic infections in humans. The process of phage display-mediated peptide identification has been optimized intensively, and we provide recommendations for the identification of peptides suitable for the detection of further pathogens. The peptide described here was critically characterized and seems to be a promising reagent for the development of diagnostic platforms for orthopoxviruses. We believe that our results will help to promote the development of alternative, nonantibody-based synthetic detection molecules for further pathogens.

  5. Identification and characterization of VEGF and FGF from Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapati, Lakshmi-Surekha; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) play important roles in the formation of the blood vascular system and in axon guidance, nervous system development and function. Here, we report isolation and characterization of VEGF and FGF homologues from Hydra vulgaris Ind-Pune, a Cnidarian which exhibits an organized nervous system and primitive epithelio-muscular cells. VEGF expression was prominent in the endoderm of the peduncle region and tentacles, as evident from in situ hybridization of whole polyps and its transverse sections. High levels of FGF were detected in the ectoderm of the budding region. The expression of VEGF in endodermal and FGF in interstitial cells was confirmed using sf-1 hydra, a temperature-sensitive mutant strain of Hydra magnipapillata. Tissue-specific expression of VEGF and FGF was confirmed by semi quantitative RT-PCR for ectodermal and endodermal tissues in H. vulgaris Ind-Pune. Treatment with SU5416, a specific inhibitor of the VEGF receptor, did not affect the whole polyp, but did delay both budding and head regeneration, suggesting a possible role of VEGF in nerve cell development, tube formation and/or in branching. FGF expression in the ectoderm of budding region, where the majority of interstitial stem cells reside suggests its role in interstitial stem cell maintenance. Further, activation of canonical Wnt signalling with the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor alsterpaullone caused down-regulation of VEGF and FGF, suggesting an antagonistic relationship between the Wnt and VEGF/FGF pathways. Our results indicate that VEGF and FGF evolved early in evolution, before the development of the blood vascular system, and open up the possibility of elucidating the evolutionarily ancient functions of VEGF and FGF.

  6. Identification and functional characterization of cardiac pacemaker cells in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Tessadori

    Full Text Available In the mammalian heart a conduction system of nodes and conducting cells generates and transduces the electrical signals evoking myocardial contractions. Specialized pacemaker cells initiating and controlling cardiac contraction rhythmicity are localized in an anatomically identifiable structure of myocardial origin, the sinus node. We previously showed that in mammalian embryos sinus node cells originate from cardiac progenitors expressing the transcription factors T-box transcription factor 3 (Tbx3 and Islet-1 (Isl1. Although cardiac development and function are strikingly conserved amongst animal classes, in lower vertebrates neither structural nor molecular distinguishable components of a conduction system have been identified, questioning its evolutionary origin. Here we show that zebrafish embryos lacking the LIM/homeodomain-containing transcription factor Isl1 display heart rate defects related to pacemaker dysfunction. Moreover, 3D reconstructions of gene expression patterns in the embryonic and adult zebrafish heart led us to uncover a previously unidentified, Isl1-positive and Tbx2b-positive region in the myocardium at the junction of the sinus venosus and atrium. Through their long interconnecting cellular protrusions the identified Isl1-positive cells form a ring-shaped structure. In vivo labeling of the Isl1-positive cells by transgenic technology allowed their isolation and electrophysiological characterization, revealing their unique pacemaker activity. In conclusion we demonstrate that Isl1-expressing cells, organized as a ring-shaped structure around the venous pole, hold the pacemaker function in the adult zebrafish heart. We have thereby identified an evolutionary conserved, structural and molecular distinguishable component of the cardiac conduction system in a lower vertebrate.

  7. Characterization of the thermal insulating properties of vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, N. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: n.ng@Physics.usyd.edu.au; Collins, R.E. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); So, L. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2007-03-25

    Methods are described for characterizing the thermal insulating properties of vacuum glazing-two flat sheets of glass, hermetically sealed together around the edges containing a highly evacuated space, and separated by small pillars. The small-area guarded hot plate apparatus gives absolute measurements of the different heat flows through the glazing due to radiation, gaseous conduction and thermal conduction through the pillars. In the transient technique, a step temperature increase is applied to one side of the glazing, and the resultant slow temperature rise of the other glass sheet is measured. This method can be used in ageing studies to characterize glazings at elevated temperatures. In the cool-down method, one glass sheet of a glazing that is initially at high temperature is insulated, the opposite glass sheet is rapidly cooled, and the rate of cooling of the thermally insulated sheet is then measured.

  8. Synthesis, Properties Characterization and Applications of Various Organobismuth Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Luan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Organobismuth chemistry was emphasized in this review article due to the low price, low toxicity and low radioactivity characteristics of bismuth. As an environmentally-friendly class of organometallic compounds, different types of organobismuth compounds have been used in organic synthesis, catalysis, materials, etc. The synthesis and property characterization of many organobismuth compounds had been summarized. This review article also presented a survey of various applications of organobismuth compounds in organic transformations, as reagents or catalysts. The reactivity, reaction pathways and mechanisms of reactions with organobismuths were discussed. Less common and limiting aspects of organobismuth compounds were also briefly mentioned.

  9. Isolation, Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Property of Thevetia Peruviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thilagavathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thevetia peruviana seeds contain glucosides of neriifolin, acetylneriifolin and thevetin. Seed oil distillates of Thevetia peruviana have been found to contain anti-bacterial activity. In the persent work, the fresh flowers of Thevetia peruviana was subjected to phytochemical studies. The results of the study showed that the flowers contain quercetin, kaempferol and quercetin-7-o-galactoside. The structure of the isolated compound was characterized by UV, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. The anti-inflammatory character of the isolated compound was tested by in vitro method and the results of the study revealed that the isolated compound showed a biphasic property.

  10. Preclinical In vivo Imaging for Fat Tissue Identification, Quantification, and Functional Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Pasquina; Boschi, Federico; Moneta, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Localization, differentiation, and quantitative assessment of fat tissues have always collected the interest of researchers. Nowadays, these topics are even more relevant as obesity (the excess of fat tissue) is considered a real pathology requiring in some cases pharmacological and surgical approaches. Several weight loss medications, acting either on the metabolism or on the central nervous system, are currently under preclinical or clinical investigation. Animal models of obesity have been developed and are widely used in pharmaceutical research. The assessment of candidate drugs in animal models requires non-invasive methods for longitudinal assessment of efficacy, the main outcome being the amount of body fat. Fat tissues can be either quantified in the entire animal or localized and measured in selected organs/regions of the body. Fat tissues are characterized by peculiar contrast in several imaging modalities as for example Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that can distinguish between fat and water protons thank to their different magnetic resonance properties. Since fat tissues have higher carbon/hydrogen content than other soft tissues and bones, they can be easily assessed by Computed Tomography (CT) as well. Interestingly, MRI also discriminates between white and brown adipose tissue (BAT); the latter has long been regarded as a potential target for anti-obesity drugs because of its ability to enhance energy consumption through increased thermogenesis. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) performed with 18F-FDG as glucose analog radiotracer reflects well the metabolic rate in body tissues and consequently is the technique of choice for studies of BAT metabolism. This review will focus on the main, non-invasive imaging techniques (MRI, CT, and PET) that are fundamental for the assessment, quantification and functional characterization of fat deposits in small laboratory animals. The contribution of optical techniques, which are currently regarded with

  11. Preclinical in vivo imaging for fat tissue identification, quantification and functional characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquina Marzola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Localization, differentiation and quantitative assessment of fat tissues have always collected the interest of researchers. Nowadays, these topics are even more relevant as obesity (the excess of fat tissue is considered a real pathology requiring in some cases pharmacological and surgical approaches. Several weight loss medications, acting either on the metabolism or on the central nervous system, are currently under preclinical or clinical investigation. Animal models of obesity have been developed which are widely used in pharmaceutical research. The assessment of candidate drugs in animal models requires non-invasive methods for longitudinal assessment of efficacy, the main outcome being the amount of body fat. Fat tissues can be either quantified in the entire animal or localized and measured in selected organs/regions of the body. Fat tissues are characterized by peculiar contrast in several imaging modalities as for example Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI that can distinguish between fat and water protons thank to their different magnetic resonance properties. Since fat tissues have higher carbon/hydrogen content than other soft tissues and bones, they can be easily assessed by Computed Tomography (CT as well. Interestingly, MRI also discriminates between white and brown adipose tissue; the latter has long been regarded as a potential target for anti-obesity drugs because of its ability to enhance energy consumption through increased thermogenesis. Positron Emission Tomography (PET performed with 18F-FDG as glucose analogue radiotracer reflects well the metabolic rate in body tissues and consequently is the technique of choice for studies of BAT metabolism. This review will focus on the main, non-invasive imaging techniques (MRI, CT and PET that are fundamental for the assessment, quantification and functional characterization of fat deposits in small laboratory animals. The contribution of optical techniques, which are currently regarded

  12. Structural characterization and mechanical properties of polypropylene reinforced natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. A. A.; Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Berhanuddin, N. I. C.; Manshoor, B.; Mustapha, M. S.; Khalid, A.; Chan, S. W.

    2017-10-01

    Recently the development of natural fiber composite instead of synthetics fiber has lead to eco-friendly product manufacturing to meet various applications in the field of automotive, construction and manufacturing. The use of natural fibers offer an alternative to the reinforcing fibers because of their good mechanical properties, low density, renewability, and biodegradability. In this present research, the effects of maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical properties and material characterization behaviour of kenaf fiber and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene were investigated. Different fractions of composites with 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt% fiber content were prepared by using brabender mixer at 190°C. The 3wt% MAPP was added during the mixing. The composites were subsequently molded with injection molding to prepare the test specimens. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated according to ISO 527 to determine the tensile strength and modulus. These results were also confirmed by the SEM machine observations of fracture surface of composites and FTIR analysis of the chemical structure. As the results, the presence of MAPP helps increasing the mechanical properties of both fibers and 30wt% kenaf fiber with 3wt% MAPP gives the best result compare to others.

  13. Identification of physicochemical properties of Scylla paramamosain allergen, arginin kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Lin; Ruan, Wei-Wei; Cao, Min-Jie; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Shen, Hai-Wang; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is expressed in a wide variety of species, including human food sources (seafood) and pests (cockroaches and moths), and has been reported as a novel allergen. However, there has been little research on the allergenicity of AK in crustaceans. In this study the physicochemical properties of AK from mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) were investigated. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that purified AK was unstable in thermal processing and in acid buffer. Under simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) conditions, purified AK was much more readily degraded by pepsin than by trypsin or chymotrypsin. The unpurified AK in crab myogen degraded more markedly than purified AK. In addition, in two-phase gastrointestinal digestion, AK was rapidly degraded by pepsin but resistant to trypsin and chymotrypsin digestion, while tropomyosin derived from mud crab was resistant to pepsin digestion but digested readily by trypsin or chymotrypsin. Further study of serum samples obtained from crab-allergic human patients indicated that the allergenicity of AK was markedly reduced by digestion with SGF but not SIF. AK is an important food allergen despite its unstable physicochemical properties of digestibility. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Potential Lung Nodules Identification for Characterization by Variable Multistep Threshold and Shape Indices from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is an important imaging modality. Physicians, surgeons, and oncologists prefer CT scan for diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some nodules are missed in CT scan. Computer aided diagnosis methods are useful for radiologists for detection of these nodules and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. Computer aided diagnosis of lung cancer involves lung segmentation, potential nodules identification, features extraction from the potential nodules, and classification of the nodules. In this paper, we are presenting an automatic method for detection and segmentation of lung nodules from CT scan for subsequent features extraction and classification. Contribution of the work is the detection and segmentation of small sized nodules, low and high contrast nodules, nodules attached with vasculature, nodules attached to pleura membrane, and nodules in close vicinity of the diaphragm and lung wall in one-go. The particular techniques of the method are multistep threshold for the nodule detection and shape index threshold for false positive reduction. We used 60 CT scans of “Lung Image Database Consortium-Image Database Resource Initiative” taken by GE medical systems LightSpeed16 scanner as dataset and correctly detected 92% nodules. The results are reproducible.

  15. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of doxycycline hydrochloride and florfenicol polyvinylpyrroliddone microparticle entrapped with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianqiang; Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Yuanhu; Qu, Wei; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-05-01

    In order to effectively control the bacterial pneumonia in pigs, doxycycline hydrochloride (DoxHcl) and florfenicol (FF) microparticle suspension together with inclusion complexes was prepared by using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as host molecules, polyvinylpyrroliddone (PVP) as polymer carriers and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as suspending agents. In vitro antibacterial activity, properties, stability and pharmacokinetics of the suspension were studied. The results demonstrated that DoxHcl and FF had a synergistic or additive antibacterial activity against Streptococcus suis, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of microparticles were 1.46 ± 0.06 μm, 0.30 ± 0.02 and 1.53 ± 0.04 mV, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DoxHcl and FF was 45.28% ± 3.30% and 89.69% ± 2.71%, respectively. The re-dispersed time and sedimentation rate of the suspension were 1 min and 1. The suspension went through the 9-gage needle smoothly with withdrawal volume of 9.12 ± 0.87 mL/min. The suspension showed good stability when stored away from light, no irritation at the injection site and sustained release in PBS buffer. After intramuscular administration to pig, DoxHcl and FF could maintain over 0.15 μg/mL for 72 h. Compared to the control injection, the suspension increased the elimination half-life (T½ke) as well as mean residence time (MRT) of DoxHcl from 5.73 to 9.77 h and from 12.02 to 18.81 h, and those of FF from 12.02 to 26.19 h and from 12.02 to 28.16 h, respectively. The suspension increased the bioavailability of DoxHcl and FF by 1.74 and 1.13-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the compound suspension is a promising formulation for pig pneumonia therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterizing subsurface textural properties using electromagnetic induction mapping and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Hiruy

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of soil textural properties at the watershed scale is important for understanding spatial patterns of water movement, and in determining soil moisture storage and soil hydraulic transport properties. Capturing the heterogeneous nature of the subsurface without exhaustive and costly sampling presents a significant challenge. Soil scientists and geologists have adapted geophysical methods that measure a surrogate property related to the vital underlying process. Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is such a proxy, providing a measure of charge mobility due to application of an electric field, and is highly correlated to the electrical conductivity of the soil solution, clay percentage, and water content. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) provides the possibility of obtaining high resolution images of ECa across a landscape to identify subtle changes in subsurface properties. The aim of this study was to better characterize subsurface textural properties using EMI mapping and geostatistical analysis techniques. The effect of variable temperature environments on EMI instrumental response, and EC a -- depth relationship were first determined. Then a procedure of repeated EMI mapping at varying soil water content was developed and integrated with temporal stability analysis to capture the time invariant properties of spatial soil texture on an agricultural field. In addition, an EMI imaging approach of densely sampling the subsurface of the Reynolds Mountain East watershed was presented using kriging to interpolate, and Sequential Gaussian Simulation to estimate the uncertainty in the maps. Due to the relative time-invariant characteristics of textural properties, it was possible to correlate clay samples collected over three seasons to ECa data of one mapping event. Kriging methods [ordinary kriging (OK), cokriging (CK), and regression kriging (RK)] were then used to integrate various levels of information (clay percentage, ECa

  17. Identification of inks and structural characterization of contemporary artistic prints by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oujja, M. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vila, A. [Departament de Pintura, Conservacio-Restauracio, Facultat de Belles Arts, Universitat de Barcelona, Pau Gargallo 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rebollar, E. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, J.F. [Departament de Pintura, Conservacio-Restauracio, Facultat de Belles Arts, Universitat de Barcelona, Pau Gargallo 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Castillejo, M. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: marta.castillejo@iqfr.csic.es

    2005-08-31

    Identification of the inks used in artistic prints and the order in which different ink layers have been applied on a paper substrate are important factors to complement the classical stylistic aspects for the authentication of this type of objects. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is investigated to determine the chemical composition and structural distribution of the constituent materials of model prints made by applying one or two layers of several blue and black inks on an Arches paper substrate. By using suitable laser excitation conditions, identification of the inks was possible by virtue of emissions from key elements present in their composition. Analysis of successive spectra on the same spot allowed the identification of the order in which the inks were applied on the paper. The results show the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the chemical and structural characterization of artistic prints.

  18. Graphene field emitters: A review of fabrication, characterization and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Leifeng, E-mail: chlf@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Hu; Zhong, Jiasong; Song, Lihui [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Jun, E-mail: wujun@hdu.edu.cn [Institute of Electron Device & Application, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China); Su, Weitao [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The preparation, characterization and field emission properties for Gs are reviewed. • The review provides an updated progress on design and construction of Gs field emitters. • The review offers fundamental insights into understanding and design of Gs emitters. • The review can broach the subject and inspire readers in field of Gs based emitters. - Abstract: Graphenes are beneficial to electrons field emission due to its high aspect ratio, high carrier density, the larger carrier mobility, excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability. In recent years, graphene or reduced oxide graphene field emitters have been successfully constructed by various methods such as chemical vapor deposition, chemical exfoliation, electrophoretic deposition, screen-printing and chemical synthesis methods. Graphene emitters are tried to construct in distribution with some angles or vertical orientation with respect to the substrate surface. The vertical alignment of graphene sheets or edges arrays can facilitate efficient electron emission from the atomically thick sheets. Therefore they have even more a low turn-on and threshold-field electronic field, high field enhancement factor, high current stability and high luminance. In this review, we shortly survey and discuss recent research progress in graphene field emission properties with particular an emphasis on their preparing method, characterization and applications in devices especially for vertical graphene and single layer graphene, also including their challenges and future prospects.

  19. Self-assembled nanostructures on vicinal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovykh, Dmitri Yourievich

    2000-10-01

    One of the first methods for visualizing crystal planes and atomic steps has been step decoration with gold on alkali-halide surfaces. An impressive body of work has been conducted since then on the role of steps in controlling surface diffusion and adsorption rates, catalytic and chemical activity, and other physical and chemical surface properties. Due to these special characteristics, vicinal surfaces offer an approach for creating self-assembled structures with one or more dimensions on nanometer scale. The storage and communications industries have been revolutionized by applications of two-dimensional electron gas confined in thin films, so an interest in one and zero-dimensional systems is not surprising. This work demonstrates how macroscopic amounts of low-dimensional structures can be produced by self-assembly using stepped surfaces as nanometer-scale templates. High-quality templates of step arrays can be prepared on vicinal Si(111) surfaces. Sub-monolayer CaF2/Si(111) heteroepitaxial growth is examined in a series of experiments. A new growth mode is observed in addition to the ones typical in three dimensions. With increasing coverage, the growth front changes from rough to smooth geometry, driven by the elastic interactions between the multiple growth fronts and the surface steps. The mechanism is thus unique to the two-dimensional growth on stepped surfaces. The possible arrangements of the CaF2 self-assembled nanostructures are arrays of stripes or islands, both interesting as potential masks for silicon nanolithography. Anisotropic surface reconstructions, such as Ca and Au induced 3 x 1 and 5 x 2 on Si(111), are effectively self-assembled one-dimensional atomic chains. Reconstructions are single-domain on vicinal surfaces and with odd electron count a metallic one-dimensional state is expected in both the above examples. However in angular-resolved photoemission both appear as semiconductors, and Au-Si(111)5 x 2 exhibits a continuous one

  20. Identification of the Types Properties and Functional Characteristics of Telomerase Expressing Cells in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hines, William

    2003-01-01

    ... biochemical and functional properties may be characterized. Through examining the role of telomerase in cancer, this project also fosters the education of the candidate through the interaction with several experts in breast cancer pathology, epidemiology, bio...

  1. Identification of the Types, Properties, and Functional Characteristics of Telomerase Expressing Cells in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hines, William C; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2005-01-01

    ... biochemical and functional properties may be characterized. Through examining the role of telomerase in cancer, this project also fosters the education of the candidate through the interaction with several experts in breast cancer pathology, epidemiology, bio...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL ZEOLITE AND DETERMINATION ITS ADSORPTION PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian HOLUB

    Full Text Available Pollution of water by toxic substances is one of the major reason concerning human health as well as the environmental quality. In terms of pollution, mining activities represent a serious threat. Countries of the middle Europe, where extraction of mineral resources takes place a long period, have to solve the problems of wastewater containing whole spectra of heavy metals, which are dangerous to the environment. Finding of the new and cheap ways of wastewater contaminated by heavy metals treatment can increase the quality of the environment in the affected localities and thus prevent adverse effects on fauna, flora or human beings. Sorption techniques belong to a cost effective methods that are able to effectively remove heavy metals. For the overall understanding of the sorption process, it is necessary to characterize and determine the properties of the used adsorbents. The paper deals with characterization of natural zeolite before and after sorption process under acidic conditions. The zeolite was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X – ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms.

  3. ZnS-Graphene nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Shugang [Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210094 (China); Liu Xiaoheng, E-mail: xhliu@mail.njust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2012-07-15

    A ZnS-Graphene nanocomposite was prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method using zinc nitrate hexahydrate, ethylenediamine and carbon disulfide as precursors, graphene oxide as a template. The composite was characterized by X-ray power diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectra and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that graphene oxide was reduced to graphene in the hydrothermal reaction process. Simultaneously, the graphene sheets in the composite are exfoliated and decorated with ZnS nanoparticles. Furthermore, Raman and fluorescence properties of the composite were observed. ZnS-Graphene nanocomposite displays surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity for graphene oxide, and fluorescence enhancement property compared with pure ZnS sample. - Graphical abstract: Approach of reaction makes the reduction of grapheme oxide and the deposition of Zns on the grapheme sheets occur simultaneously and overcomes the aggregation of the grapheme sheets and Zns. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphene oxide is reduced to graphene in the hydrothermal reaction process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnS nanoparticles are attached onto the almost transparent graphene sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnS-Graphene system shows surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnS-Graphene system displays relatively better fluorescence property than pure ZnS.

  4. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cristofaro, S.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Riedl, R.; Serianni, G.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the Hα light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of Hα spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  5. Novel technique for online characterization of cartilaginous tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tai-Yi; Huang, Chun-Yuh; Yong Gu, Wei

    2011-09-01

    The goal of tissue engineering is to use substitutes to repair and restore organ function. Bioreactors are an indispensable tool for monitoring and controlling the unique environment for engineered constructs to grow. However, in order to determine the biochemical properties of engineered constructs, samples need to be destroyed. In this study, we developed a novel technique to nondestructively online-characterize the water content and fixed charge density of cartilaginous tissues. A new technique was developed to determine the tissue mechano-electrochemical properties nondestructively. Bovine knee articular cartilage and lumbar annulus fibrosus were used in this study to demonstrate that this technique could be used on different types of tissue. The results show that our newly developed method is capable of precisely predicting the water volume fraction (less than 3% disparity) and fixed charge density (less than 16.7% disparity) within cartilaginous tissues. This novel technique will help to design a new generation of bioreactors which are able to actively determine the essential properties of the engineered constructs, as well as regulate the local environment to achieve the optimal conditions for cultivating constructs.

  6. Identification and characterization of a new zirconium hydride; Identification et caracterisation d'un nouvel hydrure de zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhao; Morniroli, J.P.; Legris, A.; Thuinet, L. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, USTL, ENSCL, CNRS, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Zhao, Zhao; Blat-Yrieix, M.; Ambard, A.; Legras, L. [Electricite de France (EDF/RD), Centre des Renardieres, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France); Kihn, Y. [CEMES-CNRS, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-01

    A study of hydrides characterization has been carried out in using the transmission electron microscopy technique. It has revealed the presence of small hydrides of acicular form whose length does not exceed 500 nm, among the zircaloy-4 samples hydrided by cathodic way. The electronic diffraction has shown that these small hydrides have a crystallographic structure different of those of the hydrides phases already index in literature. A more complete identification study has then been carried out. In combining the different electronic microscopy techniques (precession electronic micro diffraction and EELS) with ab initio calculations, a new hydride phase has been identified. It is called hydride {zeta}, is of trigonal structure with lattice parameters a{sub {zeta}} = a{sub {alpha}}{sub Zr} = 0.33 nm and c{sub {zeta}} 2c{sub {alpha}}{sub Zr} = 1.029 nm, its spatial group being P3m1. (O.M.)

  7. Biomass burning aerosols: optical properties and identification of chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Yinon

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of climate change include warming temperatures, changes in precipitation, increase in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events, and rising sea levels. It is projected that in many areas of the northern hemisphere the frequency and intensity of wildfires, severe droughts and dust storms will increase as the climate becomes drier and warmer. Fires emit smoke and other unhealthy air pollutants, that can affect climate and people's health on regional and global scales. In this talk we will present results from a biomass burning event. We will describe a new approach to retrieve the optical properties of ambient smoke particles from blue wavelengths across the visible range. We will show that the absorption in ambient biomass burning aerosol can be attributed to significant absorption by nitrated chromophores that form in these aerosols. Finally, we will present a mechanism for the formation of absorbing oligomers from the reaction of phenolic compounds that originate from lignin pyrolysis and Fe (III) a major constituent of mineral dust.

  8. Identification, Purification and Characterization of Major Antigenic Proteins of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    ELISA-We next examined the potential application of antibodies to C. jejuni proteins for identification and diagnosis of Campylobacter and/or Helico...Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A~ cc it o:1...Purification, and Characterization of Major Antigenic Proteins of Campylobacter jejuni * (Received hor piub)lication. April 5, 1991) Zhiheng Pei*, Richard T

  9. Characterization and identification of newly isolated Acinetobacter baumannii strain serdang 1 for phenol removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadzir, Z. H. M.; Shukor, M. Y.; Nazir, M. S.; Abdullah, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    A new indigenous bacterial strain from Malaysian soil contaminated with petroleum waste had been successfully isolated, characterized and identified for phenol removal. The gram negative bacteria showed 98% identity with Acinetobacter baumannii based on Biolog{trade mark, serif} Identification System and the determination of a partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence. The isolate clustered with species belonging to Acinetobacter clade in a 16S rDNA-based neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree.

  10. Spectral investigation and characterization of host-guest inclusion complex of 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) with beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, R; Kothainayaki, S; Rajamohan, R; Sivakumar, K

    2014-12-19

    The host-guest inclusion complex of 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBCA) with beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized using absorption, fluorescence, fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spectral shifts revealed that the aniline ring of 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) was entrapped in the beta-cyclodextrin cavity. Nano second time resolved fluorescence studies revealed that 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) exhibits single exponential decay in aqueous medium and bi-exponential in beta-cyclodextrin medium confirmed the formation of 1:1 inclusion complex. The Gibbs free energy change of the complexation process was determined and the complexation process was spontaneous. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the thermal stability of 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) was altered in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin. The implementation of molecular docking test confirmed that the complexation could reduce the energy of the system. A mechanism was proposed to explain the mode of inclusion in the inclusion process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inclusion complex of tamibarotene with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: Preparation, characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of tamibarotene by complexing it with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD. The inclusion complex of tamibarotene with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Am80-HP-β-CD was prepared through a freeze-drying method at the mole ratio of 1:1 (Am80: HP-β-CD. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC indicated the formation of Am80-HP-β-CD. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the solubility and dissolution percentage of Am80-HP-β-CD was improved substantially compared to Am80. An improved dissolution with approximately 97% drug release in 3 min was observed, in comparison with Am80 with approximately 60% release in 45 min. In vivo studies indicated that the AUC0-∞ has increased 2.79 times and the Cmax 4.37 times after the formation of inclusion complex. The decrease of tmax indicated the Am80-HP-β-CD inclusion complex can be absorbed into blood faster. In short, the solubility and bio-availability of Am80 has notably increased with the complexation of HP-β-CD. Therefore, using the inclusion technique is a promising method to improve the solubility of insoluble drugs.

  12. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonomo, F., E-mail: federica.bonomo@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Istituto Gas Ionizzati - CNR, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Riedl, R.; Wünderlich, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cristofaro, S. [Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2015-04-08

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (< 0.4 °) together with a low source pressure (≤ 0.3 Pa) would permit to reduce the ion losses along the beamline, keeping the stripping particle losses below 30%. However, the attainment of such beam properties is not straightforward. At IPP, the negative ion source testbed BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the H{sub α} light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of H{sub α} spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  13. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Mortensen, Stig Skov

    With a starting point in the tradition of geisteswissenschaftliche Pädagogik this article presents a challenge to inclusive education research to engage a continental perspective on educational research. The motivation is to entice inclusive education researchers to begin to ask educational...... questions of inclusion, as opposed to inclusive questions of education. Recent years has seen a call to re-think inclusive education research and this paper attempts to answer this call by turning to a Continental perspective and the emphasis on an at least relative autonomy for the theory and practice...... and the politicisation of inclusive education, and a positive aim in the form of an argument for a move towards constructing a pedagogical ideal of inclusion....

  14. Identification and Characterization of Terpene Synthases Potentially Involved in the Formation of Volatile Terpenes in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Tholl, Dorothea; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick; Simon, Philipp W; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-05-20

    Plants produce an excess of volatile organic compounds, which are important in determining the quality and nutraceutical properties of fruit and root crops, including the taste and aroma of carrots (Daucus carota L.). A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of volatile terpenes in a diverse collection of fresh carrots (D. carota L.). Here, we report on a transcriptome-based identification and functional characterization of two carrot terpene synthases, the sesquiterpene synthase, DcTPS1, and the monoterpene synthase, DcTPS2. Recombinant DcTPS1 protein produces mainly (E)-β-caryophyllene, the predominant sesquiterpene in carrot roots, and α-humulene, while recombinant DcTPS2 functions as a monoterpene synthase with geraniol as the main product. Both genes are differentially transcribed in different cultivars and during carrot root development. Our results suggest a role for DcTPS genes in carrot aroma biosynthesis.

  15. Linking Material Properties and Microstructures to Characterize Damage Associated with an Underground Explosion in Granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. E.; Broome, S.; Sussman, A. J.; Townsend, M.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment, conducted in granite in Nevada, is a series of explosive tests designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. Extensive seismic monitoring and site rock characterization are being used to improve the predictive capability of models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. Site rock characterization includes geomechanical and material properties testing, core-scale fracture identification, and optical microscopy studies. Geomechanical and material properties determined via laboratory testing of the site rocks include unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and bulk density. Detailed fracture mapping and characterization of meso- and micro-scale fractures in recovered cores are being conducted and include mineralization changes and the extent of crushed or fractured zone away from the source. We report on the analysis of microfractures in these cores, which provide a detailed and quantitative dataset on the extent and nature of damage in the recovered cores. Microfracture density and character (open, sealed, healed) are recorded in order to differentiate sets of microfractures associated with explosive tests. Densities (mf/mm) of open microfractures correlate with source-related damage, and increase from pre- to post-test samples. Microfracture densities are affected by pre-existing fractures, depending on fracture-zone mineralogy and alteration. These microfracture density data, linked to the bulk material properties, geomechanical properties, and the structural features of the rock at the core-scale, define a damage zone surrounding the source at depth. This link is essential to understanding how the bulk material properties manifest themselves in the rock and how that might affect energy propagation. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security

  16. Are Vicinal Metal Surfaces Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenken, J. W. M.; Stoltze, Per

    1999-01-01

    We use effective medium theory to demonstrate that the energies of many metal surfaces are lowered when these surfaces are replaced by facets with lower-index orientations. This implies that the low-temperature equilibrium shapes of many metal crystals should be heavily faceted. The predicted ins...... instability of vicinal metal surfaces is at variance with the almost generally observed stability of these surfaces. We argue that the unstable orientations undergo a defaceting transition at relatively low temperatures, driven by the high vibrational entropy of steps....

  17. MALDI-TOF/MS identification of species from the Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) group revisited: inclusion of the novel A. seifertii and A. dijkshoorniae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Almirall, M; Cosgaya, C; Higgins, P G; Van Assche, A; Telli, M; Huys, G; Lievens, B; Seifert, H; Dijkshoorn, L; Roca, I; Vila, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Rapid identification of Acinetobacter species is critical as members of the A. baumannii (Ab) group differ in antibiotic susceptibility and clinical outcomes. A. baumannii, A. pittii, and A. nosocomialis can be identified by MALDI-TOF/MS, while the novel species A. seifertii and A. dijkshoorniae cannot. Low identification rates for A. nosocomialis also have been reported. We evaluated the use of MALDI-TOF/MS to identify isolates of A. seifertii and A. dijkshoorniae and revisited the identification of A. nosocomialis to update the Bruker taxonomy database. Species characterization was performed by rpoB-clustering and MLSA. MALDI-TOF/MS spectra were recovered from formic acid/acetonitrile bacterial extracts overlaid with α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid matrix on a MicroflexLT in linear positive mode and 2000-20 000 m/z range mass. Spectra were examined with the ClinProTools v2.2 software. Mean spectra (MSP) were created with the BioTyper software. Seventy-eight Acinetobacter isolates representative of the Ab group were used to calculate the average spectra/species and generate pattern recognition models. Species-specific peaks were identified for all species, and MSPs derived from three A. seifertii, two A. dijkshoorniae, and two A. nosocomialis strains were added to the Bruker taxonomy database, allowing successful identification of all isolates using spectra from either bacterial extracts or direct colonies, resulting in a positive predictive value (PPV) of 99.6% (777/780) and 96.8% (302/312), respectively. The use of post-processing data software identified statistically significant species-specific peaks to generate reference signatures for rapid accurate identification of species within the Ab group, providing relevant information for the clinical management of Acinetobacter infections. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes in the Iju porphyry copper deposit, North West of Shahr-e-Babak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Golestani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Iju porphyry copper deposit is located in the southern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Dehaj-Sarduieh belt within the Kerman copper belt (Dimitrijevic, 1973. The Porphyry Copper mineralization in the Iranian plate occurs dominantly along the Urumieh-Dokhtar arc, which has resulted from the subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the central Iran and the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean during the Alpine orogeny (Hassanzadeh, 1993. The Iju porphyry copper deposit with 25 million tons of ore reserves is one of the main copper deposits within the Kerman copper belt. The mining area is composed of upper Miocene volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (mineralized and barren subvolcanic rocks and quaternary deposits. Two hydrothermal alteration zones of quartz-sericite-pyrite and propylitic zones can be identified in the Iju area. The copper mineralization in the Iju deposit occurs as disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. In the hypogene zone, the mineral paragenesis include chalcopyrite, pyrite, with minor occurrences of bornite and magnetite. This paper reports geological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and S isotope data from the Iju deposit in order to investigate ore-bearing fluids’ characteristics and the mechanisms of ore deposition. Materials and methods Fifteen samples of syngenetic quartz+pyrite bearing veinlets within the quartz-sericite-pyrite zone were selected from different depths across the seven boreholes. Quartz was used for double-polished thin sections and pyrite was used for sulfur isotope analysis. Fluid inclusion studies were performed using the Linkam cooling and heating stage, the THMSG 600 model. The syngenetic pyrite with thermometry quartz sample was used for the sulfur isotope experiments. Stable isotope analysis was performed at the Hatch Stable Isotope Laboratory in the University of Ottawa, Canada. Results The fluid inclusions of the Iju deposit represent a wide range in the

  19. Characterization and Pervaporation Properties of Modified PU Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervaporation will have broad application prospects in the treatment of phenolic wastewater. Polyurethane (PU membrane is promising but needs to be further modified. In this study, both β-CD and CNT were used to modify the PU membrane. The structure and property of these membranes were characterized by FTIR, DSC and TGA. The pervaporation performances were investigated, and the effects of β-CD and CNT on membrane separation were discussed. TGA shows that three kinds of modified membranes have enough thermal stability to afford pervaporation test and start weight loss at about 200 °C. In pervaporaiton, the total flux, separation factor and PSI value all increase with increased feed temperature. That is anti-trade-off phenomenon. Among these membranes, HTPB+β-CD-PU shows the best comprehensive performance at 80°C and has great potential for further application.

  20. Characterization of Tribological Properties of Greases for Industrial Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Castaños

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper grease selection is essential for the electrical industry to minimize friction and wear between the components of circuit breakers under mechanical contact. In this investigation, the tribological properties of commercially available greases for industrial circuit breakers were evaluated. Three tribological tests were performed: the ITeE-PIB Polish Method for testing lubricants under scuffing conditions (extreme pressure, EP, a four-ball test under ASTM D 2266 (anti-wear, AW, and a ball-on-disk test based on ASTM G-99. The worn materials were characterized with an optical 3D profilometer measurement system and a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Additionally, selected greases with the best tribological performance were tested on a testing bench intended for circuit breakers, according to electrical safety standards, which validated the results obtained in the laboratory.

  1. Characterization and modelling of the mechanical properties of mineral wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Mineral wool designates a highly porous network of fibres drawn by spinning molten minerals. Traditionally, mineral wool products have found application as thermal and acoustic insulation of buildings. Recent concepts where mineral wool products are subjected to higher structural loads have emerged...... and as a consequence focus on the mechanical properties of mineral wool has intensified. Also understanding the deformation mechanisms during compression of low density mineral wool is crucial since better thickness recovery after compression will result in significant savings on transport costs. The mechanical...... based on image analysis to characterize the 3D structure of mineral wool materials in terms of fibre orientation, fibre diameter, contacts and pore size is proposed. The method uses 3D data obtained by X-ray tomography. The measured data are fitted to probability distributions in order to facilitate...

  2. Optical Characterization and Humidity Sensing Properties of Praseodymium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. YADAV

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the humidity sensing properties of praseodymium oxide (99 % pure, Johnson & Matthey, London and its characterization. The pellet of praseodymium oxide was made under a pressure of 616 MPa and it was annealed at 200, 400, 600 and 800 oC for 2 hrs successively. After each step of annealing, the pellet was exposed to humidity. It was observed that as relative humidity (% RH increases, there is a decrease in the resistance for entire range of humidity. The highest sensitivity of the humidity sensor was found 6 MΩ/%RH at room temperature. Distribution of grains and pores were observed by SEM. XR D of sensing material revealed the phase and lattice structure of praseodymium oxide. Crystallite size of sensing material lies between 132-297 nm. The proposed investigation provides a new step in developing towards simple, reliable and sensitive humidity sensor.

  3. Identification and agglutination properties of hemocyanin from the mud crab (Scylla serrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Zhang, Yueling; Jiang, Ruiping; Zhong, Mingqi; Hu, Zhong; Du, Hong; Lun, Jingsheng; Chen, Jiehui; Li, Yuanyou

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases have significantly delayed the growth of crab aquaculture. Identification of the immune molecules and characterization of the defense mechanisms will be pivotal to the reduction of these diseases. Hemocyanin is an important non-specific immune protein present in the hemolymph of both mollusks and arthropods. However, little is known about the hemocyanin from the mud crab Scylla serrata. In this study, we identified the S. serrata hemocyanin using affinity proteomics and investigated its agglutinative properties. The results showed that S. serrata hemocyanin consists of five subunits with molecular weights of 70, 72, 75, 76 and 80 kDa, respectively. It demonstrated agglutination activities against seven bacterial species at concentrations ranging from 7.5 to 30 μg/ml. Agglutination was inhibited by 50-200 mM of N-acetylneuraminic acid, α-d-glucose, d-galactose and d-xylose. The 76 kDa subunit was identified as the protein that primarily binds bacterial cells and we speculate that it functions as the agglutinating subunit. We showed that outer membrane proteins (Omp) of bacteria could completely inhibit agglutination and that the agglutination activities of hemocyanin against Escherichia coli ▵OmpA and ▵OmpX mutants were significantly decreased, suggesting that these two Omps may be important ligands of hemocyanin. Together, the data collectively suggests that the 76 kDa subunit of S. serrata hemocyanin mediates agglutination through recognition of OmpA and OmpX proteins in bacteria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel Identification Method of Thermal Resistances of Thermoelectric Modules Combining Electrical Characterization Under Constant Temperature and Heat Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a Thermoelectric Module (TEM is not only influenced by the material properties, but also by the heat losses due to the internal and contact thermal resistances. In the literature, the material properties are mostly discussed, mainly to increase the well-known thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. Nevertheless, when a TEM is considered, the separate characterization of the materials of the p and n elements is not enough to have a suitable TEM electrical model and evaluate more precisely its efficiency. Only a few recent papers deal with thermal resistances and their influence on the TEM efficiency; mostly, the minimization of these resistances is recommended, without giving a way to determine their values. The aim of the present paper is to identify the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEM by electrical characterization. Depending on the applications, the TEM can be used either under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow conditions. The proposed identification approach is based on the theoretical electrical modeling of the TEM, in both conditions. It is simple to implement, because it is based only on open circuit test conditions. A single electrical measurement under both conditions (constant-temperature and constant-heat is needed. Based on the theoretical electrical models, one can identify the internal and thermal resistances.

  5. Molecular characterization and identification of members of the Anopheles subpictus complex in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Sarma, Devojit K; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Kemppainen, Petri; Kanthakumaran, Nadarajah; Gajapathy, Kanapathy; Peiris, Lalanthika B S; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Walton, Catherine

    2013-08-30

    Anopheles subpictus sensu lato is a major malaria vector in South and Southeast Asia. Based initially on polytene chromosome inversion polymorphism, and subsequently on morphological characterization, four sibling species A-D were reported from India. The present study uses molecular methods to further characterize and identify sibling species in Sri Lanka. Mosquitoes from Sri Lanka were morphologically identified to species and sequenced for the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit-I (COI) genes. These sequences, together with others from GenBank, were used to construct phylogenetic trees and parsimony haplotype networks and to test for genetic population structure. Both ITS2 and COI sequences revealed two divergent clades indicating that the Subpictus complex in Sri Lanka is composed of two genetically distinct species that correspond to species A and species B from India. Phylogenetic analysis showed that species A and species B do not form a monophyletic clade but instead share genetic similarity with Anopheles vagus and Anopheles sundaicus s.l., respectively. An allele specific identification method based on ITS2 variation was developed for the reliable identification of species A and B in Sri Lanka. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed to establish the species status of all chromosomal forms in the Subpictus complex. This study emphasizes the difficulties in using morphological characters for species identification in An. subpictus s.l. in Sri Lanka and demonstrates the utility of an allele specific identification method that can be used to characterize the differential bio-ecological traits of species A and B in Sri Lanka.

  6. Characterization of Lactobacillus isolated from dairy samples for probiotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-06-01

    In the present study twelve Lactobacillus isolates (LBS 1-LBS 12) were characterized for probiotic properties. Out of the twelve, eight isolates (LBS 1-6, 8 and 11) were bile resistant (survival > 50% at 0.3% bile salt w/v) and five isolates (LBS 1, 2, 5, 6 and 11) were found acid pH value resistant (survival > 50% at pH 3). All twelve isolates inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus whereas isolate LBS 2 also inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolates was also performed and isolate LBS 2 was selected for further study based on its broad spectrum effect in clinical pathogen inhibition. LBS 2 was characterized phenotypically at Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH), Chandigarh, India and was confirmed as Lactobacillus rhamnosus by 16S rDNA sequencing and subsequent analysis using BLAST. The gene sequence was deposited in GenBank with accession number KJ562858. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was used to study in vitro epithelial cell adherence and bile salt effect on isolate LBS 2. Epithelial cells adherence assay showed positive results and surface roughness of LBS 2 increased with increase in bile salt (0.15-0.45% w/v). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization, mechanistic analysis and improving the properties of denture adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Afsoon; Khadivi, Nona; Roohpour, Nima; Middleton, Andrew M; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Annabi, Nasim; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tamayol, Ali

    2017-11-30

    Denture adhesives are widely used to avoid the detachment and sliding of dentures. However, the adhesion properties can be affected by variation in mouth conditions such as the level of salivation. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of environmental conditions on the adhesion properties of a commercially available denture adhesive named as Poligrip® Free manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Ltd., UK and to identify the reasons for the observed variation in its adhesion strength. The failure mechanisms of denture adhesive have been assessed through using different physical, mechanical and thermal characterization experiments. All methods were used in different pH, temperatures, and salivation conditions and at the end, a strategy was proposed to overcome the failure of the paste in hyposalivation as well. In vitro models mimicking the denture gingival interface were designed to evaluate the adhesion properties of the investigated adhesive. Changes in the adhesion strength in response to three major factors related to the oral conditions including level of salivation, pH, and temperature were measured. The results of lap shear, tensile test, and internal interactions suggested a cohesion failure, where the lowest adhesion strength was due to hyposalivation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and rheological analysis confirmed the importance of hydrogen bonds and hydration in the adhesion strength of the paste. The investigated scenarios are widely observed in patient using denture adhesives and the clinical reports have indicated the inconsistency in adhesion strength of the commercial products. After identifying the potential reasons for such behavior, methods such as the addition of tripropylene glycol methyl ether (TPME) to enhance internal hydrogen bonds between the polymers are proposed to improve adhesion in the hyposalivation scenario. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Deformation and fracture properties of metals with non-metallic inclusions; Verformung und Bruch von Metallen mit nichtmetallischen Einschluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmauder, S.; Soppa, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    1998-12-31

    Microstructural effects due to formation of non-uniform lines of non-metallic inclusions in the matrix are examined with respect to their macro-, meso-, and micromechanical effects in the alloy Al(6061) reinforced by SiC inclusions. A comparative analysis of results obtained with various microstructures reveals essential differences in the formation of shear bands, stress peaks, and strain concentrations in the material structure. The maxima and the distribution of those field variables are determined not only by the arrangement of inclusions clusters in the stringers but also depend on the presence and number of single-particle inclusions in pure matrix material. The banding of the microstructure causes a strongly anisotropic behaviour in terms of stress and strain distributions. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In diesem Beitrag werden Gefuegeeinfluesse aufgrund unterschiedlich starker zeiliger Anordnungen der Teilchen in der Matrix im Hinblick auf ihre makro-, meso- und mikromechanischen Auswirkungen am Beispiel einer SiC-teilchenverstaerkten Aluminiumlegierung Al(6061) untersucht. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse verschiedener Gefuege zeigt wesentliche Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Ausbildung von Scherbaendern, Spannungsspitzen und von Dehnungskonzentrationen im Werkstoffgefuege. Die Maxima und die Verteilung dieser Feldgroessen sind nicht nur abhaengig davon, wie die Teilchen in den Zeilen angeordnet sind, sondern auch davon, ob einzelne Teilchen in reinen Matrixbereichen vorhanden sind. Die Zeiligkeit des Gefueges fuehrt zu einem stark anisotropen Verhalten hinsichtlich Spannungs- und Dehnungsverteilungen. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of modified high-amylose maize starch-α-naphthol complexes and their influence on rheological properties of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2013-05-01

    Amylose can form inclusion complexes with diverse small molecules. Modified starch has different and unique properties compared with its native counterpart. In this study, chemically/enzymatically modified high-amylose maize starches were used to make inclusion complexes with α-naphthol, and the physical properties of complexes and their influences on the rheology of wheat starch were characterized. The results showed that modification of starch had little influence on the wide angle X-ray diffraction pattern of complex (eightfold single helix), but did so on the complexation index and precipitation yield. Inclusion complexes with chemically modified starch showed a lower range of thermostability and recrystallization temperatures. Addition of complex considerably influenced the rheological properties of wheat starch, and the effect was dependent on the type of modified starch used. It may be concluded that starch inclusion complexes, with a range of properties and potential food applications, may be feasibly prepared by using diverse modified high-amylose maize starches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Chen; Chengcheng Xue; Yang Zhao; Deyong Chen; Min-Hsien Wu; Junbo Wang

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance ...

  11. Rapid Identification and Characterization of Formulated Protein Products by Raman Spectroscopy Coupled with Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaolin; Zhou, Dan; Loussaert, James A; Meriage, David S; Levine, Joseph D; Gabrielson, John P; Wen, Zai-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The rapid identification of protein drug products for packaging and receiving can significantly reduce disposition cycle time, and thereby improve the efficiency and productivity of the supply chain to better meet the needs of patients. In this feasibility study, we demonstrate a novel methodology that combines Raman spectroscopy with discriminant analysis that can be used for rapid identification or verification of finished products. With this methodology, Raman spectra of formulated therapeutic proteins were collected non-invasively with the samples either in a quartz cuvette or in the original glass vials, and analyzed without subtraction of buffer or placebo solutions. The algorithm used for the discriminant analysis was Mahalanobis distance by principal component analysis with residuals. In addition to product identification, the methodology has the potential to be used for characterizing formulated proteins when exposed to external stresses based on the changes of Mahalanobis distances. The rapid identification of protein drug products for packaging and receiving can significantly reduce disposition cycle time, and thereby improve the efficiency and productivity of the supply chain. In this study, we demonstrate a novel methodology that combines Raman spectroscopy with discriminant analysis to rapidly identify formulated proteins non-invasively. © PDA, Inc. 2016.

  12. Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research agenda will cover four themes: linkages between trade and inclusive growth; negotiation issues with poorly understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; liberalization of trade in services, and the emerging regional trade policy architecture. The idea is to promote a better ...

  13. Characterization of Stowaway MITEs in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and identification of their potential master elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macas, Jirí; Koblízková, Andrea; Neumann, Pavel

    2005-10-01

    We have investigated miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) of the Stowaway family and corresponding Mariner-like master elements that could potentially facilitate their mobilization in the genome of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). The population of pea Stowaway MITEs consists of 103-104 copies dispersed in the genome. Judging from a sequence analysis of 17 isolated Stowaway elements and their flanking genomic regions, the elements are relatively uniform in size and sequence and occur in the vicinity of genes as well as within repetitive sequences. Insertional polymorphism of several elements was detected among various Pisum accessions, suggesting they were still transpositionally active during diversification of these taxa. The identification of several Mariner-like elements (MLEs) harboring intact open reading frames, capable of encoding a transposase, further supports a recent mobilization of the Stowaway elements. Using transposase-coding sequences as a hybridization probe, we estimated that there are about 50 MLE sequences in the pea genome. Among the 5 elements sequenced, 3 distinct subfamilies showing mutual similarities within their transposase-coding regions, but otherwise diverged in sequence, were distinguished and designated as Psmar-1 to Psmar-3. The terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of these MLE subfamilies differed in their homology to the TIRs of Stowaway MITEs. The homlogy ranged from 9 bp in Psmar-3 to 30 bp in Psmar-1, which corresponds to the complete Stowaway TIR sequence. Based on this feature, the Psmar-1 elements are believed to be the most likely candidates for the master elements of the Stowaway MITEs in pea.

  14. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of One Degradation Product in Ambroxol by HPLC-Hyphenated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummala, Veera Raghava Raju; Ivaturi, Mrutyunjaya Rao; Nittala, Someswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    This study details the isolation, identification, and characterization of ambroxol’s unknown impurity. One unknown impurity of ambroxol was formed in the formulated drug under stress conditions [40°C /75% relative humidity (RH) for 6 months] with the relative retention time (RRT) 0.68 in RP-HPLC. The impurity was enriched by exposing it to heat and it was isolated by using preparative HPLC. The enriched impurity was purified and characterized using the following sophisticated techniques: 2D NMR (gDQ-COSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC), FTIR, and LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the spectral data, the impurity was characterized as trans-4-(6,8-dibromoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)cyclohexanol. PMID:24959402

  15. On the identification of the eggshell elastic properties under quasistatic compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Simeonovová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the identification of the elastic properties of eggshell, i.e. the evaluation of the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio is solved. The eggshell is considered as a rotational shell. The experiments on the egg compression under quasistatic loading have been conducted. During these experiments a strain on the eggshell surface has been recorded. By the mutual comparison between experimental and theoretical values of strains the influence of the elastic constants has been demonstrated.

  16. Numerical investigation of effective mechanical properties of metal-ceramic composites with reinforcing inclusions of different shapes under intensive dynamic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakulov, Valerii V.; Smolin, Igor Yu.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper, the results of numerical simulation of high-rate deformation of stochastic metal-ceramic composite materials Al-50% B4C, Al-50% SiC, and Al-50% Al2O3 at the mesoscopic scale level under loading by a plane shock wave are presented. Deformation of the mesoscopic volume of a composite, whose structure consists of the aluminum matrix and randomly distributed reinforcing ceramic inclusions, is numerically simulated. The results of the numerical simulation are used for the investigation of special features of the mechanical behavior at the mesoscopic scale level under shock-wave loading and for the numerical evaluation of effective elastic and strength properties of metal-ceramic composites with reinforcing ceramic inclusions of different shapes. Values of effective sound velocities, elastic moduli and elastic limits of investigated materials are obtained, and the character of the dependence of the effective elastic and strength properties on the structure parameters of composites is determined. The simulation results show that values of effective mechanical characteristics weakly depend on the shape of reinforcing inclusions and mainly are defined by their volume concentration.

  17. Manganese ferrite prepared using reverse micelle process: Structural and magnetic properties characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Mohd, E-mail: md.hashim09@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Centre, Department of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Meena, S.S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mane, M.L. [Department of Physics, S.G.R.G. Shinde Mahavidyalaya, Paranda 413502, MS (India); Kumar, Shalendra [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Bhatt, Pramod [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, HP (India); Prasad, N.K.; Alla, S.K. [Deptartment of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R.K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Mohammed, K.A. [Department of Mathematics & Physics Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Nizwa, Nizwa (Oman); Şentürk, Erdoğan [Department of Physics, Sakarya University, Esentepe, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Alimuddin [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Preparation of Mn{sup 3+} substituted MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite by Reverse microemulsion process. • Characterization by XRD, SEM, VSM, Mössbauer spectroscopy and dielectric measurements techniques. • Magnetic properties of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} enhanced after Mn{sup 3+} substitution. • The dielectric constant and ac conductivity increased with Mn{sup 3+} substitution. - Abstract: Reverse microemulsion process was employed to prepare of nanocrystalline Mn{sup 3+} substituted MnFe{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrites. The structural, magnetic and dielectric properties were studied for different concentrations of Mn{sup 3+}. The structural and microstructural properties were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The phase identification of the materials was studied by Rietveld refined XRD patterns which reveals single phase with cubic symmetry for the samples. The lattice parameters were ranged in between 8.369 and 8.379 Å and do not show any significant change with the substitution of Mn{sup 3+}. The average particles size was found to be around 11 ± 3 nm. Magnetization results obtained from the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) confirm that the substitution of Mn{sup 3+} in MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite caused an increase in the saturation magnetization and coercivity. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters on Mn{sup 3+} substitution has been analyzed. Magnetic behavior of the samples were also studied at field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) mode. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters on Mn{sup 3+} substitution was also analyzed. All the magnetic characterization shows that Mn{sup 3+} substitution enhance the magnetic behavior of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles.

  18. Analytical approaches for the characterization and identification of olive (Olea europaea) oil proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-10-30

    Proteins in olive oil have been scarcely investigated probably due to the difficulty of working with such a lipidic matrix and the dramatically low abundance of proteins in this biological material. Additionally, this scarce information has generated contradictory results, thus requiring further investigations. This work treats this subject from a comprehensive point of view and proposes the use of different analytical approaches to delve into the characterization and identification of proteins in olive oil. Different extraction methodologies, including capture via combinational hexapeptide ligand libraries (CPLLs), were tried. A sequence of methodologies, starting with off-gel isoelectric focusing (IEF) followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) column, was applied to profile proteins from olive seed, pulp, and oil. Besides this, and for the first time, a tentative identification of oil proteins by mass spectrometry has been attempted.

  19. Characterization of Shear Properties for APO/MBI Syntactic Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reser, Patrick M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Matthew W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, Jarod [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ahuja, Nishant [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lenke, Lary R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-14

    Triaxial compression testing is a means for mechanical characterization of a material. A unique feature of the triaxial compression test is the application of two different magnitudes of compressive pressures on the material simultaneously. The material behavior under these different compressive pressures can be monitored over time. Several important characteristics of the material, such as stress yield values and the shear failure envelope may then be determined. Also mechanical properties such as Poisson’s ratio, Young’s modulus and bulk modulus can be determined from the triaxial compression test. The triaxial compression test was employed in this investigation to characterize the shear behavior, shear failure envelope, and mechanical properties of a syntactic foam. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a total of 36 samples of APO-BMI syntactic foam to the University of New Mexico, Department of Civil Engineering for testing between December 2003 and May 2004. Each sample had a diameter of 1.395±0.005 in. (3.543±0.013cm.) and a length of 2.796±0.004 in. (7.102±0.010 cm.). The samples had an average density of 0.295 g/cm3. Additional information about the material tested in this investigation can be found in the “Specimen Description” section contained in Chapter 1. The nomenclatures used in this study is presented in Chapter 1. In addition to designing and implementing triaxial compression tests capable of up to 2,000 psi. confining pressure (minor principal stress) and roughly 13,000 psi. in axial pressure (major principal stress), a pure tension test was designed and conducted on the foam material. The purpose of this pure tension test was to obtain maximum tensile stress values to enhance the characterization of the shear envelope in the stress space. The sampling procedure and specimen preparation for a standard test can be found in the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 5379/ D 5379 – 93. The above tests mentioned and

  20. Inclusion survey contractor implementation plan for fiscal years 1986-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espegren, M.L.; Carter, T.E.; Little, C.A.; Ramos, S.J.

    1987-03-01

    The Radiological Surveys Activities Group (RASA) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory acts as the Inclusion Survey Contractor (ISC) to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The ISC investigates properties to determine whether the properties qualify for remedial action according to the standards set forth for the UMTRA Project by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The major work elements making up the ISC's activities are: consent form acquisition, land survey/drawing, inclusion survey, post-survey activities, survey report, file transmittal, and recommendation for a vicinity property to be included into or excluded from UMTRAP. The ISC will produce 2960 recommendations in FY 1988 for $3.98M.

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel fumarase gene by metagenome expression cloning from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xian-Lai

    2010-11-01

    marine microorganisms. The properties of FumF protein may be ideal for the industrial production of L-malate under higher temperature conditions. The identification of FumF underscores the potential of marine metagenome screening for novel biomolecules.

  2. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig

    This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach...... will entail, and why it might be beneficial to research in inclusive education...

  3. Spectroscopic study and antioxidant properties of the inclusion complexes of rosmarinic acid with natural and derivative cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Saliha Esin; Özyürek, Mustafa; Tufan, Ayşe Nur; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2011-05-01

    Measurement of total antioxidant activity/capacity of polyphenols in various solvent media necessitates the use of cyclodextrins to solubilize lipophilic antioxidants of poor aqueous solubility. The inclusion complexes of the slightly water soluble antioxidant, rosmarinic acid (RA), with α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), 2-hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE-β-CD), and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (M-β-CD) were investigated for the first time. The effect of cyclodextrins (CDs) on the spectral features of RA was measured in aqueous medium using UV-vis and steady-state fluorescence techniques by varying the concentrations of CDs. The molar stoichiometry of RA-CD inclusion complexes was verified as 1:1, and the formation constants of the complexes were determined from Benesi-Hildebrand equation using fluorescence spectroscopic data. Among the CDs, maximum inclusion ability was measured in the case of M-β-CD followed by HP-β-CD, HE-β-CD, β-CD and α-CD. Solid inclusion complexes were prepared by freeze drying, and their functional groups were analyzed by IR spectroscopy. Antioxidant capacity of CD-complexed rosmarinic acid was measured to be higher than that of the lone hydroxycinnamic acid by the CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC) method. The mechanism of the TAC increase was interpreted as the stabilization of the 1 - e oxidized o-catechol moiety of RA by enhanced intramolecular H-bonding in a hydrophobic environment provided by CDs, mostly by M-β-CD.

  4. GEOTRACES Eastern South Pacific: Characterizing Water Mass Properties and Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M.; Fine, R. A.; Happell, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the fall 2013 an eastern South Pacific GEOTRACES transect was occupied along about 12°S from the coast to 150°W. The objective is to characterize the water mass properties as compared with historical data and considering climate modes of variability. Tracer ages (CFCs and SF6) are used to provide constraints on time scales of physical and biogeochemical processes. The GEOTRACES transect contains eutrophic and oligotrophic stations. In between, there is a large oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) created by a shadow zone in the subtropical gyre circulation. The major water masses in the upper 1500 m are the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) found below the 27 σθ, Subantarctic Mode Water located above the AAIW and below the 26.5 σθ, South Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water found along 25.5 σθ near 100°W, South Pacific Subtropical Under Water follows 25 σθ, and South Pacific Subtropical Water is located at the surface west of 110°W. Water with SF6 ages of less than 30 years are found above 26.5 σθ. The highest apparent oxygen utilization rates (AOUR) found in the coastal region are likely due to the upwelling in this region. The central gyre region shows the lowest AOUR, corresponding with the oligotrophic conditions. In between, the OMZ, ranging from 80⁰W to about 120⁰W, has a median AOUR. An analysis of our data compared to WOCE data at 4 co-locations shows changes in the water properties and biogeochemical processes over a 20 year time period. This analysis suggests an expansion and a strengthening of the OMZ in the past 20 years. While there is a decrease in oxygen content within the OMZ, there is a slight increase in AOU in the western part of the OMZ.

  5. Social inclusion and inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela Robo

    2014-07-01

    In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.

  6. Enabling the identification, quantification, and characterization of organics in complex mixtures to understand atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacman, Gabriel Avram

    Particles in the atmosphere are known to have negative health effects and important but highly uncertain impacts on global and regional climate. A majority of this particulate matter is formed through atmospheric oxidation of naturally and anthropogenically emitted gases to yield highly oxygenated secondary organic aerosol (SOA), an amalgamation of thousands of individual chemical compounds. However, comprehensive analysis of SOA composition has been stymied by its complexity and lack of available measurement techniques. In this work, novel instrumentation, analysis methods, and conceptual frameworks are introduced for chemically characterizing atmospherically relevant mixtures and ambient aerosols, providing a fundamentally new level of detailed knowledge on their structures, chemical properties, and identification of their components. This chemical information is used to gain insights into the formation, transformation and oxidation of organic aerosols. Biogenic and anthropogenic mixtures are observed in this work to yield incredible complexity upon oxidation, producing over 100 separable compounds from a single precursor. As a first step toward unraveling this complexity, a method was developed for measuring the polarity and volatility of individual compounds in a complex mixture using two-dimensional gas chromatography, which is demonstrated in Chapter 2 for describing the oxidation of SOA formed from a biogenic compound (longifolene: C15H24). Several major products and tens of substantial minor products were produced, but none could be identified by traditional methods or have ever been isolated and studied in the laboratory. A major realization of this work was that soft ionization mass spectrometry could be used to identify the molecular mass and formula of these unidentified compounds, a major step toward a comprehensive description of complex mixtures. This was achieved by coupling gas chromatography to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry with

  7. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfert, Jens C; MacNevin, Gillian; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2009-01-01

    Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae) which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes as well. Conclusion This

  8. Transition metal borides. Synthesis, characterization and superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayhan, Mehmet

    2013-07-12

    A systematic study was done on the synthesis and superconducting properties of metal rich transition metal borides. Five different binary systems were investigated including the boride systems of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten and rhenium. High temperature solid state methods were used in order to synthesize samples of different transition metal borides of the composition M{sub 2}B, MB, M{sub 3}B{sub 2}, MB{sub 2}, and M{sub 2}B{sub 4}. The reactions were carried out in three different furnaces with different sample containers: the electric arc (copper crucible), the high frequency induction furnace (boron nitride, tantalum or glassy carbon crucibles), and the conventional tube furnace (sealed evacuated quartz ampoules). The products obtained were characterized with X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase analyses and crystal structure refinements using the Rietveld method and based on structure models known from literature were performed. A neutron diffraction measurement was done for W{sub 2}B{sub 4} to allow for a complete crystal structure determination, because of the presence of a heavy element like tungsten and a light element like boron that made it difficult to determine the accurate determination of the boron atom positions and occupancies from X-ray data. A new structure model for W{sub 2}B{sub 4} was proposed. Magnetic measurements in a SQUID magnetometer down to temperatures as low as 1.8 K were performed to several of the products in order to see if the transition metal borides become superconducting at low temperatures, and the results were compared with data from literature. Superconducting properties were found for the following compounds: NbB{sub 2} (T{sub C} = 3.5 K), β-MoB (T{sub C} = 2.4 K), β-WB (T{sub C} = 2.0 K), α-WB (T{sub C} = 4.3 K), W{sub 2}B{sub 4} (T{sub C} = 5.4 K), Re{sub 7}B{sub 3} (T{sub C} = 2.4 K). A relationship between the superconducting properties

  9. Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs.

  10. Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs. PMID:27649147

  11. Mechanochemically synthesized cobalt monoselenide: structural characterization and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achimovičová, Marcela; Daneu, Nina; Dutková, Erika; Zorkovská, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Chalcogenide semiconductor cobalt monoselenide, CoSe, was prepared from metallic cobalt and selenium powders in stoichiometric ratio by simple and fast mechanochemical synthesis after 120 min of milling in a planetary ball mill Pulverisette 6 (Fritsch, Germany) in an argon atmosphere. Crystal structure and morphology of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction, specific surface area measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the hexagonal crystal structure of the product-CoSe (freboldite) with the average size of the crystallites 26 nm. Transmission electron microscopy analysis has revealed that CoSe nanostructures are composed of agglomerated and randomly oriented nanoparticles. The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Mechanochemically synthesized CoSe nanostructures showed higher absorption in whole UV-Vis optical region and the determined band-gap energy 1.70 eV is blue-shifted relative to the bulk CoSe. Both UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectra indicate quantum size effect of CoSe nanocrystals.

  12. Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-09-13

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs.

  13. Biodegradable Polycaprolactone-Titania Nanocomposites: Preparation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites obtained from the incorporation of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles (≈10 nm average primary particle size in different amounts, ranging from 0.5 to 5 wt.%, into a biodegradable polycaprolactone matrix are achieved via a straightforward and commercial melting processing. The resulting nanocomposites have been structurally and thermally characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, wide/small angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS/SAXS, respectively and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. TEM evaluation provides evidence of an excellent nanometric dispersion of the oxide component in the polymeric matrix, with aggregates having an average size well below 100 nm. Presence of these TiO2 nanoparticles induces a nucleant effect during polymer crystallization. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of nanocomposites has been tested using both UV and visible light against Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The bactericidal behavior has been explained through the analysis of the material optical properties, with a key role played by the creation of new electronic states within the polymer-based nanocomposites.

  14. Physical property characterization of a damage zone in granitic rock - Implications for geothermal reservoir properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Quinn; Madonna, Claudio; Amann, Florian; Gischig, Valentin; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal energy offers a viable alternative to mitigate greenhouse gas emitting energy production. A tradeoff between less expensive drilling costs and increased permeability at shallow depths versus increased heat production at deeper depths stipulates the economic energy potential of a given reservoir. From a geological perspective, successful retrieval of geothermal energy from the subsurface requires sufficient knowledge of the structural and stratigraphic relationship of the target formations, which govern the thermal conditions, physical properties, and fluid flow properties of reservoir rocks. In Switzerland, deep basement rocks (~5 km) with fluid conducting damage zones and enhanced fractured systems stimulated by hydraulic shearing are seen as a potential geothermal reservoir system. Damage zones, both natural and induced, provide permeability enhancement that is especially important for creating fluid conductivity where the matrix permeability is low. This study concentrates on characterizing the elastic and transport properties entering into a natural damage zone penetrated by a borehole at the Grimsel underground research laboratory. The borehole drilled from a cavern at 480 m below ground surface penetrates approximately 20 m of mostly intact Grimsel granodiorite before entering the first phyllosilicate-rich shear zone (~0.2 m thick). The borehole intersects a second shear zone at approximately 23.8m. Between the two shear zones the Grimsel granodiorite is heavily fractured. The minimum principle stress magnitude from in-situ measurements decreases along the borehole into the first shear zone. Two mutually perpendicular core samples of Grimsel granodiorite were taken every 0.1 m from 19.5 to 20.1 m to characterize the physical properties and anisotropy changes as a gradient away from the damage zone. Measurements of ultrasonic compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) velocities at 1 MHz frequency are conducted at room temperature and hydrostatic pressures

  15. A review of analytical methods for the identification and characterization of nano delivery systems in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luykx, Dion M A M; Peters, Ruud J B; van Ruth, Saskia M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2008-09-24

    Detection and characterization of nano delivery systems is an essential part of understanding the benefits as well as the potential toxicity of these systems in food. This review gives a detailed description of food nano delivery systems based on lipids, proteins, and/or polysaccharides and investigates the current analytical techniques that can be used for the identification and characterization of these delivery systems in food products. The analytical approaches have been subdivided into three groups; separation techniques, imaging techniques, and characterization techniques. The principles of the techniques together with their advantages and drawbacks, and reported applications concerning nano delivery systems, or otherwise related compounds are discussed. The review shows that for a sufficient characterization, the nano delivery systems need to be separated from the food matrix, for which high-performance liquid chromatography or field flow fractionation are the most promising techniques. Subsequently, online photon correlation spectroscopy and mass spectrometry seem to be a convenient combination of techniques to characterize a wide variety of nano delivery systems.

  16. Damage Identification of Urban Overpass Based on Hybrid Neurogenetic Algorithm Using Static and Dynamic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban overpass is an important component of transportation system. Health condition of overpass is essential to guarantee the safe operation of urban traffic. Therefore, damage identification of urban overpass possesses important practical significance. In this paper, finite element model of left auxiliary bridge of Qianjin Overpass is constructed and vulnerable sections of structure are chosen as objects for damage recognition. Considering the asymmetry of Qianjin bridge, change rate of modal frequency and strain ratio are selected as input parameters for hybrid neurogenetic algorithm, respectively. Identification effects of damage location and severity are investigated and discussed. The results reveal that the proposed method can successfully identify locations and severities with single and multiple damage locations; its interpolation ability is better than extrapolation ability. Comparative analysis with BP neural network is conducted and reveals that the damage identification accuracy of hybrid neurogenetic algorithm is superior to BP. The effectiveness between dynamic and static properties as input variable is also analyzed. It indicates that the identification effect of strain ratios is more satisfactory than frequency ratio.

  17. Time-resolved fluorescence microspectroscopy for characterizing crude oils in bulk and hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Alan G; Przyjalgowski, Milosz A; Feely, Martin; Szczupak, Boguslaw; Glynn, Thomas J

    2004-09-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence data was collected from a series of 23 bulk crude petroleum oils and six microscopic hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions (HCFI). The data was collected using a diode laser fluorescence lifetime microscope (DLFLM) over the 460-700 nm spectral range using a 405 nm excitation source. The correlation between intensity averaged lifetimes (tau) and chemical and physical parameters was examined with a view to developing a quantitative model for predicting the gross chemical composition of hydrocarbon liquids trapped in HCFI. It was found that tau is nonlinearly correlated with the measured polar and corrected alkane concentrations and that oils can be classified on this basis. However, these correlations all show a large degree of scatter, preventing accurate quantitative prediction of gross chemical composition of the oils. Other parameters such as API gravity and asphaltene, aromatic, and sulfur concentrations do not correlate well with tau measurements. Individual HCFI were analyzed using the DLFLM, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were compared with tau data from the bulk oils. This enabled the fluid within the inclusions to be classified as either low alkane/high polar or high alkane/low polar. Within the high alkane/low polar group, it was possible to clearly discriminate HCFI from different locales and to see differences in the trapped hydrocarbon fluids from a single geological source. This methodology offers an alternative method for classifying the hydrocarbon content of HCFI and observing small variations in the trapped fluid composition that is less sensitive to fluctuations in the measurement method than fluorescence intensity based methods.

  18. Characterization and identification of field ectomycorrhizae of Boletus edulis and Cistus ladanifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueda, Beatriz; Parladé, Javier; de Miguel, Ana María; Martínez-Peña, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Field ectomycorrhizae sampled under Boletus edulis and Cistus ladanifer have been characterized and described in detail based on standard morphological and anatomical characters. The described ectomycorrhiza has traits typical of Boletales: whitish with three differentiated plectenchymatous layers in the mantle in plan view forming ring-like structures and rhizomorphs with highly differentiated hyphae. The inflated, smooth cystidia-like clavate end cells on the surface of the rhizomorphs and their slightly twisted external hyphae are additional characterizing features. The Hartig net occupies 1 1/2 rows of cortical cells, partly reaching the endodermis. Not all hyphae have clamps. The identification of the fungal symbiont as B. edulis was confirmed by ITS rDNA sequence comparison between mycorrhizas and sporocarps. The singularity of this symbiotic association, as well as its ecological and practical implications, are discussed.

  19. DNA-Based Characterization and Identification of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senés-Guerrero, Carolina; Schüßler, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate symbionts of most land plants. They have great ecological and economic importance as they can improve plant nutrition, plant water supply, soil structure, and plant resistance to pathogens. We describe two approaches for the DNA-based characterization and identification of AMF, which both can be used for single fungal spores, soil, or roots samples and resolve closely related AMF species: (a) Sanger sequencing of a 1.5 kb extended rDNA-barcode from clone libraries, e.g., to characterize AMF isolates, and (b) high throughput 454 GS-FLX+ pyrosequencing of a 0.8 kb rDNA fragment, e.g., for in-field monitoring.

  20. Identification of thermal properties distribution in building wall using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Jordan; Dumoulin, Jean

    2016-04-01

    In the construction sector, most of the measurements carried out from IR camera devices are exploited in a qualitative way (e.g. observation of thermal bridges). However, unless a quantitative analysis is realized, it is not possible to assess the impact of the observed phenomena. Most of research efforts and proposed solutions to identify quantified thermal properties (e.g. U-values) have to be completed, adapted to the built environment and validated in experimental and real conditions to allow quantified assessment of materials thermal properties thanks to IR camera devices [1]. We still need several steps in terms of scientific and technical developments for such technological progress. The H2020 European Built2Spec research project (http://built2spec-project.eu/) aims at giving highlights on that. Heat transfer through the walls are generally model by 1D heat equation in the wall depth. The built is composed by a multilayer domain representing the construction process. In this context, the thermal parameters of the wall are piecewise constant space functions. We propose a methodology to recover the vector of the wall thermal properties (conductivity and capacity) from boundary measurements obtained from an IR camera. It formulates as an inverse problem where the unknown are sought as minimizers of a cost function evaluating the gap between the measures and the model response. This optimization problem is non linear, and we solve it with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm coupled with the conjugate gradient method [2-3]. To shorten the time of the identification process, we use the adjoint method coming from the control theory [4]. This method fasten the gradient computation by solving an associated model, named the adjoint model. We study the ability of the procedure to reconstruct internal wall constitution from different environmental conditions. Furthermore, we propose a controlled experimental test to evaluate the method in laboratory conditions. References

  1. Inclusive Institutions for Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Miomir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent two decades, due to contributions of political macroeconomics, the focus of macroeconomics turned away from a narrow perspective based on market and privatisation (market fundamentalism towards a broader perspective based on institutions and values (institutionalism. Within the institutional paradigm, the emphasis nowadays is put on inclusive institutions. The main thesis of one of leading proponents of political macroeconomics, D. Acemoglu, is: “growth is much more likely under inclusive (economic and political institutions than extractive institutions.” Good institutions are characterized by three attributes: 1 they establish and protect property rights; 2 they restrict social elites which strive to expropriate income and property of others members of society; 3 they provide equal chances for employment, social security and civil rights to all individuals. Good institutions contribute to political stability, successful macroeconomic policy, and enhance initiatives. The key role of institutions is to secure stability and continuity. Extractive institutions can negatively affect entrepreneurship and entire economic development in two ways: a by increasing the opportunity cost, resulting in upward movement of the opportunity cost curve; and b by affecting return to entrepreneurship resulting in leftward movement of the return to entrepreneurship curve. Apart from independence and accountability of institutions what is needed is sufficient level of inclusion. Inclusion should encompass three dimensions: personal, financial, and political. The introduction of principles of independence, accountability, and inclusion is essential for emergence and performance of all institutions.

  2. Identification and characterization of Daldinia eschscholtzii isolated from skin scrapings, nails, and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kee Peng; Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Yeo, Siok Koon; Toh, Yue Fen; Looi, Hong Keat; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Yee, Wai-Yan; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Daldinia eschscholtzii is a filamentous wood-inhabiting endophyte commonly found in woody plants. Here, we report the identification and characterization of nine D. eschscholtzii isolates from skin scrapings, nail clippings, and blood. The nine isolates were identified based on colony morphology, light microscopy, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogeny. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the fungal isolates was evaluated by the Etest to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The nine isolates examined were confirmed as D. eschscholtzii. They exhibited typical features of Daldinia sp. on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, with white felty colonies and black-gray coloration on the reverse side. Septate hyphae, branching conidiophore with conidiogenous cells budding from its terminus, and nodulisporium-like conidiophores were observed under the microscope. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nine isolates were clustered within the D. eschscholtzii species complex. All the isolates exhibited low MICs against azole agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole), as well as amphotericin B, with MIC of less than 1 µg/ml. Early and definitive identification of D. eschscholtzii is vital to reducing misuse of antimicrobial agents. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization as well as antifungal profiling of D. eschscholtzii provide the basis for future studies on its biology, pathogenicity, and medicinal potential.

  3. Identification and characterization of Daldinia eschscholtzii isolated from skin scrapings, nails, and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Peng Ng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Daldinia eschscholtzii is a filamentous wood-inhabiting endophyte commonly found in woody plants. Here, we report the identification and characterization of nine D. eschscholtzii isolates from skin scrapings, nail clippings, and blood. Methods The nine isolates were identified based on colony morphology, light microscopy, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS-based phylogeny. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the fungal isolates was evaluated by the Etest to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Results The nine isolates examined were confirmed as D. eschscholtzii. They exhibited typical features of Daldinia sp. on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, with white felty colonies and black-gray coloration on the reverse side. Septate hyphae, branching conidiophore with conidiogenous cells budding from its terminus, and nodulisporium-like conidiophores were observed under the microscope. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nine isolates were clustered within the D. eschscholtzii species complex. All the isolates exhibited low MICs against azole agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole, as well as amphotericin B, with MIC of less than 1 µg/ml. Discussion Early and definitive identification of D. eschscholtzii is vital to reducing misuse of antimicrobial agents. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization as well as antifungal profiling of D. eschscholtzii provide the basis for future studies on its biology, pathogenicity, and medicinal potential.

  4. Optical characterization of OLED emitter properties by radiation pattern analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaemmich, Michael

    2011-09-08

    Researches in both, academia and industry are investigating optical loss channels in OLED layered systems by means of optical simulation tools in order to derive promising concepts for a further enhancement of the overall device performance. Besides other factors, the prospects of success of such optimization strategies rely severely on the credibility of the optical input data. The present thesis provides a guideline to measure the active optical properties of OLED emitter materials in situ by radiation pattern analyses. Reliable and widely applicable methods are introduced to determine the internal electroluminescence spectrum, the profile of the emission zone, the dipole emitter orientation, and the internal luminescence quantum efficiency of emissive materials from the optical far field emission of OLEDs in electrical operation. The proposed characterization procedures are applied to sets of OLEDs containing both, fluorescent polymeric materials as well as phosphorescent small-molecular emitters, respectively. On the one hand, quite expected results are obtained. On the other hand, several novel and truly surprising results are found. Most importantly, this thesis contains the first report of a non-isotropic, mainly parallel emitter orientation in a phosphorescent small-molecular guest-host system (Ir(MDQ)2(acac) in a-NPD). Due to the latter result, emitter orientation based optimization of phosphorescent OLEDs seems to be within reach. Since parallel dipoles emit preferably into air, the utilization of smart emissive materials with advantageous molecular orientation is capable to boost the efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs by 50%. Materials design, the influence of the matrix material and the substrate, as well as film deposition conditions are just a few parameters that need to be studied further in order to exploit the huge potential of the dipole emitter orientation in phosphorescent OLEDs.

  5. Total fatty acid composition in the characterization and identification of orchid mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the main mycorrhizal fungi in orchid roots. Morphological characterization and analysis of conserved sequences of genomic DNA are frequently employed in the identification and study of fungi diversity. However, phytopathogenic Rhizoctonia-like fungi have been reliably and accurately characterized and identified through the examination of the fatty acid composition. To evaluate the efficacy of fatty acid composition in characterizing and identifying Rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi in orchids, three Epulorhiza spp. mycorrhizal fungi from Epidendrum secundum, two unidentified fungi isolated from Epidendrum denticulatum, and a phytopathogenic fungus, Ceratorhiza sp. AGC, were grouped based on the profile of their fatty acids, which was assessed by the Euclidian and Mahalanobis distances and the UPGMA method. Dendrograms distinguished the phytopathogenical isolate of Ceratorhiza sp. AGC from the mycorrhizal fungi studied. The symbionts of E. secundum were grouped into two clades, one containing Epulorhiza sp.1 isolates and the other the Epulorhiza sp.2 isolate. The similarity between the symbionts of E. denticulatum and Epulorhiza spp. fungi suggests that symbionts found in E. denticulatum may be identified as Epulorhiza. These results were corroborated by the analysis of the rDNA ITS region. The dendrogram constructed based on the Mahalanobis distance differentiated the clades most clearly. Fatty acid composition analysis proved to be a useful tool for characterizing and identifying Rhizoctonia-like mycorrhizal fungi.

  6. Identification and Structural Characterization of Unidentified Impurity in Bisoprolol Film-Coated Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mitrevska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the identification, structural characterization, and qualification of a degradation impurity of bisoprolol labeled as Impurity RRT 0.95. This degradation product is considered as a principal thermal degradation impurity identified in bisoprolol film-coated tablets. The impurity has been observed in the stress thermal degradation study of the drug product. Using HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS method, a tentative structure was assigned and afterwards confirmed by detailed structural characterization using NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the target Impurity RRT 0.95 was elucidated as phosphomonoester of bisoprolol, having relative molecular mass of 406 (positive ionization mode. The structural characterization was followed by qualification of Impurity RRT 0.95 using several different in silico methodologies. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that no new structural alerts have been generated for Impurity RRT 0.95 relative to the parent compound bisoprolol. The current study presents an in-depth analysis of the full characterization and qualification of an unidentified impurity in a drug product with the purpose of properly defining the quality specification of the product.

  7. Characterization of the 4,6-α-glucanotransferase GTFB enzyme of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 isolated from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuxiang; van der Kaaij, Rachel Maria; Woortman, Albert Jan Jacob; Jin, Zhengyu; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2015-06-09

    The GTFB enzyme of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 121 is a 4,6-α-glucanotransferase of glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70; http://www.cazy.org ). Contrary to the glucansucrases in GH70, GTFB is unable to use sucrose as substrate, but instead converts malto-oligosaccharides and starch into isomalto-/malto- polymers that may find application as prebiotics and dietary fibers. The GTFB enzyme expresses well in Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3), but mostly accumulates in inclusion bodies (IBs) which generally contain wrongly folded protein and inactive enzyme. Denaturation followed by refolding, as well as ncIB preparation were used for isolation of active GTFB protein from inclusion bodies. Soluble, refolded and ncIB GTFB were compared using activity assays, secondary structure analysis by FT-IR, and product analyses by NMR, HPAEC and SEC. Expression of GTFB in E. coli yielded > 100 mg/l relatively pure and active but mostly insoluble GTFB protein in IBs, regardless of the expression conditions used. Following denaturing, refolding of GTFB protein was most efficient in double distilled H2O. Also, GTFB ncIBs were active, with approx. 10 % of hydrolysis activity compared to the soluble protein. When expressed as units of activity obtained per liter E. coli culture, the total amount of ncIB GTFB expressed possessed around 180 % hydrolysis activity and 100 % transferase activity compared to the amount of soluble GTFB enzyme obtained from one liter culture. The product profiles obtained for the three GTFB enzyme preparations were similar when analyzed by HPAEC and NMR. SEC investigation also showed that these 3 enzyme preparations yielded products with similar size distributions. FT-IR analysis revealed extended β-sheet formation in ncIB GTFB providing an explanation at the molecular level for reduced GTFB activity in ncIBs. The thermostability of ncIB GTFB was relatively high compared to the soluble and refolded GTFB. In view of their relatively high yield

  8. Screening, Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Properties Among Lactic Acid Bacteria Through Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Sundru Manjulata; Archer, Ann Catherine; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-09-01

    The present work aimed to identify probiotic bacteria from healthy human infant faecal and dairy samples. Subsequently, an assay was developed to evaluate the probiotic properties using comparative genetic approach for marker genes involved in adhesion to the intestinal epithelial layer. Several in vitro properties including tolerance to biological barriers (such as acid and bile), antimicrobial spectrum, resistance to simulated digestive fluids and cellular hydrophobicity were assessed. The potential probiotic cultures were rapidly characterized by morphological, physiological and molecular-based methods [such as RFLP, ITS, RAPD and (GTG)5]. Further analysis by 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the selected isolates belong to Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus species. Two cultures of non-lactic, non-pathogenic Staphylococcus spp. were also isolated. The native isolates were able to survive under acidic, bile and simulated intestinal conditions. In addition, these cultures inhibited the growth of tested bacterial pathogens. Further, no correlation was observed between hydrophobicity and adhesion ability. Sequencing of probiotic marker genes such as bile salt hydrolase (bsh), fibronectin-binding protein (fbp) and mucin-binding protein (mub) for selected isolates revealed nucleotide variation. The probiotic binding domains were detected by several bioinformatic tools. The approach used in the study enabled the identification of potential probiotic domains responsible for adhesion of bacteria to intestinal epithelial layer, which may further assist in screening of novel probiotic bacteria. The rapid detection of binding domains will help in revealing the beneficial properties of the probiotic cultures. Further, studies will be performed to develop a novel probiotic product which will contribute in food and feed industry.

  9. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-a simple method for the characterization of polymer inclusion membranes containing aliquat 336.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Michelle; Duffy, Noel; Marco, Roland De; Potter, Ian

    2011-06-23

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to estimate the non-frequency dependent (static) dielectric constants of base polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polystyrene (PS). Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) containing different amounts of PVC or CTA, along with the room temperature ionic liquid Aliquat 336 and plasticizers such as trisbutoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP), dioctyl sebecate (DOS) and 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) have been investigated. In this study, the complex and abstract method of EIS has been applied in a simple and easy to use way, so as to make the method accessible to membrane scientists and engineers who may not possess the detailed knowledge of electrochemistry and interfacial science needed for a rigorous interpretation of EIS results. The EIS data reported herein are internally consistent with a percolation threshold in the dielectric constant at high concentrations of Aliquat 336, which illustrates the suitability of the EIS technique since membrane percolation with ion exchangers is a well-known phenomenon.

  10. UV-vis and FTIR-ATR characterization of 9-fluorenon-2-carboxyester/(2-hydroxypropyl)-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancanelli, R; Ficarra, R; Cannavà, C; Guardo, M; Calabrò, M L; Ficarra, P; Ottanà, R; Maccari, R; Crupi, V; Majolino, D; Venuti, V

    2008-08-05

    In this work, the usefulness of (2-hydroxypropyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CyD) as a tool to form an inclusion complex with 9-fluorenonic derivative (AG11) has been investigated, in pure water, by UV absorption. Phase-solubility diagrams allowed the determination of the association constant between AG11 and HP-beta-CyD. At the same time, solid binary systems between AG11 and HP-beta-CyD have been prepared in 1:1 stoichiometry by co-precipitation method. In order to confirm the complexation, FTIR spectroscopy in ATR geometry measurements have been performed and the results have been compared with the free compounds and the corresponding physical mixture in the same molar ratio. The nature of the interactions between AG11 and HP-beta-CyD has been elucidated also by applying mathematical procedures such as deconvolution and curve fitting. Improvement of the aqueous solubility is expected to improve the bioavailability of the drug in oral administration.

  11. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy—A Simple Method for the Characterization of Polymer Inclusion Membranes Containing Aliquat 336

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle O’Rourke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS has been used to estimate the non-frequency dependent (static dielectric constants of base polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride (PVC, cellulose triacetate (CTA and polystyrene (PS. Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs containing different amounts of PVC or CTA, along with the room temperature ionic liquid Aliquat 336 and plasticizers such as trisbutoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP, dioctyl sebecate (DOS and 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE have been investigated. In this study, the complex and abstract method of EIS has been applied in a simple and easy to use way, so as to make the method accessible to membrane scientists and engineers who may not possess the detailed knowledge of electrochemistry and interfacial science needed for a rigorous interpretation of EIS results. The EIS data reported herein are internally consistent with a percolation threshold in the dielectric constant at high concentrations of Aliquat 336, which illustrates the suitability of the EIS technique since membrane percolation with ion exchangers is a well-known phenomenon.

  12. Performance characterization of screen printed radio frequency identification antennas with silver nanopaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong-Youn, E-mail: dongyoun.shin@gmail.co [Nanomachine Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yongshik, E-mail: yongshik.lee@yonsei.ac.k [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chung Hwan, E-mail: chkim@kimm.re.k [Nanomachine Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-01

    The era of wireless communication has come and it is going to flourish in the form of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The employment of RFID tags in daily commodities, however, is constrained due to the manufacturing cost. Therefore, industries in the field have sought for alternative manufacturing methods at an ultra low cost and various printing processes have been considered such as inkjet, gravure, flexo, off-set and screen. Although such printing processes are age-old, their applications have been mainly limited to graphic arts and design rules for electronic appliances have not been fully established yet. In this paper, the selection of ink and printing process to fabricate RFID antennas is discussed. The developed silver nanopaste in the range of 20 to 50 nm without the inclusion of microparticles and flakes was sintered at 120 {sup o}C for 1 min, which is lower than that of conventional silver paste with microparticles and flakes, and its resistivity was found to be approximately 3 {mu}{Omega} cm. The radiation performances of various screen printed RFID antennas with silver nanopaste were found comparable to those of copper etched ones.

  13. Characterization of structural and free energy properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In current study we analysed the stability and bendability of various classes of promoter regions (based on the recent identification of different classes of transcription start sites) of Helicobacter pylori 26695 strain. It is found that primary TSS and operon-associated TSS promoters show significantly strong features in their ...

  14. Classification of analysis methods for characterization of magnetic nanoparticle properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, O.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Steinhoff, U.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a roadmap for the standardization of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) characterization. We have assessed common MNP analysis techniques under various criteria in order to define the methods that can be used as either standard techniques for magnetic particle charact...... characterization or those that can be used to obtain a comprehensive picture of a MNP system. This classification is the first step on the way to develop standards for nanoparticle characterization....

  15. Classification of analysis methods for characterization of magnetic nanoparticle properties

    OpenAIRE

    Posth, O.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Steinhoff, U; Bogart, L.; Southern, P; Svedlindh, P.; Grüttner, C; Barquin, L. Fernández; Szczerba, W.; Ludwig, F.; Gerhke, N.; Kazakova, O.; Johansson, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a roadmap for the standardization of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) characterization. We have assessed common MNP analysistechniques under various criteria in order to define the methods that can be used as either standard techniques for magnetic particle characterization or those that can be used to obtain a comprehensive picture of a MNP system. This classification is the first step on the way to develop standards for nanoparticle characterization.

  16. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  17. Phenylethynyl Silsesquioxanes: Monomer Synthesis, Characterization,Thermolysis and Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Increased weight Monitoring Repair Modify Oligomer Chemistry Reduce backbone polarity Reduction in thermal and mechanical properties Blend/IPN...PA Clearance Number 16586 Effects of Water Uptake on Viscoelastic Properties Dynamic TMA experiments performed at high heating rate (50 °C/min...it greatly reduces saturated moisture content  POSS improves wet thermomechanical properties and could prevent shock associated with water release

  18. Characterization of anti-leukemia components from Indigo naturalis using comprehensive two-dimensional K562/cell membrane chromatography and in silico target identification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Xunxun; Chen, Xiaofei; Dan, Jia; Cao, Yan; Gao, Shouhong; Guo, Zhiying; Zerbe, Philipp; Chai, Yifeng; Diao, Yong; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, a new strategy combining comprehensive two-dimensional K562/cell membrane chromatographic system and in silico target identification was established to characterize active components...

  19. Ability of Kocuria varians LTH 1540 To Degrade Putrescine: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Amine Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Sara; Sendra, Ramón; Ferrer, Sergi; Pardo, Isabel

    2015-04-29

    This work describes the identification and characterization of an amine oxidase from Kocuria varians LTH 1540 (syn. Micrococcus varians) primarily acting on putrescine. Data from MALDI-TOF MS/MS and the identification of Δ(1)-pyrroline as degradation product from putrescine indicate that the enzyme is a flavin-dependent putrescine oxidase (PuO). Properties of partially purified enzyme have been determined. The enzyme oxidizes diamines, putrescine and cadaverine, and, to a lesser extent, polyamines, such as spermidine, but not monoamines. The kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for the two major substrates were 94 ± 10 μM and 2.3 ± 0.1 μmol/min·mg for putrescine and 75 ± 5 μM and 0.15 ± 0.02 μmol/min·mg for cadaverine. Optimal temperature and pH were 45 °C and 8.5, respectively. Enzyme was stable until 50 °C. K. varians PuO is sensitive to human flavin-dependent amine oxidase inhibitors and carboxyl-modifying compounds. The new enzyme has been isolated from a bacterial starter used in the manufacture of fermented meat. One of the problems of fermented foods or beverages is the presence of toxic biogenic amines produced by bacteria. The importance of this works lies in the description of a new enzyme able to degrade two of the most abundant biogenic amines (putrescine and cadaverine), the use of which could be envisaged to diminish biogenic amines content in foods in the future.

  20. Remote identification of research and educational activities using spectral properties of nighttime light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybnikova, Nataliya A.; Portnov, Boris A.

    2017-06-01

    Research and educational activities (R&EAs) are major forces behind modern economic growth. However, data on geographic location of such activities are often poorly reported. According to our research hypothesis, intensities and spectral properties of artificial light-at-night (ALAN) can be used for remote identification of R&EAs, due to their unique ALAN signatures. In order to develop activity identification models, we carried out a series of in situ measurements of ALAN intensities and spectral properties in a major metropolitan area in Israel. For this task, we used an illuminance CL-500A spectrophotometer that measures the total intensity and spectral irradiance of ALAN, incremented by a 1-nm pitch, from 360 to 780 nm. As our analysis shows, logistic regressions, incorporating ALAN intensities at the peak or near-peak wavelengths, and geographical attributes of the measurement sites as controls, succeeded to predict correctly up to 98.6% of the actual locations of R&EAs. A digital camera satellite image, obtained from the Astronaut Photography Database, was used for the model's validation. According to the validation results, the actual locations of R&EAs coincided well with the estimated high probability areas, as confirmed by the values of Cohen's Kappa index of up to 64%, which indicate a reasonable level of agreement.

  1. Characterization of the Fluorescence Properties of 4-Dialkylaminochalcones and Investigation of the Cytotoxic Mechanism of Chalcones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Jiang, Peixin; Lu, Junxuan; Xing, Chengguo

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the various biological activities of chalcones, particularly the direct cellular targets, presents an unmet challenge. Here, we prepared a series of fluorescent chalcone derivatives as chemical probes for their mechanistic investigation. Upon systematic physicochemical characterization, we explored their potential to elucidate the mode of action of chalcones' cytotoxicity. The fluorescence of the chalcones was found to be highly sensitive to structural and environmental factors. Structurally, a 4-dialkylamino group on the B ring, suitable electronic properties of the A ring substituents, and the planar conformation of the chalcone's core structure were essential for optimal fluorescence. Environmental factors influencing fluorescence included solvent polarity, pH, and the interactions of the chalcones with proteins and detergents. It was found that 18 chalcones showed a fluorescent brightness greater than 6000 M(-1)  cm(-1) in DMSO. However, water dramatically quenched the fluorescence, although it could be partially recovered in the presence of BSA or detergents. As expected, these fluorescent chalcones showed a sharp structure-activity relationship in their cellular cytotoxicity, leading to the identification of structurally similar cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic fluorescent chalcones as chemical probes. Confocal microscopy results revealed the co-localization of the cytotoxic probe C8 and tubulin in cells, supporting tubulin as the direct cellular target responsible for the cytotoxicity of chalcones. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Solid State NMR Characterization and Adsorption Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    Properties of Lignocellulose-Clinoptilolite Composites. Prepared with Siloxanes ... bDeparment of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, Stellenbosch, South Africa. cDeparment of ... mechanical, optical, electrical and thermal properties compared to those of the starting ...

  3. The Characterization of the Magnetic Properties of Soft Magnetic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Raino Michael

    1996-01-01

    The hysteresis curve and magnetic properties such as permeability, saturation induction, residual induction, coercive force and hysteresis losses are presented. The design and construction of equipment making it possible to measure true DC-values as well as AC-properties of toroid rings...

  4. Identification and characterization of gamma-irradiated dried Lentinus edodes using ESR, SEM, and FTIR analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-06-01

    A detailed electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis for different parts of gamma-irradiated (0 to 50 kGy) dried mushroom (Lentinus edodes) was conducted to identify radiation-induced signals. All studied mushroom parts except gills produced strong dose-dependent radiation-induced ESR signals particularly at about g = 2.0076, 20005, and 1.9911 demonstrating the generation of crystalline sugar radicals following irradiation. The intensity of these signals was highest in cap skin samples, followed by the cap core, stem skin, whole mushroom powder, and stem core samples, respectively. ESR-based identification was easily possible at 2 kGy or more using mushroom cap skin or cap core as samples. The radiation-induced ESR signals were found sensitive to thermal treatment showing the limitation of ESR-based detection in case of heat-processed samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed micro-structural damage upon irradiation resulting decreased percentage of rehydration; however, no major alteration was observed through the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Irradiation changed the structural morphology; however, the main functional groups were stable against radiation treatment. Food irradiation can confirm hygienic quality and prolong the product shelf life. However, due to lack of international consensus, effective identification methods and detailed quality characterization are required for the general use of this technology. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Advances in the identification and characterization of olfactory receptors in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagné, Nicolas; de Fouchier, Arthur; Newcomb, Richard D; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are the key elements of the molecular machinery responsible for the detection of odors in insects. Since their initial discovery in Drosophila melanogaster at the beginning of the twenty-first century, insect ORs have been the focus of intense research, both for fundamental knowledge of sensory systems and for their potential as novel targets for the development of products that could impact harmful behaviors of crop pests and disease vectors. In recent years, studies on insect ORs have entered the genomic era, with an ever-increasing number of OR genes being characterized every year through the sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes. With the upcoming release of genomic sequences from hundreds of insect species, the insect OR family could very well become the largest multigene family known. This extremely rapid identification of ORs in many insects is driving the necessity for the development of high-throughput technologies that will allow the identification of ligands for this unprecedented number of receptors. Moreover, such technologies will also be important for the development of agonists or antagonists that could be used in the fight against pest insects. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Peptidomic approaches to the identification and characterization of functional peptides in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Fujisawa, Toshitaka

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about peptides that control developmental processes such as cell differentiation and pattern formation in metazoans. The cnidarian Hydra is one of the most basal metazoans and is a key model system for studying the peptides involved in these processes. We developed a novel peptidomic approach to the isolation and identification of functional signalling peptides from Hydra (the Hydra peptide project). First, peptides extracted from the tissue of Hydra magnipapillata are purified to homogeneity using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolated peptides are then tested for their ability to alter gene expression in Hydra using differential display-PCR (DD-PCR). If gene expression is altered, the peptide is considered as a putative signalling peptide and is subjected to amino acid sequencing. Following the sequencing, synthetic peptides are produced and compared to their native counterparts by HPLC and/or mass spectrometry (MS). The synthetic peptides, which are available in larger quantities than their native analogues, are then tested in a variety of biological assays in Hydra to determine their functions. Here we present our strategies and a systematic approach to the identification and characterization of novel signalling peptides in Hydra. We also describe our high-throughput reverse-phase nano-flow liquid chromatography matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) approach, which was proved to be a powerful tool in the discovery of novel signalling peptides.

  7. Identification and characterization of nuclear genes involved in photosynthesis in Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The gap between the real and potential photosynthetic rate under field conditions suggests that photosynthesis could potentially be improved. Nuclear genes provide possible targets for improving photosynthetic efficiency. Hence, genome-wide identification and characterization of the nuclear genes affecting photosynthetic traits in woody plants would provide key insights on genetic regulation of photosynthesis and identify candidate processes for improvement of photosynthesis. Results Using microarray and bulked segregant analysis strategies, we identified differentially expressed nuclear genes for photosynthesis traits in a segregating population of poplar. We identified 515 differentially expressed genes in this population (FC ≥ 2 or FC ≤ 0.5, P photosynthesis by the nuclear genome mainly involves transport, metabolism and response to stimulus functions. Conclusions This study provides new genome-scale strategies for the discovery of potential candidate genes affecting photosynthesis in Populus, and for identification of the functions of genes involved in regulation of photosynthesis. This work also suggests that improving photosynthetic efficiency under field conditions will require the consideration of multiple factors, such as stress responses. PMID:24673936

  8. Cloning, characterization and identification of the gene encoding phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, A; Garcia, E; Ospina, R; Powell, M; Martinez, M; Alejo, W; McKoy, J; Moore, C W

    1997-11-01

    The vast majority of AIDS-related deaths are associated with opportunistic infections. For fungal infections, there are few effective antifungals, particularly for systemic use. The discovery that very low doses of the bleomycin family of anticancer chemical congeners compromise the integrity of fungal cell walls led to our approach to identify genes that complement-cell wall defects, and develop methods to facilitate the identification of new antifungals targeted to fungal cell walls. This report describes one of the genes cloned by complementation of the blm1-1 mutation of S. cerevisiae using a YCp50-based yeast genomic library. Characterization and identification of the gene were carried out using drug screening tests, Southern hybridization analyses, DNA sequencing and DNA sequence similarity searches in databases. The gene STT4, is essential for viability and encodes a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase that plays an important role in the phosphatidylinositol-mediated signal transduction pathway required for cell wall integrity. Like blm1-1 mutant strains, stt4 cells arrest mostly in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Further studies using this approach should help us understand the role of PI4-K in maintaining fungal cell-wall integrity, identify additional genes affecting potential target structures in cell walls of opportunistic fungal pathogens in AIDS patients, and assist in drug discovery and antifungal drug design.

  9. Identification and characterization of nuclear genes involved in photosynthesis in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bowen; Du, Qingzhang; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Deqiang

    2014-03-27

    The gap between the real and potential photosynthetic rate under field conditions suggests that photosynthesis could potentially be improved. Nuclear genes provide possible targets for improving photosynthetic efficiency. Hence, genome-wide identification and characterization of the nuclear genes affecting photosynthetic traits in woody plants would provide key insights on genetic regulation of photosynthesis and identify candidate processes for improvement of photosynthesis. Using microarray and bulked segregant analysis strategies, we identified differentially expressed nuclear genes for photosynthesis traits in a segregating population of poplar. We identified 515 differentially expressed genes in this population (FC ≥ 2 or FC ≤ 0.5, P photosynthesis by the nuclear genome mainly involves transport, metabolism and response to stimulus functions. This study provides new genome-scale strategies for the discovery of potential candidate genes affecting photosynthesis in Populus, and for identification of the functions of genes involved in regulation of photosynthesis. This work also suggests that improving photosynthetic efficiency under field conditions will require the consideration of multiple factors, such as stress responses.

  10. Characterization of gas chemistry and noble-gas isotope ratios of inclusion fluids in magmatic-hydrothermal and magmatic-steam alunite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G.P.; Rye, R.O.

    2005-01-01

    -hydrothermal or magmatic-steam fluids. Thus, the oxidation of SO2 to aqueous sulfate in the magmatic-steam fluids did not result from mixing with atmospheric oxygen. Both of the fluid types are characterized by high H2 contents that range from 0.2 mol% to the extraordinarily large amounts (66 mol%) observed in some magmatic-steam fluids. Modeling of gas speciation using SOLVGAS requires most of the gas species to have been in disequilibrium at the time of their trapping in the fluid inclusions. The origin of such extreme H2 concentrations, although problematic, is thought to be largely related to accumulation of H2 from the reaction of water with ferrous iron during the rise of magma and probably even after exsolution of fluid from a magma. The large contents of reduced gases in the inclusion fluids are far in excess of those observed in volcanic emanations, and are thought to reflect the close "sampling position" of the host alunite relative to the location of the magma. Isotope ratios of He and Ne indicate largely crustal sources for these gases in the alunite parental fluids derived from Tertiary magmas, but a greater mantle component for the gases in alunite parental fluids derived from Proterozoic magmas.

  11. Pigments Characterization and Molecular Identification of Bacterial Symbionts of Brown Algae Padinasp. Collected from Karimunjawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Bayu Murti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for carotenoids in nature has been extensively studied because of their applications in foods. One treasure of the biopigment source is symbiotic-microorganisms with marine biota. The advantages of symbiont bacteria are easy to culture and sensitize pigments. The use of symbiont bacteria helps to conserve fish, coral reefs, seagrass, and seaweed. Therefore, the bacteria keeps their existence in their ecosystems. In this study, bacterial symbionts were successfully isolated from brown algae Padina sp. The bacterial symbionts had yellow pigment associated with carotenoids. The pigments were characterized using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with a Photo Diode Array (PDA detector. The carotenoid pigments in the bacterial symbionts were identified as dinoxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin. Molecular identification by using a 16S rRNA gene sequence method, reveals that the bacterial symbionts were closely related to Bacillus marisflavi with a homology of 99%. Keywords :carotenoid pigments, brown algae, Padina, bacterial symbionts, 16S rRNA

  12. Identification and characterization of Fusarium mangiferae as pathogen of mango malformation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fusarium mangiferae (=F. subglutinans isolates collect from malformed samples from major mango-growing area of North India. Molecular identification and characterization of eleven most virulent isolates of F. mangiferae, based on pathogenicity tests used for the present study. Species-specific, genus specific ITS-PCR and PCR-RFLP performed for the accurate and easy detection of F. mangiferae. The rDNA-ITS 28S region sequences used for phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium isolates from India and other countries for homology search between them. The phylogenetic tree divided the isolates into three clades (i.e., American, Asian and African and showed the high level of sequence based similarity (69-99% among all Fusarium sequences from Asia. Thus, claimed Fusarium mangiferae as dominant pathogen of mango malformation. Furthermore, we conclude that exploiting the nested PCR coupled with PCR-RFLP will help in rapid and accurate detection of F. mangiferae pathogen of mango malformation.

  13. Species identification of Hypoderma affecting domestic and wild ruminants by morphological and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, D; Colwell, D D; Traversa, D; Stevens, J R

    2003-09-01

    Cuticular structures and the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase I gene were compared for Hypoderma bovis (Linnaeus), Hypoderma lineatum (De Villers), Hypoderma actaeon Brauer, Hypoderma diana Brauer and Hypoderma tarandi (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Oestridae). Third-stage larvae of each species were examined by scanning electron microscopy revealing differences among species in the pattern and morphology of spines on the cephalic and thoracic segments, by spine patterns on the tenth abdominal segment, and by morphology of the spiracular plates. The morphological approach was supported by the molecular characterization of the most variable region of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene of these species, which was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analysed. Amplicons were digested with the unique restriction enzyme, BfaI, providing diagnostic profiles able to simultaneously differentiate all Hypoderma species examined. These findings confirm the utility of morphological characters for differentiating the most common Hypoderma larvae and reconfirm the power of the COI gene for studying insect identification and systematics.

  14. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SUCROSE SYNTHASE 2 GENE (Sus2 IN DURUM WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa eVolpicella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for sucrose synthase in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur and 5-BIL42. The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modelling approaches. The combined results of SUS2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield.

  15. Identification and characterization of nonhistone chromatin proteins: human positive coactivator 4 as a candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sujata; Das, Chandrima; Sikder, Sweta; Kumar, Manoj; Bachu, Mahesh; Ranga, Udaykumar; Kundu, Tapas K

    2015-01-01

    The highly dynamic nucleoprotein structure of eukaryotic genome is organized in an ordered fashion, the unit of which is the nucleosome. The nucleosome is composed of core histones and DNA of variable size wrapped around it. Apart from the histone proteins, several nonhistone proteins also interact with the complex consisting of the DNA, the core and linker histones conferring highly regulated fluidity on the chromatin and permitting fine tuning of its functions. The nonhistone proteins are multifunctional and accentuate diverse cellular outcomes. In spite of the technical challenges, the architectural role of the nonhistone proteins altering the topology of the chromatin has been studied extensively. To appreciate the significance of the chromatin for genome function, it is essential to examine the role of the nonhistone proteins in different physiological conditions. Here, taking the example of a highly abundant chromatin protein, PC4 (Positive coactivator 4), we describe strategies for the identification of the chromatin-associated proteins and their structural and functional characterization.

  16. Identification and characterization of tebuconazole transformation products in soil by combining suspect screening and molecular typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Veronika; Lucini, Luigi; Mamy, Laure; Ferrari, Federico; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Nikolaki, Sofia; Karas, Panagiotis A; Servien, Remi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Trevisan, Marco; Benoit, Pierre; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides generate transformation products (TPs) when they are released into the environment. These TPs may be of ecotoxicological importance. Past studies have demonstrated how difficult it is to predict the occurrence of pesticide TPs and their environmental risk. The monitoring approaches mostly used in current regulatory frameworks target only known ecotoxicologically relevant TPs. Here, we present a novel combined approach which identifies and categorizes known and unknown pesticide TPs in soil by combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with in silico molecular typology. We used an empirical and theoretical pesticide TP library for compound identification by both non-target and target time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry, followed by structural proposition through a molecular structure correlation program. In silico molecular typology was then used to group TPs according to common molecular descriptors and to indirectly elucidate their environmental parameters by analogy to known pesticide compounds with similar molecular descriptors. This approach was evaluated via the identification of TPs of the triazole fungicide tebuconazole occurring in soil during a field dissipation study. Overall, 22 empirical and 12 yet unknown TPs were detected, and categorized into three groups with defined environmental properties. This approach combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with molecular typology could be extended to other organic pollutants and used to rationalize the choice of TPs to be investigated towards a more comprehensive environmental risk assessment scheme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Development of Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis Simulations for Inclusion in Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Diego Mandelli; Ronald L. Boring; Curtis L. Smith; Rachel B. Shirley

    2015-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy is sponsoring the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program, which has the overall objective of supporting the near-term and the extended operation of commercial nuclear power plants. One key research and development (R&D) area in this program is the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization pathway, which combines probabilistic risk simulation with thermohydraulic simulation codes to define and manage safety margins. The R&D efforts to date, however, have not included robust simulations of human operators, and how the reliability of human performance or lack thereof (i.e., human errors) can affect risk-margins and plant performance. This paper describes current and planned research efforts to address the absence of robust human reliability simulations and thereby increase the fidelity of simulated accident scenarios.

  18. Electrical and magnetic properties of multilayer polymer structures with nano inclusions as prepared by selective laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkovsky, Igor; Morozov, Yury

    2013-02-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) was used to prepare porous polymer nanocomposites comprising of a polycarbonate (PC) matrix doped with 30-50 wt% nano Ni or/and 10-30 wt% nano Cu. The electrical conductivity was measured at f = 1 MHz, bias dc voltage 40 V, and 300-400 K. Magnetic measurements were carried out at r.t. in magnetic fields of up to 10 kOe. Temperature dependence of electrophysical properties was studied for 3D samples derived from PC-Cu powders. Magnetic properties were measured for alternating ferromagnetic/non-magnetic layers with Ni and/or Cu core/polymer shell structures. Temperature dependencies for a real part of a dielectric permeability, loss tangent, and magnetization were found to have a hysteresis character. The structure of sintered items was found to depend of external dc magnetic field.

  19. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  20. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  1. Using high-frequency vibrations and non-linear inclusions to create metamaterials with adjustable effective properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how high-frequency (HF) excitation combined with strongly non-linear elasticity may influence the effective properties for low-frequency wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated for linear spring-mass chains with embedded non-linear parts. The investigated mechanical syste...... static displacements and forces can be created by using HF excitation with structures having asymmetric displacement-force characteristics....

  2. Eclogite inclusions from subducted metaigneous continental crust (Malpica-Tui Allochthonous Complex, NW Spain): Petrofabric, geochronology, and calculated seismic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, P.; Beranoaguirre, A.; Ábalos, B.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.; García de Madinabeitia, S.; Rodríguez, J.; Fernández-Armas, S.

    2017-07-01

    This study describes the strain geometry, crystal-plastic deformational features, isotopic age of metamorphism, and calculated seismic properties of two medium-temperature eclogite types from the Malpica-Tui Allochthonous Complex of Variscan NW Iberia. The eclogite types are eclogites with coronitic garnets and eclogites with a planolinear fabric. Both of them were buried, deformed and recrystallized under maximum pressure and temperature of 2.6 GPa and 610-640°C, and subsequently exhumed in a late Devonian subduction channel. The metamorphic peak of the subduction-exhumation cycle occurred 375 Ma ago. Omphacite petrofabric ties eclogites with coronitic garnet to noncoaxial constrictional strain and eclogites with planolinear fabrics to noncoaxial flattening strain and stretching along the lineation. We also used omphacite crystallographic preferred orientations to calculate and constrain the seismic properties of the eclogites. The slight variations in petrophysical properties observed are interpreted to result from variations in the strain regime recorded by pristine eclogites, or from variations in the modal proportions of the constituent high-pressure minerals. We foresee that eclogite in subduction metamorphic complexes might be either seismically undetectable or detected as planar features with high impedance contrasts relative to their host rocks.

  3. Identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tholen Ernst

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are the major class of gene-regulating molecules playing diverse roles through sequence complementarity to target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. Tightly regulated expression and interaction of a multitude of genes for ovarian folliculogenesis could be regulated by these miRNAs. Identification of them is the first step towards understanding miRNA-guided gene regulation in different biological functions. Despite increasing efforts in miRNAs identification across various species and diverse tissue types, little is known about bovine ovarian miRNAs. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary through cloning, expression analysis and target prediction. Results The miRNA library (5'-independent ligation cloning method, which was constructed from bovine ovary in this study, revealed cloning of 50 known and 24 novel miRNAs. Among all identified miRNAs, 38 were found to be new for bovine and were derived from 43 distinct loci showing characteristic secondary structure. While 22 miRNAs precursor loci were found to be well conserved in more than one species, 16 were found to be bovine specific. Most of the miRNAs were cloned multiple times, in which let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, miR-21, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-126 and miR-143 were cloned 10, 28, 13, 4, 11, 7, 6, 4 and 11 times, respectively. Expression analysis of all new and some annotated miRNAs in different intra-ovarian structures and in other multiple tissues showed that some were present ubiquitously while others were differentially expressed among different tissue types. Bta-miR-29a was localized in the follicular cells at different developmental stages in the cyclic ovary. Bio-informatics prediction, screening and Gene Ontology analysis of miRNAs targets identified several biological processes and pathways underlying the ovarian function. Conclusion Results of this study suggest the presence of miRNAs in the

  4. Identification and characterization of rainfall events responsible for triggering of debris flows and shallow landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro; Napolitano, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is the development of objective and replicable methodologies for the identification, analysis and characterization of rainfall events responsible for the triggering of shallow landslides and debris flows, in order to define empirical rainfall thresholds. The study area is the province of Trento (6208 km2), located in the north-eastern Alps, and characterized by complex orography, with 70% of the area at an altitude above 1000 m. A rigorous statistical methodology has been defined for the identification of the beginning of the triggering event, based on the critical duration, i.e. the minimum dry period duration separating two stochastically independent rainy periods. The critical duration has been calculated for each rain gauge of the studied area and its variability during the months of the year has been analyzed. An analysis of the rainfall spatial variability in a neighborhood of the landslide detachment zone has been carried out. The adopted methods are: the examination of the Monte Macaion radar maps during some summer convective events, the comparison of rainfall records of rain gauges located in a 10 km buffer around the landslide, and the calculation of the Pearson's correlation coefficient between pairs of neighboring rain gauges. The following rainfall thresholds have been then calibrated with the frequentist approach and compared: average intensity-event duration (I-D), which represents the rainfall event in its entirety, and intensity-duration associated with the event maximum return period (IRP-DRP), which considers the most critical portion of the event. In the absence of information about the landslide time of activation, the end of the triggering event has been identified using two criteria: the rainfall peak intensity and the last registration of the day. The methodology adopted for the objective identification of the beginning of the triggering event has demonstrated good applicability for rainfall induced landslides. During

  5. Characterization and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swatsitang, Ekaphan [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Phokha, Sumalin, E-mail: sumalinphokha@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Udon Thani Rajabhat University, Udon Thani, 41000 Thailand (Thailand); Hunpratub, Sitchai; Usher, Brian [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Udon Thani Rajabhat University, Udon Thani, 41000 Thailand (Thailand); Bootchanont, Atipong [Division of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi (RMUTT), Pathumthani 12110 (Thailand); Maensiri, Santi [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 Thailand (Thailand); Chindaprasirt, Prinya [Sustainable Infrastructure Research and Development Center, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-04-15

    Inverse spinel cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were synthesized by a polymer pyrolysis method and calcined at various temperatures from 800 to 1000 °C. The structure, morphology, valence states and magnetic properties of the calcined samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). All calcined samples had the cubic spinel type structure with average crystallite sizes increasing from 80 ± 2 to 100 ± 3 nm with increasing calcination temperature. The XANES spectra allowed the valence states of the Fe{sup 3+} and Co{sup 2+} ions in the samples to be established and simulation of the XANES spectra suggested that the site occupancy of Fe{sup 3+} and Co{sup 2+} ions was mixed, with the majority of Co{sup 2+} ions occupying octahedral sites and the majority of Fe{sup 3+} ions occupying tetrahedral sites within the spinel structure. All samples exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with a maximum saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) of 3.42 μ{sub B} and a coercivity (H{sub C}) of 1100 Oe for crystallite sizes of 100 nm. The origin of the ferromagnetism is discussed in relation to the distribution of Fe{sup 3+} and Co{sup 2+} ions within the lattice and the crystallite sizes. - Graphical abstract: In Figure shows ferromagnetism (FM) at room temperature (RT), simulation of the XANES spectra of (a) Fe and (b) Co edges (inset in the right) and TEM image (inset in the left) of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared by polymer pyrolysis method. The bright field TEM image showed the aggregated particles. The simulation showed a cation combination with the majority of Co{sup 2+} ions occupying octahedral sites and the majority of Fe{sup 3+} ions occupying tetrahedral sites within the spinel structure. The distribution of Fe{sup 3+} and Co{sup 2+} ions within the lattice and the crystallite sizes is discussed on

  6. Effect of the inclusion of whole citrus in the ration of lactating ewes on the properties of milk and cheese characteristics during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, D P; García, T; Buffa, M; Rodríguez, M; Guamis, B; Trujillo, A

    2009-02-01

    The effect of including citrus fruits (CF) in the rations of dairy ewes on the milk characteristics and biochemical changes of cheeses during ripening was evaluated. For this purpose, 48 lactating ewes (Guirra breed) were divided into 4 homogeneous groups and fed with isoenergetic and isoprotein rations containing CF at 0, 10, 20, and 30% on a dry matter basis in substitution of dry barley and pelleted beet pulp. During the experimental period, 3 batches of bulk milk were collected from each group and semi-hard cheeses were manufactured. Cheeses were sampled at 15, 30, and 60 d of ripening. Milk coagulation parameters and cheese yield were not negatively affected by the inclusion of CF in the ration. Physicochemical composition of cheeses at 60 d showed statistical differences for lower total solids and fat content of 30% CF cheeses. Proteolysis of cheeses measured by water-soluble nitrogen and total free amino acids content was not influenced by the ration. Differences between rations with respect to free fatty acids were significant for medium- and long-chain free fatty acids, and therefore for total content, but differences did not show a trend related to the increase of CF in the diet. The inclusion of CF in the ration of lactating ewes up to levels of 30% did not negatively affect the properties of milk and the biochemical and sensory characteristics of cheeses.

  7. Leukocyte inclusion within a platelet rich plasma-derived fibrin scaffold stimulates a more pro-inflammatory environment and alters fibrin properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Anitua

    Full Text Available One of the main differences among platelet-rich plasma (PRP products is the inclusion of leukocytes that may affect the biological efficacy of these autologous preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of leukocytes modified the morphological, biomechanical and biological properties of PRP under normal and inflammatory conditions. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and leukocyte-platelet rich plasma (L-PRP scaffolds was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and was significantly increased under an inflammatory condition when leukocytes were included in the PRP. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts treated with L-PRP, under an inflammatory situation, underwent a greater activation of NFĸB pathway, proliferated significantly less and secreted a higher concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These cellular events were assessed through Western blot and fluorimetric and ELISA methods, respectively. Therefore, the inclusion of leukocytes induced significantly higher pro-inflammatory conditions.

  8. ARE INCLUSIVE DESIGNERS DESIGNING INCLUSIVELY?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature exists relating to Inclusive Design. The literature can be divided into theory concerning methodology and case studies concerning practice. With such a large body of theoretical literature available, the question arises as to how closely practice matches that theory....... This paper is a survey of the methods used in the execution of self-declared inclusively design products based on an analysis of academic papers, posters and oral presentations. The case studies are divided into two groups, product design and assistive technology. Design steps were assigned to six categories...

  9. Identification and characterization of UDP-glucose:Phloretin 4'-O-glycosyltransferase from Malus x domestica Borkh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Eyal, Yoram; Sheachter, Alona; Marzouk, Sally; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2016-10-01

    Apples (Malus x domestica Brokh.) are among the world's most important food crops with nutritive and medicinal importance. Many of the health beneficial properties of apple fruit are suggested to be due to (poly)phenolic metabolites, including various dihydrochalcones. Although many of the genes and enzymes involved in polyphenol biosynthesis are known in many plant species, the specific reactions that lead to the biosynthesis of the sweet tasting dihydrochalcones, such as trilobatin, are unknown. To identify candidate genes for involvement in the glycosylation of dihydrochalcones, existing genome databases of the Rosaceae were screened for apple genes with significant sequence similarity to Bacillus subtilis phloretin glycosyltransferase. Herein reported is the identification and functional characterization of a Malus x domestica gene encoding phloretin-4'-O-glycosyltransferase designated MdPh-4'-OGT. Recombinant MdPh-4'-OGT protein glycosylates phloretin in the presence of UDP-glucose into trilobatin in vitro. Its apparent Km values for phloretin and UDP-glucose were 26.1 μM and 1.2 mM, respectively. Expression analysis of the MdPh-4'-OGT gene indicated that its transcript levels showed significant variation in apple tissues of different developmental stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PHYSICALCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COCOA HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics and thermophysical properties of cocoa hoeny. The cocoa honey had the following physicalchemical characteristics: pH (2.76, titratable acidity (0.73 %, moisture (87,22 %, soluble solids (14,03 °Brix, reducing sugar (10,2 % in glucose, non-reducing sugar (4,06 % in saccharose and ash (0,23 %. With respect to the thermophysical properties were determined the specific heat, density, thermal diffusivity and the dynamic viscosity as a function of temperature. The empirical models for each property were obtained. It was found that the temperature directly affects the cocoa liquor properties. The data are important for the development, adaptation and optimization of equipment for more efficient processing of cocoa honey, since the information on this subject is unknown.

  11. Microstructure characterization and magnetic properties of nano structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.C

    2000-07-01

    The present thesis deals with the unique microstructural properties and their novel magnetic properties of core-shell Ni-Ce nano composite particles, carbon encapsulated Fe, Co, and Ni nanoparticles and the nano crystallization behavior of typical ferromagnetic Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 9}B{sub 13} ribbons. These properties have intensively been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy [eds.]; selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED), Ft-IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition, magnetic moments measurements at different temperatures and applied fields have been performed by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The present studies may provide the insights for the better understanding of the correlation between the unique microstructure and novel magnetic properties for several magnetic nano structured materials. (Author)

  12. Characterization of physicochemical properties of ivy nanoparticles for cosmetic application

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yujian; Lenaghan, Scott C; Xia, Lijin; Burris, Jason N; Stewart, C Neal Jr; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Naturally occurring nanoparticles isolated from English ivy (Hedera helix) have previously been proposed as an alternative to metallic nanoparticles as sunscreen fillers due to their effective UV extinction property, low toxicity and potential biodegradability. Methods This study focused on analyzing the physicochemical properties of the ivy nanoparticles, specifically, those parameters which are crucial for use as sunscreen fillers, such as pH, temperature, and UV irradia...

  13. Identification and characterization of new designer drug 4-fluoro-PV9 and α-PHP in the seized materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Milena; Rojkiewicz, Marcin; Celiński, Rafał; Kuś, Piotr; Sajewicz, Mieczysław

    In this study, we present identification and physicochemical characterization of new cathinone derivatives, 4-fluoro-PV9 and already known α-PHP in seized materials. Although the disclosure of α-PHP from an illegal product had been reported and characterized to some extent, the data on α-PHP are also presented together with those of 4-fluoro-PV9. The data of characterization for the two compounds were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry and HPLC-diode array detection, electrospray ionization/ion trap mass spectrometry in MS 2 and MS 3 modes, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report for identification and detailed characterization of 4-fluoro-PV9 circulated on the illegal drug market.

  14. Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate Inclusion into Υ-Cyclodextrin and Mesoporous SBA-15: Preparation, Characterization and In Vitro Release Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bastianini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is a strong antioxidant widely used in cosmetic and food fields. This vitamin is very unstable and rapidly undergoes degradation. In order to solve this problem and to obtain a stable ascorbic acid, Nikkol Group has developed ascorbyltetraisopalmitate (VC-IP. This raw material is an oil phase, already well-known and employed in the cosmetic market. The objective of this study is to obtain VC-IP in micro-powder form, in order to produce a new raw material that is easily dispersible in oil and water phases and useful for make-up and color cosmetic applications. Various types of drug carriers were studied and considered in order to support VC-IP and obtain the conversion in powder. Υ-cyclodextrin and mesoporous silica SBA-15 were chosen as the best candidates. A white powder of supported VC-IP was obtained with each carrier (VC-IP@cyclodextrin, VC-IP@SBA-15. The systems underwent physicochemical characterization and in vitro release tests were carried out. Based on the conducted study, it can be concluded that by supporting VC-IP on Υ-cyclodextrin and SBA-15, it is feasible to obtain a new raw material in powder form. The two carriers possess different release profiles, adding the possibility to finely tune the release of the active component in smart formulations.

  15. Identification and characterization of three immunodominant structural proteins of fowlpox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Denise; Green, Philip; Jones, Brenda; Henriquet, Gwenn; Hunt, Lawrence G; Laidlaw, Stephen M; Monaghan, Paul; Skinner, Michael A

    2002-10-01

    Genes encoding fowlpox virus (FWPV) structural proteins have been identified mainly by sequence homology with those from vaccinia virus (VACV), but little is known about the encoded proteins. Production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Poxine and HP1-440 (Munich) clone FP9 allowed the identification of three immunodominant FWPV proteins: the 39-kDa core protein (encoded by FPV168, homologous to VACV A4L), a 30- and 35-kDa protein doublet, and an abundant 63-kDa protein. The 30- and 35-kDa proteins are nonglycosylated, antigenically related proteins present in the intracellular mature virus membrane and localizing closely with the viral factories. N-terminal sequencing identified the 35-kDa protein as encoded by FPV140 (the FWPV homolog of VACV H3L). The 63-kDa protein forms covalently linked dimers and oligomers. It remained mainly insoluble upon detergent treatment of purified virus but did not localize closely with the viral factory. N-terminal sequencing was unsuccessful, suggesting N-terminal blocking. CNBr digestion generated a peptide encoded by FPV191, predicted to encode one of two FWPV A-type inclusion (ATI) proteins. The characteristics of the 63-kDa protein were inconsistent with published observations on cowpox or VACV ATI proteins (it appears to be essential). The 63-kDa protein, however, shares characteristics with both VACV p4c virus occlusion and 14-kDa fusion proteins. Gene assignment at the poxvirus ATI locus (between VACV A24R and A28L) is complicated by sequence redundancies and variations, often due to deletions and multiple frameshift mutations. The identity of FPV191 in relation to genes at this locus is discussed.

  16. Lidar-radar synergy for characterizing properties of ultragiant volcanic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, F.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Giunta, A.; Mona, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2011-12-01

    , but from Central Europe where many lidar observations confirm the presence of volcanic aerosol in the previous days. Therefore, both CIAO lidar observations and the backtrajectory analysis suggests a volcanic origin of the ultragiant aerosol observed by the radar, revealing that these particles might have travelled for more than 4000 km after their injection into the atmosphere. The reported observation fostered a study, reported in this work, about the performances of multi-wavelength Raman lidars in the identification and the characterization of ultragiant aerosols layers in the troposphere. Results from simulations using Mie, T-Matrix and ray-tracing codes will be presented and compared with the observations performed in April-May 2010 during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Sensitivity ranges in detection of aerosol layer are pointed out in terms of experimental limits of both lidar and radar techniques and of aerosol optical depth. Moreover, recommendations for use of a combined lidar-radar approach for the aerosol typing and for the retrieval of their microphysical properties are reported.

  17. First-principles investigations of electron-hole inclusion effects on optoelectronic properties of Bi2Te3, a topological insulator for broadband photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Abdullahi; Shaari, A.; Ahmed, R.; Jarkoni, Norshila

    2017-09-01

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3), a layered compound with narrow band gap has been potentially reported for thermoelectric. However, strong light interaction of Bi2Te3 is an exciting feature to emerge it as a promising candidate for optoelectronic applications within broadband wavelengths. In this study, we investigate structural, electronic and optical properties of Bi2Te3 topological insulator using combination of density functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) approach. With the inclusion of van der Waals (vdW) correction in addition to PBE, the lattice parameters and interlayer distance are in good agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, for the precise prediction of fundamental band gap, we go beyond DFT and calculated band structure using one-shot GW approach. Interestingly, our calculated quasiparticle (QP) band gap, Eg of 0.169 eV, is in good agreement with experimental measurements. Taken into account the effects of electron-hole interaction by solving Bethe-Salpeter equation, the calculated optical properties, namely, imaginary and real parts of complex dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, reflectivity, extinction coefficient, electron energy loss function and optical conductivity all are in better agreement with available experimental results. Consistencies of our findings with experimental data validate the effectiveness of electron-hole interaction for theoretical investigation of optical properties.

  18. ProSight PTM 2.0: improved protein identification and characterization for top down mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamdborg, Leonid; LeDuc, Richard D; Glowacz, Kevin J; Kim, Yong-Bin; Viswanathan, Vinayak; Spaulding, Ian T; Early, Bryan P; Bluhm, Eric J; Babai, Shannee; Kelleher, Neil L

    2007-07-01

    ProSight PTM 2.0 (http://prosightptm2.scs.uiuc.edu) is the next generation of the ProSight PTM web-based system for the identification and characterization of proteins using top down tandem mass spectrometry. It introduces an entirely new data-driven interface, integrated Sequence Gazer for protein characterization, support for fixed modifications, terminal modifications and improved support for multiple precursor ions (multiplexing). Furthermore, it supports data import and export for local analysis and collaboration.

  19. Structural characterization of mineral with rutile inclusions (TiO2) and manganocolumbite (MnNb2O6) by means of X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila, J. F.; Hincapié, A. F.

    2013-11-01

    A sample of mineral obtained in the department of Vichada was characterized by the technique of X-ray diffraction in powder samples, in order to determine the crystallographic phases present. After analyzing diffraction patterns, as a result, the mineral had inclusions of Rutile (86.3%) and Manganocolumbita (13.7%). Next, a simulation of the crystal structure of these minerals from the data entered in the databases was carried on. Later, the Rietveld method was used, from this refinement, the new diffraction pattern and the new network parameters were obtained. For the Rutile it was obtained a tetragonal structure, and for the Manganocolumbita an orthorhombic structure was obtained. The characterization is justified among other aspects due to the important applications of these materials in industry and technology, such as Rutile is used in welding rod coatings, in Industries cardboard paper and ink impression among many other uses, the Manganocolumbita is used in special alloys resistant to high temperatures, it also is directly related to the tantalite in coltan formation.

  20. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  1. Identification and characterization of rhizospheric microbial diversity by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Mubeen, Samavia; Khan, SamiUllah; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Bano, Asghari; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, samples of rhizosphere and root nodules were collected from different areas of Pakistan to isolate plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Identification of bacterial isolates was made by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and taxonomical confirmation on EzTaxon Server. The identified bacterial strains were belonged to 5 genera i.e. Ensifer, Bacillus, Pseudomona, Leclercia and Rhizobium. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the evolutionary relationship of bacterial strains with the respective genera. Based on phylogenetic analysis, some candidate novel species were also identified. The bacterial strains were also characterized for morphological, physiological, biochemical tests and glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) gene that involved in the phosphate solublization using cofactor pyrroloquinolone quinone (PQQ). Seven rhizoshperic and 3 root nodulating stains are positive for gdh gene. Furthermore, this study confirms a novel association between microbes and their hosts like field grown crops, leguminous and non-leguminous plants. It was concluded that a diverse group of bacterial population exist in the rhizosphere and root nodules that might be useful in evaluating the mechanisms behind plant microbial interactions and strains QAU-63 and QAU-68 have sequence similarity of 97 and 95% which might be declared as novel after further taxonomic characterization.

  2. Simultaneous virus identification and characterization of severe unexplained pneumonia cases using a metagenomics sequencing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohui; Tang, Guangpeng; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Yan; Chen, Tao; Lei, Mingyu; Chen, Wenbing; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wenfei; Zhuang, Li; Yang, Jing; Feng, Zhaomin; Wang, Dayan; Wang, Dingming; Shu, Yuelong

    2017-03-01

    Many viruses can cause respiratory diseases in humans. Although great advances have been achieved in methods of diagnosis, it remains challenging to identify pathogens in unexplained pneumonia (UP) cases. In this study, we applied next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and a metagenomic approach to detect and characterize respiratory viruses in UP cases from Guizhou Province, China. A total of 33 oropharyngeal swabs were obtained from hospitalized UP patients and subjected to NGS. An unbiased metagenomic analysis pipeline identified 13 virus species in 16 samples. Human rhinovirus C was the virus most frequently detected and was identified in seven samples. Human measles virus, adenovirus B 55 and coxsackievirus A10 were also identified. Metagenomic sequencing also provided virus genomic sequences, which enabled genotype characterization and phylogenetic analysis. For cases of multiple infection, metagenomic sequencing afforded information regarding the quantity of each virus in the sample, which could be used to evaluate each viruses' role in the disease. Our study highlights the potential of metagenomic sequencing for pathogen identification in UP cases.

  3. Identification and characterization of near-fatal asthma phenotypes by cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pariente, J; Rodrigo, G; Fiz, J A; Crespo, A; Plaza, V

    2015-09-01

    Near-fatal asthma (NFA) is a heterogeneous clinical entity and several profiles of patients have been described according to different clinical, pathophysiological and histological features. However, there are no previous studies that identify in a unbiased way--using statistical methods such as clusters analysis--different phenotypes of NFA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify and to characterize phenotypes of near fatal asthma using a cluster analysis. Over a period of 2 years, 33 Spanish hospitals enrolled 179 asthmatics admitted for an episode of NFA. A cluster analysis using two-steps algorithm was performed from data of 84 of these cases. The analysis defined three clusters of patients with NFA: cluster 1, the largest, including older patients with clinical and therapeutic criteria of severe asthma; cluster 2, with an high proportion of respiratory arrest (68%), impaired consciousness level (82%) and mechanical ventilation (93%); and cluster 3, which included younger patients, characterized by an insufficient anti-inflammatory treatment and frequent sensitization to Alternaria alternata and soybean. These results identify specific asthma phenotypes involved in NFA, confirming in part previous findings observed in studies with a clinical approach. The identification of patients with a specific NFA phenotype could suggest interventions to prevent future severe asthma exacerbations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identification, purification and characterization of laterosporulin, a novel bacteriocin produced by Brevibacillus sp. strain GI-9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides that are produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism in complex environments. Identification and characterization of novel bacteriocins in novel strains of bacteria is one of the important fields in bacteriology. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The strain GI-9 was identified as Brevibacillus sp. by 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacteriocin produced by strain GI-9, namely, laterosporulin was purified from supernatant of the culture grown under optimal conditions using hydrophobic interaction chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The bacteriocin was active against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MALDI-TOF experiments determined the precise molecular mass of the peptide to be of 5.6 kDa and N-terminal sequencing of the thermo-stable peptide revealed low similarity with existing antimicrobial peptides. The putative open reading frame (ORF encoding laterosporulin and its surrounding genomic region was fished out from the draft genome sequence of GI-9. Sequence analysis of the putative bacteriocin gene did not show significant similarity to any reported bacteriocin producing genes in database. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a bacteriocin producing strain GI-9, belonging to the genus Brevibacillus sp. Biochemical and genomic characterization of laterosporulin suggests it as a novel bacteriocin with broad spectrum antibacterial activity.

  5. Identification and characterization of inhibitors of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Simeonov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available APE1 is the major nuclease for excising abasic (AP sites and particular 3'-obstructive termini from DNA, and is an integral participant in the base excision repair (BER pathway. BER capacity plays a prominent role in dictating responsiveness to agents that generate oxidative or alkylation DNA damage, as well as certain chain-terminating nucleoside analogs and 5-fluorouracil. We describe within the development of a robust, 1536-well automated screening assay that employs a deoxyoligonucleotide substrate operating in the red-shifted fluorescence spectral region to identify APE1 endonuclease inhibitors. This AP site incision assay was used in a titration-based high-throughput screen of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC(1280, a collection of well-characterized, drug-like molecules representing all major target classes. Prioritized hits were authenticated and characterized via two high-throughput screening assays -- a Thiazole Orange fluorophore-DNA displacement test and an E. coli endonuclease IV counterscreen -- and a conventional, gel-based radiotracer incision assay. The top, validated compounds, i.e. 6-hydroxy-DL-DOPA, Reactive Blue 2 and myricetin, were shown to inhibit AP site cleavage activity of whole cell protein extracts from HEK 293T and HeLa cell lines, and to enhance the cytotoxic and genotoxic potency of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate. The studies herein report on the identification of novel, small molecule APE1-targeted bioactive inhibitor probes, which represent initial chemotypes towards the development of potential pharmaceuticals.

  6. Identification and characterization of rhizospheric microbial diversity by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, samples of rhizosphere and root nodules were collected from different areas of Pakistan to isolate plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Identification of bacterial isolates was made by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and taxonomical confirmation on EzTaxon Server. The identified bacterial strains were belonged to 5 genera i.e. Ensifer, Bacillus, Pseudomona, Leclercia and Rhizobium. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the evolutionary relationship of bacterial strains with the respective genera. Based on phylogenetic analysis, some candidate novel species were also identified. The bacterial strains were also characterized for morphological, physiological, biochemical tests and glucose dehydrogenase (gdh gene that involved in the phosphate solublization using cofactor pyrroloquinolone quinone (PQQ. Seven rhizoshperic and 3 root nodulating stains are positive for gdh gene. Furthermore, this study confirms a novel association between microbes and their hosts like field grown crops, leguminous and non-leguminous plants. It was concluded that a diverse group of bacterial population exist in the rhizosphere and root nodules that might be useful in evaluating the mechanisms behind plant microbial interactions and strains QAU-63 and QAU-68 have sequence similarity of 97 and 95% which might be declared as novel after further taxonomic characterization.

  7. Global identification and characterization of transcriptionally active regions in the rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available Genome tiling microarray studies have consistently documented rich transcriptional activity beyond the annotated genes. However, systematic characterization and transcriptional profiling of the putative novel transcripts on the genome scale are still lacking. We report here the identification of 25,352 and 27,744 transcriptionally active regions (TARs not encoded by annotated exons in the rice (Oryza. sativa subspecies japonica and indica, respectively. The non-exonic TARs account for approximately two thirds of the total TARs detected by tiling arrays and represent transcripts likely conserved between japonica and indica. Transcription of 21,018 (83% japonica non-exonic TARs was verified through expression profiling in 10 tissue types using a re-array in which annotated genes and TARs were each represented by five independent probes. Subsequent analyses indicate that about 80% of the japonica TARs that were not assigned to annotated exons can be assigned to various putatively functional or structural elements of the rice genome, including splice variants, uncharacterized portions of incompletely annotated genes, antisense transcripts, duplicated gene fragments, and potential non-coding RNAs. These results provide a systematic characterization of non-exonic transcripts in rice and thus expand the current view of the complexity and dynamics of the rice transcriptome.

  8. Measurement properties of instruments that assess inclusive access to fitness and recreational sports centers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Allyson M; Mulligan, Hilda F

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is necessary for overall health and well-being for all individuals. For people with disabilities, fitness and recreational sports centers are reported to be generally inaccessible and not user friendly. This review study aimed to identify instruments that assess access to fitness and recreational sports centers and to appraise the identified instruments' qualitative and quantitative attributes. We systematically searched databases (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science for the years spanning 1950 to April 2012) and web-based search engines (Google and Google Scholar) to identify instruments, published in English that objectively assess the accessibility of fitness and recreational sports centers. Identified instruments were critically appraised using the qualitative attributes QAPAQ Checklist Part I and the COSMIN checklist for measurement properties. Seven instruments were included in this review: ADA Accessibility Guidelines Checklist for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG); ADA Checklist for Readily Achievable Barrier Removal; Accessibility Instruments Measuring Fitness and Recreation Environments (AIMFREE); Community Health Environment Checklist - Mobility (CHEC-M); Removing Barriers to Health Clubs and Fitness Facilities (RBHCFF); Health Empowerment Zone Environmental Tool Shortened Environmental Checklist: Fitness Centre Survey (HEZEAT-FCS); Community Health Environment Checklist - Exercise Facilities (CHEC-Fit). Only the AIMFREE and CHEC-M have aspects of measurement properties evaluated. We recommend that instrument developers consider conducting full psychometric assessment of their instruments using adequate sample sizes. We also recommend they consider scoring methods and respondent burden to provide scientifically robust instruments that are easy to administer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanotubular Toughening Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Conventional toughening agents are typically rubbery materials or small molecular weight molecules, which mostly sacrifice the intrinsic properties of a matrix such as modulus, strength, and thermal stability as side effects. On the other hand, high modulus inclusions tend to reinforce elastic modulus very efficiently, but not the strength very well. For example, mechanical reinforcement with inorganic inclusions often degrades the composite toughness, encountering a frequent catastrophic brittle failure triggered by minute chips and cracks. Thus, toughening generally conflicts with mechanical reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been used as efficient reinforcing agents in various applications due to their combination of extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Moreover, nanotubes can elongate more than 20% without yielding or breaking, and absorb significant amounts of energy during deformation, which enables them to also be an efficient toughening agent, as well as excellent reinforcing inclusion. Accordingly, an improved toughening method is provided by incorporating nanotubular inclusions into a host matrix, such as thermoset and thermoplastic polymers or ceramics without detrimental effects on the intrinsic physical properties of the matrix.

  10. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  11. Preparation and in-vitro characterization of Risperidone-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as a potential injectable product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shukla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: This investigation deals with risperidone cyclodextrin (CD complexation for parenteral administration to improve its aqueous solubility which would be beneficial over immediate and sustained release formulations available in market especially for agitated and non-cooperative psychotic patients. "nMethods: The phase solubility study of the drug with β-CD, hydroxypropyl (HP-β-CD and γ-CD was conducted and CDs with higher stability constants were selected for complexation. The complexes of Risperidone with β-CD and HP-β-CD were prepared by precipitation and vacuum drying methods, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for characterization of complexes. Drug precipitation study of complex's solution in water for injection and 100 ml of 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and stability study in accelerated condition were also carried out. "nResults: The stability constants of the CD were in the following order: β-CD (341.953±11.87 M-1 > HP-β-CD (170.817± 5.93 M-1 > γ-CD (93.716 ± 3.25 M-1. CDs with high stability constants were selected to prepare the drug CD complex. The complexation efficiencies of β-CD and HP-β-CD were 95.23 ± 2.27% and 97.59 ±1.97%, respectively. Both types of CDs exhibited complexation at 1:2 molar stoichiometric ratio. The drug precipitation study indicated complete solubility (100% drug dissolution without a trace of precipitate within 5 mins. The complexes were found to be stable for a period of 3 months under accelerated stability conditions. Major conclusion:Stable complexes of risperidone were successfully formulated using both β-CD and HP-β-CD by simple and highly efficient methods of complexation for parenteral administration.

  12. ProSight PTM 2.0: improved protein identification and characterization for top down mass spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamdborg, Leonid; LeDuc, Richard D; Glowacz, Kevin J; Kim, Yong-Bin; Viswanathan, Vinayak; Spaulding, Ian T; Early, Bryan P; Bluhm, Eric J; Babai, Shannee; Kelleher, Neil L

    2007-01-01

    ProSight PTM 2.0 (http://prosightptm2.scs.uiuc.edu) is the next generation of the ProSight PTM web-based system for the identification and characterization of proteins using top down tandem mass spectrometry...

  13. Re-Equilibration Processes in Fluid Inclusion Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Bakker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-entrapment modifications reduce the reliability of fluid inclusions to determine trapping conditions in rock. Processes that may modify fluid inclusion properties are experimentally identified in this study using synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz with a well-defined composition and density. Modifications are characterized with microthermometry (homogenization and dissolution temperatures and Raman-spectroscopy in binary fluid systems H2O-D2O and H2O-NaCl. Three distinct processes were identified in this study: (1 diffusion of H2O and D2O; (2 crystal-recovery, expulsion of H2O and accumulation of quartz in inclusions (preferential H2O loss; (3 irreversible total volume increase at the α-β quartz transition. Diffusion is caused by H2O fugacity gradients and can be modelled according to classical diffusion models. The variability of re-equilibrated properties in fluid inclusion assemblages depends on time, temperature, diffusion distance and the size of fluid inclusions. Negative pressure gradients (internal under-pressure induce the crystal-recovery process, in which H2O is preferentially extracted from inclusions that simultaneously shrink by the inward growth of quartz. This process reduces the H2O concentration and increases the fluid density by total volume loss. Temperature and time are also controlling factors of this process, which is able to transport H2O against fugacity gradients.

  14. A novel method for the identification and characterization of magnetic sources in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, E.; Spassov, S.

    2003-04-01

    Two of the main tasks of environmental magnetism are the identification and the quantification of different magnetic phases in a sample, a procedure usually referred to as the unmixing of magnetic components. The multi-parameter approach is based on the measurement of different bulk magnetic properties, whereby characteristic values are assumed for each component. The analysis of magnetization curves does not need a knowledge of the magnetic properties of the individual components, nevertheless the identification of each component is based on arbitrary model functions, generally derived from logarithmic Gaussian distributions (Robertson and France, 1994). Egli (2003) developed a particular family of model functions, called skewed generalized Gauss functions (SGG) to fit the main properties of a magnetization curve. A novel method, which is based on the analysis of alternating field demagnetization curves of anhysteretic remanent magnetizations (ARM) and isothermal remanent magnetizations (IRM), has been developed to identify different magnetic components. The demagnetization curves are fitted using SGG functions, each of which represents a magnetic component and is described by 5 parameters: ARM/IRM, median destructive field MDF, dispersion parameter DP, DMDF and DDP. DMDF and DDP are the differences between the MDF and the DP of ARM and IRM. Many well-known rock magnetic diagrams (e.g. King plots, Fuller plots and the Lowrie-Fuller test) are related to these parameters. A wide variety of sediments and sedimetary rocks as well as some sources of magnetic particles have been analyzed using this technique, including sediments from rivers, lakes and oceans, recent soils, paleosols, loesses, red clays, limestones, atmospheric dust, urban pollution and magnetotactic bacteria. Distinct groups of magnetic particles with characteristic values of ARM/ IRM, MDF, DP, DMDF and DDP have been identified. Each group can be associated with a particular source of magnetic particles

  15. Synthesis, characterization and properties of fluoroelastomer/clay nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Sriram

    The aim of the thesis is to prepare fluoroelastomer/clay nanocomposites by melt-mixing and investigate the effect of nano-dispersion on composite properties. Using theological and morphological analyses, it was found that intercalated FKM nanocomposites can he obtained by using di(hydrogenated tallow-alkyl) dimethyl ammonium modified organoclays. However, the presence of excess amount of modifier did not improve the composite morphology but rather resulted in plasticization of the elastomer matrix. The vulcanization conditions were shown to be detrimental to the nanocomposite morphology resulting in considerable decrease of d-spacing. Still, the mechanical properties of organofilled composites were superior to that of the carbon black or unmodified clay filled counterparts. This was attributed to efficient energy release mechanism in the presence of intercalated clays. However, the addition of carbon black to the nanocomposites led to a decrease in mechanical properties. The Payne effect was clearly seen in the nanocomposites evidenced using dynamic mechanical analysis.

  16. Modeling Based Characterization of Thermorheological Properties of Polyurethane ESTANE™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghobadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape-Memory Polymers (SMPs have the ability to be deformed and memorize this deformation until an external activation stimulus (e.g., heat is applied. Therefore, they have attracted great interest in many areas, especially for applications where reconfigurable structures are required (e.g., Shape-Memory (SM stents or micro air vehicles. Nevertheless, prior to technical application, the effective thermomechanical behavior of SMPs must be thoroughly understood. In the current contribution, an assessment of thermorheological properties of the commercially available polyurethane system ESTANE is presented. Thermorheological properties were investigated using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA and complementary uniaxial stress relaxation experiments. Upon material parameter optimization, a finite viscoelastic and incompressible material model was used to model experimentally observed viscoelastic properties.

  17. In silico re-identification of properties of drug target proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baeksoo; Jo, Jihoon; Han, Jonghyun; Park, Chungoo; Lee, Hyunju

    2017-05-31

    Computational approaches in the identification of drug targets are expected to reduce time and effort in drug development. Advances in genomics and proteomics provide the opportunity to uncover properties of druggable genomes. Although several studies have been conducted for distinguishing drug targets from non-drug targets, they mainly focus on the sequences and functional roles of proteins. Many other properties of proteins have not been fully investigated. Using the DrugBank (version 3.0) database containing nearly 6,816 drug entries including 760 FDA-approved drugs and 1822 of their targets and human UniProt/Swiss-Prot databases, we defined 1578 non-redundant drug target and 17,575 non-drug target proteins. To select these non-redundant protein datasets, we built four datasets (A, B, C, and D) by considering clustering of paralogous proteins. We first reassessed the widely used properties of drug target proteins. We confirmed and extended that drug target proteins (1) are likely to have more hydrophobic, less polar, less PEST sequences, and more signal peptide sequences higher and (2) are more involved in enzyme catalysis, oxidation and reduction in cellular respiration, and operational genes. In this study, we proposed new properties (essentiality, expression pattern, PTMs, and solvent accessibility) for effectively identifying drug target proteins. We found that (1) drug targetability and protein essentiality are decoupled, (2) druggability of proteins has high expression level and tissue specificity, and (3) functional post-translational modification residues are enriched in drug target proteins. In addition, to predict the drug targetability of proteins, we exploited two machine learning methods (Support Vector Machine and Random Forest). When we predicted drug targets by combining previously known protein properties and proposed new properties, an F-score of 0.8307 was obtained. When the newly proposed properties are integrated, the prediction performance

  18. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, R. L.; Arpanaei, A.; Pillai, S.

    2013-01-01

    Materials coated with aqueous fish protein extracts can reduce bacterial adhesion, but the mechanism behind the observed effect is not fully understood. In this study we explore the physicochemical properties of fish muscle protein adlayers on four substrates: gold, stainless steel, polystyrene...... and silicon dioxide. The aims were (i) to determine if the anti-adhesive effect is independent of the underlying substrate chemistry, (ii) to link the physicochemical properties of the adlayer to its ability to repel bacteria, and (iii) to elucidate the mechanism behind this effect. The main proteins on all...

  19. Material Property Characterization of AS4/VRM-34 Textile Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenoble, Ray W.; Johnston, William M

    2013-01-01

    Several material properties (modulus, strengths, and fracture toughness) of a textile composite have been evaluated to provide input data to analytical models of Pultruded Rod Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS). The material system is based on warp-knitted preforms of AS4 carbon fibers and VRM-34 epoxy resin, which have been processed via resin infusion and oven curing. Tensile, compressive, shear, and fracture toughness properties have been measured at ambient and elevated temperatures. All specimens were tested in as-fabricated (dry) condition. Specimens were tested with and without through-thickness stitching.

  20. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. MiRNAs play essential roles in almost all plant biological processes. Currently, few miRNAs have been identified in the model food legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used Illumina's sequencing by synthesis (SBS) technology to identify and characterize the miRNA population of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results Small RNA libraries were generated from roots, flowers, leaves, and seedlings of P. vulgaris. Based on similarity to previously reported plant miRNAs,114 miRNAs belonging to 33 conserved miRNA families were identified. Stem-loop precursors and target gene sequences for several conserved common bean miRNAs were determined from publicly available databases. Less conserved miRNA families and species-specific common bean miRNA isoforms were also characterized. Moreover, novel miRNAs based on the small RNAs were found and their potential precursors were predicted. In addition, new target candidates for novel and conserved miRNAs were proposed. Finally, we studied organ-specific miRNA family expression levels through miRNA read frequencies. Conclusions This work represents the first massive-scale RNA sequencing study performed in Phaseolus vulgaris to identify and characterize its miRNA population. It significantly increases the number of miRNAs, precursors, and targets identified in this agronomically important species. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding common bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of P. vulgaris miRNAs in relation to those of other legumes. PMID:22394504

  1. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Pablo; Trejo, Minerva S; Iñiguez, Luis P; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A; Reyes, José L; Sanchez, Federico

    2012-03-06

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. MiRNAs play essential roles in almost all plant biological processes. Currently, few miRNAs have been identified in the model food legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used Illumina's sequencing by synthesis (SBS) technology to identify and characterize the miRNA population of Phaseolus vulgaris. Small RNA libraries were generated from roots, flowers, leaves, and seedlings of P. vulgaris. Based on similarity to previously reported plant miRNAs,114 miRNAs belonging to 33 conserved miRNA families were identified. Stem-loop precursors and target gene sequences for several conserved common bean miRNAs were determined from publicly available databases. Less conserved miRNA families and species-specific common bean miRNA isoforms were also characterized. Moreover, novel miRNAs based on the small RNAs were found and their potential precursors were predicted. In addition, new target candidates for novel and conserved miRNAs were proposed. Finally, we studied organ-specific miRNA family expression levels through miRNA read frequencies. This work represents the first massive-scale RNA sequencing study performed in Phaseolus vulgaris to identify and characterize its miRNA population. It significantly increases the number of miRNAs, precursors, and targets identified in this agronomically important species. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding common bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of P. vulgaris miRNAs in relation to those of other legumes.

  2. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris by high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peláez Pablo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. MiRNAs play essential roles in almost all plant biological processes. Currently, few miRNAs have been identified in the model food legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used Illumina's sequencing by synthesis (SBS technology to identify and characterize the miRNA population of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results Small RNA libraries were generated from roots, flowers, leaves, and seedlings of P. vulgaris. Based on similarity to previously reported plant miRNAs,114 miRNAs belonging to 33 conserved miRNA families were identified. Stem-loop precursors and target gene sequences for several conserved common bean miRNAs were determined from publicly available databases. Less conserved miRNA families and species-specific common bean miRNA isoforms were also characterized. Moreover, novel miRNAs based on the small RNAs were found and their potential precursors were predicted. In addition, new target candidates for novel and conserved miRNAs were proposed. Finally, we studied organ-specific miRNA family expression levels through miRNA read frequencies. Conclusions This work represents the first massive-scale RNA sequencing study performed in Phaseolus vulgaris to identify and characterize its miRNA population. It significantly increases the number of miRNAs, precursors, and targets identified in this agronomically important species. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding common bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of P. vulgaris miRNAs in relation to those of other legumes.

  3. Identification of gaseous oxygen and nitrogen in bubble inclusions in Bi4(GeO4)3 (BGO) crystals by means of Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.C. de; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Meekes, H.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Bubble inclusions in BGO crystals have been studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. Since the crystals were grown under ambient atmospheric conditions, we focused our attention on oxygen and nitrogen. Both species are diatomic homonuclear molecules which are vibrationally and rotationally Raman

  4. Spectral characterization and DNA binding properties of lanthanide(III)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with CT-DNA was investigated using absorption spectrophotometry. Based on spectral changes, groove binding of complexes to DNA is suggested. KEY WORDS: Lanthanide(III) complexes, 2-Acetylpyridine isonicotinoylhydrazone, Spectral characterization, DNA binding. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2016, 30(2), 221-230.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and electrical properties of visible-light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesized nanocomposite material was characterized by standard analytical techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The XRD analysis confirms two things; first, synthesized nanocomposite ...

  6. Synthesis, spectral characterization and redox properties of iron (II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R', R = H (a), Me (b), Cl (c) and R' = Me (1/3), Et (2/4) have been synthesized and formulated as tris-chelates Fe(RaaiR') 3 2 + . They are characterized by microanalytical, conductance, UV-Vis, IR, magnetic (polycrystalline state) data.

  7. Characterization of some enzymatic properties of recombinant α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edoja

    rAciHBGase III) was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris GS115, enriched and characterized. The full length cDNA of. AciHbgase III (~1.8 kb) was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned into the pPICZαA expression vector and used to transform P.

  8. Characterization of some enzymatic properties of recombinant α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rAciHBGase III) was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris GS115, enriched and characterized. The full length cDNA of AciHbgase III (ƒî1.8 kb) was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned into the pPICZαA expression vector and used to transform P.

  9. Effect of treatment time on characterization and properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanocrystalline surface layers were synthesized on pure copper by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) at various treatment times. The microstructural features of the surface layers produced by SMAT were systematically characterized by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ...

  10. Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of Running-Specific Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N; Taboga, Paolo; Grabowski, Alena M

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical stiffness of running-specific prostheses likely affects the functional abilities of athletes with leg amputations. However, each prosthetic manufacturer recommends prostheses based on subjective stiffness categories rather than performance based metrics. The actual mechanical stiffness values of running-specific prostheses (i.e. kN/m) are unknown. Consequently, we sought to characterize and disseminate the stiffness values of running-specific prostheses so that researchers, clinicians, and athletes can objectively evaluate prosthetic function. We characterized the stiffness values of 55 running-specific prostheses across various models, stiffness categories, and heights using forces and angles representative of those measured from athletes with transtibial amputations during running. Characterizing prosthetic force-displacement profiles with a 2nd degree polynomial explained 4.4% more of the variance than a linear function (prunning 3 m/s and 6 m/s (10°-25°) compared to neutral (0°) (pRunning-specific prostheses should be tested under the demands of the respective activity in order to derive relevant characterizations of stiffness and function. In all, our results indicate that when athletes with leg amputations alter prosthetic model, height, and/or sagittal plane alignment, their prosthetic stiffness profiles also change; therefore variations in comfort, performance, etc. may be indirectly due to altered stiffness.

  11. Psychometric properties of the motor diagnostics in the German football talent identification and development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HÖner, Oliver; Votteler, Andreas; Schmid, Markus; Schultz, Florian; Roth, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The utilisation of motor performance tests for talent identification in youth sports is discussed intensively in talent research. This article examines the reliability, differential stability and validity of the motor diagnostics conducted nationwide by the German football talent identification and development programme and provides reference values for a standardised interpretation of the diagnostics results. Highly selected players (the top 4% of their age groups, U12-U15) took part in the diagnostics at 17 measurement points between spring 2004 and spring 2012 (N = 68,158). The heterogeneous test battery measured speed abilities and football-specific technical skills (sprint, agility, dribbling, ball control, shooting, juggling). For all measurement points, the overall score and the speed tests showed high internal consistency, high test-retest reliability and satisfying differential stability. The diagnostics demonstrated satisfying factorial-related validity with plausible and stable loadings on the two empirical factors "speed" and "technical skills". The score, and the technical skills dribbling and juggling, differentiated the most among players of different performance levels and thus showed the highest criterion-related validity. Satisfactory psychometric properties for the diagnostics are an important prerequisite for a scientifically sound rating of players' actual motor performance and for the future examination of the prognostic validity for success in adulthood.

  12. A Regenerable VOC Control System (RVCS) for Characterizing Properties of Sorbents Used in Separation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolek, Sara D.; Monje, Oscar A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design, method of operation, and testing of a regenerable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) control system that characterizes properties of sorbents used in separation technologies.

  13. Standard Guide for Identification of Fibers, Fillers, and Core Materials in Computerized Material Property Databases

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide establishes the essential and desirable elements of data required for the identification in computerized material property databases of fibers, fillers, and core materials used in composite materials. A recommended format for entry of these fields into a computerized database is provided. Examples of the application of this guide are also included. 1.2 The recommended format described in this guide is suggested for use in recording data in a database, which is different from contractural reporting of actual test results. The latter type of information is described in materials specifications shown in business transactions and is subject to agreement between vendor and purchaser. 1.3 The materials covered by this guide include fibers, both continuous and discontinuous, and fillers of various geometries which are used as reinforcements in composite materials, as well as core materials used in sandwich composites. Cores may be foam, honeycomb, or naturally occurring materials such as balsa wood....

  14. Crystal structure, characterization and magnetic properties of a 1D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new 1D polymeric copper(II) complex [{Cu(L)(CF3COO)}2]n has been synthesized using a potentially tetradentate Schiff base ... 1D copper(II) polymer; Schiff base; crystal structure; electrochemistry; EPR; magnetic properties. 1. Introduction ... number of copper(II) poly-clusters/assemblies may be mentioned in this regard ...

  15. Synthesis, characterization and electrical properties of visible-light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nature, second, the phase structure of composite remains unchanged during doping of Pt into ZnO crystal. Results ... doping of ZnO particle with Pt a known concentration of hex- achloroplatinic acid (3–9%, w/v) was added in the surfactant solution. For the analysis of electrical properties a pellet of 13 mm in diameter and of ...

  16. Characterization of physical and aerodynamic properties of walnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to study the physical and aerodynamic properties of freshly harvested walnuts. Measurements were carried out for three walnut varieties, Tulare, Howard and Chandler cultivated in California, USA. The nuts treated with and without Ethephon were collected from mechan...

  17. Characterization of High Temperature Mechanical Properties Using Laser Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hurley; Stephen Reese; Farhad Farzbod; Rory Kennedy

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical properties are controlled to a large degree by defect structures such as dislocations and grain boundaries. These microstructural features involve a perturbation of the perfect crystal lattice (i.e. strain fields). Viewed in this context, high frequency strain waves (i.e. ultrasound) provide a natural choice to study microstructure mediated mechanical properties. In this presentation we use laser ultrasound to probe mechanical properties of materials. This approach utilizes lasers to excite and detect ultrasonic waves, and as a consequence has unique advantages over other methods—it is noncontacting, requires no couplant or invasive sample preparation (other than that used in metallurgical analysis), and has the demonstrated capability to probe microstructure on a micron scale. Laser techniques are highly reproducible enabling sophisticated, microstructurally informed data analysis. Since light is being used for generation and detection of the ultrasonic wave, the specimen being examined is not mechanically coupled to the transducer. As a result, laser ultrasound can be carried out remotely, an especially attractive characteristic for in situ measurements in severe environments. Several examples involving laser ultrasound to measure mechanical properties in high temperature environments will be presented. Emphasis will be place on understanding the role of grain microstructure.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Enhanced Magnetic Properties of Iron Carbide Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent M.

    Permanent magnets are classified as hard magnetic materials with the main purpose of generating flux for applications such as electric motors, turbines, and hard drives. High coercivity, magnetic remanence, and saturation values with high stability are some of the requirements for permanent magnets. Rare-earth magnets including neodymium and samarium based magnets are known to have superior magnetic properties due to their high magnetocrystalline anisotropy. However, due to the price of rare-earth materials development of alternate permanent magnets composed of inexpensive materials is an ongoing process. Previously cobalt carbide (CoxC) have shown promise as a potential rare-earth free magnet alternative with magnetic properties comparable to that of hexaferrite materials. Unfortunately, CoxC magnets have a low magnetic saturation (50 emu g-1) which drastically lowers its energy product. Alternatively, iron carbide has a rather high bulk magnetization value of 140 emu g-1 and is composed of naturally abundant materials. The sole issue of iron carbide is that it is considered an intermediate magnet with properties between those of a hard and a soft magnetic material. The main focus of this work is the enhancement of the hard magnetic properties of iron carbide through size effect, shape anisotropy, magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange anisotropy. First a wet synthesis method was developed which utilized hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride to control particle size, shape, and crystal structure to manipulate the magnetic properties of iron carbide. With this method a semi-hard 50 nm orthorhombic Fe3C phase and a magnetically soft single crystal hexagonal Fe7C3 structure with texture-induced magnetic properties were developed. The properties for both materials were further enhanced through formation of exchange bias Fe3C/CoO nanoaggregates and spring exchange coupling of the ferromagnetically hard and soft phases of Fe7C3/SrFe 12O19. A 33% increase in coercivity

  19. A novel synaptic junction preparation for the identification and characterization of cleft proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao-Cheng, Jung-Hwa; Dosemeci, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    Identification of synaptic cleft components has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preparation enriched in synaptic junctions devoid of adjoining peripheral membranes. Prior strategies for the isolation of synaptic junctions, relying on detergents for the removal of peripheral membranes, resulted in substantial loss of membranes lining the cleft. Here, a novel, detergent-free method is described for the preparation of a synaptic junction (SJ) fraction, using phospholipase A2. Limited digestion of synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) fraction with phospholipase A2 followed by centrifugation over a sucrose cushion results in selective removal of membranes peripheral to the cleft while junctional membranes remain relatively intact as observed by electron microscopy. Enrichment in synaptic junctional structures and loss of membranes peripheral to the junctional area are further verified by demonstrating enrichment in PSD-95 and loss in mGluR5, respectively. The SJ fraction is enriched in neuroligins and neurexins, in agreement with immuno-electron microscopy data showing their selective localization to the junctional area. Among additional cell adhesion molecules tested, N-cadherin and specific isoforms of the SynCAM and SALM families also show marked enrichment in the SJ fraction, suggesting preferential localization at the synaptic cleft while others show little enrichment or decrease, suggesting that they are not restricted to or concentrated at the synaptic cleft. Treatment of the SJ fraction with glycosidases results in electrophoretic mobility shifts of all cell adhesion molecules tested, indicating glycosylation at the synaptic cleft. Biochemical and ultrastructural data presented indicate that the novel synaptic junction preparation can be used as a predictive tool for the identification and characterization of the components of the synaptic cleft. PMID:28362857

  20. Identification and characterization of agro-ecological infrastructures by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, D.; Duthoit, S.; d'Abzac, A.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Chéret, V.; Sausse, C.

    2015-10-01

    Agro-Ecological Infrastructures (AEIs) include many semi-natural habitats (hedgerows, grass strips, grasslands, thickets…) and play a key role in biodiversity preservation, water quality and erosion control. Indirect biodiversity indicators based on AEISs are used in many national and European public policies to analyze ecological processes. The identification of these landscape features is difficult and expensive and limits their use. Remote sensing has a great potential to solve this problem. In this study, we propose an operational tool for the identification and characterization of AEISs. The method is based on segmentation, contextual classification and fusion of temporal classifications. Experiments were carried out on various temporal and spatial resolution satellite data (20-m, 10-m, 5-m, 2.5-m, 50-cm), on three French regions southwest landscape (hilly, plain, wooded, cultivated), north (open-field) and Brittany (farmland closed by hedges). The results give a good idea of the potential of remote sensing image processing methods to map fine agro-ecological objects. At 20-m spatial resolution, only larger hedgerows and riparian forests are apparent. Classification results show that 10-m resolution is well suited for agricultural and AEIs applications, most hedges, forest edges, thickets can be detected. Results highlight the multi-temporal data importance. The future Sentinel satellites with a very high temporal resolution and a 10-m spatial resolution should be an answer to AEIs detection. 2.50-m resolution is more precise with more details. But treatments are more complicated. At 50-cm resolution, accuracy level of details is even higher; this amplifies the difficulties previously reported. The results obtained allow calculation of statistics and metrics describing landscape structures.

  1. Identification and characterization of WhiB-like family proteins of the Bifidobacterium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averina, Olga V; Zakharevich, Natalia V; Danilenko, Valery N

    2012-08-01

    Bifidobacteria are strictly anaerobic bacteria, that are an important component of human microbiote due to their probiotic characteristics. They are frequently exposed to a variety of stresses, therefore, identification of genes implicated in stress responses in bifidobacteria is critical for biomedicine and maintenance of industrial strains. The WhiB-like family proteins unique for Actinobacteria are transcriptional regulators involved in major cellular processes, including stress responses. The aim of this study was the identification of WhiB-like family proteins of the Bifidobacterium genus of the Actinobacteria class and functional characterization of conservative whiB-like genes. The DNA sequence database of 36 strains revealed a family of WhiB-encoding genes. It were identified the wblE orthologs in all Bifidobacteria species and the whiB2 orthologs in all bifidobacterial strains except of all strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Bifidobacterium gallicum. Some strains, in particular, those of the Bifidobacterium longum group, contain additional whiB-like genes of different length and a low degree of similarity in sequences. The wblE and whiB2 genes of the Bifidobacterium genus are evolutionary conservative and ancient genes. The real-time PCR analysis showed that transcription of wblE is induced by a variety of stress conditions such as heat shock, osmotic, oxidative stresses, by antibiotic tetracycline and bile salt treatment, the nutrient starvation and entry into late stationary phase. The wblE gene may play a significant role in general stress responses in bifidobacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and molecular characterization of oat peptides implicated on coeliac immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Bernardo, David; Bancel, Emmanuelle; de Lourdes Moreno, María; Sánchez, Borja; Barro, Francisco; Šuligoj, Tanja; Ciclitira, Paul J; Cebolla, Ángel; Knight, Stella C; Branlard, Gérard; Sousa, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Oats provide important nutritional and pharmacological properties, although their safety in coeliac patients remains controversial. Previous studies have confirmed that the reactivity of the anti-33-mer monoclonal antibody with different oat varieties is proportional to the immune responses in terms of T-cell proliferation. Although the impact of these varieties on the adaptive response has been studied, the role of the dendritic cells (DC) is still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to characterize different oat fractions and to study their effect on DC from coeliac patients. Protein fractions were isolated from oat grains and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Several proteins were characterized in the prolamin fraction using immunological and proteomic tools, and by Nano-LC-MS/MS. These proteins, analogous to α- and γ-gliadin-like, showed reactive sequences to anti-33-mer antibody suggesting their immunogenic potential. That was further confirmed as some of the newly identified oat peptides had a differential stimulatory capacity on circulating DC from coeliac patients compared with healthy controls. This is the first time, to our knowledge, where newly identified oat peptides have been shown to elicit a differential stimulatory capacity on circulating DC obtained from coeliac patients, potentially identifying immunogenic properties of these oat peptides.

  3. Changes in the Physicochemical Properties of Piperine/β-Cyclodextrin due to the Formation of Inclusion Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinari Ezawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piperine (PP is a pungent component in black pepper that possesses useful biological activities; however it is practically insoluble in water. The aim of the current study was to prepare a coground mixture (GM of PP and β-cyclodextrin (βCD (molar ratio of PP/βCD = 1/1 and subsequently evaluate the solubility of PP and physicochemical properties of the GM. DSC thermal behavior of the GM showed the absence of melting peak of piperine. PXRD profile of the GM exhibited halo pattern and no characteristic peaks due to PP and βCD were observed. Based on Job’s plot, the PP/βCD complex in solution had a stoichiometric ratio of 1/1. Raman spectrum of the GM revealed scattering peaks assigned for the benzene ring (C=C, the methylene groups (CH2, and ether groups (C-O-C of PP that were broaden and shifted to lower frequencies. SEM micrographs showed that particles in the GM were agglomerated and had rough surface, unlike pure PP and pure βCD particles. At 15 min of dissolution testing, the amount dissolved of PP in the GM was dramatically increased (about 16 times compared to that of pure PP. Moreover the interaction between PP and βCD cavity was detected by 1H-1H NMR nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy NMR spectroscopy.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of reduced europium molybdates and tungstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Dileka; Gerke, Birgit; Morrison, Gregory; Hsieh, Chun H.; Smith, Mark D.; Pöttgen, Rainer; Makris, Thomas M.; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2015-09-01

    Single crystals of K0.094Eu0.906MoO4, K0.097Eu0.903WO4, EuWO4, and EuMoO4 were grown from molten chloride fluxes contained in vacuum-sealed fused silica and structurally characterized via single crystal X-ray diffraction. The in situ reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ was carried out using Mo, W, and Zn as metal reducing agents. All four compounds crystallize in the tetragonal space group of I41/a and adopt the scheelite (CaWO4) structure type. The magnetic susceptibility of the reported compounds shows paramagnetic behavior down to 2 K. 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to analyze the relative Eu2+ and Eu3+ content of the samples. All the compounds were further characterized by EPR, and UV-vis spectroscopy.

  5. RISKS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Husnutdinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Inclusion is a new and unfamiliar phenomenon for most of the Russians which is treated as ensuring equal access to education for all students taking into account a variety of their special educational needs and individual capabilities. Inclusive educational model began to take root in Russia without a broad public debate and today’s parents and teachers were not ready to the cardinal changes caused by transition to the new model of education. In this regard, the studying of directly educational process by consequences of inclusive training and education is urgent now.The aims of the research are the following: to identify the major risks that characterize the current stage of the implementation process of inclusion in the Russian educational organizations; to consider the main causes that lead to their occurrence; to present a comparative analysis of the views of respondents in comprehensive, inclusive and correctional schools. Methodology and research methods. The Sector Monitoring Studies of Moscow State University of Psychology & Education in 2010 and 2014 implemented a sociological study on the process of introduction of inclusion in the Russian schools. 200 teachers and 244 parents were interviewed in 2010; in 2014, in addition, 178 teachers and 386 parents were interviewed; 47 senior students including those with disabilities were interviewed too.Results. According to the results, the main concerns of the parents of students of comprehensive, inclusive and correctional schools are reduced to a few basic risks: lack of individual approach while teaching children with different educational needs, increased emotional pressure on the child, and child’s perception of the complexity of disability as an equal. These risks arise primarily because of the acute shortage of especially prepared-governmental teachers and socio-cultural, psychological unpreparedness of most contemporary children with disabilities to the perception of

  6. Genome-wide identification and characterization of novel lncRNAs in Populus under nitrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Wang, Chenlu; Bao, Hai; Chen, Hui; Wang, Yanwei

    2016-08-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as important regulatory factors of gene expression in eukaryotic species, such as Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Oryza sativa. However, the systematic identification of potential lncRNAs in trees is comparatively rare. In particular, the characteristics, expression, and regulatory roles of lncRNAs in trees under nutrient stress remain largely unknown. A genome-wide strategy was used in this investigation to identify and characterize novel and low-nitrogen (N)-responsive lncRNAs in Populus tomentosa; 388 unique lncRNA candidates belonging to 380 gene loci were detected and only seven lncRNAs were found to belong to seven conserved non-coding RNA families indicating the majority of P. tomentosa lncRNAs are species-specific. In total, 126 lncRNAs were significantly altered under low-N stress; 8 were repressed, and 118 were induced. Furthermore, 9 and 5 lncRNAs were detected as precursors of 11 known and 14 novel Populus miRNAs, respectively, whereas 4 lncRNAs were targeted by 29 miRNAs belonging to 5 families, including 22 conserved and 7 non-conserved miRNAs. In addition, 15 antisense lncRNAs were identified to be generated from opposite strands of 14 corresponding protein-coding genes. In total, 111 protein-coding genes with regions complementary to 38 lncRNAs were also predicted with some lncRNAs corresponding to multiple genes and vice versa, and their functions were annotated, which further demonstrated the complex regulatory relationship between lncRNAs and protein-coding genes in plants. Moreover, an interaction network among lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs was investigated. These findings enrich our understanding of lncRNAs in Populus, expand the methods of miRNA identification. Our results present the first global characterization of lncRNAs and their potential target genes in response to nitrogen stress in trees, which provides more information on low-nutrition adaptation mechanisms in woody plants.

  7. Raman spectroscopy for the microbiological characterization and identification of medically relevant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasha, Khozima Mahmoud

    The detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria has become more important than ever due to the increase of potential bioterrorism threats and the high mortality rate of bacterial infections worldwide. Raman spectroscopy has recently gained popularity as an attractive robust approach for the molecular characterization, rapid identification, and accurate classification of a wide range of bacteria. In this dissertation, Raman spectroscopy utilizing advanced statistical techniques was used to identify and discriminate between different pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strains of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial species by probing the molecular compositions of the cells. The five-carbon sugar xylitol, which cannot be metabolized by the oral and nasopharyngeal bacteria, had been recognized by clinicians as a preventive agents for dental caries and many studies have demonstrated that xylitol causes a reduction in otitis media (chronic inner ear infections) and other nasopharyngeal infections. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the uptake and metabolic activity of xylitol in pathogenic (viridans group Streptococcus) and nonpathogenic (E. coli) bacteria by taking their Raman spectra before xylitol exposure and after growing with xylitol and quantifying the significant differences in the molecular vibrational modes due to this exposure. The results of this study showed significant stable spectral changes in the S. viridians bacteria induced by xylitol and those changes were not the same as in some E. coli strains. Finally, Raman spectroscopy experiments were conducted to provide important information about the function of a certain protein (wag31) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a relative non-pathogenic bacterium called Mycobacterium smegmatis. Raman spectra of conditional mutants of bacteria expressing three different phosphorylation forms of wag31 were collected and analyzed. The results show that that the phosphorylation of wag31

  8. Identification, characterization and antigenicity of the Plasmodium vivax rhoptry neck protein 1 (PvRON1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patarroyo Manuel E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major health problem in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. Several rhoptry proteins which are important for interaction with and/or invasion of red blood cells, such as PfRONs, Pf92, Pf38, Pf12 and Pf34, have been described during the last few years and are being considered as potential anti-malarial vaccine candidates. This study describes the identification and characterization of the P. vivax rhoptry neck protein 1 (PvRON1 and examine its antigenicity in natural P. vivax infections. Methods The PvRON1 encoding gene, which is homologous to that encoding the P. falciparum apical sushi protein (ASP according to the plasmoDB database, was selected as our study target. The pvron1 gene transcription was evaluated by RT-PCR using RNA obtained from the P. vivax VCG-1 strain. Two peptides derived from the deduced P. vivax Sal-I PvRON1 sequence were synthesized and inoculated in rabbits for obtaining anti-PvRON1 antibodies which were used to confirm the protein expression in VCG-1 strain schizonts along with its association with detergent-resistant microdomains (DRMs by Western blot, and its localization by immunofluorescence assays. The antigenicity of the PvRON1 protein was assessed using human sera from individuals previously exposed to P. vivax malaria by ELISA. Results In the P. vivax VCG-1 strain, RON1 is a 764 amino acid-long protein. In silico analysis has revealed that PvRON1 shares essential characteristics with different antigens involved in invasion, such as the presence of a secretory signal, a GPI-anchor sequence and a putative sushi domain. The PvRON1 protein is expressed in parasite's schizont stage, localized in rhoptry necks and it is associated with DRMs. Recombinant protein recognition by human sera indicates that this antigen can trigger an immune response during a natural infection with P. vivax. Conclusions This study shows the identification and characterization of

  9. Characterization and antibacterial properties of porous fibers containing silver ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoyang; Fan, Chenxu; Tang, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jianghui; Song, Yanhua; Shao, Zhongbiao; Xu, Lan

    2016-11-01

    Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular. In the present work, the surface morphology, structure and properties, of electrospun Polylactide Polylactic acid (PLA) porous fibers containing various ratios of silver ions were investigated by a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), universal testing machine, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and et al. The biological activities of the proposed porous fibers were discussed in view of the released silver ions concentration. Antibacterial properties of these porous fibers were studied using two bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results of the antibacterial testing suggested that PLA porous fibers containing silver ions could be used as potent antibacterial wound dressing materials in the biomedical field.

  10. Special clays: what they are, characterization and properties

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Antonio C. Vieira; Santos, Pérsio de Souza; Santos, Helena de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Special clays are a group of clays different from the large volume of clay mineral products named "Industrial Clays": kaolins, ball clays, refractory clays, bentonites, fuller's earths, common clays. Two groups of special clays exist: rare, as in the case of hectorite and sepiolite and restricted areas, as in the case of white bentonite, halloysite and palygorskite (attapulgite). A review is given of the most important producers of the special clays and their properties in the Western World, ...

  11. Characterization and antibacterial properties of porous fibers containing silver ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhaoyang; Fan, Chenxu; Tang, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jianghui; Song, Yanhua; Shao, Zhongbiao [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Lan, E-mail: lanxu@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Nantong Textile Institute of Soochow University, 58 Chong-chuan Road, Nantong 226018 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Antibacterial electrospun PLA porous fibers containing silver ions were prepared. • Porous structure and porosity of PLA/Ag{sup +} porous fibers were investigated. • The antibacterial effects of PLA/Ag{sup +} porous fibers were studied. • The released mechanism of silver ions in the porous fibers was illustrated. • The porous structure could improve the antibacterial properties. - Abstract: Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular. In the present work, the surface morphology, structure and properties, of electrospun Polylactide Polylactic acid (PLA) porous fibers containing various ratios of silver ions were investigated by a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), universal testing machine, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and et al. The biological activities of the proposed porous fibers were discussed in view of the released silver ions concentration. Antibacterial properties of these porous fibers were studied using two bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results of the antibacterial testing suggested that PLA porous fibers containing silver ions could be used as potent antibacterial wound dressing materials in the biomedical field.

  12. Characterizing and Understanding Aerosol Optical Properties: CARES - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, Christopher D [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Atkinson, Dean B [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-12-17

    The scientific focus of this study was to use ambient measurements to develop new insights into the understanding of the direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosol particles. The study used data collected by the PI’s and others as part of both the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), which took place in and around Sacramento, CA, and the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) study. We focus on measurements that were made of aerosol particle optical properties, namely the wavelength-dependent light absorption, scattering and extinction. Interpretation of these optical property measurements is facilitated through consideration of complementary measurements of the aerosol particle chemical composition and size distributions. With these measurements, we addressed the following general scientific questions: 1. How does light scattering and extinction by atmospheric aerosol particles depend on particle composition, water uptake, and size? 2. To what extent is light absorption by aerosol particles enhanced through the mixing of black carbon with other particulate components? 3. What relationships exist between intensive aerosol particle optical properties, and how do these depend on particle source and photochemical aging? 4. How well do spectral deconvolution methods, which are commonly used in remote sensing, retrieve information about particle size distributions?

  13. Identification of material properties of orthotropic elastic cylinders immersed in fluid using vibroacoustic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Daniel E; Brigham, John C; Aquino, Wilkins

    2008-11-01

    A numerical study is presented to show the potential for using vibroacoustic-based experiments to identify elastic material properties of orthotropic cylindrical vessels immersed in fluids. Sensitivity analyses and a simulated inverse problem are shown to quantify the potential for material characterization through the use of acoustic emissions. For comparison purposes, the analyses are also shown with the normal component of the velocity at the surface of the cylinder as the measured response in place of the acoustic pressure. The simulated experiment consisted of an orthotropic cylinder immersed in water with an impact force applied to the surface of the cylinder. The material parameters of the cylinder considered in the analyses were the circumferential and longitudinal elastic moduli, and the in-plane shear modulus. The velocity response is shown to provide sufficient information for characterizing all three moduli from a single experiment. Alternatively, the acoustic pressure response is shown to provide sufficient information for characterizing only the two elastic moduli from a single experiment. The analyses show that the acoustic pressure response does not have sufficient sensitivity to the in-plane shear modulus for characterization purposes.

  14. Identification and characterization of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using Virtual Observatory tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberasturi, Miriam

    2015-11-01

    appropriate photometric calibrations. In the second publication we conducted an all-sky photometric search by cross correlating the Carlsberg Meridian Catalogue (CMC14) and the 2MASS Point Source Catalogue with the aim of increasing the number of known, nearby M dwarfs that could be used as targets for exoplanet searches in general and CARMENES in particular. This VO search was combined with low-resolution spectroscopic followup of 27 objects using the IDS spectrograph at the Isaac Newton telescope at La Palma, as well as with an astrometric and photometric study. In the third paper we attempted to refine the multiplicity properties of T dwarfs studying the largest sample so far observed with high angular resolution imaging. We undertook two parallel programs using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We used a PSF-fitting subtraction technique to reveal the presence of any close companion to the sources in our sample. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to estimate the capability of WFC3 to detect close binaries in terms of angular separation and magnitude difference. Simulations were also used to determine the fraction of binaries that would have been detected around each source based on assumed separations, mass ratio distributions and orientations of the systems. Results: The main conclusion from this dissertation is that the Virtual Observatory has proved to be an excellent research methodology in the field of low mass stars and brown dwarfs. In particular, it allowed an efficient management of the queries to different catalogues and archives as well as the estimation of physical parameters through VO-tools. In the first publication we present the identification of 31 brown dwarf (25 known and 6 strong candidates not previously reported in the literature) identified in the sky area in common toWISE, 2MASS and SDSS. This is a remarkable number considering that 2MASS has been extensively searched for ultracool dwarfs and

  15. Purification, properties and identification of a serum DNA binding protein (64DP) and its microheterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, M; Ohkubo, T; Kamiguchi, H; Suzuki, K; Nakasaki, H; Mitomi, T; Katsunuma, T

    1982-03-01

    A DNA binding protein with a molecular weight of 64,000, designated 64DP, has been purified and characterized. This protein was isolated from adult human pooled serum by DEAE Sephadex column Chromatography, DNA cellulose affinity column chromatography, ammonium sulfate fractionation and Sephadex G-150 gel filtration. The final preparation of 64DP was homogeneous, as judged from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with or without sodium dodecyl sulfate and sedimentation experiments. Physicochemical and immunochemical properties of this protein were very similar or identical to those of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin with some differences in electric mobility and th pattern of isoelectric focusing. Furthermore, the general properties of 64DP from various sera were practically similar with the exception that isolectric focusing analysis showed microheterogeneity among 64DP purified from various sera.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of lamellar aragonite with hydrophobic property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Chengyu, E-mail: wangcy@nefu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, 150040 (China); Xu Yang [China Nation Center for Quality Supervision and Test of Woodworking Machinery, Northeast Forestry University, 150040 (China); Liu Yalan; Li Jian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, 150040 (China)

    2009-04-30

    A novel and simple synthetic method for the preparation of hydrophobic lamellar aragonite has been developed. The crystallization of aragonite was conducted by the reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride in the presence of sodium stearate. The resulting products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the contact angle. The results revealed that sodium stearate plays an important role in determining the structure and morphology of the sample. Besides, we have succeeded in surface modification of particles in situ at the same time. The contact angle of the modified aragonite reached 108.59 deg.

  17. Preparation, characterization and properties of ZnO nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaolian; Zhang, Xiaoming; Chen, Ruxue; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Ji; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, using the hydrothermal synthesis method, NaOH, Zn(NO3)2, anhydrous ethanol, deionized water as raw material to prepare ZnO nanomaterial, and by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) on the synthesis of nano materials, surface morphology and phase luminescence characterization. The results show that the nano materials synthesized for single-phase ZnO, belonging to the six wurtzite structure; material surface shaped, arranged evenly distributed, and were the top six party structure; ZnO nano materials synthesized with strong emission spectra, emission peak is located at 394nm.

  18. Identification, characterization, and utilization of single copy genes in 29 angiosperm genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengming; Peng, Yong; Xu, Lijia; Xiao, Peigen

    2014-06-21

    Single copy genes are common across angiosperm genomes. With the sufficiently high quality sequenced genomes, the identification of large-scale single copy genes among multiple species is possible. Although some characteristics have been reported, our study provides novel insights into single copy genes. We identified single copy genes across 29 angiosperm genomes. A significant negative correlation was found between the number of duplicate blocks and the number of single copy genes. We found that a considerable number of single copy genes are located in organelles, showing a preference for binding and catalytic activity. The analysis of effective number of codons (Nc) illustrates that single copy genes have a stronger codon bias than non-single copy genes in eudicots. The relative high expression level of single copy genes was partially confirmed by the RNA-seq data, rather than the Codon Adaptation Index (CAI). Unlike in most other species, a strongly negatively correlation occurs between Nc and GC3 among single copy genes in grass genomes. When compared to all non-single copy genes, single copy genes indicate more conservation (as indicated by Ka and Ks values). But our alternative splicing (AS) results reveal that selective constraints are weaker in single copy genes than in low copy family genes (1-10 in-paralogs) and stronger than high copy family genes (>10 in-paralogs). Using concatenated shared single copy genes, we obtained a well-resolved phylogenetic tree. With the addition of intron sequences, the branch support is improved, but striking incongruences are also evident. Therefore, it is noteworthy that inclusion of intron sequences seems more appropriate for the phylogenetic reconstruction at lower taxonomic levels. Our analysis provides insight into the evolutionary characteristics of single copy genes across 29 angiosperm genomes. The results suggest that there are key differences in evolutionary constraints between single copy genes and non

  19. Molecular identification and characterization of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; González-Álvarez, Vicente H; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    The tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the causative agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (CCT). Although molecular evidence of E. canis has been shown, phylogenetic analysis of this pathogen has not been performed and A. platys has not been identified in Mexico, where the tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is common. The aim of this research was to screen, identify and characterize E. canis and A. platys by PCR and phylogenetic analysis in dogs from La Comarca Lagunera, a region formed by three municipalities, Torreon, Gomez-Palacio and Lerdo, in the Northern states of Coahuila and Durango, Mexico. Blood samples and five engorged R. sanguineus s.l. ticks per animal were collected from 43 females and 57 male dogs presented to veterinary clinics or lived in the dog shelter from La Comarca Lagunera. All the sampled dogs were apparently healthy and PCR for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, Ehrlichia 16S rRNA, and E. canis trp36 were performed. PCR products were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. PCR products were successfully amplified in 31% of the samples using primers for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, while 10% and 4% amplified products using primers for Ehrlichia 16S rRNA and E. canis trp36 respectively. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these products showed that three samples corresponded to A. platys and four to E. canis. Based on the analysis of trp36 we confirmed that the E. canis strains isolated from Mexico belong to a conservative clade of E. canis and are closely related to strains from USA. In conclusion, this is the first molecular identification of A. platys and the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of both A. platys and E. canis in dogs in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1 early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2 microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3 microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4 integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications.

  1. Microfluidic impedance flow cytometry enabling high-throughput single-cell electrical property characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-04-29

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications.

  2. Characterization-curing-property studies of HBRF 55A resin formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, E. M.; Mijovic, J.

    1985-01-01

    Characterization curing property investigations on HBRF 55A resin formulations are reported. The initial studies on as received cured samples cut from a full-size FWC are reviewed. Inadequacies of as-received and aged samples are pointed out and additional electron microscopic evidence is offered. Characterization of as-received ingredients of HBRF 55A formulation is described. Specifically, Epon 826, Epon 828, EpiRez 5022, RD-2 and various amines, including Tonox and Tonox 60.40, were characterized. Cure kinetics of various formulations are investigated. Changes in physical/thermal properties (viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density) during cure are described.

  3. Characterization, Microstructure, and Dielectric properties of cubic pyrochlore structural ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyang

    2013-05-01

    The (BMN) bulk materials were sintered at 1050°C, 1100°C, 1150°C, 1200°C by the conventional ceramic process, and their microstructure and dielectric properties were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (including the X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry EDS and high resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM) and dielectric impedance analyzer. We systematically investigated the structure, dielectric properties and voltage tunable property of the ceramics prepared at different sintering temperatures. The XRD patterns demonstrated that the synthesized BMN solid solutions had cubic phase pyrochlore-type structure when sintered at 1050°C or higher, and the lattice parameter (a) of the unit cell in BMN solid solution was calculated to be about 10.56Å. The vibrational peaks observed in the Raman spectra of BMN solid solutions also confirmed the cubic phase pyrochlore-type structure of the synthesized BMN. According to the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, the grain size increased with increasing sintering temperature. Additionally, it was shown that the densities of the BMN ceramic tablets vary with sintering temperature. The calculated theoretical density for the BMN ceramic tablets sintered at different temperatures is about 6.7521 . The density of the respective measured tablets is usually amounting more than 91% and 5 approaching a maximum value of 96.5% for sintering temperature of 1150°C. The microstructure was investigated by using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Combined with the results obtained from the STEM and XRD, the impact of sintering temperature on the macroscopic and microscopic structure was discussed. The relative dielectric constant ( ) and dielectric loss ( ) of the BMN solid solutions were measured to be 161-200 and (at room temperature and 100Hz-1MHz), respectively. The BMN solid

  4. Preparation, characterization and properties of sputtered electrochromic and thermochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sella, C.; Nemraoui, O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 92 - Meudon-Bellevue (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Maaza, M. [Physics Department, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Lafait, J. [Laboratoire d`Optique des Solides, Universite de Paris VI-Jussieu, Paris (France); Renard, N. [Dassault Aviation, St Cloud (France); Sampeur, [ICMC Company, Le Mee sur Seine (France)

    1998-01-01

    The interest in electrochromic materials has increased in the last few years because of their applications in a wide variety of optical modulation devices including smart windows for solar control in the architectural and automotive sectors and flat panel displays. Thermochromic coatings which reduce the transmission of solar energy as the temperature rises can prevent overheating and find application in the thermal control of buildings, satellites and spatial equipements. This article reports on the optical and structural properties of RF sputtered thin films of WO{sub 3} and VO{sub 2} for electrochromic and thermochromic devices. (orig.) 4 refs.

  5. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Mingjie Ma; Guanyu Wang; Zhengpeng Yang; Shanxiu Huang; Weijie Guo; Yuxia Shen

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than tha...

  6. From vicinal to rough crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balibar, S.; Guthmann, C.; Rolley, E.

    1993-06-01

    One generally expects the properties of a vicinal surface to be independent of the existence of steps as soon as these steps overlap, i.e. when their mutual distance is smaller than their width. By using the roughening theory by Nozières and Gallet [1], we show that, at least for surfaces weakly coupled to the lattice, this overlap occurs for distances significantly larger than the commonly defined width. Our prediction is supported by an analysis of the various measurements of the angular variation of the surface stiffness of helium crystals, which were performed by Wolf et al. [2], Andreeva et al. [3] and Babkin et al. [4]. As a consequence, the interaction between crystal steps should be studied on vicinal surfaces with a much smaller tilt angle than previously thought. This article is also an opportunity to return to the relation between the step width and the correlation length on smooth surfaces, as well as to the treatment of the various finite size effects which occur in the problem of roughening. We finally reconsider how the weak coupling hypothesis applies to the case of helium crystals. On s'attend généralement à ce que les propriétés d'une surface vicinale ne soient plus contrôlées par l'existence des marches lorsque celles-ci se recouvrent, donc lorsque leur distance mutuelle devient inférieure à leur largeur. En reprenant la théorie de la transition rugueuse élaborée par Nozières et Gallet [1], nous montrons que, pour des surfaces faiblement couplées au réseau cristallin, ce recouvrement doit se produire pour des distances nettement plus grandes que la largeur (telle qu'elle est habituellement définie). Notre prédiction est confirmée par l'analyse des différentes mesures de la variation angulaire de la rigidité de surface des cristaux d'hélium réalisées par Wolf et al. [2], Andreeva et al. [3] and Babkin et al. [4]. Il s'ensuit que l'étude de l'interaction entre marches cristallines doit être effectuée sur des surfaces

  7. In Silico Identification and Characterization of N-Terminal Acetyltransferase Genes of Poplar (Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang-Yong Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nats complex is responsible for protein N-terminal acetylation (Nα-acetylation, which is one of the most common covalent modifications of eukaryotic proteins. Although genome-wide investigation and characterization of Nat catalytic subunits (CS and auxiliary subunits (AS have been conducted in yeast and humans they remain unexplored in plants. Here we report on the identification of eleven genes encoding eleven putative Nat CS polypeptides, and five genes encoding five putative Nat AS polypeptides in Populus. We document that the expansion of Nat CS genes occurs as duplicated blocks distributed across 10 of the 19 poplar chromosomes, likely only as a result of segmental duplication events. Based on phylogenetic analysis, poplar Nat CS were assigned to six subgroups, which corresponded well to the Nat CS types (CS of Nat A–F, being consistent with previous reports in humans and yeast. In silico analysis of microarray data showed that in the process of normal development of the poplar, their Nat CS and AS genes are commonly expressed at one relatively low level but share distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. This exhaustive survey of Nat genes in poplar provides important information to assist future studies on their functional role in poplar.

  8. Identification and characterization of individual airborne volcanic ash particles by Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Huckele, Susanne; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph; Baumann, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    We present for the first time the Raman microspectroscopic identification and characterization of individual airborne volcanic ash (VA) particles. The particles were collected in April/May 2010 during research aircraft flights, which were performed by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt in the airspace near the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption and over Europe (between Iceland and Southern Germany). In addition, aerosol particles were sampled by an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor in Munich, Germany. As references for the Raman analysis, we used the spectra of VA collected at the ground near the place of eruption, of mineral basaltic rock, and of different minerals from a database. We found significant differences in the spectra of VA and other aerosol particles (e.g., soot, nitrates, sulfates, and clay minerals), which allowed us to identify VA among other atmospheric particulate matter. Furthermore, while the airborne VA shows a characteristic Raman pattern (with broad band from ca. 200 to ca. 700 cm(-1) typical for SiO₂ glasses and additional bands of ferric minerals), the differences between the spectra of aged and fresh particles were observed, suggesting differences in their chemical composition and/or structure. We also analyzed similarities between Eyjafjallajökull VA particles collected at different sampling sites and compared the particles with a large variety of glassy and crystalline minerals. This was done by applying cluster analysis, in order to get information on the composition and structure of volcanic ash.

  9. In silico identification and characterization of N-Terminal acetyltransferase genes of poplar (Populus trichocarpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hang-Yong; Li, Chun-Ming; Wang, Li-Feng; Bai, Hui; Li, Yan-Ping; Yu, Wen-Xi; Xia, De-An; Liu, Chang-Cai

    2014-01-27

    N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nats) complex is responsible for protein N-terminal acetylation (Nα-acetylation), which is one of the most common covalent modifications of eukaryotic proteins. Although genome-wide investigation and characterization of Nat catalytic subunits (CS) and auxiliary subunits (AS) have been conducted in yeast and humans they remain unexplored in plants. Here we report on the identification of eleven genes encoding eleven putative Nat CS polypeptides, and five genes encoding five putative Nat AS polypeptides in Populus. We document that the expansion of Nat CS genes occurs as duplicated blocks distributed across 10 of the 19 poplar chromosomes, likely only as a result of segmental duplication events. Based on phylogenetic analysis, poplar Nat CS were assigned to six subgroups, which corresponded well to the Nat CS types (CS of Nat A-F), being consistent with previous reports in humans and yeast. In silico analysis of microarray data showed that in the process of normal development of the poplar, their Nat CS and AS genes are commonly expressed at one relatively low level but share distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. This exhaustive survey of Nat genes in poplar provides important information to assist future studies on their functional role in poplar.

  10. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Cadmium Resistant Pseudomonas sp. M3 from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zaghum Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the isolation, identification, and characterization of the cadmium resistant bacteria from wastewater collected from industrial area of Penang, Malaysia. The isolate was selected based on high level of the cadmium and antibiotic resistances. On the basis of morphological, biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis revealed that the strain RZCd1 was authentically identified as Pseudomonas sp. M3. The industrial isolate showed more than 70% of the cadmium removal in log phase. The cadmium removal capacity of strain RZCd1 was affected by temperature and pH. At pH 7.0 and 35°C, strain RZCd1 showed maximum cadmium removal capacity. The minimal inhibitory concentration of strain RZCd1 against the cadmium was 550 µg/mL. The resistance against the cadmium was associated with resistance to multiple antibiotics: amoxicillin, penicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, and streptomycin. The strain RZCd1 also gave thick bands of proteins in front of 25 kDa in cadmium stress condition after 3 h of incubation. So the identified cadmium resistant bacteria may be useful for the bioremediation of cadmium contaminated industrial wastewater.

  11. UPLC-TOF-MS Characterization and Identification of Bioactive Iridoids in Cornus mas Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornus mas L. is indigenous to Europe and parts of Asia. Although Cornus is widely considered to be an iridoid rich genera, only two iridoids have been previously found in this plant. The lack of information on taxonomically and biologically active iridoids prompted us to develop and optimize an analytical method for characterization of additional phytochemicals in C. mas fruit. An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with photodiode array spectrophotometry (PDA and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS was employed and mass parameters were optimized. Identification was made by elucidating the mass spectral data and further confirmed by comparing retention times and UV spectra of target peaks with those of reference compounds. Primary DNA damage and antigenotoxicity tests in E. coli PQ37 were used to screen the iridoids for biological activity. As a result, ten phytochemicals were identified, including iridoids loganic acid, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside. Nine of these were reported for the first time from C. mas fruit. The iridoids did not induce SOS repair of DNA, indicating a lack of genotoxic activity in E. coli PQ37. However, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside did reduce the amount of DNA damage caused by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, suggesting potential antigenotoxic activity.

  12. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Nisgoski, Silvana; Oliveira, Julia S; Marcati, Carmen R; Ballarin, Adriano W; Muñiz, Graciela I B

    2016-05-13

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself.

  13. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Carboxylesterases from Brachypodium distachyon Deacetylating Trichothecene Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Schmeitzl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing frequencies of 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON-producing strains of Fusarium graminearum (3-ADON chemotype have been reported in North America and Asia. 3-ADON is nearly nontoxic at the level of the ribosomal target and has to be deacetylated to cause inhibition of protein biosynthesis. Plant cells can efficiently remove the acetyl groups of 3-ADON, but the underlying genes are yet unknown. We therefore performed a study of the family of candidate carboxylesterases (CXE genes of the monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. We report the identification and characterization of the first plant enzymes responsible for deacetylation of trichothecene toxins. The product of the BdCXE29 gene efficiently deacetylates T-2 toxin to HT-2 toxin, NX-2 to NX-3, both 3-ADON and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON into deoxynivalenol and, to a lesser degree, also fusarenon X into nivalenol. The BdCXE52 esterase showed lower activity than BdCXE29 when expressed in yeast and accepts 3-ADON, NX-2, 15-ADON and, to a limited extent, fusarenon X as substrates. Expression of these Brachypodium genes in yeast increases the toxicity of 3-ADON, suggesting that highly similar genes existing in crop plants may act as susceptibility factors in Fusarium head blight disease.

  15. Identification, Functional Characterization, and Evolution of Terpene Synthases from a Basal Dicot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Matsuba, Yuki; Brandt, Wolfgang; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Bar, Einat; McClain, Alan; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-11-01

    Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) is an agriculturally and economically important dioecious tree in the basal dicot family Lauraceae used in food and drugs and in the cosmetics industry. Bay leaves, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, are used to impart flavor and aroma to food, and have also drawn attention in recent years because of their potential pharmaceutical applications. To identify terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these volatile terpenes, we performed RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. nobilis leaves. Bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of eight TPS complementary DNAs. We characterized the enzymes encoded by three of these complementary DNAs: a monoterpene synthase that belongs to the TPS-b clade catalyzes the formation of mostly 1,8-cineole; a sesquiterpene synthase belonging to the TPS-a clade catalyzes the formation of mainly cadinenes; and a diterpene synthase of the TPS-e/f clade catalyzes the formation of geranyllinalool. Comparison of the sequences of these three TPSs indicated that the TPS-a and TPS-b clades of the TPS gene family evolved early in the evolution of the angiosperm lineage, and that geranyllinalool synthase activity is the likely ancestral function in angiosperms of genes belonging to an ancient TPS-e/f subclade that diverged from the kaurene synthase gene lineages before the split of angiosperms and gymnosperms. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Identification, Functional Characterization, and Evolution of Terpene Synthases from a Basal Dicot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Matsuba, Yuki; Brandt, Wolfgang; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Bar, Einat; McClain, Alan; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-01-01

    Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) is an agriculturally and economically important dioecious tree in the basal dicot family Lauraceae used in food and drugs and in the cosmetics industry. Bay leaves, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, are used to impart flavor and aroma to food, and have also drawn attention in recent years because of their potential pharmaceutical applications. To identify terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these volatile terpenes, we performed RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. nobilis leaves. Bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of eight TPS complementary DNAs. We characterized the enzymes encoded by three of these complementary DNAs: a monoterpene synthase that belongs to the TPS-b clade catalyzes the formation of mostly 1,8-cineole; a sesquiterpene synthase belonging to the TPS-a clade catalyzes the formation of mainly cadinenes; and a diterpene synthase of the TPS-e/f clade catalyzes the formation of geranyllinalool. Comparison of the sequences of these three TPSs indicated that the TPS-a and TPS-b clades of the TPS gene family evolved early in the evolution of the angiosperm lineage, and that geranyllinalool synthase activity is the likely ancestral function in angiosperms of genes belonging to an ancient TPS-e/f subclade that diverged from the kaurene synthase gene lineages before the split of angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:26157114

  17. Identification and Characterization of Roseltide, a Knottin-type Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor Derived from Hibiscus sabdariffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Shining; Kam, Antony; Xiao, Tianshu; Nguyen, Giang K. T.; Liu, Chuan Fa; Tam, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant knottins are of therapeutic interest due to their high metabolic stability and inhibitory activity against proteinases involved in human diseases. The only knottin-type proteinase inhibitor against porcine pancreatic elastase was first identified from the squash family in 1989. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a knottin-type human neutrophil elastase inhibitor from Hibiscus sabdariffa of the Malvaceae family. Combining proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we identified a panel of novel cysteine-rich peptides, roseltides (rT1-rT8), which range from 27 to 39 residues with six conserved cysteine residues. The 27-residue roseltide rT1 contains a cysteine spacing and amino acid sequence that is different from the squash knottin-type elastase inhibitor. NMR analysis demonstrated that roseltide rT1 adopts a cystine-knot fold. Transcriptome analyses suggested that roseltides are bioprocessed by asparagine endopeptidases from a three-domain precursor. The cystine-knot structure of roseltide rT1 confers its high resistance against degradation by endopeptidases, 0.2 N HCl, and human serum. Roseltide rT1 was shown to inhibit human neutrophil elastase using enzymatic and pull-down assays. Additionally, roseltide rT1 ameliorates neutrophil elastase-stimulated cAMP accumulation in vitro. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that roseltide rT1 is a novel knottin-type neutrophil elastase inhibitor with therapeutic potential for neutrophil elastase associated diseases. PMID:27991569

  18. Identification and characterization of a DnaJ gene from red alga Pyropia yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Li, Xianchao; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Members of the DnaJ family are proteins that play a pivotal role in various cellular processes, such as protein folding, protein transport and cellular responses to stress. In the present study, we identified and characterized the full-length DnaJ cDNA sequence from expressed sequence tags of Pyropia yezoensis ( PyDnaJ) via rapid identification of cDNA ends. This cDNA encoded a protein of 429 amino acids, which shared high sequence similarity with other identified DnaJ proteins, such as a heat shock protein 40/DnaJ from Pyropia haitanensis. The relative mRNA expression level of PyDnaJ was investigated using real-time PCR to determine its specific expression during the algal life cycle and during desiccation. The relative mRNA expression level in sporophytes was higher than that in gametophytes and significantly increased during the whole desiccation process. These results indicate that PyDnaJ is an authentic member of the DnaJ family in plants and red algae and might play a pivotal role in mitigating damage to P. yezoensis during desiccation.

  19. Genome-wide identification and characterization of teleost-specific microRNAs within zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liandong; Irwin, David M; He, Shunping

    2015-05-01

    The molecular genetic basis of teleost phenotypic diversity remains poorly understood, despite the increasing availability of genome and transcriptome data. Changes in gene expression, resulting from regulatory mutations, contribute to many or even most phenotypic innovations. In this study, we performed comparative genomic analyses to identify 44 Conserved Teleost-Specific MicroRNAs (CTSMs). An analysis of the sequences of CTSMs demonstrated that their sequence variability is significantly higher than that of Evolutionarily Conserved microRNAs (ECs - microRNAs conserved throughout vertebrates), and that this difference primarily results from variation in the loop regions. We computationally predicted target genes for CTSMs and found that the targets of CTSMs show significantly lower SNP density compared with targets of ECs as well as non-targets of CTSMs. The temporal expression profile of targets of CTSMs obtained from RNA-seq data revealed that the targets of CTSMs are specifically enriched in early-stage embryos and exhibit a broader expression spectrum. Finally, functional enrichment analysis (GO and KEGG) indicated that the targets of CTSMs play diverse functional roles, with a significantly enriched category being the "immune response". Our study provides the first systematic identification and characterization of conserved teleost-specific microRNAs and their targets and presents valuable foundation for a better understanding the genomic basis for the diversification of teleosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SIMPLISIA, ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENS FROM THALLUS Turbinaria decurrens Bory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of simplisia, phytochemical screening, extraction, isolation and identification of chemical constituens  from thallus Turbinaria decurrens Bory have been carried out. The examination of simplisia characteristics gave the water soluble extract the value of 10.59%, ethanol soluble extract valued at 0.93%, total ash valued at 15.64%, the acid insoluble ash value 0.79% and the water content valued at 8.66%. The result of phytochemical screening showed that there was triterpens/steroids present. The extraction process was carried out by percolation and then was separated by liquid vacum column chromatography. Then by preparative thin layer chromatography isolate B1 was obtained. The analysis of isolate B1 by infra red spectrophotometry showed hydroxyl, aliphatic C-H bond, C=O bond, double bond of C=C, C=O bond, C=H bond of CH3 and CH2, were present. Ultra violet spectrophotometry exhibited a maximum absorption at 242 nm and mass spectrometric fragmentation pattern exhibited that the molecular weight of isolate B1 was 394, it was suspected ergosta -4,7,22 –trien -3 one.

  1. Assessing Local Structure Motifs Using Order Parameters for Motif Recognition, Interstitial Identification, and Diffusion Path Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils E. R. Zimmermann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Structure–property relationships form the basis of many design rules in materials science, including synthesizability and long-term stability of catalysts, control of electrical and optoelectronic behavior in semiconductors, as well as the capacity of and transport properties in cathode materials for rechargeable batteries. The immediate atomic environments (i.e., the first coordination shells of a few atomic sites are often a key factor in achieving a desired property. Some of the most frequently encountered coordination patterns are tetrahedra, octahedra, body and face-centered cubic as well as hexagonal close packed-like environments. Here, we showcase the usefulness of local order parameters to identify these basic structural motifs in inorganic solid materials by developing classification criteria. We introduce a systematic testing framework, the Einstein crystal test rig, that probes the response of order parameters to distortions in perfect motifs to validate our approach. Subsequently, we highlight three important application cases. First, we map basic crystal structure information of a large materials database in an intuitive manner by screening the Materials Project (MP database (61,422 compounds for element-specific motif distributions. Second, we use the structure-motif recognition capabilities to automatically find interstitials in metals, semiconductor, and insulator materials. Our Interstitialcy Finding Tool (InFiT facilitates high-throughput screenings of defect properties. Third, the order parameters are reliable and compact quantitative structure descriptors for characterizing diffusion hops of intercalants as our example of magnesium in MnO2-spinel indicates. Finally, the tools developed in our work are readily and freely available as software implementations in the pymatgen library, and we expect them to be further applied to machine-learning approaches for emerging applications in materials science.

  2. Thermal characterization and properties of a copper-diamond composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Pin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chavez, Thomas P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DiAntonio, Christopher Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coker, Eric Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The thermal properties of a commercial copper-diamond composite were measured from below -50°C to above 200°C. The results of thermal expansion, heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity were reported. These data were used to calculate the thermal conductivity of the composite as a function of temperature in the thickness direction. These results are compared with estimated values based on a simple mixing rule and the temperature dependence of these physical properties is represented by curve fitting equations. These fitting equations can be used for thermal modeling of practical devices/systems at their operation temperatures. The results of the mixing rule showed a consistent correlation between the amount of copper and diamond in the composite, based on density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity measurements. However, there was a disparity between measured and estimated thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. These discrepancies can be caused by many intrinsic material issues such as lattice defects and impurities, but the dominant factor is attributed to the large uncertainty of the interfacial thermal conductance between diamond and copper.

  3. Identification and characterization of a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus SDEC-8 for nutrient removal and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingming; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Zhang, Shuo; Ma, Guixia; Han, Lin; Ji, Yan

    2014-06-01

    The selection of the right strains is of fundamental important to the success of the algae-based oil industry. From the six newly isolated microalgae strains tested for growth, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles and biodiesel properties, Scenedesmus SDEC-8, with favorable C16:0 fatty acids (73.43%), showed the best combined results. Then, morphological and molecular identification were examined. From the three wastewaters samples, Scenedesmus SDEC-8 showed good ability to yield oil and remove nutrients, which were comparable with other reports. In b artificial wastewater (TN 40 mg L(-1), TP 8 mg L(-1)), Scenedesmus SDEC-8 achieved the highest value of lipid productivity (53.84 mg L(-1) d(-1)), MUFA content (35.35%) and total FAME content (59.57±0.02 mg g(-1) DW), besides higher removal efficiencies of TN (99.18%) and TP (98.86%) helped effluent directly discharge and smaller dilution factor of N, P (3.3 and 9) which was good for lessening water utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of reduced europium molybdates and tungstates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysinghe, Dileka [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Gerke, Birgit [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster , Corrensstrasse 30, Münster D-48149 (Germany); Morrison, Gregory; Hsieh, Chun H.; Smith, Mark D. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Pöttgen, Rainer [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster , Corrensstrasse 30, Münster D-48149 (Germany); Makris, Thomas M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Loye, Hans-Conrad zur, E-mail: zurloye@mailbox.sc.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Single crystals of K{sub 0.094}Eu{sub 0.906}MoO{sub 4}, K{sub 0.097}Eu{sub 0.903}WO{sub 4}, EuWO{sub 4}, and EuMoO{sub 4} were grown from molten chloride fluxes contained in vacuum-sealed fused silica and structurally characterized via single crystal X-ray diffraction. The in situ reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} was carried out using Mo, W, and Zn as metal reducing agents. All four compounds crystallize in the tetragonal space group of I4{sub 1}/a and adopt the scheelite (CaWO{sub 4}) structure type. The magnetic susceptibility of the reported compounds shows paramagnetic behavior down to 2 K. {sup 151}Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to analyze the relative Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} content of the samples. All the compounds were further characterized by EPR, and UV-vis spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: TOC Caption Two new reduced europium containing quaternary oxides, K{sub 0.094}Eu{sub 0.906}MoO{sub 4} and K{sub 0.097}Eu{sub 0.903}WO{sub 4}, and two previously reported ternary reduced oxides, EuWO{sub 4} and EuMoO{sub 4}, were synthesized via an in situ reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} under flux method using Mo, W, and Zn as metal reducing agents. {sup 151}Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to analyze the relative Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} content of the samples. - Highlights: • K{sub 0.094}Eu{sub 0.906}MoO{sub 4}, K{sub 0.097}Eu{sub 0.903}WO{sub 4}, EuWO{sub 4}, and EuMoO{sub 4} have been synthesized and characterized. • The in situ reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} was carried out using Mo, W, and Zn as metal reducing agents. • Magnetic susceptibility data were collected. • {sup 151}Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to analyze Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} content.

  5. Physical characterization of functionalized spider silk: electronic and sensing properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eden Steven, Jin Gyu Park, Anant Paravastu, Elsa Branco Lopes, James S Brooks, Ongi Englander, Theo Siegrist, Papatya Kaner and Rufina G Alamo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explores functional, fundamental and applied aspects of naturally harvested spider silk fibers. Natural silk is a protein polymer where different amino acids control the physical properties of fibroin bundles, producing, for example, combinations of β-sheet (crystalline and amorphous (helical structural regions. This complexity presents opportunities for functional modification to obtain new types of material properties. Electrical conductivity is the starting point of this investigation, where the insulating nature of neat silk under ambient conditions is described first. Modification of the conductivity by humidity, exposure to polar solvents, iodine doping, pyrolization and deposition of a thin metallic film are explored next. The conductivity increases exponentially with relative humidity and/or solvent, whereas only an incremental increase occurs after iodine doping. In contrast, iodine doping, optimal at 70 °C, has a strong effect on the morphology of silk bundles (increasing their size, on the process of pyrolization (suppressing mass loss rates and on the resulting carbonized fiber structure (that becomes more robust against bending and strain. The effects of iodine doping and other functional parameters (vacuum and thin film coating motivated an investigation with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR to monitor doping-induced changes in the amino acid-protein backbone signature. MAS-NMR revealed a moderate effect of iodine on the helical and β-sheet structures, and a lesser effect of gold sputtering. The effects of iodine doping were further probed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, revealing a partial transformation of β-sheet-to-amorphous constituency. A model is proposed, based on the findings from the MAS-NMR and FTIR, which involves iodine-induced changes in the silk fibroin bundle environment that can account for the altered physical properties. Finally, proof

  6. Physical characterization of functionalized spider silk: electronic and sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven, Eden; Brooks, James S [Department of Physics and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Park, Jin Gyu [FAMU-FSU Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, High-Performance Materials Institute, Florida State University, 2005 Levy Ave., Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Paravastu, Anant; Siegrist, Theo; Kaner, Papatya; Alamo, Rufina G [FAMU-FSU Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Branco Lopes, Elsa [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear/CFMC-UL, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Englander, Ongi, E-mail: esteven@magnet.fsu.edu [FAMU-FSU Department of Mechanical Engineering and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    This work explores functional, fundamental and applied aspects of naturally harvested spider silk fibers. Natural silk is a protein polymer where different amino acids control the physical properties of fibroin bundles, producing, for example, combinations of {beta}-sheet (crystalline) and amorphous (helical) structural regions. This complexity presents opportunities for functional modification to obtain new types of material properties. Electrical conductivity is the starting point of this investigation, where the insulating nature of neat silk under ambient conditions is described first. Modification of the conductivity by humidity, exposure to polar solvents, iodine doping, pyrolization and deposition of a thin metallic film are explored next. The conductivity increases exponentially with relative humidity and/or solvent, whereas only an incremental increase occurs after iodine doping. In contrast, iodine doping, optimal at 70 deg. C, has a strong effect on the morphology of silk bundles (increasing their size), on the process of pyrolization (suppressing mass loss rates) and on the resulting carbonized fiber structure (that becomes more robust against bending and strain). The effects of iodine doping and other functional parameters (vacuum and thin film coating) motivated an investigation with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) to monitor doping-induced changes in the amino acid-protein backbone signature. MAS-NMR revealed a moderate effect of iodine on the helical and {beta}-sheet structures, and a lesser effect of gold sputtering. The effects of iodine doping were further probed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, revealing a partial transformation of {beta}-sheet-to-amorphous constituency. A model is proposed, based on the findings from the MAS-NMR and FTIR, which involves iodine-induced changes in the silk fibroin bundle environment that can account for the altered physical properties. Finally, proof

  7. Synthesis, characterization and properties of hollow nickel phosphide nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Yonghong; Tao Ali; Hu Guangzhi; Cao Xiaofeng; Wei Xianwen; Yang Zhousheng [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2006-10-14

    Nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 12}P{sub 5}) hollow nanospheres with a mean diameter of 100 nm and a shell thickness of 15-20 nm have been successfully prepared by a hydrothermal-microemulsion route, using NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 2} as a phosphorus source. XRD, EDS (HR)TEM, SEM and the SAED pattern were used to characterize the final product. Experiments showed that the as-prepared nickel phosphide hollow nanospheres could selectively catalytically degrade some organic dyes such as methyl red and Safranine T under 254 nm UV light irradiation. At the same time, the nickel phosphide hollow nanospheres showed a stronger ability to promote electron transfer between the glass-carbon electrode and adrenalin than nickel phosphide honeycomb-like particles prepared by a simple hydrothermal route. A possible formation process for nickel phosphide hollow nanospheres was suggested based on the experimental results.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad Sani; Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat El; Shameli, Kamyar; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Salama, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2013-01-01

    Copper nanoparticle synthesis has been gaining attention due to its availability. However, factors such as agglomeration and rapid oxidation have made it a difficult research area. In the present work, pure copper nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a chitosan stabilizer through chemical means. The purity of the nanoparticles was authenticated using different characterization techniques, including ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial as well as antifungal activity of the nanoparticles were investigated using several microorganisms of interest, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Candida albicans. The effect of a chitosan medium on growth of the microorganism was studied, and this was found to influence growth rate. The size of the copper nanoparticles obtained was in the range of 2–350 nm, depending on the concentration of the chitosan stabilizer. PMID:24293998

  9. Characterization of electrical and optical properties of silicon based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Guobin

    2009-12-04

    In this work, the electrical and luminescence properties of a series of silicon based materials used for photovoltaics, microelectronics and nanoelectronics have been investigated by means of electron beam induced current (EBIC), cathodoluminescence (CL), photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) methods. Photovoltaic materials produced by block casting have been investigated by EBIC on wafers sliced from different parts of the ingot. Various solar cell processings have been compared in parallel wafers by means of EBIC collection efficiency measurements and contrast-temperature C(T) behaviors of the extended defects, i. e. dislocations and grain boundaries (GBs). It was found that the solar cell processing with phosphorus diffusion gettering (PDG) followed with a SiN firing greatly reduces the recombination activity of extended defects at room temperature, and improves the bulk property simultaneously. A remaining activity of the dislocations indicates the limitation of the PDG at extended defects. Abnormal behavior of the dislocation activity after certain solar cell processes was also observed in the region with high dislocation density, the dislocations are activated after certain solar cell processings. In order to evaluate the properties of a thin polycrystalline silicon layer prepared by Al-induced layer exchange (Alile) technique, epitaxially layer grown on silicon substrate with different orientations was used as a model system to investigate the impact by the process temperature and the substrates. EBIC energy dependent collection efficiency measurements reveal an improvement of the epilayer quality with increasing substrate temperature during the growth from 450 C to 650 C, and a decrease of epilayer quality at 700 C. PL measurements on the epitaxially grown Si layer on silicon substrates revealed no characteristic dislocation-related luminescence (DRL) lines at room temperature and 77 K, while in the samples prepared by Alile process, intense

  10. Characterizing the Oxidizing Properties of Mars' Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Simmons, K. E.; Mankoff, K. D.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the oxidizing properties of Mars polar regions using disk-resolved ultraviolet spectra from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) on Mariner 9. We detect the spectral characteristic of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which has already been found to exist on the icy galilean satellites. The Mariner 9 UVS data have been archived at NASA s Planetary Data System (PDS) Atmospheric Node and are also available at http://lasp.colorado.edu/Mariner_9_data/. A software visualization tool, Albatross, provides database access (http://lasp.colorado.edu/albatross/) and enables the user to view reflectance spectra for desired latitude/longitude regions and mission phases. It displays the UVS field-of-view (FOV) tracks along with the corresponding reflectance spectrum for a chosen FOV against a background showing the Mars surface image, or a user specified alternate dataset, such as a thermal, geologic or topographic map.

  11. Chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide microcrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Gao, Guanhua; Yu, Runnan; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe

    2011-02-01

    Uniform chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide (Bi 2S 3) microcrystals assembled from nanosheet building blocks were successfully synthesized via a convenient hydrothermal synthetic route under mild conditions in which hydrated bismuth nitrate and L-cysteine were employed to supply Bi and S source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-Na 2) was employed as chelating agent. The influences of reaction temperatures and time on the morphologies of final products were investigated. The phase structures, morphologies, and properties of as-prepared products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, and photoluminescence spectra. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of chrysanthemum-like Bi 2S 3 microcrystals was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  12. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET. Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than that of the normal red mud. After UV irradiation for 50 min, the removal percentage of MO reached 94.2%. The study provided a novel way for the application of red mud to the photocatalytic degradation of organic wastes.

  13. Characterizing Fracture Property Using Resistivity Measured at Different Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, Roland N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Li, Kewen [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The objective was to develop geophysical approaches to detecting and evaluating the fractures created or existing in EGS and other geothermal reservoirs by measuring the resistivity at different frequencies. This project has been divided into two phases: Phase I (first year): Proof of Concept – develop the resistivity approach and verify the effect of frequency on the resistivity in rocks with artificial or natural fractures over a wide range of frequencies. Phase II: Prototyping Part 1 (second year): measure the resistivity in rocks with fractures of different apertures, different length, and different configurations at different frequencies. Part 2 (third year): develop mathematical models and the resistivity method; infer the fracture properties using the measured resistivity data.

  14. Characterizing and engineering microtubule properties for use in hybrid nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeune-Smith, Yolaine

    The emergence of nanotechnology in materials science research has had a major impact in biotechnology. Nature provides novel materials and structures that can be redesigned and reassembled for engineering purposes. One system in particular is the intracellular transport system consisting of the kinesin motor protein and microtubule. For synthetic devices, either the bead geometry (kinesin motors walking along a microtubule coated surface) or the gliding geometry (microtubules gliding over a kinesin-coated surface) is used. Molecular shuttles, utilizing the gliding geometry, have the potential for use in hybrid nanodevices such as biosensors. The kinesin-powered molecular shuttle has been extensively studied. Advances have been made in controlling activation of the kinesin motors, guiding movement of kinesin motors and cargo loading onto the molecular shuttles. In this dissertation the interest in molecular shuttle development is extended with a research focus on the microtubule filament. The microtubule is a central element in the molecular shuttle. The sensing capabilities and limitations of molecular shuttles are tied to the microtubules. It would be desired to have nanodevices with molecular shuttles of predictable size, speed and lifetime. Three materials properties of the microtubules are examined. First, the microtubule length distribution is measured and compared to the length distribution of synthetic polymers. Post polymerization processing techniques, shearing and annealing, are utilized to try to reduce the polydispersity index of the microtubule length distribution. Second, the effect of kinesin activity on the lifetime of the microtubules is observed and quantified. Degradation of microtubules is monitored as a function of kinesin activity and time. Lastly, the effect of cargo loading on microtubule gliding speed is measured to gain insight on the mechanism of cargo attachment. These property behaviors will play a role in the final development of

  15. Characterization of physicochemical properties of ivy nanoparticles for cosmetic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yujian; Lenaghan, Scott C; Xia, Lijin; Burris, Jason N; Stewart, C Neal; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-02-01

    Naturally occurring nanoparticles isolated from English ivy (Hedera helix) have previously been proposed as an alternative to metallic nanoparticles as sunscreen fillers due to their effective UV extinction property, low toxicity and potential biodegradability. This study focused on analyzing the physicochemical properties of the ivy nanoparticles, specifically, those parameters which are crucial for use as sunscreen fillers, such as pH, temperature, and UV irradiation. The visual transparency and cytotoxicity of ivy nanoparticles were also investigated comparing them with other metal oxide nanoparticles. Results from this study demonstrated that, after treatment at 100°C, there was a clear increase in the UV extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles caused by the partial decomposition. In addition, the UVA extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles gradually reduced slightly with the decrease of pH values in solvents. Prolonged UV irradiation indicated that the influence of UV light on the stability of the ivy nanoparticle was limited and time-independent. Compared to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, ivy nanoparticles showed better visual transparency. Methylthiazol tetrazolium assay demonstrated that ivy nanoparticles exhibited lower cytotoxicity than the other two types of nanoparticles. Results also suggested that protein played an important role in modulating the three-dimensional structure of the ivy nanoparticles. Based on the results from this study it can be concluded that the ivy nanoparticles are able to maintain their UV protective capability at wide range of temperature and pH values, further demonstrating their potential as an alternative to replace currently available metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen applications.

  16. Characterization of physicochemical properties of ivy nanoparticles for cosmetic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yujian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturally occurring nanoparticles isolated from English ivy (Hedera helix have previously been proposed as an alternative to metallic nanoparticles as sunscreen fillers due to their effective UV extinction property, low toxicity and potential biodegradability. Methods This study focused on analyzing the physicochemical properties of the ivy nanoparticles, specifically, those parameters which are crucial for use as sunscreen fillers, such as pH, temperature, and UV irradiation. The visual transparency and cytotoxicity of ivy nanoparticles were also investigated comparing them with other metal oxide nanoparticles. Results Results from this study demonstrated that, after treatment at 100°C, there was a clear increase in the UV extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles caused by the partial decomposition. In addition, the UVA extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles gradually reduced slightly with the decrease of pH values in solvents. Prolonged UV irradiation indicated that the influence of UV light on the stability of the ivy nanoparticle was limited and time-independent. Compared to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, ivy nanoparticles showed better visual transparency. Methylthiazol tetrazolium assay demonstrated that ivy nanoparticles exhibited lower cytotoxicity than the other two types of nanoparticles. Results also suggested that protein played an important role in modulating the three-dimensional structure of the ivy nanoparticles. Conclusions Based on the results from this study it can be concluded that the ivy nanoparticles are able to maintain their UV protective capability at wide range of temperature and pH values, further demonstrating their potential as an alternative to replace currently available metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen applications.

  17. Transport properties and electrokinetic characterization of an amphoteric nanofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczyk, Anthony; Sbaï, Mohammed; Fievet, Patrick; Vidonne, Alain

    2006-04-11

    Transport properties of a tubular nanofilter with amphoteric properties have been investigated by means of the SEDE (steric, electric, and dielectric exclusion) homogeneous model. Within the scope of this 1D model, the separation of solutes results from transport effects (described by means of extended Nernst-Planck equations) and interfacial phenomena including steric hindrance, the Donnan effect, and dielectric exclusion (expressed in terms of (i) the Born dielectric effect, which is connected to the lowering of the dielectric constant of a solution inside nanodimensional pores, and (ii) the interaction between ions and the polarization charges induced at the dielectric boundary between the pore walls and the pore-filling solution). The effective volume charge density of the membrane has been determined from tangential streaming potential experiments coupled with conductance experiments in a potassium chloride solution at various pH values ranging from 2 to 11. The inferred values have been used in the SEDE model to compute the ion rejection rates with the dielectric constant of the solution inside the pores as a single adjustable parameter. The model provides a relatively good description of experimental data even at extreme pH values for which a ternary system has been considered (K+, Cl-, and H+ or OH- depending on the pH). The fit to experimental data at the membrane isoelectric point indicates that the confinement effect decreases the dielectric constant inside the pores only slightly (with respect to its bulk value). However, the (pH-dependent) ionization of surface sites has been found to lead to a substantial lowering of the dielectric constant inside the pores.

  18. Identification and characterization of the iridoid synthase involved in oleuropein biosynthesis in olive (Olea europaea) fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range...... of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From...... these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive...

  19. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica J Pajuelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex pathogen genomes. Here we describe microsatellite identification and characterization in T. solium, providing information that will assist in global efforts to control this important pathogen.For genome sequencing, T. solium cysts and proglottids were collected from Huancayo and Puno in Peru, respectively. Using next generation sequencing (NGS and de novo assembly, we assembled two draft genomes and one hybrid genome. Microsatellite sequences were identified and 36 of them were selected for further analysis. Twenty T. solium isolates were collected from Tumbes in the northern region, and twenty from Puno in the southern region of Peru. The size-polymorphism of the selected microsatellites was determined with multi-capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the association between microsatellite polymorphism and the geographic origin of the samples.The predicted size of the hybrid (proglottid genome combined with cyst genome T. solium genome was 111 MB with a GC content of 42.54%. A total of 7,979 contigs (>1,000 nt were obtained. We identified 9,129 microsatellites in the Puno-proglottid genome and 9,936 in the Huancayo-cyst genome, with 5 or more repeats, ranging from mono- to hexa-nucleotide. Seven microsatellites were polymorphic and 29 were monomorphic within the analyzed isolates. T. solium tapeworms were classified into two genetic groups that correlated with the North/South geographic origin of the parasites.The availability of draft genomes for T. solium represents a

  20. Identification and characterization of a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate phosphatase in the silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, ShuoHao; Han, CaiYun; Ma, ZhenQiao; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, JianYun; Huang, LongQuan

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin B6 comprises six interconvertible pyridine compounds, among which pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a coenzyme for over 140 enzymes. PLP is also a very reactive aldehyde. The most well established mechanism for maintaining low levels of free PLP is its dephosphorylation by phosphatases. A human PLP-specific phosphatase has been identified and characterized. However, very little is known about the phosphatase in other living organisms. In this study, a cDNA clone of putative PLP phosphatase was identified from B. mori and characterized. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 343 amino acid residues, and the recombinant enzyme purified from E. coli exhibited properties similar to that of human PLP phosphatase. B. mori has a single copy of the PLPP gene, which is located on 11th chromosome, spans a 5.7kb region and contains five exons and four introns. PLP phosphatase transcript was detected in every larva tissue except hemolymph, and was most highly represented in Malpighian tube. We further down-regulated the gene expression of the PLP phosphatase in 5th instar larvae with the RNA interference. However, no significant changes in the gene expression of PLP biosynthetic enzymes and composition of B6 vitamers were detected as compared with the control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.