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Sample records for vicia villosa measurements

  1. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

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    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  2. Granulomatous myelitis associated with hemorrhagic syndrome due to consumption of Vicia villosa by cattle Mielite granulomatosa associada à síndrome hemorrágica devido ao consumo de Vicia villosa em um bovino

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    Luciana Sonne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of spontaneous Vicia villosa poisoning affected a 6-year-old Holstein cow. Although the most striking findings included a generalized hemorrhagic condition associated with granulomatous myelitis, histological lesions typically seen with the vetch-associated systemic granulomatous syndrome were also present. Prominent gross findings were bloody nasal and oral discharges, disseminated hemorrhages, and bloody feces. Generalized hemorrhages associated with infiltration of numerous organs by lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, multinucleated giants cells, and eosinophils were the main microscopic findings. Anti-CD68 immunostaining confirmed the presence of moderate histiocytic infiltrate and multinucleated giant cells in the bone marrow. These changes in the bone marrow probably caused the generalized hemorrhagic changes described here.Um bovino Holandês de seis anos naturalmente intoxicado pela Vicia villosa apresentou lesões não comumente encontradas nessa intoxicação. Embora a lesão mais evidente fosse hemorragia generalizada associada à mielite granulomatosa, as lesões granulomatosas típicas da intoxicação pela ervilhaca também estavam presentes histologicamente. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram hemorragias nasal e oral, hemorragias generalizadas e fezes com sangue. Lesões hemorrágicas generalizadas associadas com infiltrado inflamatório de linfócitos, plasmócitos, macrófagos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos foram os principais achados microscópicos encontrados. O teste imuno-histoquímico anti-CD68 confirmou a presença de infiltrado moderado de macrófagos e de células gigantes multinucleadas na medula óssea. As alterações na medula óssea provavelmente constituem a causa da hemorragia generalizada descrita nesse caso.

  3. Inhibition of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols breakdown delays germination of winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seeds

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    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beside RFOs, which are commonly present in legume seeds, seeds of some species contain galactosyl pinitols (GPs. These carbohydrates, like RFOs, have been hypothesized to constitute an important energy and carbon skeletal source during germination. To test this hypothesis we have applied a specific α-galactosidase inhibitor (1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, DGJ to germinating winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seeds, containing more galactosyl pinitols than RFOs. The breakdown of RFOs but not that of GPs was completely blocked in both embryonic axes and cotyledons tissues, during the first 18 h of imbibition in DGJ. The inhibitor only decreased the rate of GPs degradation. The inhibitory effect of DGJ on GPs degradation was partially alleviated by addition of sucrose or galactose to DGJ solutions. After three days of germination in water, RFOs and GPs disappeared in axial tissues of seeds imbibed in water, galactose or sucrose. Eighteen-hour imbibition of seeds in DGJ drastically reduced germination, by ca 50%, during the first three days. The inhibitory effect of DGJ decreased during the next seven days of germination. The presence of galactose or sucrose in imbibition solution initially stimulated seed germination, but later this effect was not statistically significant. Our study provides clear evidence that galactosyl pinitols play an important role in early winter vetch seeds germination. Additionally, we suggest that galactosyl pinitols can replace RFOs as reserve material necessary for early germination.

  4. [Dendritic arborization patterns of interneurons labeled with a lectin, Vicia villosa, in rat cerebral cortex: studies by intracellular injection of lucifer yellow using aldehyde-fixed slices].

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    Ojima, H

    1993-04-01

    In order to characterize the dendritic field of a number of interneurons in the cerebral cortex, the labeling of extracellular sugar chains which define a subset of interneurons was combined with the subsequent intracellular filling of dyes in aldehyde-fixed tissue. Neurons whose cell body had been outlined by a lectin, Vicia villosa (VVA), which recognizes terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, were intracellularly injected with a fluorescent tracer, Lucifer yellow (LY), in the rat parietal cortex under direct visualization. After immunohistochemical detection of LY, somal morphology and the dendritic fields of injected neurons were reconstructed from serial sections and characterized in each of the layers II/III, IV, V and VI. Multipolar, flask-shaped and bitufted somata were VVA-positive. Multipolar neurons with round soma and spherical dendritic field were found in layers II/III, IV and V, while those with vertically elongated dendritic fields were found in layer VI. Cell bodies were located roughly in the center of the spherical or cylindrical dendritic fields. Neurons with apparently multipolar but flask- or pear-shaped soma were found frequently in layer IV, and much less frequently in layer II/III and VI. The majority of the dendrites originated from the neck portion of flask and formed a roughly spherical dendritic field with the cell body located more or less eccentrically. Some neurons in layer IV had an oval, somewhat vertically elongated soma and displayed a typical bitufted dendritic arborization pattern with vertically elongated dendritic fields. The overall dendritic field sizes of the cells gradually increased at deeper layers of the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Quantification of cyanamide in young seedlings of Vicia species, Lens culinaris, and Robinia pseudo-acacia by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

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    Kamo, Tsunashi; Takemura, Tomoko; Wasano, Naoya; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Hiradate, Syuntaro

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the cyanamide content of young leaves of nine Vicia species, Lens culinaris, and Robinia pseudo-acacia using a modified analytical procedure that made it possible to measure the cyanamide content of a single leaf. Recent molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that cyanamide is present in V. benghalensis, which is placed in a monophyletic group with cyanamide-biosynthesizing plants, V. villosa and V. cracca; this suggestion was verified.

  6. Productivity of Local Goats Supplemented with Acacia villosa and Coripha gebanga

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    A. M. Fuah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most feed for goats in the villages of West Timor, Indonesia, came from communal grazing areas, consist of native grass during wet season, crop residues and tree leaves (Sesbania and Acacia species in dry season. This study was aiming at examining the growth of goat supplemented with local feed. Twenty four goats were used, the average initial live weight was 12.5 kg. Four feeding treatments were applied: T1-200 g cut grass; T2–200 g Acacia villosa; T3–200 g Coripha gebanga; T4–100 g A. villosa + 100 g C. gebanga. Live weights and feed consumption were analyzed using repeated measures, analysis of variance. The average live weight showed a small increase, as well as daily weight gain of goats of which different significantly (P<0.05 amongst treatments (17, 36, 42, and 43 g/d/head, during the first 6 wk, followed by a sharp drop after 8 wk. The average supplemented feed consumption was 52, 35, 85, and 75 g/d/animal, for cut grass, A. villosa, C. gebanga, and A. villosa plus C. gebanga, respectively. Goats given C. gebanga and mixed Acacia and C. gebanga gave higher average weight gain, but also consumed more feed than those given cut grass or A.villosa (P<0.01. Supplementing feed to maintain growth of goats during dry seasons was better on A. villosa than on palm pith and its combination.

  7. Vicia faba L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... Haciseferogullari H, Gezer I, Bahtiyarca Y, Menges HO (2003). Determination of some chemical and physical properties of sakis faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major). J. Food .Eng. 60: 475-479. Hanelt P, Mettin D (1989). Biosystematics of the Genus vicia L. (Leguminosae). Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 20: 199-223.

  8. NEW PROAZULENE GUAIANOLIDES FROM THAPSIA-VILLOSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smitt, U. W.; Cornett, Claus; Andersen, A.

    1990-01-01

    Four new guaianolides 2-5 possessing the terpenoid skeleton of archangelolide [6] were isolated from a speciment of Thapsia villosa [chromosome number 2n = 66 ( = 6x)]. Attempts to hydrolyze the natural products 2-6 yielded azulenes, mainly 7-acetyl-1,4-dimethylazulene [9].......Four new guaianolides 2-5 possessing the terpenoid skeleton of archangelolide [6] were isolated from a speciment of Thapsia villosa [chromosome number 2n = 66 ( = 6x)]. Attempts to hydrolyze the natural products 2-6 yielded azulenes, mainly 7-acetyl-1,4-dimethylazulene [9]....

  9. [Studies on chemical constituents of Patrinia villosa].

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    Peng, Jin-Yong; Fan, Guo-Rong; Wu, Yu-Tian

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Patrinia villosa. The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and identified by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis (MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). Seven compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate and n-butanol extract and identified as: 5-hydroxyl-7, 3', 4'-trimethoxy flavone (I), 5-hydroxyl-7, 4'-dimethoxy flavone (II), luteolin (III), quercetin (IV), isoorientin (V), isovitexin (VI) and 8-C glucosylprunetin (VII). Compounds I , II, III, V, VI and VIII were obtained from the plant of genus Patrinia for the first time, compound IV was separated from P. villosa for the first time.

  10. Vicia faba L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buzayehu

    Characterization of root nodule bacteria is used for selecting and using them as inoculants to improve legume production. To this end, faba bean (Vicia faba L.) rhizobia were isolated from nodules collected from acidic soils of Central and Southern-Western parts of ..... of the isolates were utilized all amino acids sources.

  11. Effect of supplementary soil nitrogen on yield of Vicia villosa Roth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty plots of 2 x 2 sq. m size were then demarcated and further divided into 5 similar units comprising 4 blocks of 3 plots each. The plots in each block were independently allotted to 3 treatments in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Treatments were T1 – control (without SSN), T2 and T3 are manure and inorganic ...

  12. Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associated with grazing vetch (Vicia spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Claudio S.L.; Rafael A. Fighera; Daniela B. Rozza; Raquel R. Rech; Simone V. Sallis; Langohr, Ingeborg M.

    2001-01-01

    Dois surtos de uma doença associada ao pastoreio de duas espécies de ervilhaca (predominantemente Vicia villosa e, em menor grau, V. sativa) foram observados em agosto-setembro de 2001, em vacas Holandesas adultas de duas propriedades rurais do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram afetadas, em uma das propriedades, quatro de 42 vacas (9,5%) e, na outra, uma de oito vacas (12,5%). Os sinais clínicos incluíam, embora não em todos os casos, febre, prurido, espessamento e enrugamento da pele com placas multi...

  13. Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species

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    Eugénia Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil (EO of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae, isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant’s aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5% and methyleugenol (35.9%, were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The EO, limonene and methyleugenol displayed low MIC and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration values against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus spp. Regarding Candida species, an inhibition of yeast–mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO (MIC/128; 0.01 μL/mL and their major compounds in Candida albicans. Fluconazole does not show this activity, and the combination with low concentrations of EO could associate a supplementary target for the antifungal activity. The association of fluconazole with T. villosa oil does not show antagonism, but the combination limonene/fluconazole displays synergism. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities revealed by T. villosa EO and its main compounds, associated with their low haemolytic activity, confirm their potential antimicrobial interest against fungal species often associated with human mycoses.

  14. Lipidated Steroid Saponins from Dioscorea villosa (Wild Yam)†

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    Dong, Shi-Hui; Cai, Geping; Napolitano, José G.; Nikolić, Dejan; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Pauli, Guido F.; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Two groups of lipidated steroid saponins including seven new compounds (2, 3, 5, and 7–10) were isolated from the widely used botanical, wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), employing a fractionation protocol of metabolomic mining. This methodology has very recently led to the isolation of 14 diarylheptanoids from the same plant. Together with these lipidated steroid saponins, they establish additional new markers for Dioscorea villosa. The lipidation of steroids with analogue long-chain fatty acids containing different degrees of unsaturation generates entire series of compounds which are difficult to purify and analyze. The structures of the two series of lipidated steroid saponins (series A and B) were demonstrated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR as well as GC-MS after chemical modification. Series A was determined to be a mixture of lipidated spirostanol glycosides (1–5), while series B (6–10) proved to be a mixture of five lipidated clionasterol glucosides. The latter group represents the first derivatives of clionasterol to be found in D. villosa. The discovery of this specific structural type of aliphatic esters of steroid saponins expands the characterization of the secondary metabolome of D. villosa. It also may inspire biological studies which take into account the lipophilic character and significantly altered physiochemical characteristics of these otherwise relatively polar phytoconstituents. PMID:23968665

  15. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

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    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  16. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

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    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  17. Comparison of five major trichome regulatory genes in Brassica villosa with orthologues within the Brassicaceae.

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    Naghabushana K Nayidu

    Full Text Available Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1, GLABRA 2 (GL2, ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3, and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1 and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY, were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae.

  18. Hydrocarbon circulation and colonial signature in Pachycondyla villosa.

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    Lucas, C; Pho, D B; Fresneau, D; Jallon, J M

    2004-07-01

    In ants, both cuticular and postpharyngeal gland (PPG) hydrocarbons (HCs) have been involved in nestmate recognition. However, no detailed comparison is available. A comparative study including also high density lipophorin (HDLp), an internal HC carrier, was therefore undertaken on Pachycondyla villosa. Purified HDLp is an 820 kDa lipoprotein with a density of 1.114 g/ml and two 245 and 80 kDa apo-proteins. Its hydrocarbon profile is very similar with the cuticular one, in agreement with its hydrocarbon carrier function. Conversely, n-alkanes and externally branched monomethylalkanes are markedly decreased in the PPG. According to their physical properties, this suggests that they are involved in waterproofing on the cuticle. The PPG actually contains only internally branched mono-, dimethylalkanes or monomethylalkenes; their greater fluidity is more adequate for chemical communication. The percentages of some of them are statistically not different between the cuticle and PPG. Their mixtures vary with colonies and they may thus be involved in colonial signature. A scheme for hydrocarbon circulation is discussed, involving lipophorin, cuticle, PPG and self-grooming in one individual, a pathway complementary or alternative to the selective delivery by lipophorin in some other insects. HCs are then distributed between nestmates' cuticles through allo-grooming and physical contacts.

  19. ( Vicia peregrina ) seed as protein source for mirror carp ( Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 80-day feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation system aquarium operating at 26 ± 0.3 °C, to evaluate the nutritive value of Vicia peregrina seed as a possible protein source in the diet of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Vicia peregrina seed was included in the diets at different levels, viz. 100, 200, 300 g ...

  20. Antitrypanosomal Activity of Senna villosa in Infected Balb/C Mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antitrypanosomal activity of chloroform extract of Senna villosa leaves was evaluated in the sub acute phase of mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Oral doses of 3.3, 6.6 and 13.2 μg/g were tested during 15 days on infected mice BALB/c, beginning treatment 40 days after infection to evaluate specifically the ...

  1. Number of queens in founding associations of the ponerine ant Pachycondyla villosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Kellner, K.; Delabie, J. H. C.

    2005-01-01

    In the ant Pachycondyla villosa, new colonies are usually started cooperatively by two or more young queens who establish a dominance order with a division of labour. Co-founding can lead to primary polygyny, where queens stay together after workers have emerged. Here we show that two queens...

  2. A new sesquiterpene lactone glycoside and a new quinic acid methyl ester from Patrinia villosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Fen; Ma, Hong-Mei; Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Feng; Xiang, Zheng; Feng, Qing-Mei; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2016-10-01

    A new sesquiterpene lactone glycoside (1) and a new quinic acid methyl ester (2) were isolated from Patrinia villosa, together with another two known compounds chlorogenic acid n-butyl ester (3), 3, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (4). Their structures were established using 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and comparing with spectroscopic data reported in the literature.

  3. A phenylpropanoid, a slovenolide, two sulphur-containing germacranes and Ca+2-ATPase inhibitors from Thapsia villosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubal, Juan J; Moreno-Dorado, F Javier; Guerra, Francisco M

    2010-01-01

    A phenylpropanoid 1, a slovenolide 2, and two germacranes bearing a methylthiopropenoate moiety, 3 and 4, along with twenty known metabolites have been isolated from the roots of THAPSIA VILLOSA var. VILLOSA L. The structures of two known phenylpropanoids 5 and 6 have been corrected. Compounds 7 ...

  4. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  5. Organogenesis and plant regeneration of Arachis villosa Benth. (Leguminosae) through leaf culture.

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    Fontana, María Laura; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Rey, Hebe Yolanda

    2009-12-01

    With the aim of developing an efficient plant regeneration protocol, leaflet explants of three accessions of Arachis villosa Benth. (S2866, S2867 and L97) were cultured on basic Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different combinations of plant growth regulators: alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and thidiazuron. The accession L97 was the only one able to differentiate buds through indirect organogenesis. The most suitable combination for bud regeneration was the basic medium added with 13.62 microM thidiazuron and 4.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine. These results show the important role of the genotype in morphogenetic responses and the organogenetic effect of thidiazuron in Arachis villosa accession L97. A thidiazuron lacking media (only 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, 13.95 microM kinetin and 13.32 microM 6-benzylaminopurine were added) promoted the elongation of the regenerated buds. Adventitious rooting was achieved 90 days after the isolated shoots were transferred to a rooting medium containing 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid.

  6. Pentacyclic triterpenoids of Mentha villosa: structural identification and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C resonance assignments; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos de Mentha villosa: identificacao estrutural e atribuicao dos deslocamentos quimicos dos atomos de hidrogenio e carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, Francisco J. Queiroz; Oliveira, Eliete F. de [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2001-08-01

    The structures of seven oleanene and ursene triterpenoids (1-7) isolated from aerial parts of Mentha villosa were identified. In addition, the complete {sup 1} H and {sup 13} C resonance assignments of these triterpenoids were accomplished using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic experiments. (author)

  7. Ocorrência de Commelina villosa como planta daninha em áreas agrícolas no estado do Paraná-PR, Brasil Occurence of Commelina villosa as weed in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Dalva C. Rocha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As trapoerabas pertencem à família Commelinaceae e são plantas daninhas de difícil controle em diferentes regiões do país. No Brasil, a espécie Commelina benghalensis destaca-se como a principal trapoeraba infestante nas culturas de soja, milho, café e citros. Outras duas espécies desse gênero, Commelina diffusa e Commelina erecta, também são conhecidas como infestantes de ocorrência freqüente no território nacional. Commelina villosa está registrada, até o momento, apenas para os Estados da Bahia e Goiás além do Distrito Federal. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar e registrar a ocorrência de C. villosa no Estado do Paraná, onde pode estar sendo confundida com outras trapoerabas, principalmente C. benghalensis. Exemplares de C. villosa e C. benghalensis foram coletados, de forma aleatória, em lavouras de soja, feijão e milho, nos municípios de Ponta Grossa, Tibagi, Piraí do Sul, Guarapuava, Pato Branco, Francisco Beltrão, Cascavel, Campo Mourão e Londrina. Parte desse material foi herborizado para a confecção de exsicatas e outra parte foi mantida in vivo, cultivada no Departamento de Botânica, do Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu-UNESP. Caracteres morfológicos descritivos e quantitativos foram avaliados e as espécies comparadas entre si. C. villosa distinguiu-se de C. benghalensis por apresentar folhas maiores (9,76 x 3,26 cm, elíptica a elípticaestreita, sésseis, de coloração verde escura com manchas violáceas na face inferior, filetes translúcidos, entre outras características. A ocorrência de C. villosa no Paraná foi constatada em todos os municípios amostrados, com exceção de Campo Mourão e Londrina.Commelinaceae are weeds with unsatisfactory control in different parts of the country. Commelina benghalensis is the main Commelinaceae weed in soybean, corn, coffee and orange crops in Brazil. Commelina diffusa and Commelina erecta are also known as common weeds in national

  8. Re-engineering of the Pm21 transfer from Haynaldia villosa to bread wheat by induced homoeologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, the cause of powdery mildew, can generate serious grain yield losses in wheat. To expand the range of resistance genes freely available to wheat breeders, a Haynaldia villosa derived resistance gene Pm21 was transferred to chromosome 6AS of wheat by homoeologous rec...

  9. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae) are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L) Pers (Leguminosae) are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100 μg/mL). Conclusion These results

  10. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L Pers (Leguminosae are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL. Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100

  11. In vitro plant regeneration from Turkish Narbon Vetch (Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... containing peat moss and acclimatized in the greenhouse. Acclimatization was done by covering pots with polyethylene bags to maintain initial humidity for 1 .... Vicia L. In Davis PH (Ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. 3: 274-325. Diallo MS, Ndiaye A, ...

  12. In vitro plant regeneration from Narbon Vetch ( Vicia narbonensis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) is an agriculturally important forage plant that widely grows in an area extending from Central Europe to various parts of Asia. The study reports axillary shoot regeneration from cotyledonary node explants obtained from, in vitro raised seeds of 4 - 5 and 14 - 15 days old seedlings on MS ...

  13. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of vetch ( Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of vetch (Vicia sativa) and some browse and grass species from northern Ethiopia were investigated. Vetch (fresh cut) was sampled in September and vetch hay samples were taken in October both during the early dry period. Samples of the browse and grass species were ...

  14. In vitro plant regeneration from Turkish Narbon Vetch ( Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) is an important forage species among vetches of central Europe, Mediterranean, Near East, Ethiopia, central Asia and India. The study reports in vitro micropropagation of narbon vetch using cotyledon node, shoot tip and zygotic embryo explants on MS medium containing 0.25, 0.50, ...

  15. Environmental impact of sunscreen nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of altered TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites on Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltete, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: as.foltete@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Masfaraud, Jean-Francois, E-mail: masfa@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Nahmani, Johanne, E-mail: Johanne.nahmani@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Chaurand, Perrine, E-mail: chaurand@cerege.fr [Centre Europeen de Recherches et d' Enseignement des Geosciences de l' Environnement (CEREGE), UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Mineral sunscreen nanocomposites, based on a nano-TiO{sub 2} core, coated with aluminium hydroxide and dimethicone films, were submitted to an artificial ageing process. The resulting Altered TiO{sub 2} Nanocomposites (ATN) were then tested in the liquid phase on the plant model Vicia faba, which was exposed 48 h to three nominal concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg ATN/L. Plant growth, photosystem II maximum quantum yield, genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and phytochelatins levels showed no change compared to controls. Oxidative stress biomarkers remained unchanged in shoots while in roots, glutathione reductase activity decreased at 50 mg ATN/L and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased for 5 and 25 mg ATN/L. Nevertheless, despite the weak response of biological endpoints, ICP-MS measurements revealed high Ti and Al concentrations in roots, and X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy revealed titanium internalization in superficial root tissues. Eventual long-term effects on plants may occur. - Highlights: > TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites were artificially aged. > Vicia faba was exposed 48 h to the alteration byproducts in liquid phase. > Few endpoints were modified significantly from control. > A clogging on the roots and titanium penetration in tissues were suspected. > Eventual long-term effects of the particles may occur. - Artificially aged TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites caused few damages to Vicia faba in 48 h exposure, but particles clogged on roots and Ti entered the root tissues.

  16. In vitro activity of Lantana camara, Alpinia zerumbet, Mentha villosa and Tagetes minuta decoctions on Haemonchus contortus eggs and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Iara T F; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; de Oliveira, Lorena M B; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana L F; Morais, Selene M; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Ribeiro, Wesley L C

    2012-12-21

    The resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintics has increased the need to evaluate natural products that can replace or assist current strategies to control gastrointestinal nematodes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of decoctions of Lantana camara (DLc), Alpinia zerumbet (DAz), Mentha villosa (DMv) and Tagetes minuta (DTm) on Haemonchus contortus by two in vitro tests. The effects of increasing concentrations of lyophilized decoctions (0.31 to 10mg/ml) were assessed using the egg hatch test (EHT). The decoctions were then tested in the larval artificial exsheathment assay. H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) were exposed to 0.31 mg/ml A. zerumbet and M. villosa decoctions and 0.62 mg/ml T. minuta and L. camara decoctions for 3h and then exsheathment procedure at 10 min intervals. An inhibitor of tannins, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP), was used to study if tannins were responsible for the inhibitory effect on hatching and exsheathment of larvae. A. zerumbet, M. villosa and T. minuta showed a dose-dependent effect in the EHT, which did not disappear after the addition of PVPP. No effect was observed for L. camara in the EHT. However, the decoctions inhibited the process of larval exsheathment, which may be related to tannin action because the addition of PVPP reversed the inhibitory effect. A. zerumbet, M. villosa and T. minuta decoctions showed inhibitory activity on H. contortus larvae hatching and exsheathing. The decoctions of these plants could be used to control gastrointestinal nematodes following confirmation of their anthelmintic activity in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of faba bean ( Vicia faba L .) yield and quality through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of faba bean ( Vicia faba L .) yield and quality through biotechnological approach: A review. ... yield and quality. This review work examines the role of various techniques with reference to faba bean improvement. Key words: Vicia faba, faba bean, grain quality, resistance breeding, nitrogen fixation, zero tannin.

  18. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  19. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) by withanolides isolated from Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hui; Hu, Zhijuan; Yu, Liyan; Ma, Zhongjun; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the EtOAc extract of the persistent calyx of Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (PA) was tested for its potential quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity with glutathione (GSH) as the substrate using an UPLC-ESI-MS method. The result revealed that the PA had electrophiles that could induce quinone reductase (QR) activity, which might be attributed to the modification of the highly reactive cysteine residues in Keap1. Herein, three new withanolides, compounds 3, 6 and 7, together with four known withanolides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from PA extract. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques, including (1)H-, (13)C NMR (DEPT), and 2D-NMR (HMBC, HMQC, (1)H, (1)H-COSY, NOESY) experiments, as well as by HR-MS. All the seven compounds were tested for their QR induction activities towards mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  1. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por

  2. [Studies on the chemical constitutens of Vicia amoena Fisch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F; Yan, W M

    1997-10-01

    One new flavonoide was isolated from Vicia amoena Fisch. On the basis of spectral (UV, MS, NMR) and chemical reactions, it was elucidated to be kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-mannoside, named amoenin(A3). Moreover, five known compounds have been isolated and identified as quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 7-O-alpha-L-dirhamoside. The total flavonoides showed significant effects on inducing hyperlipidemia and increasing micro-blood vessel elasticity.

  3. Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. nodulates Vicia faba on several continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Álvarez-Martínez, Estela; Peix, Alvaro; Mhamdi, Ridha; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    Several fast-growing strains nodulating Vicia faba in Peru, Spain and Tunisia formed a cluster related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), whereas rpoB, recA and atpD gene sequences were phylogenetically distant, with sequence similarities of less than 96 %, 97 % and 94 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed a mean relatedness value of 43 % between strain FB206(T) and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). Phenotypic characteristics of the novel strains also differed from those of the closest related species of the genus Rhizobium. Therefore, based on genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify this group of strains nodulating Vicia faba as a novel species of the genus Rhizobium named Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. The type strain is FB206(T) ( = LMG 27434(T) = CECT 8280(T)).

  4. Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thúlio. A. Arruda

    Full Text Available Essential oils present antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts, including species resistant to antibiotics and antifungicals. In this context, this work aims at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa Hudson ("hortelã da folha miúda", its major component (rotundifolone and four similar analogues of rotundifolone (limonene oxide, pulegone oxide, carvone epoxide and (+-pulegone against strain standards of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomona aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 and one strain of meticilin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (171c from human clinic. The method of the diffusion in plates with solid medium was used. The results showed that the oil of Mentha x villosa, rotundifolone, limonene oxide and (+-pulegone, are similar regarding the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains of S. aureus and C. albicans. All of the products present antimocrobial potential with antibacterial activity for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and antifungal activity for C. albicans ATCC 76645. None of the products presented antimicrobial activity for the strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, representatives of the Gram negative bacteria.

  5. Mathematical modeling of biological growth for some Vicia faba varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionel, Samfira; Andreea, Ghica; Marius, Boldea; Monica, Butnariu; Marius, Sendroni; Andrei, M.-Kiss

    2013-10-01

    Vicia faba is one of the legume species of importance for human and animal nutrition. Over the past decade, the areas cultivated with this species have significantly increased. Given that the levels of the yield and quality obtained from this species depend largely on the specific soil and climate conditions, the present paper focuses on the study of the morpho-productive features under the conditions in Banat Plain, in the west of Romania. A collection of varieties and genetic lines was studied, with focus on the interdependence between plant height, characteristics of the foliage and in the end the foliar surface of the leaf and of the entire plant. The observations led to the conclusion that variety Melodie has the best response of biological growth on the plain.

  6. Bioassay-Guided Chemical Study of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Senna villosa (Miller H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Leguminosae in TPA-Induced Ear Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana del Carmen Susunaga-Notario

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Senna villosa (Miller is a plant that grows in México. In traditional Mexican medicine, it is used topically to treat skin infections, pustules and eruptions and to heal wounds by scar formation. However, studies of its potential anti-inflammatory effects have not been performed. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts from the leaves of Senna villosa and to perform a bioassay-guided chemical study of the extract with major activity in a model of ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA. The results reveal that the chloroform extract from Senna villosa leaves has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Nine fractions were obtained from the bioassay-guided chemical study, including a white precipitate from fractions 2 and 3. Although none of the nine fractions presented anti-inflammatory activity, the white precipitate exhibited pharmacological activity. It was chemically characterized using mass spectrometry and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, resulting in a mixture of three aliphatic esters, which were identified as the principal constituents: hexyl tetradecanoate (C20H40O2, heptyl tetradecanoate (C21H42O2 and octyl tetradecanoate (C22H44O2. This research provides, for the first time, evidence of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of compounds isolated from Senna villosa.

  7. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...

  8. Evaluation of vetch species and their accessions for agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vicia narbonensis and Vicia sativa were erect, short plant height and early maturing for both forage and seed yields, while Vicia dasycarpa, Vicia villosa and Vicia stropurpurea have creeping growth habit, tall plant height and intermediate to late maturity for forage and seed yields. Taller species gave better forage dry matter ...

  9. Words denoting faba bean (Vicia faba in European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L took part in the 'agricultural revolution' of post-glacial Europe along with other grain legumes and cereals. In order to assess the diversity and the origin of the words denoting faba bean in the languages of Europe, a lexicological study was carried out with emphasis upon etymological dictionaries. The words in almost all modern Indo-European languages in Europe owe their origin to the Proto-Indo-European root *bhabh bhabhā, also denoting faba bean. The Proto-Altaic root *bŭkrV, denoting pea nut and cone, through the Proto-Turkic *burčak, denoting both pea and bean is responsible for the words in several modern Altaic languages of Europe while the others are borrowings from Arabic. The origin of the words in modern Caucasian languages is the Proto-Caucasian root *howł[ā], meaning both bean and lentil. The words in Uralic languages are either borrowings, mostly from Slavic, or derived from their own words denoting pea.

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  11. The digestibility in piglets of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as affected by breeding towards the absence of condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Poel, A F; Dellaert, L M; Van Norel, A; Helsper, J P

    1992-11-01

    Seed samples from two near-isogenic faba bean (Vicia faba L.) lines were examined for the levels of so-called anti-nutritional factors (ANF). From the ANF known to be present in faba beans, trypsin inhibitor activity, functional lectins, condensed tannins and pyrimidine glycosides were analysed. It was concluded that the lines differed only in the content of condensed tannins being 0.05). A multienzyme technique was used to predict the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of the two lines. The IVPD of the LT line was 0.965 and about 0.05 higher than the HT line, confirming the difference in digestibility as measured in vivo. The present study shows the positive effects on digestibility of removal of condensed tannins in faba beans which was achieved by plant breeding.

  12. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Patrinia villosa and its mechanism on the proinflammatory cytokines of rats with pelvic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Jin, Yue; Zhu, Hai-Bin; Xu, Shao-Ting; Xia, Ya-Xian; Huang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Patrinia villosa, a Chinese medicinal plant, and to explore its effects on the proinflammatory cytokines of the rats with pelvic inflammation model. The animals were randomly divided into Patrinia villosa group (PV group), dexamethasone group (DEX group), and model-control group (CON group) to perform an ear edema test, a carrageenin-induced paw edema test, a cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation test, and an acetic acid-induced writhing test. The model rats with pelvic inflammation were established, and the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in each group was detected with the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The results of the ear edema test, carrageenin-induced paw edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation test, and acetic acid-induced writhing test all showed that Patrinia villosa had strong anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. In the experiment using model rats with pelvic inflammation, we found that the serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in PV and DEX group were all significantly lower than those of the CON group, and the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in PV group were significantly lower than those of the DEX group. Patrinia villosa, with its strong anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities, can be used to treat pelvic inflammation and to relieve the associated pain.

  13. Human Disturbance Threats the Red-Listed Macrolichen Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén in Coastal Juniperus Habitats: Evidence From Western Peninsular Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesperi, Renato; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, coastal dune systems with Juniperus spp. (Natura 2000 habitat code 2250) are a priority habitat for conservation according to the Natura 2000 policies. Currently, anthropogenic pressure is threatening the biodiversity of this habitat. While the impact of human pressure on animals and vascular plants is already documented, information is still scanty for other organisms such as epiphytic lichens. The main aim of this study is to test the effect of human disturbance on the occurrence and abundance of the red-listed macrolichen Seirophora villosa. We also tested the effect of human disturbance on the whole community of epiphytic lichens in terms of species richness and composition. The study was performed along the coast of Tuscany by comparing both disturbed and undisturbed Juniperus stands according to a stratified random sampling design. Our results provided evidence that in coastal systems the long-term conservation of the red-listed macrolichen S. villosa and its characteristic community composed by several Mediterranean species of conservation concern depends on the maintenance of undisturbed Juniperus habitats. Results also support the possibility of using S. villosa as an indicator species of habitat conservation importance and habitat integrity since its occurrence is predicted on nestedness in term of species composition, assemblages of species poor disturbed stands being subsets of those of richer undisturbed stands.

  14. Role of bioinoculants in development of salt-tolerance of Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in saline conditions was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense (NFB) and Arbuscular mycorrhizal (Am) fungus Glomus clarum on the host plants (Vicia faba) in pot cultures were investigated ...

  15. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid

  16. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  17. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes in Hyptis villosa Pohl ex Benth. (Lamiaceae and differential labeling of cytoskeletal elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo dos Santos Tozin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lamiaceae contains many species known for their aromatic properties that are produced by the production of essential oils in glandular trichomes. Hyptis is one of the most common genera of Lamiaceae in the Brazilian flora, and includes several species with medicinal value. However, studies on the morphology and functioning of their glandular trichomes are lacking. We analyzed the morphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes in leaves of H. villosa, emphasizing the differential distribution of actin filaments and microtubules in cells secreting hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. Four morphotypes of glandular trichomes were identified. Total lipid, terpenes, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, proteins and polysaccharides were histochemically detected in all morphotyes. This evidences the mixed nature of the secretions of this species, although there are differences in the prevalence of lipophilic and hydrophilic components among the glandular morphotypes and among the cells of the same trichome. The actin microfilaments are more abundant in cells that secrete mainly hydrophilic compounds, and microtubules predominate in cells that secrete lipophilic compounds. Our results corroborate the correlation between the glandular morphotype and the composition of the secretion produced, with a differential distribution of the cytoskeletal elements according to the prevalence of either hydrophilic or lipophilic substances.

  18. Role of cuticular hydrocarbons in the chemical recognition between ant species in the Pachycondyla villosa species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C; Pho, D B; Jallon, J M; Fresneau, D

    2005-10-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (HCs) play important roles in insect communication but few studies clearly demonstrate the direct link between HCs and nestmate recognition. Therefore, cuticular lipids were extracted from ants, their HC and non-HC fractions as well as the three principal classes of HCs (n-alkanes, branched alkanes and alkenes) were purified and tested using an immobilizing "joust" device which allowed quantification of early pairwise behavioural responses, mandibular opening and antennal retraction, without occurrence of subsequent damages as in classic dyadic encounters. Chemical recognition of ants was studied at three levels of interactions (intra-colonial, intra-specific and inter-specific). Three closely related species already chemically characterized were used: Pachycondyla villosa (Pv), P. inversa (Pi) and P. subversa (Ps). Each species had its own behavioural responses. Moreover, responses of Pi and Ps towards Pv were significantly longer, than they were between themselves whereas Pv ants were equally aggressive towards Pi and Ps. These differences are in agreement with the results of the cluster analysis of the cuticular HCs profiles that place Pi closer to Ps. In support of the idea that components of cuticular lipids profiles are important for recognition, we found that only the HC fraction and its branched subfraction elicited a behavioural response of Ps workers. It is suggested that internally branched methyl- and dimethylalkanes are involved in recognition behaviour.

  19. Ultramorphology and histochemistry of fat body cells from last instar larval of the Pachycondyla (=Neoponera) villosa (Fabricius) (Formicidae: Ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, F J; Caetano, F H

    2004-08-01

    The fat body cells of Pachycondyla (=Neoponera) villosa are disposed in a single layer between the cuticle and the digestive tract, forming a group of cells enclosed by a thin membrane. Histological studies have revealed three different cellular types: trophocyte (more abundant), urate, (located among the trophocytes), and oenocyte (the scarcest), usually observed laying near the cuticle. Histochemically, the trophocytes showed a positive reaction for basic proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm, as well as a strong positive reaction in the cytoplasmic granules. The test for carbohydrates showed a strong positive reaction throughout the cytoplasm, while the test for lipids was positive for the cytoplasmic vesicles. The urate cells showed a positive reaction for basic proteins in the nucleus and in the areas of the cytoplasm surrounding the vesicles. These cells did not react to the PAS test or to Sudan Black B. The oenocytes showed a weak positive reaction to PAS and a strong positive reaction to Sudan Black B and Mercuric-bromophenol Blue.

  20. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.); conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Jordan, Megan; Hane, James; Torres, Anna M; Avila, Carmen M; Cruz-Izquierdo, Serafín; Oliver, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    ... identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba...

  1. Overexpression of ERF1-V from Haynaldia villosa Can Enhance the Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew and Increase the Tolerance to Salt and Drought Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The APETALA 2/Ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family is widely involved in the biotic and abiotic stress regulation. Haynaldia villosa (VV, 2n = 14, a wild species of wheat, is a potential gene pool for wheat improvement. H. villosa confers high resistance to several wheat diseases and high tolerance to some abiotic stress. In this study, ERF1-V, an ethylene-responsive element-binding factor gene of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family from wild H. villosa, was cloned and characterized. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that ERF1-V is a deduced B2 type ERF gene. ERF1-V was first identified as a Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt up-regulated gene, and later found to be induced by drought, salt and cold stresses. In responses to hormones, ERF1-V was up-regulated by ethylene and abscisic acid, but down-regulated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Over expression of ERF1-V in wheat could improve resistance to powdery mildew, salt and drought stress. Chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity were significantly differences between the recipient Yangmai158 and the transgenic plants following salt treatment. Furthermore, the expression levels of some stress responsive genes were differences after drought or salt treatments. Although ERF1-V was activated by the constitutive promoter, the agronomic traits, including flowering time, plant height, effective tiller number, spikelet number per spike and grain size, did not changed significantly. ERF1-V is a valuable gene for wheat improvement by genetic engineering.

  2. Chlorella induces stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and its effects on instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels.

  3. Synergistic interaction of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a plant growth promoting biofertilizers for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Nafady, Nivien Allam; Khalaf, David Mamdouh; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2014-01-20

    Egyptian soils are generally characterized by slightly alkaline to alkaline pH values (7.5-8.7) which are mainly due to its dry environment. In arid and semi-arid regions, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. Alkaline soils have fertility problems due to poor physical properties which adversely affect the growth and the yield of crops. Therefore, this study was devoted to investigating the synergistic interaction of Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for improving growth of faba bean grown in alkaline soil. A total of 20 rhizobial isolates and 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were isolated. The rhizobial isolates were investigated for their ability to grow under alkaline stress. Out of 20 isolates 3 isolates were selected as tolerant isolates. These 3 rhizobial isolates were identified on the bases of the sequences of the gene encoding 16S rRNA and designated as Rhizobium sp. Egypt 16 (HM622137), Rhizobium sp. Egypt 27 (HM622138) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The best alkaline tolerant was R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The effect of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 and mixture of AMF (Acaulospora laevis, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae and Scutellospora armeniaca) both individually and in combination on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth of Vicia faba under alkalinity stress were assessed. A significant increase over control in number and mass of nodules, nitrogenase activity, leghaemoglobin content of nodule, mycorrhizal colonization, dry mass of root and shoot was recorded in dual inoculated plants than plants with individual inoculation. The enhancement of nitrogen fixation of faba bean could be attributed to AMF facilitating the mobilization of certain elements such as P, Fe, K and other minerals that involve in synthesis of nitrogenase and leghaemoglobin. Thus it is

  4. Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in Vicia faba by arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Hernández-García, A; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1988-07-01

    Arsenic-contaminated drinking water from various towns of Comarca Lagunera, Coahuila, Mexico, was tested for its ability to induce sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba. 3-h treatments were applied and the differential staining technique of Tempelaar et al. (1982) was used. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed that the arsenic concentration in drinking water was 0.11-0.695 ppm, well over the maximum limit of 0.05 ppm (EPA, 1984). In all cases the SCE frequencies were significantly different from the controls. Some concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm) of sodium arsenate (V) and potassium arsenite (III) were also applied to Vicia faba and all produced significant SCE frequencies, except 0.2 ppm of sodium arsenate.

  5. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembdner, G.; Dathe, W.; Bergner, C.; Roensch, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1983-01-01

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA/sub 3/-stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed.

  6. Leaf traits associated with drought adaptation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaei, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The potential for use of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is increasing worldwide due to its positive environmental impact and nutritional interest, but there are many challenges for faba bean breeding and cultivation. These include its mixed breeding system, its unknown origin and wild progenitor, its large genome being the biggest diploid genome among field crops, and its relative sensitivity to biotic and abiotic stresses (e.g., drought). Little is known about the ecological adaptation of faba be...

  7. Combination of different methods for direct control of Vicia hirsuta in winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Lukashyk, P.; Köpke, U.

    2005-01-01

    Combinations of three different direct methods for controlling Vicia hirsuta (kainite application, flame weeding and harrowing) were investigated in field experiments. They were based on different strategies at early growth stages of V. hirsuta and standardised harrowing at late growth stages. The highest efficacy of kainite application and flame weeding was achieved at the one leaf stage of V. hirsuta. Winter wheat regeneration from damage caused by both kainite and thermal control was satis...

  8. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  9. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  10. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Correia Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais com potencial terapêutico tem motivado a realização de estudos através de ensaios experimentais que visam fornecer informações úteis e de extrema importância. Assim o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies de Coleus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco, cepas bacterianas padronizadas Gram negativas Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e ATCC 35218, cepas Gram positivas Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 e S. aureus ATCC 27853, assim como fungos padrões de Cryptococcus neoformans (pertencentes à coleção de microrganismos do CESMAC. Como controle positivo foi usado o imipenem e fluconazol e como controle negativo um disco com etanol absoluto. A determinação do potencial antioxidante foi realizada utilizando os métodos DPPH, FTC e determinação de compostos fenólicos. Os extratos etanólicos de C. amboinicus e M. x villosa apresentaram excelentes resultados tanto relacionado à atividade antimicrobiana quanto à antioxidante. Nossos resultados mostram a potencialidade das plantas analisadas na prevenção e no combate de doenças.

  11. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Flowering and characteristics of useful traits of some faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz cultivars and breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Łabuda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted during the period 2008–2009, related to the growth, flowering, pod set, and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major cultivars and breeding lines. Biometric measurements, made on 20 randomly selected plants, included the following traits: plant height, number of branches per plant, number of inflorescences per plant and number of flowers per inflorescence, number of pods per plant: large pods (marketable, small pods (undeveloped, and pods with disease symptoms. Moreover, the following characters were determined: pod and seed weight per plant in faba bean plants harvested once at processing maturity of fresh green seeds, pod length, width and weight as well as single seed weight. The evaluated cultivars and breeding lines of faba bean were characterized by large variations in the most important commercial traits. The abundance and duration of flowering as well as the number and weight of pods per plant were clearly modified by weather factors during the growth of plants. The new breeding lines R-366/1 and R-384 as well as the cultivars 'Bachus' and 'Jankiel Biały' were characterized by quite stable pod and seed yield per plant. Single harvesting of faba bean pods for green seeds at green maturity stage produced positive results in the case of all cultivars and breeding lines investigated; marketable pods per plant accounted for 75–80% of the total number of pods.

  14. The Kok effect in Vicia faba cannot be explained solely by changes in chloroplastic CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Vice, Heather; Adams, Mark A

    2017-08-31

    The Kok effect - an abrupt decline in quantum yield (QY) of net CO2 assimilation at low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) - is widely used to estimate respiration in the light (R), which assumes the effect is caused by light suppression of R. A recent report suggested much of the Kok effect can be explained by declining chloroplastic CO2 concentration (cc ) at low PPFD. Several predictions arise from the hypothesis that the Kok effect is caused by declining cc , and we tested these predictions in Vicia faba. We measured CO2 exchange at low PPFD, in 2% and 21% oxygen, in developing and mature leaves, which differed greatly in R in darkness. Our results contradicted each of the predictions based on the cc effect: QY exceeded the theoretical maximum value for photosynthetic CO2 uptake; QY was larger in 21% than 2% oxygen; and the change in QY at the Kok effect breakpoint was unaffected by oxygen. Our results strongly suggest the Kok effect arises largely from a progressive decline in R with PPFD that includes both oxygen-sensitive and -insensitive components. We suggest an improved Kok method that accounts for high cc at low PPFD. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Stem anatomy of annual legume intercropping components: white lupin (Lupinus albus L., narbonne (Vicia narbonensis L. and common (Vicia sativa L. vetches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Zoric

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on stem anatomy of both supporting (Lupinus albus and supported (Vicia narbonnensis and V. sativa annual forage legumes was investigated using stereological method. Intercropped plants showed minimal differences in volume densities (Vv of stem tissues and forage chemical composition compared to sole crops. The proportions of lignin and NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber positively correlated with xylem Vv. The proportions of ADF (Acid Detergent Fiber, cellulose and ash in intercropped plants were increased or decreased mostly by less than 10% compared to those in pure stands. The Anatomical Equivalent Ratio (AER defined as the ratio based on anatomical quality-determining parameters, can assist in the evaluation of the benefits of specific intercropping systems. Intercropping of the legume species studied in this work, especially L. albus with V. sativa, showed encouraging results from anatomical perspective since it would not cause a decline of forage quality.

  16. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  17. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krehenbrink Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP, a twin-arginine translocase (TAT secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to

  18. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenbrink, Martin; Downie, J Allan

    2008-01-29

    Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP), a twin-arginine translocase (TAT) secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP) were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I) and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V) is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I) system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to the genes encoding the secretion system itself.

  19. Influence of salicylic acid on seed germination of Vicia faba L. under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Anaya; Rachid Fghire; Said Wahbi; Kenza Loutfi

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination is the critical stage for species survival. Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as broad bean. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination and influence of salicylic acid on seed in order to improving salt tolerant on broad bean. Vicia faba L. is an important pulse crop in the Mediterranean region. In many cases broad bean is grown on saline soils where growth and yield are limited...

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean (Vicia faba) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Göl, Şurhan; DOĞANLAR, Sami; FRARY, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important food and feed legume because of the nutritional value of its seed protein and starch content, good biomass, and high efficiency nitrogen fixation.This study analyzed the molecular genetic diversity and population structure of 101 Turkish faba bean accessions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers.A total of 32 SSR markers yielded 281 loci of which 277 (98.6%) were polymorphic.Mean dissimilarity between genotypes was 0.355, a relatively high value ...

  1. Photosynthesis by Guard Cell Chloroplasts of Vicia faba L. : Effects of Factors Associated with Stomatal Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Weihua, WU; Sarah M., ASSMANN; The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University:(Current)Biology Department, Pennsylvania State University

    1993-01-01

    The properties of photosynthetic O_2 evolution by mesophyll cell chloroplasts (MCC) and guard cell chloroplasts (GCC) isolated from protoplasts of Vicia faba L. have been studied and effects on O_2 evolution of factors known to regulate stomatal movements have been compared. The O_2 evolution of GCC was CO_2-dependent. The saturating light intensity for O_2 evolution was between 150 and 200 μmol m^ s^ for MCC and was between 400 and 1,000μmol m^ s^ for GCC. Light quality (red vs. blue) had no...

  2. DmeRF system is required for nickel and cobalt resistance in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Sanz, Laura; Prieto Carbajo, Rosa Isabel; Palacios Alberti, Jose Manuel; Brito Lopez, Maria Belen

    2013-01-01

    A member of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) family with high sequence similarity to DmeF (Divalent metal efflux) from Cupridavirus metallidurans was identified in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM1137. The R. leguminosarum dmeF mutant strain was highly sensitive to Co2+ and moderately sensitive to Ni2+, but its tolerance to other metals such as Zn2+, Cu2+ or Mn2+ was unaffected. An open reading frame located upstream of R. leguminosarum dmeF, designated dmeR, encodes a protein hom...

  3. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Martyniuk; Monika Kozieł; Anna Gałązka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv) in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv) i...

  4. Survey the Effect of Oil Pollution on Morphological Characteristics in Faba Vulgaris and Vicia Ervilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lorestani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollution results when a change in the environment harmfully affects the quality of human life including effect on animals, microorganisms and plants. Among the broad range of organic pollutants contaminating soil-water environment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great environment concern. Oil contaminated soil will affect germination, plant height, leaf area and biomass production. The aim of this research was to elucidate effects of oil pollution on morphological characteristics in Fabaceae family. For this purpose species of Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia were planted in different concentrations of oil in soil. For morphological studies, studied species were removed from polluted and non polluted soils separately and some morphological characters were studied in these species, then these characters were compared in plants, collected from polluted and non polluted soil. Finally, the level of significance of these differences was elucidated by using of SPSS. Obtained results showed that oil pollution can cause some abnormalities in structure of vegetative parts in plants grown on polluted soils. Decreasing of plant length and stem diameter and changing the leaf shape was among the most important effects of oil on morphological characteristics in Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia.

  5. [Effect of soil compaction on Vicia faba of growth in the Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Zhibiao; Zhao, Hongyang; Nie, Bin

    2002-08-01

    The effect of soil compaction on the growth of Vicia faba was studied by pot experiment, field plot experiment, and farmers' field production during two consecutive years. The results showed that increasing soil bulk density at 0-7 cm depth significantly decreased the root and shoot dry weight per plant, increased plant mortality caused by Fusarium species, and decreased seed yields. Field experiments indicated that compared to the plants grown on the plots with soil bulk density of 1.55 and 1.64 g.cm-3, the root and shoot dry weight of plants grown on the plots with soil bulk density of 1.84 g.cm-3 decreased by 30.8% and 27.9%, respectively, while the plant mortality rate increased by 21.0-48.7%, and seed yields decreased by 19.8%. The trials conducted on eight farmers' land illustrated that there existed significant negative correlations between soil bulk density in Spring and root and shoot dry weight of Vicia faba seedlings, and between soil bulk density in Autumn and seed yields. The causes of high soil compaction were discussed, and suggestions for improving soil quality were presented.

  6. PHARMACOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON ‘SHVET SHARPUNKHA’ – A COMPARATIVE DIAGNOSTIC ACCOUNT OF TEPHROSIA VILLOSA PERS. AND T. PURPUREA (LINN.) PERS. FORM ALBIFLORA S. R. PAUL et. R. C. GUPTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of ‘shapunkha’, the ‘Shvet’ (white) and ‘Rakta’ (red) are described in some of the Ayurvedic texts and the former is reported therapeutically more effective. Some of the Ayurvedic physicians use T. villosa Pers. as ‘Shvet sharpunkha’ due to its persistently villous silky white parts. While others have advocated white colour of flowers as main feature for distinguishing “Shvet sharpunkha’. A white flowered form of Tephrosia purpurea which is found in association with red or purple flowered ones is reported by us as T. purpurea (Linn.) Pers. Form albiflora S. R. Paul et R. C. Gupta. In the present work, however, detailed comparative pharmacognosy of all vegetable parts of T. villosa and T. purpurea f. albiflora have been carried out. Also the study reveals that two species exhibit great similarity in their macro – an microscopical feature. PMID:22557616

  7. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Zahoor A.; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2013-07-01

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed "graphene oxide") are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop—faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L-1) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 μm) and evaluates glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L-1), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L-1) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes.

  8. Changes Germination, Growth and Anatomy Vicia ervilia in Response to Light Crude Oil Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Lorestani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thepetroleum concentrations are contaminant important sources in the environment. Hydrocarbon’s contaminants depend on their type and concentration can cause variable toxicity in soils, on the other hand, different kinds of plants also response concentration of contaminant differently, because of the diversity of physiological and morphological characteristics. In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil was investigated on stem length, germination and anatomical of Vicia ervilia. A factorial experiment was used with a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. The results showed that the germination and stem lengths decreased significantly (p≤ 0.05 with increasing concentrations of petroleum. Anatomical studies the changes of parenchyma, vascular bundles, epidermal and increase crack showed.

  9. Vicia faba Hypersensitivity and ASA Intolerance in a Farmer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Damiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The IgE-mediated allergic reactions to food are caused, generally, by ingestion. However, they can be rarely induced by exposure to airborne food particles through the handling or the cooking. Vicia faba is a vegetable which belongs to Legumes or Fabaceae family, Fabales order. Allergic reactions after ingestion of legumes and cases of asthma after exposure to the cooking vapors have been reported in the literature. A paper assessed the volatile substances (insect repellents released by V. faba. The authors demonstrated that this plant produces several chemical substances, such as small quantities of methyl salicylate. We describe a case of occupational allergy, induced by handling during picking up of fresh broad beans, in a farmer with history of adverse reaction after eating the cooked and raw vegetable.

  10. Influência do cultivo em consórcio na produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.) Influence of intercropping on phytomass and essential oil production in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and mint (Mentha x villosa Huds.)

    OpenAIRE

    J.T.L.S. Maia; E.R. Martins; C.A. Costa; E.O.F. Ferraz; I.C.A. Alvarenga; I.T. Souza Júnior; S.V. Valadares

    2009-01-01

    As plantas medicinais produzem seus princípios ativos de acordo com os estímulos do ambiente, por isso a presença de outras plantas pode comprometer a produção dos metabólicos secundários. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do cultivo consorciado sobre a produção de fitomassa e o teor de óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.). O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da Universida...

  11. Avaliação de substratos orgânicos na produção de mudas de hortelã (Mentha gracilis R. Br. e Mentha x villosa Huds. Evaluation of organic substrates on mint (Mentha gracilis R. Br. and Mentha x villosa Huds. seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Paulus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A determinação de substratos alternativos viáveis para a produção de mudas de plantas medicinais é de grande relevância, pois o aproveitamento de resíduos de atividades agrícolas representa alternativa para problemas ambientais e sociais. Os experimentos foram realizados em ambiente protegido e a campo, na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos, com o objetivo de avaliar substratos orgânicos para produção de mudas de hortelã para cultivo a campo. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial, sendo avaliados quatro substratos [esterco bovino + vermiculita + areia (1:1:1, esterco bovino + areia + solo (1:1:1, solo + vermiculita + cama-de-aviário (1:1:1 e substrato organo-mineral Plantmax® HA] e duas espécies de menta (Mentha gracilis e Mentha x villosa. Foram analisadas a altura da plantas e o número de folhas aos 07, 14 e 21 dias após o transplantio, índice de mortalidade, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e das raízes. Não houve interação entre as espécies de menta e substratos para as variáveis analisadas. O substrato organo-mineral Plantmax® apresentou os melhores resultados para o número de folhas (8,44, altura (8,46 cm, produção de massa fresca (1,56 g planta-1, seca (0,23 g planta-1 e 100% de pegamento de mudas a campo o que para o produtor de menta é de grande interesse. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que para a produção de mudas de Mentha gracilis e Mentha villosa o substrato Plantmax® HA é o mais recomendado.The determination of viable alternative substrates is of great importance for the production of medicinal seedlings since the use of residues from agricultural activities represents an alternative to solve environmental and social problems. The experiments were carried out in protected environment and in the field, located in the Federal Technological University of Paraná, Dois Vizinhos Campus, Paran

  12. Vicia Faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate symbiotic characteristics between the crop and the rhizobia in major faba bean producing areas in Tigray ... Nodulation status of the field crops was poor except Ofla, D/Temben and Alaje districts. Though the ..... acknowledge Solomon Hishe and Biadglegn Desmisse for GIS data processing. 6. REFERENCE.

  13. vicia faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The failure of faba bean production in some regions of Semien. Shewa necessitated a research for a ... ppm) and potassium, a high concentration of calcium and magnesium, and a lower population density of .... Magnesium sulphate, 0.5g; Sodium chloride, 0.2g; Yeast extract, 0.1g;. Mannitol, 10g; Agar, 15.

  14. Vicia Faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the color of nodules (pink which is effective, white which is ineffective in nitrogen fixation). The variation in nodule number and color in turn induce variation in growth and yield of the host due to variation in fixed N (Lupwayi and Mkandawire, 1996; Amijee and Giller, 1998). Faba bean in association with rhizobia can fix up to ...

  15. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of fulvic acids on lead-induced oxidative stress to metal sensitive Vicia faba L. plant

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad; Dumat, Camille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant capable to induce various morphological, physiological, and biochemical functions in plants. Only few publications focus on the influence of Pb speciation both on its phytoavailability and phytotoxicity. Therefore, Pb toxicity (in terms of lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide induction, and photosynthetic pigments contents) was studied in Vicia faba plants in relation with Pb uptake and speciation. V. faba seedlings we...

  17. Soil genotoxicity assessment--results of an interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay in the context of ISO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelle, Sylvie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Muller, Serge; Chenon, Pascale; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Maritxu; Pinelli, Eric; Giorgetti, Lucia; Barbafieri, Meri; Silva, Valéria C; Engel, Fernanda; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-01-01

    The Vicia micronucleus assay was standardized in an international protocol, ISO 29200, "Assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants-Vicia faba micronucleus test," for soil or soil materials (e.g., compost, sludge, sediment, waste, and fertilizing materials). The aim of this interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay was to investigate the robustness of this in vivo assay in terms of its applicability in different countries where each participant were asked to use their own seeds and reference soil, in agreement with the ISO 29200 standard. The ISO 29200 standard protocol was adopted for this study, and seven laboratories from three countries (France, Italy, and Brazil) participated in the study. Negative and positive controls were correctly evaluated by 100 % of the participants. In the solid-phase test, the micronucleus frequency (number of micronuclei/1,000 cells) varied from 0.0 to 1.8 for the negative control (i.e., Hoagland's solution) and from 5.8 to 85.7 for the positive control (i.e., maleic hydrazide), while these values varied from 0.0 to 1.7 for the negative control and from 14.3 to 97.7 for the positive control in the case of liquid-phase test. The variability in the data obtained does not adversely affect the robustness of the protocol assessed, on the condition that the methodology described in the standard ISO 29200 is strictly respected. Thus, the Vicia micronucleus test (ISO 29200) is appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests cited in legislation related to risk assessment of genotoxicity potential.

  18. Coatings comprising chitosan and Mentha piperita L. or Mentha × villosa Huds essential oils to prevent common postharvest mold infections and maintain the quality of cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ingrid Conceição Dantas; de Oliveira, Priscila Dinah Lima; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-02

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of coatings comprising shrimp chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. (MPEO) or Mentha × villosa Huds (MVEO) essential oils to control mold infections caused by Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer in cherry tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during storage at room temperature (25°C for 12 days) and low temperature (12°C for 24 days). The effects of the coatings on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cherry tomato fruits during storage were also assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CHI against all test fungi was 8 mg/mL, whereas the MIC for both MPEO and MVEO was 5 μL/mL. Combinations of CHI at 4 mg/mL and MPEO or MVEO at 2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of target fungi. The coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO at the different tested concentrations delayed the growth of decay-causing fungi in artificially contaminated tomato fruit during storage at either room temperature or low temperature. The assayed coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage, in terms of physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results indicate that coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO represent promising postharvest treatments to prevent common postharvest mold infections in cherry tomato fruit during storage without affecting the quality of the fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular characterisation of the broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew conferred by the Stpk-V gene from the wild species Haynaldia villosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, C; Cui, C; Wang, X; Zhou, C; Hu, P; Li, M; Li, R; Xiao, J; Wang, X; Chen, P; Xing, L; Cao, A

    2017-11-01

    A key member of the Pm21 resistance gene locus, Stpk-V, derived from Haynaldia villosa, was shown to confer broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew. The present study was planned to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V. Transcriptome analysis was performed in Stpk-V transgenic plants and recipient Yangmai158 upon Bgt infection, and detailed histochemical observations were conducted. Chromosome location of Stpk-V orthologous genes in Triticeae species was conducted for evolutionary study and over-expression of Stpk-V both in barley and Arabidopsis was performed for functional study. The transcriptome results indicate, at the early infection stage, the ROS pathway, JA pathway and some PR proteins associated with the SA pathway were activated in both the resistant Stpk-V transgenic plants and susceptible Yangmai158. However, at the later infection stage, the genes up-regulated at the early stage were continuously held only in the transgenic plants, and a large number of new genes were also activated in the transgenic plants but not in Yangmai158. Results indicate that sustained activation of the early response genes combined with later-activated genes mediated by Stpk-V is critical for resistance in Stpk-V transgenic plants. Stpk-V orthologous genes in the representative grass species are all located on homologous group six chromosomes, indicating that Stpk-V is an ancient gene in the grasses. Over-expression of Stpk-V enhanced host resistance to powdery mildew in barley but not in Arabidopsis. Our results enable a better understanding of the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V, and establish a solid foundation for its use in cereal breeding as a gene resource. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Influence de l'environnement pre-imaginal et precoce dans le choix du site de nidification de Pachycondyla (=Neoponera) villosa (Fabr.) (formicidae, ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, A

    1990-06-01

    In the Biosphera Reserve of Sian Ka'an, State of Quintana Roo in Mexico, it was observed that Pachycondyla villosa nest almost exclusively in Bromeliad epiphytes Aechmea bracteata. It is possible that winged females seek this plant to build their society. From this fact two hypothesis may be formulated. Two lots comprising workers and winged females were tested. In each case, the lot controlled comprised of individuals found in nature (societies settled on Aechmea). The tested lots were produced and bred in laboratory. The first lot was put in contact with a piece of Schomburgkia tibicinis, the second lot had no contact with a plant. At the time of the experiment, each lot was faced with a choice between two tubes. One contained a piece of Aechmea, the other was empty (1st series of tests), or contained a piece of Schomburgkia (2nd series of tests). The first series of tests permits to show that controls (individuals that have contact with Aechmea in nature) settle in tubes containing a piece of Aechmea whereas individuals from the other two lots settle indiscriminately in either of the tubes. The second series of tests permits to show that controls also settle in the tube containing Aechmea, that individuals raised in contact with Schomburgkia choose the tube containing this plant and that individuals raised in the absence of plant contact settle indiscriminately in either of the tubes. The influence of the original environmental influence on individuals in the choice between two types of tubes is thus demonstrated. This influence is due to an imprinting during larval life, and strenghened at the beginning of imago life. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Potencial alelopático de extratos aquosos de Melissa officinalis L. e Mentha x villosa L. na germinação e vigor de sementes de Plantago major L. Allelopathic effect of extracts of Melissa officinallis L. and Mentha x villosa L. on seed germination and vigor of Plantago major L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.G. Bonfim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquosos de hortelã e melissa na germinação e vigor de sementes de tanchagem. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, no mês de abril de 2011. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (testemunha, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100 % do extrato aquoso de hortelã e melissa e quatro repetições. Os extratos foram preparados utilizando a parte aérea das plantas, na proporção de 100g de planta para 1 L de água destilada. Foram utilizadas 50 sementes de tanchagem em cada caixa gerbox, previamente umedecido com os extratos aquosos (correspondentes aos tratamentos, estas foram levadas para germinar em câmara de germinação, em temperatura de 20°C, fotoperíodo de 16 horas luz e 8 horas escuro, por 14 dias. Durante esse tempo foram feitas às contagens diárias das sementes germinadas para calcular o índice de velocidade de germinação e ao final dos 14 dias foi calculada a porcentagem de germinação. Sementes de tanchagem não submetidas aos extratos aquosos de melissa e hortelã apresentaram-se mais vigorosas quando comparado com as concentrações, evidenciando o potencial alelopático de melissa e hortelã sobre a sua qualidade fisiológica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of Melissa officinallis and Mentha x villosa for the germination and vigor of Plantago major seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Plant Science Department, Federal University of Viçosa, in April 2011. The design was a completely randomized design with five treatments (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the aqueous extract of Mentha x villosa and Melissa Officinallis and four replications. The extracts were prepared utulizando the shoots of plants at the rate of 100g of plant to 1 L of distilled water. We used 50 Plantago major seeds in each box incubator and these were subsequently placed in a

  2. Taxonomic relationships in some Vicia species from Egypt, based on seed morphology and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.19345

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadry Nabeh Abdel Khalik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The seed morphology and seed proteins of 11 Vicia taxa from Egypt were studied. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including seed shape, color, size, hilum shape and seed sculpture were described and analyzed. The secondary sculpture of the cell wall varies from papillose in nearly all Vicia species to lophate in V. hirsuta. Further, the seed proteins of studied taxa were investigated by SDS-PAGE and 39 different bands were scored. The similarity analysis based on the SDS-PAGE profile and seed morphology was found to be a useful characteristic for the discrimination of Vicia species both on the subgeneric and the sectional levels. The present study did not acknowledge V. tetrasperma and V. hirsuta as subgenus Ervum. As a result, division of Vicia into two subgenera i.e. Vicia and Cracca, is supported.

  3. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

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    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  4. Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers in Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments, of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding.

  5. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem.

  6. Metabolic responses in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa exposed to the imazamox herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garijo, A; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C; Palma, F

    2014-05-01

    Alterations on growth, amino acids metabolism and some antioxidant enzyme activities as result of imazamox treatment were examined in determinate and indeterminate nodules, formed by Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa, respectively. Young seedlings of both legumes were inoculated with their respective microsymbionts and grown under controlled conditions. At vegetative growth, plants were treated with imazamox (250μM) in the nutrient solution and harvested 7days after. Imazamox was mainly accumulated in V. sativa where concentrations were more than six fold higher than those detected in P. vulgaris. Nodule dry weight and total nitrogen content were reduced by the herbicide treatment: the highest decrease of nodule biomass (50%) and nitrogen content (40%) were registered in V. sativa and P. vulgaris, respectively. The concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) did not change in neither determinate nor indeterminate nodules even though the acetohydroxyacid synthase activity decreased in root and nodules of both symbioses with the herbicide application. Based on this last result and taking into account that total free amino acids increased in roots but not in nodules of common vetch, a possible BCAA translocation from root to nodule could occur. Our results suggest that the maintenance of BCAA balance in nodule become a priority for the plant in such conditions. The involvement of activities glutathione-S-transferase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the response of the symbioses to imazamox are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. N-(jasmonoyl)tyrosine-derived compounds from flowers of broad beans (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramell, Robert; Schmidt, Jürgen; Herrmann, Gabriele; Schliemann, Willibald

    2005-09-01

    Two new amide-linked conjugates of jasmonic acid, N-[(3R,7R)-(-)-jasmonoyl]-(S)-dopa (3) and N-[(3R,7R)-(-)-jasmonoyl]-dopamine (5), were isolated in addition to the known compound N-[(3R,7R)-(-)-jasmonoyl]-(S)-tyrosine (2) from the methanolic extract of flowers of broad bean (Vicia faba). Their structures were proposed on the basis of spectroscopic data (LC-MS/MS) and chromatographic properties on reversed and chiral phases and confirmed by partial syntheses. Furthermore, tyrosine conjugates of two cucurbic acid isomers (7, 8) were detected and characterized by LC-MS. Crude enzyme preparations from flowers of V. faba hydroxylated both (+/-)-2 and N-[(3R,7R/3S,7S)-(-)-jasmonoyl]tyramine [(+/-)-4] to (+/-)-3 and (+/-)-5, respectively, suggesting a possible biosynthetic relationship. In addition, a commercial tyrosinase (mushroom) and a tyrosinase-containing extract from hairy roots of red beet exhibited the same catalytic properties, but with different substrate specificities. The conjugates (+/-)-2, (+/-)-3, (+/-)-4, and (+/-)-5 exhibited in a bioassay low activity to elicit alkaloid formation in comparison to free (+/-)-jasmonic acid [(+/-)-1].

  8. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

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    Stefan Martyniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv in the solid-carrier inoculant. In a pot experiment the highest number of nodules was detected on roots of pea plants inoculated with the dual-culture inoculant containing Rlv and A. chroococcum, slightly lower numbers on pea roots inoculated with the mono-culture inoculum of Rlv and almost no nodules were found on the roots of pea un-inoculated (control treatment with the bacteria. In the micro-plot experiment conducted in the years 2011–2012 pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds with the mono-culture inoculant of Rlv or with the mixed inoculant of Rlv and A. chroococcum slightly increased nodule numbers/plant, pod numbers/plant and seed numbers/pod, as compared to the un-inoculated control, but these differences were not reflected in pea seed yields/m2, which were similar in all treatments.

  9. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Portuguese Cultivated Vicia faba L. through IRAP Markers

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    Diana Tomás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean have been grown in Portugal for a long time and locally adapted populations are still maintained on farm. The genetic diversity of four Portuguese faba bean populations that are still cultivated in some regions of the country was evaluated using the Inter Retrotransposons Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP technique. It was shown that molecular markers based on retrotransposons previously identified in other species can be efficiently used in the genetic variability assessment of Vicia faba. The IRAP experiment targeting Athila yielded the most informative banding patterns. Cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining algorithm generated a dendrogram that clearly shows the distribution pattern of V. faba samples. The four equina accessions are separated from each other and form two distinct clades while the two major faba bean accessions are not unequivocally separated by the IRAP. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis of sequences amplified by IRAP Athila revealed a wide distribution throughout V. faba chromosomes, confirming the whole-genome coverage of this molecular marker. Morphological characteristics were also assessed through cluster analysis of seed characters using the unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA, showing a clear discrimination between faba bean major and equina groups. It was also found that the seed character most relevant to distinguish accessions was 100 seed weight. Seed morphological traits and IRAP evaluation give similar results supporting the potential of IRAP analysis for genetic diversity studies.

  10. Molecular tools for utilization of mitochondrial diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba

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    Aleksić Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed in silico PCR analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial (mtDNA genome sequences of faba bean (Vicia faba and two related species, Vigna angularis and Vigna radiata, currently available in GenBank, to infer whether 15 published universal primer pairs for amplification of all 14 cis-spliced introns in genes of NADH subunits (nad genes are suitable for V. faba and related species. Then, we tested via PCR reactions whether seven out of 15 primer pairs would generate PCR products suitable for further manipulation in 16 genotypes of V. faba representing all botanical varieties of this species (major, minor, equina and subsp. paucijuga of various levels of improvement (traditional and improved cultivars originating from Europe, Africa, Asia and south America. We provide new PCR primers for amplification of nad1 intron 2/3 in V. faba, and demonstrate intraspecific variability in primary nucleotide sequences at this locus. Based on outcomes of both in silico predictions and PCR amplification, we report a set of PCR primers for amplification of five introns in nad genes that are promising molecular tools for future phylogeographic and other studies in this species for which unambiguous data on wild ancestors, centre of origin and domestication are lacking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005

  11. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanapandian, T; Geilfus, C-M; Mühling, K-H; Novák, O; Gloser, V

    2017-02-01

    Changes in pH of the apoplast have recently been discussed as an important factor in adjusting transpiration and water relations under conditions of drought via modulatory effect on abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Using Vicia faba L., we investigated whether changes in the root, shoot and leaf apoplastic pH correlated with (1) a drought-induced reduction in transpiration and with (2) changes in ABA concentration. Transpiration, leaf water potential and ABA in leaves were measured and correlated with root and shoot xylem pH, determined by a pH microelectrode, and pH of leaf apoplast quantified by microscopy-based in vivo ratiometric analysis. Results revealed that a reduction in transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying could not be linked with changes in the apoplastic pH via effects on the stomata-regulating hormone ABA. Moreover, drought-induced increase in pH of xylem or leaf apoplast was not the remote effect of an acropetal transport of alkaline sap from root, because root xylem acidified during progressive soil drying, whereas the shoot apoplast alkalized. We reason that other, yet unknown signalling mechanism was responsible for reduction of transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contenidos de taninos y caracterización molecular de variedades de haba (Vicia faba L.) cultivadas por agricultores.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Aguilar, Bladimir

    2011-01-01

    En México el haba (Vicia faba L.) es importante para la alimentación de los habitantes del medio rural y urbano, contiene un alto contenido nutritivo, es un alimento balanceado, asimismo en la actualidad los productores demandan variedades con mayor calidad de semilla. El rango en cuanto al contenido de taninos en las semillas de haba cultivadas por los agricultores fue determinado, se estimaron las relaciones entre las variedades de haba mediante la utilización de marcadores moleculares tipo...

  13. Ca2+-mediated remote control of reversible sieve tube occlusion in Vicia faba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furch, Alexandra C.U.; Hafke, Jens B.; Schulz, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    (EPWs), and is reversible in intact plants. The time-course of the wound response was studied in sieve elements of main veins of intact Vicia faba plants using confocal and multiphoton microscopy. Only 15-45 s after burning a leaf tip, forisomes (giant protein bodies specific for legume sieve tubes...... reversible; callose degraded over the subsequent 1-2 h. The heat induction of both modes of occlusion coincided with the passage of an EPW visualized by electrophysiology or the potential-sensitive dye RH-414. In contrast to burning, cutting of the leaf tip induced neither an EPW nor callose deposition...

  14. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  15. Genetic diversity of Palestine landraces of faba bean (Vicia faba) based on RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer-Salimia, R; Shtaya, M; Awad, M; Abdallah, J; Hamdan, Y

    2013-09-03

    Until now, neither phenotypic nor molecular approaches have been used to characterize the landraces of Palestine faba beans (Vicia faba). We used PCR-based RAPD markers to determine the genetic diversity and relatedness among 26 Palestinian faba bean landraces (traditional farmers' varieties) from 8 localities in the West Bank, Palestine. In tests with 37 primers, 14 generated no polymorphic bands, 12 exhibited weak and unclear products, and 11 primers produced good amplification products with high intensity and pattern stability. Ninety-four DNA fragments (loci) were detected, with an average of 8.54 loci per primer and size ranging from 160 to 1370 bp. A minimum of 4 and a maximum of 14 DNA fragments were obtained using (OPA-05 and OPA-09) and (BC-261) primers, respectively. The maximum percentage of polymorphic markers was 71.4 (BC-298) and the minimum was 50.0 (OPA-05, -09, -16). The 11 primers exhibited relatively high collective resolving power (Rp) values of 26.316, and varied from 0.154 for the OPA-09 primer to 5.236 for the BC-261, with an overall mean of 2.392. The primers BC-261, -322, and -298 were found to be the most useful RAPD primers to assess the genetic diversity of Palestinian faba beans, as they revealed relatively high Rp rates (5.236, 3.618, and 3.150, respectively). Based on the Jaccard coefficient, the genetic distance ranged from 0.358 to 0.069, with a mean of 0.213. We conclude that the RAPD technique is useful for determining genetic diversity and for developing suitable fingerprints for faba bean landraces grown in Palestine.

  16. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings induced by thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Cvjetko, Petra; Glavas, Katarina; Roje, Vibor; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a metal of great toxicological concern because it is highly toxic to all living organisms through mechanisms that are yet poorly understood. Since Tl is accumulated by important crops, the present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of Tl in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as well as the plant's antioxidative defense mechanisms usually activated by heavy metals. Thallium toxicity was related to production of reactive oxygen species in leaves and roots of broad bean seedlings following short-term (72 h) exposure to thallium (I) acetate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/L) by evaluating DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters as well as antioxidative response. The possible antagonistic effect of potassium (K) was tested by combined treatment with 5 mg/L of Tl (Tl+) and 10 mg/L of potassium (K+) acetate. Accumulation of Tl+ in roots was 50 to 250 times higher than in broad bean shoots and was accompanied by increase in dry weight and proline. Despite responsive antioxidative defense (increased activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and pyrogallol peroxidase), Tl+ caused oxidative damage to lipids and proteins as evaluated by malondialdehyde and carbonyl group levels, and induced DNA strand breaks. Combined treatment caused no oxidative alternations to lipids and proteins though it induced DNA damage. The difference in Tl-induced genotoxicity following both acellular and cellular exposure implies indirect DNA damage. Results obtained indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of Tl toxicity and that the tolerance of broad bean to Tl is achieved, at least in part, through the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  17. Lead-induced DNA damage in Vicia faba root cells: potential involvement of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Jean, Séverine; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2011-12-24

    Genotoxic effects of lead (0-20μM) were investigated in whole-plant roots of Vicia faba L., grown hydroponically under controlled conditions. Lead-induced DNA damage in V. faba roots was evaluated by use of the comet assay, which allowed the detection of DNA strand-breakage and with the V. faba micronucleus test, which revealed chromosome aberrations. The results clearly indicate that lead induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependant manner with a maximum effect at 10μM. In addition, at this concentration, DNA damage time-dependently increased until 12h. Then, a decrease in DNA damages was recorded. The significant induction of micronucleus formation also reinforced the genotoxic character of this metal. Direct interaction of lead with DNA was also evaluated with the a-cellular comet assay. The data showed that DNA breakages were not associated with a direct effect of lead on DNA. In order to investigate the relationship between lead genotoxicity and oxidative stress, V. faba were exposed to lead in the presence or absence of the antioxidant Vitamin E, or the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor dephenylene iodonium (DPI). The total inhibition of the genotoxic effects of lead (DNA breakage and micronucleus formation) by these compounds reveals the major role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the genotoxicity of lead. These results highlight, for the first time in vivo and in whole-plant roots, the relationship between ROS, DNA strand-breaks and chromosome aberrations induced by lead. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating a core germplasm collection of the cover crop hairy vetch for use in sustainable farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding linkage between genotype and agronomically important phenotypes (early flowering, hard seed and winter hardiness) will facilitate cultivar selection and inform breeding programs concerned with the cover crop hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). . We used molecular and biochemical techniques to...

  19. Phytostabilization of moderate copper contaminated soils using co-inoculation of Vicia faba with plant growth promoting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programs. This article suggest a consortium of bacteria combining Rhizobium sp. CCNWSX0481, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas sp. 2(2010) that was examined for the ability to promote Vicia faba.L. growth when cultivated on the vineyard of soil moderately contaminated with copper. Data showed that inoculation was significant in nodulation; it increases the number and the weight of nodules of 50%. Co-inoculation was also found to positively influence growth and seed yield, through increasing fresh shoot and fresh root weights by 33 and 26%, respectively, and through rising numbers of seed per pod and pods per plant. In contrast, co-inoculation produced a significant reduction of accumulated copper in roots attending 35%, however, the treatment revealed no significant effects on the copper contents in pods and seeds. The tested inoculum could be an option to promote V. faba growth and to enhance soil fertilization in moderate copper contaminated soils. Further studies on the influence of co-inoculation practices on copper migration in soil-plant systems are recommended to acquire more information for evaluation of this legume safety. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Competitive nodulation blocking of cv. Afghanistan pea is related to high levels of nodulation factors made by some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, B.; Davies, A.E.; Wilson, K.E.; Bisseling, T.; Downie, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivar Afghanistan peas are resistant to nodulation by many strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae but are nodulated by strain TOM, which carries the host specificity gene nodX. Some strains that lack nodX can inhibit nodulation of cv. Afghanistan by strain TOM. We present evidence that

  1. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch

  2. Dietary effects of faba-bean (Vicia faba L.) tannins on the morphology and function of the small-intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wiebenga, J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of condensed tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on morphological and functional variables of the small-intestinal mucosa of piglets. In an experiment with young piglets (8-17 kg body weight), fed on either a control diet or a diet

  3. Ultramorphology and histochemistry of fat body cells from last Instar larval of the Pachycondyla (=Neoponera villosa (Fabricius (Formicidae: Ponerinae Ultramorfologia e histoquímica do corpo gorduroso de larvas de último estágio de Pachycondyla (=Neoponera villosa (Fabricius (Formicidae: Ponerinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Zara

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The fat body cells of Pachycondyla (=Neoponera villosa are disposed in a single layer between the cuticle and the digestive tract, forming a group of cells enclosed by a thin membrane. Histological studies have revealed three different cellular types: trophocyte (more abundant, urate, (located among the trophocytes, and oenocyte (the scarcest, usually observed laying near the cuticle. Histochemically, the trophocytes showed a positive reaction for basic proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm, as well as a strong positive reaction in the cytoplasmic granules. The test for carbohydrates showed a strong positive reaction throughout the cytoplasm, while the test for lipids was positive for the cytoplasmic vesicles. The urate cells showed a positive reaction for basic proteins in the nucleus and in the areas of the cytoplasm surrounding the vesicles. These cells did not react to the PAS test or to Sudan Black B. The oenocytes showed a weak positive reaction to PAS and a strong positive reaction to Sudan Black B and Mercuric-bromophenol Blue.As células do corpo gorduroso de Pachycondyla (=Neoponera villosa distribuem-se como uma única camada entre a cutícula e o trato digestivo, formando um conjunto de células agrupadas e recobertas por uma fina membrana. Não foram identificados tipos celulares distintos por meio da ultramorfologia, porém a histologia revelou três tipos celulares distintos: os trofócitos, mais abundantes, as células de urato, distribuídas por entre os trofócitos, e os enócitos, menos abundantes que os demais. Os enócitos são comumente observados próximos da cutícula. Histoquimicamente, os trofócitos apresentaram reação positiva para proteínas básicas no núcleo e no citoplasma e reação fortemente positiva nos grânulos citoplasmáticos. O teste para carboidratos foi fortemente positivo em todo o citoplasma, enquanto para os lipídeos observou-se reação positiva nas vesículas citoplasmáticas. Em relação

  4. Protein quality in cereals and pulses. 2. Influence of polyethyleneglycol on the nutritional availability of methionine in sorghum (Sorghum vulgar Pers.), field beans (Vicia faba L.) and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J E; Hewitt, D

    1979-09-01

    1. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG 4000) was examined for its influence on relative nutritional value (RNV) and available methionine in sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), field beans (Vicia faba L.) and barley, as measured microbiologically with Streptococcus zymogenes. The results were assessed in relation to the content of tannins in the test samples. 2. In grain of hybrid sorghum the RNV averaged 87 (range 79--92) for six low-tannin varieties and 41 (30--53) for eleven high-tannin varieties. The corresponding available methionine values averaged 17.0 (15.7--18.9) and 8.9 (6.7--11.0) g/kg protein. Addition of PEG 4000 to the test samples increased the average RNV of the high-tannin varieties from 41 to 78, and the average available methionine content from 8.9 to 16.2 g/kg protein. 3. With seed of ten coloured flowered varieties of field beans, treatment with PEG gave a small but consistent increase in the available methionine content, which resulted from the inactivation of tannins in the testa. 4. In twenty-three samples of barley grain, treatment with PEG had no effect on the values obtained for available methionine. 5. Treatment of high-tannin sorghum grain with ammonia has been reported to inactivate the tannins and increase the nutritional value for rats and chicks. This finding was confirmed. The present study showed that ammonia and PEG 4000 were equally effective in enhancing the nutritional quality as measured in the microbiological tests.

  5. Bacterially produced Pt-GFP as ratiometric dual-excitation sensor for in planta mapping of leaf apoplastic pH in intact Avena sativa and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mühling, Karl H; Kaiser, Hartmut; Plieth, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Ratiometric analysis with H(+)-sensitive fluorescent sensors is a suitable approach for monitoring apoplastic pH dynamics. For the acidic range, the acidotropic dual-excitation dye Oregon Green 488 is an excellent pH sensor. Long lasting (hours) recordings of apoplastic pH in the near neutral range, however, are more problematic because suitable pH indicators that combine a good pH responsiveness at a near neutral pH with a high photostability are lacking. The fluorescent pH reporter protein from Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Pt-GFP) comprises both properties. But, as a genetically encoded indicator and expressed by the plant itself, it can be used almost exclusively in readily transformed plants. In this study we present a novel approach and use purified recombinant indicators for measuring ion concentrations in the apoplast of crop plants such as Vicia faba L. and Avena sativa L. Pt-GFP was purified using a bacterial expression system and subsequently loaded through stomata into the leaf apoplast of intact plants. Imaging verified the apoplastic localization of Pt-GFP and excluded its presence in the symplast. The pH-dependent emission signal stood out clearly from the background. PtGFP is highly photostable, allowing ratiometric measurements over hours. By using this approach, a chloride-induced alkalinizations of the apoplast was demonstrated for the first in oat. Pt-GFP appears to be an excellent sensor for the quantification of leaf apoplastic pH in the neutral range. The presented approach encourages to also use other genetically encoded biosensors for spatiotemporal mapping of apoplastic ion dynamics.

  6. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  7. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean (Vicia faba) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug (Nezara viridula) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H2O2. However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H2O2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H2O2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  8. Influência do cultivo em consórcio na produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, J.T.L.S.; Martins, E.R.; Costa, C.A.; Ferraz, E.O.F.; Alvarenga, I.C.A.; Souza Júnior, I.T.; Valadares, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    As plantas medicinais produzem seus princípios ativos de acordo com os estímulos do ambiente, por isso a presença de outras plantas pode comprometer a produção dos metabólicos secundários. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do cultivo consorciado sobre a produção de fitomassa e o teor de óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.). O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da Universida...

  9. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  10. Sister chromatid exchanges in Vicia faba induced by arsenic-contaminated drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Armienta, M A; Cortés-Eslava, J; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1997-11-27

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba root tips were used to examine well water containing high levels of arsenic. The increased amount of arsenic was contained in well water from different towns of Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico. Treatments of 3 h were applied followed by the differential staining technique of Tempelaar et al. (Mutation Res. 103 (1982) 321-326). Concentrations of arsenic from 0.267 up to 1.070 mg/l were determined by colorimetry in the polluted samples used for this study. These values were above the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/l in drinking water. In all cases, except one in which the As concentration was 0.021, the arsenic-contaminated water produced significant increases of SCE compared with the control (p Comarca Lagunera and the results observed in Zimapan.

  11. Ecogeographic variability and genetic diversity associated with seed albumins, globulins and prolamins patterns in Vicia taxa from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechkri, Sakina; Medoukali, Imane; Khelifi, Douadi

    2017-12-01

    Genetic variability was studied in 78 populations of locally collected Vicia L. taxa for seed albumins, globulins and prolamins patterns by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) along with an ecogeographic characterization of sites investigated. 131, 119 and 98 bands were respectively used for albumin, globulin and prolamin cluster analysis. Dendrograms based on the Jaccard index and the UPGMA method were generated and the degree of genetic diversity between and within taxa was evaluated. Five clusters were generated from albumins, six from globulins and four from prolamins patterns. The results reflect the great diversity of storage proteins and a high correlation was obtained between the three studied fractions. Several accessions present specific bands which could be used as a discriminatory marker both on intra and interspecific levels. No clear relationships were seen between the groups according to their geographical origin. Data obtained from ecogeographic investigation can be used for future collecting missions.

  12. CAPs markers to assist selection for low vicine and convicine contents in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, N; Avila, C M; Duc, G; Marget, P; Suso, M J; Moreno, M T; Torres, A M

    2006-12-01

    The antinutritional factors (ANFs) present in Vicia spp. seeds are a major constraint to the wider utilization of these crops as grain legumes. In the case of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), a breeding priority is the absence vicine and convicine (v-c); responsible for favism in humans and for the reduced animal performance or low egg production in laying hens. The discovery of a spontaneous mutant allele named vc-, which induces a 10-20 fold reduction of v-c contents, may facilitate the process. However, the high cost and difficulty of the chemical detection of v-c seriously restricts the advances in breeding-selection. To identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to this gene, we have analysed an F(2 )population derived from a cross between a line with high v-c content (Vf6) and the vc- genotype (line 1268). Quantification of v-c was done by spectrophotometry on the parents and the F(2 )population (n = 136). By using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), two RAPD markers linked in coupling and repulsion phase to the allele vc- were identified and further converted into sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs). Amplification of SCARS was more consistent, although the initial polymorphism between pools was lost. To recover the polymorphisms several approaches were explored. Restriction digestion with HhaI (for SCAR SCH01(620)) and RsaI (for SCAR SCAB12(850)) revealed clear differences between the parental lines. The simultaneous use of the two cleavage amplified polymorphism (CAP) markers will allow the correct fingerprinting of faba bean plants and can be efficiently used in breeding selection to track the introgression of the vc- allele to develop cultivars with low v-c content and improved nutritional value.

  13. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...... the expression pattern of VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Although the expression of these genes is largely similar to that of the pea counterparts, differences where found for the expression of VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 in Vicia. VsENOD12 is expressed in the whole...

  14. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, Tbk; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  15. Effect on Some Characteristics of M2 Generation of Three Hungarian Vetch (Vicia pannonica Crantz.) The Application of Different Doses of Gamma Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    BAĞCI, Muhittin; Mutlu, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    This study covers M2 generation of the mutation breeding Project with practice of gamma irradiation on Hungarian vetch (Vicia pannonica Crantz.). The study was counducted, with the purpose of determine and contrast control dose have effects on some properties of vegetational. In the study, M1 plant seeds of three Hungarian vetch cultivars (Tarmbeyazı-98, Anadolupembesi-2002 and Oğuz-2002) were planted. It was examined that morphological, biological and agricultural characteristics obtained M2...

  16. Relations between the crude protein content and the amino acid profile of organically produced field beans (Vicia faba L.) and field peas (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Stephanie; Aulrich, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Organic Farming, grain legumes are important protein feedstuffs. There are hints indicating that the amino acid (AA) profile is affected by factors associated with varying crude protein (CP) contents of crops. The knowledge on this relationship between CP and AA profile needs to be extended to optimize feeding strategies for monogastrics as well as the selection of cultivars and varieties in fodder crop cultivation. Therefore, samples of 67 field beans (Vicia faba L.) and 86 field peas (Pi...

  17. Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI, chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronucleus induction (MN. For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05 the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment.

  18. Estimation of the effect of radionuclide contamination on Vicia sativa L. induction of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters using "Floratest" optical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Yu.; Illienko, V.; Nesterova, N.; Pareniuk, O.; Shavanova, K.

    2017-12-01

    The presented research was aimed to determine the parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence (IChH) curve induction for Vicia sativa L. that were grown on radionuclide contaminated soils by using "Floratest" fluorometer. Plants were inoculated with 5 species of bacteria that might potentially block radionuclide uptake (Agrobacterium radiobacter IMBB-7246, Azotobacter chroococcum UKMB-6082, A. chroococcum UKMB-6003, Bacillus megaterium UKMB-5724, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae) and grown in sod-podzolic, chernozem and peat-bog soils, contaminated with 137Cs (4000±340 Bq/kg). As a result of research, it was determined that the most stressful factors for vetch plants are combination of soil radionuclide and presence of Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724, as the number of inactive chlorophyll increased. In addition, the vetch plants significantly increased fixed level of fluorescence (Fst) under the influence of radioactive contamination in presence of Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724, indicating inhibition of photosynthetic reactions. Other bacteria showed radioprotective properties in almost all types of soil.

  19. Relationship between geographical origin, seed size and genetic diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göl, Şurhan; Doğanlar, Sami; Frary, Anne

    2017-05-11

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important legume species because of its high protein and starch content. Broad bean can be grown in different climatic conditions and is an ideal rotation crop because of the nitrogen fixing bacteria in its roots. In this work, 255 faba bean germplasm accessions were characterized using 32 SSR primers which yielded 302 polymorphic fragments. According to the results, faba bean individuals were divided into two main groups based on the neighbor-joining algorithm (r = 0.91) with some clustering based on geographical origin as well as seed size. Population structure was also determined and agreed with the dendrogram analysis in splitting the accessions into two subpopulations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed high levels of within population genetic variation. Genetic similarity and geographical proximity were related with separation of European accessions from African and Asian ones. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between landrace (38%) and cultivar (40%) diversity indicating that genetic variability has not yet been lost due to breeding. A total of 44 genetically well-characterized faba bean individuals were selected for a core collection to be further examined for yield and nutritional traits.

  20. Efecto de la acetilación sobre las propiedades funcionales y nutricionales de almidones de haba (VICIA FABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron algunas propiedades funcionales del almidón de haba (Vicia faba, con dos niveles de proteína -12,89% y 4,41%-, obtenido por fraccionamiento por vía húmeda de las semillas secas. Se comparan el secado en rodillos y la liofilización como métodos para deshidratar la muestra, así como las propiedades funcionales del almidón antes y después de acetilarlo con anhídrido acético. También se investigaron ciertas propiedades de interés nutricional con el fin de observar la influencia de la modificación química en la biodisponibilidad del almidón de haba. Se realizó la determinación de almidón total, almidón resistente por retrogradación (AR3, almidón disponible y la velocidad de hidrólisis enzimática en el almidón nativo y en el modificado.

  1. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) in Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) using unique chemical fingerprint markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Thavarajah, Dil; Premakumara, G A S; Vandenberg, Albert

    2012-12-15

    Detection of adulteration of split red lentil (Lens culinaris L.) seeds with low level addition of split common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is hampered by a lack of reliable detection methods. An analytical method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) based on two unique chemical markers found in common vetch: ß-cyanoalanine (BCA) and γ-glutamyl-ß-cyanoalanine (GCA). These two markers were present in samples of common vetch seed grown in Canada and Serbia. Authentic lentil samples grown in Canada, Australia, USA, Turkey, Syria, and Morocco had no detectable levels of these chemical markers. Commercial lentil samples for export from lentil processing plants in Saskatchewan, Canada, also had no detectable levels of GCA and BCA. The presence of vetch in intentionally adulterated lentil samples could be determined via chemical markers with a detection limit of 5% (w/w). The proposed method is a simple sample extraction and rapid HPLC analysis that could be widely used to detect intentional adulteration of lentils with common vetch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Variation in seed mineral elements profile and yield in field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor is one of the major leguminous crops cultivated in the world and mainly destined for animal feed. Although its seed is generally recognised as a good protein source, little is known about its mineral elements profile, which is an important aspect for a balanced animal diet. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the seed mineral elements composition, along with some key production parameters, in eight field bean genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment, without intensive management, over two years (2009/10 and 2010/11. Independently of the year, the seed of Chiaro di Torre Lama was the richest in phosphorus (P, magnesium, calcium and iron contents, while that of Sint 6 and Motta Chiaro 69 were the most effective accumulators of potassium and zinc, respectively. While all the genotypes yielded better in the second year (with more rainfall, the seasonal effect on seed mineral elements composition depended on the genotype. Indeed, the P content was 46% lower in Chiaro di Torre Lama, Motta Chiaro 69 and Sint 6 in the second year, while there was only a negligible seasonal effect for Sint 8 with respect to Fe content. Overall, this crop is reasonably productive under a low management regime and its seed can supply significant amounts of certain minerals (particularly P in feed formulations. Both aspects are important in a perspective of optimising field bean production in the Mediterranean area and, hence, improving farmers’ income.

  4. A note on the earliest distribution, cultivation and genetic changes in bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia in ancient Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L. Willd. was a part of the everyday diet of the Eurasian Neanderthal population and the modern human Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in bitter vetch and other ancient grain legumes are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Bitter vetch seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals, pea and lentil, bitter vetch has become definitely associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Bitter vetch entered Europe in its south-east regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. Recently the first success has been obtained in the extraction of ancient DNA from charred bitter vetch seeds. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that most of Eurasian peoples have their own words denoting bitter vetch, meaning that its cultivation preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. 173005

  5. Immunolocalization of dually phosphorylated MAPKs in dividing root meristem cells of Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Lupinus luteus and Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnicki, Konrad; Żabka, Aneta; Bernasińska, Joanna; Matczak, Karolina; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-06-01

    In plants, phosphorylated MAPKs display constitutive nuclear localization; however, not all studied plant species show co-localization of activated MAPKs to mitotic microtubules. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved not only in the cellular response to biotic and abiotic stress but also in the regulation of cell cycle and plant development. The role of MAPKs in the formation of a mitotic spindle has been widely studied and the MAPK signaling pathway was found to be indispensable for the unperturbed course of cell division. Here we show cellular localization of activated MAPKs (dually phosphorylated at their TXY motifs) in both interphase and mitotic root meristem cells of Lupinus luteus, Pisum sativum, Vicia faba (Fabaceae) and Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae). Nuclear localization of activated MAPKs has been found in all species. Co-localization of these kinases to mitotic microtubules was most evident in L. esculentum, while only about 50% of mitotic cells in the root meristems of P. sativum and V. faba displayed activated MAPKs localized to microtubules during mitosis. Unexpectedly, no evident immunofluorescence signals at spindle microtubules and phragmoplast were noted in L. luteus. Considering immunocytochemical analyses and studies on the impact of FR180204 (an inhibitor of animal ERK1/2) on mitotic cells, we hypothesize that MAPKs may not play prominent role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics in all plant species.

  6. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  7. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Between plant and diurnal variation in quantities and ratios of volatile compounds emitted by Vicia faba plants.

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    Webster, Ben; Gezan, Salvador; Bruce, Toby; Hardie, Jim; Pickett, John

    2010-01-01

    Ratios of volatile phytochemicals potentially offer a means for insects to recognise their host-plant species. However, for this to occur ratios of volatiles would need to be sufficiently consistent between plants and over time to constitute a host-characteristic cue. In this context we collected headspace samples from Vicia faba plants to determine how consistent ratios of key volatile phytochemicals used in host location by one of its insect pests, the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, were. These were (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, octanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (R)-linalool, methyl salicylate, decanal, undecanal, (E)-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene, (S)-germacrene D, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene, which had previously been found to be electrophysiologically and behaviourally active to A. fabae. Although the quantities of volatiles produced by V. faba showed large between plant and diurnal variation, correlations between quantities of compounds indicated that the ratios of certain pairs of volatiles were very consistent. This suggests that there is a host-characteristic cue available to A. fabae in the form of ratios of volatiles. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contaminant bioavailability in soil and phytotoxicity/genotoxicity tests in Vicia faba L.: a case study of boron contamination.

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    Barbafieri, Meri; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the model plant for genotoxicity studies Vicia faba L. was used to investigate the relation between Boron (B) content and bioavailability in soil and plant genotoxic/phytotoxic response. A total of nine soil samples were investigated: two soil samples were collected from a B-polluted industrial area in Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), the other samples were obtained by spiking control soil (from a not polluted area of the basin) with seven increased doses of B, from about 20 to 100 mg B kg(-1). As expected, B availability, evaluated by chemical extraction, was higher (twofold) in spiked soils when compared with collected polluted soils with the same B total content. To analyze the phytotoxic effects of B, seed germination, root elongation, biomass production, and B accumulation in plant tissues were considered in V. faba plants grown in the various soils. Moreover, the cytotoxic/genotoxic effects of B were investigated in root meristems by mitotic index (MI) and micronuclei frequency (MCN) analysis. The results highlighted that V. faba was a B-sensitive plant and the appearance of phytotoxic effects, which altered plant growth parameters, were linearly correlated to the bioavailable B concentration in soils. Concerning the occurrence of cytotoxic/genotoxic effects induced by B, no linear correlation was observed even if MCN frequency was logarithmic correlated with the concentration of B bioavailable in soils.

  10. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

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    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  11. Cd-induced oxidative stress and lignification in the roots of two Vicia sativa L. varieties with different Cd tolerances.

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    Rui, Haiyun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Zhenguo; Zhang, Fenqin

    2016-01-15

    We examined the effects of Cd on growth, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and lignin content in the roots of two varieties of Vicia sativa. Treatment with Cd decreased plant growth and increased ROS and lipid peroxidation levels to a greater extent in the Cd-sensitive variety ZM than in the Cd-tolerant variety L3. Most hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2(•-)) were accumulated in the cell walls and extracellular spaces in response to Cd treatments. Chemical assays and experiments using inhibitors showed that larger increases in H2O2 and O2(•-) production in ZM than in L3 were probably attributed to elevated Cd-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-peroxidase (NADH-POD) activity. Cd treatment increased the accumulation of lignin and the guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activities in the apoplast more significantly in ZM root than in L3. Howerver, root laccase activity was higher in L3 than in ZM. Thus Cd toxicity induced significant lignification in the roots of V. sativa, and increases in H2O2 accumulation and apoplastic GPOD activity were likely responsible for this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomass growth, micronucleus induction, and antioxidant stress enzyme responses in Vicia faba exposed to cadmium in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Edson V Cordova; Valgas, Cleidson; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos

    2003-03-01

    Biomass growth, micronucleus induction, and antioxidative stress enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) were investigated simultaneously in the Vicia faba plant exposed to cadmium in solution. The biomass lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) value was 2,000 microM Cd2+. In the shoots, enzymic activities increased without concentration-response relationships. In the roots, after an initial increase, activities of all enzymes showed negative concentration-response relationships. A significant increase in micronucleus induction was observed at 20 microM Cd2+. Regarding sensitivity, our results showed that biomass endpoint was less sensitive than micronucleus induction, which was less sensitive than antioxidative enzyme activities. The increase of antioxidant stress enzyme activities in response to cadmium exposure may be taken as evidence for an enhanced detoxification capacity of V. faba plants toward reactive oxygen species (and derivatives) that might be generated in the stressed plants. Concomitant micronucleus induction may be also interpreted as a consequence of oxidative stress, upholding the view that cadmium-induced DNA damage is, to some extent, via generation of reactive (intermediate) oxygen species.

  13. Lesões de pele em bovinos com doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp. Skin lesions in cattle with systemic granulomatous disease associated to pasturing vetch (Vicia spp.

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    Rafael Almeida Fighera

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se as lesões cutâneas macroscópicas em 10 e histológicas em 8 vacas afetadas por doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp.. Em todos os casos, as lesões cutâneas eram caracterizadas por múltiplas áreas coalescentes de alopecia, liquenificação e descamação. Os locais mais atingidos pela lesão de pele foram: cabeça e pescoço (10/10, tronco (4/10, períneo (3/10 e mama (2/10. Em todos os 8 casos avaliados histologicamente, as lesões se caracterizavam por dermatite perivascular superficial granulomatosa de intensidade variável. Outros achados histológicos incluíram dermatite perivascular profunda (1/8, perifoliculite (2/8, foliculite mural (3/8, hiperqueratose ortoqueratótica compacta (6/8, erosões (1/8, úlceras (2/8, microabscessos de Munro (8/8, crostas serocelulares (1/8, espongiose (4/8, degeneração hidrópica (5/8, acantólise (1/8, corpúsculos de Civatte (2/8, exocitose linfoplasmocitária (6/8, edema superficial (6/8, incontinência pigmentar (2/8, basofilia (6/8 e mineralização distrófica do colágeno (2/8, tumefação do núcleo das células endoteliais (8/8 e ectasia de glândulas sudoríparas (8/8.Gross and histopathological lesions in the skin of respectively 10 and 8 cows affected with systemic granulomatous disease associated with pasturing vetch (Vicia spp. are described. In all cases, the cutaneous lesions were characterized by multiple coalescent areas of alopecia, lichenification and desquamation. More frequently affected sites were the skin covering the head and neck (10/10, trunk (4/10, escutcheon (3/10 and mammary gland (2/10. In all 8 histologically examined cases the lesions were characterized by superficial perivascular granulomatous dermatitis of varying intensity. Other histological findings included deep perivascular dermatitis (1/8, perifoliculitis (2/8, mural foliculitis (3/8, compact orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (6/8, erosions (1/8, ulcers (2

  14. [Effect of post-treatment with dry extract from vicia truncatula on NADPH-GSH dependent system of rat liver during chronic alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkina, E G

    2010-04-01

    Experiments on white female rats showed that chronic ethanol consumption leads to activation of the NADPH - GSH dependent system of the liver, which provides protection against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Post-treatment administration of dry extract from Vicia truncatula Fish ex Bieb. (300 mg/kg body weight) on the background of 40% ethanol increased this adaptive reaction without depletion in the system, in contrast to what was observed in rats treated with carsil. These results suggest a significant hepatoprotective effect of the dry extract during the chronic alcohol-induced injury of the liver.

  15. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina

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    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los distintos estados fenológicos de Vicia faba ofrecen recursos alimenticios y sustratos para el desarrollo de una importante diversidad de insectos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanópteros antófilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecológicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociación. El estudio se realizó durante el período floración-fructificación del cultivo de haba, en dos etapas y regiones fitogeográficas de Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479msnm, semanalmente desde octubre-diciembre de 1995-1996 y Puna (3 367msnm, quincenalmente desde diciembre 2007-marzo 2008. Cada muestra consistió de 25 flores tomadas al azar; sólo en Prepuna se realizó un muestreo complementario de tres golpes/planta (n=10 plantas. Se realizaron observaciones sobre sitios de oviposición, ingreso a la flor, lugares de pupación, comportamiento alimenticio y lesiones producidas. En Prepuna, el complejo de tisanópteros está formado por Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei y Thrips tabaci; en Puna la diversidad específica está restringida a F. australis y F. gemina. A pesar de que el período siembra-cosecha no coincide en ambas áreas, las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones presentan un mismo patrón: a medida que avanza la floración aumenta el número de tisanópteros, que coincide con la disponibilidad del recurso alimenticio. En ambas áreas, F. australis es la especie dominante y mantiene poblaciones sucesivas en el cultivo; deposita los huevos en los botones florales y las larvas eclosionan cuando se produce la apertura de las flores; la alimentación de larvas y adultos ocasiona manchas plateadas con puntuaciones negras. En la Prepuna, F. australis atraviesa los estados inmaduros móviles en las flores y los quiescentes en el suelo; en la Puna, todos los estados de desarrollo transcurren dentro de las flores. Thrips tabaci, F. gemina, F. shultzei y F

  16. Characterization and functional analysis of seven flagellin genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Characterization of R. leguminosarum flagellins

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    Tambalo Dinah D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae establishes symbiotic nitrogen fixing partnerships with plant species belonging to the Tribe Vicieae, which includes the genera Vicia, Lathyrus, Pisum and Lens. Motility and chemotaxis are important in the ecology of R. leguminosarum to provide a competitive advantage during the early steps of nodulation, but the mechanisms of motility and flagellar assembly remain poorly studied. This paper addresses the role of the seven flagellin genes in producing a functional flagellum. Results R. leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM have seven flagellin genes (flaA, flaB, flaC, flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG, which are transcribed separately. The predicted flagellins of 3841 are highly similar or identical to the corresponding flagellins in VF39SM. flaA, flaB, flaC, and flaD are in tandem array and are located in the main flagellar gene cluster. flaH and flaG are located outside of the flagellar/motility region while flaE is plasmid-borne. Five flagellin subunits (FlaA, FlaB, FlaC, FlaE, and FlaG are highly similar to each other, whereas FlaD and FlaH are more distantly related. All flagellins exhibit conserved amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminal ends and are variable in the central regions. Strain 3841 has 1-3 plain subpolar flagella while strain VF39SM exhibits 4-7 plain peritrichous flagella. Three flagellins (FlaA/B/C and five flagellins (FlaA/B/C/E/G were detected by mass spectrometry in the flagellar filaments of strains 3841 and VF39SM, respectively. Mutation of flaA resulted in non-motile VF39SM and extremely reduced motility in 3841. Individual mutations of flaB and flaC resulted in shorter flagellar filaments and consequently reduced swimming and swarming motility for both strains. Mutant VF39SM strains carrying individual mutations in flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG were not significantly affected in motility and filament morphology. The flagellar filament and the motility of 3841 strains

  17. NO and H2O2 contribute to SO2 toxicity via Ca2+ signaling in Vicia faba guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Min; Bai, Heli; Xue, Meizhao; Yi, Huilan

    2017-04-01

    NO and H2O2 have been implicated as important signals in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants to the environment. Previously, we have shown that SO2 exposure increased the levels of NO and H2O2 in plant cells. We hypothesize that, as signaling molecules, NO and H2O2 mediate SO2-caused toxicity. In this paper, we show that SO2 hydrates caused guard cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range of 0.25 to 6 mmol L-1, which was associated with elevation of intracellular NO, H2O2, and Ca2+ levels in Vicia faba guard cells. NO donor SNP enhanced SO2 toxicity, while NO scavenger c-PTIO and NO synthesis inhibitors L-NAME and tungstate significantly prevented SO2 toxicity. ROS scavenger ascorbic acid (AsA) and catalase (CAT), Ca2+ chelating agent EGTA, and Ca2+ channel inhibitor LaCl3 also markedly blocked SO2 toxicity. In addition, both c-PTIO and AsA could completely block SO2-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ level. Moreover, c-PTIO efficiently blocked SO2-induced H2O2 elevation, and AsA significantly blocked SO2-induced NO elevation. These results indicate that extra NO and H2O2 are produced and accumulated in SO2-treated guard cells, which further activate Ca2+ signaling to mediate SO2 toxicity. Our findings suggest that both NO and H2O2 contribute to SO2 toxicity via Ca2+ signaling.

  18. Quorum-sensing-regulated transcriptional initiation of plasmid transfer and replication genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulla, Craig; Edwards, Anne; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Sawers, R Gary; Downie, J Allan

    2007-07-01

    Transfer of the Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae symbiosis plasmid pRL1JI is regulated by a cascade of gene induction involving three LuxR-type quorum-sensing regulators, TraR, BisR and CinR. TraR induces the plasmid transfer traI-trb operon in a population-density-dependent manner in response to N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) made by TraI. Expression of the traR gene is primarily induced by BisR in response to AHLs made by CinI, and expression of cinI is induced by CinR and repressed by BisR. Analysis of transcription initiation of cinI, traR and traI identified potential regulatory domains recognized by the CinR, BisR and TraR regulators. Deletion and mutation of the cinI promoter identified potential recognition motifs for activation by CinR and repression by BisR. Analysis of the DNA sequence upstream of traI and expression of transcriptional gene fusions revealed a predicted TraR-binding (tra-box) domain. Two transcript initiation sites were identified upstream of the plasmid replication gene repA, which is divergently transcribed from traI; one of these repA transcripts requires the quorum-sensing cascade mediated via BisR and TraR, showing that the pRL1JI plasmid replication genes are co-regulated with the plasmid transfer genes.

  19. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A; Johnson, David

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

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    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  1. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae.

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    Zhipeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vicia sativa (the common vetch possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  2. Effect of salt stress on plant growth and metabolism of bean plant Vicia faba (L.

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    Amira M.S. Abdul Qados

    2011-01-01

    An increase was observed in the protein content in the two measurement periods due to the impact of salinity stress. A directly proportional relationship was found between protein content and the increase in salt concentrations in the first measurement period, while it was inversely proportional in the second.

  3. Bacillus simplex—A Little Known PGPB with Anti-Fungal Activity—Alters Pea Legume Root Architecture and Nodule Morphology When Coinoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

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    Ann M. Hirsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two strains, 30N-5 and 30VD-1, identified as Bacillus simplex and B. subtilis, were isolated from the rhizospheres of two different plants, a Podocarpus and a palm, respectively, growing in the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden. B. subtilis is a well-known plant-growth promoting bacterial species, but B. simplex is not. B. simplex 30N-5 was initially isolated on a nitrogen-free medium, but no evidence for nitrogen fixation was found. Nevertheless, pea plants inoculated with B. simplex showed a change in root architecture due to the emergence of more lateral roots. When Pisum sativum carrying a DR5::GUSA construct, an indicator for auxin response, was inoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or its symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, GUS expression in the roots was increased over the uninoculated controls. Moreover, when pea roots were coinoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or B. subtilis 30VD-1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, the nodules were larger, clustered, and developed more highly branched vascular bundles. Besides producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphate, the two Bacillus spp., especially strain 30VD-1, exhibited anti-fungal activity towards Fusarium. Our data show that combining nodulating, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with growth-promoting bacteria enhances plant development and strongly supports a coinoculation strategy to improve nitrogen fixation, increase biomass, and establish greater resistance to fungal disease.

  4. Analysis of rhizobial endosymbionts of Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium species used to maintain mountain firewalls in Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadas, Pablo J; Lasa, Ana V; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Flores-Félix, José David; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Forest fires lead to the annual disappearance of many natural formations that require the creation of firewall areas. They can be maintained by enriching their pastures with attractive plants for grazing livestock, mainly legumes, which have a high protein content and low dependence on N fertilizers due to their ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. In this study, the rhizobia isolated from the nodules of six legumes from the genera Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium were analysed in a firewall zone established in Lanjarón (Granada) close to the Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain). The results showed a high genetic diversity of the isolated strains that had 3, 16, 14 and 13 different types of rrs, recA, atpD and glnII genes, respectively. All strains were phylogenetically close to the species from the Rhizobium leguminosarum group, although they were not identified as any of them. The isolated strains belonged to the symbiovars viciae and trifolii but high phylogenetic diversity was found within both symbiovars, since there were 16 and 14 nodC gene types, respectively. Some of these strains clustered with strains isolated in other countries and continents, but others formed atpD, recA, glnII and nodC clusters and lineages only found to date in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

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    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina

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    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los distintos estados fenológicos de Vicia faba ofrecen recursos alimenticios y sustratos para el desarrollo de una importante diversidad de insectos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanópteros antófilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecológicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociación. El estudio se realizó durante el período floración-fructificación del cultivo de haba, en dos etapas y regiones fitogeográficas de Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479msnm, semanalmente desde octubre-diciembre de 1995-1996 y Puna (3 367msnm, quincenalmente desde diciembre 2007-marzo 2008. Cada muestra consistió de 25 flores tomadas al azar; sólo en Prepuna se realizó un muestreo complementario de tres golpes/planta (n=10 plantas. Se realizaron observaciones sobre sitios de oviposición, ingreso a la flor, lugares de pupación, comportamiento alimenticio y lesiones producidas. En Prepuna, el complejo de tisanópteros está formado por Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei y Thrips tabaci; en Puna la diversidad específica está restringida a F. australis y F. gemina. A pesar de que el período siembra-cosecha no coincide en ambas áreas, las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones presentan un mismo patrón: a medida que avanza la floración aumenta el número de tisanópteros, que coincide con la disponibilidad del recurso alimenticio. En ambas áreas, F. australis es la especie dominante y mantiene poblaciones sucesivas en el cultivo; deposita los huevos en los botones florales y las larvas eclosionan cuando se produce la apertura de las flores; la alimentación de larvas y adultos ocasiona manchas plateadas con puntuaciones negras. En la Prepuna, F. australis atraviesa los estados inmaduros móviles en las flores y los quiescentes en el suelo; en la Puna, todos los estados de desarrollo transcurren dentro de las flores. Thrips tabaci, F. gemina, F. shultzei y F

  7. Microvirga ossetica sp. nov., a species of rhizobia isolated from root nodules of the legume species Vicia alpestris Steven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, Vera I; Kuznetsova, Irina G; Sazanova, Anna L; Belimov, Andrey A; Andronov, Evgeny E; Chirak, Elizaveta R; Osledkin, Yuri S; Onishchuk, Olga P; Kurchak, Oksana N; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Willems, Anne; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2017-01-01

    Gram-stain-negative strains V5/3MT, V5/5K, V5/5M and V5/13 were isolated from root nodules of Vicia alpestris plants growing in the North Ossetia region (Caucasus). Sequencing of the partial 16S rRNA gene (rrs) and four housekeeping genes (dnaK, gyrB, recA and rpoB) showed that the isolates from V. alpestris were most closely related to the species Microvirga zambiensis (order Rhizobiales, family Methylobacteriaceae) which was described for the single isolate from root nodule of Listia angolensis growing in Zambia. Sequence similarities between the Microvirga-related isolates and M. zambiensis WSM3693T ranged from 98.5 to 98.7 % for rrs and from 79.7 to 95.8 % for housekeeping genes. Cellular fatty acids of the isolates V5/3MT, V5/5K, V5/5M and V5/13 included important amounts of C18 : 1ω7c (54.0-67.2 %), C16 : 0 (6.0-7.8 %), C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c (3.1-10.2 %), summed feature 2 (comprising one or more of iso-C16 : 1 I, C14 : 0 3-OH and unknown ECL 10.938, 5.8-22.5 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 02-OH, 2.9-4.0 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between the isolate V5/3MT and M. zambiensis WSM3693T revealed DNA-DNA relatedness of 35.3 %. Analysis of morphological and physiological features of the novel isolates demonstrated their unique phenotypic profile in comparison with reference strains from closely related species of the genus Microvirga. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic analysis, a novel species named Microvirga ossetica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is V5/3MT (=LMG 29787T=RCAM 02728T). Three additional strains of the species are V5/5K, V5/5M and V5/13.

  8. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  9. USE OF COVER CROPS FOR WEED SUPPRESSION IN HAZELNUT (CORYLUS AVELLANA L.) IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, D; Dok, M; Ak, K; Macit, I; Demir, Z; Mennan, H

    2014-01-01

    Weed management is critical in hazelnut (Corylus avellana) production. Weeds reduce nutrient availability, interfere with tree growth, and reduce hand-harvesting efficiency. Field experiments were conducted to test effects of cover crops as alternative weed management strategies in hazelnut. The cover crop treatments consisted of Trifolium repens L., Festuca rubra subsp. rubra L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Vicia villosa Roth. And Trifolium meneghinianum Celmand fallow with no cover crop. Control plots such as weedy control, herbicide control and mechanical control were added as reference plots. The lowest weed dry biomass was obtained from Vicia villosa plots, and there were no significant differences among all other cover crop treatments. The highest cover crop dry biomass was measured in the Trifolium meneghinianum plots. Regarding the effect of cover crops on hazelnut yields, the lowest yield was ob- tained from weedy control plots, while the highest yield was obtained from F. arundinacea plots. This research indicated that cover crops could be used as living mulch in integrated weed management programs to manage weeds in the hazelnut orchards.

  10. Screening of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions to acidity and aluminium stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. Methods A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems. The accessions were grown in solution culture and a subset of 10 was grown first in peat and later in perlite potting media. In solution culture, morphological parameters including taproot length, root regrowth and root tolerance index were measured, and in the pot experiments the key measurements were taproot length, plant biomass, chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance. Result Responses to acidity and aluminium were apparently independent. Accessions Dosha and NC 58 were tolerant to both stress. Kassa and GLA 1103 were tolerant to acidity showing less than 3% reduction in taproot length. Aurora and Messay were tolerant to aluminium. Babylon was sensitive to both, with up to 40% reduction in taproot length from acidity and no detectable recovery from Al3+ challenge. Discussion The apparent independence of the responses to acidity and aluminium is in agreement with the previous research findings, suggesting that crop accessions separately adapt to H+ and Al3+ toxicity as a result of the difference in the nature of soil parent materials where the accession originated. Differences in rankings between experiments were minor and attributable to heterogeneity of seed materials and the specific responses of accessions to the rooting media. Use of perlite as a potting medium offers an ideal combination of throughput, inertness of support medium, access to leaves for detection of their stress responses, and harvest of clean

  11. Screening of faba bean (Vicia faba L. accessions to acidity and aluminium stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiflemariam Y. Belachew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. Methods A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems. The accessions were grown in solution culture and a subset of 10 was grown first in peat and later in perlite potting media. In solution culture, morphological parameters including taproot length, root regrowth and root tolerance index were measured, and in the pot experiments the key measurements were taproot length, plant biomass, chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance. Result Responses to acidity and aluminium were apparently independent. Accessions Dosha and NC 58 were tolerant to both stress. Kassa and GLA 1103 were tolerant to acidity showing less than 3% reduction in taproot length. Aurora and Messay were tolerant to aluminium. Babylon was sensitive to both, with up to 40% reduction in taproot length from acidity and no detectable recovery from Al3+ challenge. Discussion The apparent independence of the responses to acidity and aluminium is in agreement with the previous research findings, suggesting that crop accessions separately adapt to H+ and Al3+ toxicity as a result of the difference in the nature of soil parent materials where the accession originated. Differences in rankings between experiments were minor and attributable to heterogeneity of seed materials and the specific responses of accessions to the rooting media. Use of perlite as a potting medium offers an ideal combination of throughput, inertness of support medium, access to leaves for detection of their stress responses, and

  12. Immobilization and Survival of Root Nodule Bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae / Gumiņbaktērijas Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae imobilizācija un dzīvotspēja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvagiņa Signe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae ir augsnes baktērija, kas spēj veidot gumiņus uz zirņu, pupu, lēcu un vīķu saknēm un saistīt atmosfēras slāpekli simbiozē ar augiem. Gumiņbaktērijas izmanto lauksaimniecībā kā bioloģiskus mēslošanas līdzekļus augu augšanas veicināšanai. Komerciālos gumiņbaktēriju preparātus var iegādāties sausā, šķidrā vai liofilizētā formā. Parasti izmanto sausos sagatavotos mēslošanas līdzekļus uz kūdras bāzes. Šī pētījuma mērķis bija imobilizēt R. leguminosarum un noteikt tās dzīvotspēju šķidrumā un dažādos nesējmateriālos, lai izstrādātu uzlabotus gumiņbaktēriju preparātus. Imobilizēšanai izmantoja piecus sterilizētus materiālus: kūdru, māla pulveri, divu veidu ovālus šūnainās keramikas agregātus un cilindriskas keramikas granulas, kas izgatavotas no Planču depozīta Devona perioda māla. Imobilizāciju veica 2,5 stundu laikā 20 °C temperatūrā. Vēlāk kūdru, pulveri un granulas noberza un sasmalcināja ūdenī ar sterilu piestiņu, lai atdalītu pielipušās baktērijas. Baktēriju kolonijas veidojošo vienību skaitu noteica, izsējot iegūto suspensiju atšķaidījumus Petri traukos ar agarizētu barotni. Dzīvotspēju noteica arī ar LIVE/DEAD epifluorescences metodi. Iegūtie rezultāti parādīja, ka nesējmateriāls ietekmē imobilizācijas sekmes un ka uzglabāšanas temperatūra ietekmē R. leguminosarum dzīvotspēju. Vislabākos rezultātus ieguva, uzglabājot baktērijas suspensijā vai imobilizējot uz kūdras. Rekomendējam uzglabāt R. leguminosarum produktus −18 °C vai 4 °C temperatūrā.

  13. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes—fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures. PMID:26624625

  14. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures.

  15. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.); conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Jordan, Megan; Hane, James; Torres, Anna M; Avila, Carmen M; Cruz-Izquierdo, Serafín; Oliver, Richard P

    2008-08-09

    The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba), using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type) and Vf27 (paucijuga type). Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP) markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs), one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of small-scale duplication events in faba bean

  16. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.; conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila Carmen M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba, using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type and Vf27 (paucijuga type. Results Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs, one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of

  17. (Vicia sativa L.) - triticale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... This study was carried to determine the best seed mixture of vetch and triticale for East Mediterranean rainfed conditions of Turkey. The experiments were conducted in two locations, Adana and Kozan, during the years of 2003 - 2005. The field trials were arranged in a randomised block design with three.

  18. Drosophila melanogaster, Vicia faba and Arabidopsis thaliana short-term bioassays in genotoxicity evaluation of air and soil samples from sites surrounding two industrial factories in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroust, K; Kuglík, P; Relichová, J; Holoubek, I; Cáslavský, J; Veselská, R; Rysková, M; Benedík, J

    1997-01-01

    The Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in wing cells of Drosophila melanogaster, the Vicia faba cytogenetic tests-Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and Micronucleus Test (MN), and the Müller test for gametic mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana were used for genotoxicity testing of environmental samples of pollutants from the surroundings of LACHEMA chemical factory (Brno, Czech Republic) and DEZA factory in Valasské Mezirící (Moravia, Czech Republic). Tested soil and air samples were taken from the near vicinity of both factories. The surroundings of both sites are heavy loaded by exhalation of chemicals from the factories. Chemical analyses of the 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) list of priority pollutants and heavy metals were performed in both soil and air samples. The Drosophila wing spot test was positive in 70.6% of the tested samples, the Vicia sister chromatid exchange test in 62.5%, and the Arabidopsis Müller test in 58.9%. The micronucleus Vicia faba test was quite insensitive in tested environmental samples. The concordance between SMART and SCE was 62.5%, between SMART and Müller test 76.5%, and between Müller test and SCE 100%. Total concordance of these three tests was 79.7%. Müller test for gametic mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana and cytogenetic SCE test in Vicia faba seem to be quite sensitive and convenient plant bioassays for assessing the mutagenic potential of environmental agents, when compared to the SMART test in Drosophila melanogaster.

  19. The development rhythm of the flower-bud in some Papilionaceae species. III. Macrosporogenesis, microsporogenesis and early gametogenesis in several species of the Vicieae tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Each of the examined species of the tribe Vicieae (Vicia faba, V. sativa, V, villosa, Lathyrus silvester, L. pratensis and Pisum sativum has its peculiar characteristic development rhythm of the bud. A similarity has been demonstrated between the development rhythms of flower buds of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum. It was found that mature flowers of autogamous species had long calyces, whereas those of the allogamous species were short as compared with the petals of the corolla.

  20. INFLUÊNCIA DO CULTIVO CONSORCIADO DE AVEIA PRETA (AVENA STRIGOSA SCHIEB. E ERVILHACA COMUM (VICIA SATIVA L. NA PRODUÇÃO DE FITOMASSA E NO APORTE DE NITROGÊNIO INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPPED COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. AND NAKED OAT (AVENA STRIGOSA ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heinrichs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo e sob preparo convencional, foi avaliada a influência de proporções de sementes de ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb. cultivadas em consórcio, na produção de fitomassa e no aporte de nitrogênio no sistema. O experimento foi implantado em solo podzolico vermelho amarelo, de Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram casualizados em quatro blocos, constituindo-se de: 1- 100% Ervilhaca comum (E; 2- 90% E + 10% Aveia preta (A; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- pousio de inverno. A amostragem da fitomassa das coberturas verdes foi efetuada na ocasião do pleno florescimento em área de 0,8m2 por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram que a aveia preta e a ervilhaca comum podem ser consorciadas, beneficiando assim, a produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nitrogênio.The effect of intercropping common vetch (Vicia sativa L. with naked oat (Avena strigosa Schieb. at different seed proportions was evaluated. The trial was set up on a Red Yellow Podzolic soil of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The treatments were the following: 1- 100% E (common vetch; 2- 90% E + 10% A (naked oat; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- fall tillage organized in four randomized blocks. Biomass production was evaluated at the flowering stage in an area of 0.8 m2 per plot. Data show that both species can be intercropped which is beneficial to biomass production and nitrogen accumulation.

  1. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) nitrogen nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génard, Thaïs; Etienne, Philippe; Laîné, Philippe; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Diquélou, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L.) to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using the split-root (15)N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low (15)N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant (15)N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and (15)N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant(-1), respectively), which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  2. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion.

  3. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaïs Génard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L. to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. using the split-root 15N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low 15N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant 15N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and 15N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant−1, respectively, which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  4. Exploiting Illumina Sequencing for the Development of 95 Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa, a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  5. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  6. The effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} on seed germination, development and mitosis of root tip cells of Vicia narbonensis L. and Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica, E-mail: mruffini@biologia.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy); Giorgetti, Lucia; Geri, Chiara [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology (IBBA/CNR), UOS Pisa (Italy); Cremonini, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    This study aimed to provide new information about phyto-toxicology of nano-TiO{sub 2} on plant systems. To contribute to the evaluation of the potential harmful effects of the nanoparticles on monocots and dicots we considered their effects on seed germination and root elongation applying a concentration range from 0.2 to 4.0 Per-Mille-Sign in the plants Zea mays L. and Vicia narbonensis L. Moreover, we achieved a genotoxicity study at cytological level in root meristems by means of traditional cytogenetic approach, to evidence possible alterations in mitotic activity, chromosomal aberrations, and micronuclei release. From these analyses it comes out that nano-TiO{sub 2} particles, after short-term exposure and under our experimental conditions, delayed germination progression for the first 24 h in both materials. Root elongation was affected only after treatment with the higher nano-TiO{sub 2} concentration. Further significant effects were detected showing mitotic index reduction and concentration-dependent increase in the aberration emergence that evidenced a nano-TiO{sub 2}-induced genotoxic effect for both species.

  7. CYP94A1, a plant cytochrome P450-catalyzing fatty acid omega-hydroxylase, is selectively induced by chemical stress in Vicia sativa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Irène; Bronner, Roberte; Wang, Yong; Compagnon, Vincent; Michler, Pierre; Schreiber, Lukas; Salaün, Jean-Pierre; Durst, Francis; Pinot, Franck

    2005-08-01

    CYP94A1 is a cytochrome P450 (P450) catalyzing fatty acid (FA) omega-hydroxylation in Vicia sativa seedlings. To study the physiological role of this FA monooxygenase, we report here on its regulation at the transcriptional level (Northern blot). Transcripts of CYP94A1, as those of two other P450-dependent FA hydroxylases (CYP94A2 and CYP94A3) from V. sativa, are barely detectable during the early development of the seedlings. CYP94A1 transcripts, in contrast to those of the two other isoforms, are rapidly (less than 20 min) and strongly (more than 100 times) enhanced after treatment by clofibrate, an hypolipidemic drug in animals and an antiauxin (p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid) in plants, by auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid), by an inactive auxin analog (2,3-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and also by salicylic acid. All these compounds activate CYP94A1 transcription only at high concentrations (50-500 microM range). In parallel, these high levels of clofibrate and auxins modify seedling growth and development. Therefore, the expression of CYP94A1 under these conditions and the concomitant morphological and cytological modifications would suggest the implication of this P450 in a process of plant defense against chemical injury.

  8. Promutagen activation of triazine herbicides metribuzin and ametryn through Vicia faba metabolism inducing sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes in vitro and in V. faba root tip meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Maya, Saúl; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan M; de la Cruz, Leticia Gómez

    2005-03-01

    The aim of our study was the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro and in root tip meristems of Vicia faba to evaluate the genotoxic effects of metribuzin and ametryn. Direct treatments of these herbicides on human lymphocytes in vitro applied 24 h after the beginning of culture did not induce SCE; however, they showed a cytotoxic effect in the cultures expressed as cellular death. On the contrary, when extracts of V. faba roots, treated for 4 h with metribuzin and ametryn (in vivo activation), were added to the lymphocyte cultures, SCEs were significantly induced with an asymptotic response. Negative responses appeared with the in vitro assays, in which metribuzin and ametryn were added directly to the 48 h lymphocyte cultures for 4 h. Nevertheless, in treatments in which the S10 metabolic mix was added, the SCE frequencies were significantly different to the control, although a concentration-response relationship was only observed with metribuzin. The results showed that both herbicides needed the V. faba metabolism to produce SCE in human lymphocyte cultures. Metribuzin and ametryn applied to V. faba root tip meristems for 4 h increased SCE frequency significantly, and a concentration-response relationship was observed with both herbicides.

  9. Contributions of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic cell types to leaf respiration in Vicia faba L. and their responses to growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Benedict M; Bahar, Nur H A; Atkin, Owen K

    2015-11-01

    In intact leaves, mitochondrial populations are highly heterogeneous among contrasting cell types; how such contrasting populations respond to sustained changes in the environment remains, however, unclear. Here, we examined respiratory rates, mitochondrial protein composition and response to growth temperature in photosynthetic (mesophyll) and non-photosynthetic (epidermal) cells from fully expanded leaves of warm-developed (WD) and cold-developed (CD) broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Rates of respiration were significantly higher in mesophyll cell protoplasts (MCPs) than epidermal cell protoplasts (ECPs), with both protoplast types exhibiting capacity for cytochrome and alternative oxidase activity. Compared with ECPs, MCPs contained greater relative quantities of porin, suggesting higher mitochondrial surface area in mesophyll cells. Nevertheless, the relative quantities of respiratory proteins (normalized to porin) were similar in MCPs and ECPs, suggesting that ECPs have lower numbers of mitochondria yet similar protein complement to MCP mitochondria (albeit with lower abundance serine hydroxymethyltransferase). Several mitochondrial proteins (both non-photorespiratory and photorespiratory) exhibited an increased abundance in response to cold in both protoplast types. Based on estimates of individual protoplast respiration rates, combined with leaf cell abundance data, epidermal cells make a small but significant (2%) contribution to overall leaf respiration which increases twofold in the cold. Taken together, our data highlight the heterogeneous nature of mitochondrial populations in leaves, both among contrasting cell types and in how those populations respond to growth temperature. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. AcEST: DK961423 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 52 2e-06 sp|P56625|LEC_VICVI Lectin B4 (Fragments) OS=Vicia villosa PE=1 ... 52 3e-06 sp|P16404|LEC_ERYCO Lectin OS=Erythrina coral...lodendron PE=1 SV=3 52 3e-06 sp|P93535|LECS_SOPJA Seed lectin OS=Sophora japonica P

  11. Cover crop and nitrogen fertilization influence soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crop and N fertilization may maintain soil C and N levels under sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) biomass harvested for bioenergy production. The effect of cover crops (hairy vetch [Vicia villosa Roth], rye [Secaele cereale L.], hairy vetch/rye mixture, and the control [no cover crop...

  12. Replacing Stipa trichotoma Nees (nasella) in the Eastern Cape | le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most effective grasses were Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot), Phalaris tuberosa, Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass), Lolium hybridum (Ariki ryegrass), Agrostis tenuis and Festuca arundinacea (Tall fescue). The most effective legumes were Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) and Trifolium pratense (red clover) Overseeding and ...

  13. Interactions of a hairy vetch-corn rotation and P fertilizer on the NPK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vicia villosa Roth) and corn (Zea mays L.) rotation system in a highland area of Yunnan Province, China. Effects of phosphate (P) fertilization, combined with hairy vetch returned to the soil, on crop yield and soil fertility were studied, and the ...

  14. Benefits of Vetch and Rye Cover Crops to Sweet Corn under No-Tillage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Avila, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Alves, B.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Leguminous cover crops (CCs) may reduce N fertilizer requirements by fixing N biologically and storing leftover N-fertilizer applied in the previous year. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of CCs [rye (Secale cereal L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)] on plant N

  15. Factors associated with Leguminous Green Manure Incorporation and Fusarium wilt suppression in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  16. Reactivities of N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectins with human IgA1 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, J.S.; Kulhavy, R.; Tomana, M.

    2007-01-01

    of IgA1 and, as controls, IgA2 and IgG myeloma proteins. These lectins originated from snails Helix aspersa (HAA) and Helix pomatia (HPA), and the plant Vicia villosa (VV). Only HAA and HPA bound exclusively to IgA1, with its O-linked glycans composed of GalNAc, galactose, and sialic acid. In contrast...

  17. Labeling of Carbon Pools in Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae Bacteroids following Incubation of Intact Nodules with CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, S O; Streeter, J G

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the work reported here was to ascertain that the patterns of labeling seen in isolated bacteroids also occurred in bacteroids in intact nodules and to observe early metabolic events following exposure of intact nodules to (14)CO(2). Intact nodules of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Ripley) inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 and pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Progress 9) inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae isolate 128C53 were detached and immediately fed (14)CO(2) for 1 to 6 min. Bacteroids were purified from these nodules in 5 to 7 min after the feeding period. In the cytosol from both soybean and pea nodules, malate had the highest radioactivity, followed by citrate and aspartate. In peas, asparagine labeling equaled that of aspartate. In B. japonicum bacteroids, malate was the most rapidly labeled compound, and the rate of glutamate labeling was 67% of the rate of malate labeling. Aspartate and alanine were the next most rapidly labeled compounds. R. leguminosarum bacteroids had very low amounts of (14)C and, after a 1-min feeding, malate contained 90% of the radioactivity in the organic acid fraction. Only a trace of activity was found in aspartate, whereas the rate of glutamate and alanine labeling approached that of malate after 6 min of feeding. Under the conditions studied, malate was the major form of labeled carbon supplied to both types of bacteroids. These results with intact nodules confirm our earlier results with isolated bacteroids, which showed that a significant proportion of provided labeled substrate, such as malate, is diverted to glutamate. This supports the conclusion that microaerobic conditions in nodules influence carbon metabolism in bacteroids.

  18. Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. yield in different density and mixture intercropping via competition indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Eslami Khalili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications at Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University during 2009. The first factor was two seed ratios include D1: 75 and 150 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (optimum seed ratio and D2: 100 and 200 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (high seed ratio and the second factor consisted of different planting ratio, P1: sole cropping of faba bean, P2: 50% faba bean + 50 % barley, P3: 75% faba bean + 25% barley, P4: 25% faba bean + 75% barley, P5: sole cropping of barley. Land equivalent ratio (LER indicated that intercropping of 25% faba bean + 75% barley was better than 50% faba bean + 50% barley. According to significant interaction effects of density and intercropping ratio in terms of seed yield and some competitive indices for both crop species, the highest barley and faba bean yield (3306.66 and 4884.56 kg.ha-1, respectively were observed in sole cropping with high density. In this experiment, the 75 % faba bean + 25 % mixture with high density was recorded highest intercropping yield, barley aggressivity value and 27% yield increases of barley in mix-proportion compared to sole crops. Also, the most of faba bean aggressivity value and faba bean yield increases in mix-proportion compared to sole crop were obtained when 25% faba bean + 75% barley mixture with optimum density was used. Furthermore the 75% faba bean + 25% barley treatment plus optimum seed ratio had highest system productivity index.

  19. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  20. Citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de los ríos Jequetepeque y Moche mediante el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Antonio Beltrán Orbegoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de la toxicidad de las aguas de los ríos como método complementario al análisis físico, químico y biológico proporciona una información integral de la calidad del agua, por tanto, el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los niveles de citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de las cuencas alta, media y baja de los ríos Moche y Jequetepeque, usando el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L. “haba” (2n = 12. Se germinaron semillas de V. faba L.; luego las raicillas emergentes se expusieron, durante tres horas, a siete tratamientos: T1 (100 ml de agua destilada, T2 (1 ml agua de río Jequetepeque / 99 ml de agua destilada, T3 (5 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 95 ml de agua destilada, T4 (10 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 90 ml de agua destilada, T5 (1 ml agua de río Moche/ 99 ml de agua destilada, T6 (5 ml agua de río Moche/ 95 ml de agua destilada y T7 (10 ml agua de río Moche/ 90 ml de agua destilada. Los ápices de las raicillas fueron sometidos a la técnica de Tjio y Levan. El agua de la cuenca media del río Moche del T7, presenta una alta citotoxicidad (índice mitótico de 5,4 % y alteraciones de los índices de fases y un alto efecto genotóxico; las aguas del río Jequetepeque no evidencian efecto citotóxico ni genotóxico de importancia.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  2. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure.

  3. IMPROVING THE TOLERANCE OF Vicia faba AGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY RESULTED FROM THE IRRIGATION WITH SEA WATER BY USING KNO3 AND (NH42SO4 AS CHEMICAL OSMOREGULATORS Mejoramiento de la tolerancia de Vicia faba a salinidad ocasionada por irrigación con agua de mar usando KNO3 AND (NH42SO4 como osmoreguladores químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMEL MOHAMED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The familiar solutes, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO4(3-, SO4(2-, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids and soluble proteins, which play a role in osmotic adjustment were estimated to investigate the role of potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate as osmoregulators and their effects on the solutes composition. Vicia faba L. was cultivated and irrigated with 5, 10, 15 and 20 % (v:v sea water. The plants were divided to three groups. The first was irrigated with sea water only. The second was treated with 5 mM KNO3 while the third was treated with 5mM (NH42SO4. The plants were left to grow until flowering stage. The results indicated that the non treated group increased the soluble carbohydrates in the roots to avoid the influx of sodium. The treatment with KNO3 decreased the sodicity (SAR while (NH42SO4 treatment decreased the SK:Na value in the shoots at higher salinity. The availability of nitrogen as nitrate or ammonium ions enhances the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates in shoots. The plants of all groups were depended on Ca2+, as compatible solute more than Na+, and K+.Los solutos Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO4(3-, SO4(2-, carbohidratos y proteínas solubles, así como amino ácidos son importantes en ajuste osmótico y fueron estimados para determinar el papel de nitrato de potasio y sulfato de amonio como osmoreguladores y su efecto en la composición de solutos. Vicia faba L. fue cultivada e irrigada con 5, 10, 15 y 20 % (v:v de agua de mar permitiendo crecimiento hasta el estado de floración. Las plantas fueron divididas en tres grupos. El primero fue irrigado con agua de mar solamente. El segundo fue tratado con 5 mM KNO3, mientras que el tercer grupo fue expuesto a 5mM (NH42SO4. Los resultados indican que las plantas del primer grupo (no tratado incrementan carbohidratos solubles en sus raíces para evitar influjo de sodio. El tratamiento con KNO3 disminuye riqueza de sodio (SAR mientras que la exposición a (NH42SO4 diminuye la de SK

  4. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  5. Response of bean (Vicia faba L. plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Fang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs and net photosynthetic rate (Pn. These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand. On the 1(st day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca. From the 3(rd to 9(th day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5(th day. From the 11(th to 21(st day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21(st day. CONCLUSIONS: Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn reduction. The non-stomatal limitation was associated with the inhibition of PSII electron transport chain. Our data suggests that the donor side of PSII was the most sensitive to low sink demand followed by the reaction center of PSII. The acceptor side of PSII may be the least sensitive.

  6. Recipient-induced transfer of the symbiotic plasmid pRL1JI in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae is regulated by a quorum-sensing relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Vittoria E; Wilkinson, Adam; Edwards, Anne; Downie, J Allan

    2003-10-01

    Analysis of the regulation of plasmid transfer genes on the symbiotic plasmid pRL1JI in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae has revealed a novel regulatory relay that is specifically poised to detect an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) made by different cells (potential recipients of pRL1JI). Adjacent to the traI-trbBCDEJKLFGHI plasmid transfer operon on pRL1JI are two regulatory genes, bisR and traR, which encode LuxR-type quorum-sensing regulators required for conjugation. Potential recipients of pRL1JI induce the traI-trb operon and plasmid transfer via a quorum-sensing relay involving BisR, TraR and the traI-trb operon in donor cells. BisR induces expression of traR in response to N-(3-hydroxy-7-cis-tetradecenoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-OH-C14:1-HSL), which is produced by CinI in potential recipient strains. In donor strains (carrying pRL1JI), BisR represses the expression of the chromosomal gene cinI; this repression results in a very low level of formation of 3-OH-C14:1-HSL and hence relatively low levels of expression of traR and the traI-trb operon in strains carrying pRL1JI. However, if 3-OH-C14:1-HSL from potential recipients is present, then traR and plasmid transfer are induced. The induction of traR occurs at very low concentrations of 3-OH-C14:1-HSL (around 1 nm). TraR then induces the traI-trb operon in a quorum-sensing dependent manner in re-sponse to the TraI-made AHLs, N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone and N-(octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. The resulting autoinduction results in high levels of expression of the traI-trb operon. Premature expression of the traI-trb operon is reduced by TraM, which probably titres out TraR preventing expression of traI when there are low levels of traR expression. Expression of traR in stationary phase cells is limited by feedback inhibition mediated by TraI-made AHLs.

  7. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  8. Evaluation of microbial biomass C and N content of the soils cultivated with vetch (Vicia sativa L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Bolat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume forage crops have the ability of retaining free nitrogen in the air through symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria found in their roots. Additionally, microbial biomass (MB–an essential living component of soil and a significant factor influencing plant nutrient dynamics–is considered to be accurate indicator of soil’s biological condition. Given the aforementioned aspects, soil MB C (Cmic and MB N (Nmic of different legume forage crops were investigated in this study. Soil samples were taken in order to identify certain physical and chemical characteristics of the soil using volume cylinders (0 – 6.5 cm depth from Vicia sativa L. (VSP and Medicago sativa L. planted (MSP areas. To determine the Cmic and Nmic contents, topsoil samples were also taken from 0 – 6.5 cm depth. Cmic and Nmic contents were identified using chloroform – fumigation – extraction method. There was no statistical significance for particle density, bulk density, electrical conductivity, CaCO3 %, and decomposition ratio (Corg/Ntotal of the VSP and MSP soil (P > 0.05. However, some other soil characteristics such as temperature, porosity, sand, silt and clay contents, pH, organic C and total N differed significantly (P < 0.05. Compared to VSP soil, the Cmic contents were determined to be 27 % higher (P < 0.05 in MSP soil. In VSP soil, the soil Nmic content ranged from 83.38 µg g-1 to 124.67 µg g-1, while it ranged from 91.62 µg g-1 to 187.07 µg g-1 in MSP soil. The Nmic content of the MSP soil was observed to be approximately 35 % higher than VSP soil, and a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was noticed between the two. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found not only between the Cmic and organic C contents (r = 0.667; P < 0.05 but also between the Nmic and total N contents of MSP and VSP soil (r = 0.881; P < 0.01. The results of the study revealed that soil Cmic and Nmic values differ as the types of planted legume forage crops

  9. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Alsaadawi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was even better than herbicide used alone. Integration of recommended dose of Treflan with sunflower residue at 1,400 g m-² produced maximum (987.5 g m-2 aboveground biomass of broad bean, which was 74 and 36% higher than control and recommended herbicide dose applied alone, respectively. Combination of herbicide and sunflower residue appeared to better enhance pod number and yield per unit area than herbicide alone. Application of 50% dose of Treflan in plots amended with sunflower residue resulted in similar yield advantage as was noticed with 100% herbicide dose. Chromatographic analysis of residue-infested field soil indicated the presence of several phytotoxic compounds of phenolic nature. Periodic data revealed that maximum suppression in weed density and dry weight synchronized with peak values of phytotoxins observed 4 weeks after incorporation of sunflower residues. Integration of sunflower residues with lower herbicide rates can produce effective weed suppression without compromising yield as a feasible and environmentally sound approach in broad bean fields.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar resíduos agrícolas com potencial alelopático para reduzir o uso de herbicidas sintéticos em fava (Vicia faba. Resíduos de girassol (600 e 1,400 g m-2 e Treflan (50, 75 e 100% da dose recomendada foram incorporados ao solo isoladamente ou em combinação uns com os outros. Parcelas não tratadas foram mantidas como controle. A aplicação de

  10. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  11. LC-MSdetermination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia fabaL. lines with common and rare flowercolors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of muscle control, which causes trembling of the limbs and head as well as impaired balance. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine is the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat PD. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the few plant species that is known to produce L-DOPA and has the potential to be developed as a functional food crop for people suffering with PD. Objective: Aimed to provide needed information for people who want to use faba bean as a natural remedy or functional food to relieve PD symptoms, this study analyzed the variation of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors. Methods: Leaf and flower samples were taken from field grown plants with different flower colors, namely, pink with purple lines and black dots, pure white, brown, and crimson. Samples were freeze-dried and L-DOPA was quantified by a LC-MS system consisting of an ACQUITY UPLC in line with a Synapt G2 HDMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This experiment was carried out in two consecutive years (2012 and 2013 and the plants used in the second year were grown from the seeds harvested from the plants used in the first year. Results and Discussion: Our two-year study revealed a high level of variation in L-DOPA concentration for leaf and flower tissues among the six faba bean lines studied. The average L-DOPA concentration based on dry weight (DW in flowers ranged from 27.8 to 63.5 mg/g and 18.2 to 48.7 mg/g for leaf tissues. There was no significant correlation between L-DOPA concentrations in flowers and leaves. The L-DOPA concentration in flowers and in leaves of the same line varied but were not statistically significant between the two years. Ideally, the genotype with the highest average L-DOPA concentration in both flowers and leaves would be grown

  12. Anbautelegramm Saatwicke (Vicia sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, Herwart; Weissmann, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    Für den Anbau von Saatwicken werden in einem kurzgefassten Anbautelegramm die Stärken und Schwächen sowie grundlegende Kennwerte zu Standortansprüchen, Aussaat, Unkrautregulierung, Nährstoffbedarf und Schaderregern beschrieben.

  13. (Vicia faba) IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... iron, zinc, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C [4]. Although Ethiopia has a fairly large livestock population, availability of meat and milk for local human consumption is limited, especially in rural areas where wealth index values are in the lower quintiles, according to the most recent Demographic ...

  14. (Vicia faba) IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... in 22.5, 4.7, and 8.3% of study children, respectively. Questionnaires ..... this study, however, requires preparation of the raw ingredients. .... Survey 2009/10 Report for the National Nutrition Program of Ethiopia. Ethiopian ...

  15. Significance of genetic resources of cool season annual legumes: II: Neglected and underutilised crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources are a live treasury of both one country and the whole mankind, although their ex situ preservation and in situ conservation are very demanding in numerous ways, especially if human resources and financial issues are considered. Legumes (Fabaceae Lindl. are facing the bottlenecks caused by breeding emphasizing yield and quality, raising the questions how to solve the issue of this narrowing the genetic basis of cultivated legume species. The reintroduction of neglected and underutilised crops, such as red vetchling (Lathyrus cicera, Cyprus vetchling (Lathyrus ochrus, French serradella (Ornithopus sativus, Ethiopian pea (Pisum abyssinicum, field pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense, fenugreek (Trigonella phoenum-graecum, bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia, Narbonne vetch (Vicia narbonensis, Hungarian vetch (Vicia pannonica and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa may significantly assist many contemporary farming systems by diversifying their needs and improve the efficiency of environment resources.

  16. Analyse de la tolérance des populations locales de fève (Vicia faba L. à la sécheresse au stade juvénile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora AQTBOUZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most important abiotic stress responsible of the production instability and lower levels of yields of faba bean (Vicia faba L.. The cropping of tolerant varieties can be an opportunity to stabilize production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability and to study the drought tolerance in the juvenile plant stage in a collection of local Moroccan faba bean populations from the province of Taounate. A number of 60 local populations were studied under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Different morphological and physiological traits were studied before and under water stress and during the recovery phase. The difference between recovery and water stress phases estimates the capacity of local populations to recover from drought. The local populations contain a wide diversity for different studied traits. The gain in dry matter has a negative and highly significant correlation with dry matter yield under water stress (r = -0.64 **. The populations 16, 47, 1 and 9 have proven to be the most drought tolerant at juvenile stage.

  17. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  18. Improving respiration measurements with gas exchange analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Ribas-Carbó, M; Del Saz, N F; El Aou-Ouad, H; Berry, J A; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-12-01

    Dark respiration measurements with open-flow gas exchange analyzers are often questioned for their low accuracy as their low values often reach the precision limit of the instrument. Respiration was measured in five species, two hypostomatous (Vitis Vinifera L. and Acanthus mollis) and three amphistomatous, one with similar amount of stomata in both sides (Eucalyptus citriodora) and two with different stomata density (Brassica oleracea and Vicia faba). CO2 differential (ΔCO2) increased two-fold with no change in apparent Rd, when the two leaves with higher stomatal density faced outside. These results showed a clear effect of the position of stomata on ΔCO2. Therefore, it can be concluded that leaf position is important to guarantee the improvement of respiration measurements increasing ΔCO2 without affecting the respiration results by leaf or mass units. This method will help to increase the accuracy of leaf respiration measurements using gas exchange analyzers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Phosphorylation of H2AX histones in response to double-strand breaks and induction of premature chromatin condensation in hydroxyurea-treated root meristem cells of Raphanus sativus, Vicia faba, and Allium porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Maszewski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Histone H2A variant H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation and hydroxyurea-mediated replication arrest, resulting in the formation of gamma-H2AX foci along megabase chromatin domains nearby the sites of incurred DNA damage. In an attempt to establish a relationship between species-specific nuclear architecture and H2AX phosphorylation in S/G(2) phase-arrested root meristem cells, immunocytochemical comparisons using an antibody raised against human gamma-H2AX were made among three plants differing with respect to DNA contents: Allium porrum, representing a reticulate type of DNA package, Vicia faba, having semireticulate cell nuclei, and Raphanus sativus, characterised by a chromocentric type of chromatin. Another approach was aimed at determining possible correlations between the extent of hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of H2AX histones and the quantities of root meristem cells induced by caffeine to enter aberrant mitotic division (premature chromosome condensation). It was concluded that the higher-order structure of chromatin may contribute to the accessibility of molecular factors engaged in the recognition and repair of genetic lesions. Consequently, in contrast to A. porrum and V. faba, a diffuse chromatin in chromocentric cell nuclei of R. sativus may become more vulnerable both to generate DNA double-strand breaks and to recruit molecular elements needed to arrange the cell cycle checkpoint functions, and thus, more resistant to factors which allow the cells to enter premature chromosome condensation spontaneously. On the other hand, however, caffeine-mediated overriding of the S-M checkpoint control system resulted in the typical appearance of premature chromosome condensation, irrespective of the genomic content of DNA.

  20. IMPROVING THE TOLERANCE OF Vicia fabaAGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY RESULTED FROM THE IRRIGATION WITH SEA WATER BY USING K2 SO4 AND (NH42SO4 AS CHEMICAL OSMOREGULATORS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L. was cultivated with irrigation with 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v:v sea water. The plants were divided to three groups. The first was irrigated without treatments while the second was treated with 5 mM KNO3 and the third was treated with 5mM (NH42 SO4. The plants were left to grow until flowering stage. The famous solutes Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO43-, SO42-, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids and soluble proteins were estimated to investigate the role of potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphates as osmoregulators. The results indicated that the non-treated group increased the soluble carbohydrates in the roots to avoid the influx of sodium. The treatment with KNO3 decreased the sodicity (SAR in the shoots. The availability of nitrogen as nitrate or ammonium ions enhances the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates in shoots. KNO3 treatment decreased SAR strongly while (NH42 SO4 treatment the SK:Na value in the shoots at higher salinity. The plants of all groups were depended on Ca2+ as compatible solute

  1. Feeding value of field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2017-04-01

    Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets. The Control diet contained as major ingredients wheat (400 g/kg) and soybean meal (SBM) (127 g/kg and 221 g crude protein/kg and 12.83 MJ AMEn/kg. To reduce nutrient density, the Control diet also contained washed sand at 119 g/kg. Another three diets containing 300 g/kg of each of three experimental field bean cultivar samples in replacement for SBM and sand were also mixed. Each diet was fed to nine pens with two male Ross 308 broilers. Diets high in tannin had low AMEn, ECR, DMR and NR (p beans increased (p beans with different tannin contents may vary when fed to broilers. The supplementation of the enzyme mixture improved the feeding value of diets for broilers. The beneficial effect of the addition of the enzyme mixture seems to be mediated through reduced ileal digesta viscosity and improved nutrient availability.

  2. Protective role of α-tocopherol on two Vicia faba cultivars against seawater-induced lipid peroxidation by enhancing capacity of anti-oxidative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa A. Orabi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of seawater stress on growth, yield, physiological and antioxidant responses of faba bean plant and whether the exogenous application with vitamin E could mitigate the adverse effect of salinity stress or not, a pot experiment was carried out during 2011/12 winter season under green house of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Two faba bean cultivars (Giza 3 and Giza 843 irrigated with diluted seawater (Tap water, 3.13 or 6.25 dS m−1 and α-tocopherol (0, 50 or 100 mg L−1 were used. At 75 days after sowing, growth sample was taken for vegetative growth measurement, proline, carotenoids, antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, POX and PAL, lipid peroxidation, and inorganic ions as well as seed yield and yield attributes were determined. The results revealed that seawater triggered significant inhibitory effects on faba bean growth and yield especially for Giza 3 cultivar with obvious increments in MDA and Na+ ion contents. Foliar application with α-tocopherol at rate of 100 mg L−1 followed by 50 mg L−1 on faba bean plants exerted certain alleviative effects on these indices in particular on Giza 843. α-Tocopherol could play an important role in alleviation of injury of faba bean irrigated with diluted seawater through the enhancement of the protective parameters such as antioxidant enzymes, proline, carotenoids, and inorganic ions (K+ and Ca2+ to be effective in decreasing MDA content, lessening the harmful effect of salinity, and improving faba bean growth, seed yield and seed yield quality.

  3. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of

  4. SUPPLEMENTARY VALUE OF VETCH (VICIA DASYCARPA) HAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal

    (Boran x Friesian) cows fed with a basal diet of urea-molasses-treated wheat straw. ... wheat straw. INTRODUCTION. Wheat straw is one of the major cereal crop residues produced in the world. As an example, around 2.5 million tons of wheat straw are produced annually .... temperature in sealed plastic bags until required.

  5. SUPPLEMENTARY VALUE OF VETCH (VICIA DASYCARPA) HAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal

    on feed intake and digestibility as well as milk production and composition in lactating F1 crossbred. (Boran x Friesian) cows ... cows of similar milk yield (8–10 kg d-1), body weight (BW) and stage of lactation (early lactation), but differing in parities were ... vetch in the daily ration of lactating cows can only be justified when ...

  6. Üç Macar Fiği (Vicia pannonica Crantz.) Çeşidinde Farklı Dozlarda Gama Işını Uygulamasının M2 generasyonunda Bazı Bitkisel Özellikleri Üzerine Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    BAĞCI, Muhittin; Mutlu, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışma, “Macar fiği (Vicia pannonica Crantz.) Bitkisinde Gama Işını Uygulaması ile Mutasyon Islahı” projesinin M2 generasyonunu kapsamaktadır. Araştırma, üç Macar fiği çeşidinde, gama ışını dozlarının M2 generasyonunda, bazı bitkisel özellikler üzerine etkilerini belirlemek ve kontrol doz (0 Gy) uygulaması ile karşılaştırmak amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada, üç Macar fiği çeşidinin (Tarmbeyazı-98, Anadolupembesi-2002 ve Oğuz-2002) M1 bitkilerinin tohumları ekilmiştir. Elde edilen M2 bi...

  7. Measures for Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; A.D., Jackson; Lautrup, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    Are some ways of measuring scientific quality better than others? Sune Lehmann, Andrew D. Jackson and Benny E. Lautrup analyse the reliability of commonly used methods for comparing citation records.......Are some ways of measuring scientific quality better than others? Sune Lehmann, Andrew D. Jackson and Benny E. Lautrup analyse the reliability of commonly used methods for comparing citation records....

  8. Measurement Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jun Hui; Kim, Hyeong Cheol

    2001-08-15

    This book deals with conception of measurement such as measuring and test, instrument for measurement, and types and methods of measuring, general things for precision measurement like indicator, gauge standard and Abbe's principle, measuring instrument such as vernier calipers, micrometer calipers, each gage, an optical instrument, and 3D instrument, choice and using of measuring instrument on length measurement, angle measurement, and side measurement, application and calculation for measuring using trigonometrical function, sin law, and the Pythagorean Theorem.

  9. The effects of cover crop on weed control in collard (Brassica olerecea var acephala) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennan, H; Ngouajio, M; Isik, D; Kose, B; Kaya, E

    2006-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are not very competitive and weed interference can cause considerable yield losses in collard (Brassica olerecea var acephala) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Currently there are no pre or post emergence herbicides registered for weed control in these vegetables in Turkey. For this reason, alternative weed control strategies need to be developed. Cover crop residue could represent an alternative method of weed management in these crops. Field studies were conducted in 2004 at the Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute experimental field in Samsun, Turkey. The cover crop treatments consisted of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, Sorghum vulgare Pers., Vicia villosa L., Amaranthus cruentus L., Pisum sativum L. and the bare ground with no cover crop. All cover crops were seeded by hand and incorporated into the soil on 11 May, 2004. Each plot was 10 m2 (2 x 5 m) and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. All cover crops were incorporated into the soil by discing on 1 September 2004 at flowering stage of the cover crops. Broadleaved weed species were dominant in the experimental area. Most cover crops established well and S. bicolor biomass was the highest. The number of weed species emerging in all treatments was different at 14 DAD (days after desiccation). Similar results were observed at 28 and 56 DAD. Treatments with Vicia villosa residues had fewer weed species and lower total weed densities than other treatments.

  10. Effects of flavonoids extracted from the whole plant of Patrinia Villosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chronic pelvic pain, tubal factor infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. The etiopathogenisis of PID is the infection ... inflammation, wound and abdominal pain [6]. Previous reports have revealed that triterpenoid saponins ..... Li L, Yin Z. Resveratrol mitigates lipopolysaccharide- mediated acute inflammation in rats by inhibiting the.

  11. Black hairy tongue in a patient with chronic аlcholism (lingua villosa nigra)

    OpenAIRE

    BAKHTIYAROVA GAUKHAR; TINAZLI MEHTAP; GRANIT DENIZ; GOKCEN ASVAROGLU SABIHA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Black Hairy Tongue (BHT) is a hereditary benign condition which is characterized by the appaerance of abnormally hypertrophied and elongated pilliform papilla on dorsal surface of tongue. Its exact pathogenesis is unknown; however, there is significant involvement of secondary papillary cells producing hairy-type keratin. Known predisposing factors include smoking, consumption of excessive coffee / black tea, bad oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, poverty, xesrostomia, drugs and alc...

  12. Topical tretinoin: a new treatment for black hairy tongue (lingua villosa nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtry, J A; Carr, M M; Steele, M C; Ive, F A

    1992-05-01

    Black hairy tongue is the name given to the appearance of an abnormal coating of the tongue and occurs only in adults. It is the result of hyperkeratosis of the filiform lingual papillae which, on gross examination appear hair-like with a variable tinctorial aspect from yellow-brown to black. The pathogenesis is unknown and often no definite cause can be identified. A number of aetiologic factors have been implicated including the administration of topical or systemic antibiotics, poor oral hygiene, smoking, alcohol and the use of mouthwashes. Often there are no symptoms other than the aesthetic or anxiety over its aetiology. Some patients complain of gagging, nausea, alteration of taste or halitosis. The condition may be very persistent and recognized treatments include brushing with a soft tooth brush which is enhanced by the prior application of a 40% solution of urea, scraping, topical triamcinolone acetonide, gentian violet, thymol, salicylic acid, vitamin B complex, and surgical excision of the papillae.

  13. 164 antitrypanosomal activity of senna villosa in infected balb/c mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi growth in mammalian cells by purine and pyrimidine analogs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 40:2455-2458. 23. Organización Mundial de la Salud. (2007). Reporte sobre la enfermedad de Chagas. Programa Especial de. Investigaciones y Enseñanzas sobre Enfermedades Tropicales (TDR) ...

  14. Effects of flavonoids extracted from the whole plant of Patrinia Villosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p < 0.01), while IL-10 level significantly increased (p < 0.01) in the serum of chronic pelvic inflammatory rats and LPS-stimulated macrophages. In addition, a similar trend was observed in the mRNA levels of LPS-stimulated macrophages ...

  15. Measure for measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The present system of measures for length, weight and capacity (volume) originates from scientific ideas expressed during the French Revolution in 1789. The history of a compatible unit of length, however, turns out to be less of a scientific but rather of a political character. Here reports to the Philosophical Magazine made in the first quarter of the nineteenth century are used to trace the cultural split between meters and inches, and between kilograms and pounds, that can be experienced in many parts of the world.

  16. Do cover crops enhance N₂O, CO₂ or CH₄ emissions from soil in Mediterranean arable systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cobena, A; García-Marco, S; Quemada, M; Gabriel, J L; Almendros, P; Vallejo, A

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of planting three cover crops (CCs) (barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; vetch, Vicia villosa L.; rape, Brassica napus L.) on the direct emission of N₂O, CO₂ and CH₄ in the intercrop period and the impact of incorporating these CCs on the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) from the forthcoming irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) crop. Vetch and barley were the CCs with the highest N₂O and CO₂ losses (75 and 47% increase compared with the control, respectively) in the fallow period. In all cases, fluxes of N₂O were increased through N fertilization and the incorporation of barley and rape residues (40 and 17% increase, respectively). The combination of a high C:N ratio with the addition of an external source of mineral N increased the fluxes of N₂O compared with -Ba and -Rp. The direct emissions of N₂O were lower than expected for a fertilized crop (0.10% emission factor, EF) compared with other studies and the IPCC EF. These results are believed to be associated with a decreased NO₃(-) pool due to highly denitrifying conditions and increased drainage. The fluxes of CO₂ were in the range of other fertilized crops (i.e., 1118.71-1736.52 kg CO₂-Cha(-1)). The incorporation of CC residues enhanced soil respiration in the range of 21-28% for barley and rape although no significant differences between treatments were detected. Negative CH₄ fluxes were measured and displayed an overall sink effect for all incorporated CC (mean values of -0.12 and -0.10 kg CH₄-Cha(-1) for plots with and without incorporated CCs, respectively). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(-)-N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1) biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1) and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1). Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1) N and had mean C:N ratio Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  18. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, α-glucosidase and lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits.

  19. Preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo do solo na cultura de mandioca em condições de adubação verde com ervilhaca e aveia preta Differences between convencional and minimum tillage soil preparation for cassava cropping with Vicia sativa and Avena strigosa green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gabriel Filho

    2000-12-01

    properties. The use of plants for green cover manure and the use of minimum tillage may contribute to reduction of soil erosion and to facilitate manual harvest. An experiment in eutrophic Oxisol, located in Marechal Cândido Rondon country state of Paraná, Brazil, was carried out to collect information on the physical soil properties, harvest effort strength and cassava productivity. Experimental design was composed by eight treatments with four repetitions on a 2x4 factorial. Were used two soil tillage (conventional and minimum and four soil cover types: common vetch (Vicia sativa, black oat (Avena strigosa, common vetch plus black oat and bare soil. The results showed that soil density and resistance to penetration in the 0-10cm layer were higher under conventional than under minimum tillage. There were no differences for cassava harvest effort and cassava productivity between soil tillage treatments as well as among types of soil cover. No significant interaction was detected also. It is hypotesized that the results obtained are due to the fact that soil used did not have compaction, the soil had a high degree of natural fertility and there was no water stress during the experiment. Consequenthy, minimum tillage may substitute conventional tillage and reduce costs for cassava cropping.

  20. Redistribution of phosphorus in soil through cover crop roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Franchini

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate if cover crops can absorb P from the upper layers and transport it in their roots to subsoil layers. Samples of an Oxisol were placed in PVC columns. Super phosphate fertilizer was applied to the 0-10 cm soil surface layers. The cover crops tested were: Avena strigosa, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Pisum sativum subsp arvense, Pisum sativum, Vicia villosa, Vicia sativa, Lupinus angustifoliu, Lupinus albus, and Triticum aestivum. After a growth period of 80 days the cover crop shoots were cut off and the soil was divided into 10cm layers and the roots of each layer were washed out. The roots and shoots were analyzed separated for total P contribution to the soil. Considerable amount of P was present in the roots of cover crops. Vicia sativa contained more than 60% of total plant P in the roots. The contribution of Vicia sativa to soil P bellow the fertilized zone was about 7 kg ha-1. It thus appeared that there existed a possibility of P redistribution into the soil under no tillage by using cover crops in rotation with cash crops. Vicia sativa was the most efficient cover crop species as P carrier into the roots from superficial layer to lower layers.Em plantio direto o P acumula-se próximo da subsuperfície do solo. Devido a importância do P para o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular é benéfico a sua transferência da superfície para a subsuperfície do solo. O objetivo foi avaliar se as plantas de cobertura do solo podem absorver P na superfície e transferi-la através das raízes para a subsuperfície do solo. Amostras de um latossolo com baixo teor de P disponível foram transferidas para colunas de PVC. Superfosfato triplo foi aplicado na camada de 0 a 10 cm de profundidade. Avaliaram-se as seguintes plantas de cobertura: Avena strigosa, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Pisum sativum subsp arvense, Pisum sativum, Vicia villosa, Vicia sativa, Lupinus angustifoliu, Lupinus albus, e Triticum

  1. Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.

    1992-01-01

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments,

  2. In vitro plant regeneration from Narbon Vetch (Vicia narbonensis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... photoperiod. The pH of all cultures was adjusted to 5.6 - 5.8 before adding 0.65% agar (Duchefa) and autoclaving at 121oC, 118 kPa pressure for 20 min. To induce roots, the shoots regenerated on all .... geographic origins for very successful tissue culture in the future. Moreover, it is expected that the ...

  3. Replacement of Concentrate Mix With Vetch ( Vicia dasycarpa ) Hay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted with the objective to assess the effect of replacing vetch for concentrate mix on feed intake and digestibility as well as milk production and composition in lactating crossbred (Boran x Friesian) cows kept on a basal feed of urea- molasses treated wheat straw (UMTWS). Eight crossbred cows of ...

  4. An evaluation of fababean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant differences in CP degra- dability between fababean and lupin seed were observed, while. DM degradability was significantly (P •••0.05) higher for lupin seed at the low outflow rate, but significantly (P •••0.05) lower for lupin seed at the high outflow rate. Several other researchers (Cronje, 1983; Freer & Dove, ...

  5. Association of Faba Bean Rust ( Uromyces viciae-fabae ) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stage and field management practices. The mean incidence of the disease varied from 44.6% in Bedeno to 98% in Tullo, while severity of the disease varied from 12.7% in Bedeno to 65% in Gorogutu and Kurfachale districts. Logistic regression analysis for the association of rust incidence and severity with environmental ...

  6. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were significant interaction effects between rumen juice and seed size on seed germination of V. angustifolia. Our results suggest that grazing pressure of animal feed present have significant negatively effects on seed germination for V. angustifolia with different seed size in alpine area of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Faba Bean ( Vicia faba L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some species of rhizobial bacteria nodulating faba bean are characterized by phosphate solubilization. In order to study their in vitro and symbiotic characteristics, twelve rhizobial isolates nodulating faba bean were collected from acidic soil of Wollega, Ethiopia. Solubilization index of the isolates ranges from 1.25 to 2.10.

  8. An evaluation of fababean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemiese samestelling van fababoon- en lupiensaad en stoppel is bepaal. Skape op beide stoppellande het toegeneem in liggaams- massa (P ~ 0.01) oor die eerste 35 dae van beweiding, waama skape op beide weidings se gemiddelde liggaamsmassa afgeneem het. Die gemiddelde liggaamsmassa van die hamels het ...

  9. An evaluation of fababean ( Vicia faba ) and lupin ( Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die eksperiment is uitgevoer om fababoon- en soetlupien-oesreste as somerweiding vir jong Merinohamels te vergelyk. Die droë materiaal (DM)- en ruproteïen (RP)-degradeelbaarheid sowel as die chemiese samestelling van fababoon- en lupiensaad en stoppel is bepaal. Skape op beide stoppellande het toegeneem in ...

  10. Intercropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and bean (Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... Details of field and soil characteristics and meteoro- logical data of experimental site are given in Tables 1 and 2. Experimental design. The treatments were compared in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Five treatments were included in the experiment as showed in Table 3.

  11. Intercropping of wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and bean ( Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with four replications. The results show that intercropping systems had a significant effect on environmental resources consumption, where intercropping systems had more light interception and water, and nutrient uptake compared to sole crops, ...

  12. Measurement evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, A

    1990-01-01

    The information obtained about a measured object is called ``crude'' measurement information and must be related to the conditions under which the measurement took place. Using ``crude'' measurement information as a starting point, evaluation produces physically correctly interpreted data with their estimated (or corrected) error. Although a number of works deal with the evaluation of measurements, they either appeared a long time ago or serve essentially different aims. This book gives a comprehensive and current overview on the basic principles, aids, devices, and methods in the eval

  13. Multilevel Interventions: Measurement and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charns, Martin P.; Alligood, Elaine C.; Benzer, Justin K.; Burgess, James F.; Mcintosh, Nathalie M.; Burness, Allison; Partin, Melissa R.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Multilevel intervention research holds the promise of more accurately representing real-life situations and, thus, with proper research design and measurement approaches, facilitating effective and efficient resolution of health-care system challenges. However, taking a multilevel approach to cancer care interventions creates both measurement challenges and opportunities. Methods One-thousand seventy two cancer care articles from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed to examine the state of measurement in the multilevel intervention cancer care literature. Ultimately, 234 multilevel articles, 40 involving cancer care interventions, were identified. Additionally, literature from health services, social psychology, and organizational behavior was reviewed to identify measures that might be useful in multilevel intervention research. Results The vast majority of measures used in multilevel cancer intervention studies were individual level measures. Group-, organization-, and community-level measures were rarely used. Discussion of the independence, validity, and reliability of measures was scant. Discussion Measurement issues may be especially complex when conducting multilevel intervention research. Measurement considerations that are associated with multilevel intervention research include those related to independence, reliability, validity, sample size, and power. Furthermore, multilevel intervention research requires identification of key constructs and measures by level and consideration of interactions within and across levels. Thus, multilevel intervention research benefits from thoughtful theory-driven planning and design, an interdisciplinary approach, and mixed methods measurement and analysis. PMID:22623598

  14. When Measurement Benefits the Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-23

    late 33% state that rework is at least 25% of their budget 2014 IT Leadership Survey - Blueprint Software Systems Inc. 5 When Measurement Benefits...People as machines. Frederick Taylor Peter Drucker 21 When Measurement Benefits the Measured Kasunic & Nichols, April 23, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie

  15. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  16. Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael

    Measurement uncertainty is one of the key issues in quality assurance. It became increasingly important for analytical chemistry laboratories with the accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of a measurement is the most important criterion for the decision whether a measurement result is fit for purpose. It also delivers help for the decision whether a specification limit is exceeded or not. Estimation of measurement uncertainty often is not trivial. Several strategies have been developed for this purpose that will shortly be described in this chapter. In addition the different possibilities to take into account the uncertainty in compliance assessment are explained.

  17. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  18. Mechanical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Venkateshan, S P

    2015-01-01

    The first edition of this book was co-published by Ane Books India, and CRC Press in 2008. This second edition is an enlarged version of the web course developed by the author at IIT Madras, and also a modified and augmented version of the earlier book.  Major additions/modifications presented are in the treatment of errors in measurement, temperature measurement, measurement of thermo-physical properties, and data manipulation. Many new worked examples have been introduced in this new and updated second edition. 

  19. Environmental Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  20. Horizon measures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Eugene

    2016-11-28

    In this paper we seek to answer the following question: where do contour lines and visible contour lines (silhouette) tend to occur in a 3D surface. Our study leads to two novel shape descriptors, the horizon measure and the visible horizon measure, which we apply to the visualization of 3D shapes including archeological artifacts. In addition to introducing the shape descriptors, we also provide a closed-form formula for the horizon measure based on classical spherical geometry. To compute the visible horizon measure, which depends on the exact computation of the surface visibility function, we instead of provide an image-based approach which can process a model with high complexity within a few minutes.

  1. Diversity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mentor Ademaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity measures are a type of non-criminal measures foreseen in the Chapter IV of the Code of Juvenile Justice, which may be imposed on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts. These measures can be applied in cases of minor offenses, for which is foreseen the criminal sanction with a fine or imprisonment up to three years or for criminal offenses committed by negligence for which is foreseen the sentence up to five years of imprisonment, except those cases that result in death. With the imposition of these measures is intended to prevent criminal proceedings against juveniles whenever is possible, rehabilitation and reintegration of juvenile in his/her community and the prevention of recidivist behaviour. Competent authority to impose them is the public prosecutor, the juvenile judge and juvenile court. And they are executed by the Kosovo Correctional Service.

  2. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  3. Measuring Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Del Gatto, Massimo; Di Liberto, Adriana; Petraglia, Carmelo

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying productivity is a conditio sine qua non for empirical analysis in a number of research fields. The identification of the measure that best fits with the specific goals of the analysis, as well as being data-driven, is currently complicated by the fact that an array of methodologies is available. This paper provides economic researchers with an up-to-date overview of issues and relevant solutions associated with this choice. Methods of productivity measurement are surveyed and clas...

  4. Measuring Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoskova Jana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a key to creating a sustainable competitive advantage. Measuring knowledge of an organization as a unit allows for, in addition to other things, benchmarking it against other organizations as well as comparing the development within the organization in the course of time. Additionally, measuring the knowledge of individuals and groups helps identify key workers and can also be used when recruiting a new work force, while evaluating employees’ work performances, or to check the course of the adaptation of a new employee. Even though the field of measuring knowledge belongs, in comparison with other topics, among the lesser-developed fields in the management of knowledge, a number of approaches that can be used to measure knowledge have been introduced. The aim of this study is to present an overview of methods which can be applied when measuring the knowledge of organizations, groups or individuals and thus provide a practical list of methods which feature in literature mostly for practitioners and novices in this field. The study is based on a content-analysis of literature.

  5. Measuring needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in measuring the health of populations, through measuring the demand and offers of health care, is deeply rooted in history. Population health indicators in use today are built upon from mortality measures from the 1500s; regular census information starting from the 1800s; civil registration records of vital statistics commencing in the 1850s; regular national surveys, which were first initiated in the 1950s; and health system and other administrative databases used widely since the 1960s. The ancient Greeks believed that the God of medicine had two daughters: Hygeia and Panacea, the first was the goddess of prevention and wellness, while the second was the goddess of treatment. Thus suggesting that people have long believed that there is more to health than health care. Today the actual concept of population health recognizes many interconnected aspects of society, the environment, and individuals all contributing to health. To increase opportunities for comparability, more valid, comprehensive and standardized ways of measuring and reporting on population health indicators are needed. The use of health indicators contributes to overall population health goals, namely improving the health populations, reducing health inequalities and measuring the performance of health care system. The objective of performance assessment is to provide governments and populations with information about the state of their health care system.

  6. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  7. Measuring Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Holly; Healey, Kaleen; Sporte, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Moving teacher evaluation systems from measuring teachers' performance to improving their practice requires much greater attention to communication and support. In the fall of 2012, Chicago Public Schools (CPS) instituted a sweeping reform of its teacher evaluation system with the introduction of REACH Students (Recognizing Educators Advancing…

  8. Measuring Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert R; Hancock, P A

    2017-06-01

    As human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) moves to embrace a greater systems perspective concerning human-machine technologies, new and emergent properties, such as resilience, have arisen. Our objective here is to promote discussion as to how to measure this latter, complex phenomenon. Resilience is now a much-referenced goal for technology and work system design. It subsumes the new movement of resilience engineering. As part of a broader systems approach to HF/E, this concept requires both a definitive specification and an associated measurement methodology. Such an effort epitomizes our present work. Using rational analytic and synthetic methods, we offer an approach to the measurement of resilience capacity. We explicate how our proposed approach can be employed to compare resilience across multiple systems and domains, and emphasize avenues for its future development and validation. Emerging concerns for the promise and potential of resilience and associated concepts, such as adaptability, are highlighted. Arguments skeptical of these emerging dimensions must be met with quantitative answers; we advance one approach here. Robust and validated measures of resilience will enable coherent and rational discussions of complex emergent properties in macrocognitive system science.

  9. Suppression and contrasuppression in the induction of contact sensitivity by the administration of cellbound antigen-antibody complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, W; Bereta, M; Ptak, M; Iverson, G M; Green, D R

    1985-10-01

    The tolerogenic signal produced by the i.v. injection of haptenated peritoneal exudate cells can be converted to an immunogenic signal by treating the cells with antibody to the hapten before administration. We examined this phenomenon and found that immunity induced by antigen-antibody complexes, as opposed to skin sensitization, is resistant to suppressor T cell influences. This resistance to suppression is due to the activation of an I-J+, Ly-1 T cell population which adheres to the Vicia villosa lectin, all characteristics of contrasuppressor T cells. Because haptenated cells can induce immunity if injected subcutaneously or into cyclophosphamide-pretreated recipients (thereby avoiding the induction of suppressor cells), we suggest that the activation of contrasuppressor cells by antigen-antibody complexes overrides suppressive influences in the host, allowing immunity to become dominant. The possible roles of suppression and contrasuppression in channeling the effector arm of the immune response (e.g., contact sensitivity vs humoral immunity) are discussed.

  10. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca oleracea, and Rumex acetosella were moderate hosts. Taraxacum officinale, Ipomoea hederacea, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  11. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  12. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  13. Measuring memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1988-01-01

    Three broad approaches to the measurement of memory functioning will be described. The first of these involves using memory as a general indicator of any dysfunction in the central nervous system. This approach will be illustrated using Sternberg's short-term memory scanning paradigm. Its strengths are that such tests are often very sensitive, but they are often very difficult to interpret both theoretically and in practical terms. A second approach is to use a range of tasks selected so as to tap different aspects of human memory. Such an approach is of considerably more theoretical interest, and is discussed in more detail by Eysenck (this volume). Its weaknesses are that theories of memory are still changing relatively quickly, and that mapping such results onto memory outside the laboratory is often complex. A third approach is to attempt a more direct measure of everyday memory. The use of questionnaires for this purpose will be critically discussed, and a new test of everyday memory will be described. This test, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, correlates well with observations of memory lapses in patients, and appears to offer a promising new line of development.

  14. Measuring Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    The Danish Day Care Facilities Act (2015), which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes in preschools should be organised. This means that we must accept that there are large...... local differences in the quality of day care facilities in Denmark (Nordahl et al, 2012; Hansen et al, 2016) and also that we in fact have little knowledge of whether the desired politically determined targets are being met or not and what the quality is really like. In order to measure the quality...... of preschool in Denmark a new research project using the ECERS 3 instrument has been launched. This could capture quality from a global quality standard’s perspective, building the basis for a further investigation of practice in Danish early childhood provisions and centers in a more narrow approach...

  15. Measuring phase with Stokes measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ↔+U↕ei3ϕ 135° I13 * Measure in an orthogonal basis: & OR & 45°0° IR 135° IL * Adjust the phase between & by π/2 LCD PG Spatial light modulators allow us to alter the phase of an optical field Initial Beam Hologram... Final Beam We exploit the SLM’s diffraction inefficiency to independently control the phase between orthogonal polarization components Initial Beam LCD Final Beam 0 1 Independently control the phase between & * Adjust the phase between...

  16. Bioassay-guided evaluation of Dioscorea villosa - an acute and subchronic toxicity, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lima, Claudio Moreira; Lima, Adriana Karla; Melo, Marcelia G Dória; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Oliveira, Dênisson Lima; de Almeida, Enrik Barbosa; Barreto, Rosana Souza Siqueira; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Oliveira, Edica Ramone Andrade; de Albuquerque, Jr, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Araújo, Adriano Antunes Souza

    2013-01-01

    .... In this regard, we carried out to evaluated both antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental models and assess the toxic effects of the acute (single dose) and subchronic (30 days...

  17. [Plasmid pSym1-32 from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae, controlling nitrogen-fixing activity, effectiveness of symbiosis, competitiveness, and acid tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchak, O N; Provorov, N A; Simarov, B V

    2001-09-01

    The symbiotic plasmid (pSym1-32) of the highly effective Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae 1-32 strain was identified after the conjugal transfer of replicons carrying Tn5-mob into the plasmidless Agrobacterium tumefaciens Gm1-9023 strain. Plasmid pSym1-32 was transferred into R. leguminosarum bv. viceae strains Y14 (showing low effectiveness of symbiosis with Vicia villosa) and Y57 (unable to fix nitrogen). Transconjugants formed Fix+ nodules on roots of V. villosa and had a highly enhanced nitrogen fixing ability, increased plant weight, and increased nitrogen accumulation compared to the recipient strains. Variation of transconjugants in symbiotic properties (accompanied by alterations in plasmid composition in some of the conjugants) was detected. Moreover, the donor strain R. leguminosarum bv. viceae 1-32 was shown to be more efficient in the competitiveness and acid tolerance than the recipient Y14 strain. Both these properties were transmitted upon transfer of pSym1-32 into the recipient. Thus, plasmid pSym1-32 was shown to carry genes involved in the control of the nitrogen fixing ability, symbiotic effectiveness, competitiveness, and acid tolerance in R. leguminosarum bv. viceae.

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: oriental silverfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available olepisma_villosa_NL.png Ctenolepisma_villosa_S.png Ctenolepisma_villosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+v...illosa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa&t=NS ...

  19. Non-invasive measurements of leaf epidermal transmittance of UV radiation using chlorophyll fluorescence: field and laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.W. [Southwest Texas State Univ.. Dept. of Biology, San Marcos, TX (United States); Searles, P.S.; Ryel, R.J.; Caldwell, M.M. [Utah State Univ., Dept. of Rangeland Resources and the Ecology Center, Logan, UT (United States); Ballare, C.L. [IFEVA, Univ. de Buenos Aires, Dept. de Ecologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Buenos Aires, (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    Ratios of chlorophyll fluorescence induced by ultraviolet (UV) and bluegreen (BG) radiation [F(UV)/F(BG)] were determined with a Xe-PAM fluorometer to test the utility of this technique as a means of non-intrusively assessing changes in the pigmentation and optical properties of leaves exposed to varying UV exposures under laboratory and field conditions. For plants of Vicia faba and Brassica campestris, grown under controlled-environmental conditions, F(UV-B)/F(BG) was negatively correlated with whole-leaf UV-B-absorbing pigment concentrations. Fluorescence ratios of V.faba were similar to, and positively correlated with (r{sup 2} = 0.77 [UV-B]; 0.85 [UV-A]), direct measurements of epidermal transmittance made with an integrating sphere. Leaves of 2 of 4 cultivars of field-grown Glycine max exposed to near-ambient solar UV-B at a mid-latitude site (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 34 degrees S) showed significantly lower abaxial F(UV-B)/F(BG) values (i.e., lower UV-B epidermal transmittance) than those exposed to attenuated UV-B, but solar UV-B reduction had a minimal effect on F(UV-B)/F(BG) in plants growing at a high-latitude site (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 55 degrees S). Similarly, the exotic Taraxacum officinale did not show significant changes in F(UV-B)/F(BG) when exposed to very high supplemental UV-B (biologically effective UV-B = 14-15 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1}) in the field in Tierra del Fuego, whereas a native species, Gunnera magellanica, showed significant increases in F(UV-B)/F(BG) relative to those receiving ambient UV-B. These anomalous fluorescence changes were associated with increases in BG-absorbing pigments (anthocyanins), but not UV-B-absorbing pigments. These results indicate that non-invasive estimates of epidermal transmittance of UV radiation using chlorophyll fluorescence can detect changes in pigmentation and leaf optical properties induced by UV-B radiation under both field and laboratory conditions. However, this technique may be of limited

  20. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3--N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha-1 biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha-1 and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha-1. Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha-1 N and had mean C:N ratio <17:1 when planted in mid-September and terminated in late April. June soil NO3--N (0 to 30 cm depth) averaged 62 kg ha-1 for rye, 97 kg ha-1 for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha-1 for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination) compared with the monocultures (29%). Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures. PMID:26080008

  1. MEASURE FOR MEASURE: A THRICE TOLD TALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIMAH MOHAMED ALI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Measure for Measure is a difficult play to perform because it has problematic themes, especially the theme of sexuality, that clash with the way of life and thinking of contemporary society. As such, any director who chooses to stage it must consider these difficulties and how to present them in a natural manner without making the audience feel that the whole production is contrived. The directors of the two major productions discussed in this paper tried their best to present a Measure for Measure that would be acceptable to the modern society. It is evident that there are many interpretations of the Duke and Isabella's characters and also of Isabella's reaction to the Duke's proposal at the end of the play. It can be concluded that no interpretation is wrong because each actor or director brings with him his own reading of the play, and every reading has been influenced by other performances and textual criticisms. Since Measure for Measure is a thematically rich play, it should not be confined to a single interpretation. The different performances of Measure for Measure have proven that theatre is experimental as well as ageless. Because it is a brilliant play with a myriad of interpretations, Measure for Measure will not cease to be a favourite for directors in times to come. It is not wrong to predict that fans of Shakespeare in general and of Measure for Measure in particular can look forward to many more productions.For experienced Shakespeare observers all performances are thrice-told tales. The perceiving eye absorbs the performance even as the mind's eye attends to the text. Both are augmented by the inner ear buzzing with those other voices, both critical and dramatic, carried by the observer into the theatre.(Crowl, Samuel 1992: 3

  2. Regularities of multifractal measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polish space. Many researchers [1, 5–9] had formulated density theorems with respect to. Hausdorff measure or packing measure in some spaces. On the other hand, the author in [6] adopted new measures – the so-called multifractal. Hausdorff measure and packing measure to analyze the multifractal structure of a given.

  3. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reading; Measuring blood pressure; Hypertension - blood pressure measurement; High blood pressure - blood pressure measurement ... High blood pressure has no symptoms so you may not know if you have this problem. High blood pressure ...

  4. Measurements on Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...

  5. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  6. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  7. Are the Weak Measurements Really Measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Sokolovski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Weak measurements can be seen as an attempt at answering the Which way? question without destroying interference between the pathways involved. Unusual mean values obtained in such measurements represent the response of a quantum system to this forbidden question, in which the true composition of virtual pathways is hidden from the observer. Such values indicate a failure of a measurement where the uncertainty principle says it must fail, rather than provide an additional insight into physical reality. Quanta 2013; 2: 50–57.

  8. Can Virtue Be Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall; Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some general considerations bearing on the question of whether virtue can be measured. What is moral virtue? What are measurement and evaluation, and what do they presuppose about the nature of what is measured or evaluated? What are the prospective contexts of, and purposes for, measuring or evaluating virtue, and how would…

  9. αs Measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The strong coupling constant, s, has been determined from many pure inclusive and semi-inclusive measurements. All these measurements, measured at different scales, are consistent among each other and the measurements can be combined to give s()=0.118 ± 0.003.

  10. Evaluating Measurement Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2010-01-01

    The goal of Evaluating Measurement Accuracy: A Practical Approach is to present methods for estimating the accuracy of measurements performed in industry, trade, and scientific research. Although multiple measurements are the focus of current theory, single measurements are the ones most commonly used. This book answers fundamental questions not addressed by present theory, such as how to discover the complete uncertainty of a measurement result. In developing a general theory of processing experimental data, this book, for the first time, presents the postulates of the theory of measurements. It introduces several new terms and definitions about the relationship between the accuracy of measuring instruments and measurements utilizing these instruments. It also offers well-grounded and practical methods for combining the components of measurement inaccuracy. From developing the theory of indirect measurements to proposing new methods of reduction in place of the traditional ones, this work encompasses the ful...

  11. Geometric errors measurement for coordinate measuring machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fangyu; Nie, Li; Bai, Yuewei; Wang, Xiaogang; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2017-08-01

    Error compensation is a good choice to improve Coordinate Measuring Machines’ (CMM) accuracy. In order to achieve the above goal, the basic research is done. Firstly, analyzing the error source which finds out 21 geometric errors affecting CMM’s precision seriously; secondly, presenting the measurement method and elaborating the principle. By the experiment, the feasibility is validated. Therefore, it lays a foundation for further compensation which is better for CMM’s accuracy.

  12. Product Pre-Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endou Noboru

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we formalize in Mizar [5] product pre-measure on product sets of measurable sets. Although there are some approaches to construct product measure [22], [6], [9], [21], [25], we start it from σ-measure because existence of σ-measure on any semialgebras has been proved in [15]. In this approach, we use some theorems for integrals.

  13. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  14. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  15. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the availability of structural measures at that hospital. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for patients....

  16. Global Climate Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — When investigating the processes in the atmosphere, measurement of trace gas concentrations is essential.  However, measuring trace gas concentrations is...

  17. MDS Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the quality measures displayed on Nursing Home Compare, excluding Measures of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge. Each row...

  18. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  19. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  20. Foundations of measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Foundations of Measurement offers the most coherently organized treatment of the topics and issues central to measurement. Much of the research involved has been scattered over several decades and a multitude of journals--available in many instances only to specialties. With the publication of Volumes two and three of this important work, Foundations of Measurement is the most comprehensive presentation in the area of measurement.

  1. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  2. Measurement theory in linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidman Sassoon, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel semantic analysis of unit names (like pound and meter) and gradable adjectives (like tall, short and happy), inspired by measurement theory (Krantz et al. In Foundations of measurement: Additive and Polynomial Representations, 1971). Based on measurement theory’s four-way

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  4. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  5. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  6. Measurement Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    College and Career Readiness and Success Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This discussion guide is part of a larger practice guide designed to help state education agencies (SEAs) define measurement goals, select college and career readiness measures and indicators designed to support those goals, and use the data gathered with those measures and indicators to make informed decisions about college and career readiness…

  7. Teaching Measurement with Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.; Moore, Sara D.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement is a difficult concept for many children. Trend data from the National Association of Educational Progress (NAEP) indicate that student achievement with measurement is disappointing, given the amount of instructional time it receives in K-grade 5. In an attempt to address the problem of student achievement with measurement, the authors…

  8. Measurement Science for Engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Korsten, Maarten J.; Olthuis, Wouter

    2004-01-01

    This volume, from an international authority on the subject, deals with the physical and instrumentation aspects of measurement science, the availability of major measurement tools, and how to use them. This book not only lays out basic concepts of electronic measurement systems, but also provides

  9. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  10. Measuring Gearbox Torque Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L. F.

    1986-01-01

    Accuracy increased by measuring small torque differences directly. Input and output torques are balanced by mechanical linkage in transmission-testing apparatus. Force applied to load cell proportional to frictional torque loss in transmission. Apparatus measures portion of input torque lost to friction in automotive transmissions or other gearbox. Apparatus more sensitive than previous measuring systems.

  11. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...

  12. Top quark measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on dif- ferential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.

  13. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  14. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  15. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A part of the sensors has been installed by others, the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report, are only val...

  16. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  17. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  18. Measure and integration theory

    CERN Document Server

    Burckel, Robert B

    2001-01-01

    This book gives a straightforward introduction to the field as it is nowadays required in many branches of analysis and especially in probability theory. The first three chapters (Measure Theory, Integration Theory, Product Measures) basically follow the clear and approved exposition given in the author's earlier book on ""Probability Theory and Measure Theory"". Special emphasis is laid on a complete discussion of the transformation of measures and integration with respect to the product measure, convergence theorems, parameter depending integrals, as well as the Radon-Nikodym theorem. The fi

  19. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  20. Locke on measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R

    2016-12-01

    Like many virtuosi in his day, the English philosopher John Locke maintained an active interest in metrology. Yet for Locke, this was no mere hobby: questions concerning measurement were also implicated in his ongoing philosophical project to develop an account of human understanding. This paper follows Locke's treatment of four problems of measurement from the early Drafts A and B of the Essay concerning Human Understanding to the publication of this famous book and its aftermath. It traces Locke's attempt to develop a natural or universal standard for the measure of length, his attempts to grapple with the measurement of duration, as well as the problems of determining comparative measures for secondary qualities, and the problem of discriminating small differences in the conventional measures of his day. It is argued that the salient context for Locke's treatment of these problems is the new experimental philosophy and its method of experimental natural history. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Reliability of goniometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, D C; Azen, S P; Lin, C M; Spence, C; Baron, C; Lee, L

    1978-11-01

    This study determined the intratester and intertester variability and reliability of goniometric measurements taken by four physical therapists on upper and lower extremity motions of normal male subjects. The same subjects were measured once weekly for four weeks by testers with varied experience in goniometry. Data were analyzed by analyses of variance with repeated measures. Intratester variation for all measurements was less than intertester variation. Further, intertester variation was less for the three upper extremity motions than for those of the lower extremity. These findings indicate the necessity for using the same tester when effects of treatment are evaluated. When the same tester measures the same movement, increases in joint motion of at least three to four degrees determine improvement for either the upper or lower extremity. When more than one tester, however, measures the same movement, increases in joint motion should exceed five degrees for the upper extremity and six degrees for the lower extremity to determine improvement.

  2. Inertial Measurement Units IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Analog Devices, Motorola Japan: Denso Gyroscopes Gyroscopes are inertial sensors used to measure the rate of rotation (measured in degree/s) of a...include: Europe: Bosch, BAE SYSTEMS USA: Systron Donner Japan: Denso , Sumitomo, Panasonic, Murata RTO-EN-AVT-105 4 - 9 Inertial Measurement Units...processing) • Micromachines: Japanese for miniaturised factories / robots • Also: MOEMS / MEMtronics / ASIMS and µSystems 4(A)-13 Microelectronics

  3. Decoherence and quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Namiki, Mikio; Pascazio, Saverio

    1997-01-01

    The quantum measurement problem is one of the most fascinating and challenging topics in physics both theoretically and experimentally. It involves deep questions and the use of very sophisticated and elegant techniques. After analyzing the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics and of the Copenhagen interpretation, this book reviews the most important approaches to the measurement problem and rigorously reformulates the "collapse of the wave function" by measurement, as a dephasing process quantitatively characterized by an order parameter (called the decoherence parameter), according to

  4. Photothermal measurements of superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kino, G.S.; Studenmund, W.R.; Fishman, I.M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A photothermal technique has been used to measure diffusion and critical temperature in high temperature superconductors. The technique is particularly suitable for determining material quality and inhomogeneity.

  5. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    of facing the disparity between the measurement of quantities and the experience of quality, seeks to bridge the gap with thorough evaluation programs and engagement with market and sociological research. Whereas well-being is not technically measureable, these evaluations lead to improvement of the metrics......Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...

  6. The Pepperpot Measurement Bench

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 USPAS (US Particle Accelerator School) included a one week session on Beam Instrumentation of which one day was dedicated to emittance measurements. In addition to formal lectures, a laboratory session, demonstrating different types of transverse emittance measurements, was prepared. The exercises consisted on measurements on an optical bench, where the particle beam is replaced by a light source and the electro-magnetic beam optics is replaced by light optics. These experiments were developed purely for educational purposes but they demonstrate many of the difficulties encountered on the equivalent measurements on the accelerator. Signals must be filtered using digital filters, profiles must be fitted to extract physically meaningful results etc.

  7. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  9. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  10. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G P; Cooksey, C C; Yoon, H W; Hanssen, L M; Podobedov, V B; Vest, R E; Arp, U; Miller, C C

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  11. Measuring children's dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Gerry M; Freeman, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Medline and the Social Science Index Citation databases were searched. Studies had to have used measures of dental anxiety completed by children themselves (≤16 years), been published in English and reported primary data. Non-validated measures, those using proxy measures and non-dentally specific measures were excluded. Data were extracted independently using a standardised form. Validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed, and measures were evaluated against a theoretical framework of dental anxiety. A qualitative summary of the measures is presented. Sixty studies met the inclusion criteria. These covered seven 'trait' and two 'state' measures of dental anxiety used to assess children's dental anxiety over the past decade. The findings from this systematic review can be used to help guide dental academics, clinicians, psychologists and epidemiologists to choose the most appropriate measure of dental anxiety for their intended use. Future work should involve evaluating the content and developmental validity of existing measures with further consideration given to the use of theoretical frameworks to develop this field.

  12. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed. PMID:28649167

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) ...

  14. Gamma measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Faye

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of the CKM angle g from charged and neutral B$\\rightarrow$ DK(*) decays, with a variety of D final states, are presented. The measurements are performed using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$ collected at the LHCb experiment during Run I of the LHC. The results of a combination of LHCb g measurements are discussed. The combined value of $\\gamma$ is $(70.9^{+7.1}_{-8.5})^{\\circ}$ and is the most precise measurement of $\\gamma$ from a single experiment.

  15. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  16. Young Measures and Compactness in Measure Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Florescu, Liviu C

    2012-01-01

    Many problems in science can be formulated in the language of optimization theory, in which case an optimal solution or the best response to a particular situation is required. In situations of interest, such classical optimal solutions are lacking, or at least, the existence of such solutions is far from easy to prove. So, non-convex optimization problems may not possess a classical solution because approximate solutions typically show rapid oscillations. This phenomenon requires the extension of such problems' solution often constructed by means of Young measures. This book is written to int

  17. Faraday rotation measure synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brentjens, MA; de Bruyn, AG

    2005-01-01

    We extend the rotation measure work of Burn ( 1966, MNRAS, 133, 67) to the cases of limited sampling of lambda(2) space and non-constant emission spectra. We introduce the rotation measure transfer function (RMTF), which is an excellent predictor of n pi ambiguity problems with the lambda(2)

  18. Hand measuring eqipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This note is used in connection with a 3 x 2 hours laboratory exercise as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratory includes a demonstration of a series of hand measuring tools as well as a number of exercises, illustrating the use of hand measuring equipment...

  19. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  20. How to Measure Nothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemtulla, Mijke; Borsboom, Denny; van Bork, Riet

    2017-01-01

    In his focus article, "Rethinking Traditional Methods of Survey Validation" in this v15 n2 2017 issue of "Journal Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Andrew Maul writes that it is commonly believed that self-report, survey-based instruments can be used to measure a wide range of psychological attributes,…

  1. Measuring Mobile Phone Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boase, Jeff; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine how well two types of self-report measures adequately operationalize frequency of mobile phone use by comparing them to server log data. Our self-report measures of voice and SMS text messaging activity are drawn from a nationally representative survey of adults living...

  2. Viscosity measuring using microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Patrick Ian

    2001-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the viscosity of a fluid uses a micromachined cantilever mounted on a moveable base. As the base is rastered while in contact with the fluid, the deflection of the cantilever is measured and the viscosity determined by comparison with standards.

  3. Meteorological measurements. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Y. Hollinger

    2008-01-01

    Environmental measurements are useful for detecting climatic trends, understanding how the environment influences biological processes, and as input to ecosystem models. Landscape-scale monitoring requires a suite of environmental measures for all of these purposes, including air and soil temperature, humidity, wind speed, precipitation and soil moisture, and different...

  4. Measuring Poverty: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the author's rejoinder on commentaries of his article which illustrate the variety of perspectives with which people approach poverty measurement issues. Some of the comments highlight the theoretical concerns underpinning poverty measurement efforts, whereas others focus on empirical considerations. As a social scientist,…

  5. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  6. Measures of Pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasuring culture originated in cultural anthropology, but all social sciences contributed to comparative cultural studies. Tracing critical approaches towards a measurement of cultural values one is bound to strip the biases and stereotypes bare and to invade numerous academic fiefs.

  7. Dynamics via measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generators f for σ -algebras can be used to view the dynamics of an invertible measurable transformation T in terms of the range values of f ∘ T . Such generators are the norm rather than the exception. Related measurable and quantitative methods of estimating a function from the behavior of ergodic averages are also discussed.

  8. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  9. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...

  10. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...

  11. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  12. Measuring Facial Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  13. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; den Hartog, D.

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions:

  14. Measuring internet skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed,

  15. Measure free martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Introduction. The notion of measure free martingale is implicit in the construction of equivalent martin- gale measures in the theory of asset pricing in financial mathematics [1, 2], but it has not been fully isolated and made free of probability. Rather it has remained hidden by specific processes and terminology of asset pricing ...

  16. Evaluation of faba beans (Vicia faDa cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLCKERS, R.C., 1991. Evaluering van gars as voedingsbron in varkdi€te in die Winterreenstreek. MSc.(Agric)-tesis. Universiteit van Stellenbosch,. Stellenbosch 7600, Suid-Afiika. ORTIZ, L.T., CENTENO, C. & TREVINO, J., 1993. Tannins in faba bean seeds: effects on the digestion of protein and antino acids in growing.

  17. Antioxidant Activities of Phenolic Compounds in Green and White Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-wei Luo; Wei-hua Xie; Xiao-xiao Jin; Qian (Janice) Wang; Zhen-ping Hao; Bei-bei Tao

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols and tannins have implications for health and nutrition because of their antioxidant activities. Foods with high content of phenolics, such as fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes, show decreasing incidence of several diseases upon their consumption. However, there are limited reports on ant oxidative properties of tannins present in legumes. Faba bean seed has been known for high content of condensed tannin which is attributed as one of the ant nutritional factors in this highly...

  18. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiord) as a protein source for laying hens. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Although food intake increased linearly with faba bean inclusion, reflecting a need by the hens to consume more in an attempt to obtain sufficient of some unidentified limiting nutrient, laying performance was the same on all feeds in the ...

  19. [Genetic singularity coefficients of common vetch Vicia sativa L. accessions determined with molecular markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potokina, E K; Aleksandrova, T G

    2008-11-01

    Organization and practical application of ex situ collections require estimation of genetic differences between numerous accessions of local cultivars and field weed forms collected from the same ecological and geographical region and similar in their morphophysiological characteristics. A mathematical algorithm for estimating the degree of genetic singularity of a specimen in the system of local gene pool determined with the help of molecular markers is described. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated by the example of classification of 677 common vetch accessions from the collection of the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry from 11 ecological-geographic regions of Russia analyzed using AFLP. The proposed classification of accessions is the result of processing the AFLP data by weighting the marker traits based on their frequency in particular regions. This allowed each accession to be characterized according to the ratio of rare and frequent alleles as a genetic singularity coefficient. The proposed method is appropriate for any types of molecular markers. A practical result of its application is the classification of accessions using a five-point score scale, which can be added to descriptors of certificate databases and used for optimization of the work with collections.

  20. Sporoderm infrastructural and cytochemical modifications in cytoplasmic male sterile broad-bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Audran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of mature sporoderms of sterile and fertile pollen grains was performed using electron microscopic techniques. In sterile pollen grains, intine is lacking; ectexine sculpture is reduced and tectum is overlaid by membranous systems. Infratectal texture is compact and a sporopollenin granulous mass is obturing the aperture central region. Endexine reacts with proteins and acidic carbohydrates tests.

  1. ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY STRESS ON Vicia faba L. PLANTS VIA SEED PRIMING WITH MELATONIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Gergis DAWOOD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La melatonina es una molécula ambientalmente amigable con una potente capacidad antioxidante y de trampa de radicales libres. Dos experimentos en materas fueron realizados en dos inviernos consecutivos (2011/2012 y 2012/2013 en instalaciones del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones, Dokki, Cairo, Egipto, para estudiar el potencial de la melatonina (100 mM and 500 mM para disminuir los efectos nocivos del agua de mar diluida a concentraciones relativamente bajas y altas (3,85 dS/m and 7,69 dS/m, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que la irrigación de plantas de haba con agua de mar diluida reduce los parámetros de crecimiento (altura de la planta, número de hojas/planta, peso fresco y seco de la planta, el contenido relativo de agua (RWC, los pigmentos fotosintéticos (clorofilas a, b y carotenoides, el ácido indo lacético, los carbohidratos totales, K+, Ca+2, al igual que las relaciones K+/Na+ y Ca2+/Na+. Esto fue acompañado por un incremento significativo en el contenido de fenoles, solutos compatibles (carbohidratos solubles totales, aminoácidos libres, prolina, Na+ y Cl- en comparación con las plantas control (plantas no tratadas. De otro lado, los tratamientos con melatonina mejoraron los parámetros de crecimiento, RWC, los pigmentos fotosintéticos, carbohidratos totales, contenido fenólico total, ácido indo acético, K+,Ca+2 al igual que las relaciones K+/Na+ y Ca+2/ Na+ , tanto en las plantas irrigadas con agua dulce de la llave como en las irrigadas con agua de mar diluida en comparación con los controles correspondientes. De otro lado, los tratamientos con melatonina redujeron los niveles de solutos compatibles, al igual que los contenidos de Na+ y Cl-, en comparación con los controles. El estrés por salinidad y/o los tratamientos con melatonina indujeron la producción de nuevas bandas de proteínas que no estuvieron presentes en las plantas control. El tratamiento de melatonina 500 mM tuvo un efecto más pronunciado que el tratamiento de 100 mM en disminuir los efectos adversos de los dos niveles de salinidad estudiados sobre el comportamiento de las plantas de haba.

  2. Acumulación de arsénico en el cultivo de habas (Vicia Faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Prieto García; Judith Callejas Hernández; Alma D. Román Gutiérrez; Judith Prieto Méndez; Alberto J. Gordillo Martínez; María A. Méndez Marzo

    2007-01-01

    La presencia de arsénico en aguas y suelos de Zimapán, en el estado de Hidalgo, México, causa que los cultivos de haba presenten concentraciones apreciables de dicho elemento. Los suelos evaluados presentaron texturas, conductividad, contenidos de N y de arsénico diferentes, pero resultados similares en pH, potencial redox, y contenido de materia orgánica. La elevada bioacumulación de arsénico en estos suelos fue directamente proporcional al tiempo de exposición. Las concentraciones de arséni...

  3. Asociacion Thysanoptera -Vicia faba en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamar, Maria Ines; Neder de Roman, Lilia Estela

    2012-01-01

    .... Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanopteros antofilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecologicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociacion...

  4. Faba beans (Vicia faba) in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Scipioni; Maurizio Moschini; Domenico Pietro Lo Fiego; Francesco Masoero; Michele Comellini; Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked) faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Regg...

  5. Structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujiao; Wu, Xuexia; Hou, Wanwei; Li, Ping; Sha, Weichao; Tian, Yingying

    2017-05-01

    The protein subunit is the most important basic unit of protein, and its study can unravel the structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean. In this study, we identified six specific protein subunits in Faba bean (cv. Qinghai 13) combining liquid chromatography (LC), liquid chromatography-electronic spray ionization mass (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and bio-information technology. The results suggested a diversity of seed storage proteins in faba bean, and a total of 16 proteins (four GroEL molecular chaperones and 12 plant-specific proteins) were identified from 97-, 96-, 64-, 47-, 42-, and 38-kD-specific protein subunits in faba bean based on the peptide sequence. We also analyzed the composition and abundance of the amino acids, the physicochemical characteristics, secondary structure, three-dimensional structure, transmembrane domain, and possible subcellular localization of these identified proteins in faba bean seed, and finally predicted function and structure. The three-dimensional structures were generated based on homologous modeling, and the protein function was analyzed based on the annotation from the non-redundant protein database (NR database, NCBI) and function analysis of optimal modeling. The objective of this study was to identify the seed storage proteins in faba bean and confirm the structure and function of these proteins. Our results can be useful for the study of protein nutrition and achieve breeding goals for optimal protein quality in faba bean.

  6. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Dehulled faba beans were evaluated as an alternative to soybeans as a protein source for laying hens using 240 ... industry that is being forced to exclude animal protein sources in animal feeds. ... Wilson &. Teague (1974) reported that this latter rate of inclusion had no effect on laying performance or food intake,.

  7. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m-2 , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m-2 ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m-2 , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m-2 ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m-2 ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m-2 ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The dynamics of faba bean (Vicia faba L. parasitism by Orobanche foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaier ABBES

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The dynamics of Orobanche foetida parasitizing faba bean are examined using Petri dish experiments. Rates of broomrape seed germination and seedling attachment to the host roots were quantified on three resistant genotypes (the Egyptian line Giza 429, the Spanish cultivar Baraca, and the Tunisian cultivar Najeh [XBJ90.03-16-1-1-1] and the susceptible cv. Bachaar. The percentage of O. foetida seed germination (11 to 38% was lower near the roots of resistant host plants than it was near the roots of ‘Bachaar’ (67%. O. foetida parasitism was followed using three parametric logistic functions. In this way some major parameters of the infection process were quantified: the maximal number (Nmax and the maximal rate (Rmax of broomrape attachments to the host roots, the median time required for attachment (T50, the maximal percentage of established tubercles reaching the final growth stage at 70 days after inoculation (DAI (%max, and the maximal rate of established tubercle growth (R’max. Broomrape attachment was lower and slower in resistant plants, as indicated by low Nmax and Rmax values combined with high T50 values. Furthermore the precocity of the resistant genotypes was correlated with low attachment. The parameters %max and R’max did not discriminate the susceptible cultivar Bachaar from Giza 429 or Baraca. On the other hand, the %max and the R’max were lower in the ‘Najeh’ plants. The findings indicated that both low attachment and limited growth of established tubercles contributed to resistance in the Najeh cultivar.

  9. Seed Filling Trend of Faba bean (Vicia faba L. as Affected by Planting Date and Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahemi Karizaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of planting date and plant density on phenology, seed yield, its components, seed filling rate and grain filling period of faba bean, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at Research Farm of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Gonbad University, Iran, during growing season of 2012-2013. The factors were three planting dates (4th of November, 4th of December 2013 and 3th of January 2014 and four planting densities (8, 12, 16 and 18 plant/m2. The results showed that planting dates significantly affected on phenology, yield and its components, seed filling rate and periods while the effect of plant density on seed filling period was not significant. Comparison of sigmoid equation coefficients showed that seed filling rates in three planting dates were different. The highest seed filling rate was obtained in 3th of January and the lowest at November 4, planting dates. The effect of planting date on seed filling duration was also significant, but it was not on plant density. Regression analysis showed that increasing 0.01g seed growth rate in seed unit, resulted in seed weight increase by 45.11, 32.43 and 26.66 g for November 4, December 4 and January 3 planting dates respectively. Delaying planting dates decreased seed filling period by 8.53 days and seed weight by 0.27 g. due to its effect on day length and temperature changes. Delayed planting dates were more effective on the rate and period of seed filling and phenology of faba bean. Delaying in planting date increased time to emergence, while decreased seed filling period and seed yield because of coincidence of this period with high temperatures.

  10. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ocaña

    Full Text Available Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136 subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H and susceptible genotype (Vf136, respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  11. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M.; Torres, Ana M.; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection. PMID:26267359

  12. Evaluation of faba beans ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l l threed ietsw eree valuatedin a growth trial using l0 pigs( flveb oarsa ndf lve gilts)o vert heg rowthi nterval3 0-90 kg. The experimentadle signw asa 3 (diets)x 2 (sex)f 'actorialC. arcassc haracteristicwse red etermineda t thee ndo f theg rowtht rial.P igsi n the metabolisrna ndN balance trial consurned5 % less( P < 0.01)o ...

  13. Acumulación de arsénico en el cultivo de habas (Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de arsénico en aguas y suelos de Zimapán, en el estado de Hidalgo, México, causa que los cultivos de haba presenten concentraciones apreciables de dicho elemento. Los suelos evaluados presentaron texturas, conductividad, contenidos de N y de arsénico diferentes, pero resultados similares en pH, potencial redox, y contenido de materia orgánica. La elevada bioacumulación de arsénico en estos suelos fue directamente proporcional al tiempo de exposición. Las concentraciones de arsénico acumuladas más altas se obtuvieron en la raíz, el tallo, y las hojas, respectivamente. Concentraciones de 4 mg l-1, fueron letales para el cultivo; el fenómeno se apreció a partir de la etapa III de desarrollo, con la aparición de daños en las raíces y un fuerte efecto en la floración, que inhibió la formación de vainas.

  14. Faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (12% soybean meal, no faba beans was compared with a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% soybean meal and 10% flaked faba beans. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 1, hay only in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality and the characteristics of grab faecal samples as empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was slightly lower in the “Faba” group, particularly in experiment 2 (“Control” vs “Faba”: 34.6 vs 32.9 mg/dL in experiment 1, P<0.1; 27.4 vs 23.4 mg/dL in experiment 2, P<0.01; the plasma urea content in experiment 2 confirmed the trend observed in milk (3.9 vs 3.0 mmol/L, P<0.01. The inclusion of faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  15. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    predicted that traditional sources of protein for livestock will become increasingly scarce because of the need to feed a progressively larger human population that will compete with an expanding intensive livestock industry that is being forced to exclude animal protein sources in animal feeds. As a result, a considerable.

  16. Weed control under integrated nutrient management systems in faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I.M. El-Metwally; M.T. Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, to determine whether management can improve faba bean competitiveness with weeds, thus helping to achieve its yield potential...

  17. Evaluation of faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    linearly, and food intake increased linearly, with increasing faba bean content, but when the feeds were ... higher proanthocyanidin (condensed tannin) content of the hulls of these varieties compared with the ..... qualitative treatments such as sex, vaccine, strain or growth promoter and are inappropriate for response.

  18. THE VARIATION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS CONTENT AFTER SIMAZIN TREATMENT ON VICIA SATIVA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeta Grama-Tiganasu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Simazin has in certain conditions stimulatory effects on nucleic acids biosynthese. The biosyntese and mitotic division stimulation sugest the possibility to use simazin like growing and germination stimulator.

  19. Thidiazuron-induced plant regeneration from protoplasts of Vicia faba cv. Mythos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Gebhardt, D; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts of 10 cultivars of V. faba were isolated from etiolated shoot-tips and tested for their regeneration capacity. After purification, protoplasts were embedded in sodium alginate and cultivated in the medium of Kao and Michayluk (1975) containing 0.5 mg·1(-1) of each 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine. Depending on cultivar, division frequencies of up to 40% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred to Gelrite-solidified media with different combinations of growth regulators. A two step protocol (auxin high/low) was tested for its ability to induce somatic embryogenesis. The formation of globular structures was observed, but no embryo formation could be achieved. In contrast, cultivation of protocalluses on medium supplemented with thidiazuron resulted in shoot development in cultivar Mythos. To generate mature plants, the shoots were grafted onto young seedlings. In order to optimize the in vitro-conditions, different concentrations of thidiazuron alone or in combination with naphthylacetic acid were tested, showing that an increase of thidiazuron and the addition of naphthylacetic acid positively affects both the viability of protocalluses and the regeneration frequency.

  20. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase

  1. Nutritional evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) nutrient requirements of weaner pigs. Diluting full-fat soya with ..... Of interest was whether a significant trend in performance would be evident as a result of the .... supplement for swine. Can. J. Anim.

  2. Gema and Šarac: The first Serbian cultivars of spring feed faba bean (Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the trials of the Department of Variety Protection and Registration of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia were carried out on four locations, including two new Novi Sad spring feed faba bean lines, B-412 and B-413, and the control cultivar Uran. In average, the highest grain yield was in the cultivar Gema (2905 kg ha-1, although there were no significant differences between three tested cultivars. In comparison to the control, Gema and Šarac had significantly higher crude protein content in grain dry matter, with 341.4 g kg-1 and 341.1 g kg-1. .

  3. Resolving browning during the establishment of explant cultures in Vicia faba L. for genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Klenotičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of in vitro regeneration systems of two explant types for low-tannine cultivars of faba bean based on culturing of shoot apices and cotyledonary nodes were provided by usage of various antioxidants - ascorbic acid, citric acid, glutathione and activated charcoal. In subsequent testing, the combined effects of antioxidants with transformation co-cultivation compounds acetosyringone and L-cysteine was studied. The application of antioxidants lead to decreased callogenesis, citric acids treatments (50 mg.l−1 dramatically decreased necrotic response of explants. However, citric acid, used together with ascorbic acid completely inhibited shoot growth in shoot apex cultures. Glutathion evoked hyperhydricity of explants. Activated charcoal induced rooting on media which are commonly used for shoot proliferation. Combination of acetosyringone with antioxidants influenced shoot proliferation, except of variant with ascorbic acid. Citric acid was the best and universal antioxidant in faba bean in vitro cultures and its use is recommended for faba bean genetic transformation experiments.

  4. Plantas de cobertura de inverno em sistema de plantio direto de hortaliças sem herbicidas: efeitos sobre plantas espontâneas e na produção de tomate Winter cover crops in no-tillage system whitout herbicides: effects on weed biomass and tomato yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André dos Santos Kieling

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi eliminar o uso de herbicidas nas lavouras de tomate, em sistema de plantio direto (PD. Para conhecer a melhor combinação de plantas de cobertura (PC de inverno para o controle de plantas espontâneas (PE e a produção do tomate, conduziu-se experimento a campo na Estação Experimental da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural (EPAGRI de Ituporanga, Santa Catarina (SC. Foram testadas a aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, a ervilhaca (Vicia villosa Roth e o nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. em sistemas de cobertura solteiros e consorciados. O tomate, variedade Márcia-EPAGRI, foi tutorado e conduzido sob sistema de fertirrigação. Os melhores tratamentos na produção de matéria seca (MS de PC foram aveia + ervilhaca e aveia solteira, seguidos de ervilhaca + nabo, aveia + nabo e aveia + ervilhaca + nabo. Entre os cinco melhores resultados na produção de MS, apenas aveia não foi um tratamento consorciado. No controle de plantas espontâneas, destacaram-se os tratamentos aveia + nabo, aveia + ervilhaca e aveia + ervilhaca + nabo, seguidos de aveia. Não ocorreram diferenças estatísticas entre tratamentos no rendimento total do tomate e na produção comercial.With the aim of eliminating herbicide use in no-tillage tomato production, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the best combination of winter cover crops for weed control and tomato production at the Ituporanga Experimental Station. Oat (Avena strigosa Schreb, vetch (Vicia villosa Roth and fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. were grown in monoculture and in mixes. The tomato variety ‘Márcia-EPAGRI’ was stake-trained and grown under fertirrigation. The highest values in above-ground dry biomass were obtained by oat+vetch and oat monoculture, followed by vetch+radish, oat+radish, and oat+vetch+radish. Treatments with oats had the best performances in controlling resident vegetation, while vetch was associated with the worst

  5. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  6. Classifying Entropy Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes some aspects of Uncertainty Measures. We need to obtain new ways to model adequate conditions or restrictions, constructed from vague pieces of information. The classical entropy measure originates from scientific fields; more specifically, from Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics. With time it was adapted by Claude Shannon, creating the current expanding Information Theory. However, the Hungarian mathematician, Alfred Rényi, proves that different and valid entropy measures exist in accordance with the purpose and/or need of application. Accordingly, it is essential to clarify the different types of measures and their mutual relationships. For these reasons, we attempt here to obtain an adequate revision of such fuzzy entropy measures from a mathematical point of view.

  7. Measurement uncertainty and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Willink, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A measurement result is incomplete without a statement of its 'uncertainty' or 'margin of error'. But what does this statement actually tell us? By examining the practical meaning of probability, this book discusses what is meant by a '95 percent interval of measurement uncertainty', and how such an interval can be calculated. The book argues that the concept of an unknown 'target value' is essential if probability is to be used as a tool for evaluating measurement uncertainty. It uses statistical concepts, such as a conditional confidence interval, to present 'extended' classical methods for evaluating measurement uncertainty. The use of the Monte Carlo principle for the simulation of experiments is described. Useful for researchers and graduate students, the book also discusses other philosophies relating to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. It employs clear notation and language to avoid the confusion that exists in this controversial field of science.

  8. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sætre, C; Johansen, G A; Tjugum, S A

    2012-07-01

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (Corneliussen et al., 2005). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100 ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce G; Yang, Lawrence H; Phelan, Jo C; Collins, Pamela Y

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of efforts designed to address mental illness stigma will rest on our ability to understand stigma processes, the factors that produce and sustain such processes, and the mechanisms that lead from stigmatization to harmful consequences. Critical to such an understanding is our capacity to observe and measure the essential components of stigma processes. This article is designed to assist researchers in selecting or creating measures that can address critical research questions regarding stigma. Our conceptualization of stigma processes leads us to consider components of labeling, stereotyping, cognitive separating, emotional reactions, status loss, and discrimination. We review 123 empirical articles published between January 1995 and June 2003 that have sought to assess mental illness stigma and use these articles to provide a profile of current measurement in this area. From the articles we identify commonly used and promising measures and describe those measures in more detail so that readers can decide whether the described measures might be appropriate for their studies. We end by identifying gaps in stigma measurement in terms of concepts covered and populations assessed.

  10. Measurement of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Fankhanel, Frances

    2014-12-01

    This article provides information on psychological assessments based on the most influential stress theories. In understanding the stress response and its relation to disease, clinical vignettes are provided. Emphasis is placed on assessment measures for use in the general population and on providing an overview of evidence for more commonly used instruments in health care. Several advantages and disadvantages afforded by measurement approaches are also addressed (although a full examination of the extent of limitations and issues regarding assessment is beyond the scope of this article). Finally, future considerations regarding proposed research and necessary advances in measurement are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  12. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  13. Measurement System Reliability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in problem situations is based on up-to-date and reliable information. A great deal of information is subject to rapid changes, hence it may be outdated or manipulated and enforce erroneous decisions. It is crucial to have the possibility to assess the obtained information. In order to ensure its reliability it is best to obtain it with an own measurement process. In such a case, conducting assessment of measurement system reliability seems to be crucial. The article describes general approach to assessing reliability of measurement systems.

  14. Measures with symmetry properties

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Symmetries and invariance principles play an important role in various branches of mathematics. This book deals with measures having weak symmetry properties. Even mild conditions ensure that all invariant Borel measures on a second countable locally compact space can be expressed as images of specific product measures under a fixed mapping. The results derived in this book are interesting for their own and, moreover, a number of carefully investigated examples underline and illustrate their usefulness and applicability for integration problems, stochastic simulations and statistical applications.

  15. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  16. Investigations on freeform measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; Costacurta, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This report is made as a part of the project Easytrac, an EU project under the programme: Competitive and Sustainable Growth: Contract No: G6RD-CT-2000-00188, coordinated by UNIMETRIK S.A. (Spain). The project is concerned with low uncertainty calibrations on coordinate measuring machines....... The Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM) at the Technical University of Denmark takes care of free form measurements, in collaboration with DIMEG, University of Padova, Italy. The present report describes some preliminary investigations on freeform measurements....

  17. Comportamento de adubos verdes de inverno na região serrana fluminense Behaviour of temperate green manure species in a mountain region of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Almeida Barradas

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o comportamento de espécies de adubos verdes de inverno, em um Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico, sob duas condições de fertilidade, a 1.100 m de altitude. Dois experimentos de campo foram conduzidos em Nova Friburgo, RJ, utilizando as seguintes espécies: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schieb., azevém-anual (Lollium multiflorum Lam., chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L., ervilhaca-comum (Vicia sativa L., ervilhaca-peluda (Vicia villosa Roth, utilizada somente no segundo experimento, serradela-flor-rosa (Ornithopus sativus Brot., tremoço-amarelo (Lupinus luteus L., tremoço-branco cultivar Comum (Lupinus albus L., tremoço-branco cultivar Multo Lupa Doce (Lupinus albus L., tremoço-branco cultivar TRM 881 (Lupinus albus L., trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L., trevo-vermelho cultivar Achylesmarium (Trifolium pratense L., e trevo-vesiculoso cultivar Jacuí 52 (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. As espécies que mais se destacaram na produção de massa seca e acumulação de N na parte aérea, sob condições de boa fertilidade no solo, foram as três cultivares de tremoço-branco, o tremoço-amarelo, a ervilhaca-comum e a aveia-preta. Sob condições de baixo teor de P, Ca e Mg no solo, as que mais se destacaram foram as três cultivares de tremoço-branco e a aveia-preta.The objective of this work was to evaluate the behaviour of temperate green manure species in an Inceptisol with two different fertility levels, in an area of high elevation (1,100 m. Two field experiments were carried out in Nova Friburgo County, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with the following species: Avena strigosa Schieb., Lollium multiflorum Lam., Lathyrus sativus L., Vicia sativa L., Vicia villosa Roth, used in the 2nd experiment only, Ornithopus sativus Brot., Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L. cv. Comum, cv. Multo Lupa Doce and cv. TRM 881, Trifolium repens L

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring ... About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest ... Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic ...

  20. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  1. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCES MEASUREMENT TOOLS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BÎRCĂ ALIONA

    2016-01-01

    ... of objectives in line with the strategic policies of the entity. Measuring the financial performance without considering the strategic, tactical and operational objectives does not provide a real situation...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your ... ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  5. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  6. Measure, integral and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Capiński, Marek

    2004-01-01

    Measure, Integral and Probability is a gentle introduction that makes measure and integration theory accessible to the average third-year undergraduate student. The ideas are developed at an easy pace in a form that is suitable for self-study, with an emphasis on clear explanations and concrete examples rather than abstract theory. For this second edition, the text has been thoroughly revised and expanded. New features include: · a substantial new chapter, featuring a constructive proof of the Radon-Nikodym theorem, an analysis of the structure of Lebesgue-Stieltjes measures, the Hahn-Jordan decomposition, and a brief introduction to martingales · key aspects of financial modelling, including the Black-Scholes formula, discussed briefly from a measure-theoretical perspective to help the reader understand the underlying mathematical framework. In addition, further exercises and examples are provided to encourage the reader to become directly involved with the material.

  7. Measure Evaluation Dataverse

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The MEASURE Evaluation Dataverse is a collection of innovative evaluation data sets assembled in order to increase the evidence-base on program impact and evaluate...

  8. Measuring body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Louise; Higgins, Dan

    Body temperature is one of the four main vital signs that must be monitored to ensure safe and effective care. Temperature measurement is recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence a part of the initial assessment in acute illness in adults (NICE, 2007) and by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines for post-operative management in adults (SIGN, 2004). Despite applying in all healthcare environments, wide variations exist on the methods and techniques used to measure body temperature. It is essential to use the most appropriate technique to ensure that temperature is measured accurately. Inaccurate results may influence diagnosis and treatment, lead to a failure to identify patient deterioration and compromise patient safety. This article explains the importance of temperature regulation and compares methods of its measurement.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if you're ...

  11. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  12. Statistical Measures of Marksmanship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... This report describes objective statistical procedures to measure both rifle marksmanship accuracy, the proximity of an array of shots to the center of mass of a target, and marksmanship precision...

  13. Wind Measurement LIDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a Wind Measurement LIDAR whose sensor assembly is composed of SPEC Gen IV LIDAR seeker, with 12.8...

  14. Quality Measurement Impact Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services is required to assess the impact of consensus-endorsed quality and efficiency measures used in federal...

  15. Essentials of measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kubrusly, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    Classical in its approach, this textbook is thoughtfully designed and composed in two parts. Part I is meant for a one-semester beginning graduate course in measure theory, proposing an “abstract” approach to measure and integration, where the classical concrete cases of Lebesgue measure and Lebesgue integral are presented as an important particular case of general theory. Part II of the text is more advanced and is addressed to a more experienced reader. The material is designed to cover another one-semester graduate course subsequent to a first course, dealing with measure and integration in topological spaces. The final section of each chapter in Part I presents problems that are integral to each chapter, the majority of which consist of auxiliary results, extensions of the theory, examples, and counterexamples. Problems which are highly theoretical have accompanying hints. The last section of each chapter of Part II consists of Additional Propositions containing auxiliary and complementary results. Th...

  16. How Is PTSD Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Purpose and Scope Find Assessment Measures Instrument Authority List Research and Biology Research on PTSD Biology ... Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures ...

  17. In situ measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  19. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust......The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...

  20. Measurement for Decision Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Bernard S.

    1984-01-01

    In order to explore possible impacts of changing information technology on the role of the institutional research analyst, three institutional research foundations, measurement, human information processing, and decision support technology are examined. (Author/MLW)

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ... Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity ...

  2. Dilepton Measurements with CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin,A.; Rehak, P. et al.

    2007-07-09

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the {rho} spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the {phi} meson measured simultaneously both in the K{sup +}K{sup -} and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured transverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the {phi} yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target ...

  4. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  5. Electronics for particle measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, H

    2002-01-01

    The basics of an integrated circuit are described with special emphasis placed on a charge-measurement system. Starting with an outline of a fine CMOS technology, the discussion moves to a practical implementation of circuits.

  6. Measurement theory for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya

    2003-01-01

    The emphasis of this textbook is on industrial applications of Statistical Measurement Theory. It deals with the principal issues of measurement theory, is concise and intelligibly written, and to a wide extent self-contained. Difficult theoretical issues are separated from the mainstream presentation. Each topic starts with an informal introduction followed by an example, the rigorous problem formulation, solution method, and a detailed numerical solution. Each chapter concludes with a set of exercises of increasing difficulty, mostly with solutions. The book is meant as a text for graduate students and a reference for researchers and industrial experts specializing in measurement and measurement data analysis for quality control, quality engineering and industrial process improvement using statistical methods. Knowledge of calculus and fundamental probability and statistics is required for the understanding of its contents.

  7. Littoral Measurements Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Barny units measure ocean currents and sea surface heights on continental shelves and in ocean straits. SEPTR units are similar to Barnys but also record...

  8. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  9. Noise-Measuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test.......A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  10. Precision mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Koslowsky, V T; Ball, G C; Clifford, E T H; Davies, W G; Hagberg, E; Hardy, J C; Schmeing, H; Schrewe, U J; Sharma, K S

    1981-01-01

    A new technique analogous to the 'peak-matching' method used by mass spectroscopists is being used to measure differences in reaction Q- values to a precision of 100 eV. While at present the method is being applied to the study of charge-dependent corrections in T=1 superallowed 0/sup +/ to 0/sup +/ beta-decay matrix elements, it could easily be extended to measure mass differences of nuclei farther from beta stability. (0 refs).

  11. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  12. Measuring Discriminations : an Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    DUGUET Emmanuel; Yannick L'Horty; Meurs, Dominique; Pascale PETIT

    2010-01-01

    The articles published here were all presented at the international conference on the measurement of discriminations held at the University of Evry Val d'Essonne on 13 and 14 December 2007, under the auspices of the TEPP research federation (FR n° 3126 of the CNRS). Over these two days, about sixty participants discussed the problems of defining and measuring discrimination, including work on economics, sociology and law; on discriminations in hiring, training, unemployment, promotion, career...

  13. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short...... periods of time. We also show that our measure of ethnic fractionalization is a significant predictor of economic performance in OECD countries despite the fact that they constitute a particularly homogeneous and economically advantaged group....

  14. Three measures of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the trend over time in the measures of "typical" longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy ...... time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death....

  15. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoveĭ, V. G.; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A.

    2008-12-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P\\subseteq \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack , then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  16. Measures of rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T Brett; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-04-01

    Accurate measures of performance are important for assessing competitive athletes in practi~al and research settings. We present here a review of rowing performance measures, focusing on the errors in these measures and the implications for testing rowers. The yardstick for assessing error in a performance measure is the random variation (typical or standard error of measurement) in an elite athlete's competitive performance from race to race: ∼1.0% for time in 2000 m rowing events. There has been little research interest in on-water time trials for assessing rowing performance, owing to logistic difficulties and environmental perturbations in performance time with such tests. Mobile ergometry via instrumented oars or rowlocks should reduce these problems, but the associated errors have not yet been reported. Measurement of boat speed to monitor on-water training performance is common; one device based on global positioning system (GPS) technology contributes negligible extra random error (0.2%) in speed measured over 2000 m, but extra error is substantial (1-10%) with other GPS devices or with an impeller, especially over shorter distances. The problems with on-water testing have led to widespread use of the Concept II rowing ergometer. The standard error of the estimate of on-water 2000 m time predicted by 2000 m ergometer performance was 2.6% and 7.2% in two studies, reflecting different effects of skill, body mass and environment in on-water versus ergometer performance. However, well trained rowers have a typical error in performance time of only ∼0.5% between repeated 2000 m time trials on this ergometer, so such trials are suitable for tracking changes in physiological performance and factors affecting it. Many researchers have used the 2000 m ergometer performance time as a criterion to identify other predictors of rowing performance. Standard errors of the estimate vary widely between studies even for the same predictor, but the lowest

  17. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner

    2002-09-26

    The purpose of the Thermal Testing Measurements Report (Scientific Analysis Report) is to document, in one report, the comprehensive set of measurements taken within the Yucca Mountain Project Thermal Testing Program since its inception in 1996. Currently, the testing performed and measurements collected are either scattered in many level 3 and level 4 milestone reports or, in the case of the ongoing Drift Scale Test, mostly documented in eight informal progress reports. Documentation in existing reports is uneven in level of detail and quality. Furthermore, while all the data collected within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Thermal Testing Program have been submitted periodically to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS), the data structure--several incremental submittals, and documentation formats--are such that the data are often not user-friendly except to those who acquired and processed the data. The documentation in this report is intended to make data collected within the YMP Thermal Testing Program readily usable to end users, such as those representing the Performance Assessment Project, Repository Design Project, and Engineered Systems Sub-Project. Since either detailed level 3 and level 4 reports exist or the measurements are straightforward, only brief discussions are provided for each data set. These brief discussions for different data sets are intended to impart a clear sense of applicability of data, so that they will be used properly within the context of measurement uncertainty. This approach also keeps this report to a manageable size, an important consideration because the report encompasses nearly all measurements for three long-term thermal tests. As appropriate, thermal testing data currently residing in the TDMS have been reorganized and reformatted from cumbersome, user-unfriendly Input-Data Tracking Numbers (DTNs) into a new set of Output-DTNs. These Output-DTNs provide a readily usable data structure

  18. Effect of silage from ryegrass intercropped with winter or common vetch for grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Heredia-Nava, Darwin; Espinoza-Ortega, Angelica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of including silages of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) intercropped with winter vetch (Vicia villosa) (ARG-VV) or with common vetch (Vicia sativa) (ARG-VS) compared with maize silage (MS) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows grazing cultivated perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures with supplemented concentrate during the dry season. Six Holstein dairy cows with a mean yield of 19.0 kg/cow/day at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 repeated Latin square. Treatments were: 8 h/day intensive grazing, 3.6 kg of dry matter (DM) per cow per day of concentrate plus MS, and ARG-VV or ARG-VS ad libitum at a stocking rate of 3.0 cows/ha for three experimental periods of 3 weeks each. Milk yield (MY) and milk composition, live weight and body condition score as well as silage and concentrate intakes were recorded during the third week of each experimental period, and pasture intake was estimated indirectly from utilised metabolisable energy. Economic analysis was obtained by preparing partial budgets. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.10) in MY, milk fat or protein content nor for live weight, but there was significant difference (P returns (10%) were obtained with ARG-VS over MS, and this was 7% higher than ARG-VV. It is concluded that ARG-VS could be an option for complementing grazing for small-scale dairy production systems in the dry season as it is comparable to MS in animal performance and slightly better in economic terms.

  19. Measuring past a micron...

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Infinity: That is the name of the new ultra-precision machine used by CERN's Metrology Service to measure the copper components for the CLIC accelerating structures. This project is the result of a collaboration between CLIC and the EN Department. Curious to find out more? Read on because there’ll be an opportunity for you to get a very close look at Infinity!    Infinity, the new, ultra-precise, measuring machine, is currently in operation at the CERN Metrology Service. The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) radiofrequency structures will operate under very high electric fields (100 MV/m). They should be manufactured within minimal mechanical tolerances. To validate the quality of these components, they have to be measured with a precision that far exceeds the machining tolerances, i.e. 0.3 microns. No “ordinary” measuring machine can achieve this precision, but Infinity, the newly developed high-precision three-dimensional measuring machine i...

  20. Measurement, Interpretation and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Lombardi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During many years since the birth of quantum mechanics, instrumentalistinterpretations prevailed: the meaning of the theory was expressed in terms of measurementsresults. However, in the last decades, several attempts to interpret it from a realist viewpointhave been proposed. Among them, modal interpretations supply a realist non-collapseaccount, according to which the system always has definite properties and the quantum staterepresents possibilities, not actualities. But the traditional modal interpretations faced someconceptual problems when addressing imperfect measurements. The modal-Hamiltonianinterpretation, on the contrary, proved to be able to supply an adequate account of themeasurement problem, both in its ideal and its non-ideal versions. Moreover, in the non-idealcase, it gives a precise criterion to distinguish between reliable and non-reliable measurements.Nevertheless, that criterion depends on the particular state of the measured system, and thismight be considered as a shortcoming of the proposal. In fact, one could ask for a criterionof reliability that does not depend on the features of what is measured but only on theproperties of the measurement device. The aim of this article is precisely to supply such acriterion: we will adopt an informational perspective for this purpose.

  1. Inmate punishments: Disciplinary measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the verdict has become formal and enforceable, and the defendant a convict, sentence execution procedure follows. If the defendant is sentenced to prison, the next step to be taken is the referral institution for execution of sentence of imprisonment. Rules of conduct in the institutions for execution of imprisonment are strictly regulated by legislation governing the rights and obligations of prisoners. Conducts that are prohibited in institutions shall be prescribed as a disciplinary offense, and appropriate disciplinary measures are to be imposed. The subject of this paper are disciplinary measures stipulated by the Law on Execution of Criminal Sanctions of the Republic of Serbia. The paper gives an overview of five disciplinary measures that can be imposed for serious or minor disciplinary offenses. In particular, author focuses his attention to indicating that the imposition and execution of disciplinary measures, are not regulated by Law in the best possible way, so that, in practice, certain problems arise in the application of these measures.

  2. Diffractive Measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, K

    2012-01-01

    Measurements made using the ATLAS detector at the LHC at \\surd s = 7 TeV incorporating diffractive processes are presented. A first measurement of the inelastic cross-section using 20 \\mu b-1 of data is given, yielding a result of {\\sigma}inel ({\\xi} > 5 \\times 10-6) = 60.3 \\pm 2.1 mb, for single (p p \\rightarrow X p) and double (p p \\rightarrow XY) diffractive processes for a kinematic range corresponding to detector acceptance {\\xi} = M2X /s calculated from the invariant mass MX of the heavier dissociation system X. Furthermore a study is made of pseudorapidity gap distributions using 7.1 \\pm 0.2 \\mu b-1 of data collected to tune the diffractive fraction of the inelastic cross-section in Monte Carlo (MC) models, and a measurement is made of the differential cross-section for events with large gaps in pseudorapidity where diffractive processes dominate.

  3. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  4. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  5. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hurley, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gofryk, Krzysztof [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fielding, Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knight, Collin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Mitch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  6. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, C.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  7. Production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The $\\text{LHC}b$ detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring heavy quark and quarkonia production properties. In addition, the new system of forward shower counters installed upstream and downstream has begun to be used, therefore the experiment is being suited to measure central exclusive production. The $\\text{LHC}b$ measurements of inclusive and differential cross-sections of the production of $J/\\psi$ resonance and $J/\\psi$ pairs, as well bottom quarks and $Z^0$ boson, based on Run 2 datasets are summarized. Finally, results on the prompt production of open charm hadrons and the exclusive production of charmonium are discussed.

  8. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  9. MEASURES OF OCCUPATIONAL MISMATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mihaela MAER MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research developed in this paper is based on micro data available in Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC. The research aimed to estimate the size of both forms of labour market mismatch: education mismatch and skill mismatch. The first measure of job mismatch is based on workers’ self-assessment. The second one uses the PIAAC assessment regarding the proficiency for each skill dimension (literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology rich environments. The labor market mismatch was measured for Spain and Italy datasets for the higher education graduates whose occupations are included in Major Group two Professionals, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. The estimation results showed that the two measures of labour market mismatch are not correlated.

  10. Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    This report is made as a part of the project ‘Metro-E-Learn: European e-Learning in Manufacturing Metrology’, an EU project under the program SOCRATES MINERVA (ODL and ICT in Education), Contract No: 101434-CP-1-2002-1-DE-MINERVA, coordinated by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 2 - Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty – of the e-learning......-Nürnberg, Chair for Quality Management and Manufacturing-Oriented Metrology (Germany). 'Metro-E-Learn' project proposes to develop and implement a coherent learning and competence chain that leads from introductory and foundation e-courses in initial manufacturing engineering studies towards higher...

  11. Measuring Education and Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in measuring education and skill that need to be taken into account in any new initiative to monitor social mobility. Over the past half-century, patterns of educational participation and attainment have become more heterogeneous, a trend that has been accompanied by increases in assessment and testing practices, and the availability of electronic data sources and other administrative records, including official school transcripts that are generally held indefinitely. This article describes the most promising approaches to measuring education and discusses some of the possible challenges for using the information to study social mobility. Measures of educational concepts fall along at least one of several dimensions: credentials earned, qualities of the schools attended, the amount and nature of curricular exposure, and the development and acquisition of skills. Selected data sources, with an emphasis on school transcripts and administrative records, and their possible uses are described.

  12. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, L.M.

    2003-11-12

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2000, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/210/214/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized in the table at the bottom of this introduction.

  13. Magnet measurement workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-01

    This report covers the deliberations of the participants the workshop and some subsequent contributions. Section III, the report of the rotating coil group, includes a summary table of the major measuring systems in use today, with separate sections on each. Section IV is the summary report of the group that addressed other measuring techniques. Because one of the limits of all the techniques being considered is electronic data acquisition, Section V addresses this topic. A set of issues relevant to magnetic field measurements of SSC dipoles was raised and addressed during the workshop. These are included as Section VI. Section VII includes a complete list of attendees with their addresses and a separate list of the members of the two working groups.

  14. Measuring Thermoforming Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, W.; Hopmann, C.; Ederleh, L.; Begemann, M.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoforming is the process of choice for manufacturing thin-gauge or large-area parts for packaging or technical applications. The process allows low-weight parts to be produced rapidly and economically from thermoplastic semi-finished products. A technical and consequently economical problem is the choice of the right material in combination with the thermoformability of the product. The prediction of thermoformability includes the aspired product features and geometry and defined wall thickness distributions, depending on the specific stretchability of the semifinished product. In practice, thermoformability is estimated by empirical tests with the particular semi-finished product using e.g. staged pyramidal moulds or model cars. With this method, it still cannot be ensured that the product can be thermoformed with the intended properties. A promising alternative is the forming simulation using finite element analysis (FEA). For the simulation, it is necessary to describe the material behaviour using defined material models and the appropriate parameters. Therefore, the stress-/strain-behaviour of the semi-finished product under defined conditions is required. There are several, entirely different measurement techniques used in industry and at research facilities. This paper compares a choice of different measurement techniques to provide an objective basis for future work and research. The semi-finished products are examined with the Membrane-Inflation-Rheometer (MIR), an equibiaxial strain rheometer. A flat sample is heated to the desired temperature in silicone oil. During the measurement, a servohydraulic linear drive advances a piston, thus displacing the hot silicone oil and inflating the specimen to form a sphere. Further measurements are carried out with the Karo IV Laboratory Stretching Machine at Brückner Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. KG, Siegsdorf, Germany. The samples are heated using hot air. During the biaxial stretching, the resulting forces at the

  15. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  16. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  17. Fission gas measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Probability and Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Billingsley, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition "It is, as far as I'm concerned, among the best books in math ever written....if you are a mathematician and want to have the top reference in probability, this is it." (Amazon.com, January 2006) A complete and comprehensive classic in probability and measure theory Probability and Measure, Anniversary Edition by Patrick Billingsley celebrates the achievements and advancements that have made this book a classic in its field for the past 35 years. Now re-issued in a new style and format, but with the reliable content that the third edition was revered for, this

  19. Measurement of visual motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildreth, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the measurement of visual motion and the use of relative movement to locate the boundaries of physical objects in the environment. It investigates the nature of the computations that are necessary to perform this analysis by any vision system, biological or artificial. Contents: Introduction. Background. Computation of the Velocity Field. An Algorithm to Compute the Velocity Field. The Computation of Motion Discontinuities. Perceptual Studies of Motion Measurement. The Psychophysics of Discontinuity Detection. Neurophysiological Studies of Motion. Summary and Conclusions. References. Author and Subject Indexes.

  20. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  1. Measuring green jobs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Martinsen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The report reviews the different initiatives aiming to measure aspects of “green” sectors, jobs and technologies. The report discusses whether the statistics collected under the present initiatives aimed at measuring these aspects increase insights into the fundamental questions motivating...... the initiatives. An alternative framework is suggested, as it appears fundamentally impossible to make consistent frameworks for a division of the economy into “green” and “non-green” activities. The analysis has been carried out during the period September 2011 – March 2012 by Vista Analysis AS, Gaia Consulting...

  2. Measure theory and integration

    CERN Document Server

    De Barra, G

    2003-01-01

    This text approaches integration via measure theory as opposed to measure theory via integration, an approach which makes it easier to grasp the subject. Apart from its central importance to pure mathematics, the material is also relevant to applied mathematics and probability, with proof of the mathematics set out clearly and in considerable detail. Numerous worked examples necessary for teaching and learning at undergraduate level constitute a strong feature of the book, and after studying statements of results of the theorems, students should be able to attempt the 300 problem exercises whi

  3. Measuring the Substellar Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancino, Adolfo Andrew; Dupuy, Trent

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are not massive enough to undergo hydrogen fusion and therefore constantly lose heat and change luminosity over their lifetime. Because of this, brown dwarfs do not follow the same pattern that stars on the main sequence follow. Brown dwarfs can have similar luminosities but widely differing masses, or vice versa, while stars follow a tight relationship between mass and luminosity. In principle, mass and luminosity measurements straddling the boundary between stars and brown dwarfs could be used to directly measure this dividing line in mass. We present a method for determining this boundary accurately given a limited sample size. We tested our method with Monte Carlo simulated samples of brown dwarfs and stars with randomly drawn masses and ages, using evolutionary models to infer luminosities. In our simulation designed to mimic the largest current sample of such mass measurements (37 objects; Dupuy & Liu 2017), we find that the uncertainty in the dividing line that can be inferred from the data is ± 4 MJup. This implies that distinguishing between competing evolutionary model predictions for the boundary (~70-80 MJup) will be difficult given the current sample size of mass measurements.

  4. Vehicle frame measurement device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarauer, A.J.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a vehicle frame and body measurement apparatus for use in realigning the structure of a damaged unibody vehicle the device having a longitudinal axis utilized in a horizontal plane the apparatus comprising means for measuring the vehicle body and frame comprising, (a) means for supporting a damaged motor vehicle in a fixed position, (b) an elongated rail on each side of the supporting means spaced apart a distance greater than the width of the supporting means and the width of the vehicle, (c) a vertical upright of a length exceeding the height of the motor vehicle slidably supported by each of the rails and having a vertical axis substantially perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the vehicle, (d) a vertically adjustable horizontal bar attached to each of the uprights, substantially perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis of the rails and the vertical axis of the uprights, (e) means for affixing the horizontal bar to the uprights so that the bar is vertically adjustable, the affixing means being provided with releasable means to permit adjustable horizontal extension of the horizontal bar and (f) at least one extendable measuring means attached to each vertical upright at its junction with its associated horizontal rail and adjustably extending along the horizontal rail, the free end of the measuring means having to releasably affix it to the rail.

  5. Measuring Educational Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvanathan, Rani G.

    2013-01-01

    There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…

  6. Metrology and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bewoor, Anand K

    2009-01-01

    Meant for students and practicing engineers, this book provides an integrated exposure to dimensional and mechanical measurement. It gives the reader a methodical and well thought-out presentation using concise explanations, flexible approach and real-life case studies from the industry.

  7. Accurate Measurement of the

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cueto Rojas, H.F.; Maleki Seifar, R.; ten Pierick, A.; Heijnen, J.J.; Wahl, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations, and N-limitation is frequently applied to reduce growth and increase product yields. While there is significant molecular knowledge on NH4 + transport and assimilation, there have been few attempts to measure the in vivo

  8. Customer satisfaction measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is important in business management as a basis for long-term profitability of a single line of products and services and the company as a whole. Customer satisfaction in modern market conditions is characterized by a large number of alternatives that can satisfy the same need or desire of consumers, and are a prerequisite for the retention, loyalty, and positive verbal communication between companies and vendors on one hand and consumers on the other. Companies are investing more and more investment and management efforts in improving customer satisfaction. Improving customer satisfaction and its measurement involves the taking of appropriate marketing strategies and tactics, as well as corrective measures. This paper presents the well-known attempts to measure customers' satisfaction at the macro and micro level of marketing analysis. The index of consumer satisfaction is an important indicator of achieved quality and market performance of companies and can be measured on a micro and macro level. National customer satisfaction indexes are useful framework for analyzing the competitiveness of national economies, industries and individual companies and are used for a variety of other aspects of observation and analysis. Standardization of consumer satisfaction indexes in different countries allows comparability of the data, giving a new quality of analysis in the era of globalization and internationalization of business.

  9. Nuclear Enterprise Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Transportation Process Efficiency X Supportability X Reliability X System Performance X Maintainability X Logistics IT Supply Chain Mangement X Operations...measurement system design: A literature review and research agenda. International Journal of Operations and Production Mangement , 15(4), 80-116

  10. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... to the field of cross-cultural psychology, specifically highlighting the utility of autobiographical memories as measures of self....

  11. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  12. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  13. Temperature measurement: Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    This Data Item is available as part of the ESDU Sub-series on Heat Transfer. Background information and practical guidance on designing temperature measuring systems using thermocouples is provided. The nominal temperature range covered is -200 degrees C to 2000 degrees C but the comments apply, in general terms, to all thermocouple systems. The information is aimed at the user who wishes to design and install a practical thermocouple system using improved techniques that will allow temperatures to be measured within known tolerances. The selection, preparation, and installation of thermocouples, the use of compensating or extension cables, methods of referencing to a known temperature and measurement system are considered. The requirements for reliable systems operating to commercial tolerances are also described. Various factors that might impair the accuracy and stability of thermocouples are identified together with methods of reducing their effect. A check list for the design of a thermocouple system is given and a flow chart procedure for selecting appropriate thermocouple materials is provided as well. The employment of the techniques described will ensure that the temperature of the measuring junction is within known tolerances.

  14. Measurement of nonsulfated cholecystokinins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersnap, Mikkel; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    at a defined processing site in proCCK (R₇₅-D₇₆) followed by monospecific RIA-measurement of the then exposed nonsulfated N-terminal sequence of CCK-8 (DYMGW…). The analysis shows that endocrine cells in the gut synthesize nonsulfated CCK peptides (-58, -33, -22, and -8) in the order of 20...

  15. Robust return risk measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellini, F.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Rosazza Gianin, E.

    In this paper we provide an axiomatic foundation to Orlicz risk measures in terms of properties of their acceptance sets, by exploiting their natural correspondence with shortfall risk Föllmer and Schied (Stochastic finance. De Gruyter, Berlin, 2011), thus paralleling the characterization in Weber

  16. First Measurement of $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino Gallo, Jose Luis [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Understanding of the $\\pi^0$ production via anti-neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of 1-10 GeV is essential for neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a measurement of charged current $\\pi^0$ production from anti-muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene scintillator (CH) target in the MINER$\

  17. Targets for Precision Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, W.; Yao, L.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Heffner, M.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Laptev, A. B.; Massey, T. N.; Meharchand, R.; Qu, H.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Selhan, B.; Snyder, L.; Stave, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.

    2014-05-01

    The general properties needed in targets (sources) for high precision, high accuracy measurements are reviewed. The application of these principles to the problem of developing targets for the Fission TPC is described. Longer term issues, such as the availability of actinide materials, improved knowledge of energy losses and straggling and the stability of targets during irradiation are also discussed.

  18. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  19. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  20. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    imprecise when compared to quantitative measures. Document development  Plan completed  Research completed  Draft complete  Draft peer -reviewed... tutoring resources and internship placements Additional Information: The “young veterans” were interviewed about the proposed intervention. Two concerns

  1. Measurement of Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Kurekova, E; Halaj, M

    2005-01-01

    The project COMET provides a multimedia training package for metrology and measurement. The package is developed by a consortium of 10 institutes from 7 European countries. It consists of 31 modules, each dealing with a particular aspect of metrology, and is available in English, German, French and

  2. Measuring Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Joakim; Smeby, Jens-Christian; Olaf Aamodt, Per

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest for measurement of learning outcomes relates to long lines of development in higher education, the request for accountability, intensified through international reforms and movements such as the development and implementation of qualifications frameworks. In this article, we discuss relevant literature on different approaches…

  3. Measuring Voter Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present an automated data collection technique called white boxes- or simply wb-technique, that is designed —to analyze the voter behavior in polling stations, which includes the measurement of arrival and waiting times, the determination of arrival frequency and multiple arrival; —to assist...

  4. Measuring Voter Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We present an automated data collection technique called white boxes-or simply wb-technique, which is designed to analyze the voter behavior in polling stations including the measurement of arrival and waiting times and the determination of arrival frequency, to assist the management of polling...

  5. Kant's Theory of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia Regas

    The dissertation considers two different theories of measurement in Kant's Critical philosophy. The first is found in the Critique of Pure Reason. The second is found in the Critique of Judgment. In the former, Kant shows how the size of an object is structured by the necessary rules of the understanding and imagination in terms of its spatial dimensions. In the latter, Kant shows how the actual measurement of this spatial object is estimated. Through a detailed inquiry we argue that, the aesthetic estimation of measurement serves as a precondition for the possibility of spatializing an object. It is only by viewing both components as functioning together, that Kant's account is complete. The first Chapter takes a historical approach to this issue. Kant's Precritical work is considered. The second Chapter examines Kant's theory specifically as found in the Analytic of the First Critique. Finally, the third chapter examines Kant's views on magnitude and measurement in depth in the third Critique. Here we see why this account is needed to condition his prior views.

  6. New measurements techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni

    principle to acoustic holography and beamforming. On the one hand, a new method called near- field acousto-optic holography (NAOH) has been proposed and makes it possible to predict properties of sound at planes different from the measuring one. In comparison with conventional near-field acoustic holography...

  7. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  8. CKM Phase Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzhur, S

    2004-09-08

    Recent experimental results on CP violation in the B sector from BABAR and BELLE, experiments at asymmetric e+e- B-Factories, are summarized in these proceedings. The constraint on the position of the apex of the unitary triangle, obtained from these measurements allows a test of the CKM interpretation of CP violation in the Standard Model.

  9. Measuring TPACK: Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Mishra, Punya; Thompson, Ann; Crawford, Denise; Wang, Wei; Niederhauser, Dale; Fisser, Petra; Tondeur, Jo; van Braak, Johan; Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Agyei, Douglas; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This symposium discusses several ways in which (pre-service) teachers’ TPACK can be measured. The first two studies unravel the TPACK survey (Schmidt et al., 2009), a self-report instrument to determine TPACK, and try to revalidate the survey in two different pre-service teacher education contexts:

  10. Regularities of multifractal measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Next, we give some properties related to multifractal Hausdorff and packing densities. Finally, we extend the density theorem in [6] to any measurable set. Author Affiliations. Hun Ki Baek1. Department of Mathematics, Kyungpook National University, 702-701, South Korea. Dates. Manuscript received: 8 September 2006 ...

  11. EBRII cask characterization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, D.L.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the measurements performed to provide the radionuclide content and verify the stated mass of special nuclear material (SNM) in Experimental Breeder Reactor EBRII casks stored in Trench 1, Burial Ground 4C, 218-WAC 200 West Area. this information is needed to characterize the curie content of each cask and the total curies in the storage area. Gamma assay techniques typically employed for nondestructive assay (NDA) were used to determine the gamma-emitting isotopes in each cask, which were fission and activation products from the spent fuel. Passive neutron counting was selected to verify the stated plutonium content because the fission and activation products masked any gamma emissions from plutonium. The fast neutrons emitted by plutonium are highly penetrating and easily detected through several inches of shielding. A slab neutron detector containing five {sup 3}He proportional counters was used to determine the neutron emission rates and estimate the mass of plutonium present. The measurements followed the methods and procedures routinely used for nuclear waste assay and safeguard measurements. The measured neutron yields confirmed the declared plutonium content for the fuel elements, with the exception of several casks that contained recycled plutonium or americium target material. In these casks, the {sup 244}Cm content masked the neutron emissions from any plutonium. For these casks, the plutonium content was estimated by correlation with the {sup 244}Cm neutron emissions.

  12. Measuring Neurotic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    An exploratory study concerned with the measurement of perseveration, or persistence, as a personality variable was based on the work of G.V. Hamilton, an early investigator in the field. Persistently maladaptive behavior was hypothesized to be a chief characteristic of neurosis. An experimental problem-solving situation was designed to…

  13. The oxygen trail: measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythen, M; Clutton-Brock, T

    1999-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia may be defined as abnormal oxygen utilization such that cells are experiencing anaerobic metabolism. Tissue hypoxia can be defined biochemically by low levels of ATP, high levels of NADH, or decreased oxidized cytochrome aa3. It is possible to measure these biochemical markers in the laboratory setting with, for example, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. However, this is not as yet a clinical option. There is no 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of clinical hypoxia. We can detect the gross consequences of tissue hypoxia, such as organ dysfunction and metabolic markers of anaerobic metabolism (e.g. lactic acidosis). We have also become familiar with the measurement of both global and regional oxygen dispatch and consumption. However, organ dysfunction and metabolic acidosis consistent with established tissue hypoxia commonly exists in the presence of normal and even supra normal global measures of oxygen dispatch and consumption. Therefore, we should ideally make measurements at the end of the oxygen trail, i.e. cellular oxygen delivery and effective utilization.

  14. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  15. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/390929395; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  16. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  17. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  18. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  20. Environmentally Adjusted Elasticity Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Saleem

    2005-01-01

    Here, using input, output and nitrogen pollution data related to one state, we propose to extend the elasticity concept to include environmental pollution treated as undesirable output to provide the environmentally adjusted elasticity measures for the period, 1936-1997 in a two-step procedure.