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Sample records for vicinity hamitabat thermic

  1. Airborne and soilborne microfungi in the vicinity Hamitabat Thermic Power Plant in Kirklareli City (Turkey), their seasonal distributions and relations with climatological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Ahmet; Okten, Suzan Sarica; Sen, Burhan

    2010-05-01

    Soil and air samples of seven different localities around Hamitabat Thermic Power Plant, 10 km far away from Luleburgaz/Kirklareli (Turkey), were taken between the years 2003 and 2004 with seasonal intervals. The samples were brought to the laboratory and their microfungal identifications were done. From the air samples, 737 microfungi colonies were isolated comprising 26 species belonging to eight genera. From soil samples, 170.6 x 10(4) colony-forming unit (CFU)/g was isolated from 33 species belonging to 16 genera. The most isolated genus from air samples was Alternaria (324 CFU, 43.96%), followed by Cladosporium (208 CFU, 25.52%) and Phoma (44 CFU, 5.40%). Penicillium was the most isolated genus from the soil samples with a value of 560,000 CFU/g (32.8%), followed by Fusarium (226,000 CFU/g, 13.12%) and Aspergillus (154,000 CFU/g, 9.03%). Among these species, Alternaria citri and Alternaria alternata are the most abundant species in air with 164 and 107 CFU, respectively, whereas Fusarium graminearum and Penicillium citrinum are the most abundant species in soil with CFU per gram values of 17.8 x 10(4) and 1.3 x 10(5). Correlation analysis was applied to determine whether or not there was a relationship between colony number of isolated fungal genera and meteorological factors. Some parameters of soil samples' incontent during the research period were calculated using a computer analysis program. From the air samples, a positive correlation was found between relative humidity and Alternaria colonial counts and Cladosporium spore counts (r = 0.912 and r = 1.000, respectively). Similarly, with the analysis of soil samples, a positive correlation between colonial counts of Alternaria and soil pH and a positive correlation between colonial counts of Aspergillus and Penicillium and salt percentage concentration of soil were found.

  2. Mediterranean detachment zones : thermicity vs heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Loic; Huet, Benjamin; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Jolivet, Laurent; Burov, Evgenii

    2017-04-01

    and ditributed modes. An exaggeration of one order of magnitude (100 to 1000) of the strength contrast between the upper and lower crust appears to be sufficient to promote the development of a MCC, whatever the cause of this exaggeration. For large Mediterranean Core Complexes (Menderes, Cyclades, Betics for instance) evolution through time is also compatible with a progressive prevalence of thermicity over herited contrasts.

  3. A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.

    2014-01-01

    A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes was developed and successfully tested. A greenhouse as part of a test rig, with different sorts of mangroves, was installed. Measurements showed promising results concerning fresh water relative yielding rates up to 1.4 kg/h/m2 (leaf

  4. Analysis of factors affecting fractures of rails welded by alumino-thermic welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergejs MIKHAYLOVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On Latvian Railway the use of the alumino-thermic welding is widespread using the Elektro-Thermit Company technology. Today it is a basic method for rail joints on railway switches. The analysis of the metal structure in the thermic welding and in the thermic welded zone of rails showed that the weld metal had inclusions small pores and nonmetallics. Pores and nonmetallics are not reduce hardness but it is concentrators of stresses and sources of cracks development.

  5. Analysis of factors affecting fractures of rails welded by alumino-thermic welding

    OpenAIRE

    Sergejs MIKHAYLOVS; Dijs SERGEJEVS

    2008-01-01

    On Latvian Railway, the use of the thermic welding is widespread using the ELECTRO-THERMIT Company technology. Today it is a basic method for rail joints. Experience of the operation of rails welded by the thermic welding showed that every year occur from 2 to 3 fractures of thermic joints on the main tracks between stations of Latvian Railway.Such emergence of cracks in the weld joint alongside the scores indicates of great residual stresses in the weld joints made by the thermic welding.

  6. [Immunological investigations of patients after thermic injury (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, H; Sauer, D; Meyer, K; Ambrosius, H

    1981-01-01

    A burn toxin, which is important for the manifestation of clinical and septical processes during the burn disease, was isolated from burned skin of mice. Using this antigen we have studied the immunological reactions against burn toxin in 10 patients following thermic trauma. We determined the specific antibodies against the burn toxin by means of the passive hemagglutination test, the level of IgM, IgG and IgA in the serum using Mancini-immunodiffusion, the burn toxin binding cells by means of the antigen specific rosette technique and the cell-mediate immunity using the macrophage electrophoretic mobility test (MEM-test). A rise of the burn toxin-specific cells could be observed with maximum at day 4 and a second peak at day 10 and cell mediated immunity between day 10 and day 15. The titer of specific antibodies increased, most following an initial decrease, after day 6, a correlation seemed to exist between this titer and the level of immunoglobulins in the serum.

  7. [Design of a thermic detection system applied to chick embryonated eggs irradiated with infrared rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, R; Plivelic, T; Samar, M E; Benavídez, E

    1996-01-01

    Infrared radiations are widely used in medical therapeutics. It has been argued that the doses and the periods of time employed in experimental animals are higher than those used in clinic. Thus, we considered of interest to analyse aspects of dosimetry and thermic effects of infrared rays with current methods in medical practice, using the in ovo chick embryo as a model of easy control. To this end we designed a system to measure temperatures and their acquisitions and software for its handling. The system consists of: a) thermic points: thermocuples or termistores adaptable to the experimental requirements and calibrated with a greater precision within a range of ten degrees around the incubation temperature; b) acquirer circuit of thermic data (hardware): it generates a time base that varies with the thermic sensor. Software: the PC XT or AT detects changes in the time base by means of a programs' in a Turbo Pascal; c) storage and analysis of data allows, through a menu (expansibles) the scale selection, time of program data to be acquired, storage and recovery of the diskette information and graphic impression; d) chick's embryonated eggs. This system allows to measure temperature distribution in small physical spaces with little disturbance of the system to be measured in irradiated bodies, to analyse variations of the temperatures in time and to secure a greater confidence and automatism to obtain the required data.

  8. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes and...

  9. THERMIC: a 2-D finite-element tool to solve conductive and advective heat transfer problems in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Alain; Capolsini, Patrick

    1999-12-01

    We present a C-language program, THERMIC, that solves the 2-dimensional (pseudo 3D for axi-symmetric cases) conductive and advective heat-transfer equation. THERMIC uses a finite-element method that takes into account realistic geometries, heterogeneous material properties and various boundary and initial conditions. As it also allows for latent heat (heat production due to crystallisation) and for thermal properties, such as thermal conductivity, to be dependent on temperature, it is particularly suited to heat transfer problems encountered in the Earth Sciences. We present sample applications from the various problems already treated by THERMIC (cooling of magma chambers and dykes, the study of a granitic magma ascent or of pore water flow in sedimentary basins). Successfully tested on SUN® and SGI® UNIX workstations and on Microsoft Windows 95®, 98® and NT® 4.0 system based PCs, the THERMIC package can be downloaded from the web (THERMIC home page: http://www.ipgp.jussieu.fr/UFP/thermic/html/Thermic_home.html) and contains source files, makefiles and environment files as well as executable files for both systems and an html directory with help and example files.

  10. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION OF PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTOR USING TWO FLUIDS (THERMIC OIL AND MOLTEN SALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Boukelia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Parabolic trough solar collector is considered as one of the most proven, mature and commercial concentrating solar systems implemented in arid and semi-arid regions for energy production. It focuses sunlight onto a solar receiver by using mirrors and is finally converted to a useful thermal energy by means of a heat transfer fluid. The aims of this study are (i to develop a new methodology for simulation and performance evaluation of parabolic trough solar collector, in addition (i to compare the efficiencies of this system using two different fluids; thermic oil and molten solar salt. The validation of obtained results using this methodology shows a good agreement with those obtained by the experimental tests. Furthermore, this study favors the using of thermic oil as heat transfer fluid in the receiver instead of molten salt due to the high efficiency of the concentrator based on the first fluid in comparison to the second one.

  11. Multiplicity of detonation regimes in systems with a multi-peaked thermicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Matei I.; Zhang, Fan

    2012-11-01

    Bulk exothermicity in most gaseous detonation waves occurs in a single step. There are however several physical systems displaying multiple thermicity peaks. Examples are the nuclear fusion reactions sequence in supernovae explosions, hybrid detonations in multi-phase fuels and other reactive systems. The multiplicity of steady state detonation regimes in the presence of an endothermic internal or external loss is demonstrated through analysis of the reaction zone structure described by the reactive Euler equations with two sequential Arrhenius reactions. The steady Zel'dovich - Von Neumann- Doering reaction structure is obtained numerically. The reaction zone displays embedded sonic points where the net thermicity vanishes simultaneously. Depending on the magnitude of the losses or endothermic process, the detonation wave speed response was found to have multiple steady states and turning points, which are controlled by the magnitude of the kinetic parameters of each reaction. The dependence on system parameters is established analytically using the Fickett detonation analogue model with two sequential reactions.

  12. Thermic Attenuation on Concrete Sidewalk under Urban Trees. Case Study: Santa Marta – Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Devia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Urban trees provide a number of services including shade and thermal attenuation. This is related to morphological and physiological characteristics of trees and may vary between species and even between individuals of the same species. The aim of this work was to identify thermic attenuations on concrete sidewalks under six tropical urban trees with six different types of shadows. Material and Methods: In Santa Marta City, Colombia (10º12´20” N, 74º13´33” W, 10 meters above sea level and 31ºC temperature, we selected six trees (species with different types of shade, and they are evaluated for soil temperature and the temperature in the shade and off throughout the day for four different days of the year. ANOVA and t-tests were performed with R program in order to identify the influence of the specie, the day, the hour and the position (at the thermic comfort level, surface temperature on the temperature results obtained. Results and Conclusion: Some trees have the most translucent shadows most likely due to nictinastic movements and consequently less temperature attenuation. On the other hand, other trees have denser shadows and can generate more substantial thermic attenuations. Regarding temperature data, the hour of the day shows the greatest influence on the variability of air temperature and the species shows the greatest influence on the variability of surface temperature. Honey berry (Meliccoca bijugatus and Malay almond (Terminalia atappa trees have denser shadows and can generate more substantial thermic attenuations. Tree physiology can play an important role in temperature attenuation in cities as a result of shadow effects and can be applied as a criterion to select urban trees in tropical cities.

  13. Thermic Attenuation on Concrete Sidewalk under Urban Trees. Case Study: Santa Marta – Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Devia; Andrés Torres

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Urban trees provide a number of services including shade and thermal attenuation. This is related to morphological and physiological characteristics of trees and may vary between species and even between individuals of the same species. The aim of this work was to identify thermic attenuations on concrete sidewalks under six tropical urban trees with six different types of shadows. Material and Methods: In Santa Marta City, Colombia (10º12´20” N, 74º13´33” W, 10 met...

  14. Cleaning oil refining drainage waters out of emulsified oil products with thermic treated cedar nut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatanova, P. A.; Adeeva, L. N.

    2017-08-01

    It was elaborated the ability of the sorbent produced by thermic treatment of cedar nut shell to destruct model and real first kind (direct) emulsions in static and dynamic conditions. In static conditions optimal ratio sorbent-emulsion with the original concentration of oil products 800 mg/l was in the range of 2.0 g per 100 ml of emulsion which corresponds to the level of treatment 94.9%. The time of emulsion destruction was 40 minutes. This sorbent is highly active in dynamic processes of oil-contaminated water treatment, the level of treatment 96.0% is being achieved. Full dynamic sorptive capacity of the sorbent is 0.85 g/g. Sorbent based on the thermic treated cedar nut shell can be elaborated as sorptive filter element of local treatment facilities of oil refining and petrochemical processes. After the treatment with this sorbent of drainage waters of oil refinery in dynamic conditions the concentration of oil products became less than mpc on oil products for waste waters coming to biological treatment.

  15. Aspects of Energy Metabolism in Mangalitsa Pigs Exposed at Thermic Neutral Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pârvu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed the energy metabolism determination in Mangalitsa pigs exposed at thermic neutral temperature, compared to Large White pigs. The experimental period was between 80 and 100 kg liveweight. The animals had free access to standard, isoprotein and isocalory diets, with 13.5% crude protein (CP and 3100 kcal/kg metabolizable energy. Feed intake was measured on a daily basis. The energy-protein balance was calculated on the basis of comparative slaughter made at the beginning and end of the experiment. The metabolizable energy (MEc was estimated by chemical analysis (feed and excreta using mathematical modelling and the Whittemore’s formula. The metabolizable energy utilization efficiency was 0.61 at Large White and 0.53 at Mangalitsa.

  16. The effect of fast eating on the thermic effect of food in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Kenji; Zhao, Xifan; Kuranuki, Sachi; Oguri, Yasuo; Kashiwa Kato, Eriko; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Nakamura, Teiji

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between eating speed and the thermic effect of food (TEF) remains unclear. We investigated the difference in the TEF when meals containing the same amount of energy were eaten in 5 min (fast eating) or 15 min (regular eating). Subjects were nine non-obese young women. Following a 350 kcal (1464 kJ) meal, energy expenditure and autonomic nervous system activity were measured. The frequency of mastication was also calculated. The TEF for the 15-min period after the start of eating with fast eating was significantly lower than with regular eating (p eating and between total mastication frequency and TEF during ingestion. Fast eating may reduce the TEF, potentially because a decrease in mastication frequency decreases sympathetic nervous system activity.

  17. A current genotoxicity database for heterocyclic thermic food mutagens. I. Genetically relevant endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, F T

    1986-01-01

    Cooking, heat processing, or pyrolysis of protein-rich foods induce the formation of a series of structurally related heterocyclic aromatic bases that have been found to be mutagens. The primary genetic assay utilized to detect and isolate these mutagens has been the his reversion assay in Salmonella typhimurium. The classification and nomenclature of these chemicals is revised to reflect recent advances. The findings of short-term tests for genetic injury that have been applied to these agents are presented in a systematic way. Cell-free, bacterial, mammalian cell culture, and in vivo systems are included. Major results, the mutagens tested, and key references are presented in tabular form, with text commentary. Integrated conclusions on the state of current knowledge of the genetic toxicity of thermic food mutagens are presented. Areas in need of further research are defined. Finally, an outline is presented of a suggested path leading to the determination whether normal methods of food preparation and processing constitute a human health hazard. PMID:3530740

  18. No evidence for metabolic adaptation in thermic effect of food by dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Bray, George A; Burton, Jeffrey H; Smith, Steven R; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-08-01

    Determine whether prolonged consumption of high- or low-protein diets modifies the thermogenic response to a standard meal. Twenty-four healthy individuals were randomized to overfeeding diets containing low (5%, n = 8), normal (15%, n = 9), or high (25%, n = 7) protein for 56 days while inpatients. The thermic effect of food (TEF) was measured over 4 h by indirect calorimetry following a standard meal (20% of energy, 20% protein) or a meal that matched the study diet ("study meal"). As expected, the TEF following the study meal (i.e., either low, normal, or high protein content) was significantly associated with dietary protein (P = 0.007), and the TEF was significantly increased in the high-protein diet (15.4%) versus the normal-protein (5.6%) and low-protein diets (6.4%) (P = 0.05 and P = 0.03, respectively). However, returning to a standard meal (20% protein) after 42 days of overfeeding the study diets, the TEF response did not differ from baseline between groups or within subjects regardless of the prolonged intake of the habitual study diet (high protein: P = 0.32, low protein: P = 0.11, normal protein: P = 0.79). TEF is related to acute dietary protein intake but not altered by prolonged intake of high-energy diets with high or low protein content. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  19. A novel approach to calculating the thermic effect of food in a metabolic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Fumi; Hibi, Masanobu; Tanaka, Shigeho; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2016-02-01

    The thermic effect of food (TEF) is the well-known concept in spite of its difficulty for measuring. The gold standard for evaluating the TEF is the difference in energy expenditure between fed and fasting states (ΔEE). Alternatively, energy expenditure at 0 activity (EE0) is estimated from the intercept of the linear relationship between energy expenditure and physical activity to eliminate activity thermogenesis from the measurement, and the TEF is calculated as the difference between EE0 and postabsorptive resting metabolic rate (RMR) or sleeping metabolic rate (SMR). However, the accuracy of the alternative methods has been questioned. To improve TEF estimation, we propose a novel method as our original TEF calculation method to calculate EE0 using integrated physical activity over a specific time interval. We aimed to identify which alternative methods of TEF calculation returns reasonable estimates, that is, positive value as well as estimates close to ΔEE. Seven men participated in two sessions (with and without breakfast) of whole-body indirect calorimetry, and physical activity was monitored with a triaxial accelerometer. Estimates of TEF by three simplified methods were compared to ΔEE. ΔEE, EE0 above SMR, and our original method returned positive values for the TEF after breakfast in all measurements. TEF estimates of our original method was indistinguishable from those based on the ΔEE, whereas those as EE0 above RMR and EE0 above SMR were slightly lower and higher, respectively. Our original method was the best among the three simplified TEF methods as it provided positive estimates in all the measurements that were close to the value derived from gold standard for all measurements. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  20. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Brianna L. Neumann; Amy Dunn; Dallas Johnson; Adams, J. D.; Baum, Jamie I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g ...

  1. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Brianna L; Dunn, Amy; Johnson, Dallas; Adams, J D; Baum, Jamie I

    2016-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat) or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat). On days 1 (D1) and 8 (D8), TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response.

  2. Are Vicinal Metal Surfaces Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenken, J. W. M.; Stoltze, Per

    1999-01-01

    We use effective medium theory to demonstrate that the energies of many metal surfaces are lowered when these surfaces are replaced by facets with lower-index orientations. This implies that the low-temperature equilibrium shapes of many metal crystals should be heavily faceted. The predicted ins...... instability of vicinal metal surfaces is at variance with the almost generally observed stability of these surfaces. We argue that the unstable orientations undergo a defaceting transition at relatively low temperatures, driven by the high vibrational entropy of steps....

  3. Rectal temperature time of death nomogram: dependence of corrective factors on the body weight under stronger thermic insulation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssge, C

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-eight test coolings were made under various cooling conditions (moving air, two types of both clothing and covering) on dummies of real masses of 1, 3.3, 9.9, 24.5 and 33.4 kg, respectively, which cool under standard conditions (unclothed, uncovered, still air) like human bodies of 14, 33, 41, 83 and 104 kg, respectively. The results provide evidence of a non-linear dependence of corrective factors of body weight upon the body weight. The dynamics of the dependence increases with the thickness of thermic insulation. Transferred to the use of the nomogram method on bodies, cooling conditions requiring corrective factors between 0.75 (moving air) and 1.3 (rather thin clothing/covering), known from experience on bodies of an average weight, can be used as in the past, independent of the body weight. According to experience the dependence of corrective factors on the body weight must be taken into account in bodies of a very high or low body weight. For that purpose both a simplified table and a formula for computing is given.

  4. Thorough Mastication Prior to Swallowing Increases Postprandial Satiety and the Thermic Effect of a Meal in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Naho; Motokubota, Naoko; Suzuki, Maki; Hayashi, Ikuyo; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence to support that mastication may contribute to the prevention of weight gain via reduction of appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. However, the metabolic effect of mastication after consumption of a daily meal, composed of the staple food (rice), soup, main and side dishes, is limited. Therefore, the effect of thorough mastication on greater satiety and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM) was investigated in young women. In study 1, energy expenditure (EE) derived from masticatory muscle activity for 20 min was measured while chewing hard, tasteless, non-caloric gum in seven subjects. In study 2, ten subjects consumed a solid meal performing 30 chews per mouthful (30 CPM), or swallowed the same, pureed meal without chewing (0 CPM) on two separate days, and postprandial EE, substrate oxidation, subjective appetite ratings and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for 3 h were examined. Both test meals were iso-caloric (2,510 kJ) and -weighted (884 g), and consumed in 20 min. From study 1, the EE of mastication itself for the 20 min was estimated to be 3.7±0.8 kJ. From study 2, significantly higher TEM (134.2±15.5 vs. 67.8±13.8 kJ/3 h, pmastication before swallowing increased postprandial satiety and the TEM in young women, suggesting such eating behavior may be useful for preventing obesity.

  5. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna L. Neumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years, who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week. Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group: breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast, carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat. On days 1 (D1 and 8 (D8, TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p < 0.05 TEF compared to SKP and CHO on D1 and D8, with PRO having 29% higher TEF than CHO on D8. On D1, PRO had 30.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO and on D8, PRO had 40.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO. SKP had higher (p < 0.05 fat oxidation on D1 and D8 compared to PRO and CHO. There was an interaction (p < 0.0001 of time and breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p < 0.05 in PP hunger response on D8 vs. D1. CHO and PRO had similar PP (postprandial glucose responses on D1 and D8. Consumption of PRO breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response.

  6. Thermic effect of food and beta-adrenergic thermogenic responsiveness in habitually exercising and sedentary healthy adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stob, Nicole R; Bell, Christopher; van Baak, Marleen A; Seals, Douglas R

    2007-08-01

    The thermic effect of food (TEF) is an important physiological determinant of total daily energy expenditure (EE) and energy balance. TEF is believed to be mediated in part by sympathetic nervous system activation and consequent beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation of metabolism. TEF is greater in habitually exercising than in sedentary adults, despite similar postprandial sympathetic nervous system activation. We determined whether augmented TEF in habitually exercising adults is associated with enhanced peripheral thermogenic responsiveness to beta-AR stimulation. In separate experiments in 22 sedentary and 29 habitually exercising adults, we measured the increase in EE (indirect calorimetry, ventilated hood) during beta-AR stimulation (intravenous isoproterenol: 6, 12, and 24 ng x kg fat-free mass(-1) x min(-1)) and EE before and after a liquid meal (40% of resting EE; 53% carbohydrate, 32% fat, 15% protein). The increase in EE during incremental isoproterenol administration was greater (P = 0.01) in habitual exercisers (0.34 +/- 0.03, 0.54 +/- 0.04, 0.81 +/- 0.05 kJ/min; means +/- SE) than in sedentary adults (0.26 +/- 0.03, 0.40 +/- 0.03, 0.64 +/- 0.04 kJ/min). The area under the TEF response curve was also greater (P = 0.04) in habitual exercisers (160 +/- 9 kJ) than in sedentary adults (130 +/- 11 kJ) and was positively related to beta-AR thermogenic responsiveness (r = 0.32, P = 0.02). We conclude that TEF is related to beta-AR thermogenic responsiveness and that the greater TEF in habitual exercisers is attributable in part to their augmented beta-AR thermogenic responsiveness. Our results also suggest that peripheral thermogenic responsiveness to beta-AR stimulation is a physiological determinant of TEF and hence energy balance in healthy adult humans.

  7. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  8. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  9. Normothermic Versus Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Children Undergoing Open Heart Surgery (Thermic-2): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baos, Sarah; Sheehan, Karen; Culliford, Lucy; Pike, Katie; Ellis, Lucy; Parry, Andrew J; Stoica, Serban; Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Caputo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background During open heart surgery, patients are connected to a heart-lung bypass machine that pumps blood around the body (“perfusion”) while the heart is stopped. Typically the blood is cooled during this procedure (“hypothermia”) and warmed to normal body temperature once the operation has been completed. The main rationale for “whole body cooling” is to protect organs such as the brain, kidneys, lungs, and heart from injury during bypass by reducing the body’s metabolic rate and decreasing oxygen consumption. However, hypothermic perfusion also has disadvantages that can contribute toward an extended postoperative hospital stay. Research in adults and small randomized controlled trials in children suggest some benefits to keeping the blood at normal body temperature throughout surgery (“normothermia”). However, the two techniques have not been extensively compared in children. Objective The Thermic-2 study will test the hypothesis that the whole body inflammatory response to the nonphysiological bypass and its detrimental effects on different organ functions may be attenuated by maintaining the body at 35°C-37°C (normothermic) rather than 28°C (hypothermic) during pediatric complex open heart surgery. Methods This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness and acceptability of normothermic versus hypothermic bypass in 141 children with congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery. Children having scheduled surgery to repair a heart defect not requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest represent the target study population. The co-primary clinical outcomes are duration of inotropic support, intubation time, and postoperative hospital stay. Secondary outcomes are in-hospital mortality and morbidity, blood loss and transfusion requirements, pre- and post-operative echocardiographic findings, routine blood gas and blood test results, renal function, cerebral function, regional oxygen saturation of

  10. Solar frigorific machine by zeolite 13 X/water adsorption. Part 2: solar and thermic performance coefficient; Maquina frigorifica solar a adsorcao zeolita 13X/agua. Parte 2: coeficientes de performance termico e solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo, Joao Francisco; Saglietti, Jose Roberto Correa [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Passos, Evandro Ferreira [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Mello, Jose Mario Domingos de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    1995-12-31

    The present work shows experimental results from zeolite 13/X water solar refrigerator in field condition described on article Part 1. Operating temperatures from several components on the machine are presented and the experimental cycle is analysed by an isobaric diagram. the solar and thermic performance are presented, discussed and compared with the literature. (author) 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Monitoring and assessment of thermical comfort in hygrothermically moderate offices and laboratories; Monitoraggio e valutazione del comfort termico negli ambienti di lavoro termoigrometricamente moderati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    This study reports the results of the micro climatic measurements carried out in some ENEA work environments. The work conditions in the surveyed areas, have been evaluated following welfare indexes or thermical comfort: PMV= Predicted Mean Vote (ISO recommendation 7730); PPD= Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (ISO recommendation 7730). [Italiano] In questo studio sono riportati i risultati delle misure microclimatiche eseguite in alcuni ambienti di lavoro dei centri ENEA di Bologna. Le condizioni di lavoro (delle zone che sono state sottoposte ad indagine) sono state valutate mediante i seguenti indici di benessere o `comfort` termico: Voto Medio Previsto (PMV= Predicted Mean Vote) - raccomandazione ISO 7730; Percentuale Prevista di Insoddisfatti (PPD= Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied) - raccomandazione ISO 7730.

  12. Self-assembled nanostructures on vicinal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovykh, Dmitri Yourievich

    2000-10-01

    One of the first methods for visualizing crystal planes and atomic steps has been step decoration with gold on alkali-halide surfaces. An impressive body of work has been conducted since then on the role of steps in controlling surface diffusion and adsorption rates, catalytic and chemical activity, and other physical and chemical surface properties. Due to these special characteristics, vicinal surfaces offer an approach for creating self-assembled structures with one or more dimensions on nanometer scale. The storage and communications industries have been revolutionized by applications of two-dimensional electron gas confined in thin films, so an interest in one and zero-dimensional systems is not surprising. This work demonstrates how macroscopic amounts of low-dimensional structures can be produced by self-assembly using stepped surfaces as nanometer-scale templates. High-quality templates of step arrays can be prepared on vicinal Si(111) surfaces. Sub-monolayer CaF2/Si(111) heteroepitaxial growth is examined in a series of experiments. A new growth mode is observed in addition to the ones typical in three dimensions. With increasing coverage, the growth front changes from rough to smooth geometry, driven by the elastic interactions between the multiple growth fronts and the surface steps. The mechanism is thus unique to the two-dimensional growth on stepped surfaces. The possible arrangements of the CaF2 self-assembled nanostructures are arrays of stripes or islands, both interesting as potential masks for silicon nanolithography. Anisotropic surface reconstructions, such as Ca and Au induced 3 x 1 and 5 x 2 on Si(111), are effectively self-assembled one-dimensional atomic chains. Reconstructions are single-domain on vicinal surfaces and with odd electron count a metallic one-dimensional state is expected in both the above examples. However in angular-resolved photoemission both appear as semiconductors, and Au-Si(111)5 x 2 exhibits a continuous one

  13. Thermical Load Calculation and Capacity of Cooling and Venting Equipment of a Diesel Engine Emissions Study Bench; Calculo de Cargas Termicas y Capacidad de los Equipos de Refrigeracion y Ventilacion de un Banco de Estudio de Emisiones de Motores Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas Garcia, E.; Fonseca Gonzalez, N. A.

    2005-07-01

    The present report tries to develop the calculation of thermical loads and to define the capacity of the equipments of cooling and ventilation that should have the engines test bench that is being ensemble in the installation of the CIEMAT named {sup D}iesel engine emissions study bench (E65-P0). The test bench is formed essentially by a dynamometrical brake and an engine connected at previous one, both of them inside a cabin of isolation acoustic. The thermical loads to be dissipated will be calculated for all the elements that compose the bench and considering his maximum values, to determine the suitable system of cooling air - water of the devices and ventilation in the cabin. (Author) 2 refs.

  14. The thermic effect of sugar-free Red Bull: do the non-caffeine bioactive ingredients in energy drinks play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Chan, Jennifer L; Charrière, Nathalie; Grasser, Erik K; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks is increasing amongst athletes and the general public. By virtue of their bioactive ingredients (including caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, and B-group vitamins) and paucity of calories, sugar-free "diet" versions of these drinks could be a useful aid for weight maintenance. Yet little is known about the acute influence of these drinks, and specifically the role of the cocktail of non-caffeine ingredients, on resting energy expenditure (REE) and substrate oxidation. Therefore, the metabolic impact of sugar-free Red Bull (sfRB) to a comparable amount of caffeine was compared. REE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured in eight healthy young men by ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry for 30 min baseline and 2 h following ingestion of 355 ml of either: sfRB + placebo, water + 120 mg caffeine, or water + placebo, according to a randomized cross-over design. sfRB and water + caffeine both increased REE to the same degree (+4%). Additionally, sfRB briefly increased RQ. Water + caffeine had no effect on RQ relative to water + placebo. sfRB enhanced thermogenesis and marginally shifted RQ to favor carbohydrate oxidation. The stimulatory effects of sfRB on REE are mimicked by water + caffeine, indicating that the auxiliary ingredients do not influence this thermic effect. The metabolic effects of sfRB are primarily due to caffeine alone. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  15. Availability of self-recorded axillary temperature for assessment of thermic effects of food: relationship between HDL-cholesterol level and postprandial thermoregulation in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Nishio, S-i; Ishii, H; Sato, A; Takeda, T; Komatsu, M

    2012-02-01

    The present study was performed to develop a simple procedure for assessment of body temperature and to determine whether postprandial thermoregulation is related to metabolic regulation in diabetic patients. We examined 101 male and female subjects with diabetes. Axillary temperature was measured prior to and after all meals (3 meals per day) and self-recorded for 1 week. The averages were calculated. Positive postprandial thermoregulation (PPT) was defined as a pattern in which each of 3 average postprandial temperatures was higher than the corresponding 3 preprandial temperatures. Negative postprandial thermoregulation (NPT) was defined as the pattern except for PPT. A significant increase in postprandial temperature was observed. With the exception of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels, there were no relationships between the categorized postprandial thermoregulation and other factors, including age, sex, body mass index, thyroid function, HbA1c, diabetic complications, lipid metabolism, and calorie intake. Logistic analysis indicated an independent positive relation between HDL-cholesterol and PPT. A simple method for measurement of body temperature indicated that HDL-cholesterol level was predominantly associated with thermic effects of food in diabetic patients, while other metabolic factors showed no such relations. HDL-cholesterol may affect the postprandial regulation of body temperature in diabetic patients. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Determining the energetics of vicinal perovskite oxide surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, W.A.; Bollmann, Tjeerd Rogier Johannes; Koster, Gertjan; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The energetics of vicinal SrTiO3(001) and DyScO3(110), prototypical perovskite vicinal surfaces, has been studied using topographic atomic force microscopy imaging. The kink formation and strain relaxation energies are extracted from a statistical analysis of the step meandering. Both perovskite

  17. Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Muhammad S.; Ni, Yu-Ming; Roberts, Amy L.; Kelleman, Michael; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that ginger consumption has anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, glucose-sensitizing, and stimulatory effects on the gastrointestinal tract. This study assessed the effects of a hot ginger beverage on energy expenditure, feelings of appetite and satiety and metabolic risk factors in overweight men. Methods Ten men, age 39.1 ± 3.3 y and body mass index (BMI) 27.2 ± 0.3 kg/m2, participated in this randomized crossover study. Resting state energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry and for 6 h after consumption of a breakfast meal with or without 2 g ginger powder dissolved in a hot water beverage. Subjective feelings of satiety were assessed hourly using visual analog scales (VAS) and blood samples were taken fasted and for 3 h after breakfast consumption. Results There was no significant effect of ginger on total resting energy expenditure (P = 0.43) or respiratory quotient (P = 0.41). There was a significant effect of ginger on thermic effect of food (ginger vs control = 42.7 ± 21.4 kcal/d, P = 0.049) but the area under the curve was not different (P = 0.43). VAS ratings showed lower hunger (P = 0.002), lower prospective food intake (P = 0.004) and greater fullness (P = 0.064) with ginger consumption versus control. There were no effects of ginger on glucose, insulin, lipids, or inflammatory markers. Conclusions The results, showing enhanced thermogenesis and reduced feelings of hunger with ginger consumption, suggest a potential role of ginger in weight management. Additional studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:22538118

  18. A GIS TOOL TO EVALUATE THE SPATIAL EVOLUTION OF HYDRO-THERMIC FEATURES DURING GROWING SEASON OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN ELBE RIVER LOWLAND (POLABI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA POTOP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A GIS tool to evaluate the spatial evolution of hydro-thermic features during growing season of vegetable crops in Elbe River lowland (Polabi. This article presents the results of the first study on combined mezoclimatological, microclimatological and topographical tools for evaluating precision farming in the growth of vegetable crops in the Elbe River lowland (Polabi region from the Czech Republic. We assess the variability of basically climatological characteristics in relation to topographic characteristics at the regional (Polabi and local (agricultural farm scales. At regional scale, interpolation approach is based on local linear regression and universal kriging interpolation. At local scale, two conventional interpolation methods, spline and local ordinary kriging with a Gaussian model variance across the fields, were applied. The local spline interpolators have been used in developing digital elevation models (DEMs and to determine the slope angle inclination of vegetable fields. The DEMs of the vegetable crops fields was developed at a 10 m x 10 m resolution based on elevation data collected in the field by a hand-held RTK- Global Positioning System receiver. This tool allowed the distinction of microclimatic conditions that produce altitude-slope-related patterns of the spatial-temporal distribution of the basic meteorological elements during growing season of vegetable crops. The effect of slope on diurnal extreme temperatures in the vegetable cropped field conditions was more pronounced than that of elevation. Accordingly to developed maps, the warmest and longest duration of sunshine, and the least precipitation totals during growing season occurred in the middle part of Polabi.

  19. Effects of the Earth Albedo and Thermic Emissivity on Geodetic Satellite Trajectories: a Mean Model from 2000-2016 data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleflie, Florent; Sammuneh, Muhammad Ali; Coulot, David; Pollet, Arnaud; Biancale, Richard; Capderou, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Part of the energy received on the Earth from the Sun is split into two components, a short wave component which corresponds to the visible emissivity of the Earth's surface (albedo), and the long wave part corresponding to the thermic emissivity (infrared wavelengths). These two components induce small non gravitational forces on the orbits of artificial satellites, towards the radial direction (mainly), that we are evaluating to derive a mean model. The first step to evaluate the mean amplitudes and periods of the generaetd perturbations consists in comparing post-fit adjustment of geodetic satellites to SLR data, in two dynamical models accounting or not accounting for empirical forces standing for such effects: the orbits of the geodetic satellite STARLETTE, Stella, Ajisai, Lageos 1 and Lageos 2 are carried out in such a way over the period 2000-2016, with the GINS GRGS orbit computation s/w. We then use three kinds of data sets to investigate the mean amplitudes of the perturbations, and to investigate features on regional spatial scales: (i) Stephens tables, (Stephens, 1980), ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ) data sets (that are available at GRGS, Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale, France), and CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) data sets (publickly available).We analyze what is the data set leading to the lowest residual level. Then, following an approach close to the one developed by Stephens, we propose a set of monthly grids that are averaged over the period 2000-2016, and that is evaluated through the orbit computation of the above-mentioned satellites.

  20. Thermic effect of a meal and appetite in adults: an individual participant data meta-analysis of meal-test trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Ravn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermic effect of a meal (TEF has previously been suggested to influence appetite. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether there is an association between appetite and TEF. Second, to examine whether protein intake is associated with TEF or appetite. Design: Individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis on studies were performed at the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Five randomized meal-test studies, with 111 participants, were included. The included studies measured energy expenditure (EE in respiration chambers and pre- and postprandial appetite sensations using Visual Analog Scales (VAS. The primary meta-analysis was based on a generic-inverse variance random-effects model, pooling individual study Spearman's correlation coefficients, resulting in a combined r-value with 95% confidence interval (95% CI. The I2 value quantifies the proportion (% of the variation in point estimates due to among-study differences. Results: The IPD meta-analysis found no association between satiety and TEF expressed as the incremental area under the curve (TEFiAUC (r=0.06 [95% CI −0.16 to 0.28], P=0.58; I2=15.8%. Similarly, Composite Appetite Score (CAS was not associated with TEFiAUC (r=0.08 [95% CI −0.12 to 0.28], P = 0.45; I2=0%. Posthoc analyses showed no association between satiety or CAS and TEF expressed as a percentage of energy intake (EI (P>0.49 or TEF expressed as a percentage of baseline EE (P>0.17. When adjusting for covariates, TEFiAUC was associated with protein intake (P=0.0085. Conclusions: This IPD meta-analysis found no evidence supporting an association between satiety or CAS and TEF at protein intakes ∼15 E% (range 11–30 E%.

  1. Non-photic, non-thermic circadecadal solar cycle interaction with cardiovascular circannual and circasemiannual variation in heated air-conditioned habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Cornélissen, Germaine; Katinas, George; Sothern, Robert B; Halberg, Franz; Watanabe, Misako; Watanabe, Fumihiko; Otsuka, Kuniaki

    2003-10-01

    In order to re-examine the extent to which secular circulatory variation can be resolved into possibly accountable, if not yet predictable behavior, the 15-year record of blood pressure and heart rate of an adult male cardiologist (Y.W.) is reanalyzed. Gliding spectral windows with an interval of 4 years progressively displaced throughout the data series examine monthly means from August 1987 to August 2002. A circannual variation is only intermittent and appears to drift for years. A circasemiannual variation is consistent and prominent, yet only for a fraction of the record examined. By contrast to the circadian rhythm in blood pressure and heart rate, which is reliably detectable in most subjects in clinical health, the circannual variation in the human circulation is inconsistent and hence should be monitored, as in this case for its assessment as one goes, a conclusion that also applies to the circasemiannual variation, prominent for years but not detected thereafter. The results prompt the search for interactions between the photic, thermic and societal effects of the seasons that, if solely pertinent, should yield a consistent 1-year spectral component. That non-photic effects may also play an important role may point to modulation by solar cycle stage and solar cycle number, perhaps mediated by the solar wind. This conclusion is extended in proof to the role played by the most recently discovered transannual component in human blood pressure and heart rate, which is a probable further signature of the solar wind. The beating of the transannual and circannual components documented on another data series may contribute to the lack of a consistent 1-year synchronized circannual variation in this case and many others.

  2. From vicinal to rough crystal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balibar, S.; Guthmann, C.; Rolley, E.

    1993-06-01

    One generally expects the properties of a vicinal surface to be independent of the existence of steps as soon as these steps overlap, i.e. when their mutual distance is smaller than their width. By using the roughening theory by Nozières and Gallet [1], we show that, at least for surfaces weakly coupled to the lattice, this overlap occurs for distances significantly larger than the commonly defined width. Our prediction is supported by an analysis of the various measurements of the angular variation of the surface stiffness of helium crystals, which were performed by Wolf et al. [2], Andreeva et al. [3] and Babkin et al. [4]. As a consequence, the interaction between crystal steps should be studied on vicinal surfaces with a much smaller tilt angle than previously thought. This article is also an opportunity to return to the relation between the step width and the correlation length on smooth surfaces, as well as to the treatment of the various finite size effects which occur in the problem of roughening. We finally reconsider how the weak coupling hypothesis applies to the case of helium crystals. On s'attend généralement à ce que les propriétés d'une surface vicinale ne soient plus contrôlées par l'existence des marches lorsque celles-ci se recouvrent, donc lorsque leur distance mutuelle devient inférieure à leur largeur. En reprenant la théorie de la transition rugueuse élaborée par Nozières et Gallet [1], nous montrons que, pour des surfaces faiblement couplées au réseau cristallin, ce recouvrement doit se produire pour des distances nettement plus grandes que la largeur (telle qu'elle est habituellement définie). Notre prédiction est confirmée par l'analyse des différentes mesures de la variation angulaire de la rigidité de surface des cristaux d'hélium réalisées par Wolf et al. [2], Andreeva et al. [3] and Babkin et al. [4]. Il s'ensuit que l'étude de l'interaction entre marches cristallines doit être effectuée sur des surfaces

  3. Faults--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data of faults for the geologic and geomorphologic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  4. BackscatterB [EM300]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  5. BackscatterC [7125]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  6. Folds--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  7. Backscatter A [8101]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Drakes bay and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  8. Backscatter C [7125]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Drakes bay and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  9. Faults--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  10. establishment of background radiation dose rate in the vicinity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    .ac.tz). *Permanent address: Department of Physics, University of Dodoma. P. O. Box 339 Dodoma. ABSTRACT. The absorbed dose rate in air in the vicinity of the proposed Manyoni uranium mining project located in Singida region, Tanzania, ...

  11. Folds--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data of folds for the geologic and geomorphologic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  12. Paleoshorelines--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the paleoshorelines for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is...

  13. Aerial survey of sea otters in the Cordova vicinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The movement of significantly large numbers of sea otters into the Cordova vicinity has generated a local storm of protest concerning the ability of sea otters to...

  14. Submesoscale Dispersion in the Vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 11-03-2014 Journal Article Submesoscale dispersion in the vicinity of the Deepwater ...ecosystems, society, and the economy as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 and the Fukushima nuclear plant...vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon spill Andrew C. Pojea, Tamay M. Özgökmenb,1, Bruce L. Lipphardt, Jr.c, Brian K. Hausb, Edward H. Ryanb, Angelique C

  15. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Arizona. Outcrop analogs are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah which displays large-scale dunal cross-strata with excellent reservoir properties and interdunal features such as oases, wadi, and playa lithofacies with poor reservoir properties. Hydrocarbons in the Paradox Formation are stratigraphically trapped in carbonate buildups (or phylloid-algal mounds). Similar carbonate buildups are exposed in the Paradox along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. Reservoir-quality porosity may develop in the types of facies associated with buildups such as troughs, detrital wedges, and fans, identified from these outcrops. When combined with subsurface geological and production data, these outcrop analogs can improve (1) development drilling and production strategies such as horizontal drilling, (2) reservoir-simulation models, (3) reserve calculations, and (4) design and implementation of secondary/tertiary oil recovery programs and other best practices used in the oil fields of Utah and vicinity. During this quarter, technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting the project plans, objectives, and products at a booth at the 2003 annual convention of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  16. thermic oil and molten salt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A

    1 mai 2016 ... qui circule dans le champ solaire. Une fois que la géométrie et les propriétés optiques et thermiques sont définies, les performances du CCP peuvent être calculées sous des différentes configurations et conditions météorologiques. Les CCP sont généralement exploités jusqu'à des températures allant à ...

  17. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    fractured and sealed by overlying argillaceous and non-fractured units. The best outcrop analogs for Twin Creek reservoirs are found at Devils Slide and near the town of Peoa, Utah, where fractures in dense, homogeneous non-porous limestone beds are in contact with the basal siltstone units (containing sealed fractures) of the overlying units. The shallow marine, Mississippian Leadville Limestone is a major oil and gas reservoir in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado. Hydrocarbons are produced from basement-involved, northwest-trending structural traps with closure on both anticlines and faults. Excellent outcrops of Leadville-equivalent rocks are found along the south flank of the Uinta Mountains, Utah. For example, like the Leadville, the Mississippian Madison Limestone contains zones of solution breccia, fractures, and facies variations. When combined with subsurface geological and production data, these outcrop analogs can improve (1) development drilling and production strategies such as horizontal drilling, (2) reservoir-simulation models, (3) reserve calculations, and (4) design and implementation of secondary/tertiary oil recovery programs and other best practices used in the oil fields of Utah and vicinity. In the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin, optimal drilling, development, and production practices consist of: (1) owning drilling rigs and frac holding tanks; (2) perforating sandstone beds with more than 8 percent neutron porosity and stimulate with separate fracture treatments; (3) placing completed wells on primary production using artificial lift; (4) converting wells relatively soon to secondary waterflooding maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point to maximize oil recovery; (5) developing waterflood units using an alternating injector--producer pattern on 40-acre (16-ha) spacing; and (6) recompleting producing wells by perforating all beds that are productive in the waterflood unit. As part of technology transfer

  18. Bathymetry of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Wong, Florence L.; Mosier, Dan L.

    1999-01-01

    The bathymetric map of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and vicinity is bounded by a window of latitude 3 to 17 degrees North, longitude 153 to 175 degrees East. The map was compiled from surveys conducted by the USGS, Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, and published gridded data. In addition to national jurisdictions, island and atoll coastlines are indicated on the map.

  19. Chemo- and Regioselective Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols in Vicinal Diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisink, Niek; Minnaard, Adriaan; Witte, Martin

    Oxidation of secondary hydroxyl groups in vicinal diols enables the straightforward functionalization of biomolecules and biomaterials. The resulting hydroxy ketone can for example be used to form derivatives, such as the epimeric alcohol and imines, and it may be employed for chemical probe

  20. Radiation Field in the Vicinity of the Collider Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, A. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-10-26

    The Collider Center and the adjoining cryogenic support building are unique among the buildings close to the collider tunnel because these are locations where the occupancy by non-radiation workers is high. This note describes calculations of the dose equivalent from local beam loss at both the nearest point of these buildings to the collider ring and on the berm in the vicinity of these buildings.

  1. Environmental surveillance in the vicinity of Hanford for January 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, C.B. (ed.)

    1968-04-15

    The concentrations of most radionuclides in the vicinity of Hanford during January 1968 were below comparable measurements for a year ago. Slightly increased concentrations of I-131 in Richland drinking water were observed during the last two weeks of the month. Radioiodine detected in several milk samples (maximum 25 pCi/l) was attributed to fallout from an announced nuclear weapons test of December 24, 1967. Increased beta activities on air filters were also attributed to fallout.

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some vicinal and non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 2. Kinetics and ... Kinetics of oxidation of five vicinal and four non-vicinal diols, and two of their monoethers, by tetrabutylammonium tribromide (TBATB) has been studied. The vicinal diols ... Department of Chemistry, JNV University, Jodhpur 342 005, India ...

  3. Scheme Transformations in the Vicinity of an Infrared Fixed Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas; Shrock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effect of scheme transformations in the vicinity of an exact or approximate infrared fixed point in an asymptotically free gauge theory with fermions. We show that there is far less freedom in carrying out such scheme transformations in this case than at an ultraviolet fixed point....... We construct a transformation from the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme to a scheme with a vanishing three-loop term in the $\\beta$ function and use this to assess the scheme dependence of an infrared fixed point in SU($N$) theories with fermions. Implications for the anomalous dimension of the fermion bilinear...

  4. Health effects of living in the vicinity of the landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Landfill sites are the easiest, the cheapest and the most common way of waste management and disposal. In the face of the increasing amount of waste, the dynamics of globalization and urbanization process, waste management is an important issue of ecological policy in highly developed countries. Landfill sites intensify environmental threats for the neighborhood and give rise to toxic substances which impair human health being released from the landfills. These are persistent organic pollutants (POPs, heavy metals and also biological gas, bioaerosols, bacteria and viruses. Scientists have conducted a lot of research to evaluate the impact of landfill sites on human health living in their vicinity. They found increased occurrence of congenital anomalies, increased risk of certain cancers and low birth weight of infants. The results of the studies didn’t deliver absolute proof of relation between the impact of landfill sites on the induction of cancer and other diseases. There is a necessity to conduct further research to evaluate the impact of landfill sites on people health living in the vicinity

  5. Energetic particle fluxes in vicinity of Jupiter's moon Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzolko, Mikhail; Getselev, Igor; Gubar, Yuriy; Veselovsky, Igor

    Currently several projects of sending research space vehicles to Jupiter and its Galilean moons in 2020 are being developed. In particular, Russian Space Agency proposed the project of Europa lander. During the mission the spacecraft will be affected by charged particles of various origins. The greatest hazard will originate from powerful Jupiter's radiation belts, especially during the time of spacecraft operation near Europa and on its surface. The absorbed radiation dose during 2 months in Europa's orbit under shielding compared to that for "Galileo" spacecraft will amount to almost 1 megarad, the major contribution to it will originate from relativistic electrons. However, near Europa part of the charged particle flux will be shaded by the moon. Obviously, fluxes of particles of all energies on its surface will be lower by at least 2 times, than in the same point of space without Europa. But furthermore, the reduction of the fluxes in vicinity of Europa is nonuniform, and differs for the surface and the low-altitude orbit. This is caused by several factors: the complexity of particle trajectories near Europa and in Jupiter's magnetosphere in general, difference of Europa's orbital plane from Jupiter's geomagnetic equator plane, certain disturbance of Jupiter's magnetic field in vicinity of Europa, possible influence of electric fields and Europa's tenuous atmosphere. In the current study computations of energetic particle flux distribution near Europa and on its surface are made, taking into account several of the above-mentioned factors.

  6. Quantifying Mapping Orbit Performance in the Vicinity of Primitive Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlak, Thomas A.; Broschart, Stephen B.; Lantoine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Predicting and quantifying the capability of mapping orbits in the vicinity of primitive bodies is challenging given the complex orbit geometries that exist and the irregular shape of the bodies themselves. This paper employs various quantitative metrics to characterize the performance and relative effectiveness of various types of mapping orbits including terminator, quasi-terminator, hovering, ping pong, and conic-like trajectories. Metrics of interest include surface area coverage, lighting conditions, and the variety of viewing angles achieved. The metrics discussed in this investigation are intended to enable mission designers and project stakeholders to better characterize candidate mapping orbits during preliminary mission formulation activities. The goal of this investigation is to understand the trade space associated with carrying out remote sensing campaigns at small primitive bodies in the context of a robotic space mission. Specifically, this study seeks to understand the surface viewing geometries, ranges, etc. that are available from several commonly proposed mapping orbits architectures

  7. Particle transport in the vicinity of divertor separatrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Y.; Lyu, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Guiding center orbit following code in a tokamak edge geometry is developed which connects straight field line coordinate system (away from the separatrix) and Cartesian coordinate system (in the vicinity of the separatrix) smoothly in the equation of motion. In the presence of magnetic stochasticity charged particles in the closed magnetic field line region can be transported to the open field line region and then hit the divertor plates within several toroidal transits. Our preliminary studies suggest finite heat load both on the inner and outer divertor plates. Energy spectrum of particles reaching the plates (which differs from that of the bulk plasma) as function of imposed magnetic stochasticity, is analyzed. This work is supported by Taiwan MOST 104-2112-M-006-019.

  8. 33 CFR 110.190 - Tortugas Harbor, in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tortugas Harbor, in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. 110.190 Section 110.190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.190 Tortugas Harbor, in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas,...

  9. BackscatterA [USGS SWATH]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  10. BackscatterD [CSUMB Swath]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  11. Digital Geologic Map of Rocky Mountain National Park and Vicinity, Colorado (NPS, GRD, GRE, ROMO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Rocky Mountain National Park and Vicinity, Coloradois comprised of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with...

  12. Geology and geomorphology--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Bay Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  13. Basalt microlapilli in deep sea sediments of Indian Ocean in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Iyer, S.D.

    Two cores recovered from the flanks of Mid-India oceanic ridge in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone consist of discrete pyroclastic layers at various depths. These layers are composed of coarse-grained, angular basaltic microlapilli in which...

  14. Digital Geologic Map of Great Basin National Park and Vicinity, Nevada (NPS, GRD, GRE, GRBA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Great Basin National Park and Vicinity, Nevada is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with...

  15. Geology and geomorphology--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  16. Life in wind turbines vicinity, effects on health – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pawlas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a short review of scientific papers , and other sources concerning health effects of exposure to noise, infrasounds, electromagnetic radiation and mechanical hazards induced in dwellers living in vicinity of wind farm.

  17. Effect of the Antibiotic Neomycin on the Toxicity of the Glycoside Vicine in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arbid, Mahmoud S; Koriem, Khaled M. M; Asaad, Gihan F; Megahed, Hoda A

    2013-01-01

    .... Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct) value, and red blood cells (RBCs) count were significantly decreased after injection of vicine and the improvement of these values in the group pretreated with neomycin...

  18. Transformation of Tertiary Benzyl Alcohols into the Vicinal Halo-Substituted Derivatives Using N-Halosuccinimides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njomza Ajvazi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of direct conversion of tertiary alcohols bearing a β-hydrogen atom to vicinal halohydrins—chlorohydrins and bromohydrins—under green reaction conditions was tested preliminarily on model tertiary benzyl alcohols. Tertiary alcohols were successfully directly halogenated to vicinal halohydrins with N-halosuccinimide in aqueous media. The efficiency of the reaction in water was significantly improved in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate as the surfactant.

  19. Landsat - SRTM Shaded Relief Comparison, Los Angeles and Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs), such as those produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), allow user-controlled visualization of the Earth's landforms that is not possible using satellite imagery alone. This three-view comparison shows Los Angeles, Calif., and vicinity, with a Landsat image (only) on the left, a shaded relief rendering of the SRTM DEM on the right, and a merge of the two data sets in the middle. Note that topographic expression in the Landsat image alone is very subtle due to the fairly high sun angle (63 degrees above the horizon) during the satellite overflight in late morning of a mid-Spring day (May 4, 2001). In contrast, computer generated topographic shading of the DEM provides a pure and bold image of topographic expression with a user specified illumination direction. The middle image shows how combining the Landsat and DEM shaded relief can result in a topographically enhanced satellite image in which the information content of both data sets is merged into a single view.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U

  20. Unidirectional lateral nanowire formation during the epitaxial growth of GaAsBi on vicinal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Kristen N.; Li, Jincheng; Jiao, Wenyuan; Kong, Wei; Brown, April S.

    2018-01-01

    We report on enhanced control of the growth of lateral GaAs nanowires (NWs) embedded in epitaxial (100) GaAsBi thin films enabled by the use of vicinal substrates and the growth-condition dependent role of Bi as a surfactant. Enhanced step-flow growth is achieved through the use of vicinal substrates and yields unidirectional nanowire growth. The addition of Bi during GaAsBi growth enhances Ga adatom diffusion anisotropy and modifies incorporation rates at steps in comparison to GaAs growth yielding lower density but longer NWs. The NWs grown on vicinal substrates grew unidirectionally towards the misorientation direction when Bi was present. The III/V flux ratio significantly impacts the size, shape and density of the resulting NWs. These results suggest that utilizing growth conditions which enhance step-flow growth enable enhanced control of lateral nanostructures.

  1. Experimental photophysical characterization of fluorophores in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, J P; Baptista, P V [CIGMH, Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lima, J C, E-mail: pmvb@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: lima@dq.fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-10-14

    We propose an experimental-based tool for dealing with fluorescence modulation close to nanoparticles for application in studies of fluorophores in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), typically addressed via theoretical models. We performed a photophysical characterization of fluorophores in the vicinity of AuNPs, showing that correct {Phi}{sub F} determination suffers from a local pH effect, and address the observed radiative enhancement. Our approach is based on the experimental assurance that the reference fluorophores are in the same optical conditions as those of the AuNP-fluorophore conjugates. We demonstrate the relevance for introducing corrections for the inner filter effect and the reabsorption of the emitted light caused by AuNPs. The proposed approach could circumvent the need for theoretical based corrections and allow for more accurate determination of fluorescence emission in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles.

  2. Cost-Performance Parametrics for Transporting Small Packages to the Mars Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Martin, J.; Popescu, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the costs and performance required to deliver a small-sized payload package (CubeSat-sized, for instance) to various transportation nodes en route to Mars and near-Mars destinations (such as Mars moons, Phobos and Deimos). Needed is a contemporary assessment and summary compilation of transportation metrics that factor both performance and affordability of modern and emerging delivery capabilities. The paper brings together: (a) required mass transport gear ratios in delivering payload from Earths surface to the Mars vicinity, (b) the cyclical energy required for delivery, and (c) the affordability and availability of various means of transporting material across various Earth-Moon vicinity and Near-Mars vicinity nodes relevant to Mars transportation. Examples for unit deliveries are computed and tabulated, using a CubeSat as a unit, for periodic near-Mars delivery campaign scenarios.

  3. The Nature of Surface States on Vicinal Cu (775): An STM and Photoemission Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki, Nader; Knox, Kevin; Osgood, Richard M.; Johnson, Peter D.; Fujii, Jun; Vobornik, Ivana; Panaccione, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    We report ARPES and a set of in situ STM measurements on a narrow-terrace-width vicinal Cu(111) crystal surface, Cu(775), whose vicinal cut lies close to the transition between terrace and step modulation. These measurements show sharp zone-folding (or Umklapp) features with a periodicity in k||, indicating that the predominant reference plane is that of Cu(775), i.e. that the surface is predominately step-modulated. Our measurements also show variation in Umklapp intensity with photon energy...

  4. BathymetryB Hillshade [5m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  5. BathymetryA [2m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  6. BathymetryB [5m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  7. BathymetryA Hillshade [2m]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for 2-m and 5-m bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The raster data file is included in...

  8. Properties of Soils and Plants Uptake within the Vicinity of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backyard farming is becoming popular among the auto mechanics near their workshops where spent engine oil and carcass of vehicles are continuously dumped in Nigeria. The properties of soil and maize plants sampled from the vicinity of selected auto mechanic workshops in Ile-Ife, Nigeria were investigated. The results ...

  9. Assessment of pollution trend of heavy metals in soils in the vicinity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topsoil and subsoil obtained in the vicinity of the Nigerian Gas Company were digested and analysed for some selected trace metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer of model pye unicam SP 2900. The trace metals determined include nickel, copper, iron, barium, lead, cadmium and zinc respectively.

  10. Formation and sintering of Pt nanopartictes on vicinal rutile TiO2 surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieboldt, Felix; Helveg, S.; Bechstein, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) the nucleation, growth and sintering of platinum nanoparticles (Pt NP's) was studied on vicinal and flat rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) surfaces. Utilising physical vapour deposition, the nucleation of Pt NP's on TiO2 surfaces at room temperature (...

  11. [Analysis of optical emission spectra from ICP of Ar in the vicinity of plasma sheath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Feng; Chen, Jun-Fang; Meng, Ran

    2009-11-01

    In order to control the ion density and energy distribution in the vicinity of plasma sheath independently, the inductively coupled plasma and its glow discharge mechanism in the vicinity of plasma sheath were studied by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) under different RF power, different discharge and different substrate DC bias voltage. It was shown that the ion density is higher and the electron temperature is lower in the vicinity of inductively coupled plasma sheath according to the ionic line and atomic line. With changing the discharge pressure and RF power, the spectral characteristics analysis shows that the ion density in the vicinity of plasma sheath linearly increases with the RF power and rises with the pressure under the low pressure. The atomic spectral intensity of low excitation states increases rapidly. The atomic spectral intensity of high excitation states rises slowly and the intensity of ion spectrum increases not obviously. By applying the DC bias voltage to substrate, the intensity of emission spectroscopy was analyzed. The result shows that the intensity of spectra rises with the increase in positive bias voltage, while first reduces then increases with the increase in negative bias voltage, and is the weakest in the case of DC bias at -30 V. This shows that the fast ions and the electrons are the main source of energy for Ar ionization and excitation.

  12. Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-West Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

    2002-05-14

    The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-West Area and vicinity. This is the second of two reports that combine to cover the 200 Area Plateau, an area that holds the largest inventory of radionuclide and chemical waste on the Hanford Site.

  13. Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-East Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

    2000-04-20

    This study supports the Hanford Groundwater/Vadose integration project objectives to better understand the risk of groundwater contamination and potential risk to the public via groundwater flow paths. The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-East Area and vicinity.

  14. Surface-water quality, Oneida Reservation and vicinity, Wisconsin, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan A.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2000-01-01

    Streamwater samples were collected at 19 sites in the vicinity of the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Reservation. Samples were collected during 5 sampling periods in 1997-98. Field measurements were made and samples were analyzed for nutrients, suspended sediment, major ions, and pesticides.

  15. Parental smoking in the vicinity of children and tobacco control policies in the European region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess, V.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Boyd, A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Carta, M.G.; Eke, C.; Golitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Susser, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores. Methods: Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE), a 2010

  16. 14 CFR 91.137 - Temporary flight restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary flight restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas. 91.137 Section 91.137 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General §...

  17. Series Resistance Monitoring for Photovoltaic Modules in the Vicinity of MPP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso

    2010-01-01

    the time period with reduced power production. This paper focuses on the estimation of series resistance of flat silicone PV panels or arrays during operation, in the vicinity of their MPP. The method presented in this paper helps to detect failures by monitoring changes in the panel’s or array’s series...

  18. Establishment of background radiation dose rate in the vicinity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absorbed dose rate in air in the vicinity of the proposed Manyoni uranium mining project located in Singida region, Tanzania, was determined so as to establish the baseline data for background radiation dose rate data prior to commencement of uranium mining activities. Twenty stations in seven villages were selected ...

  19. 77 FR 71493 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airway V-8 in the Vicinity of Rifle, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...This action amends VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Federal Airway V-8 in the vicinity of Rifle, CO, to correct the description contained in part 71 to ensure it matches the information contained in the FAA's aeronautical database, matches the depiction on the associated charts, and to ensure the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS).

  20. Parental smoking in the vicinity of children and tobacco control policies in the European region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess, V.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Boyd, A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Carta, M.G.; Eke, C.; Golitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Susser, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores. Methods: Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE), a 2010 cross-sectional

  1. Parental smoking in the vicinity of children and tobacco control policies in the European region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess, Viviane; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Boyd, Anders; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro; Eke, Ceyda; Golitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores. Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE), a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 5141 school children aged 6 to 11 years and their parents in six countries: Germany, Netherlands, Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey ranked by TCS into three level categories toward tobacco control policies. A slightly higher proportion of Eastern compared to Western European mothers (42.4 vs. 35.1%) were currently smoking in but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for maternal age and maternal educational attainment. About a fifth (19.3%) and a tenth (10.0%) of Eastern and Western European mothers, respectively, smoked in the vicinity of their children, and the difference was significant even after adjustment for potential confounders (pParents with the highest educational attainment were significantly less likely to smoke in the vicinity of their children than those with the lowest attainment. After control of these covariates lax tobacco control policies, compared to intermediate policies, were associated with a 50% increase in the likelihood of maternal smoking in the vicinity of children adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.52 and 1.64. Among fathers, however, the relationship with paternal smoking and TCS seems more complex since strict policy increases the risk as well AOR = 1,40. Only one country, however belongs to the strict group. Tobacco control policies seem to have influenced maternal smoking behaviors overall to a limited degree and smoking in the vicinity of children to a much greater degree. Children living in European countries with lax tobacco control policies are more likely to be exposed to second hand smoking from maternal and paternal smoking.

  2. Parental smoking in the vicinity of children and tobacco control policies in the European region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Kovess

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS scores. METHODS: Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE, a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 5141 school children aged 6 to 11 years and their parents in six countries: Germany, Netherlands, Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey ranked by TCS into three level categories toward tobacco control policies. RESULTS: A slightly higher proportion of Eastern compared to Western European mothers (42.4 vs. 35.1% were currently smoking in but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for maternal age and maternal educational attainment. About a fifth (19.3% and a tenth (10.0% of Eastern and Western European mothers, respectively, smoked in the vicinity of their children, and the difference was significant even after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.001. Parents with the highest educational attainment were significantly less likely to smoke in the vicinity of their children than those with the lowest attainment. After control of these covariates lax tobacco control policies, compared to intermediate policies, were associated with a 50% increase in the likelihood of maternal smoking in the vicinity of children adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.52 and 1.64. Among fathers, however, the relationship with paternal smoking and TCS seems more complex since strict policy increases the risk as well AOR = 1,40. Only one country, however belongs to the strict group. SIGNIFICANCE: Tobacco control policies seem to have influenced maternal smoking behaviors overall to a limited degree and smoking in the vicinity of children to a much greater degree. Children living in European countries with lax tobacco control policies are more likely to be exposed to second hand smoking from maternal and paternal smoking.

  3. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. 334.1120 Section 334.1120 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a...

  4. 33 CFR 334.620 - Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training area, aerial gunnery range, and bombing and strafing target areas, Naval Air Station, Key West, Fla. 334.620 Section 334.620 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.620 Straits of Florida and Florida Bay in vicinity of Key West, Fla.; operational training...

  5. Electric and magnetic field testing in vicinity of 110/x kV substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of non-ionizing radiation (electric and magnetic fields at power frequency, which occur near 110/x kV substations are analyzed in this paper. The results of electric field strength and magnetic flux density measurements in the vicinity of three typical substations of the aforementioned voltage level are shown. With the purpose of estimating the exposure of the population to these fields, the obtained results were compared to the reference maximum levels set for increased sensitivity areas, which amount to 2 kV/m for electric field and 40 μT for magnetic flux density. The objective of the conducted analysis is to reach general conclusions on the levels of electric and magnetic fields, which may occur in the vicinity of the substations mentioned above, and evaluate their compliance with the national regulations on the population protection from non-ionizing radiation.

  6. DFT Study of the Molybdenum-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration of Vicinal Diols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupp, Daniel; Christensen, Niels Johan; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of vicinal diols has been investigated using density functional theory. The proposed catalytic cycle involves condensation of the diol with an MoVI oxo complex, oxidative cleavage of the diol resulting in an MoIV complex, and extru......The mechanism of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of vicinal diols has been investigated using density functional theory. The proposed catalytic cycle involves condensation of the diol with an MoVI oxo complex, oxidative cleavage of the diol resulting in an MoIV complex......, and extrusion of the alkene. We have compared the proposed pathway with several alternatives, and the results have been corroborated by comparison with the molybdenum- catalyzed sulfoxide reduction recently published by Sanz et al. and with experimental observations for the DODH itself. Improved understanding...

  7. Temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin Fe film on vicinal Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong-Sheng; He, Wei; Ye, Jun; Hu, Bo; Tang, Jin; Zhang, Xiang-Qun [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Cheng, Zhao-Hua, E-mail: zhcheng@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy of ultrathin Fe film with different thickness epitaxially grown on vicinal Si(111) substrate has been quantitatively investigated using the anisotropic magnetoresistance(AMR) measurements. Due to the effect of the vicinal substrate, the magnetic anisotropy is the superposition of a four-fold, a two-fold and a weakly six-fold contribution. It is found that the temperature dependence of the first-order magnetocrystalline anisotropies coefficient follows power laws of the reduced magnetization m(T)(=M(T)/M(0)) being consistent with the Callen and Callen's theory. However the temperature dependence of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) shows novel behavior that decreases roughly as a function of temperature with different power law for samples with different thickness. We also found that the six-fold magnetocrystalline anisotropy is almost invariable over a wide temperature range. Possible mechanisms leading to the different exponents are discussed.

  8. Impact of nucleation on step-meandering instabilities during step-flow growth on vicinal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, A; Desjardins, P; Rochefort, A

    2014-03-01

    Step-meandering instabilities can manifest during step-flow growth on vicinal surfaces [Bales and Zangwill, Phys. Rev. B 41, 5500 (1990); Pierre-Louis, D'Orsogna, and Einstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3661 (1999)]. A phase diagram based on the various growth regimes of a vicinal surface allows us to study the impact of nucleation on these meanders and to predict a meandering instability caused by the nucleation and the coalescence of both islands and steps. Using an accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo method, we find that the coalescence of islands with steps produces large protrusions and deep ripples and that the resulting meandering instability is reinforced by the growth of the islands at almost the same positions from one monolayer to the other. A coarsening phenomenon occurs for the instability wavelength until mounds appear, favored by a large Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier. Such a meandering instability could be exploited for periodic self-assembly.

  9. Electric and magnetic field testing in vicinity of 110/x kV substations

    OpenAIRE

    Grbić Maja; Pavlović Aleksandar; Hrvić Dejan; Vulević Branislav

    2016-01-01

    The levels of non-ionizing radiation (electric and magnetic fields) at power frequency, which occur near 110/x kV substations are analyzed in this paper. The results of electric field strength and magnetic flux density measurements in the vicinity of three typical substations of the aforementioned voltage level are shown. With the purpose of estimating the exposure of the population to these fields, the obtained results were compared to the reference maximum levels set for increased sensitivi...

  10. Turbulent flow in a ribbed channel: Flow structures in the vicinity of a rib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    PIV measurements are performed in a channel with periodic ribs on one wall. The emphasis of this study is to investigate the flow structures in the vicinity of a rib in terms of mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, probability density functions (PDF), and two-point correlations. The PDF distribution......-based visualization is applied to the separation bubble upstream of the rib. Salient critical points and limit cycles are extracted, which gives clues to the physical processes occurring in the flow....

  11. Flow- topography Interactions in the Vicinity of a Deep Ocean Island and a Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    moored platforms. 2 WORK COMPLETED Attend the FLEAT planning meeting in June 2015 at Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Preliminary deep -mooring...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Flow-topography Interactions in the Vicinity of a Deep ...located north of Palau covers the submarine ridge, while the second mooring-line coveres deep slopes and the shallow bank just north of Palau (Figure 1

  12. Magnetostrictive hypersound generation by spiral magnets in the vicinity of magnetic field induced phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, Igor V. [Chelyabinsk State University, 129 Br. Kashirinykh Str., Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); South Ural State University (National Research University), 76 Lenin Prospekt, Chelyabinsk 454080 (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, Dmitry A., E-mail: kuzminda@csu.ru [Chelyabinsk State University, 129 Br. Kashirinykh Str., Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); South Ural State University (National Research University), 76 Lenin Prospekt, Chelyabinsk 454080 (Russian Federation); Kamantsev, Alexander P.; Koledov, Victor V.; Shavrov, Vladimir G. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, Mokhovaya Street 11-7, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    In present work we have investigated magnetostrictive ultrasound generation by spiral magnets in the vicinity of magnetic field induced phase transition from spiral to collinear state. We found that such magnets may generate transverse sound waves with the wavelength equal to the spiral period. We have examined two types of spiral magnetic structures: with inhomogeneous exchange and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions. Frequency of the waves from exchange-caused spiral magnetic structure may reach some THz, while in case of Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction-caused spiral it may reach some GHz. These waves will be emitted like a sound pulses. Amplitude of the waves is strictly depends on the phase transition speed. Some aspects of microwaves to hypersound transformation by spiral magnets in the vicinity of phase transition have been investigated as well. Results of the work may be interesting for investigation of phase transition kinetics as well, as for various hypersound applications. - Highlights: • Magnetostrictive ultrasound generation by spiral magnets at phase transition (PT) is studied. • Spiral magnets during PT may generate transverse sound with wavelength equal to spiral period. • Amplitude of the sound is strictly depends on the phase transition speed. • Microwave-to-sound transformation in the vicinity of PT is investigated as well.

  13. Digital Geologic Map of Congaree National Park and Vicinity, South Carolina (NPS, GRD, GRI, CONG, CONG digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Congaree National Park and Vicinity, South Carolina is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR) files, two...

  14. Digital Geologic Map of Bryce Canyon National Park and Vicinity, Utah (NPS, GRD, GRI, BRCA, BRCA digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Bryce Canyon National Park and Vicinity, Utah is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR) files, two ancillary...

  15. Digital Geologic Map of San Juan Island National Historical Park and vicinity, Washington (NPS, GRD, GRE, SAJH, SAJH digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of San Juan Island National Historical Park and vicinity, Washington is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR)...

  16. Digital Geologic Map of the American Camp Unit and vicinity, Washington (NPS, GRD, GRE, SAJH, SJIS digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the American Camp Unit and vicinity, Washington is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR) files, two ancillary...

  17. Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas (NPS, GRD, GRE, PAAL, PAAL digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR)...

  18. Concentration of NOX in the vicinity of the power plants Vojany EVO 1 and EVO 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Brehuv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a calculation of the maximal concentration of nitrogen oxides in the vicinity of point sources (main chimneys of power plants Vojany EVO1 and EVO2. The wind velocity u10,M (7, at which the concentration on a given place in the surrounding of the pollution source attains a maximal value, is calculated. The relation (8 for a calculation of the place with the maximal concentration for a given class of air stability (Table 1 and 2 and for a given wind velocity is derived. According to equation (3 and Table 3, a thermal capacity of EVO1 and EVO2 is calculated, considering a flat country in the vicinity of the sources (x3 = 0 in relation (1. Subsequently, it is also considered that the wind direction has the direction joining the source and the place of concentration calculation (x2 = 0. The calculations of concentration are performed for the 5th class of air stability. As to this class, favourable conditions for the pollutants dispersion are there. Thus, the maximum concentration is in a relatively small distance from the source with a sharp concentration maximum. As to other classes of the air stability (Table 1 and 2, the maximum concentration is located in larger distances from the source, i.e. about 10 km, as it is considered in Table 4 and 5. The theoretical calculation of NOX concentration in the vicinity of the sources, EVO1 and EVO2, shows (Table 4 and 5 that it does not exceed the allowable limit of 150 µg.m-3.

  19. Atmospheric BTEX concentrations in the vicinity of the crude oil refinery of the Baltic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Baltrėnaitė, Edita; Serevičienė, Vaida; Pereira, Paulo

    2011-11-01

    Among chemical industries, petroleum refineries have been identified as large emitters of a wide variety of pollutants. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) form an important group of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) because of their role in the troposphere chemistry and the risk posed to human health. A very large crude oil refinery of the Baltic States (200,000 bbl/day) is situated in the northern, rural part of Lithuania, 10 km from the town of Mažeikiai (Lithuania). The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine of atmospheric levels of BTEX in the region rural and urban parts at the vicinity of the crude oil refinery; and (2) to investigate the effect of meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, humidity) on the concentrations measured. The averaged concentration of benzene varied from 2.12 ppbv in the rural areas to 2.75 ppbv in the urban areas where the traffic was determined to be a dominant source of BTEX emissions. Our study showed that concentration of benzene, as strictly regulated air pollutant by EU Directive 2008/50/EC, did not exceed the limit of 5 ppbv in the region in the vicinity of the crude oil refinery during the investigated period. No significant change in air quality in the vicinity of the oil refinery was discovered, however, an impact of the industry on the background air quality was detected. The T/B ratio (0.50-0.81) that was much lower than 2.0, identified other sources of pollution than traffic.

  20. Monitoring the ordering in biomolecular films on vicinal silicon surfaces by reflectance difference/anisotropy spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Simona D.; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2006-05-01

    DNA base molecules, adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine may be employed as charge transport molecules in biomolecular electronic devices. Their electronic properties are comparable with those of inorganic wide bandgap materials, e.g. GaN with the absorption onset in the near ultra-violet (UV) range. A recent field effect transistor study based on a modified DNA base revealed that the prototype bio-transistor gives rise to a better voltage gain compared to one based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [G. Mauricio, P. Visconti, V. Arima, S. D'Amico, A. Biasco, E. D'Amone, R. Cingolani, R. Rinaldi, Nanoletters 3 (2003) 479]. Here, in situ reflectance difference/anisotropy spectroscopy (RDS/RAS) is employed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions for monitoring the growth of DNA base molecules on vicinal hydrogen passivated Si(1 1 1) surfaces. Such vicinal substrates consisting of steps and terraces may serves as suitable templates for molecular ordering. Indeed, RDS/RAS measurements reveal information about molecular ordering of DNA bases induced by the density of steps on silicon surfaces. All four molecules, however, behave differently on the vicinal substrates. The first transition dipole moments corresponding to adenine and thymine molecules align mainly perpendicular to the step edge direction while for guanine and cytosine they align parallel to this direction, however, only in very thin layers. The RDS/RAS signal of the guanine and cytosine layers with thicknesses above 20 nm saturates due to a loss of ordering at higher coverages. Additionally, time-resolved RDS/RAS measurements at the silicon E 2 (4.25 eV) critical point (CP) demonstrate the sensitivity to the biomolecular/inorganic interface formation.

  1. Contribution to the knowledge of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae from vicinity of Jagodina, Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković, B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 10 years, based on personal collectings, 21 species from 14 genera of Salticidae (Araneae are recorded from vicinity of Jagodina: Ballus chalybeius, Carrhotus xanthogramma, Evarcha arcuata, Evarcha falcata, Heliophanus auratus, Heliophanus cupreus, Heliophanus flavipes, Heliophanus kochii, Icius hamatus, Icius subinermis, Leptorchestes berolinensis, Macaroeris nidicolens, Marpissa muscosa, Marpissa nivoyi, Mendoza canestrinii, Pellenes tripunctatus, Phintella castriesiana, Phlegra fasciata, Pseudeuophrys erratica, Pseudeuophrys lanigera, Salticus scenicus. All those species are provided with habitat notes and global distribution. New records for the spider fauna of Serbia are Heliophanus kochii (Simon 1868, Icius subinermis (Simon, 1937, Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1846 and Mendoza canestrinii (Ninni, 1868.

  2. Anisotropic Spin-Orbit Coupling and Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy in Vicinal Co Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Dudzik, Esther; Shick, Alexander B.

    2001-08-06

    The anisotropy of the spin-orbit interaction, <<{lambda}{sub a}> , in vicinal Co films has been measured using x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD). A linear increase in <{lambda}{sub a}> with Co step density is found using a new sum rule and represents the first experimental confirmation that XMLD probes the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). X-ray magnetic circular dichroism is used to confirm that the XMLD arises from changes in the local step-edge electronic structure. The XMLD sum rule gives a larger MAE compared to macroscopic values and is discussed with respect to other local probes of the MAE.

  3. Investigation of the conductivity distribution in the vicinity of a cascade volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, E.C.

    1982-11-01

    Magnetotelluric and telluric data were acquired in the vicinity of Mount Hood Oregon as part of a multidisciplinary exploration program to evaluate the geothermal potential of this stratocone volcano. Eleven field components were acquired simultaneously over the frequency band of 50. to .001 hertz. These data consisted of one five component magnetotelluric base site, two sets of two component remote electric field measurements and one set of remote horizontal magnetic field measurements. The data were recorded digitally in the field and processed later using the remote electric and magnetic signals to obtain unbiased tensor impedance and geomagnetic transfer function (tipper) estimates.

  4. Current-phase relations in SIsFS junctions in the vicinity of 0-π transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakurskiy, S. V.; Filippov, V. I.; Ruzhickiy, V. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Golubov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    We consider the current-phase relation (CPR) in Josephson junctions with complex insulator-superconductor-ferromagnetic interlayers in the vicinity of the 0-π transition. We find a strong impact of the second harmonic on the CPR of the junctions. It is shown that the critical current can be kept constant in the region of 0-π transition, while the CPR transforms through multivalued hysteretic states depending on the relative values of tunnel transparency and magnetic thickness. Moreover, the CPR in the transition region has multiple branches with distinct ground states.

  5. Wave-induced nearshore flow patterns in the vicinity of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Vethamony, P.; Murty, C.S.

    , C. S. Murty Refraction function Wave length Wave period Wave orbital velocity 1 INTRODUCTION The dynamics of sediment movement in the littoral zone is governed primarily by wave-induced currents. Specific knowledge of these currents...) _\\] (2) The wave orbital velocities (Umax) at the lower boundary of the fluid Nearshore flow patterns in the vicinity of Cochin Harbour 115 75 ° &5' 7,6" 76~ 15' -- 10 ° i 15' 300 ec N I -10° :hin leltana ~ntnak~ ;Ranaz 30 Fig. 2. A typical...

  6. Electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of DECT cordless telephones and mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mamrot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mobile telephones belong to the most frequently used personal devices. In their surroundings they produce the electromagnetic field (EMF, in which exposure range there are not only users but also nearby bystanders. The aim of the investigations and EMF measurements in the vicinity of phones was to identify the electric field levels with regard to various working modes. Material and methods: Twelve sets of DECT (digital enhanced cordless telecommunications cordless phones (12 base units and 15 handsets, 21 mobile telephones produced by different manufactures, and 16 smartphones in various applications, (including multimedia in the conditions of daily use in living rooms were measured. Measurements were taken using the point method in predetermined distances of 0.05–1 m from the devices without the presence of users. Results: In the vicinity of DECT cordless phone handsets, electric field strength ranged from 0.26 to 2.30 V/m in the distance of 0.05 m – 0.18–0.26 V/m (1 m. In surroundings of DECT cordless telephones base units the values of EMF were from 1.78–5.44 V/m (0.05 m to 0.19– 0.41 V/m (1 m. In the vicinity of mobile phones working in GSM mode with voice transmission, the electric field strength ranged from 2.34–9.14 V/m (0.05 m to 0.18–0.47 V/m (1 m while in the vicinity of mobile phones working in WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access mode the electric field strength ranged from 0.22–1.83 V/m (0.05 m to 0.18–0.20 V/m (1 m. Conclusions: The mean values of the electric field strength for each group of devices, mobile phones and DECT wireless phones sets do not exceed the reference value of 7 V/m, adopted as the limit for general public exposure. Med Pr 2015;66(6:803–814

  7. Relativistic theory for picosecond time transfer in the vicinity of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, G.; Wolf, P.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of light propagation is treated in a geocentric reference system with the goal of ensuring picosecond accuracy for time transfer techniques using electromagnetic signals in the vicinity of the Earth. We give an explicit formula for a one way time transfer, to be applied when the spatial coordinates of the time transfer stations are known in a geocentric reference system rotating with the Earth. This expression is extended, at the same accuracy level of one picosecond, to the special cases of two way and LASSO time transfers via geostationary satellites.

  8. Shell model calculation for Te and Sn isotopes in the vicinity of {sup 100}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakhelef, A.; Bouldjedri, A. [Physics Department, Farhat abbas University, Setif (Algeria); Physics Department, Hadj Lakhdar University, Batna (Algeria)

    2012-06-27

    New Shell Model calculations for even-even isotopes {sup 104-108}Sn and {sup 106,108}Te, in the vicinity of {sup 100}Sn have been performed. The calculations have been carried out using the windows version of NuShell-MSU. The two body matrix elements TBMEs of the effective interaction between valence nucleons are obtained from the renormalized two body effective interaction based on G-matrix derived from the CD-bonn nucleon-nucleon potential. The single particle energies of the proton and neutron valence spaces orbitals are defined from the available spectra of lightest odd isotopes of Sb and Sn respectively.

  9. Pulsed-laser deposition of vicinal and c-axis oriented high temperature superconducting thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, R

    2000-01-01

    respect to the temperature, oxygen pressure and laser fluence. (Re,Hg)Ba sub 2 Ca sub ( n-1)Cu sub n O sub x films are synthesized on (001) and vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates in a two step process employing pulsed-laser deposition of Hg-free precursor films and Hg-vapour annealing in a sealed quartz tube. The sealed quartz tube technique is described in detail and the thermodynamics and the phase formation are discussed. The influence of the Hg-vapour pressure and the annealing temperature on the film properties are investigated. The influence of Hg-vapour annealing on Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x films is described. YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x films with thicknesses 20 to 480 nm are deposited on vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates (10 degrees tilt angle). Variation of the resistivities and changes in the film morphology depending on film thickness are described. The influence of post-annealing treatments on the film properties is discussed. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of high temperature superconducting ...

  10. Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janik, C.J.; Nathenson, M.; Scholl, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    Published and new data for chemical and isotopic samples from wells and springs on Kilauea Volcano and vicinity are presented. These data are used to understand processes that determine the chemistry of dilute meteoric water, mixtures with sea water, and thermal water. Data for well and spring samples of non-thermal water indicate that mixing with sea water and dissolution of rock from weathering are the major processes that determine the composition of dissolved constituents in water. Data from coastal springs demonstrate that there is a large thermal system south of the lower east rift of Kilauea. Samples of thermal water from shallow wells in the lower east rift and vicinity have rather variable chemistry indicating that a number of processes operate in the near surface. Water sampled from the available deep wells is different in composition from the shallow thermal water, indicating that generally there is not a significant component of deep water in the shallow wells. Data for samples from available deep wells show significant gradients in chemistry and steam content of the reservoir fluid. These gradients are interpreted to indicate that the reservoir tapped by the existing wells is an evolving vapor-dominated system.

  11. Mapping human vulnerability to chemical accidents in the vicinity of chemical industry parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengying; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei; Qu, Changsheng; Yang, Jie; Bu, Quanmin

    2010-07-15

    China is suffering from severe pollution accidents which may have catastrophic impacts on the local population and environment. Some questions are unclear to local governments and industry operators like "who are vulnerable to the chemical risks?" and "what is the magnitude of vulnerability?". This paper concentrates on exploring the concepts of human vulnerability and the methodology of analyzing human vulnerability to chemical accidents in the vicinity of chemical industry parks. A conceptual model of human vulnerability to chemical accidents is developed, revealing the roots of human vulnerability and emphasizing its role in risk management. A geographical information system (GIS)-based methodology for mapping vulnerability is proposed and applied to the Nanjing Chemical Industry Park in China. By combining physical vulnerability and social vulnerability spatially, the total vulnerability is revealed to better respond to accidents. It is proposed to improve traffic lines and allocation of medical services, and include vulnerability assessment in land-use planning to reduce future risks. In other words, it seems feasible and effective to reveal physical, social and total vulnerability of residents in the vicinity of chemical risk sources. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutron diffraction analysis of residual strain/stress distribution in the vicinity of high strength welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamák I.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses resulting from non homogeneous heat distribution during welding process belong to most significant factor influencing behavior of welded structures. These stresses are responsible for defect occurrence during welding and they are also responsible for crack initiation and propagation at the either static or dynamic load. The significant effect of weld metal chemical composition as well as the effect of fatigue load and local plastic deformation on residual stress distribution and fatigue life have been recognized for high strength steels welds. The changes in residual stress distribution have then positive effect on cold cracking behavior and also on fatigue properties of the welds [1-3]. Several experimental methods, both destructive and non-destructive, such as hole drilling method, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and others, have been used to examine residual stress distribution in all three significant orientations in the vicinity of the welds. The present contribution summarizes the results of neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress distribution in the vicinity of single-pass high-strength-steel welds having different chemical composition as well as the influence of fatigue load and local plastic deformation. It has been observed that the chemical composition of the weld metal has a significant influence on the stress distribution around the weld. Similarly, by aplying both cyclic load or pre-stress load on the specimens, stress relaxation was observed even in the region of approximately 40 mm far from the weld toe.

  13. Local temperature measurement in the vicinity of electromagnetically heated magnetite and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Kane, Ravi S.; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andra

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a new technique employing fluorescent quantum dots as temperature probes for measuring the temperature rise in the proximity of nanoparticles heated by a radio frequency (rf) electromagnetic field. The remote heating of nanoparticles by an rf field is a promising approach to control biological transformations at the molecular level. In principle, the heat dissipated by each nanoparticle might produce a temperature increase in its proximity, facilitating a change in the molecules directly attached to it but not in the others. Although this method has been demonstrated to provide control over biological transformations, the proposed mechanism involves producing and maintaining large temperature differences across small distances, in the range of several degrees Celsius across tens of nanometers. Existing theories for heat generation and transfer in rf heated nanoparticle systems cannot account for these gradients. To better understand the limitations of local heating, the temperature in the vicinity of rf heated nanoparticles was measured. Dilute aqueous suspensions of gold and magnetite nanoparticles were remotely heated by an rf field between 600-800 kHz. Two systems were investigated: a control sample consisting of quantum dots mixed with nanoparticles and a solution of quantum dots covalently linked to nanoparticles. The temperature of the fluorescent probes represents the average temperature in the former and the local temperature in the later. For the experimental conditions employed in this study, the measured temperature rise in the vicinity of rf heated nanoparticles were similar to the average or "bulk" temperature, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  14. Tracking an electronic wave packet in the vicinity of a conical intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Da-Long; Duan, Hong-Guang; Sun, Zhen-Rong; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Thorwart, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This work treats the impact of vibrational coherence on the quantum efficiency of a dissipative electronic wave packet in the vicinity of a conical intersection by monitoring the time-dependent wave packet projection onto the tuning and the coupling mode. The vibrational coherence of the wave packet is tuned by varying the strength of the dissipative vibrational coupling of the tuning and the coupling modes to their thermal baths. We observe that the most coherent wave packet yields a quantum efficiency of 93%, but with a large transfer time constant. The quantum yield is dramatically decreased to 50% for a strongly damped incoherent wave packet, but the associated transfer time of the strongly localized wave packet is short. In addition, we find for the strongly damped wave packet that the transfer occurs via tunneling of the wave packet between the potential energy surfaces before the seam of the conical intersection is reached and a direct passage takes over. Our results provide direct evidence that vibrational coherence of the electronic wave packet is a decisive factor which determines the dynamical behavior of a wave packet in the vicinity of the conical intersection.

  15. Group V adsorbate structures on vicinal Ge(001) surfaces determined from the optical spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Patterson, C. H.; McGilp, J. F.

    2017-06-01

    Vicinal Ge(001) is the standard substrate for the fabrication of high-performance solar cells by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy, where growth of the III-V material on single domain Ge surfaces, with a single dimer orientation, minimizes the formation of anti-phase domain defects. Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy has proved to be a powerful and sensitive optical probe of such anisotropic surface structures, but moving beyond fingerprinting to atomic structure determination from the optical spectra has been held back by the high computational cost. It is shown that an empirical, local-orbital-based hybrid density functional theory approach produces very good agreement between the theory and the experiment for (2 × 1)-As and (2 × 1)-Sb structures grown on vicinal Ge(001). These results, when taken together with previous work on Si interfaces, show that this computationally efficient approach is likely to prove to be an important general technique for determining the structure of anisotropic semiconductor surfaces and interfaces by comparing the experimental and calculated optical spectrum.

  16. Nanoscale patterning, macroscopic reconstruction, and enhanced surface stress by organic adsorption on vicinal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinger, Florian; Schmitt, Stefan; Sander, Dirk; Tian, Zhen; Kirschner, Jürgen; Vrdoljak, Pavo; Stadler, Christoph; Maier, Florian; Marchetto, Helder; Schmidt, Thomas; Schöll, Achim; Umbach, Eberhard

    2017-01-01

    Self-organization is a promising method within the framework of bottom-up architectures to generate nanostructures in an efficient way. The present work demonstrates that self-organization on the length scale of a few to several tens of nanometers can be achieved by a proper combination of a large (organic) molecule and a vicinal metal surface if the local bonding of the molecule on steps is significantly stronger than that on low-index surfaces. In this case thermal annealing may lead to large mass transport of the subjacent substrate atoms such that nanometer-wide and micrometer-long molecular stripes or other patterns are being formed on high-index planes. The formation of these patterns can be controlled by the initial surface orientation and adsorbate coverage. The patterns arrange self-organized in regular arrays by repulsive mechanical interactions over long distances accompanied by a significant enhancement of surface stress. We demonstrate this effect using the planar organic molecule PTCDA as adsorbate and Ag(10 8 7) and Ag(775) surfaces as substrate. The patterns are directly observed by STM, the formation of vicinal surfaces is monitored by high-resolution electron diffraction, the microscopic surface morphology changes are followed by spectro-microscopy, and the macroscopic changes of surface stress are measured by a cantilever bending method. The in situ combination of these complementary techniques provides compelling evidence for elastic interaction and a significant stress contribution to long-range order and nanopattern formation.

  17. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of a Vicinal Anatase TiO2 Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Chun; Dulub, Olga; Diebold, Ulrike

    2009-03-01

    Titanium dioxide finds versatile applications in various technical fields including gas sensing, coatings, pigments, heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, and solar cells. TiO2 is found in three main crystallographic phases: rutile, anatase and brookite. Rutile is the thermodynamically most stable form and is considered a model system for basic research. However, anatase TiO2 is often considered to be catalytically more active than rutile for reasons not yet completely understood. In this work, using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED), the structure of the anatase TiO2(5 14) surface, ˜10 vicinal to the -- lowest energy -- (101) plane, has been studied. The surface was found to facet into a structure composed of ridges with a uniform width of 5 lattice units. Based on atomically-resolved STM and electron counting rules, it is proposed that the sides of the ridges are parallel to (1 10) and (112) planes. These sides might be reconstructed to stabilize the microfaceted structure. Vapor-deposited gold shows pronounced clustering between the ridges, indicating a one-dimensional template effect of the vicinal surface, which supports denser and more uniformly sized Au clusters, as compared to the flat (101) surface.

  18. Localization of the electromagnetic field in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles: Surface modification of different substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Petar A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)], E-mail: paatanas@ie.bas.bg; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Sakai, Tetsuo; Obara, Minoru [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2007-12-15

    Theoretical predictions and experimental results for nanosized modification of metal (Au), semiconductor (Si), or dielectric (soda lime glass) substrates using near-electromagnetic field enhancement in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles are presented. The near field properties for the system consisting of an isolated gold nanoparticle or nanoparticle aggregate deposited on the substrates, which is irradiated by electromagnetic wave, are investigated using Finite Difference Time Domain Simulation technique. The influence of the substrate material on the near field distribution characteristics is predicted. The results reveal that the field on the substrate surface is enhanced in the three investigated cases, but its spatial distribution and magnitude depend on the substrate material. In the case of the metal and semiconductor substrate the enhanced near field is strongly localized in the vicinity of the contact point with the particle, in an area with diameter smaller than the particle's one. The intensity of the enhanced field on the glass is more than an order of magnitude lower than the case of using silicon substrate. The properties of the near field on the substrate surface also depend on the particle arrangement. For a two-dimensional gold nanoparticle array, when the particles are closely arrayed, the intensity of the enhanced field on the substrate surface is minimal. With the increase of the interparticle distance the near field intensity increases. The validity of the obtained theoretical results is confirmed experimentally.

  19. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh, E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  20. EISCAT and Cluster observations in the vicinity of the dynamical polar cap boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar cap boundary and auroral oval in the nightside ionosphere are studied during late expansion and recovery of a substorm from the region between Tromsø (66.6° cgmLat and Longyearbyen (75.2° cgmLat on 27 February 2004 by using the coordinated EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, MIRACLE magnetometer and Cluster satellite measurements. During the late substorm expansion/early recovery phase, the polar cap boundary (PCB made zig-zag-type motion with amplitude of 2.5° cgmLat and period of about 30 min near magnetic midnight. We suggest that the poleward motions of the PCB were produced by bursts of enhanced reconnection at the near-Earth neutral line (NENL. The subsequent equatorward motions of the PCB would then represent the recovery of the merging line towards the equilibrium state (Cowley and Lockwood, 1992. The observed bursts of enhanced westward electrojet just equatorward of the polar cap boundary during poleward expansions were produced plausibly by particles accelerated in the vicinity of the neutral line and thus lend evidence to the Cowley-Lockwood paradigm. During the substorm recovery phase, the footpoints of the Cluster satellites at a geocentric distance of 4.4 RE mapped in the vicinity of EISCAT measurements. Cluster data indicate that outflow of H+ and O+ ions took place within the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL as noted in some earlier studies as well. We show that in this case the PSBL corresponded to a region of enhanced electron temperature in the ionospheric F region. It is suggested that the ion outflow originates from the F region as a result of increased ambipolar diffusion. At higher altitudes, the ions could be further energized by waves, which at Cluster altitudes were observed as BBELF (broad band extra low frequency fluctuations. The four-satellite configuration of Cluster revealed a sudden poleward expansion of the PSBL by 2° during ~5 min. The beginning of the poleward motion of the PCB

  1. EISCAT and Cluster observations in the vicinity of the dynamical polar cap boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar cap boundary and auroral oval in the nightside ionosphere are studied during late expansion and recovery of a substorm from the region between Tromsø (66.6° cgmLat and Longyearbyen (75.2° cgmLat on 27 February 2004 by using the coordinated EISCAT incoherent scatter radar, MIRACLE magnetometer and Cluster satellite measurements. During the late substorm expansion/early recovery phase, the polar cap boundary (PCB made zig-zag-type motion with amplitude of 2.5° cgmLat and period of about 30 min near magnetic midnight. We suggest that the poleward motions of the PCB were produced by bursts of enhanced reconnection at the near-Earth neutral line (NENL. The subsequent equatorward motions of the PCB would then represent the recovery of the merging line towards the equilibrium state (Cowley and Lockwood, 1992. The observed bursts of enhanced westward electrojet just equatorward of the polar cap boundary during poleward expansions were produced plausibly by particles accelerated in the vicinity of the neutral line and thus lend evidence to the Cowley-Lockwood paradigm.

    During the substorm recovery phase, the footpoints of the Cluster satellites at a geocentric distance of 4.4 RE mapped in the vicinity of EISCAT measurements. Cluster data indicate that outflow of H+ and O+ ions took place within the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL as noted in some earlier studies as well. We show that in this case the PSBL corresponded to a region of enhanced electron temperature in the ionospheric F region. It is suggested that the ion outflow originates from the F region as a result of increased ambipolar diffusion. At higher altitudes, the ions could be further energized by waves, which at Cluster altitudes were observed as BBELF (broad band extra low frequency fluctuations.

    The four-satellite configuration of Cluster revealed a sudden poleward expansion of the PSBL by 2° during

  2. Laboratory modelling of resonant wave-current interaction in the vicinity wind farm masts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoo, Hans; Abcha, Nizar; Garcia-Hermosa, Maria-Isabel; Ezersky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    In the nearest future, by 2020, about 4% of electricity in Europe will be supplied by sea stations operating from renewable sources: ocean thermal energy, wave and tidal energy, wind farms. By now the wind stations located in the coastal zone, provide the most part of electricity in different European countries. Meanwhile, effects of wind farms on the environment are not sufficiently studied. We report results of laboratory simulations aimed at investigation of hydrodynamic fields arising in the vicinity of wind farm masts under the action of currents and surface waves. The main attention is paid to modeling the resonance effects when the amplitude of velocity pulsations in the vicinity of the masts under the joint action of currents and harmonic waves demonstrate significant growth. This resonance can lead to an increase in Reynolds stress on the bottom, intensification of sediment transport and sound generation. The experiments are performed in the 17 meters hydrodynamical channel of laboratory Morphodynamique Continentale et Côtière UMR CNRS 6143. Mast are modeled by vertical cylinder placed in a steady flow. Behind the cylinder turbulent Karman vortex street occurs. Results are obtained in interval of Reynolds numbers Re=103 - 104(Re=Ud/v, where U is the velocity of the flow, d is diameter of the cylinder, ν is cinematic viscosity). Harmonic surface waves of small amplitude propagating upstream are excited by computer controlled wave maker. In the absence of surface waves, turbulent Karman street with averaged frequency f is observed. It is revealed experimentally that harmonic surface waves with a frequencies closed to 2f can synchronize vortex shedding and increase the amplitude of velocity fluctuations in the wake of the cylinder. Map of regimes is found on the parameter plane amplitude of the surface wave - wave frequency. In order to distinguish the synchronization regimes, we defined phase of oscillations using the Hilbert transform technique. We

  3. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy of CdSe quantum dots grown on vicinal-surface and exact-orientation substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, T.; Andre, R.; Romestain, R.; Dang, Le Si [CEA-CNRS-UJF Joint Group Nanophysics and Semiconductors (France); Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, CNRS UMR 5588, Universite J. Fourier-Grenoble 1, 38402 Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Gerard, J.M. [CEA-CNRS-UJF Joint Group Nanophysics and Semiconductors (France); CEA-Grenoble, Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee/SP2M, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bartels, M.; Lischka, K.; Schikora, D. [Department of Physics, University of Paderborn, Warburger Strasse 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates using micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy. Comparison was made between the QDs grown on a substrate with a vicinal tilt of 2 in the [111] direction and those on an on-axis substrate. We have studied the evolution of lineshapes of QD photoluminescence spectra under the improved condition of spatial resolution. It was found that the use of a substrate with the vicinal surface leads to the suppression of excitonic PL emitted from a wetting layer. The PL studies revealed that the thermo-stability up to 150 K was obtained in the sample on the on-axis substrate, whereas rapid temperature-induced quenching starting from 6 K was observed in that grown on the vicinal substrate. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy of CdSe quantum dots grown on vicinal-surface and exact-orientation substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, T.; André, R.; Gérard, J. M.; Romestain, R.; Dang, Le Si; Bartels, M.; Lischka, K.; Schikora, D.

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates using micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy. Comparison was made between the QDs grown on a substrate with a vicinal tilt of 2° in the [111] direction and those on an on-axis substrate. We have studied the evolution of lineshapes of QD photoluminescence spectra under the improved condition of spatial resolution. It was found that the use of a substrate with the vicinal surface leads to the suppression of excitonic PL emitted from a wetting layer. The PL studies revealed that the thermo-stability up to 150 K was obtained in the sample on the on-axis substrate, whereas rapid temperature-induced quenching starting from 6 K was observed in that grown on the vicinal substrate.

  5. Characteristics of ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of a severe weather outbreak - AVE-SESAME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    GOES satellite data was used to examine the ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of severe weather outbreaks along the Red River between Texas and Oklahoma in April 1979. The observations were part of the NASA AVE-SESAME I data on atmospheric states close to severe weather conditions. The Barnes Objective Analysis Technique was employed to analyze the data on a 100 km grid. The ageostrophic wind was defined on a regional scale from satellite data on different levels of cloud wind vectors, with a height change signalling a short-wave system in a long-wave trough. The percentage of deviation of the subgeostrophic winds from the geostrophic wind was calculated, and maximum departure corresponded with the region of greatest storm development. Time cross sections of additions to the ageostrophic flow were made as a function of pressure at 100 mb intervals from 900-100 mb. The ageostrophic acceleration was consistently twice the geostrophic acceleration.

  6. New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last three years of archaeological investigations at the site Ru`ana in Banjsko Polje, in the immediate vicinity of Bor, have provided new evidence regarding the role of non-ferrous metallurgy in the economy of the prehistoric communities of north-eastern Serbia. The remains of metallurgical furnaces and a large amount of metallic slags at two neighbouring sites in the mentioned settlement reveal that locations with many installations for the thermal processing of copper ore existed in the Bronze Age. We believe, judging by the finds of material culture, that metallurgical activities in this area also continued into the Iron Age and, possibly, into the 4th century AD. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177020: Archaeology of Serbia: Cultural identity, integration factors, technological processes and the role of the central Balkans in the development of European prehistory

  7. Vibrational characterization of different benzene phases on flat and vicinal Si(100) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Borislav; Widdra, Wolf

    2007-10-21

    Based on high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy and temperature-programmable desorption, benzene chemisorption on vicinal and nominally flat Si(100) surfaces has been studied for various adsorption, annealing, and site blocking treatments. Three different chemisorbed benzene (C6H6 and C6D6) phases with distinct thermal desorption characteristics and different vibrational spectra have been separated and characterized on both substrates. All three phases are identified as 1,4-cyclohexadiene-like structures with butterfly geometry. Whereas the dominant phase is di-sigma bonded to the two Si atoms of a single Si-Si dimer, the benzene orientation (double bond orientation) in the other phases is rotated. Di-sigma bonding to Si atoms of adjacent Si-Si dimer for the latter cases is most likely. Coverage and temperature dependent conversions between the different phases have been addressed by vibrational spectroscopy.

  8. The fauna of small mammals in the vicinity of Temerin, The Vojvodina providence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ester J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples collected by traps in the vicinity of Temerin and the analysis of pellets of the long-eared owl (Asia otus and the barn owl (Tyto alba served as a basis for the determination of 409 individuals of small mammals of the orders Insectivora and Rodentia. A total of 13 species from the families Soricidae (6, Muridae (4 and Arvi-colidae (3 was recorded. The representatives of the species Apodemus sylvaticus prevailed in the sample obtained by traps while the pellet analysis showed the domination of Micro-tus arvalis in the owl diet. The presence of five of the total of thirteen species found by the pellet analysis was confirmed by means of traps.

  9. A floristic survey of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niles, W.E.; Leary, P.J.; Holland, J.S.; Landau, F.H.

    1995-12-01

    A survey of the vascular flora of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada, was conducted from March to June 1994, and from March to October 1995. An annotated checklist of recorded taxa was compiled. Voucher plant specimens were collected and accessioned into the Herbarium at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Collection data accompanying these specimens were entered into that herbarium`s electronic data base. Combined results from this survey and the works of other investigators reveal the presence of a total of 375 specific and intraspecific taxa within the area these allocated to 179 genera and 54 families. No taxon currently listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act was encountered during this study. Several candidate species for listing under this Act were present, and distributional data for these were recorded. No change in the status of these candidate species is recommended as the result of this study.

  10. Monitoring of radionuclides in the vicinities of Finnish nuclear power plants in 1993 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemola, S.; Ilus, E.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K

    1998-08-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances around Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 1993-1994 in accordance with the regular programmes. Some 1000 samples are analysed annually from the terrestrial and aquatic environments of the two power plant sites. Trace amounts of activation products originating from airborne releases from the local power plants were detected in several air, deposition and soil samples. Discharged nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms, sinking matter and sediments. However, the concentrations were so low that they did not significantly increase the radiation burden in the environment. The dominant artificial radionuclides in the vicinity of the power plants remained the cesium isotopes, especially {sup 137}Cs but also {sup 134}Cs, originating from the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) 14 refs.

  11. Optical characterization of gold chains and steps on the vicinal Si(557) surface: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Conor [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Struttura della Materia, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); McAlinden, Niall; McGilp, John F. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2012-06-15

    We present a joint experimental-theoretical study of the reflectance anisotropy of clean and gold-covered Si(557), a vicinal surface of Si(111) upon which gold forms quasi-one-dimensional (1D) chains parallel to the steps. By means of first-principles calculations, we analyse the close relationship between the various surface structural motifs and the optical properties. Good agreement is found between experimental and computed spectra of single-step models of both clean and Au-adsorbed surfaces. Spectral fingerprints of monoatomic gold chains and silicon step edges are identified. The role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the surface optical properties is examined, and found to have little effect. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill: Progress report, 1983 and 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Becker, N.M.; Williams, M.C.; Maes, M.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface and groundwater stations at and in the vicinity of Fenton Hill (Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Demonstration Site) located in the Jemez Mountains. This is part of a continued program of environmental studies. There has been a slight variation in chemical quality of water from the surface and groundwater stations; however, these variations are within normal seasonal fluctuations. Water supply at the site is pumped from the aquifer in the Abiquiu Tuff. Cumulative production from 1976 through 1984 has been 41.5 x 10/sup 6/ gal. The water level in the supply well declined from 365 ft in 1976 to 379 ft in 1984.

  13. DFT study of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration of vicinal diols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Daniel; Christensen, Niels Johan; Dethlefsen, Johannes R; Fristrup, Peter

    2015-02-16

    The mechanism of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of vicinal diols has been investigated using density functional theory. The proposed catalytic cycle involves condensation of the diol with an Mo(VI) oxo complex, oxidative cleavage of the diol resulting in an Mo(IV) complex, and extrusion of the alkene. We have compared the proposed pathway with several alternatives, and the results have been corroborated by comparison with the molybdenum-catalyzed sulfoxide reduction recently published by Sanz et al. and with experimental observations for the DODH itself. Improved understanding of the mechanism should expedite future optimization of molybdenum-catalyzed biomass transformations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Surface-Step-Induced Double Magnetic Switching of Fe on Vicinal W(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mireles, Hector C.; Erskine, J. L.

    2001-07-16

    Two-level magnetic switching of a bilayer epitaxial Fe film grown on a graded stepped W(100) surface is observed using the magneto-optic Kerr effect. Hysteresis loops produced by the film at a location on the curved W(100) surface corresponding to a vicinal angle of 6.4{sup o} exhibit two abrupt jumps in magnetization following spin orientation perpendicular to the steps resulting from surface-step-induced anisotropy. The two-step process can be understood in terms of abrupt depinning of spins in two inequivalent microdomains associated with the stepped surface. The results suggest a new realm of ultrathin film micromagnetics in which characteristic dimensions of 20--30{angstrom} can play a dominant role.

  15. Surface-step-induced double magnetic switching of Fe on vicinal W(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, H C; Erskine, J L

    2001-07-16

    Two-level magnetic switching of a bilayer epitaxial Fe film grown on a graded stepped W(100) surface is observed using the magneto-optic Kerr effect. Hysteresis loops produced by the film at a location on the curved W(100) surface corresponding to a vicinal angle of 6.4 degrees exhibit two abrupt jumps in magnetization following spin orientation perpendicular to the steps resulting from surface-step-induced anisotropy. The two-step process can be understood in terms of abrupt depinning of spins in two inequivalent microdomains associated with the stepped surface. The results suggest a new realm of ultrathin film micromagnetics in which characteristic dimensions of 20-30 A can play a dominant role.

  16. Indoor Rn-222 concentrations in the vicinity of a Turkish coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaprak, G. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Science

    1999-10-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains natural radionuclides and their products in small quantities. Therefore, depending on their concentration in the coal, a coal-fired power plant might potentially contaminate the environment. Indoor Rn-222 concentration in 100 houses located in the vicinity of Yatagan coal-fired power plant in the southwestern part of Turkey were measured using solid state nuclear track detectors. The time-integrated Rn-222 concentrations in the houses ranged from 10 to 120 Bq m{sup -3}. This corresponds to an annual effective dose equivalent ranging from 0.6 to 7/3 mSv. In 96% of the homes, an Rn-222 concentration of 100 Bq m{sup -3} (taken as the limit for future buildings, recommended by ICRP) was not exceeded.

  17. Surface plasmon resonance on vicinity of gold-coated fiber tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamyan, T. [Department of Radio Physics, Yerevan State University (Armenia); Nerkararyan, Kh. [Department of Radio Physics, Yerevan State University (Armenia)]. E-mail: knerkar@ysu.am

    2007-05-14

    The possibility of excitation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP) in the vicinity of the tip of a gold covered optical fiber is investigated when the tip is in the medium with a certain dielectric permittivity. In the experiment the medium was a solution consisting of dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol liquids in which, as a result of evaporation, a smooth changing of the dielectric permittivity of the solution was taking place. During the evaporation a peak of the power of output radiation was observed from the tip of the fiber, which is explained by the resonant excitation of SPP. This mechanism of SPP excitation in the region of the tip of the optical waveguide opens up new possibilities for increasing the resolution of the nanometric scanning optical microscope and for creation of a new type of optochemical fiber sensors.

  18. Spatial distribution of marine crenarchaeota group I in the vicinity of deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Ken; Oida, Hanako; Suzuki, Yohey; Hirayama, Hisako; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Nunoura, Takuro; Inagaki, Fumio; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2004-04-01

    Distribution profiles of marine crenarchaeota group I in the vicinity of deep-sea hydrothermal systems were mapped with culture-independent molecular techniques. Planktonic samples were obtained from the waters surrounding two geographically and geologically distinct hydrothermal systems, and the abundance of marine crenarchaeota group I was examined by 16S ribosomal DNA clone analysis, quantitative PCR, and whole-cell fluorescence in situ hybridization. A much higher proportion of marine crenarchaeota group I within the microbial community was detected in deep-sea hydrothermal environments than in normal deep and surface seawaters. The highest proportion was always obtained from the ambient seawater adjacent to hydrothermal emissions and chimneys but not from the hydrothermal plumes. These profiles were markedly different from the profiles of epsilon-Proteobacteria, which are abundant in the low temperatures of deep-sea hydrothermal environments.

  19. Vinča-Belo Brdo: Vernissages of eneolithic belgrade and its vicinity I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper will discuss the problems of Eneolithic settlements of Baden and Kostolac culture at Vinča near Belgrade. Eneolithic horizons from Vinča site were scarcely published owing to the fact that both Baden and Kostolac layers are not well stratified because of heavy medieval devastations. In spite of all post-depositional destructions Eneolithic settlements at Vinča show enormous significance for understanding the life of the period, both on the micro and macro-regional scale. At the same time, this work is a sort of an insight into the results of ongoing analysis of material culture and socio-economic patterns of Eneolithic period settlements in Belgrade and its vicinity.

  20. Nanostructured sapphire vicinal surfaces as templates for the growth of self-organized oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thune, E., E-mail: elsa.thune@unilim.fr [Laboratoire Sciences des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface (SPCTS), UMR CNRS 6638, ENSCI, 47-73 Avenue Albert Thomas, F-87065 Limoges Cedex (France); Boulle, A. [Laboratoire Sciences des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface (SPCTS), UMR CNRS 6638, ENSCI, 47-73 Avenue Albert Thomas, F-87065 Limoges Cedex (France); Babonneau, D.; Pailloux, F. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux (PHYMAT), UMR CNRS 6630, Universite de Poitiers, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie - Teleport 2, BP 30179, F-86962 Futuroscope - Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Hamd, W.; Guinebretiere, R. [Laboratoire Sciences des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface (SPCTS), UMR CNRS 6638, ENSCI, 47-73 Avenue Albert Thomas, F-87065 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2009-11-15

    Vicinal substrates of sapphire with miscut angle of 10 deg. from the (0 0 1) planes towards the [1 1 0] direction have been annealed in air in the range from 1000 to 1500 deg. C. The behaviour of these surfaces has been characterized as a function of the temperature and the thermal treatment time by Atomic Force Microscopy observations. A thermal treatment at 1250 deg. C allows to stabilize a surface made of periodically spaced nanosized step-bunches. Such stepped surfaces were used as template to grow self-patterned epitaxial oxide nanoparticles by thermal annealing of yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films produced by sol-gel dip-coating. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy were used to study the morphology of the nanoparticles and their epitaxial relationships with the substrate.

  1. Wavepacket dynamics in the scattering of hydrogen anions off vicinally nano-stepped metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Chakraborty, Himadri; Monismith, David

    2017-04-01

    We study the electron dynamics in monocrystalline Cu, Au and Pd surfaces with stepped vicinal structures modeled in a Kronig-Penney scheme. The unoccupied bands of the surface is resonantly excited via the charge transfer interaction of the surface with a moving hydrogen anion. The interaction dynamics are simulated in a quantum mechanical wavepacket propagation approach that used parallel computations. The survival probability of the interacting ion is calculated as well as the electron probability density at all times during the interaction. Animated videos are produced of the electron probability density which show that, when the electron is transferred to the metal, the first two image states are the most likely locations of the electron as it evolves through the superlattice. The survival probability shows peaks at those energies that produce standing waves between the steps on the surface when the electron is in the image state subbands. The work is supported by the XSEDE allocation Grant for high performance computation.

  2. Characterization of geologic deposits in the vicinity of US Ecology, Amargosa Basin, southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple approaches have been applied to better understand the characteristics of geologic units exposed at the surface and buried at depth in the vicinity of US Ecology (USE), a low-level commercial waste site in the northern Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Techniques include surficial geologic mapping and interpretation of the subsurface using borehole data. Dated deposits at depth were used to estimate rates of sediment accumulation. The subsurface lithologies have been modeled in three dimensions. Lithologic cross sections have been created from the three-dimensional model and have been compared to resistivity data at the same location. Where deposits appear offset, a fault was suspected. Global Positioning System elevation transects were measured and trenches were excavated to locate a strand of the Carrara Fault. The presence of the fault helps to better understand the shape of the potentiometric surface. These data will be used to better understand the hydrologic parameters controlling the containment of the waste at US Ecology.Quaternary geologic units exposed at the surface, in the vicinity of US Ecology, are derived from the alluvium shed off the adjacent range front and the Amargosa River. These deposits vary from modern to early Pleistocene in age. At depth, heterogeneous sands and gravel occur. Observed in deep trenches and boreholes, the subsurface deposits are characterized as fining-upward sequence of sediment from 5- to 8-meters thick. No volcanic units or fine-grained playa deposits were described in the boreholes to a depth of 200 meters. Based on Infrared Stimulated Luminescence dated core samples, short-term rates of sediment accumulation (Ecology successfully exposed offset Quaternary deposits on a splay of the Carrara Fault. Holocene deposits do not appear to be faulted, however, a fault zone does intersect middle and late Pleistocene aged units.

  3. Paleohydrologic investigations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain: Late Quaternary paleobotanical and polynological records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, W.G.

    1994-10-05

    The primary objective of this research in the vicinity of the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository is the detection of episodes of increased runoff and groundwater discharge in this presently arid area. Ancient, inactive spring deposits in nearby valley bottoms (Haynes, 1967; Quade, 1986; Quade and Pratt, 1989), evidence for perennial water in presently dry canyons (Spaulding, 1992), and recent claims for extraordinary increases in precipitation during the last glacial age (Forester, 1994), provide good reason to further investigate both lowland spring-discharge habitats, and upland drainages. The ultimate purpose is to assess the long-term variability of the hydrologic system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain in response to naturally occurring climatic changes. The data generated in the course of this study are derived from radiocarbon dated packrat (Neotoma) middens. This report presents the results of an initial assessment of the hydrologic stability of the candidate area based on a limited suite of middens from localities that, on geomorphic and hydrologic grounds, could have been close to ancient stream-side or spring environments. Paleoclimatic reconstructions are another means of studying the long-term climatic hydrologic stability of the Candidate Area include, and are also generated from packrat midden data. A different flora characterized the Candidate Area during the last glacial age in response to a cooler and wetter climate, and the plant species that comprised this flora can be used to reconstruct specific components of past climatic regimes. Thus, a secondary objective of this study is to compare the plant macrofossil data generated in this study to other records from the Candidate Area (Spaulding, 1985; Wigand, 1990) to determine if these new data are consistent with prior reconstructions. 66 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Step density waves on growing vicinal crystal surfaces - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranguelov, Bogdan; Müller, Pierre; Metois, Jean-Jacques; Stoyanov, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    The Burton, Cabrera and Frank (BCF) theory plays a key conceptual role in understanding and modeling the crystal growth of vicinal surfaces. In BCF theory the adatom concentration on a vicinal surface obeys to a diffusion equation, generally solved within quasi-static approximation where the adatom concentration at a given distance x from a step has a steady state value n (x) . Recently, we show that going beyond this approximation (Ranguelov and Stoyanov, 2007) [6], for fast surface diffusion and slow attachment/detachment kinetics of adatoms at the steps, a train of fast-moving steps is unstable against the formation of steps density waves. More precisely, the step density waves are generated if the step velocity exceeds a critical value related to the strength of the step-step repulsion. This theoretical treatment corresponds to the case when the time to reach a steady state concentration of adatoms on a given terrace is comparable to the time for a non-negligible change of the step configuration leading to a terrace adatom concentration n (x , t) that depends not only on the terrace width, but also on its "past width". This formation of step density waves originates from the high velocity of step motion and has nothing to do with usual kinetic instabilities of step bunching induced by Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect, surface electromigration and/or the impact of impurities on the step rate. The so-predicted formation of step density waves is illustrated by numerical integration of the equations for step motion. In order to complete our previous theoretical treatment of the non-stationary BCF problem, we perform an in-situ reflection electron microscopy experiment at specific temperature interval and direction of the heating current, in which, for the first time, the step density waves instability is evidenced on Si(111) surface during highest possible Si adatoms deposition rates.

  5. Visual impairment and blindness among the students of blind schools in Allahabad and its vicinity: A causal assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao; Mahesh Tandon; Satyaprakash Singh; Shraddha Dwivedi; Santosh Kumar; Jagriti Rana

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Information on eye diseases in blind school children in Allahabad is rare and sketchy. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify causes of blindness (BL) in blind school children with an aim to gather information on ocular morbidity in the blind schools in Allahabad and in its vicinity. Study Design and Setting: A cross-sectional study was carried out in all the four blind schools in Allahabad and its vicinity. Materials and Methods: The students in the blind schools ...

  6. Influence of vicinal sapphire substrate on the properties of N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhiyu; Zhang, Jincheng, E-mail: jchzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Xu, Shengrui; Chen, Zhibin; Yang, Shuangyong; Tian, Kun; Hao, Yue [Key Lab of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Su, Xujun [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Shi, Xuefang [School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2014-08-25

    The influence of vicinal sapphire substrates on the growth of N-polar GaN films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is investigated. Smooth GaN films without hexagonal surface feature are obtained on vicinal substrate. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that basal-plane stacking faults are formed in GaN on vicinal substrate, leading to a reduction in threading dislocation density. Furthermore, it has been found that there is a weaker yellow luminescence in GaN on vicinal substrate than that on (0001) substrate, which might be explained by the different trends of the carbon impurity incorporation.

  7. The diatom flora in the vicinity of the Pretoria Salt Pan, Transvaal, Republic of South Africa. Part III (final)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoeman, FR

    1984-03-12

    Full Text Available This is the third and final contribution on the diatom flora recorded in the vicinity of the pretoria salt pan. In the taxonomic section notes and illustrations (light and electron microscopy) are given for 19 of the 35 listed species....

  8. 76 FR 60733 - Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile Marker 230 to Mile Marker 234, in the Vicinity of Baton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    .... Basis and Purpose The Captain of the Port New Orleans has implemented a safety zone from mile marker 230... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile Marker 230 to Mile Marker 234, in the Vicinity of Baton Rouge, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule...

  9. 78 FR 35567 - Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker 219 to Mile Marker 229, in the Vicinity of Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... Captain of the Port, New Orleans has implemented a safety zone from mile marker 219 to mile marker 225... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker 219 to Mile Marker 229, in the Vicinity of Port Allen Lock AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final...

  10. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. (a) The danger zone—(1) Prohibited area. A circle 1,000 yards in radius with its...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.95 - Ship repairing and shipbuilding work on or in the vicinity of radar and radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship repairing and shipbuilding work on or in the vicinity... STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.95 Ship repairing and shipbuilding work... repairing and shipbuilding. (a) No employees other than radar or radio repairmen shall be permitted to work...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart U of... - Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Appendix to Subpart U of Part 93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules i...

  13. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2-Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2-Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT...

  14. 129I and 137Cs in groundwater in the vicinity of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Zhang, Luyuan; Freeman, Stewart P.H.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports iodine (127I and 129I) and cesium (137Cs) isotope concentrations in groundwater of confined and unconfined aquifers in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). 127I and 129I concentrations range from 2–13 μg/L and 5 × 107–8 × 1010 atom/L respectively...

  15. Monitoring of Heavy Metals Spread in the Vicinity of Combined Heat and Power Plant-3, Using Indicator Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manara A. Mukasheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of heavy metals content in the vicinity of Combined Heat and Power Plant-3 in Karaganda showed that all the examined plants store the detectable chemical elements in concentrations, exceeding the background ones several times. The examined plants look more suppressed, have different distortions of morphological characteristics, if compared to the background ones

  16. Surveys of forest bird populations found in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the district of Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, J.D.; Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Nielsen, B.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents data on the distribution and status of forest bird species found within the vicinity of proposed geothermal resource development on the Island of Hawaii. Potential impacts of the proposed development on the native bird populations found in the project are are addressed.

  17. Condition and Extent of the Natural Oyster Beds and Barren Bottoms in the Vicinity of Apalachicola, Fla.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of oyster beds in the vicinity of Apalachicola, FL was conducted in 1915. The area of the oyster beds is 7,135 acres, or 11.1 square miles, of which...

  18. 75 FR 43821 - Safety Zone; DEEPWATER HORIZON Response Staging Area in the Vicinity of Shell Beach, Hopedale, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; DEEPWATER HORIZON Response Staging Area in the Vicinity... Hopedale, LA in response to the DEEPWATER HORIZON oil spill. Vessels must travel at a safe speed and... This response staging area is in support of the DEEPWATER HORIZON oil spill clean-up effort. This...

  19. Deposition and properties of Fe(Se,Te) thin films on vicinal CaF2 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryja, Hagen; Hühne, Ruben; Iida, Kazumasa; Molatta, Sebastian; Sala, Alberto; Putti, Marina; Schultz, Ludwig; Nielsch, Kornelius; Hänisch, Jens

    2017-11-01

    We report on the growth of epitaxial Fe1+δ Se0.5Te0.5 thin films on 0°, 5°, 10°, 15° and 20° vicinal cut CaF2 single crystals by pulsed laser deposition. In situ electron and ex situ x-ray diffraction studies reveal a tilted growth of the Fe1+δ Se0.5Te0.5 films, whereby under optimized deposition conditions the c-axis alignment coincides with the substrate [001] tilted axis up to a vicinal angle of 10°. Atomic force microscopy shows a flat island growth for all films. From resistivity measurements in longitudinal and transversal directions, the ab- and c-axis components of resistivity are derived and the mass anisotropy parameter is determined. Analysis of the critical current density indicates that no effective c-axis correlated defects are generated by vicinal growth, and pinning by normal point core defects dominates. However, for H∣∣ab the effective pinning centers change from surface defects to point core defects near the superconducting transition due to the vicinal cut. Furthermore, we show in angular-dependent critical current density data a shift of the ab-planes maxima position with the magnetic field strength.

  20. Hydrogeochemical Investigation of the Standard Mine Vicinity, Upper Elk Creek Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    Ground- and surface-water samples were collected in the vicinity of the Standard Mine in west-central Colorado in order to characterize the local ground-water flow system, determine metal concentrations in local ground water, and better understand factors controlling the discharge of metal-rich waters from the mine. The sampling program included a one-time sampling of springs, mine adits, and exploration pits in Elk Basin and Redwell Basin; repeated sampling throughout one year of Standard Mine Level 1 discharge and Elk Creek near its confluence with Coal Creek; and a one-time sampling of underground sites in Levels 3 and 5 of the Standard Mine. Samples were analyzed for major ions and trace elements, stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O), strontium isotopes, and tritium and dissolved noble gases (including helium isotopes) for tritium/helium-3 age dating. No clear correlations were observed between natural ground-water discharge locations and map-scale faults and lithology. Surface observations and the location of ground-water discharge suggest that simple topography, rather than large-scale geologic features, primarily controls the occurrence and flow of shallow ground water in Elk Basin. Discrete inflows from cross faults or other features were not observed in Levels 3 and 5 of the Standard Mine. Instead, water entered the mine as relatively persistent dripping from gouge and breccia within the Standard fault, which both tunnels follow. Therefore, the Standard fault itself is probably the main pathway of ground-water flow from the shallow subsurface to the mine workings. Low pH (as low as 3.2) and elevated concentrations of zinc, lead, cadmium, copper, and manganese (commonly exceeding water-quality standards for Elk Creek) were measured in samples located within or immediately downgradient of areas where sulfides are abundant, including the Standard fault, the Elk Lode portal, and the breccia pipe in Redwell Basin. Concentrations of these

  1. Characterizing the air quality in the vicinity of a fast-growing Asian airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Juang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Many studies have shown that air quality in the vicinity of major airports could be directly influenced by aircraft emissions, airport activities, and other forms of intense transportation in proximity to airports. There are two types of pollutants emitted within the confines of airports: one is directly emitted from aircraft engines, and the other is from ground support equipment (GSE). Such pollutants include aromatic hydrocarbon, ultrafine particles (UFP) , black carbon (BC) , nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, and sulfides and could immiately impact the air quality in areas downwind. Although the impact of airport emissions on surrounding communities has been studied in some major airports in North America and Europe, scant attention has been paid to airport pollution issues in Asia despite the surging growth of air travel and of airports. Commercial air traffic in Taiwan has been dramatically growing in the last two decades because of rapid economic growth and is expected to continue surging into the next decades due to increasing trade and travel with China and other countries. In this study, the air quality in the vicinity of Taiwan’s Taoyuan International Airport (TPE Airport) is analyzed to further characterize air quality in the region of a fast-growing Asian airport. Monitoring data from the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) is used in the study to investigate long-term trends in air quality. The first step of this research is to analyze the data from six stations close to TPE Airport during the last ten years and to filter the attributes (wind field, geography, and so on) which could impact that air quality. Second, we characterize the relationship between data from different monitoring stations by using cluster analysis and then use the air pollution model (Industrial Source Complex-ISC3 and Cal-Puff) to identify why serious pollution events occur. Finally, we use model binds with a GIS system containing population-activity and

  2. Seismic Structure in the Vicinity of the Inner Core Boundary beneath northeastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibourichene, A. S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    The inner core boundary (ICB) separates the solid inner core from the liquid outer core. The crystallization of iron occurring at this limit induces the expulsion of lighter elements such as H, O, S, Si into the outer core, generating chemically-driven convection, which provides power for the geodynamo. Both the F layer, right above the ICB, and the uppermost inner core, are affected by this process so that their properties provide important constraints for a better understanding of core dynamics and, ultimately, the generation and sustained character of the earth's magnetic field. In this study, we investigate the evolution of model parameters (P-velocity, density and quality factor) with depth in the vicinity of the ICB. For this purpose, we combine observations of two body wave phases sensitive to this region: the PKP(DF) phase refracted in the inner core and the PKiKP reflected on the ICB. Variations in the PKP(DF)/PKiKP amplitude ratio and PKP(DF)-PKiKP differential travel times can be related to structure around the ICB. We use waveform data from earthquakes located in Sumatra and recorded by the dense USArray seismic network, which allows us to sample ICB structure beneath northeastern Asia. Observed waveforms are compared to synthetics computed using the DSM method (e.g., Geller et Takeuchi, 1995) in model AK135 (e.g., Montagner & Kennett, 1996) in order to measure amplitude and travel time anomalies. Previous studies (e.g., Tanaka, 1997 ; Cao and Romanowicz, 2004, Yu and Wen, 2006; Waszek and Deuss, 2011) have observed an hemispherical pattern in the vicinity of the ICB exhibiting a faster and more attenuated eastern hemisphere compared to the western hemisphere. The region studied is located in the eastern hemisphere. We find that, on average, travel time anomalies are consistent with previous studies of the eastern hemisphere, however, amplitude ratios are not. We conduct a parameter search for the 1D model that best fits our data. We also consider

  3. Characterization of geologic deposits in the vicinity of US Ecology, Amargosa Basin, southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple approaches have been applied to better understand the characteristics of geologic units exposed at the surface and buried at depth in the vicinity of US Ecology (USE), a low-level commercial waste site in the northern Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Techniques include surficial geologic mapping and interpretation of the subsurface using borehole data. Dated deposits at depth were used to estimate rates of sediment accumulation. The subsurface lithologies have been modeled in three dimensions. Lithologic cross sections have been created from the three-dimensional model and have been compared to resistivity data at the same location. Where deposits appear offset, a fault was suspected. Global Positioning System elevation transects were measured and trenches were excavated to locate a strand of the Carrara Fault. The presence of the fault helps to better understand the shape of the potentiometric surface. These data will be used to better understand the hydrologic parameters controlling the containment of the waste at US Ecology. Quaternary geologic units exposed at the surface, in the vicinity of US Ecology, are derived from the alluvium shed off the adjacent range front and the Amargosa River. These deposits vary from modern to early Pleistocene in age. At depth, heterogeneous sands and gravel occur. Observed in deep trenches and boreholes, the subsurface deposits are characterized as fining-upward sequence of sediment from 5- to 8-meters thick. No volcanic units or fine-grained playa deposits were described in the boreholes to a depth of 200 meters. Based on Infrared Stimulated Luminescence dated core samples, short-term rates of sediment accumulation (data, when compared to lithologic cross sections, generally are consistent with lithology grain size and probable soil carbonate accumulations. Surface resistivity displays a fining-upward sequence of sediments at the surface with a soil carbonate imprint. Finally, trenching north of US Ecology successfully exposed

  4. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000-2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. & Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy of one-dimensional metallic nanostructures on silicon vicinal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Chung Vu

    2010-06-23

    Vicinal silicon(111) surfaces are used as templates for the growth of lead nanowires as well as gold and indium atom chains. The morphology of the Au atom chains was studied by use of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED). The In chains were investigated by infrared spectroscopy with the electrical field component of the IR light polarized either parallel or perpendicular to the wires. It is shown that at room temperature, In atom-chains display a plasmonic absorption feature along the chain but not in the perpendicular direction. Furthermore, upon cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, a metal to insulator transition is observed. A structural distortion is also confirmed by RHEED. As for the result of Pb nanowires, by means of infrared spectroscopy, it is now possible to control the average length of parallel nanowire arrays by monitoring four experimental parameters that influence on the nucleation density; namely: Pb coverage, evaporation rate, substrate temperature and the surface itself. The system shows an enhancement of the absorption at the antenna frequency in the low temperature regime. This scenario is assigned to the reduction of electron-phonon scattering due to low temperature. (orig.)

  6. Past pregnancy outcomes among women living in the vicinity of a lead smelter in Kosovo, Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.J.; Graziano, J.H.; Popovac, D.; Kline, J.K.; Mehmeti, A.; Factor-Litvak, P.; Ahmedi, G.; Shrout, P.; Rajovic, B.; Nenezic, D.U.; (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This analysis compares the rates of spontaneous abortion among women living in the vicinity of a lead smelter with those of women living in a town where blood lead levels were low. Data derive from the obstetric histories of both groups of women obtained while seeking prenatal care for a later pregnancy. A total of 639 women (304 exposed, 335 unexposed) had at least one previous pregnancy and lived at the same address since their first pregnancy. The geometric mean blood lead concentrations in the sample at the time of the interviews were 0.77 mumol/L in the exposed town and 0.25 mumol/L in the unexposed town. The rates of spontaneous abortions in first pregnancies were similar, with 16.4 percent of women in the exposed town and 14.0 percent in the unexposed town reporting loss. The adjusted odds ratio relating town of residence to spontaneous abortion was 1.1 (95% CI = 0.9, 1.4). This analysis represents the first systematic attempt to seek an association between environmental lead exposure and spontaneous abortion. As such, the failure to find a positive association strongly suggests that at the levels of exposure represented in our sample, such an association does not exist.

  7. The Bolgary IX settlement – a site of the Ananyino finale in the vicinity of Perm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva Anastasia V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents materials recovered from the Bolgary IX settlement, attributed to the late Ananyino group of sites, discovered in the vicinity of the city of Perm on the left bank of the Kama River. The structures thus found were interpreted by the authors as, presumably, a dwelling (? and a cult building. The pre-Ananyino cult buildings are well known by two hillforts – Zuevy Klychi-1 on the Lower Kama and Argyzh on the Vyatka River. Small clay figurines, arrow heads, spindle whorls, small oblational cups and household ceramics were found within the cult buildings. Household ceramics are represented by some typical late Ananyino vessel forms: mainly bowls with a closed throat, sometimes with profiled pronounced neck. Some vessels have a collar on the rim. Ornamentation of the vessels includes versatile corded, combed and recessed compositions. The Bolgary IX material culture is considered in complex with simultaneous Protasy burial ground, which is located on a nearby promontory and has similar ceramics among the grave goods. This complex of sites (the settlement and the burial ground is dated back to 3rd-2nd centuries BC and is related by the authors to the period of transition from the Ananyino to the Glyadenovo cultures in the Kama River region.

  8. On the equatorial confinement of thermal plasma generated in the vicinity of the rings of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, W.-H.

    1984-01-01

    Consideration of the force balance of the ring plasma generated by meteoroid impact in the rotating ionosphere of Saturn is extended to include the magnetic mirroring effect. It is found that there are modifications to the so-called siphon flow limit derived for charged particles with zero magnetic moment if the ionospheric plasma has a thermal temperature exceeding a few electron volts. The nature of the force balance is such that, instead of a sharp division between complete loss and complete reabsorption, a transition zone of partial loss appears. If part of the ions near the rings are produced by ionization of the neutral atmosphere in the vicinity of the ring system (also generated by meteoroid impact vaporization), another theoretical limit dividing the upward flow from the equatorially confined motion is located near the observed boundary between the B ring and the C ring. This new limit is very sharp, as required to explain the B-C ring boundary, which has not yet been explained by gravitational theory.

  9. Localized surface plasmon mediated energy transfer in the vicinity of core-shell nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishodia, Manmohan Singh, E-mail: manmohan@gbu.ac.in; Juneja, Soniya [Department of Applied Physics, School of Vocational Studies and Applied Sciences, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida 201308 (India)

    2016-05-28

    Multipole spectral expansion based theory of energy transfer interactions between a donor and an acceptor molecule in the vicinity of a core-shell (nanoshell or core@shell) based plasmonic nanostructure is developed. In view of the diverse applications and rich plasmonic features such as tuning capability of surface plasmon (SP) frequencies, greater sensitivity to the change of dielectric environment, controllable redirection of electromagnetic radiation, closed form expressions for Energy Transfer Rate Enhancement Factor (ETREF) near core-shell particle are reported. The dependence of ETREF on different parameters is established through fitting equations, perceived to be of key importance for developing appropriate designs. The theoretical approach developed in the present work is capable of treating higher order multipoles, which, in turn, are also shown to play a crucial role in the present context. Moreover, closed form expressions derived in the present work can directly be used as formula, e.g., for designing SP based biosensors and estimating energy exchange between proteins and excitonic interactions in quantum dots.

  10. "Killer" Microcapsules That Can Selectively Destroy Target Microparticles in Their Vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Chandamany; Oh, Hyuntaek; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2016-11-02

    We have developed microscale polymer capsules that are able to chemically degrade a certain type of polymeric microbead in their immediate vicinity. The inspiration here is from the body's immune system, where killer T cells selectively destroy cancerous cells or cells infected by pathogens while leaving healthy cells alone. The "killer" capsules are made from the cationic biopolymer chitosan by a combination of ionic cross-linking (using multivalent tripolyposphate anions) and subsequent covalent cross-linking (using glutaraldehyde). During capsule formation, the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) is encapsulated in these capsules. The target beads are made by ionic cross-linking of the biopolymer alginate using copper (Cu(2+)) cations. The killer capsules harvest glucose from their surroundings, which is then enzymatically converted by GOx into gluconate ions. These ions are known for their ability to chelate Cu(2+) cations. Thus, when a killer capsule is next to a target alginate bead, the gluconate ions diffuse into the bead and extract the Cu(2+) cross-links, causing the disintegration of the target bead. Such destruction is visualized in real-time using optical microscopy. The destruction is specific, i.e., other microparticles that do not contain Cu(2+) are left undisturbed. Moreover, the destruction is localized, i.e., the targets destroyed in the short term are the ones right next to the killer beads. The time scale for destruction depends on the concentration of encapsulated enzyme in the capsules.

  11. Variability of cohesive sediment transport in vicinity of Sihwa tidal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, H. K.; Kim, J. W.; Woo, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the disturbance of sediment dynamics in the world's largest Sihwa tidal power plant (TPP), two mooring observations have been conducted. The mooring results show that the velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were significantly disturbed over the various time scales. For the short-term (flood vs. ebb) time scale, the resuspension of bottom sediment is mainly controlled by the strong jet-flow (>2 m s-1) and resultant anticlockwise rotating vortex associated with the artificial discharge. During ebb phase, the strong flow resulted in the suspension of high-concentration near-bed sediment, transporting the suspended sediment seaward. After turning into flood phase, the vortex produced the secondary peaks of the SSC, transporting the suspended sediment toward the Sihwa TPP. The most active suspension of bed sediment predominantly occurred during 1-2 hr immediately after the start of artificial discharge. For the fortnight (spring vs. neap) time scale, the SSC during spring tide was approximately 2-5 times higher than that during neap tide. During the combined period of ebb and spring tides, in particular, the periodic artificial discharge can enhance the responses of SSC in the vicinity of Sihwa TPP.

  12. Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this report are two-fold: (1) to define the hydrogeologic conditions in the vicinity of the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) and, (2) to evaluate the potential for movement of a concentrated salt-solution waste if released at or near the DWPF. These purposes were accomplished by assembling and evaluating existing hydrogeologic data; collecting additional geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data; developing a local geologic framework; developing a conceptual model of the local ground-water flow system; and by performing laboratory experiments to determine the mobility of salt-solution waste in surface and near-surface sediments. Although the unconsolidated sediments are about 1000 ft thick in the study area, only the Tertiary age sediments, or upper 300 ft are discussed in this report. The top of the Ellenton Formation acts as the major confining unit between the overlying aquifers in Tertiary sediments and the underlying aquifers in Cretaceous sediments; therefore, the Ellenton Formation is the vertical limit of our hydrogeologic investigation. The majority of the hydrologic data for this study come from monitoring wells at the saltstone disposal site (SDS) in Z Area (fig. 3). No recent water-level data were collected in S Area owing to the removal of S Area monitoring wells prior to construction at the DWPF. 46 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. New 1-arc-minute Geoids for Alaska and its Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Roman, D. R.; Wang, Y. M.; Saleh, J.

    2009-05-01

    A new gravimetric geoid with 1 arc minute spatial resolution has been computed for Alaska and its vicinity, ranging from 49N to 72N in latitude and 172E to 234E in longitude. More than 3 million gravity data collected by NGS (National Geodetic Survey) and other agencies such as NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency), NRCan (Natural Resources Canada), and DNSC (Danish National Space Center) are gridded into 1'x1' mean gravity anomalies, which are combined with the EGM08 coefficient model, up-to degree and order 2160, by a modified Stokes's Kernel. In addition to the improvement on the spatial resolution, the new gravimetric geoid shows about 3cm precision improvement over EGM08, compared with the geoid heights at 199 GPS leveling benchmarks in this region. Finally, a better than 2cm accurate hybrid geoid model is generated by removing both the systematic errors and the correlated signals in the differences of the gravimetric geoid at these GPS leveling benchmarks, which are modeled by a linear system and a multi-matrix covariance (Roman et. al., 2004) function,respectively.

  14. Enhanced gamma radiation towards the rotation axis from the immediate vicinity of extremely rotating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoogeun; Pu, Hung-Yi; Hirotani, Kouichi; Matsushita, Satoki; Kong, Albert K. H.; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the acceleration of electrons and positrons by magnetic-field-aligned electric fields in the polar funnel of an accreting black hole (BH). Applying the pulsar outer-gap theory to BH magnetospheres, we find that such a lepton accelerator arises in the immediate vicinity of the event horizon due to frame-dragging, and that their gamma-ray luminosity increases with decreasing accretion rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the gamma-ray flux is enhanced along the rotation axis by more than an order of magnitude if the BH spin increases from a = 0.90M to a = 0.9999M. As a result, if a ten-solar-mass, almost-maximally rotating BH is located within 3 kpc, when its accretion rate is between 0.005 and 0.01 per cent of the Eddington rate, its high-energy flare becomes detectable with the Fermi/Large Area Telescope, provided that the flare lasts longer than 1.2 months and that we view the source nearly along the rotation axis. In addition, its very high energy flux is marginally detectable with the Cherenkov Telescope Array, provided that the flare lasts longer than a night and that our viewing angle is about 45 deg with respect to the rotation axis.

  15. California State Waters Map Series--Hueneme Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Clahan, Kevin B.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Normark, William R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Hueneme Canyon and vicinity map area lies within the eastern Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. The area is part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation - at least 90° - since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area, which is offshore of the Oxnard plain and west of and along the trend of the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains, lies at the east end of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, characterized by west-to-east littoral transport of sediment derived mainly from coastal watersheds. The Hueneme Canyon and vicinity map area in California's State Waters is characterized by two major physiographic features: (1) the nearshore continental shelf, and (2) the Hueneme and Mugu Submarine Canyon system, which, in the map area, includes Hueneme Canyon and parts

  16. Scenarios constructed for nominal flow in the presence of a repository at Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, G.E.; Hunter, R.L.; Dunn, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Scenario development for the system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project defines a scenario as a well-posed problem connecting an initiating event with radionuclide release to the accessible environment by a logical and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes. Drawing on the advice and assistance of the Project`s principal investigators (PIs), a collection of release scenarios initiated by the nominal ground-water flow occurring in the vicinity of the potential Yucca Mountain high-level-waste repository is developed and described in pictorial form. This collection of scenarios is intended to provide a framework to assist PIs in recognizing essential field and calculational analyses, to assist performance assessment in providing guidance to site characterization, and to continue the effort to exhaustively identify all features, events, and processes important to releases. It represents a step in the iterative process of identifying what details of the potential site are important for safe disposal. 67 refs.

  17. Wall painting of Late Antique tombs in Sirmium and its Vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the east and northwest necropoles of Sirmium were discovered painted tombs which were not published until now. Painting in them is from the 4th century. The grave next to the north-west wall of basilica of St. Iraeneus (east necropolis was painted with tied garlands and stem, and partly saved frescoes from the tomb around the basilica of St. Sineros (north-west necropolis point to the conclusion that this is a funeral procession, the scene which is represented in its entirety in the tomb in neighboring Beška. These three tombs belong to the pagan population of Sirmium and its vicinity. On the west wall of the tomb in Mike Antića Street (periphery of the east necropolis is represented the motif of scales with fillings, while on its south and north wall are represented the episodes from Jonah’s cycle. Painting in the tomb shows that the buried person was a Christian. Of Christian character is also the burial in the tomb from the village Čalma, not far from Sirmium. On its longitudinal walls is schematically represented the railing, made of parts between which there were the columns carrying the herms, and which has the symbolical meaning of the “railing of Paradise”. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177007: Romanization, urbanization and transformation of urban centres of civil, military and residential character in Roman provinces on territory of Serbia

  18. The Arctic soil bacterial communities in the vicinity of a little auk colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Zielinska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to deposition of birds’ guano, eggshells or feathers, the vicinity of a large seabirds’ breeding colony is expected to have a substantial impact on the soil’s physicochemical features as well as on diversity of vegetation and the soil invertebrates. Consequently, due to changing physicochemical features the structure of bacterial communities might fluctuate in different soil environments. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial assemblages in the Arctic soil within the area of a birds’ colony and in a control sample from a topographically similar location but situated away from the colony’s impact area. A high number of OTUs found in both areas indicates a highly complex microbial populations structure. The most abundant phyla in both of the tested samples were: Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi, with different proportions in the total share. Despite differences in the physicochemical soil characteristics, the soil microbial community structures at the phylum level were similar to some extent in the two samples. The only share that was significantly higher in the control area when compared to the sample obtained within the birds’ colony, belonged to the Actinobacteria phylum. Moreover, when analyzing the class level for each phylum, several differences between the samples were observed. Furthermore, lower proportions of Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were observed in the soil sample under the influence of the bird’s colony, which most probably could be linked to higher nitrogen concentrations in that sample.

  19. Speciation of Cr(VI) in environmental samples in the vicinity of the ferrochrome smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedumedi, Hilda N. [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, Pretoria (South Africa); Mandiwana, Khakhathi L., E-mail: MandiwanaKL@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, Pretoria (South Africa); Ngobeni, Prince; Panichev, Nikolay [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-12-30

    The impact of ferrochrome smelter on the contamination of its environment with toxic hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), was assessed by analyzing smelter dusts, soil, grass and tree barks. For the separation of Cr(VI) from Cr(III), solid samples were treated with 0.1 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and filtered through hydrophilic PDVF 0.45 {mu}m filter prior to the determination of Cr(VI) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Ferrochrome smelter dust was found to contain significant levels of Cr(VI), viz. 43.5 {mu}g g{sup -1} (cyclone dust), 2710 {mu}g g{sup -1} (fine dust), and 7800 {mu}g g{sup -1} (slimes dust) which exceeded the maximum acceptable risk concentration (20 {mu}g g{sup -1}). The concentration of Cr(VI) in environmental samples of grass (3.4 {+-} 0.2), soil (7.7 {+-} 0.2), and tree bark (11.8 {+-} 1.2) collected in the vicinity of the chrome smelter were higher as compared with the same kind of samples collected from uncontaminated area. The results of the investigation show that ferrochrome smelter is a source of environmental pollution with contamination factors of Cr(VI) ranging between 10 and 50.

  20. A floristic survey of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niles, W.E.; Leary, P.J.; Holland, J.S.; Landau, F.H.

    1994-12-01

    A survey of the vascular flora of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada, was conducted from March to June 1994. An annotated checklist of recorded taxa was compiled. Voucher plant specimens were collected and accessioned into the Herbarium at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Collection data accompanying these specimens were entered into that herbarium`s electronic data base. Combined results from this survey and the works of other investigators reveal the presence of a total of 325 specific and intraspecific taxa within the area, these allocated to 162 genera and 53 families. Owing to drought conditions prevalent throughout the area, the annual floristic component was largely absent during the period of study, and it is likely much under-represented in the tabulation of results. No taxon currently listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act was encountered during this study. Several candidate species for listing under this Act were present, and distributional data for these were recorded. No change in the status of these candidate species is recommended as the result of this survey.

  1. Radionuclide Distribution in the Soil on the Stabatishkes Site in the Vicinity of the Ignalina NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgenij Aliončik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A near surface repository for low and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste will be built on the Stabatiškės site in the vicinity of Ignalina NPP during decommissioning works. The reservoir can also be used for the waste stored in the temporary repositories of the Ignalina NPP. Engineering and nature protective barriers are used in the repository for radioactive waste, however, radionuclides can spread into the environment, extend in the biosphere and cause (define the external power light exposure of the environment due to the natural and premature (prescheduled degradation of the engineering barriers of the repository. The properties of the soil (acidity, quantity of organic substances, humidity are being investigated for estimating the possible migration and dispersion of radionuclides. The activity of radionuclides in the soil is also estimated before building the repository. Natural and artificial radionuclides make the pollution of the soil, and therefore the accumulation and vertical migration of artificial (137Cs, 60Co and natural (226Ra, 232Th, 40K radionuclides are being researched in the soil on the Stabatiškės site.Article in Lithuanian

  2. The use of view analyses in shaping a forest landscape in the vicinity of water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeczko Emilia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing importance of the social functions of the forest entails the necessity to modify forestry management in a way which would ensure its social acceptance. This mainly concerns those parts of the forest that are “most visible”, in the surroundings of roads, tourist trails, as well as water bodies. The article discusses the importance of view analyses in forest landscaping. On the basis of the adopted methodological assumptions, the assessment of landscape resources of the forest in the vicinity of a water reservoir in the Kielce Forest District (Radom Regional Forest Directorate has been made. Available ortophotomaps and aerial photographs taken by UAVs were used for view analyses together with elevation data collected through airborne laser scanning. The results obtained allow to make recommendations for the protection of the reservoir exposure as well as engineering forest management and silviculture. Consequently, the inclusion of visual analyses into the planning stage enables verification of the quality of forest management plans.

  3. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer to Characterize the Hydration of Regolith in the Vicinity of a Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Andrey; Fedorova, Anna; Korablev, Oleg; Mantsevich, Sergey; Stepanov, Alexander; Kalinnikov, Yury

    Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Globe (Luna 25) and Luna-Resurce (Luna 27) Russian surface missions. It is a pencil-beam spectrometer to be pointed by a robotic arm of the landing module, and is intended for study of the lunar surface composition in the vicinity of the lander. The instrument’s field of view (FOV) of 1(°) is co-aligned with the FOV (45(°) ) of a stereo TV camera. The spectrometer will provide measurements of selected surface areas in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 mum. The spectral selection is provided by acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), which scans the spectral range sequentially. Electrical command of the AOTF allows selecting the spectral sampling, and permits a random access if needed. The spectral resolution is better than 25 cm (-1) . The instrument’s mass is 1.3 kg. The primary goal of the experiment is to detect the regolith hydration at 3mum, identifying its form from the shape of the spectrum, and to follow its changes during the day/shadow pattern. Also, LIS will allow to study the mineralogical composition from mineral signatures within the spectral range, and will serve for selection of samples to be analyzed by other instruments.

  4. Land-use planning in the vicinity of major accident hazard installations in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebos, Ioannis; Progiou, Athena; Symeonidis, Panagiotis; Ziomas, Ioannis

    2010-07-15

    Land-use planning, as concerns the prevention and limitation of the consequences of possible major accidents from industrial installations, is an essential mechanism for dealing with actual or potential conflicts between sources of risk, such as potentially hazardous industrial developments, and surrounding land-uses. The objective of this paper is to present a decision making methodology that is suitable for assisting urban and spatial planning in the vicinity of hazardous installations and therefore covers the directions of Article 12 of the European Council Directive 96/82/EC (the so-called SEVESO II directive). The proposed methodology was designed to address the particularities of the Greek case, regarding the type and availability of risk and spatial data. It incorporates a broad set of multiple and conflicting criteria that arise in land-use planning decisions, through the application of a well known multi-criteria decision analysis method (ELECTRE TRI). Additionally, it is easy to use (comprised of simple steps) and can be readily incorporated into Geographical Information System based platforms. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  6. Measurement of barium ion density in the vicinity of fluorescent lamp electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A. K.

    1989-06-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence technique for the detection and measurement of ionized barium atoms near the vicinity of an oxide-coated electrode in a low-pressure discharge lamp is presented. Ionized Ba atoms are produced by the ionization of neutral Ba atoms in the electrode fall region of the discharge. Radiation at 455.4 nm obtained from a pulsed dye laser was used to excite Ba ii from the ground state, 62S1/2, to the resonance level, 62P3/2, and the fluorescence radiation at 614.2 nm for the 62P3/2→52D5/2 transition was measured. The number density of Ba ii atoms as determined from the measured intensity of the fluorescence signal (614.2 nm) is dependent on the discharge current, and the polarity of the neighboring electrode. It is found to be larger when it is acting as an anode than when it is a cathode.

  7. Continued Geophysical Logging in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund Site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2016-01-01

    The collection of borehole geophysical logs and images and continuous water-level data was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during December 2012 through July 2015. The study purpose was part of a continued effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants. Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center at the site involved similar data collection, in addition to surface geologic mapping and passive diffusion bag sampling within monitoring wells (Chapman and others, 2013). The continued data compilation efforts included the delineation of more than 900 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 10 open borehole wells. Geophysical logs, borehole imagery, pumping data, and heat-pulse flow measurements were collected and are presented within this data release.

  8. Energetic Electron Acceleration Observed by MMS in the Vicinity of an X-Line Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Turner, D. L.; Wilder, F. D.; Osmane, A.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Reeves, G. D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    During the first months of observations, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer instrument has observed several instances of electron acceleration up to greater than 100 keV while in the vicinity of the dayside reconnection region. While particle acceleration associated with magnetic reconnection has been seen to occur up to these energies in the tail region, it had not yet been reported at the magnetopause. This study reports on observations of electron acceleration up to hundreds of keV that were recorded on 19 September 2015 around 1000 UT, in the midst of an X-line crossing. In the region surrounding the X-line, whistler-mode and broadband electrostatic waves were observed simultaneously with the appearance of highly energetic electrons which exhibited significant energization in the perpendicular direction. The mechanisms by which particles may be accelerated via reconnection-related processes are intrinsic to understanding particle dynamics among a wide range of spatial scales and plasma environments.

  9. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Model of spatial distribution of relativistic electron fluxes in vicinity of Jupiter's moon Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzolko, Mikhail; Veselovsky, Igor; Getselev, Igor; Gubar, Yury

    This research was made as a part of a project of future space mission to the system of Jupiter, being developed by Russian Federal Space Agency. Currently several mission strategies are being considered, including placing the spacecraft into the low-altitude orbit around Jupiter’s moon Europa and possibly landing on its surface. In the region of Europa’s orbit the spacecraft will be affected by very strong radiation from the Jupiter’s radiation belts. The absorbed dose during 2 months under shielding compared to that for “Galileo” spacecraft will amount to almost 1 megarad. The major contribution to the dose will originate from relativistic electrons. However, near Europa part of the charged particle flux will be shaded by the moon. This reduction of the fluxes is nonuniform, depends on the particle energy and pitch-angle and differs for the surface and the low-altitude orbit. It is caused by a number of factors: complexity of particle trajectories relative to Europa, the flux anisotropy, variations of Europa’s position relative to Jupiter’s magnetic equator plane, magnetic and electric field disturbance in vicinity of Europa, the tenuous atmosphere of the moon. In the current study modeling of relativistic electron flux spatial distribution near Europa and on its surface and computation of the radiation doses have been made, taking into account several of mentioned above factors.

  11. Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill, 1985 and 1986: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Williams, M.C.; Maes, M.N.

    1988-03-01

    Water quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface and groundwater stations at and in the vicinity of Fenton Hill (Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Demonstration Site) located in the Jemez Mountains. This is part of a continuing program of environmental studies. Data on chemical quality of water were determined for samples collected from 13 surface water and 19 groundwater stations in 1985 and 1986. There were slight variations in the chemical quality of the ground and surface water in 1985 and 1986 as compared with previous analyses; however, these variations are within normal seasonal fluctuations. Chemical uptake in soil, roots, and foliage is monitored in the canyon, which receives intermittent effluent release of water from tests in the geothermal circulation loop and occasional fluids from drilling operations. The chemical concentrations found in soil, roots, and vegetation as the result of effluent release have shown a decrease in concentration down-canyon and also have decreased in concentration with time since the larger releases that took place in the late 1970s and early 1980s. 18 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Groundwater vulnerability assessment in the vicinity of Ramtha wastewater treatment plant, North Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awawdeh, Muheeb; Obeidat, Mutewekil; Zaiter, Ghusun

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of groundwater to contamination in the vicinity of Ramtha wastewater treatment plant using a modified DRASTIC method in a GIS environment. A groundwater pollution potential map was prepared using modified DRASTIC method by adding lineaments and land use/land cover parameters. The values of the modified DRASTIC index were classified into three categories: low, moderate and high. About 36.5 % of the study area is occupied by the high vulnerability class, 56.5 % is occupied by the moderate vulnerability class and 9 % is occupied by the low vulnerability class. Chemical analysis of the water samples collected from wells distributed in the study area and tapping Umm Rijam aquifer indicated that the nitrate concentration ranges from 20 to 193 mg/L with an average 65.5 mg/L. Nitrate exceeded the permissible limits of WHO and Jordanian standards in 69 and 54 % of the NO3 - samples, respectively. The modified DRASTIC model was validated using nitrate concentration. Results showed a good match between nitrate concentrations level and the groundwater vulnerability classes.

  13. Dispersion of inorganic contaminants in surface water in the vicinity of Potchefstroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyatshe, A.; Fosso-Kankeu, E.; van der Berg, D.; Lemmer, N.; Waanders, F.; Tutu, H.

    2017-08-01

    Potchefstroom and the neighbouring cities rely mostly on the Mooi River and Vaal River for their water needs. These rivers flow through the gold mining areas and farms, and are therefore likely to be contaminated with substantial amounts of inorganic pollutants. Water was collected along the rivers network, streams, canals and dams in Potchefstroom and the vicinity. The samples were characterized for geochemical parameters, metals and anions concentrations. The results showed high concentrations of potentially toxic elements such as As (4.53 mg/L - 5.74 mg/L), Cd (0.25 mg/L - 0.7 mg/L), Pb (1.14 mg/L - 5.13 mg/L) and U (0.04 mg/L - 0.11 mg/L) which were predominantly found around the mining areas. Elevated concentrations of anions such SO42- and CN- were detected around mining areas while NO3- was dominant near farms. The relatively high levels of anions and metals in the surface water made it unfit for domestic or agricultural use. The study showed that contaminants in mining and agricultural facilities were potentially mobilised, thus impacting the nearby water systems.

  14. Electric field measurements in the vicinity of noctilucent clouds and PMSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander M.; Tyutin, Alexander A.; Witt, Georg; Wilhelm, Nathan; Walchli, Urs; Cho, John Y. N.; Swartz, Wesley E.

    1993-01-01

    We report mesospheric electronic field structure in the vicinity of noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) measured on the DECIMALS-B rocket payload launched during the international rocket-radar campaign NLC-91 from Esrange, Sweden on August 10, 1991. Unusually large vertical E- fields, E(sub Z), about 100-300 mV/m on ascent and greater than 1 V/m on descent were detected at 82.5-84.5 km. The region of the large E(sub Z) was clearly limited by the NLC layer on the bottom and by the distinctly separated PMSE layer on the top. A narrow negative peak in the E(sub Z) height profile observed on ascent in the lower part of the NLC layer was apparently caused by the interaction of the field mill with impacting NLC particles possibly carrying negative charge. If the impact signature is due to single particles, their size is estimated to at least 0.5 microns and their concentration about 10(exp -4)/cu cm locally. Based on the light-scattering properties of NLC such massive particles can only be a minor part of the NLC population.

  15. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoniyi Matthew Isinkaye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions.

  16. Selective hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols to cyclic alcohols over tungsten oxide-palladium catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amada, Yasushi; Ota, Nobuhiko; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols such as 1,4-anhydroerythritol was conducted over catalysts containing both a noble metal and a group 5-7 transition-metal oxide. The combination of Pd and WOx allowed the removal of one of the two OH groups selectively. 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran was obtained from 1,4-anhydroerythritol in 72 and 74% yield over WOx -Pd/C and WOx -Pd/ZrO2 , respectively. The WOx -Pd/ZrO2 catalyst was reusable without significant loss of activity if the catalyst was calcined as a method of regeneration. Characterization of WOx -Pd/C with temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that Pd metal particles approximately 9 nm in size were formed on amorphous tungsten oxide particles. A reaction mechanism was proposed on the basis of kinetics, reaction results with tungsten oxides under an atmosphere of Ar, and density functional theory calculations. A tetravalent tungsten center (W(IV) ) was formed by reduction of WO3 with the Pd catalyst and H2 , and this center served as the reductant for partial hydrodeoxygenation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Survey of pickup ion signatures in the vicinity of Titan using CAPS/IMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, L. H.; Coates, A. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jones, G. H.; Roussos, E.; Waite, J. H.; Krupp, N.; Cox, G.

    2016-09-01

    Pickup ion detection at Titan is challenging because ion cyclotron waves are rarely detected in the vicinity of the moon. In this work, signatures left by freshly produced pickup heavy ions (m/q ˜ 16 to m/q ˜ 28) as detected in the plasma data by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer/Ion Mass Spectrometer (CAPS/IMS) instrument on board Cassini are analyzed. In order to discern whether these correspond to ions of exospheric origin, one of the flybys during which the reported signatures were observed is investigated in detail. For this purpose, ion composition data from time-of-flight measurements and test particle simulations to constrain the ions' origin are used. After being validated, the detection method is applied to all the flybys for which the CAPS/IMS instrument gathered valid data, constraining the region around the moon where the signatures are observed. The results reveal an escape region located in the anti-Saturn direction as expected from the nominal corotation electric field direction. These findings provide new constraints for the area of freshly produced pickup ion escape, giving an approximate escape rate of 3.3-2+3×1023 ions· s-1.

  18. What is the Uncertainty in MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth in the Vicinity of Clouds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patadia, Falguni; Levy, Rob; Mattoo, Shana

    2017-01-01

    MODIS dark-target (DT) algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a Look Up Table (LUT) approach. Global comparison of AOD (Collection 6 ) with ground-based sun photometer gives an Estimated Error (EE) of +/-(0.04 + 10%) over ocean. However, EE does not represent per-retrieval uncertainty. For retrievals that are biased high compared to AERONET, here we aim to closely examine the contribution of biases due to presence of clouds and per-pixel retrieval uncertainty. We have characterized AOD uncertainty at 550 nm, due to standard deviation of reflectance in 10 km retrieval region, uncertainty related to gas (H2O, O3) absorption, surface albedo, and aerosol models. The uncertainty in retrieved AOD seems to lie within the estimated over ocean error envelope of +/-(0.03+10%). Regions between broken clouds tend to have higher uncertainty. Compared to C6 AOD, a retrieval omitting observations in the vicinity of clouds (< or = 1 km) is biased by about +/- 0.05. For homogeneous aerosol distribution, clear sky retrievals show near zero bias. Close look at per-pixel reflectance histograms suggests retrieval possibility using median reflectance values.

  19. A modeling study of the time-averaged electric currents in the vicinity of isolated thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin T.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Baginski, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough examination of the results of a time-dependent computer model of a dipole thunderstorm revealed that there are numerous similarities between the time-averaged electrical properties and the steady-state properties of an active thunderstorm. Thus, the electrical behavior of the atmosphere in the vicinity of a thunderstorm can be determined with a formulation similar to what was first described by Holzer and Saxon (1952). From the Maxwell continuity equation of electric current, a simple analytical equation was derived that expresses a thunderstorm's average current contribution to the global electric circuit in terms of the generator current within the thundercloud, the intracloud lightning current, the cloud-to-ground lightning current, the altitudes of the charge centers, and the conductivity profile of the atmosphere. This equation was found to be nearly as accurate as the more computationally expensive numerical model, even when it is applied to a thunderstorm with a reduced conductivity thundercloud, a time-varying generator current, a varying flash rate, and a changing lightning mix.

  20. Turbulent flow in the vicinity of the well during the recovery state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, P.

    2009-04-01

    This paper investigates turbulent flow in the vicinity of the well and focuses on the recovery state. A finite difference solution is developed for transient radially convergent Forchheimer flow to a well based on {Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 'Approximate Solutions for Forchheimer flow to a well', Mathias S. A., Butler P. A., Zhan H., Sep. 2008}. The implications of turbulence during the recovery state are investigated. Most of the numerical models assume that turbulent head losses dissipate immediately when pumping ends. This approach does not correspond to reality. During the recovery (after the ceasing of pumping) turbulent head losses still continue to exist and there are cases where they can not be assumed negligible. This behaviour can have an important effect to the estimation of the aquifer's parameters based on the analysis of the data during the recovery area. In this paper, the time needed to pass, after the termination of pumping, for the aquifer to reach laminar flow conditions is estimated away from the well-bore to avoid borehole storage effects, based on {'Turbulent Flow to Wells', Dimitriadis P., MSc 'Hydrology for Environmental Management' dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London, supervisor Dr. A. P. Butler, 2007}. Moreover, a methodology for the estimation of the aquifer's parameters (such as transmissivity, storativity and effective radius) based only in the recovery area is presented for discussion and two step drawdown tests are analyzed and simulated.

  1. Breakdown of metastable step-flow growth on vicinal surfaces induced by nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilone, Daniele; Castellano, Claudio; Politi, Paolo

    2005-12-01

    We consider the growth of a vicinal crystal surface in the presence of a step-edge barrier. For any value of the barrier strength, measured by the length ℓES , nucleation of islands on terraces is always able to destroy asymptotically step-flow growth. The breakdown of the metastable step-flow occurs through the formation of a mound of critical width proportional to Lc˜1/ℓES , the length associated to the linear instability of a high-symmetry surface. The time required for the destabilization grows exponentially with Lc . Thermal detachment from steps or islands, or a steeper slope increase the instability time but do not modify the above picture, nor change Lc significantly. Standard continuum theories cannot be used to evaluate the activation energy of the critical mound and the instability time. The dynamics of a mound can be described as a one dimensional random walk for its height k ; attaining the critical height (i.e., the critical size) means that the probability to grow (k→k+1) becomes larger than the probability for the mound to shrink (k→k-1) . Thermal detachment induces correlations in the random walk, otherwise absent.

  2. A search for pulsating blue stars in the vicinity of NGC 6791 using Kepler LC data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowicka Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 18 known pulsating subdwarf B stars in the field of view of the Kepler spacecraft during phase one. The majority of them were observed in the short cadence mode and have been successfully investigated via asteroseismic methods. Since these stars are important for the stellar evolution theory, we performed a search for blue stars in the vicinity of the open cluster NGC 6791, which was observed by the Kepler in the long cadence mode in the so-called super apertures. We used Q1-Q17 LC data and performed pixel analysis using PyKE and our customized scripts. We preliminary tagged 23 objects and we calculated amplitude spectra to look for periodic signal which exist in the data. We found four stars with significant signal in the amplitude spectra with none of them classified as gravity modes in pulsating hot subdwarfs. Likely, all four objects are binaries, though, spectroscopic observations are needed to sort out our hypothesis.

  3. EASTERN EUROPE, A REGION OF INSECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION'S VICINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan – Lucian Cumpanasu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During Cold War, the region of Eastern Europe was formed by European states that were behind the Iron Curtain.Once the communism has fallen and former Warsaw's Pact members have joined EU in 2004 and 2007 along with the Baltic republics, a New Eastern Europe comprising Ukraine, Republic of Moldova and the Caucasian Republics emerged at the border of EU. The north, west and south maritime frontiers of European Union are opposite with Eastern territorial one that are more difficult to control and defend against asymmetrical threats as: organized crime, drugs traffic, arms proliferation and illegal immigration. this paper aims to demonstrate that EU's policies initiated in the framework of Eastern Partnership (EaP that wanted to bring peace in the Eastern neighborhood did not succeed to fulfill the desired goals. One explanation is that EU did not take in consideration the Russian dream of redesigning its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. Another one is that the cultural, political and social differences between EU and its EaP partners led to the failure of the project. Thus, European Union's actions toward Eastern vicinity led to a clash between two civilizations: East and West as well as to a geopolitical competition between Russian Federation and EU over their shared neighborhood.

  4. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  5. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  6. Characterization of the hydrogeology and stress state in the vicinity of the homestake mine, Lead, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenhack, Johnathan Foss

    changed the hydrology and stress state in the vicinity of the Homestake mine. Dewatering reduces the hydraulic head and changes the flow systems in the vicinity of the mine. Four major hydrogeologic zones are recognized: 1.) a Shallow Flow System in the upper few hundred meters that dominates recharge and discharge to streams, 2.) a Recharge Capture Zone where water that has entered the region as recharge since mining began is captured by the mine, 3.) a Storage Capture Zone where water from storage in the host rock around the mine is captured, and 4.) a Mine Workings Zone where rock has been removed. Water enters the system at the top of the Shallow Flow System and either discharges to the streams or flows downward and becomes recharge to the lower capture zones. The Recharge Capture Zone grows with time as regions of storage are depleted and new recharge enters, and eventually it is assumed that the entire capture zone for the mine will become the Recharge Capture Zone. Fluxes from the Shallow Flow System to the Recharge Capture Zone typically range from 1x10-9 to 4x10-9 m/s. The largest recharge fluxes from the Shallow Flow System to the Recharge Capture Zone occur above the shallowest portions of the mine. Recharge flux also occurs above areas adjacent to the mine, and when projected to the surface the Recharge Capture Zone creates a roughly elliptical shape that is 6 km x 3.6 km. The Storage Capture Zone extends out beyond and below the Recharge Capture Zone and when projected to the surface creates a roughly elliptical region that is approximately 8.3 km x 6.6 km and extends down to depths of almost 5 km. Hydraulic heads and flow paths have been affected beyond the Storage Capture Zone but this water had not reached the mine by 135 years and therefore these regions are not included in the capture zones. The model was calibrated using in-situ stress data at various points in the mine to improve its ability to estimate the stress state and mechanical deformation

  7. Solar-thermic sewage sludge treatment in extreme alpine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, W; Schoen, M A; Wett, B

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of a program for environmental protection conducted by the German mountaineers' club (DAV) problems emerging from residual solids accumulating in on-site wastewater treatment plants of mountain refuges were investigated. To handle these problems in an ecologically and economically reasonable way two devices for solar-supported treatment of sludge and bio-solids have been developed. These units support gravity-filtration and evaporation of liquid sludge as well as thermal acceleration of composting processes. Two solar sludge dryers were installed and operated without external energy supply at alpine refuges treating primary and secondary sludge, respectively. Batch-filling during the season could increase load capacity and a total solids concentration of up to 40% could be achieved before discharge at the beginning of the next season. The promising results from the solar sludge dryer encouraged for the development of a solar composter. The period of temperature levels suitable for composting biosolids in mountain areas can be extended considerably by application of this technology--measured temperature distribution indicated no freezing at all.

  8. Thermic decomposition of biphenyl; Decomposition thermique du biphenyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    Liquid and vapour phase pyrolysis of very pure biphenyl obtained by methods described in the text was carried out at 400 C in sealed ampoules, the fraction transformed being always less than 0.1 per cent. The main products were hydrogen, benzene, terphenyls, and a deposit of polyphenyls strongly adhering to the walls. Small quantities of the lower aliphatic hydrocarbons were also found. The variation of the yields of these products with a) the pyrolysis time, b) the state (gas or liquid) of the biphenyl, and c) the pressure of the vapour was measured. Varying the area and nature of the walls showed that in the absence of a liquid phase, the pyrolytic decomposition takes place in the adsorbed layer, and that metallic walls promote the reaction more actively than do those of glass (pyrex or silica). A mechanism is proposed to explain the results pertaining to this decomposition in the adsorbed phase. The adsorption seems to obey a Langmuir isotherm, and the chemical act which determines the overall rate of decomposition is unimolecular. (author) [French] Du biphenyle tres pur, dont la purification est decrite, est pyrolyse a 400 C en phase vapeur et en phase liquide dans des ampoules scellees sous vide, a des taux de decomposition n'ayant jamais depasse 0,1 pour cent. Les produits provenant de la pyrolyse sont essentiellement: l' hydrogene, le benzene, les therphenyles, et un depot de polyphenyles adherant fortement aux parois. En plus il se forme de faibles quantites d'hydrocarbures aliphatiques gazeux. On indique la variation des rendements des differents produits avec la duree de pyrolyse, l'etat gazeux ou liquide du biphenyle, et la pression de la vapeur. Variant la superficie et la nature des parois, on montre qu'en absence de liquide la pyrolyse se fait en phase adsorbee. La pyrolyse est plus active au contact de parois metalliques que de celles de verres (pyrex ou silice). A partir des resultats experimentaux un mecanisme de degradation du biphenyle en phase adsorbee est suggere, l'adsorption paraissant regie par l'isotherme de Langmuir, et l'acte chimique determinant la vitesse globale de la pyrolyse etant monomoleculaire en ce qui concerne le molecule de biphenyle adsorbee. (auteur)

  9. Airborne immissions in the vicinity of the Munich Airport; Immissionsbelastungen im Umfeld des Flughafens Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguhn, J.; Wimschneider, A.; Freitag, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Brotsack, R.; Spitzauer, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik; Kettrup, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik

    2000-07-01

    The airborne immissions in the eastern surroundings to the new Munich airport have been investigated by means of different analytical methods between 1992 and 1995. For a detection of environmental impacts, bioindicators were applied to determine the pollution by PAH and to quantify the pollution by photooxidants. In addition, the PAH content in the upper soil layer was determined. During high pressure weather periods in summer the actual air pollution was invetigated in the course of seven measuring compaigns. The PAH pollution of the soil is typical for rural background sites with highest concentrations in the close vicinity of busy roads, and exhibits no temporary trend. The actual input of PAH does not differ from the typical situation of rural regions in Bavaria at any measuring sites at all. Road traffic can be identified as the main PAH source in summer, whereas the considerably higher pollution in winter can be related to domestic heating. The pollution by photooxidants was found to be rather homogeneous throughout the eastern surroundings to the airport, being lowest at the sites directly influenced by road traffic. The pollution by volatile hydrocarbons at a busy road junction in the city of Erding is considerably higher than in the rural vicinity of the airport. The concentrations exhibit distinct daily courses which, among other things, can be related to atmospheric photooxidation. The hydroperoxides as secondary air pollutants exhibit an inverse course similar to that of ozone, with maximum values in the afternoon. (orig.) [German] Die Immissionsbelastung im oestlichen Umland des neuen Muenchner Flughafens wurde im Zeitraum von 1992 bis 1995 mit Hilfe einer Reihe unterschiedlicher Messmethoden untersucht. Fuer die wirkungsbezogene Erfassung von Umwelteinfluessen wurden Bioindikatoren zur Bestimmung der PAK-Belastung und zur Quantifizierung der Photooxidantienbelastung eingesetzt. Darueber hinaus wurde der PAK-Gehalt des Oberbodens bestimmt. Die

  10. Geology and ground water of the Savannah River Plant and vicinity, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siple, George E.

    1967-01-01

    The area described in this report covers approximately 2,600 square miles in west-central South Carolina and includes the site of the Savannah River Plant, a major production facility of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The climate, surface drainage, and land forms of the study area are typical of the southern part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Precipitation is normally abundant and fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, and the mean annual temperature is moderately warm (64?F). The major streams that drain the area (the Savannah, Salkehatchie, and Edisto Rivers) have low gradients and flow in a southeasterly direction toward the Atlantic Ocean. Surface features of the area include narrow, flat-bottomed, steep-sided valleys and broad gently rolling interfluvial areas. Those parts of the Coastal Plain included within the report area can be subdivided into the Aiken Plateau, the Congaree Sandhills, and the Coastal Terraces. The area is underlain by a sequence of unconsolidated and partly consolidated sediments of Late Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary age. The unconsolidated sediments were deposited unconformably on a basement of igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age and sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. The basement rocks are similar to the granite-diorite complex of the Charlotte Belt, the metamorphosed rocks of the Carolina Slate Belt, and the consolidated sediments of the Newark Group. The unconsolidated sediments strike about N. 60 ? E. and dip 6-20 feet per mile to the southeast. They form a wedge-shaped mass that increases in thickness toward the southeast to slightly more than 1,200 feet in the vicinity of Allendale, S.C., on the southeast or downdip side of the study area. The oldest or lowermost unconsolidated sedimentary unit, the Tuscaloosa Formation of Late Cretaceous age, is overlain in the subsurface by beds that are also probably Late Cretaceous in age and that herein are named the Ellenton Formation. The Upper

  11. Analysis of Ground Water Flow and Deformation in the Vicinity of DUSEL Homestake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, L. C.; Ebenhack, J.; Germanovich, L. N.; Wang, H. F.; Boutt, D. F.; Onstott, T. C.; Kieft, T.; Moser, D. P.; Elsworth, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) is an underground facility planned for the workings of the former Homestake gold mine in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota. The mine workings cover several km2 in plan and extend to a depth 2.4 km. The area is underlain by Proterozoic metamorphic rocks that were deformed into regional-scale folds whose axes plunge approximately 40o to the SSE. A conceptual model and preliminary numerical analysis of the hydrogeology of the area indicates that permeability depends on effective stress, with values ranging from 0.1 mD at a depth of 2 km to 100 mD at depths of 100m. A deep ground water flow system is contained within a surface-truncated ellipsoid roughly 8 km by 4 km in plan view and 5.5 km deep with its short-axis aligned to the strike of the workings. The deep flow system consists of a zone of relatively rapid flow from the ground surface to the workings overlying the southern part of the mine, and a much larger ellipsoidal zone extending up to several km from the workings where water has been removed from storage. Numerical analyses of the ground water flow and poroelastic deformation in the vicinity of Homestake DUSEL have been refined by sharpening the 3-D resolution of important features. Mine workings have been resolved into three to four major regions where relatively large densities of rock were removed. These mined regions are shaped roughly like plunging ellipsoids with minor axes of several hundred m and major axes up to more than 2 km. They are treated in the simulations as highly permeable regions with an average elastic modulus significantly less than the intact rock; e.g. like soft, permeable inclusions. Recent field investigations and evaluation of the mine database indicate the presence of a relatively large fault that strikes approximately N20W, roughly parallel to the mined out regions. The Homestake fault dips 60NE, cutting the top of one mined region and extending beneath and

  12. The sedimentological characteristics of microbialites of the Cambrian in the vicinity of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ye Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With oil and gas exploration transferring to deeper and more ancient marine strata, more researches have been conducted about the Meso–Neoproterozoic and Cambrian microbial carbonate rocks by petroleum geologists. The Cambrian deposits experienced the first transgression of the Paleozoic, with shallow marine facies depositing in most areas, which are favorable for different kinds of biological reproduction. The Lower Cambrian in Beijing area is lithologically dominated by purple red shales interbedded with limestones, the Middle Cambrian is mainly composed of thick oolitic limestones, and the Upper Cambrian consists of thin limestones and flat-pebble conglomerates. Two beds of microbial carbonate rocks were discovered in the Cambrian outcrops in the vicinity of Beijing. One is from the Zhangxia Formation of Middle Cambrian, and the other is from the Gushan Formation of Upper Cambrian. The microbialites are characterized by combination of multiple stromatolites forming different bioherms. The bioherms are mostly in oval shape and with different sizes, which are 3–4 m long, and 1–3 m high. The surrounding strata beneath the bioherms are oolitic limestones. A central core of flat-pebble conglomerates occurred within each bioherm. Wavy or columnar stromatolites grow on the basis of flat-pebble conglomerates, with dentate erosional surfaces. The bioherm carbonate rocks are interpreted as products from a deep ramp sedimentary environment where potential oil and gas reservoirs can be found. The analysis of sedimentological characteristics of bioherm carbonate rocks and its lithofacies palaeogeography has significant implication for petroleum exploration. Research on geological record of microbialites is beneficial to investigating the Earth evolution, biodiversity, palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate change, as well as biological extinction event during geological transitions. It also gives warning to human beings of modern biological crisis.

  13. Noninteracting, vicinal frustrated P/B-Lewis pair at the norbornane framework: synthesis, characterization, and reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Kehr, Gerald; Wiegand, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut; Schwickert, Christian; Pöttgen, Rainer; Cardenas, Allan Jay P; Warren, Timothy H; Fröhlich, Roland; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Erker, Gerhard

    2013-06-19

    Hydroboration of dimesitylnorbornenylphosphane with Piers' borane [HB(C6F5)2] gave the frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) 4 in good yield. It has the -PMes2 Lewis base attached at the 2-endo position and the -B(C6F5)2 group 3-exo oriented at the norbornane framework. The vicinal FLP 4 was shown by X-ray diffraction and by spectroscopy to be a rare example of an intramolecular noninteracting pair of a Lewis acid and Lewis base functionality. The FLP 4 rapidly splits dihydrogen heterolytically at ambient temperature to yield the phosphonium/hydrido borate zwitterion 5. It adds to the carbonyl group of benzaldehyde and to carbon dioxide to yield the adducts 6 and 7, respectively. Compounds 5-7 were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Compound 4 adds to the S═O function of sulfur dioxide to give a pair of diastereomeric heterocyclic six-membered ring products due to the newly formed sulfur chirality center, annulated with the norbornane skeleton, which were investigated by (31)P/(11)B single and double resonance solid state NMR experiments. Compound 8 was also characterized by X-ray diffraction. The FLP 4 undergoes a clean N,N-addition to nitric oxide (NO) to give a norbornane annulated five-membered heterocyclic persistent FLP-NO aminoxyl radical 12 (characterized, e.g., by X-ray diffraction and EPR spectroscopy). Additionally, the FLP radical was characterized by (1)H solid state NMR spectroscopy. The radical 12 undergoes a H-atom abstraction reaction with 1,4-cyclohexadiene to yield the respective diamagnetic FLP-NOH product 13, which was also characterized by X-ray diffraction and solid state NMR spectroscopy.

  14. Tilt boundary formation in GeSi/Si (001 vicinal heterosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Kolesnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural state of GexSi1-x films grown on Si substrates with the vicinal orientation (1 1 13 has been studied. The (1 1 13 orientation has been obtained by rotating the singular plane (001 around the [1 1 ¯0] axis. The x parameter of GexSi1-x films in different samples ranged from 0.083 to 0.268. Triclinic distortions arising in film crystal lattice have been analyzed using our technique developed for the determination of epitaxial layer structural parameters based on the X-ray diffractometry data. It has been established that during the epitaxial process the film lattice turns around the direction of surface steps due to the introduction of misfit dislocations into the interface. Dislocations with Burgers vector a/2〈110〉 which is not parallel to the interface create an analog of a tilt boundary. The turning angle value ψ is proportional to the misfit dislocation density. This phenomenon is associated with a decrease of the interface symmetry that leads to a change in the efficiency of stress relieving by dislocations belonging to different families. The influence of these families on the low-angle boundary formation is considered. Experimental values of the ψ angle and shear strain for the [13 13 2¯] and [1¯ 1 0] directions lying in the interface (1 1 13 have been defined. A comparison of the experimental and calculated values of ψ for the [13 13 2¯] direction is provided.

  15. Metabolic profiling of residents in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Chung, Ming-Kei [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ching-Yu [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Ting; Wu, Kuen-Yuh [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chan, Chang-Chuan, E-mail: ccchan@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-01

    No previous studies have simultaneously measured the biomarkers of environmental exposure and metabolome perturbation in residents affected by industrial pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic effects of environmental pollutants such as vanadium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on residents in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex. The study subjects were 160 residents, including 80 high-exposure subjects exposed to high levels of vanadium and PAHs and 80 age- and gender-matched low-exposure subjects living within a 40-km radius of a petrochemical complex. The exposure biomarkers vanadium and 1-hydroxypyrene and four oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers were measured in these subjects. Plasma samples from the study subjects were also analyzed using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy for metabolic profiling. The results showed that the urinary levels of vanadium and 1-hydroxypyrene in the high-exposure subjects were 40- and 20-fold higher, respectively, than those in the low-exposure subjects. Higher urinary levels of stress biomarkers, including 8-OHdG, HNE-MA, 8-isoPF2α, and 8-NO{sub 2}Gua, were also observed among the high-exposure subjects compared with the low-exposure subjects. Partial least squares discriminant analysis of the plasma metabolome demonstrated a clear separation between the high- and low-exposure subjects; the intensities of amino acids and carbohydrate metabolites were lower in the high-exposure subjects compared with the low-exposure subjects. The exposure to vanadium and PAHs may cause a reduction in the levels of amino acids and carbohydrates by elevating PPAR and insulin signaling, as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress. - Highlights: • Metabolic effects when exposure to pollutants near a petrochemical complex • V and PAHs exposure associated with elevated oxidative/nitrosative stress responses • V and PAHs exposure related to reduced amino acid and carbohydrate levels • V and PAHs affect metabolic

  16. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, S.M., E-mail: smarta@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lage, J. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernández, B. [Global R& D, ArcelorMittal, Avilés (Spain); Garcia, S. [Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, Av. Prof. Dr. Cavaco Silva, 33, 2740-120 Porto Salvo (Portugal); Reis, M.A.; Chaves, P.C. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM{sub 10} levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5–10} were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM{sub 10} were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM{sub 10}. Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%). - Highlights: • Emissions from steelworks are very complex. • The larger steelworks contribution to PM{sub 10} was from blast furnace and sinter plant. • Sinter plant stack emissions contributed for 12% of the PM{sub 10} mass. • Secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace contributed for 19% of the PM{sub 10}. • Fugitive dust emissions highly contribute to PM{sub 10} mass.

  17. Anthropogenic influences on groundwater in the vicinity of a long-lived radioactive waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew A.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2017-07-01

    The groundwater flow system in the Culebra Dolomite Member (Culebra) of the Permian Rustler Formation is a potential radionuclide release pathway from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the only deep geological repository for transuranic waste in the United States. In early conceptual models of the Culebra, groundwater levels were not expected to fluctuate markedly, except in response to long-term climatic changes, with response times on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. Recent groundwater pressures measured in monitoring wells record more than 25 m of drawdown. The fluctuations are attributed to pumping activities at a privately-owned well that may be associated with the demand of the Permian Basin hydrocarbon industry for water. The unprecedented magnitude of drawdown provides an opportunity to quantitatively assess the influence of unplanned anthropogenic forcings near the WIPP. Spatially variable realizations of Culebra saturated hydraulic conductivity and storativity were used to develop groundwater flow models to estimate a pumping rate for the private well and investigate its effect on advective transport. Simulated drawdown shows reasonable agreement with observations (average Model Efficiency coefficient = 0.7). Steepened hydraulic gradients associated with the pumping reduce estimates of conservative particle travel times across the domain by one-half and shift the intersection of the average particle track with the compliance boundary by more than two kilometers. The value of the transient simulations conducted for this study lie in their ability to (i) improve understanding of the Culebra groundwater flow system and (ii) challenge the notion of time-invariant land use in the vicinity of the WIPP.

  18. Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill, 1987 and 1988. [Fenton Hill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Maes, M.N.; Williams, M.C.

    1991-03-01

    Water-quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface- and ground-water stations at, and in the vicinity of, Fenton Hill (site of the Laboratory's Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project). The site is located on the southwest edge of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains. To determine the chemical quality of water, data were collected in 1987 and 1988 from 13 surface-water stations and 19 ground-water stations. The classification of the water quality is made on the basis of predominated ions and total dissolved solids. There are four classifications of surface water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, calcium and sulfate, and sodium and bicarbonate) and three classifications of ground water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, and sodium and bicarbonate). Variations in the chemical quality of the surface and ground water in 1987 and 1988 are apparent when data are compared with each other and with previous analyses. These variations are not considered significant, as they are in the range of normal seasonal changes. Cumulative production since 1976 from the supply well at Fenton Hill has been about 63 {times} 10{sup 6} gal, with a decline in the water level of the well of about 14 ft, or about 1.4 ft/yr. The aquifer penetrated by the well is still capable of reliable supply to the site for a number of years, based on past production. The quality of water from the well has deteriorated slightly; however, the water quality is in compliance with drinking water standards. The effects of discharge from the storage ponds into an adjacent canyon have been monitored by trace metal analyses of vegetation and soil. The study indicates minimal effects, which will be undetectable in a few years if there are no further releases of effluents into the canyon. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Characterizing the interior of 67P in the vicinity of Abydos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarletti, V.; Lasue, J.; Lemonnier, F.; Herique, A.; Kofman, W. W.; Guiffaut, C.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Plettemeier, D.

    2016-12-01

    Since the arrival of Rosetta at comet 67P, numerous pictures have been delivered by the cameras onboard both the main spacecraft and the Philae lander. They revealed, at the nucleus' surface and inside the walls of the deep pits, few-meters scale repeating structures, thus providing hints about the internal structure of the nucleus, and suggesting that primordial 'cometesimals' may be objects around 3m in size. The CONSERT (Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission) experiment is a radar that has been designed to specifically sound the interior of the nucleus and to provide information on the nucleus internal structure. The work presented here is based on the CONSERT data collected during the First Science Sequence (FSS) and marginally during Philae's Separation Descent and Landing (SDL) for comparison. During FFS, the smaller lobe of the nucleus in the vicinity of Abydos has been actually sounded by CONSERT's electromagnetic waves at 90 MHz with a spatial resolution around 10 m. The propagation delays measured during FSS are consistent with a very low bulk permittivity value for the investigated cometary material, which confirms the high porosity of the nucleus. The sharp shape of the received pulses indicates that the electromagnetic waves suffered weak scattering when propagating through the nucleus. This suggests that the sounded part nucleus is thus fairly homogeneous on a spatial scale of tens of meters. We will present further results on the variation of the CONSERT's pulse shape transmitted through the small lobe of the nucleus. For a more accurate analysis and interpretation of the data, we split the FSS data into two distinct sets corresponding to soundings performed West and East of Philae in order to investigate potential differences. Tentative interpretation in terms of nucleus internal structure based on propagation simulations performed in non-homogeneous nucleus numerical models will be presented.

  20. Sea-Floor Character and Sedimentary Processes in the Vicinity of Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; McMullen, Katherine Y.; Foster, David S.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Ackerman, Seth D.; Barnum, Steven R.; Brennan, Rick T.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous-coverage multibeam bathymetric models and sidescan-sonar imagery have been verified with high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, sediment sampling, and bottom photography. Together these data layers provide detailed base maps that yield topographic, compositional, and environmental perspectives of the sea floor in the vicinity of Woods Hole, an important harbor and major passage between the Elizabeth Islands and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Tidally dominated high-energy environments within Woods Hole have prevented deposition of Holocene marine sediments, exposed underlying glacial drift of the Buzzards Bay moraine, and winnowed finer grained sediments, leaving lag deposits of boulders and gravel. These conditions have also enlarged and preserved depressions in the moraine surface that were originally kettle holes and formed ebb-tidal deltas at the entrances to passages. Fields of transverse and barchanoid sand waves dominate across the southern part of the study area in Vineyard Sound, where benthic environments are characterized by processes associated with coarse-bedload transport. Transverse sand waves dominate near shoals where sediment supply is greater and have asymmetries that indicate that the shoals are shaped and maintained by clockwise gyres of net sediment transport. Barchanoid sand waves, which are most common where Holocene sediments are thinner, commonly align into elongate fields that have smaller isolated waves concentrated at the eastern ends and that progressively widen and have waveforms that increase in amplitude, wavelength, and complexity westward. The northern, protected parts of the Little and Inner Harbors are characterized by muddy sediment and processes associated with deposition. A pockmark field in Little Harbor and the muddy, organic-rich sediments that form a scarp along the edge of Parker Flat are evidence for the presence of submerged marsh deposits formed during the Holocene rise in sea level.

  1. Seafloor Character and Processes in the Vicinity of Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L. J.; McMullen, K. Y.; Williams, S.; Barnum, S. R.; Brennan, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Continuous-coverage multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery have been verified with high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, sediment sampling, and bottom photography. Together these data provide detailed base maps that yield topographic, compositional, and environmental perspectives of the seafloor in the vicinity of Woods Hole, an important harbor and major passage between the Elizabeth Islands and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Tidally-dominated high-energy environments within Woods Hole have prevented deposition of Holocene sediments, exposed underlying glacial drift of the Buzzards Bay moraine, and winnowed finer grained sediments leaving lag deposits of boulders and gravel. Tidal currents have also enlarged and preserved depressions in the moraine surface that were originally kettle holes and formed ebb-tidal deltas at the entrances to passages. Fields of transverse and barchanoid sand waves dominate across the southern part of the study area in Vineyard Sound where benthic environments are characterized by processes associated with coarse bedload transport. Transverse sand waves dominate near shoals where sediment is available and have asymmetries indicating the shoals are shaped and maintained by clockwise gyres. Barchanoid sand waves, which are most common where Holocene sediments are thinner, commonly occur in elongate fields that have small isolated waves concentrated at their eastern ends and that progressively widen and have waveforms that increase in amplitude, wavelength, and morphological complexity westward, indicating net westward transport. The northern, lower energy parts of the Little and Great Harbors are characterized by muddy sediment and processes associated with deposition. A pockmark field in Little Harbor and the muddy organic-rich sediments that form a scarp along the eastern edge of Great Harbor are evidence for the presence of buried marsh deposits submerged during the Holocene rise in sea level.

  2. Concept for the Emergency Protection in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In 1991, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) issued a concept of the regulations for the cloud phase 1 of an nuclear power plant accident in Switzerland valid at that time in co-operation with the Federal Commission for AC Protection (KOMAC) and the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission (KSA). This concept replaced the version of 1977, which then formed the basis for emergency preparedness in Switzerland. Legal changes, such as the civil protection legislation and the ordinance on the distribution of iodine tablets to the population, as well as experience gained from the emergency exercises necessitated a revision of the existing concept. The present concept is issued by the Federal Commission for AC Protection (KOMAC) and deals with all phases of an accident sequence in a Swiss nuclear power plant focussing on the pre- and cloud phase. It also gives an overview of responsibilities and alert procedures for accidents at foreign nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations, as well as of accidents in connection with transportation of radioactive materials. The concept is designed to help the federal and cantonal authorities in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in charge of emergency protection in preparing their emergency procedure specifications, and in the realisation of the readiness for emergencies. Furthermore, it shall serve the cantons as a guideline for the preparation of emergency specifications for the communities. The concept is based on the assumption that the executive bodies and emergency forces provided for the general civil protection are employed in case of an accident at a nuclear power plant. (authors)

  3. Controlled surface functionalization via self-selective metal adsorption and pattern transformation on the vicinal Si(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A. L.; Men, F. K.; Liu, Feng

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate a self-selective metal adsorption and pattern transformation process on vicinal Si(111) surfaces. When Au atoms are deposited onto the self-organized periodic Si(111) surface patterns, the Au atoms self-select to adsorb predominantly onto one of the two distinct domains, the Si(111) terrace or the step-bunched facet at different Au coverage. This leads to a systematic transformation of the surface pattern, whose domain population changes while its periodicity remains intact with the increasing Au coverage. A stress-domain model is used to explain the observed phenomenon. Our findings suggest a unique method for controlled functionalization of surfaces at the nanoscale, as illustrated further by domain-selective self-assembly of uniform CoSi2 nanoclusters on the Au-functionalized vicinal Si(111) surface.

  4. Controlled Surface functionalization via self-selective metal adsorption and pattern transformation on vicinal Si(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, F. K.; Chin, A. L.; Liu, Feng

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate a self-selective metal adsorption and pattern transformation process on vicinal Si(111) surfaces. When Au atoms are deposited onto the self-organized periodic Si(111) surface patterns, the Au atoms self-select to adsorb predominantly onto one of the two distinct domains, the Si(111) terrace or the step-bunched facet, at different Au coverage. This leads to a systematic transformation of the surface pattern, whose domain population changes while its periodicity remains intact with the increasing Au coverage. A stress-domain model is used to explain the observed phenomenon. Our findings suggest a unique method for controlled functionalization of surfaces at the nanoscale, as illustrated further by domain- selective self-assembly of uniform CoSi 2 nanoclusters on the Au-functionalized vicinal Si(111) surface. Work supported by NSC of Taiwan, ROC (Men) and NSF and DOE-BES of US (Liu).

  5. Amelanotic melanoma in the vicinity of acquired melanocytic nevi and not arising from agminated melanocytic nevi: Masquerading as pyogenic granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angoori Gnaneshwar Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amelanotic melanoma (AMM presenting as pyogenic granuloma and occurring in the vicinity of acquired melanocytic nevi is rare. Herein, we report such a manifestation in a 68-year-old male who presented with the painful red nodule and multiple pigmented patches involving the left great toe. Histopathological examination of skin biopsy taken from the nodule with an immunohistochemical study using HMB45 and S-100 confirmed the diagnosis of AMM. Biopsy from the pigmented patch near the nodule showed features of melanocytic nevus. Investigative work up revealed metastatic deposits in the left inguinal lymph node with no evidence of systemic involvement, placing him in malignant melanoma Stage IIIC of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC tumor node metastasis system. The development of AMM in the vicinity of acquired melanocytic nevi and manifesting as granuloma pyogenicum is unique in this case.

  6. [Assessment of cyto- and genotoxicity of natural waters in the vicinity of radioactive waste storage facility using Allium-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalova, A A; Geras'kin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of bioassays of "aberrant cells frequency" and "proliferative activity" in root meristem of Allium cepa L. is studied in the present work for a cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of natural waters contaminated with 90Sr and heavy metals in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility in Obninsk, Kaluga region. The Allium-test is shown to be applicable for the diagnostics of environmental media at their combined pollution with chemical and radioactive substances. The analysis of aberration spectrum shows an important role of chemical toxicants in the mutagenic potential of waters collected in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility. Biological effects are not always possible to explain from the knowledge on water contamination levels, which shows limitations of physical-chemical monitoring in providing the adequate risk assessment for human and biota from multicomponent environmental impacts.

  7. Determination of magnetic anisotropies and miscut angles in epitaxial thin films on vicinal (111) substrate by the ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, B. A.; Izotov, A. V.; Solovev, P. N.; Yakovlev, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    A method for determining magnetic anisotropy parameters of a thin single-crystal film on vicinal (111) substrate as well as substrate miscut angles from angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance field has been proposed. The method is based on the following: (i) a new approach for the solution of the system of nonlinear equations for equilibrium and resonance conditions; (ii) a new expression of the objective function for the fitting problem. The study of the iron silicide films grown on vicinal Si(111) substrates with different miscut angles confirmed the efficiency of the method. The proposed method can be easily generalized to determine parameters of single-crystal films grown on substrates with an arbitrary cut.

  8. A new sub-band of the acetylene-ammonia complex in the vicinity of ν4 mode of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Xu, Yunjie

    2012-05-01

    High resolution ro-vibrational transitions of a new sub-band of the acetylene-ammonia complex in the vicinity of ν4 mode of ammonia at 6 μm were measured. It was assigned to the perpendicular K = 0 ← 1 sub-band. Combined with the previous high resolution infrared and microwave spectroscopic study [X. Liu, Y. Xu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13 (2011) 14235], a global fit was performed to determine the ground and upper state spectroscopic constants.

  9. A Two-Region Diffusion Model for Current-Induced Instabilities of Step Patterns on Vicinal Si(111) Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, T.; Weeks, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    We study current-induced step bunching and wandering instabilities with subsequent pattern formations on vicinal surfaces. A novel two-region diffusion model is developed, where we assume that there are different diffusion rates on terraces and in a small region around a step, generally arising from local differences in surface reconstruction. We determine the steady state solutions for a uniform train of straight steps, from which step bunching and in-phase wandering instabilities are deduce...

  10. A Study Of Environmental Impacts On The Coral Resources In The Vicinity Of The Saint Martin Island Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh Sayed Ahammed; M. Ali Hossain; Md. Zainal Abedin; Md Abdul Khaleque

    2015-01-01

    A study of the environmental impacts on the coral resources in the vicinity of the Saint Martin Island Bangladesh was conducted with a view to making an assessment of the current status of coral resources in the island and identifying major natural and anthropogenic environmental threats to the future sustainability of these resources. It is evident that the coral resources have been reduced significantly and currently only 41 coral species are available. The existing environmental condition...

  11. Characteristics of highly stacked InAs quantum-dot laser grown on vicinal (001)InP substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    We fabricate broad-area laser diodes consisting of 30-layer stacks of InAs quantum dots by using a strain-compensation technique on a vicinal (001)InP substrate. These laser diodes exhibit ground-state lasing at 1576 nm in the pulsed mode with a high characteristic temperature of 111 K at around room temperature (20-80 °C).

  12. A multiwavelength study of star formation in the vicinity of Galactic HII region Sh2-100

    OpenAIRE

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Kulkarni, V. K.; Kusakabe, N.; Tamura, M; Bhatt, B. C.; Thompson, M.A.; Sagar, R

    2010-01-01

    We present multiwavelength investigation of morphology, physical-environment, stellar contents and star formation activity in the vicinity of star-forming region Sh 2-100. It is found that the Sh 2-100 region contains seven HII regions of ultracompact and compact nature. The present estimation of distance for three HII regions, along with the kinematic distance for others, suggests that all of them belong to the same molecular cloud complex. Using NIR photometry, we identified the most probab...

  13. The Impact of Tourism on the Socio-Cultural Environment in the Gorce National Park and its Vicinity

    OpenAIRE

    Luberda, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the problems of tourism in terms of its relationship with the social as well as cultural environment. The purpose of the article was to examine how tourism affects the socio-cultural environment in the Gorce National Park and its vicinity. I examined whether tourist traffic in the Park brings about more benefits or problems, and whether changes taking place in communities visited by tourists are positive or negative? The impact of tourism on the socio-cult...

  14. Study of e(+)e(-) -> p(p)over-bar pi(0) in the vicinity of the psi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Braun, S.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fuks, O.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, L.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kloss, B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leyhe, M.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D.; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. J.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, H. L.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. B.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The process e(+)e(-) -> p (p) over bar pi(0) has been studied by analyzing data collected at root s = 3.773 GeV, root s = 3.650 GeV, and during a psi(3770) line shape scan with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider. The Born cross section of p (p) over bar pi(0) in the vicinity of the psi(3770)

  15. Fine-Scale Ecological and Genetic Population Structure of Two Whitefish (Coregoninae) Species in the Vicinity of Industrial Thermal Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Carly F; Eberts, Rebecca L; Morgan, Thomas D; Boreham, Douglas R; Lance, Stacey L; Manzon, Richard G; Martino, Jessica A; Rogers, Sean M; Wilson, Joanna Y; Somers, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pollution from industrial processes can have negative impacts on the spawning and development of cold-water fish. Point sources of thermal effluent may need to be managed to avoid affecting discrete populations. Correspondingly, we examined fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish species (Coregonus clupeaformis and Prosopium cylindraceum) on Lake Huron, Canada, in the immediate vicinity of thermal effluent from nuclear power generation. Niche metrics using δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes showed high levels of overlap (48.6 to 94.5%) in resource use by adult fish captured in areas affected by thermal effluent compared to nearby reference locations. Isotopic niche size, a metric of resource use diversity, was 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher than reference values in some thermally affected areas, indicative of fish mixing. Microsatellite analyses of genetic population structure (Fst, STRUCTURE and DAPC) indicated that fish captured at all locations in the vicinity of the power plant were part of a larger population extending beyond the study area. In concert, ecological and genetic markers do not support the presence of an evolutionarily significant unit in the vicinity of the power plant. Thus, future research should focus on the potential impacts of thermal emissions on development and recruitment.

  16. [Social and economic consequences of night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiser, E; Glaeske, G

    2013-03-01

    A prospective calculation of disease-related social and economic costs due to night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport was performed for the calendar years 2012-2021. It was based on risk estimates for a variety of diagnostic entities (cardiovascular disease, depression, psychosis, diabetes mellitus, dementia and Alzheimer's disease, all cancers except malignancies of the respiratory system) from a previous case-control study on more than 1 million persons enrolled in compulsory sickness funds in the vicinity of the Cologne-Bonn airport, on disease-related cost estimates performed by the German Federal Statistical Office for the calender years 2002-2008, and calculations of the population exposed to night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport (2005 aircraft routes and flight frequencies). Total estimated costs came to more than 1.5 billion € with an excess of 23 400 cases of diseases treated in hospitals and of 3 400 subsequent deaths. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Le profil SVP : sismique au voisinage du puits The Wvp (Well Vicinity Profiling Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondin E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'augmentation de l'investigation latérale du PSV (profil sismique vertical et le calage de la sismique de surface au puits peuvent être améliorés en combinant un profil sismique réflexion de surface d'une mise en oeuvre particulière (à base réceptrice fixe appelé SVP (sismique au voisinage du puits et un profil sismique vertical. Dans cette mise en oeuvre combinée, la sonde n'est immobilisée que pour le temps d'acquisition du PSV. L'utilisation d'une base sismique réceptrice fixe rend la mise en oeuvre du profil SVP légère et peu onéreuse. Les résultats obtenus montrent que les résolutions verticales du profil SVP et du PSV sont équivalentes. L'investigation latérale de cette mise en oeuvre mixte est de plusieurs centaines de mètres quelle que soit la profondeur. Cette recherche méthodologique a été réalisée en collaboration avec Gaz de France. Increasing the lateral range of investigation of VSP (vertical seismic profiling and the calibration of surface seismic profiles with well geological horizons can be improved by combining a surface seismic profile having a specific implementation (with a fixed receiving base called WVP (well vicinity profiling and a vertical seismic profile. In this combined implementation, the drilling rig is immobilized only for the acquisition time of the VSP. The use of a fixed seismic receiving base makes the implementation of the WVP stack light and inexpensive. The results obtained show that the vertical resolutions of the WVP stack and of the VSP are the same. The lateral range of investigation of this mixed implementation is several hundred meters no matter what the depth may be. This methodological research was done in collaboration with Gaz de France.

  18. On the solar origin of interplanetary disturbances observed in the vicinity of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vilmer

    Full Text Available The solar origin of 40 interplanetary disturbances observed in the vicinity of the Earth between January 1997 and June 1998 is investigated in this paper. Analysis starts with the establishment of a list of Interplanetary Mass Ejections or ICMEs (magnetic clouds, flux ropes and ejecta and of Interplanetary Shocks measured at WIND for the period for which we had previously investigated the coupling of the interplanetary medium with the terrestrial ionospheric response. A search for associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs observed by LASCO/SOHO is then performed, starting from an estimation of the transit time of the inter-planetary perturbation from the Sun to the Earth, assumed to be achieved at a constant speed (i.e. the speed measured at 1 AU. EIT/SOHO and Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH observations are also used as proxies in this identification for the cases when LASCO observations do not allow one to firmly establish the association. The last part of the analysis concerns the identification of the solar source of the CMEs, performed using a large set of solar observations from X-ray to radio wavelengths. In the present study, this association is based on a careful examination of many data sets (EIT, NRH and H images and not on the use of catalogs and of Solar Geophysical Data reports. An association between inter-planetary disturbances and LASCO/CMEs or proxies on the disk is found for 36 interplanetary events. For 32 events, the solar source of activity can also be identified. A large proportion of cases is found to be associated with a flare signature in an active region, not excluding of course the involvement of a filament. Conclusions are finally drawn on the propagation of the disturbances in the interplanetary medium, the preferential association of disturbances detected close to the Earth’s orbit with halos or wide CMEs and the location on the solar disk of solar sources of the interplanetary disturbances during that period

  19. Platinum and associated elements at the New Rambler mine and vicinity, Albany and Carbon Counties, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, P.K.; Thompson, Charles Emmet

    1968-01-01

    Platinum-group metals in the Medicine Bow Mountains were first identified by W. C. Knight in 1901. In the Medicine Bow Mountains, these metals are commonly associated with copper, silver, or gold in shear zones that cut a series of mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. At the New Rambler mine, where the initial discovery was made, about 50,000 tons of mine and mill waste contain an average of 0.3 percent copper, 7 ppm (parts per million) silver, 1 ppm platinum plus palladium, and 0.7 ppm gold. This material is believed to be from a low-grade envelope around the high-grade pod of complex ore that was mined selectively in the old workings. Soil samples in the vicinity of the New Rambler mine exhibit a wide range of content of several elements associated with the ore. Most of the variation can be attributed to contamination, from the mine workings. Even though soil samples identify a low-level copper anomaly that persists to the limit of the area sampled, soils do not offer a promising medium for tracing mineralization owing to the blanket of transported overburden. Stream sediments, if preconcentrated for analysis, do reveal anomalies not only in the contaminated stream below the New Rambler mine, but in adjacent drainage and on Dave Creek. Examination of a spectrum of elements in heavy-mineral concentrates from stream sediment may contribute to knowledge of the nature of the mineralization and of the basic geology of the environment. The sampling of bedrock exposures is not particularly fruitful because outcrops are sparse and the exposed rocks are the least altered and mineralized. Bedrock sampling does, however, provide information on the large size and provincial nature of the platinum-rich area. We feel that a properly integrated program of geological, geophysical, and geochemical exploration in the Medicine Bow Mountains and probably in the Sierra Madre to the west has a reasonable probability of successfully locating a complex ore body.

  20. Enantioselective Synthesis of Vicinal (R,R)-Diols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Butanediol Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calam, Eduard; González-Roca, Eva; Fernández, M Rosario; Dequin, Sylvie; Parés, Xavier; Virgili, Albert; Biosca, Josep A

    2016-01-04

    Butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the superfamily of the medium-chain dehydrogenases and reductases and converts reversibly R-acetoin and S-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol, respectively. It is specific for NAD(H) as a coenzyme, and it is the main enzyme involved in the last metabolic step leading to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol in yeast. In this study, we have used the activity of Bdh1p in different forms-purified enzyme, yeast extracts, permeabilized yeast cells, and as a fusion protein (with yeast formate dehydrogenase, Fdh1p)-to transform several vicinal diketones to the corresponding diols. We have also developed a new variant of the delitto perfetto methodology to place BDH1 under the control of the GAL1 promoter, resulting in a yeast strain that overexpresses butanediol dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase activities in the presence of galactose and regenerates NADH in the presence of formate. While the use of purified Bdh1p allows the synthesis of enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-pentanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol, and (3R,4R)-3,4-hexanediol, the use of the engineered strain (as an extract or as permeabilized cells) yields mixtures of the diols. The production of pure diol stereoisomers has also been achieved by means of a chimeric fusion protein combining Fdh1p and Bdh1p. Finally, we have determined the selectivity of Bdh1p toward the oxidation/reduction of the hydroxyl/ketone groups from (2R,3R)-2,3-pentanediol/2,3-pentanedione and (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol/2,3-hexanedione. In conclusion, Bdh1p is an enzyme with biotechnological interest that can be used to synthesize chiral building blocks. A scheme of the favored pathway with the corresponding intermediates is proposed for the Bdh1p reaction. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. An unusually very bright dust light mass (?) observed in the vicinity (?) of á Lyrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanopoulos, G.

    2009-04-01

    directed to the astrophysics society to give a rational explanation of this unexplain to us phenomenon. What conditions and forces influence the liberation of such dust or possible charged aerosols? In our planet we have similar phenomena of aerosols liberation from earth mantel. As an explanation, the case of a comet or asteroid or satellite,is exluded. Are they finally a case of γ ray burst? Key point question remains, how to trap the portion of possible rotating dust in the vicinity of the star, in a conventional (in a ten minutes exposure) photogram. Would the scientist experts please reply to this question and clarify the reason.

  2. [Faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zi-Rong; Sun, Dian-Rong; Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Zhang, Han-Hua; Wang, Xue-Hui; Wang, Yue-Zhong; Fang, Hong-Da; Dong, Yan-Hong

    2009-10-01

    Based on the data of bottom trawl surveys in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary in August (summer), October (autumn), December (winter) 2006, and April (spring) 2007, the faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans were analyzed. A total of 54 species belonging to 25 genera, 17 families, and 2 orders were collected, including 22 species of shrimps, 22 species of crabs, and 10 species of squills. Most of the crustaceans were tropical-subtropical warm-water species, a few of them were eurythermal species, and no warm-water and cold-water species occurred. Euryhaline species were most abundant, followed by halophile species, and the low-salinity species were the least. Most of the crustacean species belonged to the fauna of Indian Ocean-western Pacific Ocean. The faunal assemblages were closer to those of the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Indonesia Sea, and the Japan Sea, and estranger with those of the Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, and Korea Sea. The dominant species were Metapenaeus joyner, Oratosquilla oratoria, Charybdis miles, Portunus sanguinolentus, Harpiosquilla harpax, Charybdis feriatus, Charybdis japonica, Oratosquilla nepa, Solenocera crassicornis, Portunus trituberculatus, and Calappa philargius. The crustaceans had the largest species number (33) in autumn and the least one (26) in spring, and the highest stock density at the water depth of < 40 m, especially at 10-20 m. The average stock density of the crustaceans was estimated to be 99.60 kg x km(-2), with the highest (198.93 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest (42.35 kg x km(-2)) in spring. Of the 3 species groups, crabs had the highest stock density (41.81 kg x km(-2)), followed by shrimps (38.91 kg x km(-2)), and squills (18.88 kg x km(-2)). The stock densities of the 3 species groups showed an obvious seasonal variation. Shrimps had the highest stock density (120.32 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest density (0.67 kg x km(-2)) in spring, while crabs and squills had the highest

  3. Salt marshes of Port Valdez, Alaska, and vicinity: A baseline study: Final report to the United States Department of the Interior

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975, 62 baseline locations were selected for intensive study in the salt marshes of Port Valdez and vicinity. The sites are intended to reflect the...

  4. Community Structure of Fish and Macrobenthos at Selected Sites in the Vicinity of Mokapu Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1998 (NODC Accession 0000173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report provides the results of the first quantitative survey of the coral reef communities in the vicinity of the Mokapu Ocean Outfall in Kailua Bay, Oahu,...

  5. Lagrangian Observations of Nonlinear Internal Waves and Turbulence Mixing in Luzon Strait and South China Sea and Internal Wave in the Vicinity of the Kuroshio Path

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lien, Ren-Chieh; D'Asaro, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    ... mixing in the northern South China Sea. Results are reported. The second was to analyze observations of data taken in the vicinity of the Kuroshio path from Luzon Strait to the southern East China Sea...

  6. Landsat with SRTM Shaded Relief, Los Angeles and Vicinity from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Los Angeles and vicinity seen from space, as viewed by the Landsat 7 satellite from an altitude of 437 miles on May 4, 2001. North is at the top. Topographic shading has been enhanced using an elevation data set acquired by the Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000. Downtown Los Angeles is just south of the image center, with L.A. and Long Beach harbors to the south, Santa Monica Bay to the west, San Fernando Valley to the northwest, San Gabriel Valley to the east, and Orange County to the southeast. The San Andreas fault forms the straight diagonal mountain front bordering the Mojave Desert at the top of the image. At full resolution, features on the ground as small as 15 meters (49 feet) across can be distinguished, including street patterns and large buildings, as well as boats and their wakes on the ocean. More than ten million people live within this scene.This image was generated by first geographically matching the Landsat scene to a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. A measure of topographic slope along a southeast-northwest trend was then calculated, such that southeast facing slopes appear bright and northwest facing slopes appear dark. This slope image was then added to the enhanced Landsat scene in order to intensify the appearance of topography. Topographic shading was subtle in the original Landsat scene due to the fairly high sun angle (63 degrees above the horizon) during the satellite overflight in late morning of a mid-Spring day.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne

  7. Public health risk assessment with bioaccessibility considerations for soil PAHs at oil refinery vicinity areas in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-21

    Populations living in the vicinity of oil refinery sludge deposition sites may be at greater risk of potential exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through inhalation, ingestion, and direct contact with contaminated media. Three Indian oil refinery sludge deposition sites (at Haldia, Barauni and Guwahati) were chosen for study. Soil samples were collected from three different locations at each site. Mild solvent extraction by butanol and exhaustive extraction by acetone/hexane have been conducted to estimate the bioaccessible PAHs beside the total extractable PAHs content of the soil samples. Concentrations of 13 PAHs in the soils were found to be in a range of 67.02-95.21μg/g and bioaccessible PAHs were in a range of 19.296-36.657μg/g. A probabilistic health risk assessment with bioaccessibility considerations was carried out using Monte Carlo simulations for the estimation of the cancer risk exposed to the PAHs. The 90th percentiles cancer risks with bioaccessibility considerations of soil PAHs for children is 6.506E-05 and for the adults the risk is 6.609E-05. Risk assessments on extracted PAHs from exhaustive solvent extraction can overestimate the risk by 2.87-2.89 folds at 90% confidence level with respect to the biomimetic mild extraction procedure using butanol. According to USEPA above 1×10(-6) extra risk of cancer is an alarm towards management. So, public health issues due to PAHs is imminent in these oil refinery vicinity areas. Sensitivity analysis revealed exposure duration (ED) and relative skin adherence factor for soil (AF) as the most influential parameters of the assessment. The profiling and risk assessment study with bioaccessibility considerations of PAHs from soil indicates that high PAHs concentration can lead to higher cancer risk for the vicinity area residents and local government should take immediate management actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual impairment and blindness among the students of blind schools in Allahabad and its vicinity: A causal assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushank Ashok Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Information on eye diseases in blind school children in Allahabad is rare and sketchy. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify causes of blindness (BL in blind school children with an aim to gather information on ocular morbidity in the blind schools in Allahabad and in its vicinity. Study Design and Setting: A cross-sectional study was carried out in all the four blind schools in Allahabad and its vicinity. Materials and Methods: The students in the blind schools visited were included in the study and informed consents from parents were obtained. Relevant ocular history and basic ocular examinations were carried out on the students of the blind schools. Results: A total of 90 students were examined in four schools of the blind in Allahabad and in the vicinity. The main causes of severe visual impairment and BL in the better eye of students were microphthalmos (34.44%, corneal scar (22.23%, anophthalmos (14.45%, pseudophakia (6.67%, optic nerve atrophy (6.67%, buphthalmos/glaucoma (3.33%, cryptophthalmos (2.22%, staphyloma (2.22%, cataract (2.22%, retinal dystrophy (2.22%, aphakia (1.11%, coloboma (1.11%, retinal detachment (1.11%, etc. Of these, 22 (24.44% students had preventable causes of BL and another 12 (13.33% students had treatable causes of BL. Conclusion: It was found that hereditary diseases, corneal scar, glaucoma and cataract were the prominent causes of BL among the students of blind schools. Almost 38% of the students had preventable or treatable causes, indicating the need of genetical counseling and focused intervention.

  9. Visual impairment and blindness among the students of blind schools in Allahabad and its vicinity: A causal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalerao, Sushank Ashok; Tandon, Mahesh; Singh, Satyaprakash; Dwivedi, Shraddha; Kumar, Santosh; Rana, Jagriti

    2015-03-01

    Information on eye diseases in blind school children in Allahabad is rare and sketchy. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify causes of blindness (BL) in blind school children with an aim to gather information on ocular morbidity in the blind schools in Allahabad and in its vicinity. A cross-sectional study was carried out in all the four blind schools in Allahabad and its vicinity. The students in the blind schools visited were included in the study and informed consents from parents were obtained. Relevant ocular history and basic ocular examinations were carried out on the students of the blind schools. A total of 90 students were examined in four schools of the blind in Allahabad and in the vicinity. The main causes of severe visual impairment and BL in the better eye of students were microphthalmos (34.44%), corneal scar (22.23%), anophthalmos (14.45%), pseudophakia (6.67%), optic nerve atrophy (6.67%), buphthalmos/glaucoma (3.33%), cryptophthalmos (2.22%), staphyloma (2.22%), cataract (2.22%), retinal dystrophy (2.22%), aphakia (1.11%), coloboma (1.11%), retinal detachment (1.11%), etc. Of these, 22 (24.44%) students had preventable causes of BL and another 12 (13.33%) students had treatable causes of BL. It was found that hereditary diseases, corneal scar, glaucoma and cataract were the prominent causes of BL among the students of blind schools. Almost 38% of the students had preventable or treatable causes, indicating the need of genetical counseling and focused intervention.

  10. Single quantum dot spectroscopy of CdSe/ZnSe grown on vicinal GaAs substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, T.; André, R.; Gérard, J.-M.; Romestain, R.; Dang, Le Si; Bartels, M.; Lischka, K.; Schikora, D.

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the optical properties of two monolayers of CdSe sandwiched by ZnSe layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates with a vicinal tilt of 2° in the [111] direction. By varying the spatial resolution from 10 μm down to 500 nm, sharp photoluminescence lines due to the recombination of excitons confined into quantum dots could be observed at low temperature. The dot density could be as low as ≈109 dots/cm2, which is smaller than previously reported values by at least one order of magnitude.

  11. Geophysical studies in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley near Winnemucca, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, David A.

    2012-01-01

    From May 2008 to September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected data from more than 660 gravity stations, 100 line-km of truck-towed magnetometer traverses, and 260 physical-property sites in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley, northern Nevada (fig. 1). Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data were collected to study regional crustal structures as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of the Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley areas, which in general, have implications for mineral- and geothermal-resource investigations throughout the Great Basin.

  12. Content of metals and metabolites in honey originated from the vicinity of industrial town Kosice (eastern Slovakia)

    OpenAIRE

    Kováčik, J.; Grúz, J. (Jiří); Bíba, O. (Ondřej); Hedbavny, J.

    2016-01-01

    Composition of three types of honey (mixed forest honey and monofloral-black locust and rapeseed honeys) originated from the vicinity of an industrial town (Kosice, Slovak Republic) was compared. Higher content of minerals including toxic metals in forest honey (1358.6 ng Ni/g, 85.6 ng Pb/g, and 52.4 ng Cd/g) than in rapeseed and black locust honeys confirmed that botanical origin rather than the distance for eventual source of pollution (steel factory) affects metal deposition. Benzoic acid ...

  13. Odd-parity superconductivity in the vicinity of inversion symmetry breaking in spin-orbit-coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozii, Vladyslav; Fu, Liang; Massachusetts institute of technology Team

    We study superconductivity in spin-orbit-coupled systems in the vicinity of inversion symmetry breaking. We find that due to the presence of spin-orbit coupling, fluctuations of the incipient parity-breaking order generate an attractive pairing interaction in an odd-parity pairing channel, which competes with the s-wave pairing. We show that Coulomb repulsion or an external Zeeman field suppresses the s-wave pairing and promotes the odd-parity superconducting state. Our work provides a new mechanism for odd-parity pairing and opens a route to novel topological superconductivity. This work is supported by the David and Lucile Packard foundation.

  14. Data on metals biomonitoring in the body of schoolchildren in the vicinity of a heavily industrialized site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Kafaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This data is obtained from analyzing the concentration of metals include Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Pb, and Zn in the urine of schoolchildren in Asalouyeh city in vicinity to a heavily industrialized site and comparison with a reference city. The significance of sex groups on urine metal level was evaluated through this data. The urinary content of metals was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Statistical analyze of data were done by Mann–Whitney test. The herein presented date could beneficial for health assessment of gas and petrochemical companies.

  15. Longtime radionuclide monitoring in the vicinity of Salaspils nuclear reactor; Dauerhaftes Monitoring der Radionuklide in Umgebung von Salaspils Kernreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riekstina, D.; Berzins, J.; Krasta, T. [Latvia Univ. (Latvia). Inst. of Solid State Physics; Skrypnik, O.; Alksnis, J. [Latvia Univ. (Latvia). Inst. of Chemical Physics

    2016-07-01

    The research nuclear reactor in Salaspils was decommissioned in 1998. Now reactor is partially dismantled and its territory is used as a temporary storage of radioactivity contaminated materials and water. Environment radioactivity monitoring for presence of artificial radionuclides in the vicinity of Salaspils nuclear reactor is carried out since 1990. Data include Cs-137 concentration in soils, tritium concentration in ground water, as well as H-3, Cs-137, Co-60 concentration and gross beta-activity of reactors sewage and rainwater drainage. The systematic monitoring allowed to detect in December 2014 a leakage from the special wastewater basin and so to prevent a pollution of ground water outside reactors territory.

  16. Analytical results for 544 water samples collected in the Attean Quartz Monzonite in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklin, W.H.; Nowlan, G.A.; Preston, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water samples were collected in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine as a part of the study of the relationship of dissolved constituents in water to the sediments subjacent to the water. Each sample was analyzed for specific conductance, alkalinity, acidity, pH, fluoride, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and silica. Trace elements determined were copper, zinc, molybdenum, lead, iron, manganese, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, and strontium. The longitude and latitude of each sample location and a sample site map are included in the report as well as a table of the analytical results.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed vicinal amino alcohols synthesis from allyl amines by in situ tether formation and carboetherification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcel, Ugo; Waser, Jerome

    2015-04-20

    Vicinal amino alcohols are important structural motifs of bioactive compounds. Reported herein is an efficient method for their synthesis based on the palladium-catalyzed oxy-alkynylation, oxy-arylation, or oxy-vinylation of allylic amines. High regio- and stereoselectivity were ensured through the in situ formation of a hemiaminal tether using the cheap commercially available trifluoroacetaldehyde in its hemiacetal form. The obtained compounds are important building blocks, which can be orthogonally deprotected to give either free alcohols, amines, or terminal alkynes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Toward lifetime and g factor measurements of short-lived states in the vicinity of 208Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralet, D.; Georgiev, G.; E Stuchbery, A.; Clément, E.; Lemasson, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Rejmund, M.; Atanasova, L.; Balabanski, D. L.; Bocchi, G.; Carroll, R.; Dewald, A.; Dudouet, J.; Fornal, B.; de France, G.; Franchoo, S.; Fransen, C.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Goasduff, A.; Gadea, A.; Jacquot, B.; John, P. R.; Kocheva, D.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Korichi, A.; Kusoglu, A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Leoni, S.; Ljungvall, J.; Lozeva, R.; Maj, A.; Navin, A.; Perez, R.; Pietralla, N.; Shand, C.; Stezowski, O.; Yordanov, D.

    2017-05-01

    The multi-nucleon transfer reaction mechanism was used to produce and study nuclei in the vicinity of 208Pb. This mass region is a test case for the nuclear shell model. The mass identification of the fragments was performed with the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer VAMOS++ coupled to the AGATA γ-tracking array. This experiment aimed to determine both lifetimes and gyromagnetic ratios of excited states with the Cologne plunger device. The analysis indicates promising results with the possibility to determine several new lifetimes in this region.

  19. Geomorphic processes in the vicinity of the Venkatapur river mouth, central west coast of India: Implications for estuarine sedimentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.R.; Hegde, V.S.; Shalini, G.; Rajawat, A.S.; Girish, K.H.; Jayakumar, S.; Suryanarayana, A.

    of the Venkatapur River mouth, central west coast of India: Implications for estuarine sedimentation. Journal of Coastal Research, 26(5), 925–934. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. We discuss geomorphic processes in the vicinity of river mouths... loads of the rivers, along with the littoral drift due to wave action (Reddy, Hariharan, and Kurian, 1979). In New Mangalore port, it is mainly due to deposition of seabed material brought into suspension by the monsoon waves (Dattatri and Kamath, 1997...

  20. Water-level data from wells in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey monitored water levels in wells in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a storage facility constructed in bedded salts in which defense-associated transuranic wastes will be deposited, in southeastern New Mexico during 1977 to 1985. A variety of methods was used to measure water levels. The particular method utilized at a given time depended on several factors, including the amount of condensation in the well, well-head configuration, depth to water, rate of water level change, and availability of equipment. The five methods utilized were: air line, Lynes pressure sentry system, M-scope, steel tape, and winch. (Lantz-PTT)

  1. A contribution to the Encarsia and Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae species from the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and vicinity, northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahari Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of the Encarsia and Eretmocerus species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae from Arasbaran and its vicinity (Northwestern Iran is studied in this paper. A total of 16 Encarsia species, including E. acaudaleyrodis Hayat, E. aleurochitonis (Mercet, E. aurantii (Howard, E. azimi Hayat, E. berlesei (Howard, E. citrina (Craw, E. elegans (Masi, E. elongata (Dozier, E. fasciata (Malenotti, E. formosa Gahan, E. inaron (Walker, E. lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli, E. lutea (Masi, E. luteola Howard, E. mineoi Viggiani, E. perniciosi (Tower, and 4 Eretmocerus species (Eretmocerus cadabae Viggiani, Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, Eretmocerus nikolskajae Myartseva, Eretmocerus serius Silvestre were collected.

  2. Effects of trophic conditions on benthic macrofauna in the vicinity of the River Swina mouth (Pomeranian Bay; southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Masłowski

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The export of phytal material from the eutrophic Szczecin Lagoon into the Pomeranian Bay creates excellent trophic conditions forthe local benthic fauna in the vicinity of the mouth of the river Swina, where the bottom macrofauna is abundant but highly variable.The changes in the bottom macrofauna biomass of selected taxa, chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations were tested for associations. The biomasses of selected taxa varied in significant concordance, which suggests that these changes have common causes.Despite the importance of trophic enrichment to faunal abundance, no relationships between faunal biomass and chlorophyll a concentration changes were established. The presence of organic matter enables macrofauna to attain a high biomass, but populationfluctuations are controlled by numerous factors. The significant relationship between the changes in the annual averagephosphate levels and chlorophyll a concentrations in the Szczecin Lagoon indicates the importance of this nutrient to primaryproduction processes in the Lagoon and to the trophic conditions for benthic macrofauna in the vicinity of the Swina mouth.

  3. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Presley, B.J.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Robertson, L.; Boothe, P.; Kilada, R.; Wade, T.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary program to assess the potential long-term impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Gulf of Mexico, sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore platforms. Based on data from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays, toxicity was observed near four of the five platforms sampled; the majority of the toxic samples were collected within 150 m of a platform. There was excellent agreement among the results of porewater tests with three different species (sea urchin embryological development, polychaete reproduction, and copepod nauplii survival). The sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations, and good agreement was observed between predicted and observed toxicity. Porewater metal concentrations compared with EC50, LOEC, and NOEC values generated for water-only exposures indicated that the porewater concentrations for several metals were high enough to account for the observed toxicity. Results of these studies utilizing highly sensitive toxicity tests suggest that the contaminant-induced impacts from offshore platforms are limited to a localized area in the immediate vicinity of the platforms. 

  4. Solid-tumor mortality in the vicinity of uranium cycle facilities and nuclear power plants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abente, G; Aragonés, N; Pollán, M

    2001-07-01

    To ascertain solid tumor mortality in towns near Spain's four nuclear power plants and four nuclear fuel facilities from 1975 to 1993, we conducted a mortality study based on 12,245 cancer deaths in 283 towns situated within a 30-km radius of the above installations. As nonexposed areas, we used 275 towns lying within a 50- to 100-km radius of each installation, matched by population size and sociodemographic characteristics (income level, proportion of active population engaged in farming, proportion of unemployed, percentage of illiteracy, and province). Using log-linear models, we examined relative risk for each area and trends in risk with increasing proximity to an installation. The results reveal a pattern of solid-tumor mortality in the vicinity of uranium cycle facilities, basically characterized by excess lung [relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.25] and renal cancer mortality (RR 1.37, 95% CI, 1.07-1.76). Besides the effects of natural radiation, these results could well be evincing the influence on public health exerted by the environmental impact of mining. No such well-defined pattern appeared in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Monitoring of cancer incidence and mortality is recommended in areas surrounding nuclear fuel facilities and nuclear power plants, and more specific studies are called for in areas adjacent to installations that have been fully operational for longer periods. In this regard, it is important to use dosimetric information in all future studies.

  5. Analysis of snow-cap pollution for air quality assessment in the vicinity of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastinyte, Viktorija; Baltrenaite, Edita; Lietuvninkas, Arvydas

    2013-01-01

    Snow-cap can be used as a simple and effective indicator of industrial air pollution. In this study snow-cap samples were collected from 11 sites located in the vicinity of an oil refinery in Mazeikiai, a region in the north-west of Lithuania, in the winter of 2011. Analysis of snowmelt water and snow-dust was used to determine anthropogenic pollutants such as: sulphates and chlorides, nitrites, nitrates, ammonium nitrogen, total carbon, total nitrogen; heavy metals: lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd). Concentrations of heavy metals in snow-dust were detected thousands of times higher than those in the snowmelt water. In this study, analysis of heavy metal concentration was conducted considering different distances and the wind direction within the impact zone of the oil refinery. The sequence of heavy metals according to their mean concentrations in the snow-dust samples was the following: Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. Heavy metals highly correlated among each other. The load of snow-dust was evaluated to determine the pollution level in the study area. The highest daily load of snow-dust was 45.81 +/- 12.35 mg/m2 in the north-western direction from the oil refinery. According to classification of the daily load of snow-dust a lower than medium-risk level of pollution was determined in the vicinity of the oil refinery.

  6. Digital Geologic Map of the Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Janet L.; Berry, Margaret E.; Rowley, Peter D.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Morgan, Karen S.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Young, Owen D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Williams, Van S.; McKee, Edwin H.; Ponce, David A.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Swadley, W.C.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Warren, Richard G.; Cole, James C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Grunwald, Daniel J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Menges, Christopher M.; Yount, James C.; Jayko, Angela S.

    1999-01-01

    This digital geologic map of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity, as well as its accompanying digital geophysical maps, are compiled at 1:100,000 scale. The map compilation presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts), line (fault, fold axis, metamorphic isograd, dike, and caldera wall) and point (structural attitude) vector data for the NTS and vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California. The map area covers two 30 x 60-minute quadrangles-the Pahute Mesa quadrangle to the north and the Beatty quadrangle to the south-plus a strip of 7.5-minute quadrangles on the east side-72 quadrangles in all. In addition to the NTS, the map area includes the rest of the southwest Nevada volcanic field, part of the Walker Lane, most of the Amargosa Desert, part of the Funeral and Grapevine Mountains, some of Death Valley, and the northern Spring Mountains. This geologic map improves on previous geologic mapping of the same area (Wahl and others, 1997) by providing new and updated Quaternary and bedrock geology, new geophysical interpretations of faults beneath the basins, and improved GIS coverages. Concurrent publications to this one include a new isostatic gravity map (Ponce and others, 1999) and a new aeromagnetic map (Ponce, 1999).

  7. The Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Soils in the Vicinity of Industrial Sites in Dongguan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Lu, Liwen; Huang, Ting; Huang, Yalin; Ding, Lei; Zhao, Weituo

    2016-08-19

    Exponential industrialization and rapid urbanization have resulted in contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Dongguan, China. The aims of this research were to determine the concentration and distribution of various metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) in soils and identify their potential health risks for local residents. A total of 106 soil samples were collected from the vicinity of industrial sites in Dongguan. Two types of samples were collected from each site: topsoil (0-20 cm, TS) and shallow soil (20-50 cm, SS). Results showed that the soils were contaminated by metals and pollution was mainly focused on TS. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution indexes (PI) implied that there was a slight increase in the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Pb, but the metal pollution caused by industrial activities was less severe, and elements of As and Cr exhibited non-pollution level. The risk assessment results suggested that there was a potential health risk associated with As and Cr exposure for residents because the carcinogenic risks of As and Cr via corresponding exposure pathways exceeded the safety limit of 10(-6) (the acceptable level of carcinogenic risk for humans). Furthermore, oral ingestion and inhalation of soil particles are the main exposure pathways for As and Cr to enter the human body. This study may provide basic information of metal pollution control and human health protection in the vicinity of industrial regions.

  8. Marketing System of Fresh Friut and Vegetable: The Role of Modern and Wholesale Market in Jakarta and the Vicinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togar A. Napitupulu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Marketing system of fresh fruits and vegetable in the context of the rapidly growing dynamic markets in Jakarta and the vicinity was studied. Unstructured interviews and observations of key persons, and panels were conducted, primarily in three main wholesale markets in Jakarta and the vicinity and some supermarkets. It was found that the availability of management services and associated facilities are not yet fully compatible with modern markets. Their role, therefore, in catering to the supermarkets is limited, in particular for vegetables due to requirements on quality and delivery schedules. In general, supermarkets procure their supply directly from production centers through special/dedicated suppliers, which currently amounts to about 1% to 5% of total production from production centers. If policy and conducive economic incentive are available, wholesale markets are not only domain of public investment anymore, but also private investments alike. The newly established wholesale markets show that they now have a higher rate of utilization than in the years before. It is therefore for the local government and the central government to furthers devise conducive policy and regulatory measures, and for the private to take this opportunity in terms of investment in developing the economy of the region. 

  9. Simulated effects of groundwater withdrawals from aquifers in Ocean County and vicinity, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauller, Stephen J.; Voronin, Lois M.; Chepiga, Mary M.

    2016-10-21

    Rapid population growth since the 1930s in Ocean County and vicinity, New Jersey, has placed increasing demands upon the area’s freshwater resources. To examine effects of groundwater withdrawals, a three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate the groundwater-flow systems of five area aquifers: the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system and Vincentown aquifer, and three confined aquifers— the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, and the Piney Point aquifer. The influence of withdrawals is evaluated by using transient groundwater-flow model simulations that incorporate three withdrawal schemes. These are (1) no-withdrawal conditions; (2) 2000–03 withdrawal conditions, using reported monthly withdrawals at all production wells from January 2000 through December 2003; and (3) maximum-allocation withdrawal conditions using the maximum withdrawal allowed by New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection permits at each well. Particle tracking analysis, using results from model simulations, delineated particle flow paths from production wells to the point of recharge, and estimated particle travel times.Compared with no-withdrawal conditions, 2000–03 withdrawal conditions reduced the amount of groundwater flow out of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system into streams, increased the net flow of water into other layers, reduced net flow into or out of storage, and reduced flow from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system to constant head cells.Freshwater discharging to the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary from streams and groundwater is essential to maintaining the ecology of the bay. Examination of selected stress periods indicates that simulated base flow in streams flowing into the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary is reduced by as much as 49 cubic feet per second for 2000 to 2003 withdrawal conditions when compared with no-withdrawal conditions.In the three confined aquifers, water levels during

  10. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area lies within Monterey Bay in central California. Monterey Bay is one of the largest embayments along the west coast of the United States, spanning 36 km from its northern to southern tips (in Santa Cruz and Monterey, respectively) and 20 km along its central axis. Not only does it contain one of the broadest sections of continental shelf along California’s coast, it also contains Monterey Canyon, one of the largest and deepest submarine canyons in the world. Note that the California’s State Waters limit extends farther offshore between Santa Cruz and Monterey so that it encompasses all of Monterey Bay.The coastal area within the map area is lightly populated. The community of Moss Landing (population, 204) hosts the largest commercial fishing fleet in Monterey Bay in its harbor. The map area also includes parts of the cities of Marina (population, about 20,000) and Castroville (population, about 6,500). Fertile lowlands of the Salinas River and Pajaro River valleys largely occupy the inland part of the map area, and land use is primarily agricultural.The offshore part of the map area lies completely within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The

  11. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaz, E. D.; Rodriguez, J. H.; Wolfsberger, T.; Carreras, H. A.; Pignata, M. L.; Fangmeier, A.; Franzaring, J.

    2012-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al) and sulphur (S) as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products) were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health. PMID:22654642

  12. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Paunovic, George

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m(-1), which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were <1 and 2 V m(-1), respectively.

  13. Production of neutron-rich nuclides in the vicinity of N = 126 shell closure in multinucleon transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleon transfer in low-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is widely discussed as a method of production of yet-unknown neutron-rich nuclei hardly accessible (or inaccessible by other methods. Modeling of complicated dynamics of nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions is done within a multidimensional dynamical model of nucleus-nucleus collisions based on the Langevin equations. The model gives a continuous description of the system evolution starting from the well-separated target and projectile in the entrance channel of the reaction up to the formation of final reaction products. In this paper, rather recent sets of experimental data for the 136Xe+198Pt,208Pb reactions are analyzed together with the production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of the N = 126 magic shell.

  14. Temperature Changes in the Vicinity of Thermally Loaded Structure Embedded in the Soil: Effect of Sand Content and Saturation Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różański, Adrian

    2017-06-01

    Due to the rapid development of geothermal technologies, the problem of efficient and proper evaluation of soil thermal conductivity becomes extremely important. Factors mostly affecting the soil conductivity are the conductivity of solid phase and the degree of saturation. The former one is mainly affected by the mineral composition, in particular, by the content of quartz whose conductivity is the highest one among all the minerals forming soil skeleton. Organic matter, because of its relatively low conductivity, influences the solid conductivity as well. The problem addressed in the paper is the influence of mentioned factors on temperature changes in the vicinity of thermally loaded structure embedded in the soil medium. Numerical simulations are carried out for different values of soil thermal conductivity resulting from various quartz contents and degrees of saturation. In addition, a weak coupled - heat and water transport - problem is considered.

  15. Anomalous metallic state in the vicinity of metal to valence-bond solid insulator transition in LiVS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N; Uchida, M; Hashizume, D; Niitaka, S; Matsuno, J; Matsumura, D; Nishihata, Y; Mizuki, J; Takeshita, N; Gauzzi, A; Nohara, M; Takagi, H

    2009-10-02

    We investigate LiVS2 and LiVSe2 with a triangular lattice as itinerant analogues of LiVO2 known for the formation of a valence-bond solid (VBS) state out of an S=1 frustrated magnet. LiVS2, which is located at the border between a metal and a correlated insulator, shows a first order transition from a paramagnetic metal to a VBS insulator at Tc approximately 305 K upon cooling. The presence of a VBS state in the close vicinity of insulator-metal transition may suggest the importance of itinerancy in the formation of a VBS state. We argue that the high temperature metallic phase of LiVS2 has a pseudogap, likely originating from the VBS fluctuation. LiVSe2 was found to be a paramagnetic metal down to 2 K.

  16. Influence of the Near Molecular Vicinity on the Temperature Regulated Fluorescence Response of Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Enzenberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of new fluorescent dye bearing monomers, including glycomonomers, based on maleamide and maleic esteramide was synthesized. The dye monomers were incorporated by radical copolymerization into thermo-responsive poly(N‑vinyl-caprolactam that displays a lower critical solution temperature (LCST in aqueous solution. The effects of the local molecular environment on the polymers’ luminescence, in particular on the fluorescence intensity and the extent of solvatochromism, were investigated below as well as above the phase transition. By attaching substituents of varying size and polarity in the close vicinity of the fluorophore, and by varying the spacer groups connecting the dyes to the polymer backbone, we explored the underlying structure–property relationships, in order to establish rules for successful sensor designs, e.g., for molecular thermometers. Most importantly, spacer groups of sufficient length separating the fluorophore from the polymer backbone proved to be crucial for obtaining pronounced temperature regulated fluorescence responses.

  17. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of indoor microcell GSM/UMTS base stations in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Petrić, Majda; Nešković, Nataša; Nešković, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    To determine the level of radiofrequency radiation generated by base stations of Global System for Mobile Communications and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out in the vicinity of 664 base station locations. These were classified into three categories: indoor, masts, and locations with installations on buildings. Although microcell base stations with antennas installed indoors typically emit less power than outdoor macrocell base stations, the fact that people can be found close to antennas requires exposure originating from these base stations to be carefully considered. Measurement results showed that maximum recorded value of electric field strength exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels at 7% of indoor base station locations. At the same time, this percentage was much lower in the case of masts and installations on buildings (0% and 2.5%, respectively). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Geophysical logging and geologic mapping data in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Clark, Timothy W.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping, the collection of borehole geophysical logs and images, and passive diffusion bag sampling were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey North Carolina Water Science Center in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during March through October 2011. The study purpose was to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants. Data compilation efforts included geologic mapping of more than 250 features, including rock type and secondary joints, delineation of more than 1,300 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 15 open borehole wells, and the collection of passive diffusion-bag samples from 42 fracture zones at various depths in the 15 wells.

  19. Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardo, Lucio, E-mail: lucioleo@ipen.br [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Saiki, Mitiko [Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

  20. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  1. Study of the one dimensional electron gas arrays confined by steps in vicinal GaN/AlGaN heterointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijie; Zhao, Guijuan; Liu, Guipeng; Wei, Hongyuan; Jiao, Chunmei; Yang, Shaoyan; Wang, Lianshan; Zhu, Qinsheng

    2014-05-01

    One dimensional electron gas (1DEG) arrays in vicinal GaN/AlGaN heterostructures have been studied. The steps at the interface would lead to the lateral barriers and limit the electron movement perpendicular to such steps. Through a self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson approach, the electron energy levels and wave functions were calculated. It was found that when the total electron density was increased, the lateral barriers were lowered due to the screening effects by the electrons, and the electron gas became more two-dimension like. The calculated 1DEG densities were compared to the experimental values and good agreements were found. Moreover, we found that a higher doping density is more beneficial to form 1-D like electron gas arrays.

  2. Sea-floor geology and sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Cross Rip Channel, Nantucket Sound, offshore southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S.D.; Schaer, J.D.; Wright, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Gridded multibeam bathymetry covers approximately 10.4 square kilometers of sea floor in the vicinity of Cross Rip Channel in Nantucket Sound, offshore southeastern Massachusetts. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H12007, these acoustic data, and the sea-floor sediment sampling and bottom photography stations subsequently occupied to verify them, show the composition and terrain of the seabed and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. This report is part of an expanding series of cooperative studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management that provide a fundamental framework for research and resource-management activities (for example, windfarms, pipelines, and dredging) along the inner continental shelf offshore of Massachusetts.

  3. Direct observation of magnetic domain evolution in the vicinity of Verwey transition in Fe3O4 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. H.; Liu, W.; Dai, Z. M.; Li, S. K.; Wang, T. T.; Cui, W. B.; Li, D.; Komarek, A. C.; Chang, C. F.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2017-11-01

    We report a direct observation of magnetic domain evolution near the Verwey transition (TV) in Fe3O4 films. We found the stripe domains in the Fe3O4/Mg2TiO4 film while the irregular domains in the Fe3O4/MgO film and the similar characters of magnetic domains in the vicinity of TV for both samples: the bigger domain size and the higher contrast of the phase signal below TV and the more disordered domain images at TV. Remarkably, the magnetic behaviors can be well understood and the domain-wall energy and the demagnetizing energy can be calculated from the magnetic domains near TV in the Fe3O4/Mg2TiO4 film. Our work presents a demonstration of the low-temperature magnetic domains and gives a new perspective to understand the Verwey transition in Fe3O4 thin films.

  4. Hydraulic characteristics of aquifers penetrated by irrigation wells in the vicinity of Orovada, Humboldt County, Nevada, 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeltz, Omar J.

    1954-01-01

    During the period April 21-23, 1953, a pumping test was made on several irrigation wells penetrating alluvium about a mile southwest of Orovada, Nev., in order to determine the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifers commonly penetrated by wells in that vicinity. The test was made by the writer, engineer, and J.L Poole, geologist, United States Geological Survey, as part of an investigation of the ground-water resources of Nevada being by the U.S Geological Survey in cooperation with the State Engineer. Much recent interest in the development of underground water by pumping in the Orovada area made it desirable to make the pumping test in order to obtain data that might be helpful in the proper planning of future development. 

  5. Analysis of the temperatures measured in very thick and insulating roofs in the vicinity of a chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, M.; Luscietti, D.; Bani, S.; Fiorentino, A.; Pilotelli, M.

    2015-11-01

    Chimneys convey exhaust gas produced in domestic heat appliances to the external environment and to do this they have to pass through elements such as roofs and floors. If these elements are made up of flammable materials the fire hazard may occur. In some European countries the number of roof fire is very high and they affect also certified chimneys, that is, tested following the prescription of the related standards. The aim of this paper is to highlight that the certification procedure does not allow to test chimneys in the worst condition, therefore, chimney installed following the manufacturer prescriptions may in some cases cause the overheating and subsequent roof fire. To do this, experimental tests have been performed for measuring the temperature on roofs in the vicinity of a certified chimney. The results show that the certification procedure should be revised.

  6. CAL3JHH: a Java program to calculate the vicinal coupling constants (3J H,H) of organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Valderrama, Alonso; Dobado, José A

    2008-12-01

    Here, we present a free web-accessible application, developed in the JAVA programming language for the calculation of vicinal coupling constant (3J(H,H)) of organic molecules with the H-Csp3-Csp3-H fragment. This JAVA applet is oriented to assist chemists in structural and conformational analyses, allowing the user to calculate the averaged 3J(H,H) values among conformers, according to its Boltzmann populations. Thus, the CAL3JHH program uses the Haasnoot-Leeuw-Altona equation, and, by reading the molecule geometry from a protein data bank (PDB) file format or from multiple pdb files, automatically detects all the coupled hydrogens, evaluating the data needed for this equation. Moreover, a "Graphical viewer" menu allows the display of the results on the 3D molecule structure, as well as the plotting of the Newman projection for the couplings.

  7. Geology in the Vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM Underground Nuclear Tests, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. B. Prothro

    2001-12-01

    Recent radiochemical evidence from groundwater characterization and monitoring wells in the vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site, suggests that migration of radionuclides within groundwater beneath this portion of Area 20 may be more rapid than previously thought. In order to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions in the TYBO-BENHAM area for more accurate flow and transport modeling, a reevaluation of the subsurface geologic environment in the vicinity of the two underground tests was conducted. Eight existing drill holes provided subsurface control for the area. These holes included groundwater characterization and monitoring wells, exploratory holes, and large-diameter emplacement holes used for underground nuclear weapons tests. Detailed and consistent geologic descriptions of these holes were produced by updating existing geologic descriptions with data from petrographic, chemical, and mineralogic analyses, and current stratigraphic concepts of the region. The updated descriptions, along with surface geologic data, were used to develop a detailed geologic model of the TYBO-BENHAM area. This model is represented by diagrams that correlate stratigraphic, lithologic, and alteration intervals between holes, and by isopach and structure maps and geologic cross sections. Regional data outside the TYBO-BENHAM area were included in the isopach and structure maps to better evaluate the geology of the TYBO-BENHAM area in a regional context. The geologic model was then evaluated with regard to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration to assess the model's implications for flow and transport modeling. Implications include: (1) confirmation of the general hydrogeology of the area described in previous studies; (2) the presence of two previously unrecognized buried faults that could act as zones of enhanced permeability within aquifers; and (3) secondary alteration within tuff confining

  8. Doses in the vicinity of mobile x-ray equipment in a children's intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milkovic, D. [Hospital of Lung Diseases for the Children and Youth, Srebrnjak, Zagreb (Croatia); Knezevic, Z.; Ranogajec-Komor, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Bozinovic, D. [Clinic for Infectius Diseases ' Dr. Fran Mihaljevic' , Zagreb (Croatia)

    2000-05-01

    Most of the patients in the Intensive Care Unit for Children are new-borns and infants having an infection of the central nervous system, with systemic septic and respiratory infections. Therefore, mobile X-ray equipment is routinely used for diagnosis of the respiratory tract, heart and endovascular catheterization. The aim of this work was to determine the radiation exposure to children in the vicinity of the exposed patient in the same or next room. The mobile X-ray unit is a Phillips Practix 100 model, including mobile shields (made by the firm Weimer Strahlenschutz) for radiation protection of patients and personal. For dose measurements, a thermoluminescent dosimetry system with TLD-700 detectors (manufactured by Harshaw) and a microprocessor controlled TOLEDO 654 reader were used. Three measurement runs were carried out. In the first one, the dosimeters were placed on the bed, without the patient, and the x-ray unit was operated as for thoracic x-ray. The results show the adequate homogeneity of the irradiation field. In the second measurement run, dosimeters were placed on the neighbouring bed behind the shield as well as on the glass wall of the room at various heights and distances from the X-ray tube. The results show that doses are very low, practically in the range of the lowest detectable dose, about 5 {mu}Sv. In the 3rd measurement run, the configuration of dosimeters in the surroundings were the same, but the irradiation was carried out with a 2 year old female patient and the distribution of the patient's surface dose was measured. The entrance dose on the breast was found to be 0.17 mSv. The results of this study show that the exposure of children to radiation in the vicinity of the exposed patient in the same or next room is not measurable. Therefore there is no basis for the risk estimation of genetic, leukemogenic and cancerogenic detriment. (author)

  9. An atomistic mechanism study of GaN step-flow growth in vicinal m-plane orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhun; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Zapol, Peter

    2016-10-26

    Elucidation of homoepitaxial growth mechanisms on vicinal non-polar surfaces of GaN is highly important for gaining an understanding of and control thin film surface morphology and properties. Using first-principles calculations, we study the step-flow growth in m-plane GaN based on atomic row nucleation and kink propagation kinetics. Ga-N dimer adsorption onto the m-plane is energetically more favorable than that of Ga and N isolated adatoms. Therefore, we have treated the dimers as the dominant growth species attached to the step edges. By calculating the free energies of sequentially attached Ga-N dimers, we have elucidated that the a-step edge kink growth proceeds by parallel attachment rather than by across the step edge approach. We found a series of favorable configurations of kink propagation and calculated the free energy and nucleation barriers for kink evolution on five types of step edges (a, +c, -c, +a + c, and -a - c). By changing the chemical potential μ Ga and the excess chemical potential Δμ, the growth velocities at the five types of edges are controlled by the corresponding kink pair nucleation barrier E* in their free energy profiles. To explore the kink-flow growth instability observed at different Ga/N flux ratios, calculations of kink pairs on the incompact -c and +c-step edges are further performed to study their formation energies. Variations of these step edge morphologies with a tuned chemical environment are consistent with previous experimental observations, including stable diagonal ±a ± c-direction steps. Our work provides a first-principles approach to explore step growth and surface morphology of the vicinal m-plane GaN, which is applicable to analyze and control the step-flow growth of other binary thin films.

  10. Chemical evolution of 244Pu in the solar vicinity and its implications for the properties of r-process production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Bekki, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Meteoritic abundances of r-process elements are analyzed to deduce the history of chemical enrichment by the r-process, from the beginning of disk formation to the present time in the solar vicinity. Our analysis combines the abundance information from short-lived radioactive nuclei such as 244Pu with the abundance information from stable r-process nuclei such as Eu. These two types of nuclei can be associated with one r-process event and an accumulation of events until the formation of the solar system, respectively. With the help of the observed local star formation (SF) history, we deduce the chemical evolution of 244Pu and obtain three main results: (I) the last r-process event occurred 130-140 Myr before the formation of the solar system; (II) the present-day low 244Pu abundance as measured in deep-sea reservoirs results from the low recent SF rate compared to ˜4.5-5 Gyr ago; and (III) there were ˜15 r-process events in the solar vicinity from the formation of the Galaxy to the time of solar system’s formation and ˜30 r-process events to the present time. Then, adopting the hypothesis that a neutron star (NS) merger is the r-process production site, we find that the ejected r-process elements are extensively spread out and mixed with interstellar matter, with a mass of ˜ 3.5× {10}6 M⊙, which is about 100 times larger than that for supernova ejecta. In addition, the event frequency of r-process production is estimated to be 1 per ~1400 core-collapse supernovae, which is identical to the frequency of NS mergers estimated from the analysis of stellar abundances.

  11. 33 CFR 334.790 - Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval and Marine Corps Reserve...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sabine River at Orange, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.790 Sabine River at Orange, Tex.; restricted area in vicinity of the Naval.... Government or those duly authorized by the Commanding Officer, Naval and Marine Corps Reserve Center, Orange...

  12. 75 FR 24504 - Proposed Modification of VOR Federal Airways V-82, V-175, V-191, and V-430 in the Vicinity of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...- 430 in the vicinity of Bemidji, MN. The Bemidji (BJI) VOR, navigation aid that forms a segment of... interference problems and is planned for decommissioning. An airway intersection reporting point is being... aircraft reaches a useable segment of the airways. To restore the navigable airway structure in the...

  13. 77 FR 9876 - Proposed Modification of VOR Federal Airways V-10, V-12, and V-508 in the Vicinity of Olathe, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... route segments in the vicinity of Olathe, KS, between Emporia, KS, and Napoleon, MO, unchanged. To... descriptions would replace the ``Johnson County, KS'' reference with ``INT Emporia 063 (T)/055 (M) and Napoleon... City, KS; Dodge City, KS; Hutchinson, KS; Emporia, KS; INT Emporia 063 (T)/055 (M) and Napoleon, MO...

  14. Investigation of the chemical vicinity of defects in Mg and AZ31 with positron coincident Doppler boarding spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Martin

    2008-03-10

    Within the scope of the present work, two main goals have been achieved: Firstly, the coincident Doppler broadening spectrometer (CDBS) at the high intense positron source NEPOMUC has been elaborately improved in order to increase the spatial resolution for defect mapping measurements and to investigate samples with shallow positron trapping sites which are present e. g. in magnesium. Secondly, as an application, the chemical vicinity of defects in the industrially used magnesium based alloy AZ31 has been examined by means of the detailed investigation of ion-irradiated specimen with positron annihilation spectroscopy. Detailed simulations with the finite-element simulation tool COMSOL were used to optimize the focal diameter of the positron beam at the sample position in order to increase the spatial resolution. With a value of 0.3 mm, sub-mm resolution has now been reached. The CDBS has been furthermore equipped with a sample cooling unit in order to reach liquid nitrogen temperature, maintaining the feature of scanning the sample for defect mapping. Defects and their chemical surrounding in ion irradiated magnesium and the magnesium based alloy AZ31 were then investigated on an atomic scale with the CDBS. In the respective spectra the chemical information and the defect contribution have been thoroughly separated. For this purpose, samples of annealed Mg were irradiated with Mg-ions in order to create exclusively defects. In addition Al- and Zn-ion irradiations on Mg-samples were performed in order to create samples with both defects and impurity atoms. The ion irradiated area on the samples was investigated with laterally and depth resolved positron Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and compared with SRIM-simulations of the vacancy distribution. The investigation of the chemical vicinity of crystal defects in AZ31 was performed with CDBS on Mg-ion irradiated AZ31 with Mg-ion irradiated Mg. The outer tail of the energy distribution in the annihilation

  15. Response of key stress-related genes of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the vicinity of submarine volcanic vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritano, C.; Ruocco, M.; Dattolo, E.; Buia, M. C.; Silva, J.; Santos, R.; Olivé, I.; Costa, M. M.; Procaccini, G.

    2015-07-01

    Submarine volcanic vents are being used as natural laboratories to assess the effects of increased ocean acidity and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on marine organisms and communities. However, in the vicinity of volcanic vents other factors in addition to CO2, which is the main gaseous component of the emissions, may directly or indirectly confound the biota responses to high CO2. Here we used for the first time the expression of antioxidant and stress-related genes of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to assess the stress levels of the species. Our hypothesis is that unknown factors are causing metabolic stress that may confound the putative effects attributed to CO2 enrichment only. We analyzed the expression of 35 antioxidant and stress-related genes of P. oceanica in the vicinity of submerged volcanic vents located in the islands of Ischia and Panarea, Italy, and compared them with those from control sites away from the influence of vents. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to characterize gene expression patterns. Fifty-one percent of genes analyzed showed significant expression changes. Metal detoxification genes were mostly down-regulated in relation to controls at both Ischia and Panarea, indicating that P. oceanica does not increase the synthesis of heavy metal detoxification proteins in response to the environmental conditions present at the two vents. The up-regulation of genes involved in the free radical detoxification response (e.g., CAPX, SODCP and GR) indicates that, in contrast with Ischia, P. oceanica at the Panarea site faces stressors that result in the production of reactive oxygen species, triggering antioxidant responses. In addition, heat shock proteins were also activated at Panarea and not at Ischia. These proteins are activated to adjust stress-accumulated misfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation as a response to some stressors, not necessarily high temperature. This is the first

  16. Human biomonitoring of heavy metals in the vicinity of non-ferrous metal plants in Ath, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fierens

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study revealed an environmental contamination by heavy metals in the vicinity of two non-ferrous metal plants in Ath, Belgium. The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to estimate exposure of the population to heavy metals in the vicinity of the plants, in comparison with population living further away. Methods We did a random sampling in the general population of Ath in two areas: a central area, including the plants, and a peripheral area, presumably less exposed. We quantified cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium and cobalt in blood and/or urine of children and adults in three age groups: (i children aged 2.5 to 6 years (n = 98, (ii children aged 7 to 11 years (n = 74, and (iii adults aged 40 to 60 years (n = 106. We also studied subclinical health effects by quantifying retinol-binding protein and microalbuminuria, and by means of a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results We obtained a participation rate of 24 %. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in young children living in the central area (18.2 μg/l ; 95 % CI: 15.9–20.9 compared to the peripheral area (14.8 μg/l ; 95 % CI: 12.6–17.4. We observed no other significant mean difference in metal concentrations between the two areas. In the whole population, blood lead levels were higher in men (31.7 μg/l ; 95 % CI: 27.9–36.1 than in women (21.4 μg/l ; 95 % CI: 18.1–25.3. Urine cadmium levels were 0.06 μg/g creatinine (95 % CI: 0.05–0.07, 0.21 μg/g creatinine (95 % CI: 0.17–0.27, and 0.25 μg/g creatinine (95 % CI: 0.20–0.30 for children, men, and women, respectively. Conclusions Despite higher blood lead levels in young children living close to the plants, observed metal concentrations remain in the range found in other similar biomonitoring studies in the general population and are below the levels of concern for public health.

  17. Determination of Total Tritium in Urine from Residents Living in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants in Qinshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Ming Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the tritium doses of the residents living in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant, urine samples of 34 adults were collected from residents living near the Qinshan nuclear power plant. The tritium-in-urine (HTO plus OBT was measured by liquid scintillation counting. The doses of tritium-in-urine from participants living at 2, 10 and 22 km were in a range of 1.26–6.73 Bq/L, 1.31–3.09 Bq/L and 2.21–3.81 Bq/L, respectively, while the average activity concentrations of participants from the three groups were 3.53 ± 1.62, 2.09 ± 0.62 and 2.97 ± 0.78 Bq/L, respectively. The personal committed effective doses for males were 2.5 ± 1.7 nSv and for females they were 2.9 ± 1.3 nSv. These results indicate that tritium concentrations in urine samples from residents living at 2 km from a nuclear power plant are significantly higher than those at 10 km. It may be the downwind direction that caused a higher dose in participants living at 22 km. All the measured doses of tritium-in-urine are in a background level range.

  18. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget in the Puyallup River Watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Wendy B.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.; Lane, Ron C.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Marshall, Cameron; Clothier, Burt G.; Knoedler, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system in the Puyallup River Watershed and vicinity, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal groundwater level fluctuations; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a water budget. The study area covers about 1,220 square miles in northern Pierce and southern King Counties, Washington; extends north to the Green River and Auburn Valley and southwest to the Puyallup River and adjacent uplands; and is bounded on the south and east by foothills of the Cascade Range and on the west by Puget Sound. The area is underlain by a northwest-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits, which overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the foothills along the southern and eastern margin of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 13 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 1,012 drillers’ logs to construct 8 hydrogeologic sections, and unit extent and thickness maps.

  19. Geology, hydrology, and water quality of the glacial drift aquifer in the vicinity of the Nelson landfill near Yorkville, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the sand-and-gravel deposits that compose the glacial drift aquifer in the vicinity of the Nelson Landfill site in Yor-kville, Illinois indicate that the aquifer could be devel-oped as a source of public water supply. The geology of these deposits within the Newark Bedrock Valley is com-plex, however, and a detailed investigation of their water bearing and transmitting properties will be required to successfully locate high-capacity wells. Volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and cyanide were not detected in ground water during this investiga-tion. Metals and nitrogen compounds were not detected at concentrations above their Maximum Contaminant Level. Iron, manganese, and aluminum were detected at concentrations above their Secondary Maximum Con-taminant Level and various constituents were detected at concentrations above background levels downgradi-ent of the landfill. Nitrate and ammonia, presumably derived from agricultural practices, also were detected in samples from locations hydraulically upgradient of the landfill. Oxidation-reduction conditions in the aquifer become more reducing with depth. This change is reflected by a change in the type of nitrogen compound detected and the concentration of dissolved oxygen and iron in the glacial drift aquifer. Concentrations of some of the major ions and metals may be affected by disso-lution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer and perhaps road salts.

  20. Measurement and Modeling of Personal Exposure to the Electric and Magnetic Fields in the Vicinity of High Voltage Power Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourab, Wafa; Babouri, Abdesselam

    2016-06-01

    This work presents an experimental and modeling study of the electromagnetic environment in the vicinity of a high voltage substation located in eastern Algeria (Annaba city) specified with a very high population density. The effects of electromagnetic fields emanating from the coupled multi-lines high voltage power systems (MLHV) on the health of the workers and people living in proximity of substations has been analyzed. Experimental Measurements for the Multi-lines power system proposed have been conducted in the free space under the high voltage lines. Field's intensities were measured using a referenced and calibrated electromagnetic field meter PMM8053B for the levels 0 m, 1 m, 1.5 m and 1.8 m witch present the sensitive's parts as organs and major functions (head, heart, pelvis and feet) of the human body. The measurement results were validated by numerical simulation using the finite element method and these results are compared with the limit values of the international standards. We project to set own national standards for exposure to electromagnetic fields, in order to achieve a regional database that will be at the disposal of partners concerned to ensure safety of people and mainly workers inside high voltage electrical substations.

  1. A Study Of Environmental Impacts On The Coral Resources In The Vicinity Of The Saint Martin Island Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Sayed Ahammed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of the environmental impacts on the coral resources in the vicinity of the Saint Martin Island Bangladesh was conducted with a view to making an assessment of the current status of coral resources in the island and identifying major natural and anthropogenic environmental threats to the future sustainability of these resources. It is evident that the coral resources have been reduced significantly and currently only 41 coral species are available. The existing environmental condition assessed by pH salinity turbidity and temperature in the island is not found responsible for the survival of the corals. The study also reveals that the major anthropogenic interventions are responsible for the gradual depletion of the coral resources. The major anthropogenic threats to the coral resources are coral collection and overfishing. In addition coral extraction is identified as a potential threat to the future integrity of coral communities in the island. Environmental threats from anthropogenic activities related to sedimentation land erosion and pollution are also the concerns for the coral communities in the island. For the conservation of the coral population no coral monitoring cell has been established in this island.

  2. Distribution and properties of gunshot residue originating from a Luger 9 mm ammunition in the vicinity of the shooting gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2009-01-10

    Examinations of various features of gunshot residue (GSR) collected from targets in a function of the shooting distance as well as from hands and the forearm, front and back parts of the upper clothing of the shooting person were performed with SEM-EDX. GSR samples were obtained using Walther P-99 pistol and Luger 9 mm ammunition of Polish production. The experiments were designed in such a manner that the substrates for collecting GSR reminded the ones usually obtained for examinations within criminal cases. Results of the performed examinations in the form of parameters describing GSR particles: the number of GSR, proportions of their chemical classes as well as their sizes revealed a dependence on the shooting distance both, in the direction of shooting and backwards, i.e. on the shooting person. The analysis of the distribution of particles in the vicinity of the shooting gun may be utilised in description of the general rules of the dispersion of GSR as well as in the reconstruction of a real shooting case.

  3. An estimation of water origins in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone's center and associated dynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Toshinari; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Kawano, Tetsuya; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Tanoue, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kei

    2018-01-01

    To clarify the time evolution of water origins in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone (TC)'s center, we have simulated Typhoon Man-yi (July 2007) in our case study, using an isotopic regional spectral model. The model results confirm that the replacement of water origins occurs successively as the TC develops and migrates northward over the western North Pacific. It is confirmed that, in this case, a significant proportion of total precipitable water around the cyclone center comes from external regions rather than the underlying ocean during the mature stage of a TC. Similar features can also be seen in the proportion of each oceanic origin to total condensation. Indian Ocean, South China Sea, and Maritime Continent water vapors begin to increase gradually at the developing stage and reach their peak at the decay stage when the TC approaches southwestern Japan. These remote ocean vapors are transported to the east of the cyclone via the moisture conveyor belt, a zone characterized by distinct low-level moisture flux that stretches from the Indian Ocean to the TC, and are further supplied into the inner region of the TC by inflow within the boundary layer associated with its secondary circulation. Since it takes time to undergo these two dynamic processes, the delayed influence of remote ocean vapors on the TC appears to become evident during the mature stage.

  4. The magnetic field geometry in the vicinity of HH 7-11/HH 12 and HH 33/HH 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Mark H.; Strom, Stephen E.; Strom, Karen M.

    1987-01-01

    The small-scale structure of the interstellar magnetic field in the vicinity of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 7-11/HH 12 and HH 33/40 is derived from CCD imaging polarimetry of stars nearby to these young stellar object driven outflows. The outflow associated with SVS 13/HH 7-11 lies approximately parallel to the local field direction. The outflow mapped by HH 33/HH 40 is also well aligned with the local magnetic field. However, the orientation of the outflow associated with HH 12 located 2 arcmin to the north of HH 7-11 is offset from the inferred magnetic field direction by 60 deg. These results taken together with those of previous studies suggest: (1) magnetic fields are directly or indirectly responsible for the observed orientation of outflows associated with newborn stars in the majority of cases; and (2) in some cases, the flow properties may depend upon other characteristics of the parent cloud core.

  5. Evolution of magnetic properties in the vicinity of the Verwey transition in Fe3O4 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. H.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2017-09-01

    We have systematically studied the evolution of magnetic properties, especially the coercivity and the remanence ratio in the vicinity of the Verwey transition temperature (TV), of high-quality epitaxial Fe3O4 thin films grown on MgO (001), MgAl2O4 (MAO) (001), and SrTiO3 (STO) (001) substrates. We observed rapid change of magnetization, coercivity, and remanence ratio at TV, which are consistent with the behaviors of resistivity versus temperature [ρ (T )] curves for the different thin films. In particular, we found quite different magnetic behaviors for the thin films on MgO from those on MAO and STO, in which the domain size and the strain state play very important roles. The coercivity is mainly determined by the domain size but the demagnetization process is mainly dependent on the strain state. Furthermore, we observed a reversal of remanence ratio at TV with thickness for the thin films grown on MgO: from a rapid enhancement for 40-nm- to a sharp drop for 200-nm-thick film, and the critical thickness is about 80 nm. Finally, we found an obvious hysteretic loop of coercivity (or remanence ratio) with temperature around TV, corresponding to the hysteretic loop of the ρ (T ) curve, in Fe3O4 thin film grown on MgO.

  6. Impact of Brick Kilns’ Emission on Soil Quality of Agriculture Fields in the Vicinity of Selected Bhaktapur Area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Bisht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate soil quality and impact of brick kiln on different physicochemical parameters of soils of agricultural field, located in the vicinity of Bhaktapur, Nepal. The study was carried out by determining the physicochemical characteristics of soil, soil fertility, and heavy metal contamination of soil. During the entire study period, water absorptivity of soil ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mg/L, pH varies from 5.885 to 7.64, and organic carbon content and organic matter varied from 0.277 to 0.93%, from 0.477% to 1.603%, respectively. Nutrient content, that is, sulfate and nitrate concentration, in the soil ranged from 0.829 to 3.764 mol/L and from 0.984 to 29.99 mol/L, respectively. The findings revealed that concentrations of heavy metals (chromium and lead were within permissible limit, although the levels were higher in soil at 50 m and decrease farther from brick kiln. However, the physical parameters and nutrient content were deficient in soil at 50 m while increasing gradually at distances of 100 m and 150 m. The variation of result obtained for physical parameters supports the fact that quality of soil in terms of heavy metal content and nutrient content was directly proportional to the distance from the kiln; that is, the quality of soil increased with increasing distance.

  7. Stimulated bacterioplankton growth and selection for certain bacterial taxa in the vicinity of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eDinasquet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Episodic blooms of voracious gelatinous zooplankton, such as the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, affect pools of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon by intensive grazing activities and mucus release. This will potentially influence bacterioplankton activity and community composition, at least at local scales; however, available studies on this are scarce. In the present study we examined effects of M. leidyi on bacterioplankton growth and composition in incubation experiments. Moreover, we examined community composition of bacteria associated with the surface and gut of M. leidyi. High release of ammonium and high bacterial growth was observed in the treatments with M. leidyi relative to controls. Deep 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed specific bacterial communities in treatments with M. leidyi as well as specific communities associated with M. leidyi tissue and gut. In particular, members of Flavobacteriaceae were associated with M. leidyi. Our study shows that M. leidyi influences bacterioplankton activity and community composition in the vicinity of the jellyfish. In particular during temporary aggregations of jellyfish, these local zones of high bacterial growth may contribute significantly to the spatial heterogeneity of bacterioplankton activity and community composition in the sea.

  8. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station installed on buildings in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Slavkovic, Vladimir; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar

    2016-03-01

    As a result of dense deployment of public mobile base stations, additional electromagnetic (EM) radiation occurs in the modern human environment. At the same time, public concern about the exposure to EM radiation emitted by such sources has increased. In order to determine the level of radio frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive EM field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations, from which 276 locations refer to the case of base stations with antenna system installed on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (42 %) of locations with installations on buildings, as well as the inevitable presence of people in their vicinity, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed. Measurement results showed that the maximum recorded value of total electric field strength has exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection general public exposure reference levels at 2.5 % of locations and Serbian national reference levels at 15.6 % of locations. It should be emphasised that the values exceeding the reference levels were observed only outdoor, while in indoor total electric field strength in no case exceeded the defined reference levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Whole-Genome Identification and Expression Pattern of the Vicinal Oxygen Chelate Family in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Wan, Neng; Cheng, Zao; Mo, Yufeng; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Hui; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Yin, Yongtai; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Vicinal oxygen chelate proteins (VOC) are members of the metalloenzyme superfamily, which plays roles in many biological reactions. Some members of the VOC superfamily have been systematically characterized but not in Brassica napus. In this study, 38 VOC genes were identified based on their conserved domains. The present results revealed that most of the BnaVOC genes have few introns, and all contained the typical VOC structure of βαβββ modules. The BnaVOC genes are distributed unevenly across 15 chromosomes in B. napus and occur as gene clusters on chromosomes C5 and A6. The synteny and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the VOC gene family is a consequence of mesopolyploidy events that occurred in Brassica evolution, and whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication played a major role in the expansion of the BnaVOC gene family. The expression profile analysis indicated that the expression of most BnaVOCs was increased in the leaves and late stage seeds. Further results indicated that seeds of B. napus with a high oil content show higher expression levels under drought stress conditions, suggesting that BnaVOCs not only respond to abiotic stress but may also affect lipid metabolism in drought stress. This present study provides a comprehensive overview of the VOC gene family and provides new insights into their biological function in B. napus evolution. PMID:28536594

  10. Magnetocaloric effect in Ni{sub 2}MnGa single crystal in the vicinity of the martensitic phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radelytskyi, I., E-mail: radel@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Pękała, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Al. Zwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Gawryluk, D.J. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Laboratory for Scientific Developments and Novel Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Berkowski, M.; Fink-Finowicki, J. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Diduszko, R. [Tele and Radio Research Institute, ul Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Dyakonov, V.; Szymczak, H. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-05-15

    The magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the martensitic transformation for a single crystalline alloy with a composition close to the stoichiometric Ni{sub 2}MnGa has been determined indirectly by M(T,H) magnetization measurements. It has an inverse character. The magnetocaloric parameters, i.e., the magnetic entropy change, refrigeration capacity and various hysteretic effects have been calculated from the M(T,H) dependences. Besides the martensitic transition a weak entirely separated intermartensitic transition was observed. These two successive magneto-structural transformations give contributions to the observed magnetocaloric effect. Unusual dependence of entropy change as a function of magnetic field has been explained as arising because of two different mechanisms. Additionally, to confirm that studied martensitic transformation is a first order phase transition electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power measurements have been performed. - Highlights: • Inverse magnetocaloric effect in Ni{sub 50.4}Mn{sub 24.9}Ga{sub 24.7} single crystal was measured. • The martensitic and separated intermartensitic transition were investigated. • Anisotropy of measured magnetocaloric effect was discussed.

  11. Indoor radon measurements in a Greek city located in the vicinity of lignite-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manousakas, M.; Fouskas, A.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Koukouliou, V.; Siavalas, G.; Kritidis, P. [University of Patras, Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-10-15

    This work presents indoor radon measurements in 42 dwellings in the city of Megalopolis, Southern Greece, located in the vicinity of 2 lignite-fired power plants and examines the effect of season, floor level and age of the dwellings on indoor radon concentration. The radon measurements have been carried out using the LR-115, type II and CR-39 alpha track detectors in 'closed-can' geometry. The average annual indoor radon concentration (GM) was found to be 52 Bq m{sup -3}, which is well below the recommended action level of the European Union. This value corresponds to an annual effective dose to the population of 1.3 {+-} 0.4 mSv. Season and age of the examined dwellings represent factors that affected significantly the indoor radon in Megalopolis, while the effect of floor level appeared to be not significant. Radium activity concentration values, measured by gamma-ray spectrometry in 20 sub-samples of six soil cores (60-135 cm depth), collected from the surrounding area of the city, were found to be consistent with the Greek and world average values. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the effect of the lignite-fired power plants on indoor radon concentration in Megalopolis' dwellings was not significant.

  12. Determination of total tritium in urine from residents living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Qinshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bao-Ming; Ji, Yan-Qin; Tian, Qing; Shao, Xiang-Zhang; Yin, Liang-Liang; Su, Xu

    2015-01-16

    To estimate the tritium doses of the residents living in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant, urine samples of 34 adults were collected from residents living near the Qinshan nuclear power plant. The tritium-in-urine (HTO plus OBT) was measured by liquid scintillation counting. The doses of tritium-in-urine from participants living at 2, 10 and 22 km were in a range of 1.26-6.73 Bq/L, 1.31-3.09 Bq/L and 2.21-3.81 Bq/L, respectively, while the average activity concentrations of participants from the three groups were 3.53 ± 1.62, 2.09 ± 0.62 and 2.97 ± 0.78 Bq/L, respectively. The personal committed effective doses for males were 2.5 ± 1.7 nSv and for females they were 2.9 ± 1.3 nSv. These results indicate that tritium concentrations in urine samples from residents living at 2 km from a nuclear power plant are significantly higher than those at 10 km. It may be the downwind direction that caused a higher dose in participants living at 22 km. All the measured doses of tritium-in-urine are in a background level range.

  13. An unsupervised learning algorithm: application to the discrimination of seismic events and quarry blasts in the vicinity of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Kuyuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the application of an unsupervised learning (neural network approach comprising a Self Organizing Map (SOM, to distinguish micro-earthquakes from quarry blasts in the vicinity of Istanbul, Turkey, are presented and discussed. The SOM is constructed as a neural classifier and complementary reliability estimator to distinguish seismic events, and was employed for varying map sizes. Input parameters consisting of frequency and time domain data (complexity, spectral ratio, S/P wave amplitude peak ratio and origin time of events extracted from the vertical components of digital seismograms were estimated as discriminants for 179 (1.8 < Md < 3.0 local events. The results show that complexity and amplitude peak ratio parameters of the observed velocity seismogram may suffice for a reliable discrimination, while origin time and spectral ratio were found to be fuzzy and misleading classifiers for this problem. The SOM discussed here achieved a discrimination reliability that could be employed routinely in observatory practice; however, about 6% of all events were classified as ambiguous cases. This approach was developed independently for this particular classification, but it could be applied to different earthquake regions.

  14. Lead content in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences and leaves: impact of precipitations and vicinity of motorway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meos, Andres; Jüriado, Tiiu; Matto, Vallo; Raal, Ain

    2011-05-01

    Trace metal contamination is a major environmental and health problem virtually in all countries. The present study was aimed to estimate the lead content of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences and leaves collected from a nonpolluted test field. The lead content in dry pot marigold inflorescences was 9.34 ± 0.79 µg/g, in dry leaves 11.57 ± 0.47 µg/g, and in soil 0.649 ± 0.012 µg/g. The distance of pot marigold collection beds (30-220 m from the motorway) had no effect on lead content. There was a strong positive correlation between the amount of precipitations and lead content of pot marigold leaves but not inflorescences indicating the soil as primarily the source of increased lead content. In conclusion, no effect of motorway vicinity was found for pot marigold inflorescences or leaves lead content; however, as a precaution, it is not recommended to collect the plants during or just after showers.

  15. 76 FR 6496 - Special Flight Rules Area in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, Draft Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ...Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C), the National Park Service announces the availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Special Flight Rules Area in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park for Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The four alternatives in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) that are being considered include: Alternative A Current Condition: Key elements are corridors open year round, annual allocation cap of 93,971, and no quiet technology incentive. Current tours for helicopters and fixed wing remain the same. Alternative E Alternating Seasonal Use: Key elements are corridors alternating on a seasonal basis, daily allocation cap of 364 for air tour and air tour related, and conversion to quiet technology aircraft. Alternative F Modified Current Condition: Key elements are similar to current condition except for one way east bound tour for quiet technology, elimination of Nankoweap loop, incentives for quiet technology aircraft, and seasonal shift for Dragon corridor. NPS Preferred Alternative: Key elements are short-loop corridors alternate on a seasonal basis, four-year phase in of long-loop for quiet technology aircraft, annual allocation cap of 65,000 air tour and related operations and a daily cap of 364 for commercial air tours, increased altitudes for some areas and flight free zones, and conversion of quiet technology within ten years.

  16. Remote sensing observations of the coherent and non-coherent ring structures in the vicinity of Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cruz Gómez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The North Brazil Current Rings (NBCR penetration into the Caribbean Sea is being investigated by employing a merged altimeter-derived sea height anomaly (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and ERS-1, 2, the ocean surface color data (SeaWiFS and Global Drifter Program information. Four strategies are being applied to process the data: (1 calculations of the Okubo-Weiss parameter for NBCR identification, (2 longitude-time plots (also known as Hovmöller diagrams, (3 two-dimensional Radon transforms and (4 two-dimensional Fourier transforms.

    A twofold NBCR structure has been detected in the region under investigation. The results have shown that NBC rings mainly propagate into the Caribbean Sea along two principal pathways (near 12° N and 17° N in the ring translation corridor. Thus, rings following the southern pathway in the fall-winter period can enter through very shallow southern straits as non-coherent structures. A different behavior is observed near the northern pathway (~17° N, where NBC rings are thought to have a coherent structure during their squeezing into the eastern Caribbean, i.e. conserving the principal characteristics of the incident rings. We attribute this difference in the rings' behavior to the vertical scales of the rings and to the bottom topography features in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles.

  17. Finite-element simulation of ground-water flow in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada-California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Waddell, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    A finite-element model of the groundwater flow system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site was developed using parameter estimation techniques. The model simulated steady-state ground-water flow occurring in tuffaceous, volcanic , and carbonate rocks, and alluvial aquifers. Hydraulic gradients in the modeled area range from 0.00001 for carbonate aquifers to 0.19 for barriers in tuffaceous rocks. Three model parameters were used in estimating transmissivity in six zones. Simulated hydraulic-head values range from about 1,200 m near Timber Mountain to about 300 m near Furnace Creek Ranch. Model residuals for simulated versus measured hydraulic heads range from -28.6 to 21.4 m; most are less than +/-7 m, indicating an acceptable representation of the hydrologic system by the model. Sensitivity analyses of the model 's flux boundary condition variables were performed to assess the effect of varying boundary fluxes on the calculation of estimated model transmissivities. Varying the flux variables representing discharge at Franklin Lake and Furnace Creek Ranch has greater effect than varying other flux variables. (Author 's abstract)

  18. The Sociocultural Value of Upland Regions in the Vicinity of Cities in Comparison With Urban Green Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Schmidt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain and upland regions provide a wide range of ecosystem services to residents and visitors. While ecosystem research in mountain regions is on the rise, the linkages between sociocultural benefits and ecological systems remain little explored. Mountainous regions close to urban areas provide numerous benefits to a large number of individuals, suggesting a high social value, particularly for cultural ecosystem services. We explored and compared visitors' valuation of ecosystem services in the Pentland Hills, an upland range close to the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, and urban green spaces within Edinburgh. Based on 715 responses to user surveys in both study areas, we identified intense use and high social value for both areas. Several ecosystem services were perceived as equally important in both areas, including many cultural ecosystem services. Significant differences were revealed in the value of physically using nature, which Pentland Hills users rated more highly than those in the urban green spaces, and of mitigation of pollutants and carbon sequestration, for which the urban green spaces were valued more highly. Major differences were further identified for preferences in future land management, with nature-oriented management preferred by about 57% of the interviewees in the Pentland Hills, compared to 31% in the urban parks. The study highlights the substantial value of upland areas in close vicinity to a city for physically using and experiencing nature, with a strong acceptance of nature conservation.

  19. Optical anisotropy of InGaAs quantum wire arrays on vicinal (111)B GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Takuya

    2016-10-01

    We studied the optical anisotropy of InGaAs quantum wire (QWR) arrays on vicinal (111)B GaAs. Polarized photoluminescence (PL) studies showed that the PL is polarized preferentially along [1-10], where the polarization degree ρ is about 9.4%. We also theoretically investigated the electronic states of the InGaAs QWR arrays to clarify how the optical anisotropy is affected by (1) the corrugated structure, (2) the strain effect including piezoelectricity, and (3) the thickness difference of the InGaAs layers on the two facets of the corrugated structure. While ρ for the corrugated structure is almost the same as that for a flat quantum well structure, the strain effects and the thickness difference result in the increases of ρ by about 1.9 and 2.5 times. The calculated results were compared to the experimental data. It was found that the effects of the strain and the thickness difference are important to explain the optical anisotropy of the InGaAs QWR arrays.

  20. Seismicity in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the Period October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ken

    2007-11-26

    This report describes earthquake activity within approximately 65 km of Yucca Mountain site during the October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006 time period (FY05-06). The FY05-06 earthquake activity will be compared with the historical and more recent period of seismic activity in the Yucca Mountain region. The relationship between the distribution of seismicity and active faults, historical patterns of activity, and rates of earthquakes (number of events and their magnitudes) are important components in the assessment of the seismic hazard for the Yucca Mountain site. Since October 1992 the University of Nevada has compiled a catalog of earthquakes in the Yucca Mountain area. Seismicity reports have identified notable earthquake activity, provided interpretations of the seismotectonics of the region, and documented changes in the character of earthquake activity based on nearly 30 years of site-characterization monitoring. Data from stations in the seismic network in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain is collected and managed at the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada Reno (UNR). Earthquake events are systematically identified and cataloged under Implementing Procedures developed in compliance with the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) Quality Assurance Program. The earthquake catalog for FY05-06 in the Yucca Mountain region submitted to the Yucca Mountain Technical Data Management System (TDMS) forms the basis of this report.

  1. Case-control study on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany 1980-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spix, Claudia; Schmiedel, Sven; Kaatsch, Peter; Schulze-Rath, Renate; Blettner, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The 1984 Windscale study raised concern about a possible association between living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants and childhood cancer. No such effect for all cancers was seen in ecological studies in Germany (1980-1995). Results from exploratory analyses led to a new study. Pre-selected areas around all 16 major nuclear power plants in Germany formed the study area. The design is a matched case-control study; cases are all cancers under five years diagnosed in 1980-2003: 1592 cases, and 4735 controls. Inverse distance of place of residence to the nearest nuclear power plant at the time of diagnosis was used as the independent variable in a conditional logistic regression model. Results show an increased risk for childhood cancer under five years when living near nuclear power plants in Germany. The inner 5-km zone shows an increased risk (odds ratio 1.47; lower one-sided 95% confidence limit 1.16). The effect was largely restricted to leukaemia. The results are compatible with the corresponding subgroups in the previous German ecological studies, with which this study shares most of the cases. They contrast with the lack of an effect observed or expected from other studies due to low doses from routine nuclear power plant operation.

  2. Differential Evolution Algorithm with Diversified Vicinity Operator for Optimal Routing and Clustering of Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithra, Subramaniam; Victoire, T Aruldoss Albert

    2015-01-01

    Due to large dimension of clusters and increasing size of sensor nodes, finding the optimal route and cluster for large wireless sensor networks (WSN) seems to be highly complex and cumbersome. This paper proposes a new method to determine a reasonably better solution of the clustering and routing problem with the highest concern of efficient energy consumption of the sensor nodes for extending network life time. The proposed method is based on the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm with an improvised search operator called Diversified Vicinity Procedure (DVP), which models a trade-off between energy consumption of the cluster heads and delay in forwarding the data packets. The obtained route using the proposed method from all the gateways to the base station is comparatively lesser in overall distance with less number of data forwards. Extensive numerical experiments demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in managing energy consumption of the WSN and the results are compared with the other algorithms reported in the literature.

  3. Molecular-dynamics study of anomalous volumetric behavior of water-benzene mixtures in the vicinity of the critical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Shun-ichi

    2005-12-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of water-benzene mixtures at 573 K and pressures in the 85-140 bars range have been performed to examine local structure and dynamics of the mixtures, which exhibit anomalously large volume expansion on mixing as recently found by in situ near-infrared measurements. Fractional charges for a simple-point-charge-type potential of water were adjusted so as to reproduce liquid densities and the gas-to-liquid transition pressure of neat water at 573 K. A Lennard-Jones-type potential for benzene was used and the Lorentz-Berthelot combination rule was applied to the water-benzene interaction. Simulations with a N-P-T ensemble of 800-molecule system have been performed and the results reproduce well the anomalous volumetric behavior of the mixtures with the mole fraction of benzene in the 0.3-0.8 range. Pair distribution functions, coordination numbers, and self-diffusion coefficients for the mixtures are calculated, and it is suggested that the local structure around water molecules undergoes drastic change by dissolution of benzene in the vicinity of the critical region, but that around benzene molecules seems to be understood as that of ordinary liquid mixtures.

  4. CAPs markers to assist selection for low vicine and convicine contents in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, N; Avila, C M; Duc, G; Marget, P; Suso, M J; Moreno, M T; Torres, A M

    2006-12-01

    The antinutritional factors (ANFs) present in Vicia spp. seeds are a major constraint to the wider utilization of these crops as grain legumes. In the case of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), a breeding priority is the absence vicine and convicine (v-c); responsible for favism in humans and for the reduced animal performance or low egg production in laying hens. The discovery of a spontaneous mutant allele named vc-, which induces a 10-20 fold reduction of v-c contents, may facilitate the process. However, the high cost and difficulty of the chemical detection of v-c seriously restricts the advances in breeding-selection. To identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to this gene, we have analysed an F(2 )population derived from a cross between a line with high v-c content (Vf6) and the vc- genotype (line 1268). Quantification of v-c was done by spectrophotometry on the parents and the F(2 )population (n = 136). By using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), two RAPD markers linked in coupling and repulsion phase to the allele vc- were identified and further converted into sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs). Amplification of SCARS was more consistent, although the initial polymorphism between pools was lost. To recover the polymorphisms several approaches were explored. Restriction digestion with HhaI (for SCAR SCH01(620)) and RsaI (for SCAR SCAB12(850)) revealed clear differences between the parental lines. The simultaneous use of the two cleavage amplified polymorphism (CAP) markers will allow the correct fingerprinting of faba bean plants and can be efficiently used in breeding selection to track the introgression of the vc- allele to develop cultivars with low v-c content and improved nutritional value.

  5. Monitoring dioxins and furans in subjects living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator after 4 years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocio, A.; Domingo, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Schuhmacher, M.; Llobet, J.M. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    In 1996, construction of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) was initiated in Constanti, Tarragona, Spain. Because this facility was the first, and up to date, the only HWI in Spain, the concern about its potential environmental impact and health risks has been considerable in the public opinion. Regular operations in the facility started in 1999. In order to establish the potential health risks of PCDD/PCDF exposure on the general population living near the new HWI, a biological monitoring program was designed. Samples of blood, breast milk and adipose tissue were obtained during the construction period of the HWI from subjects living in the neighborhood of the facility and analyzed for baseline levels of PCDD/PCDF. Moreover, taking into account that food is the main route of exposure to PCDD/Fs, the assessment of the dietary intake of these pollutants by the population living in the area under potential influence of the HWI was also included in the monitoring program. Approximately 4 years after the new HWI began regular operations (2003), biological samples from individuals living in the same area were again collected, and PCDD/PCDF concentrations determined. The update of PCDD/PCDF intake from food is essential in order to establish clearly if any potential increase in the levels of these compounds in biological tissues of individuals living in the area under influence of the HWI could be due to environmental emissions of PCDD/PCDF by the facility or to increases of the levels of these pollutants in food. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in biological human samples from subjects living in the vicinity of the HWI. The dietary intake of these compounds by the population in this area, after 4 years of regular operations, is also shown. Results were compared with baseline PCDD/PCDF levels obtained in 1999.

  6. Mortality due to lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer in towns lying in the vicinity of combustion installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Perez, Javier [Environmental and Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, C/Sinesio Delgado, 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)], E-mail: jgarcia@isciii.es; Pollan, Marina; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Aragones, Nuria; Lope, Virginia; Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; Lopez-Abente, Gonzalo [Environmental and Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, C/Sinesio Delgado, 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2009-04-01

    Background: Installations that burn fossil fuels to generate power may represent a health problem due to the toxic substances which they release into the environment. Objectives: To investigate whether there might be excess mortality due to tumors of lung, larynx and bladder in the population residing near Spanish combustion installations included in the European Pollutant Emission Register. Methods: Ecologic study designed to model sex-specific standardized mortality ratios for the above three tumors in Spanish towns, over the period 1994-2003. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Using mixed Poisson regression models, we analyzed: risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometer zone around installations that commenced operations before 1990; effect of type of fuel used; and risk gradient within a 50-kilometer radius of such installations. Results: Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% confidence interval) was detected in the vicinity of pre-1990 installations for lung cancer (1.066, 1.041-1.091 in the overall population; 1.084, 1.057-1.111 in men), and laryngeal cancer among men (1.067, 0.992-1.148). Lung cancer displayed excess mortality for all types of fuel used, whereas in laryngeal and bladder cancer, the excess was associated with coal-fired industries. There was a risk gradient effect in the proximity of a number of installations. Conclusions: Our results could support the hypothesis of an association between risk of lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer mortality and proximity to Spanish combustion installations.

  7. Content of metals and metabolites in honey originated from the vicinity of industrial town Košice (eastern Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Grúz, Jiří; Biba, Ondřej; Hedbavny, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Composition of three types of honey (mixed forest honey and monofloral-black locust and rapeseed honeys) originated from the vicinity of an industrial town (Košice, Slovak Republic) was compared. Higher content of minerals including toxic metals in forest honey (1358.6 ng Ni/g, 85.6 ng Pb/g, and 52.4 ng Cd/g) than in rapeseed and black locust honeys confirmed that botanical origin rather than the distance for eventual source of pollution (steel factory) affects metal deposition. Benzoic acid derivatives were typically more accumulated in forest but cinnamic acid derivatives and some flavonoids in rapeseed honey (in free and/or glycoside-bound fraction). In terms of quantity, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids were mainly abundant. Total phenols, thiols, and proteins were abundant in forest honey. Some metals and phenols contributed to separation of honeys based on principal component analysis (PCA). Native amount of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural was not related to honey type (~11 μg/g) and was elevated after strong acid hydrolysis (200-350 μg/g) but it did not interfere with the assay of phenols by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. This is the first report of metals and metabolites in the same study, and data are discussed with available literature. We conclude that black locust (acacia) honey is the most suitable for daily use and that central European monofloral honeys contain lower amounts of toxic metals in comparison with other geographical regions.

  8. Detailed investigation of the gamma-ray emission in the vicinity of SNR W28 with Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanabata, Y. [Institute for Cosmic-Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Katagiri, H. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Hewitt, J.W. [CRESST, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fukazawa, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Lemoine-Goumard, M. [Centre d' Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Pedaletti, G.; Torres, D. F. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (IEEE-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Strong, A. W. [Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Yamazaki, R., E-mail: hanabata@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: katagiri@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)

    2014-05-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the γ-ray emission in the vicinity of the supernova remnant (SNR) W28 (G6.4–0.1) observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We detected significant γ-ray emission spatially coincident with TeV sources HESS J1800–240A, B, and C, located outside the radio boundary of the SNR. Their spectra in the 2-100 GeV band are consistent with the extrapolation of the power-law spectra of the TeV sources. We also identified a new source of GeV emission, dubbed Source W, which lies outside the boundary of TeV sources and coincides with radio emission from the western part of W28. All of the GeV γ-ray sources overlap with molecular clouds in the velocity range from 0 to 20 km s{sup –1}. Under the assumption that the γ-ray emission toward HESS J1800–240A, B, and C comes from π{sup 0} decay due to the interaction between the molecular clouds and cosmic rays (CRs) escaping from W28, they can be naturally explained by a single model in which the CR diffusion coefficient is smaller than the theoretical expectation in the interstellar space. The total energy of the CRs escaping from W28 is constrained through the same modeling to be larger than ∼2 × 10{sup 49} erg. The emission from Source W can also be explained with the same CR escape scenario.

  9. Neighbourhood fluorosis in people residing in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants near Udaipur city of Rajasthan (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2015-08-01

    Chronic industrial fluoride toxicosis in the forms of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis was investigated in 162 villagers (94 males and 78 females) above 15 years of age living in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants located approximately 12 km south of Udaipur city of Rajasthan, India. Out of these villagers, 90 (55.5%) and 29 (18.0%) were found to be afflicted with mild to severe dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Dental fluorosis characterized with light to deep-brownish bilaterally striated horizontal lines, pits or patches and fine dots or granules was noted on incisor teeth of villagers. Irregular wearing, excessive corrosions (abrasions), dark-brownish pigmentation of exposed cementum and dentine material, diastem as between teeth, pronounced loss of tooth supporting bone with recession and bulging of gingiva (gum) were also present in subjects of older age group (>55 years). Among 29 (18.0%) individuals, mild to moderate manifestations of skeletal fluorosis such as crippling, kyphosis, invalidism and genu-varum syndrome were found. In these fluorotic subjects pain/rigidity in major joints viz. neck, back, hip, knee and shoulder was also found. None of the fluorotic subjects showed evidence of genu-valgum syndrome. Other signs of chronic industrial fluoride intoxication in soft tissues (non-skeletal fluorosis) included colic, intermittent diarrhoea or constipation, bloating, polyuria and polydipsia. These findings indicate that surrounding environment of superphosphate fertilizer plants is contaminated with fluoride emission, which in turn is causing diverse ill health effects in humans which are discussed.

  10. Clumped isotopes in near-surface atmospheric CO2 over land, coast and ocean in Taiwan and its vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain Laskar, Amzad; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2016-09-01

    Molecules containing two rare isotopes (e.g., 13C18O16O in CO2), called clumped isotopes, in atmospheric CO2 are powerful tools to provide an alternative way to independently constrain the sources of CO2 in the atmosphere because of their unique physical and chemical properties. We presented clumped isotope data (Δ47) in near-surface atmospheric CO2 from urban, suburban, ocean, coast, high mountain ( ˜ 3.2 km a.s.l.) and forest in Taiwan and its vicinity. The primary goal of the study was to use the unique Δ47 signature in atmospheric CO2 to show the extents of its deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium due to different processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and local anthropogenic emissions, which the commonly used tracers such as δ13C and δ18O cannot provide. We also explored the potential of Δ47 to identify/quantify the contribution of CO2 from various sources. Atmospheric CO2 over ocean was found to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding surface sea water. Respired CO2 was also in close thermodynamic equilibrium at ambient air temperature. In contrast, photosynthetic activity result in significant deviation in Δ47 values from that expected thermodynamically. The disequilibrium could be a consequence of kinetic effects associated with the diffusion of CO2 in and out of the leaf stomata. We observed that δ18O and Δ47 do not vary similarly when photosynthesis was involved unlike simple water-CO2 exchange. Additionally we obtained Δ47 values of car exhaust CO2 that were significantly lower than the atmospheric CO2 but higher than that expected at the combustion temperature. In urban and suburban regions, the Δ47 values were found to be lower than the thermodynamic equilibrium values at the ambient temperature, suggesting contributions from local combustion emission.

  11. Atmospheric dry deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yee-Lin; Lin, Long-Full; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-02-15

    This study focuses on the atmospheric dry deposition flux of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the vicinity of the two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) located in southern Taiwan. PCDD/Fs in ambient air were taken and analyzed for seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs during November 2004 and July 2005. Results show that the mean concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the ambient air near MSWI-GS and MSWI-RW were 0.090 and 0.097pg I-TEQ/Nm(3), respectively. Dry deposition fluxes of total PCDD/Fs were 18.0 and 23.5pg I-TEQ/(m(2)d) in the ambient air near MSWI-GS and MSWI-RW, respectively, which were considerably higher than that measured in Guangzhou, China. Annual dry deposition fluxes of total PCDD/Fs in the ambient air near MSWI-GS and MSWI-RW were 189 and 217ng/(m(2)year), respectively, which were also much higher than dry deposition of total PCDD/Fs to the Atlantic Ocean. The results of the present study strongly suggest that exposure to PCDD/Fs in this area should be reduced. In addition, parametric sensitivity shows that dry deposition flux of PCDD/Fs is most sensitive to dry deposition velocity of the particle-phase, followed by air temperature and concentration of total suspended particulate but least sensitive to dry deposition velocity of the gas-phase.

  12. An assessment of quality of life using the WHOQOL-BREF among participants living in the vicinity of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Katya; Michaud, David S; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Bower, Tara J; Lavigne, Eric; Whelan, Chantal; van den Berg, Frits

    2015-10-01

    Living within the vicinity of wind turbines may have adverse impacts on health measures associated with quality of life (QOL). There are few studies in this area and inconsistent findings preclude definitive conclusions regarding the impact that exposure to wind turbine noise (WTN) may have on QOL. In the current study (officially titled the Community Noise and Health Study or CNHS), the World Health Organization QOL-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire provided an evaluation of QOL in relation to WTN levels among randomly selected participants aged 18-79 (606 males, 632 females) living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from wind turbines (response rate 78.9%). In the multiple regression analyses, WTN levels were not found to be related to scores on the Physical, Psychological, Social or Environment domains, or to rated QOL and Satisfaction with Health questions. However, some wind turbine-related variables were associated with scores on the WHOQOL-BREF, irrespective of WTN levels. Hearing wind turbines for less than one year (compared to not at all and greater than one year) was associated with improved (i.e. higher) scores on the Psychological domain (p=0.0108). Lower scores on both the Physical and Environment domains (p=0.0218 and p=0.0372, respectively), were observed among participants reporting high visual annoyance toward wind turbines. Personal benefit from having wind turbines in the area was related to higher scores on the Physical domain (p=0.0417). Other variables significantly related to one or more domains, included sex, age, marital status, employment, education, income, alcohol consumption, smoking status, chronic diseases and sleep disorders. Collectively, results do not support an association between exposure to WTN up to 46 dBA and QOL assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-dimensional, steady-state model of ground-water flow, Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada-California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model of ground-water flow beneath the Nevada Test Site and vicinity has been developed using inverse techniques. The area is underlain by clastic and carbonate rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age and by volcanic rocks and alluvium of Tertiary and Quaternary age that have been juxtaposed by normal and strike-slip faulting. Aquifers are composed of carbonate and volcanic rocks and alluvium. Characteristics of the flow system are determined by distribution of low-conductivity rocks (barriers); by recharge originating in the Spring Mountains, Pahranagat, Timpahute, and Sheep Ranges, and in Pahute Mesa; and by underflow beneath Pahute Mesa from Gold Flat and Kawich Valley. Discharge areas (Ash Meadows, Oasis Valley, Alkali Flat, and Furnace Creek Ranch) are upgradient from barriers. Sensitivities of simulated hydraulic heads and fluxes to variations in model parameters were calculated to guide field studies and to help estimate errors in predictions from transport modeling. Hydraulic heads and fluxes are very sensitive to variations in the greater magnitude recharge/discharge terms. Transmissivity at a location may not be the most important transmissivity for determining flux there. Transmissivities and geometries of large barriers that impede flow from Pahute Mesa have major effects on fluxes elsewhere; as their transmissivities are decreased, flux beneath western Jackass Flats and Yucca Mountains is increased as water is diverted around the barriers. Fortymile Canyon is underlain by highly transmissive rocks that cause potentiometric contours to vee upgradient; increasing their transmissivity increases flow through them, and decreases it beneath Yucca Mountain. (USGS)

  14. Frequency of micronuclei among persons resident in the vicinity of a mineral sand processing factory in Pulmoddai, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Tania; Williams, Senani; Dabarera, Mangala; Rodrigo, Kusum; Weerakkody, Thiwanka; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2017-10-17

    Lanka Mineral Sands Ltd (LMS), a government-owned company, has been mining mineral sands including monazite which contains thorium (Th) at Pulmoddai, Sri Lanka since 1957. Th emits alpha particles on decay and gamma rays are emitted by the daughter products. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay is popular for large scale radiation exposure studies as it is an easy, fast and reliable method of biodosimetry. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of micronuclei among persons residing in the vicinity of LMS. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to September 2016 among persons 35-45 years of age to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Fifty-three employees of LMS factory, 25 residents within 5 km from LMS, 25 residents 20-25 km from LMS and 29 residents from >50 km away from LMS were included in the study. The highest median frequency of micronuclei per 1000 binucleated (BN) cells was in the group residing within 5 km from LMS with a median (IQ range) of 0.67 (0.17-2.17). The median (IQ range) of MN frequency of employees of LMS, residents 20-25 km from LMS and residents >50 km from LMS were 0.66 (0.16-1.16), 0.33 (0.00-0.67) and 0.33 (0.33-0.67), respectively. There was no significant difference in the MN frequency between employees of LMS and the group residing within 5 km from LMS. Being a resident of Pulmoddai and being exposed to X-rays were significant predictors of MN frequency. Persons residing within 5 km from LMS had a higher risk of MN formation irrespective of being employed at LMS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Detailed Investigation of the Gamma-Ray Emission in the Vicinity of SNR W28 with FERMI-LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanabata, Y.; Katagiri, H.; Hewitt, John William; Ballet, J.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Strong, A. W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the Gamma-ray emission in the vicinity of the supernova remnant (SNR) W28 (G6.4-0.1) observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We detected significant ? -ray emission spatially coincident with TeV sources HESS J1800-240A, B, and C, located outside the radio boundary of the SNR. Their spectra in the 2-100 GeV band are consistent with the extrapolation of the power-law spectra of the TeV sources. We also identified a new source of GeV emission, dubbed Source W, which lies outside the boundary of TeV sources and coincides with radio emission from the western part of W28. All of the GeV Gamma-ray sources overlap with molecular clouds in the velocity range from 0 to 20 km s (exp-1). Under the assumption that the Gamma-ray emission toward HESS J1800-240A, B, and C comes from 3.14(exp0) decay due to the interaction between the molecular clouds and cosmic rays (CRs) escaping from W28, they can be naturally explained by a single model in which the CR diffusion coefficient is smaller than the theoretical expectation in the interstellar space. The total energy of the CRs escaping from W28 is constrained through the same modeling to be larger than is approximately 2 × 10(exp49) erg. The emission from Source W can also be explained with the same CR escape scenario.

  16. Enhanced bone formation in the vicinity of porous β-TCP scaffolds exhibiting slow release of collagen-derived tripeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikura, Keita; Minatoya, Tsutomu; Terada-Nakaishi, Michiko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Sakai, Yasuo; Furusawa, Toshitake; Matsushima, Yuta; Unuma, Hidero

    2017-09-01

    It has been experimentally proven that orally ingested collagen-derived tripeptides (Ctp) are quickly absorbed in the body and effectively promote the regeneration of connective tissues including bone and skin. Ctp are capable to activate osteoblasts and fibroblasts, which eventually promotes tissue regeneration. Based on these findings, a hypothesis was formulated in this study that direct delivery of Ctp to bone defect would also facilitate tissue regeneration as well as oral administration. To test the hypothesis, we prepared a bone augmentation material with the ability to slowly release Ctp, and investigated its in vivo bone regeneration efficacy. The implant material was porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold which was coated with a co-precipitated layer of bone-like hydroxyapatite and Ctp. The β-TCP was impregnated with approximately 0.8%(w/w) Ctp. Then, the Ctp-modified β-TCP was implanted into bone defects of Wistar rats to evaluate in vivo efficacy of Ctp directly delivered from the material to the bone defects. The control was pristine porous β-TCP. In vitro tests showed that Ctp were steadily released from the co-precipitated layer for approximately two weeks. The Ctp-modified scaffolds significantly promoted new bone formation in vivo in their vicinity as compared with pristine β-TCP scaffolds; 6 weeks after the implantation, Ctp-modified scaffolds promoted twice as much bone formation as the control implants. Consequently, we achieved the slow and steady release of Ctp, and found that direct delivery of Ctp from implant materials was effective for bone regeneration as well as oral administration. A β-TCP scaffold capable of slowly releasing bone-enhancing substances significantly promoted bone formation.

  17. The fate of the missing spores--patterns of realized dispersal beyond the closest vicinity of a sporulating moss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Lönnell

    Full Text Available It is well-known that many species with small diaspores can disperse far during extended temporal scales (many years. However, studies on short temporal scales usually only cover short distances (in, e.g., bryophytes up to 15 m. By using a novel experimental design, studying the realized dispersal, we extend this range by almost two orders of magnitude. We recorded establishment of the fast-growing moss Discelium nudum on introduced suitable substrates, placed around a translocated, sporulating mother colony. Around 2,000 pots with acidic clay were placed at different distances between 5 m and 600 m, in four directions, on a raised bog, with increased pot numbers with distance. The experiment was set up in April-May and the realized dispersal (number of colonized pots was recorded in September. Close to the mother colony (up to 10 m, the mean colonization rates (ratio of colonized pots exceeded 50%. At distances between 10 and 50 m colonization dropped sharply, but beyond 50 m the mean colonization rates stabilized and hardly changed (1-3%. The estimated density of spores causing establishments at the further distances (2-6 spores/m² was realistic when compared to the estimated spore output from the central colonies. Our study supports calculations from earlier studies, limited to short distances, that a majority of the spores disperse beyond the nearest vicinity of a source. The even colonization pattern at further distances raises interesting questions about under what conditions spores are transported and deposited. However, it is clear that regular establishment is likely at the km-scale for this and many other species with similar spore output and dispersal mechanism.

  18. Soils, sediments and geoarchaeology in the vicinity of Caričin Grad (Iustiniana Prima), southern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Köstelbauer, Felix; Schreg, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Excavations at the early Byzantine hillfort-settlement Caričin Grad hint at a relatively short time of active settlement of only 90 years. The cause for abandonment is still unknown, though it is widely assumed that ecological and environmental factors played a pivotal role. This study aims to evaluate, if soils and sediments in the vicinity of the site can be used to gather information about the spatial and temporal impact of land use and whether that constituted to a higher rate of soil erosions and thus a possible decline of sustainability during the time of active occupation. A field campaign in 2016 documented the sediments of 15 exposures along riverbanks and erosional gullies as well as 15 core drillings. Samples for dating via radiocarbon and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) were also recovered. The field campaign was further supported by a DEM of the research area, archaeological reports, as well as geological, pedological and topographic maps. The heterogeneous stratigraphy of most of the documented sediments strongly reflects the clayey and loamy nature of the catchment areas. Inclusions of charcoal and fractured bricks can be found under two meters of overlaying colluvial and alluvial sediments. Floodplain sediments, especially those near a now bursted dam built in the Byzantine era, show inclusions of bigger stone blocks, hinting at several flashflood events, which occurred during historic times. Most of the topsoil in the catchment area, especially south-west of the site, is already strongly eroded, leaving only Ah-C sequences of Leptosols. The gathered data thus suggest that accelerated soil erosion during the time of occupation was very likely, probably caused by local brick production and deforestation. Exposed topsoil with a relative high amount of clay mineral further contributed to a marginal discharge to groundwater during rainfall, resulting in a stronger runoff and incision of gullies in the present-day landscape.

  19. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project SBA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2002-11-01

    The acute phase of a nuclear accident and the possibility of high exposure of the populations are always the most important threats in the emergency preparedness work. Radioactive contamination from an accident can however also cause long term effects for land use and enhanced doses to special population groups and economic problems for agriculture, reindeer industry, hunting, tourism and recreation. For planning purposes it is always valuable to be aware of surrounding radiation hazards and other potential threats. Thus, mapping such threats in a Nordic context is an important factor in emergency preparedness in the area. This report presents a cross-disciplinary study from the NKS research program 1998-2001.The scope of the project was to prepare a 'base of knowledge' regarding possible nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. This base of knowledge will, by modere information technology as different websites, be made available to authorities, media and the population. The users of the websites can easily get information on different types of nuclear installations and threats. The users can get an overview of the situation and, if they so wish, make their own judgements. The project dealt with a geographical area including North-west Russia and the Baltic states. The results from the different activities in the project were generated in a web based database called the 'the base of knowledge'. Key words Nuclear threats, Nordic countries, nuclear power plants, nuclear ship, nuclear waste, literature database, base of knowledge, webaccessed information, atmospheric transport, decommissioning of submarines, nuclear installations, waste management, radioactive contamination in marine environment, radioactive sources, criticality analysis. (au)

  20. Extraction and Validation of Geomorphological Features from EU-DEM in The Vicinity of the Mygdonia Basin, Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidis, Antonios; Karadimou, Georgia; Ampatzidis, Dimitrios

    2017-12-01

    The European Union Digital Elevation Model (EU-DEM) is a relatively new, hybrid elevation product, principally based on SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM data, but also on publically available Russian topographic maps for regions north of 60° N. More specifically, EU-DEM is a Digital Surface Model (DSM) over Europe from the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Reference Data Access (RDA) project - a realisation of the Copernicus (former GMES) programme, managed by the European Commission/DG Enterprise and Industry. Even if EU-DEM is indeed more reliable in terms of elevation accuracy than its constituents, it ought to be noted that it is not representative of the original elevation measurements, but is rather a secondary (mathematical) product. Therefore, for specific applications, such as those of geomorphological interest, artefacts may be induced. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of EU-DEM for geomorphological applications and compare it against other available datasets, i.e. topographic maps and (almost) global DEMs such as SRTM, ASTER-GDEM and WorldDEM™. This initial investigation is carried out in Central Macedonia, Northern Greece, in the vicinity of the Mygdonia basin, which corresponds to an area of particular interest for several geoscience applications. This area has also been serving as a test site for the systematic validation of DEMs for more than a decade. Consequently, extensive elevation datasets and experience have been accumulated over the years, rendering the evaluation of new elevation products a coherent and useful exercise on a local to regional scale. In this context, relief classification, drainage basin delineation, slope and slope aspect, as well as extraction and classification of drainage network are performed and validated among the aforementioned elevation sources. The achieved results focus on qualitative and quantitative aspects of automatic geomorphological feature extraction from

  1. The challenge of installing a tsunami early warning system in the vicinity of the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lauterjung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is located along the most prominent active continental margin in the Indian Ocean, the so-called Sunda Arc and, therefore, is one of the most threatened regions of the world in terms of natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. On 26 December 2004 the third largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded (magnitude 9.3, Stein and Okal, 2005 occurred off-shore northern Sumatra and triggered a mega-tsunami affecting the whole Indian Ocean. Almost a quarter of a million people were killed, as the region was not prepared either in terms of early-warning or in terms of disaster response.

    In order to be able to provide, in future, a fast and reliable warning procedure for the population, Germany, immediately after the catastrophe, offered during the UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Hyogo/Japan in January 2005 technical support for the development and installation of a tsunami early warning system for the Indian Ocean in addition to assistance in capacity building in particular for local communities. This offer was accepted by Indonesia but also by other countries like Sri Lanka, the Maldives and some East-African countries. Anyhow the main focus of our activities has been carried out in Indonesia as the main source of tsunami threat for the entire Indian Ocean. Challenging for the technical concept of this warning system are the extremely short warning times for Indonesia, due to its vicinity to the Sunda Arc. For this reason the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS integrates different modern and new scientific monitoring technologies and analysis methods.

  2. Wingtip Vortices and Free Shear Layer Interaction in the Vicinity of Maximum Lift to Drag Ratio Lift Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Muhammad Omar

    between the lift induced drag (wingtip vortices) and parasite drag (free shear layer) can have a significant impact. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments were performed at a) a water tunnel at ILR Aachen, Germany, and b) at the University of Dayton Low Speed Wind Tunnel in the near wake of an AR 6 wing with a Clark-Y airfoil to investigate the characteristics of the wingtip vortex and free shear layer at angles of attack in the vicinity of maximum aerodynamic efficiency for the wing. The data was taken 1.5 and 3 chord lengths downstream of the wing at varying free-stream velocities. A unique exergy-based technique was introduced to quantify distinct changes in the wingtip vortex axial core flow. The existence of wingtip vortex axial core flow transformation from wake-like (velocity less-than the freestream) to jet-like (velocity greater-than the freestream) behavior in the vicinity of the maximum (L/D) angles was observed. The exergy-based technique was able to identify the change in the out of plane profile and corresponding changes in the L/D performance. The resulting velocity components in and around the free shear layer in the wing wake showed counter flow in the cross-flow plane presumably corresponding to behavior associated with the flow over the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. Even though the velocity magnitudes in the free shear layer in cross-flow plane are a small fraction of the freestream velocity ( 10%), significant directional flow was observed. An indication of the possibility of the transfer of momentum (from inboard to outboard of the wing) was identified through spanwise flow corresponding to the upper and lower surfaces through the free shear layer in the wake. A transition from minimal cross flow in the free shear layer to a well-established shear flow in the spanwise direction occurs in the vicinity of maximum lift-to-drag ratio (max L/D) angle of attack. A distinctive balance between the lift induced drag and parasite drag was

  3. Natural radioactivity of ground waters and soil in the vicinity of the ash repository of the coal-fired power plant. Nikola Tesla A in Obrenovac, Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, Z.; Madic, M.; Vukovic, D. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-11-01

    Radioactivity of U, Th and {sup 40}K has been investigated in the vicinity of the ash repository of coal-fired Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac (Yugoslavia). Using alpha and gamma spectrometry, luminescence spectrophotometry, it was found that the ash repository is a source of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series; and these radionuclides were found in the ground water up to a distance of several hundred metres. The influence of the repository on the soil radioactivity was minimal.

  4. Enhancing sediment distribution at the vicinity of power plant intakes using double rows of vanes and groins (Case study: New tebbin power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahgoub

    2013-12-01

    The study results showed that, in case of vanes absence, sediments with rates 1–2 m3/week were stuck within the sediment trap under the winter conditions. Also, the results indicated that the submerged vanes play an important role in preventing the sediment intrusion. Also, it was clear that using groins might lead to enhancing the sediment distribution at the intake vicinity.

  5. Studying the InAs quantum points on the vicinal surface of a GaAs crystal by the atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Evtikhiev, V P; Kotelnikov, E Y; Matveentsev, A V; Titkov, A N; Shkolnik, A S

    2002-01-01

    The methodology for processing the images, obtained through the atomic force microscopy, is proposed. It is shown by the concrete example, how the parameters of the InAs clusters on the vicinal surface of the GaAs crystal are determined. This makes it possible to calculate the energy levels of the electrons and holes in the quantum point with application of the previously developed cluster spherical model

  6. Evaluating soil metallic pollution and consequent human health hazards in the vicinity of an industrialized zone, case study of Mubarakeh steel complex, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaemi, Zohreh; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Moattar, Faramarz; Hassani, Amirhesam; KHORASANI,NEMATOLLAH

    2015-01-01

    Background Being established in 1988 in the vicinity of Isfahan city, Mubarakeh Steel complex has imposed adverse environmental and health effects within the area. The study area is covered by lots of farms through which major crops like wheat and rice are provided. Methods Considering the imposed pollution load of the complex, the current study has monitored the concentration of metals Fe, Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, Mo, As in 14 soil samples within the study area. Furthermore, human...

  7. Dynamic kinetic asymmetric ring-opening/reductive amination sequence of racemic nitroepoxides with chiral amines: enantioselective synthesis of chiral vicinal diamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut, Juan; Vidal, Andreu; Rodríguez, Santiago; González, Florenci V

    2013-06-07

    We report a highly diastereoselective synthesis of vicinal diamines by the treatment of nitroepoxides with primary amines and then a reducing agent. When using a chiral primary amine, racemic nitroepoxides are transformed into chiral diamines as a single enantiomers (>95:5 er) through a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT). The overall process is a one-pot procedure combining the exposure of nitroepoxides to chiral amines to afford diastereomeric mixtures of aminoimines and subsequent stereoselective imine reduction.

  8. Detection of nitro-based and peroxide-based explosives by fast polarity-switchable ion mobility spectrometer with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Haiyang

    2015-05-29

    Ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has been widely deployed for on-site detection of explosives. The common nitro-based explosives are usually detected by negative IMS while the emerging peroxide-based explosives are better detected by positive IMS. In this study, a fast polarity-switchable IMS was constructed to detect these two explosive species in a single measurement. As the large traditional Faraday detector would cause a trailing reactant ion peak (RIP), a Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity was developed by reducing the detector radius to 3.3 mm and increasing the voltage difference between aperture grid and its front guard ring to 591 V, which could remove trailing peaks from RIP without loss of signal intensity. This fast polarity-switchable IMS with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector was employed to detect a mixture of 10 ng 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 50 ng hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) by polarity-switching, and the result suggested that [TNT-H](-) and [HMTD+H](+) could be detected in a single measurement. Furthermore, the removal of trailing peaks from RIP by the Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity also promised the accurate identification of KClO4, KNO3 and S in common inorganic explosives, whose product ion peaks were fairly adjacent to RIP.

  9. Spatial and temporal distributions of hexabromocyclododecanes in the vicinity of an expanded polystyrene material manufacturing plant in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongkai; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Fei; Yao, Yiming

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the environmental fate of 3 main hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs), samples from various environmental media, including outdoor settled dust, soil, sediment, plant tissues (holly, cypress and pine) and marine species (shrimp, crab and fish) were obtained around an expanded polystyrene material manufacturing plant in Tianjin, China. The 3 main HBCD diastereoisomers were detected with the total concentrations ranging from 328 to 31,752 ng/g dry weight (dw), 2.91-1730 ng/g dw, 23.5-716 ng/g dw, 3.45-2494 ng/g dw, and 0.878-44.8 ng/g dw in the dust, soil, sediment, plant tissues, and marine species, respectively. This indicated that a point source of HBCDs could bring wide impact on its vicinal environment. A significant increasing trend of HBCDs concentrations was noted, as indicated by 12.9-41.6% of increasing rates in total concentrations of HBCDs at four sediment sites in the past five years. The diastereoisomer profiles were sorted into 3 groups: dust, soil and sediment, which had no statistical difference from commercial EPS-products (p > 0.05); plant tissues, which showed a moderate increase of α-isomer (22.9 ± 3.3%); and marine species, which were dominated by α-isomer (62.6 ± 2.8%). For α- and β-isomers, the results of enantiomeric analysis showed a preferential accumulation of the (+)-enantiomer in part of plant tissues and all marine organisms (p  0.05). Besides, marine food web magnification is observed for HBCDs, with trophic magnification factors close to 2. The daily intakes of HBCDs were estimated to be 0.058-5.84 ng/kg-bw/day for local residents through dust and soil ingestion and 0.048-8.43 ng/kg-bw/day for Tianjin citizens through seafood consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vascular plant biodiversity of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity (Nunavut, Canada: an annotated checklist of an Arctic flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery M. Saarela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coppermine River in western Nunavut is one of Canada’s great Arctic rivers, yet its vascular plant flora is poorly known. Here, we report the results of a floristic inventory of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity, including Kugluk (Bloody Falls Territorial Park and the hamlet of Kugluktuk. The study area is approximately 1,200 km2, extending from the forest-tundra south of the treeline to the Arctic coast. Vascular plant floristic data are based on a review of all previous collections from the area and more than 1,200 new collections made in 2014. Results are presented in an annotated checklist, including citation of all specimens examined, comments on taxonomy and distribution, and photographs for a subset of taxa. The vascular plant flora comprises 300 species (311 taxa, a 36.6% increase from the 190 species documented by previous collections made in the area over the last century, and is considerably more diverse than other local floras on mainland Nunavut. We document 207 taxa for Kugluk (Bloody Falls Territorial Park, an important protected area for plants on mainland Nunavut. A total of 190 taxa are newly recorded for the study area. Of these, 14 taxa (13 species and one additional variety are newly recorded for Nunavut (Allium schoenoprasum, Carex capitata, Draba lonchocarpa, Eremogone capillaris subsp. capillaris, Sabulina elegans, Eleocharis quinqueflora, Epilobium cf. anagallidifolium, Botrychium neolunaria, Botrychium tunux, Festuca altaica, Polygonum aviculare, Salix ovalifolia var. arctolitoralis, Salix ovalifolia var. ovalifolia and Stuckenia pectinata, seven species are newly recorded for mainland Nunavut (Carex gynocrates, Carex livida, Cryptogramma stelleri, Draba simmonsii, Festuca viviparoidea subsp. viviparoidea, Juncus alpinoarticulatus subsp. americanus and Salix pseudomyrsinites and 56 range extensions are reported. The psbA-trnH and rbcL DNA sequence data were used to help identify the three Botrychium

  11. Bedrock geology and outcrop fracture trends in the vicinity of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, William C.; Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site consists of an eastward-directed plume of volatile organic compounds, principally tetrachloroethylene (PCE), in alluvium and glacial sand and gravel in the Souhegan River valley, just south of the river and about 4 kilometers west of the town of Milford, New Hampshire. Sampling of monitoring wells at the site has helped delineate the extent of the plume and has determined that some contaminant has migrated into the underlying crystalline bedrock, including bedrock north of the river within 200 meters of a nearby residential development that was constructed in 1999. Borehole geophysical logging has identified a northeast preferential trend for bedrock fractures, which may provide a pathway for the migration of contaminant under and north of the Souhegan River. The current study investigates the bedrock geologic setting for the site, including its position relative to known regional geologic structures, and compiles new strike and dip measurements of joints in exposed bedrock to determine if there are dominant trends in orientation similar to what was found in the boreholes. The site is located on the northwestern limb of a northeast-trending regional anticlinorium that is southeast of the Campbell Hill fault zone. The Campbell Hill fault zone defines the contact between granite and gneiss of the anticlinorium and granite and schist to the northwest and is locally marked by lenses of massive vein quartz, minor faults, and fracture zones that could potentially affect plume migration. The fault zone was apparently not intercepted by any of the boreholes that were drilled to delineate the contaminant plume and therefore passes to the north of the northernmost borehole in the vicinity of the new residential area. Joints measured in surface exposures indicate a strong preferred direction of strike to the north-northeast corroborating the borehole data and previous outcrop and geophysical studies. The north-northeast preferred

  12. Vascular plant biodiversity of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity (Nunavut, Canada): an annotated checklist of an Arctic flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Roger D.

    2017-01-01

    The Coppermine River in western Nunavut is one of Canada’s great Arctic rivers, yet its vascular plant flora is poorly known. Here, we report the results of a floristic inventory of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity, including Kugluk (Bloody Falls) Territorial Park and the hamlet of Kugluktuk. The study area is approximately 1,200 km2, extending from the forest-tundra south of the treeline to the Arctic coast. Vascular plant floristic data are based on a review of all previous collections from the area and more than 1,200 new collections made in 2014. Results are presented in an annotated checklist, including citation of all specimens examined, comments on taxonomy and distribution, and photographs for a subset of taxa. The vascular plant flora comprises 300 species (311 taxa), a 36.6% increase from the 190 species documented by previous collections made in the area over the last century, and is considerably more diverse than other local floras on mainland Nunavut. We document 207 taxa for Kugluk (Bloody Falls) Territorial Park, an important protected area for plants on mainland Nunavut. A total of 190 taxa are newly recorded for the study area. Of these, 14 taxa (13 species and one additional variety) are newly recorded for Nunavut (Allium schoenoprasum, Carex capitata, Draba lonchocarpa, Eremogone capillaris subsp. capillaris, Sabulina elegans, Eleocharis quinqueflora, Epilobium cf. anagallidifolium, Botrychium neolunaria, Botrychium tunux, Festuca altaica, Polygonum aviculare, Salix ovalifolia var. arctolitoralis, Salix ovalifolia var. ovalifolia and Stuckenia pectinata), seven species are newly recorded for mainland Nunavut (Carex gynocrates, Carex livida, Cryptogramma stelleri, Draba simmonsii, Festuca viviparoidea subsp. viviparoidea, Juncus alpinoarticulatus subsp. americanus and Salix pseudomyrsinites) and 56 range extensions are reported. The psbA-trnH and rbcL DNA sequence data were used to help identify the three Botrychium taxa recorded

  13. Clear-Sky Remote Sensing in the Vicinity of Clouds: What We Learned from MODIS and CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    remote sensing challenges and thus allow for including the transition zone into the study. We describe a simple model that estimates the cloud-induced enhanced reflectances of cloud-free areas in the vicinity of clouds. The model assumes that the enhancement is due entirely to Rayleigh scattering and is therefore bigger at shorter wavelengths, thus creating a so-called apparent "bluing" of aerosols in remote sensing retrievals.

  14. Clear-Sky Remote Sensing in the Vicinity of Clouds: What Can Be Learned About Aerosol Changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Wen, Guoyong

    2010-01-01

    remote sensing challenges and thus allow for including the transition zone into the study. We describe a simple model that estimates the cloud-induced enhanced reflectances of cloud-free areas in the vicinity of clouds. The model assumes that the enhancement is due entirely to Rayleigh scattering and is therefore bigger at shorter wavelengths, thus creating a so-called apparent "bluing" of aerosols in remote sensing retrievals.

  15. Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of Jewel Cave National Monument and Vicinity, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRI, JECA, JECA digital map) adapted from U.S. Geological Survey mylars by DeWitt (2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of Jewel Cave National Monument and Vicinity, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR)...

  16. Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas (NPS, GRD, GRI, HOSP, HOSP digital map) adapted from the interim Arkansas Geological Survey DGM-HSR-003 by Johnson and Hanson (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR)...

  17. Unpublished Digital Bedrock Geologic Map of Cuyahoga National Park and Vicinity, Ohio (NPS, GRD, GRI, CUVA, CUVA digital map) adapted from Ohio Division of Geological Survey maps by Larsen and/or Slucher, and/or others (1996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Bedrock Geologic Map of Cuyahoga National Park and Vicinity, Ohio is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR) files,...

  18. Unpublished Digital Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park and Vicinity, Colorado (NPS, GRD, GRI, MEVE, MVSR digital map) adapted from a U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations map by Carrara (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park and Vicinity, Colorado is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer...

  19. Geochemical and Sulfur-Isotopic Signatures of Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits on Prince of Wales Island and Vicinity, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Karl, Susan M.; Gemery, Pamela A.; Bittenbender, Peter E.; Ridley, W. Ian

    2007-01-01

    Stratabound volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits on Prince of Wales Island and vicinity, southeastern Alaska, occur in two volcanosedimentary sequences of Late Proterozoic through Cambrian and of Ordovician through Early Silurian age. This study presents geochemical data on sulfide-rich samples, in situ laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of sulfide minerals, and sulfur-isotopic analyses of sulfides and sulfates (barite) for identifying and distinguishing between primary sea-floor signatures and later regional metamorphic overprints. These datasets are also used here in an attempt to discriminate the VMS deposits in the older Wales Group from those in the younger Moira Sound unit (new informal name). The Wales Group and its contained VMS deposits have been multiply deformed and metamorphosed from greenschist to amphibolite grade, whereas the Moira Sound unit and related VMS deposits are less deformed and generally less metamorphosed (lower to middle greenschist grade). Variations in the sulfide mineral assemblages and textures of the VMS deposits in both sequences reflect a combination of processes, including primary sea-floor mineralization and sub-sea-floor zone refining, followed by metamorphic recrystallization. Very coarse grained (>1 cm diam) sulfide minerals and abundant pyrrhotite are restricted to VMS deposits in a small area of the Wales Group, at Khayyam and Stumble-On, which record high-grade metamorphism of the sulfides. Geochemical and sulfur-isotopic data distinguish the VMS deposits in the Wales Group from those in the Moira Sound unit. Although base- and precious-metal contents vary widely in sulfide-rich samples from both sequences, samples from the Moira Sound generally have proportionately higher Ag contents relative to base metals and Au. In situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in the sulfide minerals suggests that primary sea-floor hydrothermal signatures are preserved in some samples (for

  20. Study on characteristic frequencies of ELF emissions and estimation of ion constituents in the vicinity of magnetic equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Goto, Y.

    2012-12-01

    . However, it remains several different interpretations depending on the species of ions and their ion constituents. In this study, we set up the following two hypotheses which shall satisfy dozens of such phenomena observed in 1989 and 1990: 1) Constituents of major ions in the plasmasphere (i.e., H^{+}, He^{+}) happened to coincide the condition that gives observed lower cut-off frequency along the trajectory. 2) There exists minor ions (i.e., D^{+}, T^{+}) that have cyclotron frequencies at 1/n of proton's cyclotron frequency. We examine the validity of the above hypotheses referring electron density and Dst index of the corresponding period. The present study could be a promising technique to estimate ion constituents from plasma wave observation by Akebono in the radiation belt. It is also noted that it can be also applicable to the ERG mission, which is expected to provide important clues for solving plasma dynamics in the Earth's radiation belt by means of integrated observation of electric and magnetic fields, particles and waves. [1] Y. Kasahara, A. Sawada, M. Yamamoto, I. Kimura, S. Kokubun, and K. Hayashi, Ion Cyclotron Emissions Observed by the Satellite Akebono in the vicinity of the Magnetic Equator, Radio Science, 27, 347-362, 1992.

  1. Vertical profiles of pelagic communities in the vicinity of the Azores Front and their implications to deep ocean ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, M. V.

    Three early wintertime and five early summertime stations were occupied in the vicinity of the Azores Front to the south-west of the islands. At each station the surface 1100-1400m of the water column were systematically sampled both by day and by night, using the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences' RMTI+8M system. The biological sampling was set in the context of an extensive study of the physical oceanography of the frontal region. It included one station in the core of an eddy which was seen to spawn from a meander during the course of the physical observations. The biological communities on either side of the front were almost indistinguishable in terms of their specific composition. However, there were substantial differences in the sizes of the standing-crops, the vertical distributions of the major taxonomic groups and the ranges of the diel vertical migrations being carried out by these groups. The waters on both sides of the front were oligotrophic. However, both phytoplankton standing-crop, as indicated by chlorophyll concentrations, and measures of productivity suggested that the water to the north (Eastern Atlantic Water), which was slightly cooler and with a shallower and steeper nutricline, was a little more productive than the water to the south (Western Atlantic Water). Associated with this trend in phytoplankton crop and productivity were quite sharp declines in the standing-crops of both plankton and micronekton across the front, moving from EAW to WAW. There was no evidence of enhanced productivity within the front itself, but there was an increase in the micronektonic standing-crop. Between the stations, there were consistent trends in the ratios of the standing-crops of plankton and micronekton, which were sampled simultaneously. By day, the planktonic biomasses exceeded the micronektonic biomasses by up to an order of magnitude in the wind-mixed layer. The ratios declined with depth, approaching unity at 200m during the wintertime, but

  2. Vicinity of Schools, But Not of Residences, Seems to Regulate Physical and Sports Activities of 13-Year-Old Teenagers in a South European Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Alexandre; Ramos, Elisabete; Pina, Maria Fátima

    2017-01-01

    Proximity to urban green spaces (UGS) and open sports spaces (OSS) benefits health, promotes physical activity (PA) and sports practice (SP). Analyze the association between PA or SP according to distances between UGS or OSS and teenagers' residences or schools. We evaluated 1333 (53.9% girls) teenagers (13 years old) living and studying in Porto, Portugal (EPITeen cohort). PA was classified as light or moderate/vigorous. Distances were the shortest routes from residences or schools to UGS/OSS, and classified in ≤250 m; >250 m to ≤500 m; >500 m to ≤750 m; >750 m. Chi-square test and chi-square for trends were used to compare proportions; associations were measured using logistic regression, through odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting to BMI and parental education. Regarding vicinity' of schools, the prevalence of moderate/vigorous PA among boys, decreases as distances to OSS increases. For girls, the prevalence of sports decreases as distances to UGS increase. For boys, we found an association between moderate/vigorous PA and proximity to OSS in the vicinity of schools: considering ≤250 m as reference, the odds of moderate/vigorous PA is 0.20 (0.06-0.63) for >250 m to ≤500 m; 0.21 (0.07-0.61) for >500 m to ≤750 m and 0.19 (0.06-0.58) for >750 m. Vicinities of schools seem to influence teenagers to be more physically active and increase sports participation.

  3. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of acid mine drainage in ground water in the vicinity of Penn Mine and Camanche Reservoir, Calaveras County, California. Summary report, 1993--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpers, C.N.; Hamlin, S.N.; Hunerlach, M.P.

    1999-06-01

    The report presents results from the ground-water investigation at the Penn Mine by the US Geological Survey from October 1991 to April 1995. The specific objectives of the investigation were to evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of ground water flowing toward Camanche Reservoir from the Penn Mine area; (2) the ground-water transport of metals, sulfate, and acidity between Mine Run and Camanche Reservoirs; and (3) the hydrologic interactions between the flooded mine workings and other ground water and surface water in the vicinity.

  4. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2014-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50 % of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The iss...

  5. Evaluation of industrial wastewater pollutants from soap factories and breweries in the Bafoussam city vicinity and contribution to the reduction of this pollution (Western highlands of Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Gouafo; B.P.K. Yerima

    2013-01-01

    The discharges of wastewaters of industries in the Bafoussam city vicinity deteriorate the quality of surface and underground water and soils. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of ecotoxicity in the different industries and ways to fight against pollution. The following physico-chemical parameters were determined: COD, BOD5, OM, TP, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Fe, Al, EC, Turbidity, NH4+ and NO3- from wastewaters from all the two soap factories (SWC and SCS) and one breweries (ASCB) ind...

  6. Study of molecular clouds in the vicinity of supernova remnants as sources of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission

    OpenAIRE

    Häffner, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    H.E.S.S. is an imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope system for studies of cosmic γ-ray sources. The H.E.S.S. experiment provides with the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey the largest data set for such sources in the TeV energy band for the inner Galactic plane, which is very well suitable for population studies. This thesis presents studies of molecular clouds in the vicinity of supernova remnants as sources of very-high-energy γ-ray emission. γ-ray emitting molecular clouds near supernova r...

  7. Fermi-LAT Detection of Gamma-Ray Emission in the Vicinity of the Star Forming Regions W43 and Westerlund 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Ferrara, E.; Grondin, M.-H.; Martin, P.; Renaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    Particle acceleration in massive star forming regions can proceed via a large variety of possible emission scenarios, including high-energy gamma-ray production in the colliding wind zone of the massive Wolf-Rayet binary (here WR 20a and WR I2Ia), collective wind scenarios, diffusive shock acceleration at the boundaries of wind-blown bubbles in the stellar cluster, and outbreak phenomena from hot stellar winds into the interstellar medium. In view of the recent Fermi-LAT detection of HESS JI023-575 (in the vicinity of Westerlund 2), we examine another very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray source, HESS JI848-0145 (in the vicinity ofW43), possibly associated with a massive star cluster. Considering multi-wavelength data, in particular TeV gamma-rays, we examine the available evidence that the gamma-ray emission coincident with Westerlund 2 and W43 could originate in particles accelerated by the above-mentioned mechanisms in massive star clusters.

  8. Selective Enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Small Molecule Compounds with Vicinal Diols by Boric Acid-Functionalized Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ni, Yanli

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a 4-vinylphenylboronic acid-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) material was prepared via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and applied for the first time as a novel matrix for the selective enrichment and analysis of small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols, which have been the focus of intense research in the field of life science, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in positive-ion mode. There are two main factors playing a decisive role in assisting laser D/I process comparing to some traditional matrices: (1) GO provides π-conjugated system by itself for laser absorption and energy transfer; (2) the modified 4-vinylphenylboronic acid can selectively capture small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols. The results demonstrate that the novel material has distinct advantages over previously reported matrices in enriching and assisting the highly efficient ionization of target molecules for mass spectrometry analysis. This work indicates a new application branch for graphene-based matrices and provides an alternative solution for small-molecules analysis.

  9. Occurrence and ecological potential of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in groundwater and reservoirs in the vicinity of municipal landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xianzhi; Ou, Weihui; Wang, Chunwei; Wang, Zhifang; Huang, Qiuxin; Jin, Jiabin; Tan, Jianhua

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including antibiotics, azole anti-fungals, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid regulators, parabens, antiseptics, and bisphenol A, were investigated in groundwater and reservoirs in the vicinity of two municipal landfills in the metropolis of Guangzhou, South China. Dehydroerythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, fluconazole, salicylic acid, methylparaben, triclosan, and bisphenol A were the mostly frequently detected PPCPs in the groundwater at low ng L(-1) levels. In the reservoirs, the PPCPs were widely detected at higher frequencies and concentrations, especially sulfamethoxazole, propiconazole, and ibuprofen, with maximal concentrations above 1 μg L(-1). The PPCPs in the groundwater did not show significant seasonal differences or spatial trends. However, in the reservoirs, higher PPCP concentrations were observed in spring than in other seasons. The anti-bacterials in the groundwater posed medium risks to algae. In the reservoirs, the sulfonamides and macrolides posed low to high risks, while ibuprofen, salicylic acid, and clofibric acid presented low to medium risks to aquatic organisms. Overall, the results showed that the PPCP contaminants and subsequent ecological risks in the groundwater and surface water in the vicinity of the landfills may be of serious concern. More research is needed to better correlate the landfill leachates and PPCP contamination in the nearby aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlating Velocity Information in the Vicinity of Lagrangian Saddle Points to the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Static Pressure Distribution on a Circular Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, Matthew; Green, Melissa

    2015-11-01

    The locations of Lagrangian saddle points found as the intersections of positive and negative-time Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) can be used to determine the location and behavior of von Karman vortices shed in the wake of bluff bodies. Correlating the Lagrangian saddle point locations to physical quantities measurable in real-time is critical to the development of a novel input for closed-loop flow control. As a first step towards finding this correlation, the velocity fluctuations in the vicinity of the Lagrangian saddle point are correlated to the fluctuating static pressure at multiple locations on the cylinder surface to determine the lag time between the two quantities at these locations. This offers insight into the specific location and time of past events on the cylinder that influenced the flow field in the vicinity of the Lagrangian saddle point. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award No. FA9550-14-1-0210.

  11. Numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system in Chimacum Creek Basin and vicinity, Jefferson County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph L.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Frans, Lonna M.

    2013-01-01

    A groundwater-flow model was developed to evaluate potential future effects of growth and of water-management strategies on water resources in the Chimacum Creek Basin. The model covers an area of about 64 square miles (mi2) on the Olympic Peninsula in northeastern Jefferson County, Washington. The Chimacum Creek Basin drains an area of about 53 mi2 and consists of Chimacum Creek and its tributary East Fork Chimacum Creek, which converge near the town of Chimacum and discharge to Port Townsend Bay near the town of Irondale. The topography of the model area consists of north-south oriented, narrow, regularly spaced parallel ridges and valleys that are characteristic of fluted glaciated surfaces. Thick accumulations of peat occur along the axis of East Fork Chimacum Creek and provide rich soils for agricultural use. The study area is underlain by a north-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial (till and outwash) and interglacial (fluvial and lacustrine) deposits, and sedimentary and igneous bedrock units that crop out along the margins and the western interior of the model area. Six hydrogeologic units in the model area form the basis of the groundwater-flow model. They are represented by model layers UC (upper confining), UA (upper aquifer), MC (middle confining), LA (lower aquifer), LC (lower confining), and OE (bedrock). Groundwater flow in the Chimacum Creek Basin and vicinity was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW-2005. The finite-difference model grid comprises 245 columns, 313 rows, and 6 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 200 × 200 feet (ft). The thickness of model layers varies throughout the model area and ranges from 5 ft in the non-bedrock units to more than 2,400 ft in the bedrock. Groundwater flow was simulated for steady-state conditions, which were simulated for calibration of the model using average recharge, discharge, and water levels for the 180-month period October 1994–September 2009. The model as

  12. Hydrologic data and groundwater flow simulations in the vicinity of Long Lake, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, near Gary, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David C.; Bayless, E. Randall

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected data and simulated groundwater flow to increase understanding of the hydrology and the effects of drainage alterations to the water table in the vicinity of Long Lake, near Gary, Indiana. East Long Lake and West Long Lake (collectively known as Long Lake) make up one of the largest interdunal lakes within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The National Park Service is tasked with preservation and restoration of wetlands in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan. Urban development and engineering have modified drainage and caused changes in the distribution of open water, streams and ditches, and groundwater abundance and flow paths. A better understanding of the effects these modifications have on the hydrologic system in the area will help the National Park Service, the Gary Sanitary District (GSD), and local stakeholders manage and protect the resources within the study area.This study used hydrologic data and steady-state groundwater simulations to estimate directions of groundwater flow and the effects of various engineering controls and climatic conditions on the hydrology near Long Lake. Periods of relatively high and low groundwater levels were examined and simulated by using MODFLOW and companion software. Simulated hydrologic modifications examined the effects of (1) removing the beaver dams in US-12 ditch, (2) discontinuing seepage of water from the filtration pond east of East Long Lake, (3) discontinuing discharge from US-12 ditch to the GSD sewer system, (4) decreasing discharge from US-12 ditch to the GSD sewer system, (5) connecting East Long Lake and West Long Lake, (6) deepening County Line Road ditch, and (7) raising and lowering the water level of Lake Michigan.Results from collected hydrologic data indicate that East Long Lake functioned as an area of groundwater recharge during October 2002 and a “flow-through” lake during March 2011, with the

  13. Identification of emission sources of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovčić Nataša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in ambient air accessed at selected locations in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, have been presented and analyzed in order to determine seasonal and spatial variations and to identify emission sources of particle-bound PAHs. Previous studies have demonstrated that the major contributors of PAHs in urban areas are the emissions from vehicle exhaust, and emissions releases from industrial processes like aluminium production, creosote and wood preservation, waste incineration, cement manufacture, petrochemical and related industries, commercial heat/power production etc. The sampling campaigns have been conducted at three sampling sites, during the two 14-day periods. The first site was situated near industrial area, with a refinery, power plant and heavy-traffic road in the vicinity. The second site was located nearby the heavy traffic area, especially busy during the rush hour. The third site was residential district. Summer sampling period lasted from June 26th to July 10th 2008, while sampling of ambient air during the winter was undertaken from January 22nd to February 5th 2009. Eighty-four (84 air samples were collected using a high volume air sampler TCR Tecora H0649010/ECHO. 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in all samples using a gas chromatographer with a mass spectrometer as a detector (Shimatzu MDGC/GCMS-2010. The total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 1.21 to 1.77 ng/m3 during the summer period and from 6.31 to 7.25 ng/m3 in the winter. Various techniques, including diagnostic ratio (DR and principal component analysis (PCA, have been used to define and evaluate potential emission sources of PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that vehicles, diesel or/and gasoline, industrial and combustion emissions were sources of PAHs in the vicinity of the industrial zone. Additionally, principal component analysis was used

  14. Time domain investigation on excitonic spectral diffusion in CdSe quantum dots grown on vicinal surface GaAs substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, T.; André, R.; Gérard, J.-M.; Romestain, R.; Dang, Le Si; Bartels, M.; Lischka, K.; Schikora, D.

    2004-04-01

    Two monolayers of CdSe sandwiched by ZnSe layers were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a vicinal GaAs surface substrate. Small ensembles of these self-assembled quantum dots (QD) have been studied at low temperatures using micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy. We observe reversible spectral diffusion in individual QD luminescence lines. The energy shift is negligibly small at low optical excitation power and amount to about 0.7 meV under higher excitation (0.6 kW/cm2). Because the energy shift is found to be significantly smaller than the exciton-biexciton splitting of CdSe QDs even under high excitation, the conventional spectral filtering could be used to effectively select the exciton-related emission from these QDs.

  15. Sensitivity of an indigenous amphipod (Corophium colo) to chemical contaminants in laboratory toxicity tests conducted with sediments from Sydney Harbor, Australia, and vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, Stephanie; Greely, Christopher R; Hyne, Ross V; Birch, Gavin F; Long, Edward R

    2005-10-01

    Laboratory survival tests were conducted with an indigenous infaunal amphipod, Corophium colo, on 103 sediment samples from Sydney Harbor (NSW, Australia) and vicinity, containing a wide range of chemicals and concentrations. The present study describes the sensitivity of C. colo to the sediments and compares the results to data for North American amphipods (Rhepoxynius abronius and Ampelisca abdita) previously used to establish and validate sediment-quality guidelines (SQGs). The incidence of toxicity increased with increasing contamination, as indicated by increasing numbers of SQGs exceeded and increasing mean SQG quotients. The incidence of highly toxic results (p Corophium colo reburial tests showed greater sensitivity compared to survival tests, with a maximum incidence of statistically significant responses in moderately contaminated sediments of 70%. The present study showed that adult Corophium organisms are suitable for testing lethal responses in highly contaminated sediments (i.e., with mean effects range-median quotients of >1.5). Reburial results provide additional sensitivity.

  16. Ash dust co-centration in the vicinity of the ash disposal site depending on the size of the pond (“Water Mirror”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gršić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants Nikola Tesla “A” and “B” are large sources of ash from their ashes/slag deposit sites. Total sizes of ashes/slag depots are 600ha and 382ha, with active cassettes having dimensions ∼200 ha and ∼130 ha. The active cassettes of the disposal sites are covered by rather large waste ponds, the sizes of vary depending on the working condition of a sluice system and on meteorological conditions. Modeling of ash lifting was attempted using results from the dust lifting research. The relation between sizes of ponds and air dust concentration in the vicinity of ash disposal sites was analyzed. As expected, greater sizes of dried disposal site surfaces in combination with stronger winds gave greater dust emission and greater air dust concentration.

  17. Detection of an Unconventional Superconducting Phase in the Vicinity of the Strong First-Order Magnetic Transition in CrAs Using As 75 -Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Nakahara, Shingo; Akamatsu, Rui; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo

    2015-03-01

    Pressure-induced superconductivity was recently discovered in the binary helimagnet CrAs. We report the results of measurements of nuclear quadrupole resonance for CrAs under pressure. In the vicinity of the critical pressure Pc between the helimagnetic (HM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases, a phase separation is observed. The large internal field remaining in the phase-separated HM state indicates that the HM phase disappears through a strong first-order transition. This indicates the absence of a quantum critical point in CrAs; however, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 reveals that substantial magnetic fluctuations are present in the PM state. The absence of a coherence effect in 1 /T1 in the superconducting state provides evidence that CrAs is the first Cr-based unconventional superconductor.

  18. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville vicinity, Butte County, Idaho -- Photographs, written historical and descriptive data. Historical American engineering record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the history of the Old Waste Calcining Facility. It begins with introductory material on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the Materials Testing Reactor fuel cycle, and the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The report then describes management of the wastes from the processing plant in the following chapters: Converting liquid to solid wastes; Fluidized bed waste calcining process and the Waste Calcining Facility; Waste calcining campaigns; WCF gets a new source of heat; New Waste Calcining Facility; Last campaign; Deactivation and the RCRA cap; Significance/context of the old WCF. Appendices contain a photo key map for HAER photos, a vicinity map and neighborhood of the WCF, detailed description of the calcining process, and chronology of WCF campaigns.

  19. Flood-inundation maps and wetland restoration suitability index for the Blue River and selected tributaries, Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Kelly, Brian P.; Studley, Seth E.

    2015-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 39.7-mile reach of the Blue River and selected tributaries (Brush Creek, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch) at Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Kansas City, Missouri. The flood-inundation maps, accessed through the USGS Flood-Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the spatial extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at 15 reference streamgages and associated stream reaches in the Blue River Basin. Near-real-time stage data from the streamgages may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at selected sites.

  20. Geohydrology, water quality, and simulation of ground-water flow in the vicinity of a former waste-oil refinery near Westville, Indiana, 1997-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwelius, Richard F.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Wilson, John T.; Robinson, Bret A.

    2002-01-01

    Geohydrologic and water-quality data collected during 1997 through 2000 in the vicinity of a former waste-oil refinery near Westville, Indiana, define a plume of 1,4-dioxane in ground water that extends to the southwest approximately 0.8 miles from the refinery site. Concentrations of 1,4-dioxane in the plume ranged from 3 to 31,000 micrograms per liter. Ground water containing 1,4-dioxane is discharged to Crumpacker Ditch, approximately one-half mile west of the refinery site. Concentrations of 1,4-dioxane detected in surface water ranged from 8 to 140 micrograms per liter; 1,4-dioxane also is transported in ground water beneath the ditch.

  1. Modalities of vegetation management beneath and in the vicinity of overhead power lines; Modalites de gestion de la vegetation sous et aux abords des lignes electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guidebook was elaborated in coordination with the French professional national center of forestry property (CNPPF), Electricite de France (EDF), the national federation of contractors of rural agricultural and forestry works (FNETARF), the national federation of the syndicates of sylviculture forestry owners (FNSPFS), the institute for forest development (IDF), the national forest office (ONF), the French manager of the power grid (RTE) and some local agriculture organizations. Its goal is to supply concrete answers to the questions concerning the management of vegetation in the direct vicinity of overhead power lines, and in particular the rights and obligations of land owners with respect to the maintenance of vegetation. This guidebook represents a first step towards the improvement of today's practices in this domain: legal and technical questions and answers, glossary, regulatory texts, useful addresses and bibliography. (J.S.)

  2. Biosynthetic studies on the tropane alkaloid hyoscyamine in Datura stramonium; hyoscyamine is stable to in vivo oxidation and is not derived from littorine via a vicinal interchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Stephen; O'Hagan, David

    2002-10-01

    The conversion of littorine to hyoscyamine has been investigated by feeding deuterium labelled (RS)-[2-(2)H]-, [3, 3-(2)H(2)]-, [2, 3, 3-(2)H(3)]- phenyllactic acids to transformed root cultures of Datura stramonium. Isolation and GC-MS analyses of the isotope incorporation into the resultant hyoscyamine does not support the involvement of a vicinal interchange process operating during the isomerisation of littorine to hyoscyamine. Additionally a metabolism study with [1'-13C, 3', 3'-(2)H(2)]-hyoscyamine has established that the alkaloid is metabolically stable at C-3' with no evidence for a reversible in vivo oxidation process to the corresponding aldehyde. The data do not support an S-adenosy-L-methionine (SAM 5)/co-enzyme-B(12) mediated process for the isomerisation of littorine to hyoscyamine.

  3. Observation of High-Frequency Electrostatic Waves in the Vicinity of the Reconnection Ion Diffusion Region by the Spacecraft of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Berchem, J.; Walker, R. J.; Liang, H.; El-Alaoui, M.; Goldstein, M. L.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Marklund, G.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of high-frequency electrostatic waves in the vicinity of the reconnection ion diffusion region on the dayside magnetopause. The ion diffusion region is identified during two magnetopause crossings by the Hall electromagnetic fields, the slippage of ions with respect to the magnetic field, and magnetic energy dissipation. In addition to electron beam modes that have been previously detected at the separatrix on the magnetospheric side of the magnetopause, we report, for the first time, the existence of electron cyclotron harmonic waves at the magnetosheath separatrix. Broadband waves between the electron cyclotron and electron plasma frequencies, which were probably generated by electron beams, were found within the magnetopause current sheet. Contributions by these high-frequency waves to the magnetic energy dissipation were negligible in the diffusion regions as compared to those of lower-frequency waves.

  4. Magnetic and electrical transport properties of LaBaCo2O(5.5+δ) thin films on vicinal (001) SrTiO3 surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunrui; Liu, Ming; Collins, Gregory; Wang, Haibin; Bao, Shanyong; Xu, Xing; Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Chonglin; Lin, Yuan; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-23

    Highly epitaxial LaBaCo(2)O(5.5+δ) thin films were grown on the vicinal (001) SrTiO(3) substrates with miscut angles of 0.5°, 3.0°, and 5.0° to systemically study strain effect on its physical properties. The electronic transport properties and magnetic behaviors of these films are strongly dependent on the miscut angles. With increasing the miscut angle, the transport property of the film changes from semiconducting to semimetallic, which results most probably from the locally strained domains induced by the surface step terraces. In addition, a very large magnetoresistance (34% at 60 K) was achieved for the 0.5°-miscut film, which is ~30% larger than that for the film grown on the regular (001) SrTiO(3) substrates.

  5. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Jones, Tucker A.; Mallette, Christine; Dawley, Earl M.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David; Moran, Paul

    2008-03-18

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled “Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River.” Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

  6. Representation of two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAUGHN,PALMER; BEAN,J.E.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; LORD,MICHAEL E.; MACKINNON,ROBERT J.; SCHREIBER,JAMES D.

    2000-05-18

    The following topics related to the representation of two-phase (gas and brine) flow in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are discussed: (1) system of nonlinear partial differential equations used to model two-phase flow, (2) incorporation of repository shafts into model (3) creep closure of repository. (4) interbed fracturing, (5) gas generation (6) capillary action in waste, (7) borebole model (8) numerical solution and (9) gas and brine flow across specified boundaries. Two-phase flow calculations are a central part of the 1996 WIPP PA and supply results that are subsequently used in the calculation of releases to the surface at the time of a drilling intrusion (i.e., spallings, direct brine releases) and long-term releases due to radionuclide transport by flowing groundwater.

  7. Spatially Resolved Cathodoluminescence in the Vicinity of Defects in the High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Blue Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manh-Ha Doan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the standard 447 nm blue emission from the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, a high-energy shoulder is clearly observed in cathodoluminescence spectra of the high-efficiency InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Monochromatic cathodoluminescence images of the samples measured at low temperature reveal a competition between the two emissions in the vicinity of the dislocations. The high-energy emission is dominant at the regions near the dislocation cores, while the blue emission is enhanced around the dislocation edges. The high-energy emission region is considered as a potential barrier that prevents the carriers for the blue emission from nonradiatively recombining at the dislocations.

  8. Levels and trends of PCDD/Fs in human blood and milk of residents in the vicinity of a modern municipal solid waste incinerator near to Lisbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, New Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    Possible health hazard from human exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator emissions, which can include chlorinated persistent organic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs), is of great public concern. The needed rigorous control of these emissions should be reflected by not different time trends in the PCDD/Fs levels of both the populations residing in the vicinity of incinerators and others selected as control, similar in socio-demographic and other factors potentially influencing those levels. To check the possibility of enhanced body burdens due to MSW emissions, well-designed studies have to be performed to determine human exposure to PCDD/Fs over time. Biological (human) monitoring of these chemicals has several advantages over environmental monitoring, since it is able to measure human body burden and accounts for exposure from all sources, environmental pathways and routes of absorption. However, it is practically unable to identify specific sources, routes and pathways, important issues for risk management purposes. Since 1999, a modern municipal solid waste incinerator is operating in the Metropolitan Area of North-Lisbon, Portugal. In order to get a reliable data basis on the body burden of PCDD/Fs in the population residing in the vicinity of the plant, susceptible of identifying time trends and possible regional differences, a biomonitoring program was implemented in the ambit of the VALORSUL Environmental Health Survey, referred elsewhere. The present paper describes results of this biomonitoring program, which includes repeated cross-sectional studies and, as much as possible, regular examinations of blood and breast milk samples, to determine PCDD/F levels.

  9. Faba Bean: Transcriptome Analysis from Etiolated Seedling and Developing Seed Coat of Key Cultivars for Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins, Phytate, Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides, Vicine, and Convicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ray

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean ( L. has been little examined from a genetic or genomic perspective despite its status as an established food and forage crop with some key pharmaceutical factors such as vicine and convicine (VC, which provoke severe haemolysis in genetically susceptible humans. We developed next-generation sequencing libraries to maximize information to elucidate the VC pathway or relevant markers as well as other genes of interest for the species. One selected cultivar, A01155, lacks synthesis of the favism-provoking factors, VC, and is low in tannin, while two cultivars, SSNS-1 and CDC Fatima, are wild-type for these factors. Tissues (5- to 6-d-old root and etiolated shoot and developing seed coat were selected to maximize the utility and breadth of the gene expression profile. Approximately 1.2 × 10 expressed transcripts were sequenced and assembled into contigs. The synthetic pathways for phosphatidylinositol or phytate, the raffinose family oligosaccharides, and proanthocyanidin were examined and found to contain nearly a full complement of the synthetic genes for these pathways. A severe deficiency in anthocyanidin reductase expression was found in the low-tannin cultivar A01155. Approximately 5300 variants, including 234 variants specific to one of the three cultivars, were identified. Differences in expression and variants potentially related to VC synthesis were analyzed using strategies exploiting differences in expression between cultivars and tissues. These sequences should be of high utility for marker-assisted selection for the key traits vicine, convicine, and proanthocyanidin, and should contribute to the scant genetic maps available for this species.

  10. A measure of the promiscuity of proteins and characteristics of residues in the vicinity of the catalytic site that regulate promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Rao, Basuthkar J

    2012-01-01

    Promiscuity, the basis for the evolution of new functions through 'tinkering' of residues in the vicinity of the catalytic site, is yet to be quantitatively defined. We present a computational method Promiscuity Indices Estimator (PROMISE)--based on signatures derived from the spatial and electrostatic properties of the catalytic residues, to estimate the promiscuity (PromIndex) of proteins with known active site residues and 3D structure. PromIndex reflects the number of different active site signatures that have congruent matches in close proximity of its native catalytic site, the quality of the matches and difference in the enzymatic activity. Promiscuity in proteins is observed to follow a lognormal distribution (μ = 0.28, σ = 1.1 reduced chi-square = 3.0E-5). The PROMISE predicted promiscuous functions in any protein can serve as the starting point for directed evolution experiments. PROMISE ranks carboxypeptidase A and ribonuclease A amongst the more promiscuous proteins. We have also investigated the properties of the residues in the vicinity of the catalytic site that regulates its promiscuity. Linear regression establishes a weak correlation (R(2)∼0.1) between certain properties of the residues (charge, polar, etc) in the neighborhood of the catalytic residues and PromIndex. A stronger relationship states that most proteins with high promiscuity have high percentages of charged and polar residues within a radius of 3 Å of the catalytic site, which is validated using one-tailed hypothesis tests (P-values∼0.05). Since it is known that these characteristics are key factors in catalysis, their relationship with the promiscuity index cross validates the methodology of PROMISE.

  11. Natural radionuclide emission from coal-fired power plants in the southwestern of Turkey and the population exposure to external radiation in their vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of radionuclide emission on the environment from Yatagan, Yenikoy and Kemerkoy coal-fired power plants which are located in southwestern Anatolia of Turkey, the concentrations of natural radionuclides such as (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples, have been measured, as well as the concentration of the same radionuclides in surface soils. The dose rate arises from the total radioactivity content of soil that the people living by the power plants are exposed to be assessed additionally. The average activity concentrations of (226)Ra for Yatagan CPP is 80 ± 22 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 56 to 131 Bq kg(-1), for Yenikoy CPP is 138 ± 20 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 115 to 189 Bq kg(-1), for Kemerkoy CPP is 238 ± 80 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 134 to 356 Bq kg(-1) in coal; average activity concentrations of (226)Ra in fly ash and in bottom ash for above-mentioned power plants are 334 ± 60 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 291 to 481 Bq kg(-1), 461 ± 33 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 398 to 511 Bq kg(-1), 815 ± 254 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 316 to 1260 Bq kg(-1), 276 ± 51 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 222 to 349 Bq kg(-1), 285 ± 69 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 213 to 409 Bq kg(-1), 743 ± 234 Bq kg(-1) ranging from 366 to 1098 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radionuclides activity concentrations of surface soil in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants are 32 ± 9 Bq kg(-1) (18-53 Bq kg(-1)) for (226)Ra, 37 ± 16 Bq kg(-1) (17-89 Bq kg(-1)) for (232)Th, 455 ± 165 Bq kg(-1) (203-794 Bq kg(-1)) for (40)K relevant to Yatagan CPP; 42 ± 30 Bq kg(-1) (9-168 Bq kg(-1)) for (226)Ra, 32 ± 14 Bq kg(-1) (6-74 Bq kg(-1)) for (232)Th, 365 ± 151 Bq kg(-1) (117-937 Bq kg(-1)) for (40)K relevant to Yenikoy and Kemerkoy CPP. As a result, average dose rates in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants have been calculated to be 56 ± 16 nGy h(-1) ranging from 30 to 100 nGy h(-1) for Yatagan CPP, 54 ± 22 nGy h(-1) ranging from 15 to 126 nGy h(-1) for Yenikoy and Kemerkoy CPP. To

  12. Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather, NK; Johnson, GE; Storch, AJ [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-07-06

    The tidal freshwater monitoring (TFM) project reported herein is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [USACE], and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. The project is being performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Project No. 2005-001-00). The research is a collaborative effort among the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the University of Washington. The overarching goal of the TFM project is to bridge the gap in knowledge between tidal freshwater habitats and the early life history attributes of migrating salmon. The research questions include: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the Columbia River are juvenile salmon found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions? What is the ecological contribution of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of ESA-listed salmon in the Columbia River basin? Field data collection for the TFM project commenced in June 2007 and since then has continued monthly at six to nine sites in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta (river kilometer 192-208). While this report includes summary data spanning the 19-month period of study from June 2007 through December 2008, it highlights sampling conducted during calendar year 2008. Detailed data for calendar year 2007 were reported previously. The 2008 research objectives were as follows: (1) Characterize the vegetation composition and percent cover, conventional water quality, water surface elevation, substrate composition, bathymetry, and beach slope at the study sites within the vicinity of the Sandy

  13. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn; Johnson, Gary; Sather, Nichole [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-03-17

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River'. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of the 2007-2009 Tidal Freshwater Monitoring Study is to answer the following questions: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; Figure 1) are yearling and subyearling salmonids found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions?1 And, what is the ecological importance2 of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of Upper Columbia River spring Chinook salmon and steelhead and Snake River fall Chinook salmon? Research in 2007 focused mainly on the first question, with fish stock identification data providing some indication of Chinook salmon presence at the variety of habitat types sampled. The objectives and sub-objectives for the 2007 study were as follows: (1) Habitat and Fish Community Characteristics-Provide basic data on habitat and fish community characteristics for yearling and subyearling salmonids at selected sites in the tidal freshwater reach in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta. (1a) Characterize vegetation assemblage percent cover, conventional water quality, substrate composition, and beach slope at each of six sampling sites in various tidal freshwater habitat types. (1b

  14. Thermic model to predict biogas production in unheated fixed-dome digesters buried in the ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terradas-Ill, Georgina; Cuong, Pham Hung; Triolo, Jin Mi

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries, simple biogas digesters are used to produce energy for domestic purposes from anaerobic digestion of animal manure. We developed a simple, one-dimensional (1-D), thermal model with easily-available input data for unheated, unstirred, uninsulated, fixed-dome digesters...... buried in the soil to study heat transfer between biogas digester and its surroundings. The predicted temperatures in the dome, biogas and slurry inside the digester and the resulting biogas production are presented and validated. The model was well able to estimate digester temperature (linear slope...... nearly 1, R2 0.96). Model validation for methane production gave root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 54.4 L CH4 digester-1 day-1 and relative-root-mean-square errors (rRMSEP(%)) of 35.4%. The validation result was considerably improved if only using winter data (RMSE = 26.1 L CH4 digester-1 day-1; r...

  15. Detection of plastic explosives by thermic neutron radiography; Deteccao de explosivos plasticos por neutrongrafia termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacidume, Leo R.; Crispim, Verginia R.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    This work aims to demonstrate the potentiality of the neutron radiography technique, allied to the computerized tomography by transmission, to both detect and visualize plastic explosive samples in several hidden conditions, using a simple scanner as a digitalisation instrument. Each tomographic essay was obtained in the J-9 channel of the Argonauta Research Reactor of IEN/CNEN, in groups of six neutron radiographic projections, performed with an angular increment of 30 in a period of time of 30 minutes for each projection. Two groups of tomographic reconstructions were generated, distinguished by the digitalisation process of the interested lines in the reconstruction plane coming from the projection groups, utilizing a scanner and a microdensitometer, respectively. The reconstruction of the bi-dimensional image of the transverse section, in relation to this plane, was processed making use of the Image reconstruction algorithmic of an image based on the maximum entropy principle (ARIEM). From the qualitative analysis of the images, we conclude that the neutron radiographic system was able to detect the explosive sample in a satisfactory way while the quantitative analysis confirmed the application effectiveness of a scanner to acquire the projection dates whose objective is only a reconnaissance. (author)

  16. Preliminary design of the summer thermic protection; Zur Vorbemessung des sommerlichen Waermeschutzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trogisch, A. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden (Germany). Lehrgebiet Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    1999-08-01

    A preliminary design of the summer heat load protection can be made according to DIN 4108 [1], according to [2] and on the basis of the work by Petzold, among other things the heat storage in the building (WBV) under summer conditions, can be shown. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine Vorbemessung des sommerlichen Waermeschutzes kann nach DIN 4108 [1] und nach [2] auf der Grundlage der Arbeiten von Petzold u.a. zum Waermebeharrungsvermoegen (WBV) unter sommerlichen Bedingungen vorgenommen werden. (orig.)

  17. 3D monolithic finite element approach for aero-thermics processes in industrial furnaces⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coupez T.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider in this paper a mathematical and numerical model to design an industrial software solution able to handle real complex furnaces configurations in terms of geometries, atmospheres, parts positioning, heat generators and physical thermal phenomena. A three dimensional algorithm based on stabilized finite element methods (SFEM for solving the momentum, energy, turbulence and radiation equations is presented. An immersed volume method (IVM for thermal coupling of fluids and solids is introduced and detailed. It consists in considering a single 3D grid of the furnace and solving one set of equations for both fluid and solid with different thermal properties. A fast anisotropic mesh adaptation algorithm based on the variations of the level set function is applied to ensure an accurate capture of the discontinuities at the fluid-solid interfaces. The proposed method demonstrates the capability of the model to simulate an unsteady three dimensional heat transfers and turbulent flows in an industrial furnace with the presence of conducting solids. Temperature measurements were carried in different locations and are compared to the experimental results.

  18. Determining the area of influence of depression cone in the vicinity of lignite mine by means of triangle method and LANDSAT TM/ETM+ satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Przeździecki, Karol; Miatkowski, Zygmunt

    2016-01-15

    , and allows for systematic monitoring of the vast area in the vicinity of Belchatow lignite mine. Besides, this method could be useful as a helper in in-situ measurement allowing a significant reduction of the number of in-situ measurements by performing them only within problematic areas. Hence, the triangle method can be used as an effective supplement to field measurements. Although the research area is located in Poland, in the vicinity of lignite mine, the method of observation of depression cones provided in this study is universal and effective, and therefore could also be useful to an international audience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Guide to the Vascular Flora of the Savannas and Flatwoods of Shaken Creek Preserve and Vicinity (Pender & Onslow Counties, North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Thornhill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaken Creek Preserve (“SCP” is a 2,448 ha (6,050 ac natural area in Pender and Onslow Counties, North Carolina (U.S.A. Best known for its high-quality longleaf pine savanna habitat, the site contains seven savanna or savanna-like plant community types (i.e., flatwoods or sandhills, three of which are globally critically imperiled (G1: Sandy Pine Savanna (Rush Featherling subtype, Wet Loamy Pine Savanna, and Very Wet Loamy Pine Savanna. SCP hosts three Federally Endangered plant species and six Federal Species of Concern. Formerly a private hunting club, the site was virtually unknown to scientists until the 1990s; consequently, few biological inventories of SCP have been conducted. In particular, no systematic floristic inventories of the species-rich savannas have been undertaken, despite the fact that floristic data is critical to the effective management of any natural area. The goals of this study were to (1 inventory the vascular flora of the savannas, flatwoods, and sandhill community types on site through the collection of voucher specimens; (2 provide a comprehensive checklist of the flora based on collections and reports made from the site and from the same or similar habitats in the vicinity (i.e., within 2 miles of SCP; and (3 create an illustrated guide based on the checklist. In order to increase the usefulness of the guide, taxa not currently known from SCP but collected or reported from the same or similar habitats within two miles of SCP, are included in the guide. Eighty-three families containing 450 taxa, including thirty-two Significantly Rare and thirty-eight Watch List taxa, were collected or reported from SCP; an additional seven families containing a total of 102 taxa, including eighteen Significantly Rare and seven Watch List taxa, were collected or reported from the vicinity. In total, ninety families containing 552 taxa, including fifty Significantly Rare and forty-five Watch List taxa, are treated in the guide

  20. Ground-Water Flow in the Vicinity of the Ho-Chunk Nation Communities of Indian Mission and Sand Pillow, Jackson County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Charles P.; Mueller, Gregory D.; Juckem, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    An analytic element ground-water-flow model was constructed to help understand the ground-water-flow system in the vicinity of the Ho-Chunk Nation communities of Indian Mission and Sand Pillow in Jackson County, Wisconsin. Data from interpretive reports, well-drillers' construction reports, and an exploratory augering program in 2003 indicate that sand and gravel of varying thickness (0-150 feet[ft]) and porous sandstone make up a composite aquifer that overlies Precambrian crystalline rock. The geometric mean values for horizontal hydraulic conductivity were estimated from specific-capacity data to be 61.3 feet per day (ft/d) for sand and gravel, 6.6 ft/d for sandstone, and 12.0 ft/d for the composite aquifer. A ground-water flow model was constructed, the near field of which encompassed the Levis and Morrison Creeks Watershed. The flow model was coupled to the parameter-estimation program UCODE to obtain a best fit between simulated and measured values of ground-water levels and estimated Q50 flow duration (base flow). Calibration of the model with UCODE provided a ground-water recharge rate of 9 inches per year and a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 13 ft/d for the composite aquifer. Using these calibrated parameter values, simulated heads from the model were on average within 5 ft of the measured water levels. In addition, these parameter values provided an acceptable base-flow calibration for Hay, Dickey, and Levis Creeks; the calibration was particularly close for Levis Creek, which was the most frequently measured stream in the study area. The calibrated model was used to simulate ground-water levels and to determine the direction of ground-water flow in the vicinity of Indian Mission and Sand Pillow communities. Backward particle tracking was conducted for Sand Pillow production wells under two pumping simulations to determine their 20-year contributing areas. In the first simulation, new production wells 6, 7, and 8 were each pumped at 50 gallons per

  1. The lead isotopic composition of dust in the vicinity of a uranium mine in northern Australia and its use for radiation dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollhoefer, Andreas [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (eriss), GPO Box 461, Darwin, NT 0801 (Australia)]. E-mail: andreas.bollhoefer@deh.gov.au; Honeybun, Russell [John deLaeter Centre of Mass Spectrometry, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Rosman, Kevin [John deLaeter Centre of Mass Spectrometry, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Martin, Paul [Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-08-01

    Airborne lead isotope ratios were measured via Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry in samples from the vicinity of Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia. Dust deposited on leaves of Acacia spp. was washed off and analysed to gain a geographical snapshot of lead isotope ratios in the region. Aerosols were also collected on Teflon filters that were changed monthly over one seasonal cycle using a low volume diaphragm pump. Lead isotope ratios in dust deposited on leaves overestimate the relative amount of mine origin airborne lead, most likely due to a difference of the size distribution of particles collected on leaves and true aerosol size distribution. Seasonal measurements show that the annual average mine contribution to airborne lead concentrations in Jabiru East, approximately 2.5 km northwest of the mine, amounted to 13%, with distinct differences between the wet and dry season. The relative contribution of mine origin lead deposited on leaves in the dry season drops to less than 1% at a distance of 12.5 km from the mine along the major wind direction. An approach is outlined, in which lead isotope ratios are used to estimate the effective radiation dose received from the inhalation of mine origin radioactivity trapped in or on dust. Using the data from our study, this dose has been calculated to be approximately 2 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for people living and working in the area.

  2. Serum PCDDs/Fs levels for the residents living in the vicinity and workers of the municipal incinerators in Seoul, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Shin, D. [Inst. for environmental Research, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea); Lim, Y. [Dept. of Environmental Health, Seonam Univ., Namwon (Korea); Chang, Y. [School of Environmental Engineering, Pohang Univ., Pohang (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    PCDDs and PCDFs are detected routinely, as they are widely distributed in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Moreover, because human beings are at the top of food chain, a relatively high level of these compounds can be found in human adipose tissues, blood lipids, and breast milk fat. In Korea, the number of municipal and hazardous waste incinerators have increased since 1980. In addition, municipal waste incinerators are almost always located in residential areas. Therefore, the human health risks caused by dioxin is become an increasing public concern in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs in blood from individuals living in the vicinity area of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI), and to compare PCDDs/PCDFs levels in blood for residents living near the MSWI, workers at the MSWI and general population living in the urban area not including the MSWI. Analysis of the results was made in terms of sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, smoking habit, food consumption patters, and proximity to the MSWI.

  3. A study of radionuclides, metals and stable lead isotope ratios in sediments and soils in the vicinity of natural U-mineralisation areas in the Northern Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frostick, A., E-mail: Alison.Frostick@cdu.edu.au [Charles Darwin University, School of Environment and Life Sciences, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); ERISS, GPO Box 461, Darwin NT 0801 (Australia); Bollhoefer, A. [ERISS, GPO Box 461, Darwin NT 0801 (Australia); Parry, D. [AIMS, PO Box 41775, Casuarina NT 0811 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Australian guidelines recommend that tailings materials from uranium (U) mining and milling be contained without any detrimental impact on the environment for at least 1000 years. Natural analogue sites are being investigated to determine if they can provide data on the rates of natural erosion processes which occur over these timescales, for input into predictive geomorphic computer models. This paper presents radionuclide, metal and stable lead (Pb) isotope data from sediment cores and surface soils in the vicinity of two mineralised areas in the Alligator Rivers Region. Surface scrapes from the natural Anomaly no. 2, south of the Ranger mineral lease, exhibit radiogenic {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios, and elevated U and metal concentrations typical for a near surface U anomaly. In contrast, samples taken from the Koongarra mineral lease (KML) show radionuclide activity and metal concentrations similar to natural areas elsewhere in the Alligator Rivers Region and Pb isotope ratios are closer to present day average crustal ratios (PDAC), as the orebodies at KML are covered by surficial sand. A sediment core collected from Anbangbang Billabong, downstream of KML, exhibits small variations in Pb isotope ratios that indicate that approximately 1% of the upper sediments in the sediment core may be derived from material originating from the U anomaly at Koongarra.

  4. Explaining traffic patterns at on-ramp vicinity by a driver perception model in the framework of three-phase traffic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuyan; Guan, Wei; Song, Liying

    2010-02-01

    In traffic system, driving behaviors change with the surrounding traffic perceived by drivers, resulting in the complex spatio-temporal traffic patterns. Accordingly, in the majority of traffic models, vehicle accelerations are described by dynamic equations based on driving behavior, system dynamics and some underlying steady-state velocity-gap (bumper-to-bumper spacing) relation in order to guarantee the realistic human behavior. This paper proposes a deterministic car-following model based on a multi-branch fundamental diagram with each branch representing a particular category of driving style. Furthermore, an additional dynamic perception equation is introduced to reflect the driving style adaptation in response to the change in surrounding traffic situations. With simulation based on the proposed “driver perception model” (DP model), empirical findings of traffic breakdown and observed spatio-temporal patterns at on-ramp vicinity are reproduced. Furthermore, comparison results show the consistency between numerical simulation and the real traffic data of Beijing urban freeway.

  5. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2015-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning.

  6. A study of radionuclides, metals and stable lead isotope ratios in sediments and soils in the vicinity of natural U-mineralisation areas in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frostick, A; Bollhöfer, A; Parry, D

    2011-10-01

    Australian guidelines recommend that tailings materials from uranium (U) mining and milling be contained without any detrimental impact on the environment for at least 1000 years. Natural analogue sites are being investigated to determine if they can provide data on the rates of natural erosion processes which occur over these timescales, for input into predictive geomorphic computer models. This paper presents radionuclide, metal and stable lead (Pb) isotope data from sediment cores and surface soils in the vicinity of two mineralised areas in the Alligator Rivers Region. Surface scrapes from the natural Anomaly #2, south of the Ranger mineral lease, exhibit radiogenic (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios, and elevated U and metal concentrations typical for a near surface U anomaly. In contrast, samples taken from the Koongarra mineral lease (KML) show radionuclide activity and metal concentrations similar to natural areas elsewhere in the Alligator Rivers Region and Pb isotope ratios are closer to present day average crustal ratios (PDAC), as the orebodies at KML are covered by surficial sand. A sediment core collected from Anbangbang Billabong, downstream of KML, exhibits small variations in Pb isotope ratios that indicate that approximately 1% of the upper sediments in the sediment core may be derived from material originating from the U anomaly at Koongarra. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Accuracy of Bone Measurements in the Vicinity of Titanium Implants in CBCT Data Sets: A Comparison of Radiological and Histological Findings in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gröbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this animal study was the determination of accuracy of bone measurements in CBCT (cone-beam computed tomography in close proximity to titanium implants. Material and Methods. Titanium implants were inserted in eight Göttingen minipigs. 60 implants were evaluated histologically in ground section specimen and radiologically in CBCT in regard to thickness of the buccal bone. With random intercept models, the difference of histologic measurements and CBCT measurements of bone thickness was calculated. Results. The mean histological thickness of the buccal bone was 5.09 mm (CI 4.11–6.08 mm. The four raters measured slightly less bone in CBCT than it was found in histology. The random effect was not significant (p value 1.000. Therefore, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was 98.65% (CI 100.00–96.99%. Conclusion. CBCT is an accurate technique to measure even thin bone structures in the vicinity of titanium implants.

  8. Integrated geological and multi-electrode resistivity surveys for groundwater investigation in Kampung Rahmat village and its vicinity, Jeli district, Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaruddin, Dony Adriansyah; Amiruzan, Zafirah Sakinah; Hussin, Hamzah; Jafar, Mohamad Taufiq Mohd

    2017-03-01

    The integration of geological and multi-electrode resistivity surveys has been carried out in Kampung Rahmat village and its vicinity, in Jeli district, Kelantan, Malaysia as part of the groundwater resources exploration for rural water supply. A geological survey in the study area has shown that the area consists of some topographic units: mountainous area, hilly area, and low-lying to undulating area. The study area is lithologically composed of granitic rocks (megacrystic biotite granite porphyry) overlain by Quaternary alluvial deposits (with weathered granite). For the multi-electrode resistivity survey, the Schlumberger array with a maximum electrode spread of 200 m was conducted by employing three resistivity survey lines, where data were collected by using the ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000 and ABEM LUND ES464 electrode selector system, and processed by using RES2DINV software. The images were presented in the form of two-dimensional (2D) resistivity profiles providing a clear view of the distribution of granitic rock basement and alluvial deposits (with the weathered granite) as well as potential groundwater zones. The results show that the study area has potential groundwater resources existing in the alluvium which become the unconfined aquifers. The combination between these two methods is reliable and successful in identifying potentially favorable zones for obtaining groundwater in the study area.

  9. TSP, PM depositions, and trace elements in the vicinity of a cement plant and their source apportionments using chemical mass balance model in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatkin, Sinan; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2010-08-01

    Total suspended particles mass concentrations (TSP) and bulk depositions of particulate matter (PM depositions) were measured around a cement plant located in the multi-impacted area to assess the affect of the plant on the ambient air in the vicinity in Izmir, Turkey. TSP samples were collected five times a month whereas PM depositions were sampled monthly at four sites between August 2003 and January 2004. The concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in TSP and PM depositions (except Cu) were reported. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model with local source profiles was run in order to calculate the source contributions of the PM sources to the concentrations of TSP, PM depositions, and trace elements. Traffic was found to be the major contributor to TSP whereas PM depositions dominantly result from area sources including several stone quarries, concrete plants, lime kilns, and asphalt plants in the region. CMB model results indicate that the cement plant is a significant contributor to TSP, PM depositions, and trace elements, particularly Cd.

  10. Performance of InP/InGaAs HBTs with a Thin Highly N-Type Doped Layer in the Emitter-Base Heterojunction Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurishima, Kenji; Ida, Minoru; Kashio, Norihide; K. Fukai, Yoshino

    This paper investigates the effects of n-type doping in the emitter-base heterojunction vicinity on the DC and high-frequency characteristics of InP/InGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The n-type doping is shown to be very effective for enhancing the tunneling-injection current from the emitter and thus for reducing the collector-current turn-on voltage. However, it is also revealed that an unnecessary increase in the doping level only degrades the current gain, especially in the low-current region. A higher doping level also increases the emitter junction capacitance. The optimized HBT structures with a 0.5-µm-wide emitter exhibit turn-on voltage as low as 0.78V and current gain of around 80 at JC =1mA/µm2. They also provide a current-gain cutoff frequency, ft, of 280GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency, fmax, of 385GHz at VCE =1V and JC =3mA/µm2. These results indicate that the proposed HBTs are very useful for high-speed and low-power IC applications.

  11. Radioactivity measurements in the vicinity of the mine waste heap at Crossen and radiation dose assessment; Radioaktivitaetsmessungen in der Umgebung der Bergehalde Crossen und Abschaetzung der Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulzer, R.

    1998-09-01

    The radiation dose to the population living in the vicinity of the mine waste heap is assessed. The measurements carried out were to verify the dose relevance of ambient radioactivity on site, in particular the ingestion and inhalation pathways and the external exposure pathways. The nuclide Pb-210 was used as an indicator because of its large dose factor for assessment of ingestion and its airborne dispersion as an Rn-222 daughter product. The waste heap material releases large quantities of this nuclide. Ingestion of radioactivity from the waste heap may be caused by wind-borne erosion and activity deposition on plants in the area. Thererfore, the specific activities of Pb-210 and Ra-226 have been measured in soil and plant specimens sampled at various distances from the waste heap. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Strahlenexposition der in der Naehe einer Bergehalde lebenden Bevoelkerung wird bestimmt. Zu diesem Zweck wurden Messungen realisiert, die den Ingestions- und Inhalationspfad sowie die externe Exposition fuer die vorgefundene Situation auf ihre Dosisrelevanz ueberpruefen sollten. Hierzu diente das Nuklid Pb-210 mit seinem grossen Dosisfaktor fuer die Ingestion und seiner besonderen Verbreitungsmoeglichkeit ueber die Luft als Tochter von Rn-222. Dieses wird aus dem Haldenmaterial in grossen Mengen freigesetzt. Haldenmaterial kann ueber den Ingestionspfad in den menschlichen Koerper aufgenommen werden, wenn es durch Winderosion auf Pflanzenoberflaechen in der Umgebung abgelagert wird.Deshalb wurden die spezifischen Aktivitaeten an Pb-210 und Ra-226 von Boden- und Pflanzenproben in verschiedenen Entfernungen zur Halde bestimmt.

  12. Radioactivity of Drinking-Water in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants in China Based on a Large-Scale Monitoring Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiang Miao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The public concern for radioactivity of drinking-water has been increasing in recent years after the rapid development of nuclear power plants, and especially after the Fukushima nuclear accident. In this study, the radioactivity of water samples collected in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from seven provinces in China was measured and an average annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was calculated. The results showed that, in winter and spring, the activities of gross α and β ranged from 0.009 Bq/L to 0.200 Bq/L and from 0.067 Bq/L to 0.320 Bq/L, respectively. While, in summer and autumn, the activities of gross a and β varied from 0.002 Bq/L to 0.175 Bq/L and from 0.060 Bq/L to 0.334 Bq/L. Our results indicated that the gross a and β activities in these measured water samples were below the WHO recommended values (0.5 Bq/L for gross α and 1.0 Bq/L for gross β and the annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was at a safe level.

  13. A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gursatej; Kaur, Gurpreet; Nisar, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone base stations facilitate good communication, but the continuously emitting radiations from these stations have raised health concerns. Hence in this study, genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls. The power density in the area within 300 m from the base station exceeded the permissive limits and was significantly (p = 0.000) higher compared to the area from where control samples were collected. The study participants comprised 63 persons with residences near a mobile phone tower, and 28 healthy controls matched for gender, age, alcohol drinking and occupational sub-groups. Genetic damage parameters of DNA migration length, damage frequency (DF) and damage index were significantly (p = 0.000) elevated in the sample group compared to respective values in healthy controls. The female residents (n = 25) of the sample group had significantly (p = 0.004) elevated DF than the male residents (n = 38). The linear regression analysis further revealed daily mobile phone usage, location of residence and power density as significant predictors of genetic damage. The genetic damage evident in the participants of this study needs to be addressed against future disease-risk, which in addition to neurodegenerative disorders, may lead to cancer.

  14. Direct regional quasi-geoid determination using EGM2008 and DEM: A case study for Mainland China and its vicinity areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth's gravity model (EGM helps people better determine the figure of Earth, which is generally represented by a global geoid. For a considerable amount of practical applications, people use quasi-geoid to approximate the geoid, thus the quasi-geoid is also treated as an important height datum. In this study we revisit the method to directly determine regional quasi-geoid using EGM and digital elevation model (DEM, on the basis of Molodensky theory. According to the method we obtain a 5′ × 5′ quasi-geoid for Mainland China and its vicinity areas, based on the EGM2008 gravitational potential model and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM DEM model. By comparing height anomalies derived from EGM2008 with observations at 70 GPS/leveling points in areas including northwest, mid-west, mid-east and southeast of China, we find that the 5′ × 5′ EGM2008 quasi-geoid well fits the GPS/leveling results, with average deviations less than 10 cm for the selected areas in east China (with mainly plain topography and ∼20 cm for the selected areas in west China (highland or mountainous areas. We also discuss a few technical issues for directly determining height anomalies based on EGM and DEM, under the frame of Molodensky theory.

  15. Chemical and Radiochemical Constituents in Water from Wells in the Vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. L. Knobel; R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. M. Williams (USGS)

    1999-10-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office (IBO), samples water from 13 wells during 1996 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality to the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. The IBO requires information about the mobility of radionuclide- and chemical-waste constituents in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Waste-constituent mobility is determined principally by (1) the rate and direction of ground-water flow; (2) the locations, quantities, and methods of waste disposal; (3) waste-constituents chemistry; and (4) the geochemical processes taking place in the aquifer. The purpose of the data-collection program is to provide IBO with water-chemistry data to evaluate the effect of NRF activities on the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants.

  16. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Silva Lana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas, in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park.

  17. Estimates of the low-level wind shear and turbulence in the vicinity of Kennedy International Airport on 24 June 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, W. S.; Williamson, G. G.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the type of wind and turbulence distributions which may have existed at the time of the crash of Eastern Airlines Flight 66 while attempting to land. A number of different wind and turbulence profiles are predicted for the site and date of the crash. The morning and mid-afternoon predictions are in reasonably good agreement with magnitude and direction as reported by the weather observer. Although precise predictions cannot be made during the passage of the thunderstorm which coincides with the time of the accident, a number of different profiles which might exist under or in the vicinity of a thunderstorm are presented. The profile that is most probable predicts the mean headwind shear over 100 m (300 feet) altitude change and the average fluctuations about the mean headwind distribution. This combination of means and fluctuations leads to a reasonable probability that the instantaneous headwind shear would equal the maximum value reported in the flight recorder data.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence characterization of InGaAs strained quantum wires on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, B R; Ota, T; Kobayashi, K; Maehashi, K; Nakashima, H; Lee, S Y

    1999-01-01

    We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) to study InGaAs/AlGaAs strained quantum wires (QWRs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates. The cross-sectional TEM image reveals that InGaAs QWRs structures are naturally formed on AlGaAs giant steps. In the plan-view TEM images, the fringe pattern in the giant-step region is observed for In sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As layers with x<= 0.4 We measured the separation of the fringe in the plan-view TEM images and compared the result with the calculated fringe separation. From this result, we conclude that the fringes observed in the plan-view TEM images are moire fringes. PL spectra of the InGaAs QWRs samples reveal 80-meV shifts to lower energy with respect to the spectrum of a quantum well (QWL) grown on a (001) substrate under the same conditions. We also measured the polarization anisotropy of the PL spectra from the QWRs. The PL peak shifts systematically toward higher energy with decreasing...

  19. Attenuation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency ~1.7 kHz in the upper ionosphere observed by the DEMETER satellite in the vicinity of earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Parrot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The DEMETER satellite was the first satellite specifically dedicated to the recording of electromagnetic phenomena connected with seismic activity. Almost 6.5 years of measurements provide good opportunities to analyze a unique dataset with global Earth coverage. We present the results of a statistical study of the intensity of very low frequency electromagnetic waves recorded in the upper ionosphere. Robust two-step data processing has been used. The expected unperturbed distribution of the power spectral densities of electromagnetic emissions was calculated first. Then, the power spectral densities measured in the vicinities of earthquakes are compared with the unperturbed distribution and are examined for the presence of uncommon effects related to seismic activity. The statistical significance of the observed effects is evaluated. We confirm the previously reported results of a very small, but statistically significant, decrease in wave intensities a few hours before times of main shocks using this much larger dataset. The wave intensity decrease at a frequency of about 1.7 kHz is observed only during the night and only for shallow earthquakes. This can potentially be explained by increases in the cut-off frequency of the Earth ionosphere waveguide caused by imminent earthquakes.

     

  20. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noli, Fotini, E-mail: noli@chem.auth.gr; Tsamos, Panagiotis, E-mail: pktsamos@chem.auth.gr

    2016-09-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  1. Assessment of urinary thiodiglycolic acid exposure in school-aged children in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Chin; Liu, Li-Hsuan; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Wang, Chih-Wen; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Chiang, Hung-Che; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2016-10-01

    School-aged children living in the vicinity of vinyl chloride (VCM)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) factories may have an increased risk of exposure to hazardous air pollutants. We aimed to evaluate the urinary thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) level, as TDGA is a major metabolite of VCM, for students at elementary schools near a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan. We recruited 343 students from 5 elementary schools based on distance to the VCM/PVC factory. First-morning urine and blood samples were obtained from our subjects from October 2013 to September 2014. Urine samples were analyzed for urinary creatinine and TDGA using LC/MS-MS. Hepatitis virus infection were assessed using blood samples. We determined their vitamin consumption, resident location, parent's employment, and other demographic or lifestyle characteristics using a questionnaire. Median urinary TDGA levels for 316 students at 5 elementary schools from the closest (schools. Further, median urinary TDGA levels for students during school time were 4.1-fold higher than those during summer vacation. After adjusting for confounders, urinary TDGA levels for the school-aged children decreased with increasing distances between the elementary schools and the petrochemical complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of ozone, particulates, and aerosol direct radiative forcing in the vicinity of Houston using a fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Barnard, James C.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Grell, Georg A.; Peckham, Steven E.

    2006-11-01

    A new fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model is used to simulate the urban- to regional-scale variations in trace gases, particulates, and aerosol direct radiative forcing in the vicinity of Houston over a 5 day summer period. Model performance is evaluated using a wide range of meteorological, chemistry, and particulate measurements obtained during the 2000 Texas Air Quality Study. The predicted trace gas and particulate distributions were qualitatively similar to the surface and aircraft measurements with considerable spatial variations resulting from urban, power plant, and industrial sources of primary pollutants. Sulfate, organic carbon, and other inorganics were the largest constituents of the predicted particulates. The predicted shortwave radiation was 30 to 40 W m-2 closer to the observations when the aerosol optical properties were incorporated into the shortwave radiation scheme; however, the predicted hourly aerosol radiative forcing was still underestimated by 10 to 50 W m-2. The predicted aerosol radiative forcing was larger over Houston and the industrial ship channel than over the rural areas, consistent with surface measurements. The differences between the observed and simulated aerosol radiative forcing resulted from transport errors, relative humidity errors in the upper convective boundary layer that affect aerosol water content, secondary organic aerosols that were not yet included in the model, and uncertainties in the primary particulate emission rates. The current model was run in a predictive mode and demonstrates the challenges of accurately simulating all of the meteorological, chemical, and aerosol parameters over urban to regional scales that can affect aerosol radiative forcing.

  3. Atomic-Level Organization of Vicinal Acid-Base Pairs through the Chemisorption of Aniline and Derivatives onto Mesoporous SBA15

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-06-09

    The design of novel heterogeneous catalysts with multiple adjacent functionalities is of high interest for heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, we report a method to obtain a majority bifunctional acid-base pairs on SBA15. Aniline reacts with SBA15 by opening siloxane bridges leading to N-phenylsilanamine-silanol pairs. In contrast with ammonia treated surfaces, the material is stable under air/moisture. Advanced solid state MAS NMR: 2D ¹H-¹H double-quantum, ¹H-¹³C HETCOR experiments and dynamic nuclear polarization enhanced ²⁹Si and ¹⁵N spectra demonstrate both the close proximity between the two moieties and the formation of a covalent Si-N surface bond and confirm the design of vicinal acid-base pairs. This approach was successfully applied to the design of a series of aniline derivatives bifunctional SBA15. A correlation of the substituents effects on the aromatic ring (Hammet parameters) on the kinetics of the model reaction of Knoevenagel is observed.

  4. Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Parvez, Lutfar; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-07-15

    An integrated approach of pollution evaluation indices, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) was employed to evaluate the intensity and sources of pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems of northwestern Bangladesh. Temperature, BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Pb levels in most of the water samples exceed the Bangladesh and international standards. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (C(d)) yield different results despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) shows strong correlations with HPI and C(d), and gives a better assessment of pollution levels. Modifications to the existing HPI and C(d) schemes show comparable results with HEI, and indicate that about 55% of the mine drainage/irrigation waters and 50% of the groundwaters are moderately to highly contaminated. The CA, PCA and pollution indices suggest that the mine drainage water (DW) is contaminated by anthropogenic (mining operation and agrogenic) sources, and the proximal parts are more contaminated than the distal part. The groundwater system in the vicinity of the coal mine site is also heavily polluted by anthropogenic sources. The pollution status of irrigation and drinking water systems in the study area are of great environmental and health concerns. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal trends in the levels of metals, PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator. Preliminary assessment of human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2015-09-01

    The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and metals were determined in soil and air samples collected near a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) located in Mataró (Catalonia, Spain), being the health risks for the population living in the vicinity of the facility subsequently assessed. We also established the temporal trends with respect to previous surveys performed in the same zone. In general terms, the highest environmental levels of the pollutants were found in the city of Mataró and were independent on the distance to the MSWI. Soil levels of metals did not show temporal variations between the current and previous campaigns. However, the concentrations of metals in air samples collected in 2011 and 2013, were lower than those found in our 2008 survey. Regarding PCDD/Fs and PCBs, no differences were noted between the levels of the current survey and those corresponding to 2008. Anyhow, the concentrations of metals, PCDD/Fs, and PCBs in soils and air did not exceed the reference values established by regulatory organizations, being also in the low range of other similar studies recently reported. Finally, the human non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks due to exposure to metals, PCDD/Fs, and PCBs, were, for the population living in the neighborhood of the MSWI, considered as acceptable according to international standards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differentiation of vegetation in a saline grassland in the vicinity of Inowrocław soda plants at Mątwy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Piernik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of two growing seasons (1992 and 1993 there was investigated the zonation of vegetation with reference to soil conditions at the saline grassland in the vicinity of Inowrocław Soda Plants at Mątwy town. In data analysis there were used: classification method - hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis and as well as two ordination techniques: Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. As a result of the classification analysis five vegetation zones were distinguished, related to the following communities: community with Festuca rubra, Potentillo Festucetum arundinaceae, community with Euphorbia lucida and Phragmites australis, Triglochino-Glaucetum maritimae and Puccinellio distantis-Salicornietum brachystachyae. The ordination techniques used in the analysis have demonstrated that out of the measured soil properties the most essential part, in the formation of the grassland vegetation zonation, played the content of chloride ions (which was used here as the main salinity measure, while moisture and pH were of minor importance. All the measured environmental factors accounted for only a low percentage (26.5% in 1992 and 17.2% in 1993 of the total vegetation variation, what might suggest that besides chloride ions another factor might have affected the development of zonation.

  7. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioactivity of drinking-water in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in China based on a large-scale monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiao-Xiang; Ji, Yan-Qin; Shao, Xian-Zhang; Wang, Huan; Sun, Quan-Fu; Su, Xu

    2013-12-06

    The public concern for radioactivity of drinking-water has been increasing in recent years after the rapid development of nuclear power plants, and especially after the Fukushima nuclear accident. In this study, the radioactivity of water samples collected in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from seven provinces in China was measured and an average annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was calculated. The results showed that, in winter and spring, the activities of gross α and β ranged from 0.009 Bq/L to 0.200 Bq/L and from 0.067 Bq/L to 0.320 Bq/L, respectively. While, in summer and autumn, the activities of gross a and β varied from 0.002 Bq/L to 0.175 Bq/L and from 0.060 Bq/L to 0.334 Bq/L. Our results indicated that the gross a and β activities in these measured water samples were below the WHO recommended values (0.5 Bq/L for gross α and 1.0 Bq/L for gross β) and the annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was at a safe level.

  9. Radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,JAY DEAN; SHINTA,A.; SMITH,L.N.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented (1) mathematical description of models, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that no releases to the accessible environment take place due to radionuclide movement through the anhydrite marker beds, through the Dewey Lake Red Beds or directly to the surface, and also that the releases to the Culebra Dolomite are small. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for release to the Culebra Dolomite fall to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  10. Chemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1991--93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, B.J.; Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    1995-11-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled 14 wells during 1991--93 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for manmade contaminants and naturally occurring constituents. One hundred sixty-one samples were collected from 10 ground-water monitoring wells and 4 production wells. Twenty-one quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed; 2 were blank samples and 19 were replicate samples. The two blank samples contained concentrations of six inorganic constituents that were slightly greater than the laboratory reporting levels (the smallest measured concentration of a constituent that can be reported using a given analytical method). Concentrations of other constituents in the blank samples were less than their respective reporting levels. The 19 replicate samples and their respective primary samples generated 614 pairs of analytical results for a variety of chemical and radiochemical constituents. Of the 614 data pairs, 588 were statistically equivalent at the 95% confidence level; about 96% of the analytical results were in agreement. Two pairs of turbidity measurements were not evaluated because of insufficient information and one primary sample collected in January 1992 contained tentatively identified organic compounds when the replicate sample did not.

  11. A Diverse Community of Metal(loid Oxide Respiring Bacteria Is Associated with Tube Worms in the Vicinity of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Black Smoker Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Maltman

    Full Text Available Epibiotic bacteria associated with tube worms living in the vicinity of deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean were investigated for the ability to respire anaerobically on tellurite, tellurate, selenite, selenate, metavanadate and orthovanadate as terminal electron acceptors. Out of 107 isolates tested, 106 were capable of respiration on one or more of these oxides, indicating that metal(loid oxide based respiration is not only much more prevalent in nature than is generally believed, but also is an important mode of energy generation in the habitat. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the bacterial community to be rich and highly diverse, containing many potentially new species. Furthermore, it appears that the worms not only possess a close symbiotic relationship with chemolithotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but also with the metal(loid oxide transformers. Possibly they protect the worms through reduction of the toxic compounds that would otherwise be harmful to the host.

  12. Hazardous impact and translocation of vanadium (V) species from soil to different vegetables and grasses grown in the vicinity of thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sumaira; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kumar, Sham; Shah, Faheem

    2011-06-15

    The distribution of vanadium (V) species in soil (test soil), vegetables and grasses, collected from the vicinity of a thermal power plant has been studied. For comparison purpose soil (control soil), same vegetable and grass samples were collected from agricultural land devoid of any industrial area. A simple and efficient ultrasonic assisted extraction method has been developed for the extraction of V(5+) species from soil, vegetable and grass samples using Na(2)CO(3) in the range of 0.1-0.5 mol/L. For comparison purpose same sub samples were also extracted by conventional heating method. The total and V species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using different modifiers. The validity of V(5+) and V(4+) determination had been confirmed by the spike recovery and total amount of V by the analysis of CRM 1570 (spinach leave) and sub samples of agricultural soil. The concentration of total V was found in the range of 90-215 and 11.4-42.3 μg/g in test and control soil samples, respectively. The contents of V(5+) and total V in vegetables and grasses grown around the thermal power plant were found in the range of 2.9-5.25 and 8.74-14.9 μg/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than those values obtained from vegetables and fodders grown in non exposed agricultural site (P<0.01). Statistical evaluations indicate that the sum of concentrations of V(5+) and V(4+) species was not significantly different from total concentration of V in same sub samples of vegetable, grass and soil of both origins, at 95% level of confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of faba beans with different concentrations of vicine and convicine on egg production, egg quality and red blood cells in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, M; Gallo, V; Prato, M; Akide-Ndunge, O; Mandili, G; Marget, P; Arese, P; Duc, G

    2017-08-01

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn-soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (Pbean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.

  14. Anisotropic pair correlations in binary and multicomponent hard-sphere mixtures in the vicinity of a hard wall: A combined density functional theory and simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Andreas; Kohl, Matthias; Schmiedeberg, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The fundamental measure approach to classical density functional theory has been shown to be a powerful tool to predict various thermodynamic properties of hard-sphere systems. We employ this approach to determine not only one-particle densities but also two-particle correlations in binary and six-component mixtures of hard spheres in the vicinity of a hard wall. The broken isotropy enables us to carefully test a large variety of theoretically predicted two-particle features by quantitatively comparing them to the results of Brownian dynamics simulations. Specifically, we determine and compare the one-particle density, the total correlation functions, their contact values, and the force distributions acting on a particle. For this purpose, we follow the compressibility route and theoretically calculate the direct correlation functions by taking functional derivatives. We usually observe an excellent agreement between theory and simulations, except for small deviations in cases where local crystal-like order sets in. Our results set the course for further investigations on the consistency of functionals as well as for structural analysis on, e.g., the primitive model. In addition, we demonstrate that due to the suppression of local crystallization, the predictions of six-component mixtures are better than those in bidisperse or monodisperse systems. Finally, we are confident that our results of the structural modulations induced by the wall lead to a deeper understanding of ordering in anisotropic systems in general, the onset of heterogeneous crystallization, caging effects, and glassy dynamics close to a wall, as well as structural properties in systems with confinement.

  15. Evaluating soil metallic pollution and consequent human health hazards in the vicinity of an industrialized zone, case study of Mubarakeh steel complex, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Zohreh; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Moattar, Faramarz; Hassani, Amirhesam; Khorasani, Nematollah

    2015-01-01

    Being established in 1988 in the vicinity of Isfahan city, Mubarakeh Steel complex has imposed adverse environmental and health effects within the area. The study area is covered by lots of farms through which major crops like wheat and rice are provided. Considering the imposed pollution load of the complex, the current study has monitored the concentration of metals Fe, Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, Mo, As in 14 soil samples within the study area. Furthermore, human health hazards of mentioned metals due to consumption of domestic rice and wheat have also been evaluated through different scenarios. In order to evaluate the mobility of metals in soil samples the sequential chemical analysis is performed. Regarding the accumulation of metals in loose phases the order of metals bioavailability risk level is estimated to be as follows: Co > Cd > Mo > Ba > As > Pb > Mn > Cu > V > Zn > Cr > Ni. An index approach is also considered to evaluate the severity of metal contamination. Regarding geochemical accumulation index, only cadmium is detected to be in a moderately contaminated status while other metals declare an unpolluted condition. Index of pollution pays more attention to mobility potential of metals and accordingly detects metals Co, Mn, As, Pb, Cd, Ba and Mo to be in a moderately contaminated level. On the other hand, enrichment factor declares all toxic metals except for Co, Ba and V to be enriched. Considering human health hazard assessment, except for Fe, Ba, Cu and Zn, all metals intakes in different scenarios are considered as hazardous while their CDI values are much more than the respective oral reference doses.

  16. Geothermal space heating applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Final report, August 20, 1979-May 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birman, J.H.; Cohen, J.; Spencer, G.J.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a first-stage evaluation of the overall feasibility of utilizing geothermal waters from the Madison aquifer in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana for space heating are reported. A preliminary assessment of the resource characteristics, a preliminary design and economic evaluation of a geothermal heating district and an analysis of environmental and institutional issues are included. Preliminary investigations were also made into possible additional uses of the geothermal resource, including ethanol production. The results of the resource analysis showed that the depth to the top of the Madison occurs at approximately 5,500 feet at Poplar, and the Madison Group is characterized by low average porosity (about 5 percent) and permeability (about 0.004 gal/day-ft), and by hot water production rates of a few tens of gallons per minute from intervals a few feet thick. The preliminary heating district system effort for the town of Poplar included design heat load estimates, a field development concept, and preliminary design of heat extraction and hot water distribution systems. The environmental analysis, based on current data, indicated that resource development is not expected to result in undue impacts. The institutional analysis concluded that a Tribal geothermal utility could be established, but no clear-cut procedure can be identified without a more comprehensive evaluation of legal and jurisdistional issues. The economic evaluation found that, if the current trend of rapidly increasing prices for fossil fuels continues, a geothermal heating district within Poplar could be a long-term, economically attractive alternative to current energy sources.

  17. A case study on the formation and evolution of ice supersaturation in the vicinity of a warm conveyor belt's outflow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented on the formation and evolution of an ice-supersaturated region (ISSR that was detected by a radiosonde in NE Germany at 06:00 UTC 29 November 2000. The ISSR was situated in the vicinity of the outflow region of a warm conveyor belt associated with an intense event of cyclogenesis in the eastern North Atlantic. Using ECMWF analyses and trajectory calculations it is determined when the air parcels became supersaturated and later subsaturated again. In the case considered, the state of air parcel supersaturation can last for longer than 24h. The ISSR was unusually thick: while the mean vertical extension of ISSRs in NE Germany is about 500m, the one investigated here reached 3km. The ice-supersaturated region investigated was bordered both vertically and horizontally by strongly subsaturated air. Near the path of the radiosonde the ISSR was probably cloud free, as inferred from METEOSAT infrared images. However, at other locations within the ISSR it is probable that there were cirrus clouds. Relative humidity measurements obtained by the Lindenberg radiosonde are used to correct the negative bias of the ECMWF humidity and to construct two-dimensional maps of ice supersaturation over Europe during the considered period. A systematic backward trajectory analysis for the ISSRs on these maps shows that the ISSR air masses themselves experienced only a moderate upward motion during the previous days, whereas parts of the ISSRs were located just above strongly ascending air masses from the boundary layer. This indicates qualitatively that warm conveyor belts associated with mid-latitude cyclogenesis are disturbances that can induce the formation of ISSRs in the upper troposphere. The ISSR maps also lead us to a new perception of ISSRs as large dynamic regions of supersaturated air where cirrus clouds can be embedded at some locations while there is clear air at others.

  18. Atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on the soils in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yee-Lin; Lin, Long-Full; Shih, Shun-I; Yu, Kuei-Min; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-11-01

    This study focuses on the atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) on the soils in the vicinity of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), which were located in the Gangshan (GS) and the Renwu (RW) Townships of southern Taiwan. PCDD/Fs in the soils were sampled simultaneously with those in the ambient air and analyzed for 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs. The results show that the mean contents of PCDD/Fs in the soils near MSWI-GS and MSWI-RW were 2.65 and 1.20 ng I-TEQ/kg dry weight, respectively. Annual wet deposition fluxes of total PCDD/Fs were 119 and 113 ng/m(2)-year in the ambient air near MSWI-GS and MSWI-RW, respectively. The results obtained in this study are much higher than those estimated for the Atlantic Ocean, where the average wet deposition was only 45 ng/m(2)-year. The annual dry deposition fluxes accounted for 58.2 and 66.7%, respectively, indicating that dry deposition was more dominant than wet deposition in the atmospheric deposition processes. The congener profiles of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs showed that OCDD dominates in the soils. The contributions of OCDD in the soils near MSWI-GS and MSWI-RW were 73.4 and 67.1%, respectively, while they were only 41.4 and 31.2% in the atmospheric deposition, respectively. These results imply that OCDD is more persistent in the environment than other congeners. The results of the present study strongly suggest that exposure to PCDD/Fs in these areas should be reduced.

  19. Hazardous impact and translocation of vanadium (V) species from soil to different vegetables and grasses grown in the vicinity of thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima, E-mail: nidafatima6@gmail.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kumar, Sham; Shah, Faheem [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2011-06-15

    The distribution of vanadium (V) species in soil (test soil), vegetables and grasses, collected from the vicinity of a thermal power plant has been studied. For comparison purpose soil (control soil), same vegetable and grass samples were collected from agricultural land devoid of any industrial area. A simple and efficient ultrasonic assisted extraction method has been developed for the extraction of V{sup 5+} species from soil, vegetable and grass samples using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the range of 0.1-0.5 mol/L. For comparison purpose same sub samples were also extracted by conventional heating method. The total and V species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using different modifiers. The validity of V{sup 5+} and V{sup 4+} determination had been confirmed by the spike recovery and total amount of V by the analysis of CRM 1570 (spinach leave) and sub samples of agricultural soil. The concentration of total V was found in the range of 90-215 and 11.4-42.3 {mu}g/g in test and control soil samples, respectively. The contents of V{sup 5+} and total V in vegetables and grasses grown around the thermal power plant were found in the range of 2.9-5.25 and 8.74-14.9 {mu}g/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than those values obtained from vegetables and fodders grown in non exposed agricultural site (P < 0.01). Statistical evaluations indicate that the sum of concentrations of V{sup 5+} and V{sup 4+} species was not significantly different from total concentration of V in same sub samples of vegetable, grass and soil of both origins, at 95% level of confidence.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA and two Y-chromosome genes of common long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) throughout Thailand and vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunlungsup, Srichan; Imai, Hiroo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Matsudaira, Kazunari; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2017-02-01

    Macaca fascicularis fascicularis is distributed over a wide area of Southeast Asia. Thailand is located at the center of their distribution range and is the bridge connecting the two biogeographic regions of Indochina and Sunda. However, only a few genetic studies have explored the macaques in this region. To shed some light on the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis, including hybridization with M. mulatta, M. f. fascicularis and M. mulatta samples of known origins throughout Thailand and the vicinity were analyzed by molecular phylogenetics using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including the hypervariable region 1, and Y-chromosomal DNA, including SRY and TSPY genes. The mtDNA phylogenetic analysis divided M. f. fascicularis into five subclades (Insular Indonesia, Sundaic Thai Gulf, Vietnam, Sundaic Andaman sea coast, and Indochina) and revealed genetic differentiation between the two sides of the Thai peninsula, which had previously been reported as a single group of Malay peninsular macaques. From the estimated divergence time of the Sundaic Andaman sea coast subclade, it is proposed that after M. f. fascicularis dispersed throughout Southeast Asia, some populations on the south-easternmost Indochina (eastern Thailand, southern Cambodia and southern Vietnam at the present time) migrated south-westwards across the land bridge, which was exposed during the glacial period of the late Pleistocene epoch, to the southernmost Thailand/northern peninsular Malaysia. Then, some of them migrated north and south to colonize the Thai Andaman sea coast and northern Sumatra, respectively. The SRY-TSPY phylogenetic analysis suggested that male-mediated gene flow from M. mulatta southward to M. f. fascicularis was restricted south of, but close to, the Isthmus of Kra. There was a strong impact of the geographical factors in Thailand, such as the Isthmus of Kra, Nakhon Si Thammarat, and Phuket ranges and Sundaland, on M. f. fascicularis biogeography and their hybridization

  1. Optimal design of experiments applied to headspace solid phase microextraction for the quantification of vicinal diketones in beer through gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leça, João M; Pereira, Ana C; Vieira, Ana C; Reis, Marco S; Marques, José C

    2015-08-05

    Vicinal diketones, namely diacetyl (DC) and pentanedione (PN), are compounds naturally found in beer that play a key role in the definition of its aroma. In lager beer, they are responsible for off-flavors (buttery flavor) and therefore their presence and quantification is of paramount importance to beer producers. Aiming at developing an accurate quantitative monitoring scheme to follow these off-flavor compounds during beer production and in the final product, the head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) analytical procedure was tuned through experiments planned in an optimal way and the final settings were fully validated. Optimal design of experiments (O-DOE) is a computational, statistically-oriented approach for designing experiences that are most informative according to a well-defined criterion. This methodology was applied for HS-SPME optimization, leading to the following optimal extraction conditions for the quantification of VDK: use a CAR/PDMS fiber, 5 ml of samples in 20 ml vial, 5 min of pre-incubation time followed by 25 min of extraction at 30 °C, with agitation. The validation of the final analytical methodology was performed using a matrix-matched calibration, in order to minimize matrix effects. The following key features were obtained: linearity (R(2) > 0.999, both for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione), high sensitivity (LOD of 0.92 μg L(-1) and 2.80 μg L(-1), and LOQ of 3.30 μg L(-1) and 10.01 μg L(-1), for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, respectively), recoveries of approximately 100% and suitable precision (repeatability and reproducibility lower than 3% and 7.5%, respectively). The applicability of the methodology was fully confirmed through an independent analysis of several beer samples, with analyte concentrations ranging from 4 to 200 g L(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical comparison of properties of simulated and observed cumulus clouds in the vicinity of Houston during the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongli; Feingold, Graham; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Lu, Miao-Ling; Chuang, Patrick Y.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2008-07-01

    We present statistical comparisons of properties of clouds generated by Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with aircraft observations of nonprecipitating, warm cumulus clouds made in the vicinity of Houston, TX during the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), carried out in the summer of 2006. Aircraft data were sampled with the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter airplane. Five flights (days) that are most suitable for studying aerosol-cloud interactions are selected from the 22 flights. The model simulations are initiated with observed environmental profiles. The simulations are used to generate an ensemble of thousands of cumulus clouds for statistically meaningful evaluations. Statistical comparisons focus on the properties of a set of dynamical and thermodynamical variables, sampled either in the cloud or the cloud updraft core. The set of variables includes cloud liquid water content (LWC), number mixing ratio of cloud droplets (Nd), cloud effective radius (re), updraft velocity (w), and the distribution of cloud sizes. In general, good agreement between the simulated and observed clouds is achieved in the normalized frequency distribution functions, the profiles averaged over the cloudy regions, the cross-cloud averages, and the cloud size distributions, despite big differences in sample size between the model output and the aircraft data. Some unresolved differences in frequency distributions of w and possible differences in cloud fraction are noted. These comparisons suggest that the LES is able to successfully generate the cumulus cloud populations that were present during GoMACCS. The extent to which this is true will depend on the specific application.

  3. Cancer incidence in adults living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France, based on data from the French Network of Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiolles, Alice; Roudier, Candice; Goria, Sarah; Stempfelet, Morgane; Kairo, Cécile; Quintin, Cécile; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Monnereau, Alain; Vacquier, Blandine

    2017-10-21

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) release toxic emissions into the environment that may affect neighboring populations. This ecologic study was designed to investigate the possibility of an excess incidence of cancer in the vicinity of French NPPs by examining the incidence by municipality of 12 types of cancer in the population aged 15 years and older during the 1995-2011 period. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from towns of residence to the NPP. Using regression models, we assessed the risk of cancer in a 20-km zone around NPPs and observed an excess incidence of bladder cancer (Relative Risk (RR), 95% Credibility Interval (95% CI)) in men and women (RRmen  = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17 and RRwomen  = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.39). Women living within the 20-km proximity areas had a significantly reduced risk of thyroid cancer (RRwomen  = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). No excess risk of hematologic malignancies in either sex was seen. The higher than expected incidence of bladder cancer may be due to an excess incidence localized around the Flamanville NPP and the nearby La Hague nuclear waste treatment center, which is a source of chemical contaminants, many (including arsenic) of them known risk factors for bladder cancer. Differences in medical practices could explain the reduced risk of thyroid cancer. In this first study of adults living near NPPs in France, cancer incidence is significantly higher than in the references populations for one of the cancer types studied: bladder cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  4. Effects of long-term irrigation with treated wastewater on soil quality, soil-borne pathogens, and living organisms: case study of the vicinity of El Hajeb (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentati, Olfa; Chaker, Sana; Wali, Ahmed; Ayoub, Tarek; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Medium (i.e. 15 years) and long-term (i.e. 20 years) impact of irrigation using secondary-treated municipal wastewater (TWW) was assessed on two agricultural soil samples, denoted by E and G, respectively, in the vicinity of El Hajeb region (Southern Tunisia). Soil pH, electrical conductivity particle size grading, potential risk of salinity, water holding capacity and chemical composition, as well as organic matter content, pathogenic microorganisms and heavy metal concentrations in the TWW-irrigated (E and G) and rainwater-irrigated (T) soils at various depths, were monitored and compared during a 5-year experiment. Our study showed that bacterial abundance is higher in sandy-clayey soil, which has an enhanced ability to retain moisture and nutrients. The high level of bacterial flora in TWW-irrigated soils was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated (r = ~0.5) with the high level of OM. Avoidance assays have been used to assess toxic effects generated by hazards in soils. The earthworms gradually avoided the soils from the surface (20 cm) to the depth (60 cm) of the G transect and then the E transect, preferring the T transect. The same behaviour was observed for springtails, but they seem to be less sensitive to the living conditions in transects G and E than the earthworms. The avoidance response test of Eisenia andrei was statistically correlated with soil layers at the sampling sites. However, the avoidance response test of Folsomia candida was positively correlated with silt-clay content (+0.744*) and was negatively correlated with sand content (-0.744*).

  5. Elevated NH 3 and NO 2 air concentrations and nitrogen deposition rates in the vicinity of a highway in Southern Bavaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Manfred; Jakobi, Gert; Feicht, Ernst; Bernhardt, Markus; Fischer, Anton

    A transect study consisting of air concentration and deposition measurements of nitrogen compounds was performed to estimate the potential influence of car emissions on the nitrogen input to ecosystems. Therefore, two transects each consisting of 4 plots, the first in a coniferous forest and the second one in an extensively farmed grassland, were installed perpendicular to a highway south of Munich (Bavaria). Both profiles were influenced mainly by car emissions and showed only small local influences caused by agricultural activities. In the framework of a pilot study based upon denuder measurements we found a strong temporal dependency of both nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and ammonia (NH 3) concentrations on traffic density. In the main study air concentrations of NO 2 and NH 3 were measured by passive samplers; they used as the basis for the estimation of dry deposition. These estimations have been compared with the results of analyses from simultaneously conducted canopy throughfall deposition and open air bulk measurements of nitrate (NO 3-) and ammonium (NH 4+). Additionally, within the forest transect the variety of different soil vegetation species was recorded and quantified. We obtained a strong gradient of gas concentrations along both profiles. Whereas the bulk deposition remained quite constant along the non-forested transect, the nitrogen throughfall deposition rate diminished substantially with the distance from the highway. The deposition rate at the forest edge was twice of that inside. The nitrogen load estimated for the examined forest in the vicinity of the highway was comparable to other forest ecosystems situated near diffuse emission sources from agriculture. It could be shown that changes in soil composition and soil vegetation along the forest transect are caused by decreasing nitrogen deposition with distance from the highway. The application of road salt in winter leads to further impacts.

  6. Mercury in soil, earthworms and organs of voles Myodes glareolus and shrew Sorex araneus in the vicinity of an industrial complex in Northwest Russia (Cherepovets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komov, V T; Ivanova, E S; Poddubnaya, N Y; Gremyachikh, V A

    2017-03-01

    The characteristic properties of uptake and distribution of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems have received much lesser attention compared to aquatic particularly in Russia. Terrestrial ecosystems adjacent to large industrial manufactures-potential sources of mercury inflow into the environment frequently remain unstudied. This is the first report on mercury (Hg) levels in the basic elements of terrestrial ecosystems situated close to a large metallurgical complex.Mean values of mercury concentration (mg Hg/kg dry weight) in the vicinity of city of Cherepovets were the following: 0.056 ± 0.033-in the humus layer of soil; 0.556 ± 0.159-in earthworms; in the organs of voles Myodes glareolus (kidneys-0.021 ± 0.001; liver-0.014 ± 0.003; muscle-0.014 ± 0.001; brain-0.008 ± 0.002); in the organs of shrew Sorex araneus (kidneys-0.191 ± 0.016; liver-0.124 ± 0.011; muscle-0.108 ± 0.009; brain-0.065 ± 0.000). Correlation dependences between Hg content in soil and earthworms (r s  = 0.85, p mercury content in the studied objects was significantly lower than values of corresponding parameters in the soils and biota from industrial (polluted) areas of Great Britain, the USA, and China.

  7. Leisure-time physical activity in the vicinity of Academias da Cidade Program in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: the impact of a health promotion program on the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Amanda Paula; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Ramos, Cynthia Graciane Carvalho; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Dias, Maria Angélica de Salles; Xavier, César Coelho; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    This study analyzed leisure-time physical activity among 1,621 adults who were non-users of the Academias da Cidade Program in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, but who lived in the vicinity of a fitness center in operation (exposed Group I) or in the vicinity of two sites reserved for future installation of centers (control Groups II and III). The dependent variable was leisure-time physical activity, and linear distance from the households to the fitness centers was the exposure variable, categorized in radial buffers: leisure-time physical activity (OR = 1.16; 95%CI: 1.03-1.30), independently of socio-demographic factors; the same was not observed in the control groups (II and III). The findings suggests the program's potential for influencing physical activity in the population living closer to the fitness center and thus provide a strategic alternative for mitigating inequalities in leisure-time physical activity.

  8. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada and Inyo County, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James B. Paces; Zell E. Peterman; Kiyoto Futa; Thomas A. Oliver; and Brian D. Marshall.

    2007-08-07

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to

  9. Ecological vulnerability: seasonal and spatial assessment of trace metals in soils and plants in the vicinity of a scrap metal recycling factory in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoade, O K; Awotoye, O O; Salami, O O

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations of selected heavy metals in the soil and vegetation in the immediate vicinity of a metal scrap recycling factory were determined in the dry and wet seasons using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that the soil pH in all the sites indicated slight acidity (from 5.07 to 6.13), high soil organic matter content (from 2.08 to 5.60 %), and a well-drained soil of sandy loam textural composition. Soil heavy metal content in the dry season were 0.84-3.12 mg/kg for Pb, 0.26-0.46 mg/kg for Cd, 9.19-24.70 mg/kg for Zn, and 1.46-1.97 mg/kg for Cu. These values were higher than those in the wet season which ranged from 0.62-0.69 mg/kg for Pb, 0.67-0.78 mg/kg for Cd, 0.84-1.00 mg/kg for Zn, and 1.26-1.45 mg/kg for Cu. Except for cadmium in the dry season, the highest concentrations occurred in the northern side of the factory for all the elements in both seasons. An increase in the concentrations of the elements up to 350 m in most directions was also observed. There was no specific pattern in the level of the metals in the leaves of the plant used for the study. However, slightly elevated values were observed in the wet season (Pb 0.53 mg/kg, Cd 0.59 mg/kg, Cu 0.88 mg/kg) compared with the dry season values (Pb 0.50 mg/kg, Cd 0.57 mg/kg, Cu 0.83 mg/kg). This study showed that the elevated concentrations of these metals might be associated with the activities from the recycling plant, providing the basis for heavy metal pollution monitoring and control of this locality that is primarily used for agricultural purposes.

  10. A survey of metal concentrations in marine sediment cores in the vicinity of an old mercury-mining area in Karaburun, Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ebru Yesim; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha; Kontas, Aynur; Turkdogan, Mert

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the historical trends of metal concentrations in coastal sediments in the vicinity of an inactive mining area, find background values and contamination levels of metals around the Karaburun peninsula, and then search for other sources of mercury in marine sediment cores using multivariate statistical analysis and report the potential ecological risks from that metal contamination. Surface sediment samples were taken from seven stations. Water depths were less than 20 m (coastal area) at stations KB07 and KB08. The depths at stations KB01, KB02, and KB03 were between 20 and 40 m, and stations KB05 and KB06 were more than 40 m (open area). In surface sediments at depths between 20 and 40 m, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Fe, Cd, Ti, Zr, Sn, As, Y, and Hg levels revealed higher contamination factors (C f ) compared to those of the coastal and open areas. Also, sediment samples were taken for historical records at stations KB01 and KB02 for 2012. Metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, As, Sb, Cr, Ba, Ti, Al, and Hg in the sediment core samples were significantly higher during the Holocene (~5700 BC to 2000 B.C.) and Medieval Warm periods (~1000 A.D. to 1400 A.D.) and tended to decrease towards the Little Ice Age (2200 B.C. to the birth of Jesus Christ). Background concentration of Hg in sediment was found as 1.67 μg/g around the Karaburun peninsula. Average EF values higher than 20 were identified for As, Hg, Sb, and Ca. Ni and Hg levels were found above the PEL values. It was determined that the accumulation effect of Hg coming from the mafic rocks due to erosion in the marine environment was higher than that of Hg coming from the mine. The factor analyses showed an association between Hg, Ni, and Co. This reveals the importance of the contribution of mafic rocks reaching the marine environment by wave erosion. According to the factor analyses, high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Sb, Ba, Ti, and Zr were detected in the

  11. 234U/238U evidence for local recharge and patterns of groundwater flow in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, J.B.; Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Neymark, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Uranium concentrations and 234U/238U ratios in saturated-zone and perched ground water were used to investigate hydrologic flow and downgradient dilution and dispersion in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, a potential high-level radioactive waste disposal site. The U data were obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry on more than 280 samples from the Death Valley regional flow system. Large variations in both U concentrations (commonly 0.6-10 ??g 1-1) and 234U/238U activity ratios (commonly 1.5-6) are present on both local and regional scales; however, ground water with 234U/238U activity ratios from 7 up to 8.06 is restricted largely to samples from Yucca Mountain. Data from ground water in the Tertiary volcanic and Quaternary alluvial aquifers at and adjacent to Yucca Mountain plot in 3 distinct fields of reciprocal U concentration versus 234U/238U activity ratio correlated to different geographic areas. Ground water to the west of Yucca Mountain has large U concentrations and moderate 234U/238U whereas ground water to the east in the Fortymile flow system has similar 234U/238U, but distinctly smaller U concentrations. Ground water beneath the central part of Yucca Mountain has intermediate U concentrations but distinctive 234U/238U activity ratios of about 7-8. Perched water from the lower part of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain has similarly large values of 234U/238U. These U data imply that the Tertiary volcanic aquifer beneath the central part of Yucca Mountain is isolated from north-south regional flow. The similarity of 234U/238U in both saturated- and unsaturated-zone ground water at Yucca Mountain further indicates that saturated-zone ground water beneath Yucca Mountain is dominated by local recharge rather than regional flow. The distinctive 234U/238U signatures also provide a natural tracer of downgradient flow. Elevated 234U/238U in ground water from two water-supply wells east of Yucca Mountain are interpreted as the result of induced

  12. An improved low-frequency earthquakes catalogue in the vicinity of the late-interseismic central Alpine Fault, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratin, Laura-May; Chamberlain, Calum J.; Townend, John; Savage, Martha K.

    2017-04-01

    Characterising the seismicity associated with slow deformation in the vicinity of the Alpine Fault may provide constraints on the state of stress of this major transpressive margin prior to a large (≥M8) earthquake. Here, we use recently detected tectonic tremor and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) to examine how slow tectonic deformation is loading the Alpine Fault toward an anticipated large rupture. We initially work with a continous seismic dataset collected between 2009 and 2012 from an array of short-period seismometers, the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array. Fourteen primary LFE templates, found through visual inspection within previously identified tectonic tremor, are used in an iterative matched-filter and stacking routine. This method allows the detection of similar signals and establishes LFE families with common locations. We thus generate a 36 month catalogue of 10718 LFEs. The detections are then combined for each LFE family using phase-weighted stacking to yield a signal with the highest possible signal to noise ratio. We found phase-weighted stacking to be successful in increasing the number of LFE detections by roughly 20%. Phase-weighted stacking also provides cleaner phase arrivals of apparently impulsive nature allowing more precise phase picks. We then compute non-linear earthquake locations using a 3D velocity model and find LFEs to occur below the seismogenic zone at depths of 18-34 km, locating on or near the proposed deep extent of the Alpine Fault. To gain insight into deep fault slip behaviour, a detailed study of the spatial-temporal evolution of LFEs is required. We thus generate a more extensive catalogue of LFEs spanning the years 2009 to 2016 using a different technique to detect LFEs more efficiently. This time 638 synthetic waveforms are used as primary templates in the match-filter routine. Of those, 38 templates yield no detections over our 7-yr study period. The remaining 600 templates end up detecting between 370

  13. Diel feeding patterns and daily ration estimates of three subantarctic euphausiids in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, L. J.; Froneman, P. W.; Pakhomov, E. A.; McQuaid, C. D.

    The feeding biology of three euphausiid species, Euphausia vallentini (adults and juveniles), Euphausia longirostris, and Nematoscelis megalops, was investigated in the vicinity of the Prince Edward Archipelago during austral autumn (April/May) of 1998 and 1999, using the gut fluorescence and gut fullness techniques, to assess diel feeding patterns and estimate daily rations. The results showed clear diel feeding patterns for both E. vallentini adults and juveniles. High feeding activity occurred during dark hours in E. longirostris, while N. megalops did not show distinct diel feeding pattern. E. longirostris had the highest gut pigment levels, averaging 15.2 and 57.1 ng pigm ind -1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. A similar pattern was observed for E. vallentini: 3.2 versus 6.5 ng pigm ind -1 in juveniles and 4.4 versus 21.9 ng pigm ind -1 in adults. Low average gut pigment levels were found for N. megalops during both years (range 2.0-4.5 ng pigm ind -1). Gut evacuation rates varied between 0.45 and 0.99 h -1 for E. vallentini adults, 0.47 and 1.36 h -1 for E. vallentini juveniles, 0.41 and 1.08 h -1 for N. megalops. A single measurement of 0.94 h -1 was made for E. longirostris. Ingestion rates for E. vallentini ranged from 0.24 to 1.82 μg pigm ind -1 d -1 for adults and from 0.98 to 1.92 μg pigm ind -1 d -1 for juveniles. The highest individual ingestion rates were found for E. longirostris (between 1.24 and 3.65 μg pigm ind -1 d -1), and the lowest for N. megalops (0.23 μg pigm ind -1 d -1). These ingestion rates were combined with data from the gut fullness technique to estimate the contribution of herbivory to the total daily carbon uptake.

  14. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Peterman, Zell E.; Futo, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.; Marshall, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to values

  15. Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne metabolic adaptations to metals- and metalloids-induced anomalies in the vicinity of a chemical industrial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Ahmad, Iqbal; Rodrigues, Sónia M; Henriques, Bruno; Cruz, Nuno; Coelho, Cláudia; Pacheco, Mário; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda

    2013-01-01

    As plants constitute the foundation of the food chain, concerns have been raised about the possibility of toxic concentrations of metals and metalloids being transported from plants to the higher food chain strata. In this perspective, the use of important phytotoxicity endpoints may be of utmost significance in assessing the hazardous nature of metals and metalloids and also in developing ecological soil screening levels. The current study aimed to investigate the role of glutathione (GSH) and its associated enzymes in the metabolic adaptation of two grass species namely Eriophorum angustifolium Honck. and Lolium perenne L. to metals and metalloids stress in the vicinity of a chemical industrial complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Soil and plant samples were collected from contaminated (C) and non-contaminated (reference, R) sites, respectively, near and away from the Estarreja Chemical Complex, Portugal. Soils (from 0 to 10 and 10 to 20 cm depths) were analyzed for pH, organic carbon, and metals and metalloids concentrations. Plant samples were processed fresh for physiological and biochemical estimations, while oven-dried plant samples were used for metals and metalloids determinations following standard methodologies. Both soils and plants from the industrial area exhibited differential concentrations of major metals and metalloids including As, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. In particular, L. perenne shoot displayed significantly higher and lower concentrations of Pb and As, respectively at contaminated site (vs. E. angustifolium). Irrespective of sites, L. perenne shoot exhibited significantly higher total GSH pool, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and oxidized protein (vs. E. angustifolium). Additionally, severe damages to photosynthetic pigments, proteins, cellular membrane integrity (in terms of electrolyte leakage), and lipid peroxidation were also perceptible in L. perenne shoot. Contrarily, irrespective of the sites, activities of catalase and GSH-regenerating enzyme, GSH

  16. Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of American Memorial Park and Vicinity, Saipan, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (NPS, GRD, GRI, AMME, AMME digital map) adapted from a U.S. Geologic Survey Open-File Report map by Weary and Burton (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of American Memorial Park and Vicinity, Saipan, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands is composed of GIS data layers complete...

  17. Occupied and unoccupied electronic states on vicinal Si(111) surfaces decorated with monoatomic gold chains; Besetzte und unbesetzte elektronische Zustaende vizinaler Si(111)-Oberflaechen mit atomaren Goldketten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, Kerstin

    2012-07-12

    In this work, the occupied and unoccupied electronic states of vicinal Si(111)-Au surfaces were investigated. The research focused on amending the experimental electronic band structure by two-photon photoemission and laser-based photoemission and bringing it in line with theoretical band structure calculations. This work dealt with the Si(553)-Au, the Si(111)-(5x2)-Au and the Si(557)-Au surface. Angle-resolved UV-photoelectron spectroscopy gave access to the occupied part of the band structure and thus to the energetic position, the dispersion and the symmetry of the occupied states. Bichromatic two-photon photoemission, however, revealed information about the energetics and, in addition, about the dynamics of unoccupied states on a femtosecond timescale. Notably, the selective polarization of the laser pulses allowed for distinguishing and classifying many of the states with respect to their symmetry. All three surfaces exhibited both surface and bulk states in the occupied part of the band structure. They could be clearly identified and separated from surface contributions by means of tight-binding calculations of the bulk band structure of silicon and by comparison to each other. An added similarity of these surfaces are the one-dimensional Rashba-split gold states, which definitely show dispersion along the chains but not perpendicular to them. All surfaces exhibit states which can easily be assigned to the gold chains. Additional features, however, cannot be attributed clearly to the characteristics of the complex surface reconstruction in all cases. An assignment to surface states was only successfully accomplished for Si(553)-Au. The primary emphasis of this photoemission study was on the Si(553)-Au surface, which shows the smallest defect density in comparison to the other surfaces and hence exhibits the sharpest peaks in the experimental spectra. In accordance with ab-initio band structure calculations this surface also displays, in addition to one

  18. Bathymetric and Velocimetric Survey and Assessment of Habitat for Pallid Sturgeon on the Mississippi River in the Vicinity of the Proposed Interstate 70 Bridge at St. Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    A bathymetric and velocimetry survey was conducted on the Mississippi River in the vicinity of a proposed new bridge for Interstate 70 at St. Louis, Missouri. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler were used to obtain channel-bed elevations and vertically averaged and near-bed velocities for a 3,545-foot (1,080-meter) long reach of the Mississippi River approximately 1,935 feet (590 meters) wide from the Illinois to Missouri banks. Data from the 2009 survey were used to determine the conditions of the benthic habitat in the vicinity of the proposed Interstate 70 bridge. The channel-bed elevations ranged from approximately 346 feet (105.46 meters) to 370 feet (112.78 meters) above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 in a majority of the channel except for the channel banks. Large dune features up to 12.5 feet (3.81 meters) high were present in the middle of the channel, and numerous smaller dunes and many ripples as smaller features were superimposed on the larger dunes. However, it is uncertain if the large dune features present in mid-channel are long-term features or an artifact of the seasonal flooding on the Mississippi River. A substantial scour depression was present on the right descending bank (Missouri side) near the downstream end of the study area, as well as other smaller scour holes near the instream barge mooring structures on the Missouri bank. The vertically averaged velocities acquired with the acoustic Doppler current profiler ranged from approximately 2 feet per second (0.61 meters per second) along the channel margins to approximately 7.0 feet per second (2.13 meters per second) in the main channel, with an average velocity of 5.5 feet per second (1.68 meters per second) in mid-channel. The orientation of the vertically averaged velocity vectors showed flow crossing from the Illinois bank to the Missouri bank from upstream to downstream in the study area, which was confirmed by the orientation of

  19. Numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system in tributary subbasins and vicinity, lower Skagit River basin, Skagit and Snohomish Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    A groundwater-flow model was developed to evaluate the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals and consumptive use on streamflows in tributary subbasins of the lower portion of the Skagit River basin. The study area covers about 155 square miles along the Skagit River and its tributary subbasins (East Fork Nookachamps Creek, Nookachamps Creek, Carpenter Creek, Fisher Creek) in southwestern Skagit County and northwestern Snohomish County, Washington. The Skagit River occupies a large, relatively flat alluvial valley that extends across the northern and western margins of the study area, and is bounded to the south and east by upland and mountainous terrain. The alluvial valley and upland are underlain by unconsolidated deposits of glacial and inter- glacial origin. Bedrock underlies the alluvial valley and upland areas, and crops out throughout the mountainous terrain. Nine hydrogeologic units are recognized in the study area and form the basis of the groundwater-flow model. Groundwater flow in tributary subbasins of the lower Skagit River and vicinity was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW-2000. The finite-difference model grid consists of 174 rows, 156 columns, and 15 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 500 by 500 feet. The thickness of model layers varies throughout the model area. Groundwater flow was simulated for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state condition simulated average recharge, discharge, and water levels for the period, August 2006-September 2008. The transient simulation period, September 2006-September 2008, was divided into 24 monthly stress periods. Initial conditions for the transient model were developed from a 6-year ?lead-in? period that used recorded precipitation and Skagit River levels, and extrapolations of other boundary conditions. During model calibration, variables were adjusted within probable ranges to minimize differences between measured and simulated groundwater

  20. Structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the vicinity of the Tristan da Cunha hot spot as seen by surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, Raffaele; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Ravenna, Matteo; Lebedev, Sergei; Celli, Nicolas L.; Jokat, Wilfried; Jegen, Marion; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Baba, Kiyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Tristan da Cunha is a volcanic island located above a hotspot in the South Atlantic. The deep mantle plume origin of the hotspot volcanism at the island is supported by anomalous geochemical data (Rohde et al., 2013 [1]) and global seismological evidences (French and Romanovicz, 2015 [2]). However, until recently, due to lack of local geophysical data in the South Atlantic and especially around Tristan da Cunha, the existence of a plume has not yet been confirmed. Therefore, an Ocean Bottom Seismometer experiment was carried out in 2012 and 2013 in the vicinity of the archipelago, with the aim of obtaining geophysical data that may help to get some more detailed insights into the structure of the upper mantle, possibly confirming the existence of a plume. In this work we study the shear wave velocity structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath the Island. Rayleigh surface wave phase velocity dispersion curves have been obtained using a recent powerful implementation of the inter-station cross-correlation method (Meier et al., 2004 [3]; Soomro et al., 2016 [4]). The measured dispersion curves are used to invert for the 1D shear wave velocity structure beneath the study area and to obtain phase velocity tomographic maps. Our results show a pronounced low shear wave velocity anomaly between 70 and 120 km depth beneath the area; the lid shows high velocity, suggesting a cold, depleted and dehydrated shallow lithosphere, while the deeper lithosphere shows a velocity structure similar to young or rejuvenated Pacific oceanic lithosphere (Laske et al., 2011 [5]; Goes et al., 2012 [6]). Below the base of the lithosphere, shear wave velocities appear to be low, suggesting thermal effects and partial melting (as confirmed by petrological data). Decreasing velocities within the lithosphere south-westward reflect probably a thermal imprint of an underlying mantle plume. References [1] J.K. Rohde, P. van den Bogaard, K. Hoernle, F. Hauff, R. Werner, Evidence for an

  1. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Ever since the discovery of the mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation, the possibility of birth sex odds shifts in exposed human populations was considered in the scientific community. Positive evidence, however weak, was obtained after the atomic bombing of Japan. We previously investigated trends in the sex odds before and after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In a pilot study, combined data from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden between 1982 and 1992 showed a downward trend in the sex odds and a significant jump in 1987, the year immediately after Chernobyl. Moreover, a significant positive association of the sex odds between 1986 and 1991 with Chernobyl fallout at the district level in Germany was observed. Both of these findings, temporality (effect after exposure) and dose response association, yield evidence of causality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate longer time periods (1950-2007) in all of Europe and in the USA with emphasis on the global atmospheric atomic bomb test fallout and on the Chernobyl accident. To obtain further evidence, we also analyze sex odds data near nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. DATA AND STATISTICAL METHODS: National gender-specific annual live births data for 39 European countries from 1975 to 2007 were compiled using the pertinent internet data bases provided by the World Health Organization, United Nations, Council of Europe, and EUROSTAT. For a synoptic re-analysis of the period 1950 to 1990, published data from the USA and from a predominantly western and less Chernobyl-exposed part of Europe were studied additionally. To assess spatial, temporal, as well as spatial-temporal trends in the sex odds and to investigate possible changes in those trends after the atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, we applied ordinary linear logistic regression. Region-specific and eventually changing spatial

  2. Geologic map of the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone in the vicinity of Lake Pillsbury and adjacent areas of Mendocino, Lake, and Glenn Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlin, Henry N.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.; Sawyer, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    The Lake Pillsbury area lies in the eastern part of the northern California Coast Ranges, along the east side of the transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates (fig. 1). The Bartlett Springs Fault Zone is a northwest-trending zone of faulting associated with this eastern part of the transform boundary. It is presently active, based on surface creep (Svarc and others, 2008), geomorphic expression, offset of Holocene units (Lienkaemper and Brown, 2009), and microseismicity (Bolt and Oakeshott, 1982; Dehlinger and Bolt, 1984; DePolo and Ohlin, 1984). Faults associated with the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone at Lake Pillsbury are steeply dipping and offset older low to steeply dipping faults separating folded and imbricated Mesozoic terranes of the Franciscan Complex and interleaved rocks of the Coast Range Ophiolite and Great Valley Sequence. Parts of this area were mapped in the late 1970s and 1980s by several investigators who were focused on structural relations in the Franciscan Complex (Lehman, 1978; Jordan, 1975; Layman, 1977; Etter, 1979). In the 1980s the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped a large part of the area as part of a mineral resource appraisal of two U.S. Forest Service Roadless areas. For evaluating mineral resource potential, the USGS mapping was published at a scale of 1:62,500 as a generalized geologic summary map without a topographic base (Ohlin and others, 1983; Ohlin and Spear, 1984). The previously unpublished mapping with topographic base is presented here at a scale of 1:30,000, compiled with other mapping in the vicinity of Lake Pillsbury. The mapping provides a geologic framework for ongoing investigations to evaluate potential earthquake hazards and structure of the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone. This geologic map includes part of Mendocino National Forest (the Elk Creek Roadless Area) in Mendocino, Glenn, and Lake Counties and is traversed by several U.S. Forest Service Routes, including M1 and M6 (fig. 2). The study

  3. Simultaneous spectroscopy of $\\gamma$- rays and conversion electrons: Systematic study of EO transitions and intruder states in close vicinity of mid-shell point in odd-Au isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Venhart, M; Grant, A F; Petrik, K

    This proposal focuses on detailed systematic studies of the $\\beta$ /EC-decays of $^{179,181,183,185}$Hg leading to excited states in the neutron-deficient Au isotopes in the vicinity of the N=104 midshell. $\\gamma$-ray, X-ray and conversion electron de-excitations of odd-A Au isotopes will be studied simultaneously. These studies will address important structural questions such as the excitation energies of coexisting states, properties of multiple intruder states (i.e. intruder particles coupled to intruder cores) and mixing of coexisting structures. The unique combination of Hg beam purity and yields make ISOLDE a unique facility for these experiments.

  4. The Swiss ''CANUPIS'' study on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power stations; Die Schweizer ''CANUPIS''-Studie zu Krebserkrankungen bei Kindern in der Naehe von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Physik Dept.

    2011-07-01

    A nationwide cohort study on leukaemia and any other childhood cancer in the vicinity of Swiss nuclear power stations (CANUPIS) was supported by the Krebsliga Schweiz and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The results, covering the years 1985 to 2009 and including some 21 million person years, was published in July 2011. Three zones around nuclear installations were investigated: 0 to 5 km, 5 to 10 km and 10 to 15 km distance. The CANUPIS study found no evidence for a statistically significant increased cancer risk among 0 to 15 year old children living near Swiss nuclear power stations, compared to children living in other regions of the country. (orig.)

  5. Mathematical simulation of a gas flow in the vicinity of the open end of a tube for harmonic oscillations of a piston at the resonance frequency at the other end of the tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulovich, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The structure of the gas flow in the vicinity of the open end of a tube for the oscillating gas flow caused by piston oscillations at the first resonance frequency at the other end of the tube has been determined by numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equations using the ANSYS FLUENT program package. For the variant of the tube with an infinitely long flange and a sharp edge, the influence of the piston displacement amplitude on the gas flow rate in the tube is investigated, and the phases of gas inflow and outflow during the period of oscillation have been determined.

  6. Leisure-time physical activity in the vicinity of Academias da Cidade Program in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: the impact of a health promotion program on the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Paula Fernandes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed leisure-time physical activity among 1,621 adults who were non-users of the Academias da Cidade Program in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, but who lived in the vicinity of a fitness center in operation (exposed Group I or in the vicinity of two sites reserved for future installation of centers (control Groups II and III. The dependent variable was leisure-time physical activity, and linear distance from the households to the fitness centers was the exposure variable, categorized in radial buffers: < 500m; 500-1,000m; and 1,000-1,500m. Binary logistic regression was performed with the Generalized Estimation Equations method. Residents living within < 500m of the fitness center gave better ratings to the physical environment when compared to those living in the 1,000 and 1,500m buffers and showed higher odds of leisure-time physical activity (OR = 1.16; 95%CI: 1.03-1.30, independently of socio-demographic factors; the same was not observed in the control groups (II and III. The findings suggests the program’s potential for influencing physical activity in the population living closer to the fitness center and thus provide a strategic alternative for mitigating inequalities in leisure-time physical activity.

  7. Lead accumulation by some plant species cultivated in the vicinity of a lead factory in Sfax; Accumulation du plomb par quelques especes vegetales cultivees au voisinage d'une fonderie de plomb a Sfax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elloumi, N.; Ben Abdallah, F.; Mezghani, I.; Boukhris, M. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Lab. d' Ecologie Vegetale, Unite de Recherche Biologie de la Vegetation en Milieu Aride, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, particularly the particles containing high concentrations of heavy metals, have harmful effects on the environment. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accumulation of a lead factory emissions, on the vegetation near the factory in function of time, distance and climatic factors. Analyses results have showed an important lead accumulation by vegetation located in the vicinity of the factory. Plant species studied here (olive trees, palm trees, almond trees, pomegranate trees and vine) have shown high and variable lead accumulation. Highest concentrations (over than 400 {mu}g/g) were recorded in non-washed leaves of olive trees surrounding the factory. Rapid and considerable decrease of lead content was, however, recorded for the same species situated at a distance bigger than 1 km from the source. Interaction effects study of several factors, such as climatic factors and diversity of plant species on lead accumulation by plants, have shown that the degree of lead accumulation was related to wind direction and distance from pollution source. Lead concentrations in species planted in the NW of the factory and exposed to SE wind direction were higher than that of ones exposed to any other direction. High lead concentrations in the vicinity of the factory seem to indicate that particles and gaseous pollutants fallout in the surrounding of the factory are as much important as the chimney height is reduced. (authors)

  8. Characterization of ZnO thin film grown on c-plane substrates by MO-CVD: Effect of substrate annealing temperature, vicinal-cut angle and miscut direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadhaba, M. A.; Fouzri, A.; Sallet, V.; Hassani, S. S.; Amiri, G.; Lusson, A.; Oumezzine, M.

    2015-09-01

    The annealing effects of c-plane sapphire (α-Al2O3) substrate with a nominally vicinal-cut angle α (α ZnO films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) were studied. The atomic steps formed on sapphire substrate surface by annealing at high temperature were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The annealing and the miscut direction of sapphire substrate on the microstructural and optical properties for ZnO films were examined by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). Experimental results indicate that the film quality is strongly affected by annealing treatment and miscut direction of the sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction study revealed that all films exhibit a wurtzite phase and have a c-axis orientation. ZnO films deposited on sapphire substrate (α ZnO layer deposited on annealed sapphire substrate with increase the annealing substrate temperature for all samples. AFM image show significant differences between morphologies of samples depending on annealing treatment and miscut direction of substrates but no significant differences on surface roughness have been found. Sapphire annealing at 1100 °C with a nominally vicinal-cut angle α = 0.25° toward the m-plane (1 0 1 bar 0), provides the best optical quality of ZnO film.

  9. Adsorbate-induced facetting reconstruction and self-organized domain patterning of vicinal Ag(111) surfaces; Adsorbatinduzierte richtungsabhaengige Facettierung und selbstorganisierte Domaenen-Musterbildung auf vizinalen Ag(111)-Oberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Stefan

    2007-02-05

    This thesis investigates structural aspects of adsorbate-induced facetting of vicinal Ag(111) surfaces. It is mainly based on scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) experiments performed under UHV conditions. The planar dye-molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxilicacid-dianhydride (PTCDA) adsorbs preferentially at the step edges of the 8.5 Ag(111) vicinal surfaces used in the experiments. It causes a facetting reconstruction by the formation of (111) terraces and facets with a high step density. Moreover, two distinct preferential inclinations of facets were observed, which can only be explained by the selective influence of the adsorbate superstructure. In terms of thermodynamics, the facetting reconstruction can be described as an orientational phase separation, adapted to the constraints of planar surfaces. This concept is capable of explaining the local facetting phenomena. The formalism used predicts an important role of nucleation kinetics. This aspect is taken into account by introducing an additional phase of mobile molecules (2D molecular gas), which cannot be measured directly. Furthermore, strong arguments for the appearance of a critical island size for the PTCDA/ Ag(111) superstructure were found. This work presents structural information of all stable superstructures of PTCDA on vicinal Ag(111) surfaces. Altogether 16 such superstructures were found, 3 of which had been observed and published before. Density and commensurability were found to systematically depend on the step-structure. The two preferred inclinations of facets are related to two characteristic types of domain boundaries of the herringbone superstructure to the adjacent (111)-terrace. On the (111) terraces, small islands of metastable superstructures were found. Facets and (111) terraces form a regular grating-like domain pattern with a variable structural width of 5 to 75 nm. STM measurements show direct evidence for a long-range interaction

  10. Different Ways to Apply a Measurement Instrument of E-Nose Type to Evaluate Ambient Air Quality with Respect to Odour Nuisance in a Vicinity of Municipal Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Szulczyński

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review paper presents different ways to apply a measurement instrument of e-nose type to evaluate ambient air with respect to detection of the odorants characterized by unpleasant odour in a vicinity of municipal processing plants. An emphasis was put on the following applications of the electronic nose instruments: monitoring networks, remote controlled robots and drones as well as portable devices. Moreover, this paper presents commercially available sensors utilized in the electronic noses and characterized by the limit of quantification below 1 ppm v/v, which is close to the odour threshold of some odorants. Additionally, information about bioelectronic noses being a possible alternative to electronic noses and their principle of operation and application potential in the field of air evaluation with respect to detection of the odorants characterized by unpleasant odour was provided.

  11. Different Ways to Apply a Measurement Instrument of E-Nose Type to Evaluate Ambient Air Quality with Respect to Odour Nuisance in a Vicinity of Municipal Processing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyński, Bartosz; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Wojnowski, Wojciech; Majchrzak, Tomasz; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Gębicki, Jacek

    2017-11-19

    This review paper presents different ways to apply a measurement instrument of e-nose type to evaluate ambient air with respect to detection of the odorants characterized by unpleasant odour in a vicinity of municipal processing plants. An emphasis was put on the following applications of the electronic nose instruments: monitoring networks, remote controlled robots and drones as well as portable devices. Moreover, this paper presents commercially available sensors utilized in the electronic noses and characterized by the limit of quantification below 1 ppm v/v, which is close to the odour threshold of some odorants. Additionally, information about bioelectronic noses being a possible alternative to electronic noses and their principle of operation and application potential in the field of air evaluation with respect to detection of the odorants characterized by unpleasant odour was provided.

  12. Levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and V in marine sediments in the vicinity of the Single Buoy Moorings (SBM3) at Mina Al Fahal in the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Husaini, Issa; Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Ahamad, Rahmalan; Chan, Keziah

    2014-06-15

    Recently in the Sultanate of Oman, there has been a rapid surge of coastal developments. These developments cause metal contamination, which may affect the habitats and communities at and near the coastal region. As a result, a study was conducted to assess the level of metal contamination and its impact on the marine sediments in the vicinity of the Single Buoy Moorings 3 (SBM3) at Mina Al Fahal in the Sultanate of Oman. Marine subtidal sediment samples were collected from six different stations of the SBM3 for the period ranging from June 2009 to April 2010. These samples were then analyzed for their level and distribution of the heavy metals of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). Overall, low concentrations of all four heavy metals were measured from the marine sediments, indicating that the marine at SBM3 is of good quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Results of a German study in perspective; Kinderkanker in de omgeving van kerncentrales. Resultaten van een Duitse studie in perspectief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, S.A.J.; Slaper, H.; Tanzi, C.P.

    2010-09-15

    Whether or not childhood cancer occurs more frequently in the vicinity of nuclear power plants remains uncertain. The results of a German study completed in 2007 that found a significantly increased risk of disease are not confirmed in British and French investigations. This follows from work carried out at RIVM. In the German study, the so-called KiKK-study, the number of cases of childhood cancer in the vicinity of sixteen German nuclear power plants in recent decades was investigated. The study showed that children under the age of five who live within five kilometers of a nuclear power plant are at an increased risk of developing childhood cancer. The authors of the study are unable to explain this risk, which cannot be explained as an effect of the extremely limited extra radiation produced by a nuclear power plant. After publication of the KiKK-study's results questions were asked in Dutch parliament. The minister of VROM (housing, spatial planning and the environment) in response to these questions asked RIVM to compare the results of the German study with those of other studies and to give extra attention to the situation in the vicinity of Borssele, the location of the only Dutch nuclear power plant. In Borssele, circa three hundred children under the age of five live within five kilometers of the nuclear power plant. If the risk observed in Germany is applicable to the nuclear power plant at Borssele, one extra case of childhood cancer could be expected every thirty years. Epidemiological research would not be able to determine a frequency that low. A person living in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant at Borssele incurs less radiation from the power plant during a year, than the average dose a Dutch citizen receives in a single day from natural sources. The extra risk observed in Germany cannot be explained as the effect of such a low dose. [Dutch] Of kinderkanker nabij kerncentrales vaker voorkomt blijft onzeker. Het resultaat van een Duits

  14. Highly enantioselective phase-transfer-catalyzed alkylation of protected alpha-amino acid amides toward practical asymmetric synthesis of vicinal diamines, alpha-amino ketones, and alpha-amino alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Takashi; Takeuchi, Mifune; Kato, Daisuke; Uematsu, Yukitaka; Tayama, Eiji; Sakai, Daiki; Maruoka, Keiji

    2005-04-13

    Highly enantioselective alkylation of protected glycine diphenylmethyl (Dpm) amide 1 and Weinreb amide 10 has been realized under phase-transfer conditions by the successful utilization of designer chiral quaternary ammonium salts of type 4 as catalyst. Particularly, remarkable reactivity of the chiral ammonium enolate derived from 1b and 4c allowed the reaction with less reactive simple secondary alkyl halides with high efficiency and enantioselectivity. An additional unique feature of this chiral ammonium enolate is its ability to recognize the chirality of beta-branched primary alkyl halides, which provides impressive levels of kinetic resolution and double stereodifferentiation during the alkylation, allowing for two alpha- and gamma-stereocenters to be controlled. Combined with the subsequent reduction using LiAlH4 in cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME), this system offers a facile access to structurally diverse optically active vicinal diamines. Furthermore, the optically active alpha-amino acid Weinreb amide 11 can be efficiently converted to the corresponding amino ketone by a simple treatment with Grignard reagents. In addition, reduction and alkylation of the optically active alpha-amino ketone into both syn and anti alpha-amino alcohols with almost complete relative and absolute stereochemical control have been achieved. With (S,S)- and (R,R)-4 in hand, the present approach renders both enantiomers of alpha-amino amides including Weinreb amides readily available with enormous structural variation and also establishes a general and practical route to vicinal diamines, alpha-amino ketones, and alpha-amino alcohols with the desired stereochemistry.

  15. Flood-hydrology data for the Potomac River and selected tributaries in the vicinity of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doheny, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents flood-hydrology data for the Potomac River and selected tributaries in the vicinity of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Park (C & O Canal NHP). Data were compiled for the floods of (1) March 17-19, 1936; (2) June 22-24, 1972; (3) November 4-7, 1985; (4) January 19-21, 1996; (5) September 6-8, 1996; and (6) the peak of record for 6 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations on the Potomac River and 10 streamflow-gaging stations on selected tributaries to the Potomac River. Peak discharge, peak gage height, the date and time of the peak, and approximate recurrence interval are presented for each flood event at these streamflow-gaging stations.Data compiled from selected high-flow discharge measurements on the six Potomac River streamflow- gaging stations are presented. The gage height, top width, cross-sectional area, mean velocity, maximum velocity, and discharge are presented for each selected discharge measurement. Any corresponding discharge on the C & O Canal that was measured or estimated for these dischrge measurements is presented. Ranges of Manning's roughness coefficient were computed for the range of selected discharge measurements, based on estimates of water-surface slope or the channel-bed slope. These data will be used for subsequent hydraulic studies by engineers for maintenance, protection, or restoration of the C & O Canal. An inventory of selected references, flood studies, and additional USGS data along the Potomac River and the C & O Canal NHP also are presented. Included are (1) a listing of selected flood studies and reports, and (2) a listing of USGS indirect flood-discharge measurements that have been made at the six Potomac River streamflow-gaging stations in the vicinity of the C & O Canal NHP. Information on historical streamflow-gaging station records and discharge measurements on the C & O Canal also is presented.

  16. Thermic Variation in Incubation and Development of Pantanal Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare (Daudin, 1802 Kept in Metabolic Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Parra Miranda

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two eggs of Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare (Daudin, 1802 were incubated at 30° C. After 20 days of incubation at 30° C, the remaining eggs were distributed in the following way: seven at 34° C, seven at 32° C, six at 30° C and six at 28° C. At 32° C and 34° C a 100% hatchability was obtained while at 30° C 83.3% and at 28° C 66.6%. After hatching, the animals were kept for 120 days at the same temperature of their final incubation. Weight (g control and morphometric (cm analysis were carried out. The statistic design was totally randomized and the data were treated by regression analysis showing a quadratic behavior ( pTrinta e dois ovos de Caiman crocodilus yacare foram incubados, inicialmente, à temperatura de 30° C. Durante a incubação foram retirados seis ovos para se conhecer o estágio embriológico e peso, além de breve descrição dos embriões. Após 20 dias de incubação a 30° C, os ovos foram assim distribuídos: sete em 34° C, sete em 32° C, seis em 30° C e seis em 28° C. Em 32 e 34° C obteve-se 100% de eclodibilidade, em 30° C - 83,3%, e a 28 ° C - 66,6 %. Após a eclosão os animais permaneceram durante 120 dias na mesma temperatura de incubação final. Foi realizado controle de peso (g e análise morfométrica (cm. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, e os dados foram analisados por regressão, que mostraram um comportamento quadrático (p<0,05. Constatou-se que o peso, comprimento total, comprimento da cauda, comprimento focinho-cloaca, comprimento da cabeça, comprimento do olho, comprimento do focinho, largura do focinho, largura da cabeça, largura das narinas, distância entre membros tiveram maior desenvolvimento na faixa de 31,2 a 31,8° C e, a circunferência da barriga a 30,6° C. A redução de 30 para 28° C, na incubação artificial, desencadeou eclosão de animais prematuros. Portanto, a redução da temperatura de 30 para 28° C, durante a incubação artificial não é recomendada, e maior crescimento pode ser obtido entre 31 a 32° C.

  17. [Value of the technique of cellular lysis by thermic shock in the isolation of bacteria causing osteoarticular infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannier, A; Drancourt, M; Franceschi, J P; Aubaniac, J M; Raoult, D

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare, a conventional technique, for bacterial isolation, with a lysis-centrifugation method using a rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen, followed by decongelation at 37 degrees C for bone and joint samples. The bone and joint specimens were biopsies and punctions (35 cases) or fistula (10 cases). The residual antibiotic activity of the sample was determined using a susceptible strain of Micrococcus luteus and of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Among the 45 samples, 20 were sterile with both methods among which 8 exhibited a residual antibiotic activity which may have contributed to isolation failure. In 12 cases, bacterial isolates were obtained with both methods. Cultures were obtained from 13 samples with the lysis centrifugation method alone. The isolates were 4 Staphylococcus aureus, 8 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and 1 Acinetobacter sp. These results suggest that the intracellular location of bacteria may be responsible for the negative cultures from bone or joint specimens.

  18. Abundance variation of Porichthys margaritatus (Pisces: Batrachoididae throughout thermic and bathymetric gradients in the central Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Godínez-Domínguez

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Three cruises, one in cach of the main stream patterns in the area, were made on the central Mexican Pacific continental slope (May-June 1995, November 1995, and March 1996. Seven trawl sampling sites were defined per cruise, and in each site four bathymetric levels were sampled (20, 40, 60, and 80 m. During the warmest seasons, the highest abundance of Porichthys margaritatus was at 60 m. When the temperature of the bottom water was lower, in March 1996, the highest abundance of P. margaritatus moved towards 40 m. The depths with greatest abundance fluctuated between 18 and 21°C, indicating a narrow temperature preference range. A Gaussian model was used to explain the relation between abundance and temperatura.Se analizaron tres cruceros de pesca demersal, uno por cada pauta principal de circulación marina en la zona (mayo-junio de 1995, noviembre de 1995, y marzo de 1996. Se determinaron siete sitios de muestreo en cada crucero y en cada sitio se muestrearon cuatro estratos batimétricos (20,40, 60 y 80 m. Durante la época cálida, las mayores abundancias de Porychthys nwrgaritatus se encontraron en 60 m. Cuando la temperatura de fondo fue mínima durante marzo de 1996, las mayores abundancias se desplazaron a 40 m de profundidad. La temperatura de máximas abundancias fluctuaron entre 18 y 21 °C, lo cual indica un estrecho rango de preferencia térmica. Se propone un modelo Gaussiano para explicar la relación entre la abundancia y la temperatura.

  19. Synthesis of TiCr2 intermetallic compound from mechanically activated starting powders via calcio-thermic co-reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, O.; Khavandi, A. R.; Ghasemzadeh, R.

    2017-05-01

    Effect of mechanical activation of TiO2 and Cr2O3 oxides as starting materials was investigated for direct synthesis of TiCr2. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicated that increasing the ball milling time resulted in lower exothermic reaction temperatures between molten Ca-Cr2O3 and molten Ca-TiO2. A model-free Kissinger type method was applied to DTA data to evaluate the reaction kinetics. The results reveal that the activation energy of the exothermic reactions decreased with increasing the milling time. The structure, oxygen content, and average particle sizes of the obtained TiCr2 product were affected by the ball milling time of the starting materials. Increasing the milling time from 10 to 40 h decreased the average particle size and oxygen content of the obtained TiCr2 from 10 to 2 μm and from 1690 to 1290 ppm, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that TiCr2 compounds with metastable bcc phase can be produced using nano-sized starting materials, while only a slight amount of bcc phase can be obtained in the TiCr2 compounds, using micron-sized starting materials. The TiCr2 obtained by this method had a hydrogen absorption capability of 0.63 wt % and the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption increased for the 40 h milled sample.

  20. Effects of changes in pumping on regional groundwater-flow paths, 2005 and 2010, and areas contributing recharge to discharging wells, 1990–2010, in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2017-06-06

    A previously developed regional groundwater flow model was used to simulate the effects of changes in pumping rates on groundwater-flow paths and extent of recharge discharging to wells for a contaminated fractured bedrock aquifer in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater in the vicinity of the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, was found to be contaminated with organic compounds, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), in 1979. At the time contamination was discovered, groundwater from the underlying fractured bedrock (shale) aquifer was the main source of supply for public drinking water and industrial use. As part of technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the Remedial Investigation of the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site from 2000 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a model of regional groundwater flow to describe changes in groundwater flow and contaminant directions as a result of changes in pumping. Subsequently, large decreases in TCE concentrations (as much as 400 micrograms per liter) were measured in groundwater samples collected by the EPA from selected wells in 2010 compared to 2005‒06 concentrations.To provide insight on the fate of potentially contaminated groundwater during the period of generally decreasing pumping rates from 1990 to 2010, steady-state simulations were run using the previously developed groundwater-flow model for two conditions prior to extensive remediation, 1990 and 2000, two conditions subsequent to some remediation 2005 and 2010, and a No Pumping case, representing pre-development or cessation of pumping conditions. The model was used to (1) quantify the amount of recharge, including potentially contaminated recharge from sources near the land surface, that discharged to wells or streams and (2) delineate the areas contributing recharge that discharged to wells or streams for the five conditions.In all simulations, groundwater divides differed from