WorldWideScience

Sample records for vicia unijuga lectin-binding

  1. Histochemistry of lectin-binding sites in Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, A; Schumacher, U; Storch, V

    2001-02-01

    Priapulida represent one of the phylogenetically oldest multicellular animal groups. In multicellular animals (Metazoa) cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions are often mediated by carbohydrate residues of glycoconjugates. To analyze the carbohydrate composition of a phylogenetically old species, lectin histochemistry was employed on 5 specimens of the priapulid Halicryptus spinulosus. Many lectins bound to the chitin-containing cuticle, including those specific for carbohydrates other than N-acetylglucosamine, the principle building block of chitin. The connective tissue of the animals contained both N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Mannose residues were widely distributed with the exception of the cuticle, but complex type carbohydrates were not present in the entire animal. Sialic acid residues were only detected in the cuticle and brush border of the intestinal epithelium, while fucose was limited to the cuticle. Thus, the lectin-binding pattern indicated that sugars typical for the linking region of both N- and O-glycoproteins in mammals are also present in H. spinulosus. Carbohydrate residues that are typical for the complex type of N-linked glycans in vertebrates are not present as are carbohydrate residues typical for the termination of O-linked carbohydrate chains. Hence, a truncated form of both N- and O-linked glycosylation is present in H. spinulosus indicating that more complex patterns of glycosylation developed later during evolution.

  2. Presenting Precision Glycomacromolecules on Gold Nanoparticles for Increased Lectin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Boden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyco-functionalized gold nanoparticles have great potential as biosensors and as inhibitors due to their increased binding to carbohydrate-recognizing receptors such as the lectins. Here we apply previously developed solid phase polymer synthesis to obtain a series of precision glycomacromolecules that allows for straightforward variation of their chemical structure as well as functionalization of gold nanoparticles by ligand exchange. A novel building block is introduced allowing for the change of spacer building blocks within the macromolecular scaffold going from an ethylene glycol unit to an aliphatic spacer. Furthermore, the valency and overall length of the glycomacromolecule is varied. All glyco-functionalized gold nanoparticles show high degree of functionalization along with high stability in buffer solution. Therefore, a series of measurements applying UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS and surface plasmon resonance (SPR were performed studying the aggregation behavior of the glyco-functionalized gold nanoparticles in presence of model lectin Concanavalin A. While the multivalent presentation of glycomacromolecules on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs showed a strong increase in binding compared to the free ligands, we also observed an influence of the chemical structure of the ligand such as its valency or hydrophobicity on the resulting lectin interactions. The straightforward variation of the chemical structure of the precision glycomacromolecule thus gives access to tailor-made glyco-gold nanoparticles (glyco-AuNPs and fine-tuning of their lectin binding properties.

  3. Lectin-binding characteristics of a Lyme borreliosis spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, M.; Nebesářová, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2005), s. 229-238 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1323; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * electron microscopy * lectin binding Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  4. Flow cytometric analysis of lectin binding to in vitro-cultured Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, J.D.; Jenkins, J.A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2004-01-01

    Parasite surface glycoconjugates are frequently involved in cellular recognition and colonization of the host. This study reports on the identification of Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates by flow cytometric analyses of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectin binding. Lectin-binding specificity was confirmed by sugar inhibition and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. Clear, measurable fluorescence peaks were discriminated, and no parasite autofluorescence was observed. Parasites (GTLA-5 and Perkinsus-1 strains) harvested during log and stationary phases of growth in a protein-free medium reacted strongly with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin, which bind to glucose-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, respectively. Both P. marinus strains bound with lower intensity to Maclura pomifera agglutinin, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin, soybean agglutinin (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectins), peanut agglutinin (PNA) (terminal galactose specific), and Griffonia simplicifolia II (GlcNAc specific). Only background fluorescence levels were detected with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (L-fucose specific) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (sialic acid specific). The lectin-binding profiles were similar for the 2 strains except for a greater relative binding intensity of PNA for Perkinsus-1 and an overall greater lectin-binding capacity of Perkinsus-1 compared with GTLA-5. Growth stage comparisons revealed increased lectin-binding intensities during stationary phase compared with log phase of growth. This is the first report of the identification of surface glycoconjugates on a Perkinsus spp. by flow cytometry and the first to demonstrate that differential surface sugar expression is growth phase and strain dependent. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2004.

  5. Visualizing the dental biofilm matrix by means of fluorescence lectin-binding analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawakoli, Pune Nina; Neu, Thomas R; Busck, Mette Marie

    2017-01-01

    lectins to visualize and quantify extracellular glycoconjugates in dental biofilms. Lectin binding was screened on pooled supragingival biofilm samples collected from 76 subjects using confocal microscopy. FLBA was then performed with 10 selected lectins on biofilms grown in situ for 48 h in the absence......The extracellular matrix is a poorly studied, yet important component of dental biofilms. Fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) is a powerful tool to characterize glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. This study aimed to systematically investigate the ability of 75 fluorescently labeled......-biofilms: Aleuria aurantia (AAL), Calystega sepiem (Calsepa), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA), Morniga-G (MNA-G) and Helix pomatia (HPA). No significant correlation between the binding of specific lectins and bacterial composition was found. Fluorescently labeled lectins enable the visualization of glycoconjugates...

  6. Exposed and hidden lectin-binding epitopes at the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoitsova, S. R.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2003), s. 654-658 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022001 Grant - others:National Research Council at the Ministry of Education and Science(BG) K-709/97 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * lectin-binding epitopes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  7. [Lectin-binding patterns and cell kinetics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, T

    1991-01-01

    In order to elucidate the cell characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, the cell kinetics and lectin binding patterns were compared with the histological classification and staging of the tumors, using surgically resected materials (maxillary sinus 10, oral cavity 21, pharynx 8, larynx 11). Eight biotinylated lectins (WGA, 1-PHA, ConA, UEA1, RCA1, SBA, DBA, PNA) were applied to the paraffin-embedded sections, and were visualized histochemically by the streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase method. The DNA contents of the isolated carcinoma cells obtained from the adjacent thick sections were evaluated using an epi-illumination cytofluorometer after propidium iodide staining. On lectin histochemistry, the binding pattern of WGA lectin was similar between carcinoma tissues and normal tissues, but the binding was more intense in well differentiated than less differentiated carcinomas. Lymph node metastasis was found to be related to the presence of cells with poor WGA-binding. In the binding patterns of the other lectins, RCA1, SBA and ConA were related to the differentiation of carcinomas, but they were not related to the TNM-classification. DNA cytofluorometry exhibited marked polyploidization, which progressed with the advancement of the clinical and pathological staging of carcinomas. However, the DNA ploidy pattern was not associated with the cell characteristics such as the degree of histological differentiation and the lectin-binding pattern, except that the appearance of aneuploidy had some relationship with the binding-patterns of UEA1 and 1-PHA.

  8. Differing lectin-binding patterns of malignant melanoma and nevocellular and Spitz nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohchiyama, A; Oka, D; Ueki, H

    1987-01-01

    The lectin-binding patterns of primary malignant melanoma, nevocellular nevus, and Spitz nevus were studied on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections using a series of biotinylated lectins--concanavalin A (ConA), Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 (RCA1), dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), soybean agglutinin (SBA), maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Ulex europeus agglutinin-1(UEA1)--and employing the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. In nevocellular and Spitz nevi, all of the nevus cells were positively stained with ConA and RCA1. No positive staining was observed, however, with the other lectins and no change in binding patterns occurred following neuraminidase pretreatment. In malignant melanoma, all of the melanoma cells were positively stained with ConA and RCA1, and some were also stained with MPA, PNA, and WGA. In addition, DBA, SBA, MPA, PNA, and WGA labeled all of the melanoma cells after neuraminidase pretreatment. No positive staining was observed with UEA1 despite neuraminidase pretreatment. The present results showed that malignant melanoma and nevocellular and Spitz nevi have different lectin-binding patterns and different responses to neuraminidase pretreatment. We, therefore, believe that the lectin staining on paraffin-embedded sections can be a useful probe for the differentiation of these diseases.

  9. The typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis by a lectin-binding assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarløv, J O; Hansen, J E; Rosdahl, V T

    1992-01-01

    A new typing method for Staphylococcus epidermidis was developed. Four biotinylated lectins--wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), soy bean agglutinin (SBA), lentil agglutinin (LCA) and Concanavalin A (ConA)--were added to immobilised whole cells of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in microtitration...... plates. The amount of bound lectin was measured by peroxidase-conjugated avidin followed by a peroxidase reaction. The method was compared to antibiotic-resistance analysis, phage typing, plasmid DNA profiles and slime production. A total of 113 isolates of CNS from 21 patients was investigated and 71...... strains of CNS, including 64 strains of S. epidermidis, were detected if all typing methods were taken into consideration. If only one typing method was used the highest discriminatory power among the S. epidermidis isolates was obtained with the lectin-binding assay which allowed 49 different strains...

  10. Identification of structural and secretory lectin-binding glycoproteins of normal and cancerous human prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, P M; Cooper, J F; Learn, D B; Olson, C V

    1984-12-07

    We have utilized the technique of lectin-loading of SDS gels with iodinated concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin to identify glycoproteins in prostatic and seminal fluids as well as in prostate tissue fractions. The following subunits which bound both lectins were detected: (a) 50, 43 and 38 kDa subunits common to prostatic and seminal fluids, and an additional 55 kDa subunit which predominates only in prostatic fluid; (b) 78, 55, 50 and 43 kDa subunits in prostatic tissue cytosol and (c) 195, 170, 135, 116 and 95 kDa subunits present in the particulate fractions of prostatic tissue. Immunoblotting using specific rabbit antibodies revealed the 50 kDa band to be prostatic acid phosphatase and the 38 kDa band to be prostate-specific antigen. Interestingly, antibodies directed toward prostatic acid phosphatase were found to cross-react with the 43 kDa band. Fractionation on sucrose gradients showed that several of these particulate glycoproteins were associated with a vesicle fraction enriched in adenylate cyclase activity, implying that they are plasma membrane glycoproteins. Comparison of soluble and particulate fractions of normal and cancerous tissue homogenates was made by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms of lectin-loaded gels. Similar relative intensities of lectin-binding were obtained for corresponding proteins in normal and cancerous tissue fractions. Also, immunoblotting showed no differences in prostatic acid phosphatase or prostate-specific antigen between normal and cancerous soluble homogenate fractions. Our results suggest that major lectin-binding proteins are conserved in the transition from normal to cancerous tissue. These results may be useful in developing a multiple-marker profile of metastatic prostate cancer and for the design of imaging agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, to prominent soluble and particulate prostate glycoproteins.

  11. Immunogold study on lectin binding in the porcine zona pellucida and granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Parillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An ultrastructural localization of lectin receptors on the zona pellucida (ZP of porcine antral oocytes and on the granulosa cells was performed using a panel of horseradish peroxidase- labelled lectins in conjunction with antiperoxidase antibody and protein A-gold. In some cases, lectin incubation was preceded by sialidase digestion. WGA-, Con-A-, UEA-I-, RCA-I-, PNA- and SBA-reactive sites were distributed differently in the porcine ZP. Sialidase digestion increased the positivity obtained with RCA-I and it was necessary to promote PNA and SBA reactivity. These results indicated that the ZP contained N-acetylglucosamine, a-mannose, a- fucose, b-Gal-(1-4GlcNAc, b-Gal- (1-3GalNAc, b-GalNAc and sialic acid residues. We also observed the presence of vesicles in both the ooplasm and granulosa cells, showing a similar lectin binding pattern to that of the ZP, thus suggesting that the oocyte and granulosa cells are the site of synthesis of ZP glucidic determinants.

  12. Vicia faba L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buzayehu

    from acidic soils of Central and Southern-Western parts of Ethiopia. A total of hundred rhizobial .... plant Vicia faba) followed by the different serial numbers representing each ..... related their adaptation at their soil of isolation sites. Symbiotic ...

  13. Lectin binding profiles of SSEA-4 enriched, pluripotent human embryonic stem cell surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Alison; Mitalipova, Maisam; Lyons, Ian; Jones, Karen; Shin, Soojung; Pierce, Michael; Stice, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Background Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to form every cell type in the body. These cells must be appropriately characterized prior to differentiation studies or when defining characteristics of the pluripotent state. Some developmentally regulated cell surface antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies in a variety of species and stem cell types have proven to be side chains of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins. Therefore, to examine hESC surfaces for other potential pluripotent markers, we used a panel of 14 lectins, which were chosen based on their specificity for a variety of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages, along with stage specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), to determine binding quantitation by flow cytometry and binding localization in adherent colonies by immunocytochemistry. Results Enriching cells for SSEA-4 expression increased the percentage of SSEA-4 positive cells to 98–99%. Using enriched high SSEA-4-expressing hESCs, we then analyzed the binding percentages of selected lectins and found a large variation in binding percentages ranging from 4% to 99% binding. Lycopersicon (tomato)esculetum lectin (TL), Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), and Concanavalin A (Con A) bound to SSEA-4 positive regions of hESCs and with similar binding percentages as SSEA-4. In contrast, we found Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL) did not bind to hESCs while Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin (PHA-L), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA), Phaseolus vulgaris erythro-agglutinin (PHA-E), and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) bound partially to hESCs. These binding percentages correlated well with immunocytochemistry results. Conclusion Our results provide information about types of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages found on pluripotent hESC surfaces. We propose that TL, RCA and Con A may be used as markers that are associated with the pluripotent

  14. Lectin binding profiles of SSEA-4 enriched, pluripotent human embryonic stem cell surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Soojung

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have the potential to form every cell type in the body. These cells must be appropriately characterized prior to differentiation studies or when defining characteristics of the pluripotent state. Some developmentally regulated cell surface antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies in a variety of species and stem cell types have proven to be side chains of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins. Therefore, to examine hESC surfaces for other potential pluripotent markers, we used a panel of 14 lectins, which were chosen based on their specificity for a variety of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages, along with stage specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4, to determine binding quantitation by flow cytometry and binding localization in adherent colonies by immunocytochemistry. Results Enriching cells for SSEA-4 expression increased the percentage of SSEA-4 positive cells to 98–99%. Using enriched high SSEA-4-expressing hESCs, we then analyzed the binding percentages of selected lectins and found a large variation in binding percentages ranging from 4% to 99% binding. Lycopersicon (tomatoesculetum lectin (TL, Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, and Concanavalin A (Con A bound to SSEA-4 positive regions of hESCs and with similar binding percentages as SSEA-4. In contrast, we found Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA and Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL did not bind to hESCs while Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin (PHA-L, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA, Phaseolus vulgaris erythro-agglutinin (PHA-E, and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA bound partially to hESCs. These binding percentages correlated well with immunocytochemistry results. Conclusion Our results provide information about types of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages found on pluripotent hESC surfaces. We propose that TL, RCA and Con A may be used as markers that are associated with the

  15. Expression of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I lectin-binding sites in squamous cell carcinomas and their absence in basal cell carcinomas. Indicator of tumor type and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, M C; Fallon-Friedlander, S; Bennett, R

    1992-06-01

    Lectins bind tightly to carbohydrate moieties on cell surfaces. Alterations in lectin binding have been reported to accompany epidermal cell differentiation, marking alterations in membrane sugars during this process. The presence of UEA I (Ulex europaeus agglutinin I) L-fucose-specific lectin-binding sites has been used as a marker for terminally differentiated (committed) keratinocytes. In this article, we report the presence of UEA-I-binding sites on squamous keratinocytes of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, with patchy loss of UEA I positivity on poorly differentiated cells of squamous cell carcinomas, suggesting a possible use for this technique in the rapid assessment of less differentiated areas within the squamous cell tumor. The absence of UEA-I-binding sites on basal cell carcinomas may be related to an inability of cells comprising this tumor to convert the L-D-pyranosyl moiety on basal cells to the L-fucose moiety, resulting in an inability of basal cell carcinoma cell to undergo terminal differentiation into a committed keratinocyte.

  16. Distribution of Glycan Motifs at the Surface of Midgut Cells in the Cotton Leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis Demonstrated by Lectin Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Walski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycans are involved in many biological phenomena, including signal transduction, cell adhesion, immune response or differentiation. Although a few papers have reported on the role of glycans in the development and proper functioning of the insect midgut, no data are available regarding the localization of the glycan structures on the surface of the cells in the gut of insects. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial distribution of glycans present on the surface of the midgut cells in larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, an important agricultural pest insect worldwide. For this purpose, we established primary midgut cell cultures, probed these individual cells that are freely suspended in liquid medium with a selection of seven fluorescently labeled lectins covering a range of different carbohydrate binding specificities [mannose oligomers (GNA and HHA, GalNAc/Gal (RSA and SSA, GlcNAc (WGA and Nictaba and Neu5Ac(α-2,6Gal/GalNAc (SNA-I], and visualized the interaction of these lectins with the different zones of the midgut cells using confocal microscopy. Our analysis focused on the typical differentiated columnar cells with a microvillar brush border at their apical side, which are dominantly present in the Lepidopteran midgut and function in food digestion and absorption, and as well as on the undifferentiated stem cells that are important for midgut development and repair. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that the GalNAc/Gal-binding lectins SSA and RSA and the terminal GlcNAc-recognizing WGA bound preferentially to the apical microvillar zone of the differentiated columnar cells as compared to the basolateral pole. The reverse result was observed for the mannose-binding lectins GNA and HHA, as well as Nictaba that binds preferentially to GlcNAc oligomers. Furthermore, differences in lectin binding to the basal and lateral zones of the cell membranes of the columnar cells were apparent. In the midgut stem cells, GNA and

  17. Chromosome breakage in Vicia faba by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetner, R H

    1958-02-15

    Meristem cells of Vicia faba roots were exposed to an atmosphere of ozone and the fraction of cells showing chromosome aberrations were recorded. Chromosome aberrations were observed on a dose-response basis after exposing the seeds to 0.4 wt. percent ozone for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The results of ozone, x-rays, and ozone and x-ray treatments are presented. A small number of root tips from each group was treated with colchicine and an analysis made of metaphase aberrations. These observations confirmed that the aberrations were all of the chromosome-type.

  18. Chromosomal DNA replication of Vicia faba cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1976-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA replication of higher plant cells has been investigated by DNA fiber autoradiography. The nuclear DNA fibers of Vicia root meristematic cells are organized into many tandem arrays of replication units or replicons which exist as clusters with respect to replication. DNA is replicated bidirectionally from the initiation points at the average rate of 0.15 μm/min at 20 0 C, and the average interinitiation interval is about 16 μm. The manner of chromosomal DNA replication in this higher plant is similar to that found in other eukaryotic cells at a subchromosomal level. (auth.)

  19. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a ... feed forage seeds or reproduction organs selectively and changes the ... The mean daily air temperature ...

  20. Lectin binding patterns and immunohistochemical antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... placenta and lungs of Brucella abortus-bovine infected fetuses. María Andrea ... The present lectin histochemical study revealed a distinctive pattern of oligosaccharide .... tissue was used as a positive control and nonimmune.

  1. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  2. In vitro plant regeneration from Narbon Vetch (Vicia narbonensis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... regeneration from cotyledonary node explants obtained from, in vitro raised seeds of 4 - 5 and 14 - 15 days old .... shoots in Vicia faba using different concentrations of. BAP-TDZ. ... feed legume crop for dry areas in west Asia.

  3. Indicators of winter vetch (Vicia spp seed vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Common vetch (Vicia sativa L, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, and Pannonian vetch (Vicia pannonica Crantz are the most often grown varieties in the production area of Serbia. The most important problem in the production of vetch seed is lodging. Yield and seed quality in lodged crops can be significantly reduced. Therefore, it is very important to accurately estimate the quality, and viability of produced seed. Common vetch, hairy vetch and Pannonian vetch were submitted to vigor testing using standard laboratory test, cold test, Hiltner test, and three variants of accelerated aging tests (39°C,72 h; 39°C, 96 h; 45°C, 48 h. When the standard laboratory test was applied, the common vetch achieved the highest seed germination value of 90%, while decreased rate of seed germination was due to unfavorable conditions applied in vigor tests. Above ground seedling growth parameters were the lowest when Hiltner test was applied. Length and mass of the root system were the lowest when accelerated aging test was applied. Hairy vetch obtained the lowest values for all tested parameters when Hiltner test was applied. Application of different variants of accelerated aging tests indicated that tested parameters were not dependent on the applied temperature, while reduction in legumes vigor was under the influence of temperature duration.

  4. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  5. Molecular cloning and restriction analysis of EcoRI-fragments of Vicia faba rDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakura, Kimitaka; Tanifuji, Shigeyuki.

    1983-01-01

    EcoRI-fragments of Vicia faba rDNA were cloned in plasmid pBR325. Southern blot hybridization of BamHI-digests of these cloned plasmids and Vicia genomic DNA led to the determination of relative positions of BamHI sites in the rDNA and the physical map that had been tentatively made is corrected. (author)

  6. [Studies on the chemical constitutens of Vicia amoena Fisch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F; Yan, W M

    1997-10-01

    One new flavonoide was isolated from Vicia amoena Fisch. On the basis of spectral (UV, MS, NMR) and chemical reactions, it was elucidated to be kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-mannoside, named amoenin(A3). Moreover, five known compounds have been isolated and identified as quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 7-O-alpha-L-dirhamoside. The total flavonoides showed significant effects on inducing hyperlipidemia and increasing micro-blood vessel elasticity.

  7. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por

  8. Higher seed size and germination rate may favour autotetraploids of Vicia cracca L. (Fabaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, A.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-73 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Vicia * autotetraploid * seed size * germination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  9. Biosynthesis of digalactosyl diglyceride in Vicia faba leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J P; Khan, M; Leung, S

    1975-01-01

    Developing and mature leaf tissue from Vicia faba plants were pulse-fed 14-CO2. The lipids were extracted at intervals after exposure to light, and the galactolipids monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) and digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG) were separated. After methylation and methanolysis, gas-liquid chromatography was used to separate the two galactose units of DGDG and the galactose of MGDG. The specific activities of the galactoses and the changes over the time period of the experiment were determined. The results support the view that DGDG is formed by galactosylation of MGDG. This does not take place by a rapid two-enzyme system reaction but more slowly in two phases: galactosylation of a pool of newly formed MGDG and a more random galactosylation of MGDG. There is no evidence of a high turnover of galactose in these lipids.

  10. Cytogenetical Effect of Creatine Monohydrate in Vicia faba Root Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.A.M.; El-zahrani, N.H.; El-shamrani, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study has been conducted to evaluate the creatine effect on the cellular behavior at mitosis of Vicia faba using four concentrations (1.50, 2, 2.50 and 3 g/ 100 ml) with three exposure times (6, 12, 24 hour). Marked reduction of mitotic index was recorded at all creatine treatments and this trait was affected by creatine concentration and exposure time. Unbalanced mitotic stages percentages were observed after all treatments whereas, prophase % was decreased in all treatments but the opposite was true for metaphase %. While, (ana-telo) phases % were either increased or decreased after creatine treatments. Alteration of DNA or RNA contents, were obtained at different treatments. On the other hand, abnormalities were shown at all treatments with an increase percentage by increasing creatine concentration and exposure time. The most common of these abnormalities were: stickiness, disturbed and C metaphase. In addition, laggards, multipolor, and bridges were observed in some treatments but with low percentage

  11. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  12. The ethylene-inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine restores normal nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. viciae on Vicia sativa subsp. nigra by suppressing the 'Thick and short roots' phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaat, S. A.; van Brussel, A. A.; Tak, T.; Lugtenberg, B. J.; KIJNE, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra L. by Rhizobium bacteria is coupled to the development of thick and short roots (Tsr). This root phenotype as well as root-hair induction (Hai) and root-hair deformation (Had) are caused by a factor(s) produced by the bacteria in response to plant flavonoids.

  13. Establishment of the regeneration system for Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahgat, Shimaa; Shabban, Omer A; El-Shihy, Osama; Lightfoot, David A; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2009-01-01

    A reliable regeneration system for faba bean has been difficult to establish and therefore, the genetic improvement of Vicia faba L. was delayed. The paper describes a method of somatic embryo induction in callus of V. faba. Two Egyptian faba bean cultivars 'Giza 2' and '24 Hyto' were used. Callus was induced from epicotyls and shoot tips cultured on MS or Gamborg medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.025% (w/v) for each of ascorbic and citric acid, 0.8% agar and different concentrations of 10 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l of each NAA and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (M1) and 1 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA (M2) . The media with BAP, NAA and 2,4-D were optimal for embryogenic callus induction. Somatic embryos developed after transfer of the callus to 1/2 B5 medium with no plant growth regulators. There were various stages of somatic embryo development present including globular, heart-shaped, torpedo, and cotyledonary stages. Embryos developed into plantlets and plants were regenerated. RAPD analyses were performed to investigate the genetic stability of the regenerated plants obtained from different treatments and different explants. The cultivar Giza 2 exhibited more genetic stability than cultivar 24 Hyto. In conclusion, a regeneration system was established suitable for both gene transformation and the isolation of somaclonal mutants. The regeneration system will be used in order to improve the nutritional value of faba bean.

  14. Resistance to rusts (uromyces pisi and u. viciae-fabae) in pea

    OpenAIRE

    Barilli, Eleonora; Sillero, Josefina C.; Prats, Elena; Rubiales, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Pea is the second most important food legume crop in the world. Rust is a pea disease widely distributed, particularly in regions with warm, humid weather. Pea rust can be incited by Uromyces viciae-fabae and by U. pisi. U. viciae-fabae prevails in tropical and subtropical regions such as India and China, while U. pisi prevails in temperate regions. Chemical control of rust is possible, but the use of host plant resistance is the most desired means of rust control. In this paper we revise and...

  15. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid

  16. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  17. Cytogenetic analysis of the effect of chronic irradiation on natural Vicia Cracca L. populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', L.M.; Popova, O.N.; AN SSSR, Syktyvkar

    1989-01-01

    The study of microsporogenesis in Vicia cracca L. from chronically irradiated natural populations has demonstrated an increased number of wholly or partially sterile buds and reduced and damaged anthers. Both the number and the spectrum of chromosome and cell pathology increasing radiation dose, the exposed plants exhibiting meiosis disturbances that are not found in the controls

  18. Visualization of Nodulation Gene Activity on the Early Stages of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Symbiosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chovanec, Pavel; Novák, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2005), s. 323-331 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/03/0192 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nodulation * rhizobium leguminosarum * vicia tetrasperma Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  19. Role of bioinoculants in development of salt-tolerance of Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in saline conditions was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense (NFB) and Arbuscular mycorrhizal (Am) fungus Glomus clarum on the host plants (Vicia faba) in pot cultures were investigated ...

  20. Viruses of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco : surveying, identification, and ecological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic virus survey covering the main areas where faba bean ( Viciafaba L.) is grown in Morocco was conducted in 1988 and 1990. From the 240 leaf samples collected on the basis of symptoms suggestive of virus infection from 52 fields, the

  1. The peanut lectin-binding glycoproteins of human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.I.; Keeble, S.; Watt, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    The peanut lectin (PNA) is known to bind more strongly to keratinocytes that are undergoing terminal differentiation than to proliferating keratinocytes. In order to investigate the significance of this change in cell-surface carbohydrate authors have identified the PNA-binding glycoproteins of cultured human keratinocytes and antibodies against them. Two heavily glycosylated bands of 110 and 250 kDa were resolved by PAGE of [ 14 C]galactose- or [ 14 C]mannose- and [ 14 C]glucosamine-labeled cell extracts eluted with galactose from PNA affinity columns. The higher molecular weight band was also detected on PNA blots of unlabeled cell extracts transferred to nitrocellulose. Both bands were sensitive to pronase digestion, but only the 250-kDa band was digested with trypsin. A rabbit antiserum that we prepared (anti-PNA-gp) immunoprecipitated both bands from cell extracts. In contrast to PNA, anti-PNA-gp bound equally to proliferating and terminally differentiating cells, indicating that some epitope(s) of the PNA-binding glycoproteins is present on the cell surface prior to terminal differentiation. When keratinocytes grown as a monolayer in low-calcium medium were switched to medium containing 2 mM calcium ions in order to induce desmosome formation and stratification, there was a dramatic redistribution of the PNA-binding glycoproteins, which became concentrated at the boundaries between cells. This may suggest a role for the glycoproteins in cell-cell interactions during stratification

  2. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembdner, G.; Dathe, W.; Bergner, C.; Roensch, H.

    1983-01-01

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as 1 H and 13 C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA 3 -stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed. (author)

  3. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembdner, G.; Dathe, W.; Bergner, C.; Roensch, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1983-01-01

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA/sub 3/-stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed.

  4. Control Of Rust Disease In Irradiated Vicia Faba By Using Safe Alternative Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; Helal, I.M.; Mohamed, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of Vicia faba with Uromyces viciae-fabae causes significant decrease in growth and total nitrogen content and increase in the phenolic compounds. The study was carried out to investigate the effects of chemicals used as drench application in soil (e.g. saccharin), biotic agents (e.g. Bacillus subtilis) and artificial essential oils (e.g. rosemary) in irradiated (0, 5, 10, 15 Gy) broad bean Vicia faba on the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae. Bacillus subtilis was inoculated to beans at the third leaf then saccharin (5 mM/l) was used as drench application in the soil and the essential oil was used for foliar application at concentrations 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm. All treatments gave positive results to control the disease but differ in the mechanism of action. The control of the disease with saccharin application may be due to the formation of antimicrobial components (wyrone acid) by plant tissues and increase with increasing the concentration of saccharin. In case of using the essential oil, the affect on the microbe was directly observed within 28 h because the oil affect the permeability of cell membrane of the pathogen but in case of Bacillus, it acts as biological control agent induced resistance of plant by affecting the activity of antioxidant enzymes; peroxidase and chitinase. Saccharin and spore suspension induce systemic protection to rust infection after 72 and 96 hours. The disease index and the phenolic compounds were determined because they play important role in the systemic protection of rust disease 96 h after application. The results showed that the phytoalexin wyerone acid was formed in case of biotic agent (Bacillus subtilis) and the chemical (saccharin) but did not form in case of essential oil (rosemary)

  5. Raw and heat-treated culban ( Vicia peregrina ) seed as protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vicia peregrina seed was included in the diets at different levels, viz. 100, 200, 300 g heat-treated and 100, 200, 300 g raw seed in experimental diets designated A1, B1, C1, A2, B2 and C2, respectively. Growth parameters of the fish fed these diets were compared to fish receiving a fish meal and soyabean meal based ...

  6. Evaluation of faba beans ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of faba beans ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ( Lupizus albus cv. Kiev) as protein sources for ... P igsi n the metabolisrna ndN balance trial consurned5 % less( P < 0.01)o 1'thel upind ietc omparedto the fabab eand iet (l 370 vs. | 440 gld).N o significandt ift'erenceisn the digestiblee nergy( DE) contenta nd ...

  7. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  8. The ethylene-inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine restores normal nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. viciae on Vicia sativa subsp. nigra by suppressing the 'Thick and short roots' phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaat, S A; Van Brussel, A A; Tak, T; Lugtenberg, B J; Kijne, J W

    1989-02-01

    Nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra L. by Rhizobium bacteria is coupled to the development of thick and short roots (Tsr). This root phenotype as well as root-hair induction (Hai) and root-hair deformation (Had) are caused by a factor(s) produced by the bacteria in response to plant flavonoids. When very low inoculum concentrations (0.5-5 bacteria·ml(-1)) were used, V. sativa plants did not develop the Tsr phenotype and became nodulated earlier than plants with Tsr roots. Furthermore, the nodules of these plants were located on the primary root in contrast to nodules on Tsr roots, which were all located at sites of lateral-root emergence. The average numbers of nodules per plant were not significantly different for these two types of nodulation. Root-growth inhibition and Hai, but not Had, could be mimicked by ethephon, and inhibited by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). Addition of AVG to co-cultures of Vicia sativa and the standard inoculum concentration of 5·10(5) bacteria·ml(-1) suppressed the development of the Tsr phenotype and restored nodulation to the pattern that was observed with very low concentrations of bacteria (0.5-5 bacteria·ml(-1)). The delay in nodulation on Tsr roots appeared to be caused by the fact that nodule meristems did not develop on the primary root, but only on the emerging laterals. The relationship between Tsr, Hai, Had, and nodulation is discussed.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Two Vicia sativa Subspecies: Mining Molecular Markers to Enhance Genomic Resources for Vetch Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vetch (Vicia sativa is one of the most important annual forage legumes globally due to its multiple uses and high nutritional content. Despite these agronomical benefits, many drawbacks, including cyano-alanine toxin, has reduced the agronomic value of vetch varieties. Here, we used 454 technology to sequence the two V. sativa subspecies (ssp. sativa and ssp. nigra to enrich functional information and genetic marker resources for the vetch research community. A total of 86,532 and 47,103 reads produced 35,202 and 18,808 unigenes with average lengths of 735 and 601 bp for V. sativa sativa and V. sativa nigra, respectively. Gene Ontology annotations and the cluster of orthologous gene classes were used to annotate the function of the Vicia transcriptomes. The Vicia transcriptome sequences were then mined for simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. About 13% and 3% of the Vicia unigenes contained the putative SSR and SNP sequences, respectively. Among those SSRs, 100 were chosen for the validation and the polymorphism test using the Vicia germplasm set. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the utility of transcriptomic data to expedite a vetch breeding program.

  10. Tannin, protein contents and fatty acid compositions of the seeds of several Vicia L. species from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kökten, Kağan; Koçak, Alpaslan; Bağci, Eyüp; Akçura, Mevlüt; Çelik, Sait

    2010-01-01

    The seedoils of six Vicia species (Leguminosae) were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of the seeds were found to be between 21.87%-31.33%. The tannin contents of the seeds were found to be between 0.13%-1.07%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by the GC of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The oilseeds of Vicia species contain palmitic and stear...

  11. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  12. Effects of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) extract consumption on leukocytes increase in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro Terrazos, Jony; Moisés Saldaña, Ítalo

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the article published by Amaro, which shows that there is an increase of leukocytes to manage beets in albino mice of the species Mus musculus Balb / c (1) strain. We want to share the results of a study that bean (Vicia faba L.), a plant that has the role in the diet of rural and urban dwellers for its contribution in proteins characteristic of all legume was used, and for their contribution carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins. The importance of this kind is increasing ...

  13. Lead-induced DNA damage in Vicia faba root cells: Potential involvement of oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Jean, Séverine; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Genotoxic effects of lead (0–20 µM) were investigated in whole-plant roots of Vicia faba L., grown hydroponically under controlled conditions. Lead-induced DNA damage in V. faba roots was evaluated by use of the comet assay, which allowed the detection of DNA strand-breakage and with the V. faba micronucleus test, which revealed chromosome aberrations. The results clearly indicate that lead induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependant manner with a maximum effect at 10 µM. In addition, at th...

  14. fungal disease resistance in vicia faba in relation to water stress and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Induced systemic resistance (Isr), as a recent strategy, achieving biological control of plant disease through initiation to form natural antibiotic compounds, phytoalexin, that considered to be involved in the defense mechanism of plant to potential pathogen. Also, phytoalexin formed by leguminosae in response to infection play an extremely role in disease resistance. Indeed, wyerone acid (C 14 H 12 O 4 ) has been clearfield as a phytoalexin formed by Vicia faba in response to infection stress. Therefore, the present study was outlined to clearify the feasibility to biocontrol of checolate spot disease caused by Botrytis fabae in faba bean, Vicia faba, plants under field condition. Pre. Sowing seed irradiated with low gamma ray were planted in: 1- Three pot experiments (salinity-Ni-Si) in complete randomized block design in three replicates. 2- Two field experiments in loam soil irrigated with river nile water (inducers-Isr)) in splite-plot design in three replicates. 3- Two field experiments in sandy soil irrigated with two saline water from 2 shallow-wells (inducers-Isr) in split-split plot design in three replicates

  15. Survey the Effect of Oil Pollution on Morphological Characteristics in Faba Vulgaris and Vicia Ervilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lorestani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollution results when a change in the environment harmfully affects the quality of human life including effect on animals, microorganisms and plants. Among the broad range of organic pollutants contaminating soil-water environment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great environment concern. Oil contaminated soil will affect germination, plant height, leaf area and biomass production. The aim of this research was to elucidate effects of oil pollution on morphological characteristics in Fabaceae family. For this purpose species of Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia were planted in different concentrations of oil in soil. For morphological studies, studied species were removed from polluted and non polluted soils separately and some morphological characters were studied in these species, then these characters were compared in plants, collected from polluted and non polluted soil. Finally, the level of significance of these differences was elucidated by using of SPSS. Obtained results showed that oil pollution can cause some abnormalities in structure of vegetative parts in plants grown on polluted soils. Decreasing of plant length and stem diameter and changing the leaf shape was among the most important effects of oil on morphological characteristics in Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia.

  16. Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, L K S; Pande, P N; Gupta, S K

    2004-04-01

    The contamination of surface- and groundwater by the leaching of solid wastes generated by industrial activities as a result of water runoff and rainfall is a matter of great concern. The leachates from tannery solid waste (TSW), a major environmental pollutant, were examined for their possible genotoxic effects on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. Leachates were prepared from solid wastes procured from leather-tanning industrial sites, and V. faba seedlings were exposed to three test concentrations, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, through soil and aqueous media for 5 days. The root tips examined for cytogenetic damage revealed that leachate of TSW significantly inhibited the mitotic index and induced significantly frequent chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) in a dose-dependent manner. The chemical analysis of TSW samples revealed that the chief constituents were chromium and nickel, which may cause genetic abnormalities. The frequency of aberrations was found to be higher in the root meristematic cells of Vicia faba exposed through the aqueous medium than those exposed through the soil medium. The results of the present study indicated that contamination of potable water bodies by leachates of TSW may cause genotoxicity. For the biomonitoring of complex mixtures of toxicants with the V. faba bioassay, the use of the aqueous medium seems to be a more promising method than the use of the soil medium. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 129-133, 2004.

  17. The Effect Different Fertilizers, on Germination, Yield, of Vicia vilosa Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the interaction of germination, yield of Vicia vilosa Roth to use of biological fertilizer, chemical, and manure, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications at Research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-2014 growing season. The experimental treatments was included three kinds of bio fertilizers and their integration with each other and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as following : 1- mycorhhizaarbuscular species Glomus mosseae+vermicompost2- mycorhhiza+Nitrocsin (included bacteries Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhizaarbuscular (Glomus moseae 6-control. The results showed that, although the treatments has not significant effects on height of stem , it has significant effects on characteristics of root length colonization percent, number the root node, Root dry weight, soggy yield, yield dry and protein Percent. The results showed that the highest percent of root length colonization(76 percent, number the root node (20, Root dry weight (.94 g, soggy yield (1894.5 g m-2, yield dry (473.63 g m-2 and protein Percent (27.33 percent was gained in integrated mycorhhiza and nitrocsine treatment. On the basis of results, the integration of mycrhhoriza and biological rhizobium is suggested as the best fertilizer treatment for Vicia vilosa Roth.

  18. Effects of SO/sub 2/ pollution on stomatal movements in Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majernik, O; Mansfield, T A

    1971-01-01

    Leaves of broad bean Vicia faba L. exposed to controlled levels of SO/sub 2/ pollution in the range 0.25 to 9.0 ppm had much wider stomatal openings than control plants. The stimulation of opening relative to the controls was proportional to SO/sub 2/ concentration over the range 0.25 to 1.0 ppm. The ability of the stomata to close at night was not appreciably affected. The possible implications of this unnatural reaction of the stomata are discussed. Abnormal opening could lead to the plant's losing its usual control over transpiration, with resulting water stress. The main disadvantage, however, is that SO/sub 2/ will gain easier access to the interior of the leaf.

  19. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  20. L’orobe (Vicia ervilia L. Willd.) au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    El Fatehi, Salama; Ater, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Dans cette contribution nous allons présenter certains aspects de l’histoire de la nomenclature et des usages de la culture de l’orobe (Vicia ervilia L. Willd.). Bien que cette culture soit actuellement considérée comme mineure et utilisée uniquement dans l’alimentation animale, cela n’a pas été toujours le cas. A certaines époques la culture de l’orobe était plus importante et occupait une place importante parmi les légumineuses cultivées. Même si elle était peu appréciée, elle était utilisé...

  1. Non-random intrachromosomal distribution of radiation-induced chromatid aberrations in Vicia faba. [Aberration clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, I; Rieger, R [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Gatersleben. Zentralinst. fuer Genetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung

    1976-04-01

    A reconstructed karyotype of Vicia faba, with all chromosomes individually distinguishable, was treated with X-rays, fast neutrons, (/sup 3/H) uridine (/sup 3/HU). The distribution within metaphase chromosomes of induced chromatid aberrations was non-random for all agents used. Aberration clustering, in part agent specific, occurred in chromosome segments containing heterochromatin as defined by the presence of G bands. The pattern of aberration clustering found after treatment with /sup 3/HU did not allow the recognition of chromosome regions active in transcription during treatment. Furthermore, it was impossible to obtain unambiguous indications of the presence of AT- and GC-base clusters from the patterns of /sup 3/HT- and /sup 3/HC-induced chromatid aberrations, respectively. Possible reasons underlying these observations are discussed.

  2. Changes Germination, Growth and Anatomy Vicia ervilia in Response to Light Crude Oil Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Lorestani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thepetroleum concentrations are contaminant important sources in the environment. Hydrocarbon’s contaminants depend on their type and concentration can cause variable toxicity in soils, on the other hand, different kinds of plants also response concentration of contaminant differently, because of the diversity of physiological and morphological characteristics. In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil was investigated on stem length, germination and anatomical of Vicia ervilia. A factorial experiment was used with a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. The results showed that the germination and stem lengths decreased significantly (p≤ 0.05 with increasing concentrations of petroleum. Anatomical studies the changes of parenchyma, vascular bundles, epidermal and increase crack showed.

  3. Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture, a viable alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, V.; Perea, F.; Saavedra, M.; Fuentes, C.; Alcántara, C.

    2017-07-01

    The demand of vegetable protein for animal feed and the need to diversify the crop rotation in rainfed Mediterranean climates has led to study the viability as new forage crop of the Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture. Therefore, a 3-year field trial was conducted at two different and representative locations of the area to evaluate the capacity of both species to form a balanced mixture and to define its potential for high yield and forage quality. Different seeding ratios (65:35, 50:50 and 35:65) were compared with their pure stands and the standard mixture Avena sativa-Vicia sativa (65:35). Forage mixtures establishment and growth varied according to the environmental conditions with a negative influence of a dry year 1 for legumes (<300 mm) and a wet year 2 for oats (>630 mm). However, competition ratio indicated that there were not significant differences between mixed treatments, displaying intermediate ground coverage values, dry matter yield and crude protein regarding pure stands. Higher dry matter yield than control mixture in addition to similar crude protein, acid-detergent fibre, neutral-detergent fibre and digestible dry matter values, were produced at 35:65 in dry years and 65:35 and 50:50 in rainy years with loamy and clay soils, respectively. The appropriate development of both species in the mixture at different soil and rainfall conditions, as well as a good yield often higher than control mixture and a great forage quality, confirm to the narbon bean-black oat mixture as a viable and profitable crop alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions.

  4. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbadj, Ablaa; Makoudi, Bouchra; Mouradi, Mohammed; Frendo, Pierre; Ghoulam, Cherki

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD), Luz d’Otonio (LO) and Reina Mora (RM) to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity). A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase) are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes. PMID:29281721

  5. Physiological and biochemical responses involved in water deficit tolerance of nitrogen-fixing Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ablaa Kabbadj

    Full Text Available Climate change is increasingly impacting the water deficit over the world. Because of drought and the high pressure of the rising human population, water is becoming a scarce and expensive commodity, especially in developing countries. The identification of crops presenting a higher acclimation to drought stress is thus an important objective in agriculture. The present investigation aimed to assess the adaptation of three Vicia faba genotypes, Aguadulce (AD, Luz d'Otonio (LO and Reina Mora (RM to water deficit. Multiple physiological and biochemical parameters were used to analyse the response of the three genotypes to two soil water contents (80% and 40% of field capacity. A significant lower decrease in shoot, root and nodule dry weight was observed for AD compared to LO and RM. The better growth performance of AD was correlated to higher carbon and nitrogen content than in LO and RM under water deficit. Leaf parameters such as relative water content, mass area, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were significantly less affected in AD than in LO and RM. Significantly higher accumulation of proline was correlated to the higher performance of AD compared to LO and RM. Additionally, the better growth of AD genotype was related to an important mobilisation of antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase. Taken together, these results allow us to suggest that AD is a water deficit tolerant genotype compared to LO and RM. Our multiple physiological and biochemical analyses show that nitrogen content, leaf proline accumulation, reduced leaf hydrogen peroxide accumulation and leaf antioxidant enzymatic activities (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase are potential biological markers useful to screen for water deficit resistant Vicia faba genotypes.

  6. The Evolution of Vicia ramuliflora (Fabaceae) at Tetraploid and Diploid Levels Revealed with FISH and RAPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haoyou; Liu, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies. PMID:28135314

  7. Vicia faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-mail: wedkasim@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT ... uniformity of size and shape, washed in distilled water and sown in pots containing acid- washed ... sections of stems, roots, leaf petioles and leaflet blades of 25-day-old plants were cut above the.

  8. Vicia Faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resource of natural germplasm to screen for desired characteristics present in ... The effect of indigenous rhizobia on nodulation and growth of faba bean ... nodule fresh weights, nodule color, shoots height and leaf colors (yellow, green) were.

  9. An analysis of the energetic reward offered by field bean (Vicia faba) flowers: nectar, pollen and operative force

    OpenAIRE

    Bailes, Emily; Pattrick, Jonathan; Glover, Beverley Jane

    2018-01-01

    Global consumption of crops with a yield that is dependent on animal pollinators is growing, with greater areas planted each year. However, the floral traits that influence pollinator visitation are not usually the focus of breeding programmes and therefore it is likely that yield improvements may be made by optimizing floral traits to enhance pollinator visitation rates. We investigated the variation present in the floral reward of the bee pollinated crop Vicia faba (field bean). We examined...

  10. Potential role of NADPH-oxidase in early steps of lead-induced oxidative burst in Vicia faba roots

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Perchet, Geoffrey; Silvestre, Jérôme; Cecchi, Marie; Guiresse, Agnès Maritchù; Pinelli, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidative burst induced by lead in Vicia faba excised roots was investigated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Results showed that lead triggered a rapid and dose-dependent increase in chemiluminescence production. In this study, specific inhibitors of putative reactive oxygen species (ROS) sources were used to determine the mechanism of lead-induced ROS generation. This generation was sensitive to dephenylene iodonium (DPI), quinacrine and imidazole, some inhibitors of ...

  11. Assessment of the genotoxicity of Cu and Zn in raw and anaerobically digested slurry with the Vicia faba micronucleus test

    OpenAIRE

    Marcato, Claire-Emmanuelle; Pinelli, Eric; Pourrut, Bertrand; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Agnès Maritchù

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity of Cu and Zn was assessed by use of the micronucleus (MN) test on Vicia faba roots. Plants were exposed to various leachates of rawand anaerobically digested pig slurry, with maximum total concentrations of 200MCu and 600MZn. The results indicated stabilisation of the organic matter during anaerobic digestion of the slurry and bioconversion of some phytotoxic organic compounds (e.g. phenols or p-cresol), but did not showa relationship between Cu and Zn concentrations and MN fr...

  12. Effects of below-ground insects, mycorrhizal fungi and soil fertility on the establishment of Vicia in grassland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganade, G; Brown, V K

    1997-02-01

     The effects of, and interactions between, insect root feeders, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil fertility on the establishment, growth and reproduction of Vicia sativa and V. hirsuta (Fabaceae) were investigated in an early-successional grassland community. Seeds of both species were sown into plots where soil insecticide (Dursban 5G), soil fungicide (Rovral) and soil fertiliser (NPK) were applied in a factorial randomised block design. Fertiliser addition reduced growth, longevity and reproduction of both Vicia species, due to the commonly recorded increase in the competitive advantage of the non-nitrogen-fixing species when nitrogen is added to the plant community. However, in plots where fertiliser was not applied, a reduction in root feeders and mycorrhizal infection led to an increase in seedling establishment and fruit production of V. sativa, and to an increase in flower production for both Vicia species. The interaction between all three soil treatments explained much of the variation in growth and longevity of V. sativa. Plants grew larger and survived longer in plots where natural levels of mycorrhizal infection and root feeders were low compared with plots where all the treatments were applied. This suggests that, although soil nutrient availability was a strong determinant of the performance of these two leguminous species, at natural levels of soil fertility biotic factors acting in the soil, such as mycorrhizal fungi and soil-dwelling insects, were important in shaping the competitive interactions between the two Vicia species and the plant community. Our results indicate that non-additive interactions between ecological factors in the soil environment may strongly affect plant performance.

  13. Crystal Structures and Binding Dynamics of Odorant-Binding Protein 3 from two aphid species Megoura viciae and Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northey, Tom; Venthur, Herbert; De Biasio, Filomena; Chauviac, Francois-Xavier; Cole, Ambrose; Ribeiro, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Grossi, Gerarda; Falabella, Patrizia; Field, Linda M; Keep, Nicholas H; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2016-04-22

    Aphids use chemical cues to locate hosts and find mates. The vetch aphid Megoura viciae feeds exclusively on the Fabaceae, whereas the currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri alternates hosts between the Grossulariaceae and Asteraceae. Both species use alarm pheromones to warn of dangers. For N. ribisnigri this pheromone is a single component (E)-β-farnesene but M. viciae uses a mixture of (E)-β-farnesene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. Odorant-binding proteins (OBP) are believed to capture and transport such semiochemicals to their receptors. Here, we report the first aphid OBP crystal structures and examine their molecular interactions with the alarm pheromone components. Our study reveals some unique structural features: 1) the lack of an internal ligand binding site; 2) a striking groove in the surface of the proteins as a putative binding site; 3) the N-terminus rather than the C-terminus occupies the site closing off the conventional OBP pocket. The results from fluorescent binding assays, molecular docking and dynamics demonstrate that OBP3 from M. viciae can bind to all four alarm pheromone components and the differential ligand binding between these very similar OBP3s from the two aphid species is determined mainly by the direct π-π interactions between ligands and the aromatic residues of OBP3s in the binding pocket.

  14. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.

  15. Primary experiment aimed at selecting the suitable dose to mutation induction in vicia faba major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulsi, Imad; Mir Ali, Nizar

    1992-08-01

    Seeds of a local faba been variety (Mahali) (Vicia faba major) were irradiated with (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 Gy) of gamma rays and sown under greenhouse and field conditions in Deir Al-Hajar Research Station near Damascus. Four replicates were used in a randomized complete block design. Germination percentage, seedling height, and daily growth rate, were estimated one month and two months after planting for the greenhouse and field treatments respectively. The results showed a stimulation effect in the 5 Gy dose, whereas, the higher doses showed a gradual decrease in seedling height. Doses up to 20 Gy had a similar germination percentage to that of the control (about 75%) whereas, the germination percentage decreased sharply at the higher doses (3% and 0.2% for the 100 Gy under greenhouse and the field respectively). The doses between 20 and 40 Gy were considered optimal for mutation from the plant breeder point of view where the lethality was moderate and an acceptable rate of mutation was shown. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  16. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  17. Influence of copper on morphologic properties of roots of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, L

    1973-01-01

    Relatively few papers deal with anatomic-morphological changes taking place due to deficiency or toxical influence of copper. There are few papers relating to the influence of higher copper concentrations on morphological properties. Comparative studies investigating copper toxicity have not been worked out in detail. Experiments determining toxicity have been carried out on different substrates. This substrate is very important since there is the question of the bond of copper with various substances, which are found in substrate and which reduce, to a certain extent, the toxicity of copper. Maximum toxicity can be found out in aqueous and sand cultures. High toxicity of copper ions depends, to a large extent, on the stability of its complex compounds, which results in the stability of copper to separate other metals from different compounds. In this way copper inactivates enzymes and various biologically active substances. The problem of toxicity has been widely studied. The author considers the concentration of 0.5 mg Cu/l is a limit of copper toxicity with oat, whereas the concentration of 0.25 mg is toxical for the sprouts of citruses. It is obvious that the limit of toxicity cannot be exactly determined since there are several factors involved (sort of plant, use of cultivation method etc.) This paper was aimed at finding out the influence of higher copper concentrations on morphological changes of roots, stem and leaves of bean Vicia faba.

  18. Plant regeneration from protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Kohn, H; Nibbe, M; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1996-11-01

    Protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis isolated from epicotyls and shoot tips of etiolated seedlings were embedded in 1.4% sodium-alginate at a final density of 2.5×10(5) protoplasts/ml and cultivated in Kao and Michayluk-medium containing 0.5 mg/I of each of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6 -benzylaminopurine. A division frequency of 36% and a plating efficiency of 0.40-0.5% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred onto gelrite-solidified Murashige and Skoog-media containing various growth regulators. Regeneration of plants was achieved via two morphologically distinguishable pathways. A two step protocol (initially on medium with a high auxin concentration followed by a culture phase with lowered auxin amount) was used to regenerate somatic embryos, whereas cultivation on medium containing thidiazuron and naphthylacetic acid resulted in shoot morphogenesis. Mature plants were recovered from both somatic embryos as well as from thidiazuron-induced shoots.

  19. Detection of genotoxic effects of drinking water disinfection by-products using Vicia faba bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Tan, Li; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Zuo, Yu-Ting; Han, Xue; Liu, Na; Lu, Wen-Qing; Liu, Ai-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based bioassays have gained wide use among the toxicological and/or ecotoxicological assessment procedures because of their simplicity, sensitivity, low cost, and reliability. The present study describes the use of Vicia faba (V. faba) micronucleus (MN) test and V. faba comet assay in the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of disinfection by-products (DBPs) commonly found in chlorine-disinfected drinking water. Five haloacetic acids and three halogenated acetonitriles were chosen as representatives of DBPs in this study because they are of potentially great public health risk. Results of the MN test indicated that monochloroacetic acid (MCA), monobromoacetic acid (MBA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) caused a statistically significant increase in MN frequency in V. faba root tip cells. However, no genotoxic response was observed for dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN). Results of the comet assay showed that all tested DBPs induced a statistically significant increase in genomic DNA damage to V. faba root tip cells. On considering the capacity to detect genomic damage of a different nature, we suggest that a combination of V. faba MN test and V. faba comet assay is a useful tool for the detection of genotoxic effects of DBPs. It is worthy of assessing the feasibility of using V. faba comet assay combined with V. faba MN test to screen for the genotoxic activity of chlorinated drinking water in future work.

  20. Physiological aspects of fungi isolated from root nodules of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, S A; Abd-Alla, M H

    2000-03-01

    The present study was made to isolate and assess some physiological characteristics of root nodule-colonizing fungi. During this study, 17 fungal species were isolated from root nodule samples taken from faba bean plants (Vicia faba L.) collected from different sites at Assiut area (Egypt). The growth of faba bean plants in pots was significantly promoted by soil inoculation with most fungi. Growth was checked in pots with inocula of Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium moniliforme, F: oxysporium, F solani, Macrophominia phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani which were added separately. All growth-promoting fungi were capable of producing cellulase, pectin lyase, polygalacturonase, protease, urease, amidase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and arylsulfatase in growth medium supplemented with the corresponding substrates. Four fungal species, Aspergillus awamori, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma koningii showed the highest rates of enzyme formation. The effect of the addition of six trace elements to the growth media at 30 micromol/ml on enzyme production revealed some dependency on species, enzyme and metal ion. Cd2+, Hg2+ and Zn2+ generally inhibited enzyme activity. Cu(1+), Fe3+ and Al3+ showed a stimulatory effect. Fungicides (afugan and tilt) and herbicides (brominal and fusilade) at 50 ppm generally promoted enzyme activity, but insecticides (kelthane and fenvalerate) caused some inhibition to enzyme activities. Salinization of the growth media with NaCl strongly inhibited the enzymatic activity of all fungi at concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5%.

  1. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  2. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Portuguese Cultivated Vicia faba L. through IRAP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tomás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean have been grown in Portugal for a long time and locally adapted populations are still maintained on farm. The genetic diversity of four Portuguese faba bean populations that are still cultivated in some regions of the country was evaluated using the Inter Retrotransposons Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP technique. It was shown that molecular markers based on retrotransposons previously identified in other species can be efficiently used in the genetic variability assessment of Vicia faba. The IRAP experiment targeting Athila yielded the most informative banding patterns. Cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining algorithm generated a dendrogram that clearly shows the distribution pattern of V. faba samples. The four equina accessions are separated from each other and form two distinct clades while the two major faba bean accessions are not unequivocally separated by the IRAP. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis of sequences amplified by IRAP Athila revealed a wide distribution throughout V. faba chromosomes, confirming the whole-genome coverage of this molecular marker. Morphological characteristics were also assessed through cluster analysis of seed characters using the unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA, showing a clear discrimination between faba bean major and equina groups. It was also found that the seed character most relevant to distinguish accessions was 100 seed weight. Seed morphological traits and IRAP evaluation give similar results supporting the potential of IRAP analysis for genetic diversity studies.

  3. Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Fei; Zong, Xu-Xiao; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Tao; Sun, Xue-Lian; Ma, Yu; Redden, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit.

  4. Strategies of copper tolerance in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latef, A.A.H.; Alhmad, M.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dry mass and some physiological parameters were investigated in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO/sub 4/ (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg/sup -1/) for 15 days. Low Cu concentration did not affect dry mass of root and shoot. However, the negative effect of copper on dry mass was noticed in root than shoot especially at the higher concentrations of copper due to the accumulation of Cu was higher in root than that in shoot. Cu induced changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, Zn, K and Ca. Exposure to Cu induced the accumulation of organic solutes (soluble sugar, soluble protein and total free amino acids) in root than shoot. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was correlated with the concentration of Cu in broad bean tissues. Copper stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and this stimulation was more obvious in shoot than root. (author)

  5. Effects of Cultivar and Maternal Environment on Seed Quality in Vicia sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Chen, Lijun; Wu, Yanpei; Zhang, Rui; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Hu, Xiaowen

    2017-01-01

    Production of high quality seeds is of fundamental importance for successful crop production. However, knowledge of the effects of increased temperature resulting from global warming on seed quality of alpine species is limited. We investigated the effect of maternal environment on seed quality of three cultivars of the leguminous forage species Vicia sativa, giving particular attention to temperature. Plants of each cultivar were grown at 1700 and 3000 m a.s.l., and mass, germination, electrical conductivity (EC) of leakage and longevity were determined for mature seeds. Seeds of all three cultivars produced at the low elevation had a significantly lower mass and longevity but higher EC of leachate than those produced at the high elevation, suggesting that increased temperatures decreased seed quality. However, seed viability did not differ between elevations. The effects of maternal environment on seed germination strongly depended on cultivar and germination temperature. At 10 and 15°C, seeds of “Lanjian 3” produced at high elevation germinated to higher percentages and rates than those produced at low elevation, but the opposite trend was observed at 20°C. However, for seeds of “Lanjian 1” and “Lanjian 2,” no significant effect of elevation was observed in germination percentage. Our results indicate that the best environment for the production of high quality seeds (e.g., high seed mass, low EC, high seed longevity) of V. sativa is one in which temperatures are relatively low during seed development. PMID:28861096

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  7. Guard cell zeaxanthin tracks photosynthetically active radiation and stomatal apertures in Vicia faba leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Zeiger, E.

    1995-01-01

    Zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations in guard cells from sonicated abaxial epidermal peels of Vicia faba were measured from dawn to dusk, and compared with concentrations in mesophyll tissue of the same leaves. Measured changes in guard cell zeaxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations indicate that guard cells operate the xanthophyll cycle throughout the day. Mesophyll tissue had no detectable zeaxanthin at dawn, whereas guard cells had 30–50 mmol mol −1 chlorophyll a+b. On a chlorophyll basis, maximal zeaxanthin levels were 3–4 fold higher in guard cells than in mesophyll cells. Zeaxanthin concentrations tracked levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in both mesophyll and guard cells. In the mesophyll, most of the zeaxanthin changes occurred in mid-morning and mid-afternoon. In guard cells, zeaxanthin concentrations changed nearly linearly with PAR in the early morning and late afternoon, and closely tracked PAR levels throughout the day. Guard cell zeaxanthin concentrations were also closely correlated with stomatal apertures. The close relationship between zeaxanthin concentrations and PAR levels in guard cells indicates that zeaxanthin is well suited to function as a molecular photosensor in stomatal movements. (author)

  8. Salinity-induced modulation of plant growth and photosynthetic parameters in faba bean (vicia faba) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.; Embiale, A.; Husen, A.; Eref, I.E.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most severe environmental factors limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. The present study assesses salt-tolerant cultivars of Vicia faba L.on the basis of their growth, biomass and foliar characteristics. Four levels of salt stress (0, 50, 100 and 150mM) were applied to three selected cultivars, viz. Degaga, Dosha and Hachalu. Results revealed significant differences among the cultivars, salt-stress treatments, and their interaction, indicating the cultivars' variability and differential response to salt stress. Salinity stress adversely affected plant growth, plant water status and biomass production. Salt treatments decreased the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, but cultivar Dosha, which was ahead of others in height, leaf number, relative water content, total biomass and leaf-dry-mass ratio, was least affected. Functional leaf characters, such as photochemical efficiency of PSII (maximum quantum yield = Fv/Fm), stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (E) were also reduced under salt-stress, and againDosha cultivar did better than others except in gs. The relatively less decline in growth, water status, biomass, photosynthetic pigments and functional leaf characters of Dosha exhibits a reasonable tolerance ability of this cultivar, while the other two varieties viz., Degaga and Hachalu proved to be sensitive to salt stress. (author)

  9. The Effects of Mineral Nitrogen on the Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen by Vicia Faba L; Vliyanie mineral'nogo azota na fiksatsiyu atmosfernogo azota u Vicia Faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouhova, G.; Apltauer, J. [Central' nyj Issledovatel' Skij Institut Rastenievodstva, Praga, CHSSR (Czech Republic)

    1968-07-01

    From 1964 to 1966 a systematic research vas carried out at the Central Research Institute for Plant Production in Prague - Ruzyne, aimed at examining the effect of gradually increased levels of nitrogen and various forms of nitrogen in nitrogen fertilizers on the yield, nitrogen content and the nodulation of the roots of horse bean (Vicia faba LQ. By means of {sup 15}N, the proportion of the total nitrogen content of the plant derived from the fertilizer as well as the total utilization of the nitrogen fertilizer by the plant were determined. The experiments were carried out in a series of greenhouse pot tests using a brown soil type, with ammonium sulphate and potassium nitrate as the nitrogen sources. Gradually-increased-levels of nitrogen in ammonium sulphate (0, 5.2, 26.2, 52.5 and 105.0 mgN/kg of soil) applied to the horse bean did not exert any substantial effect on the yield of fresh aerial parts of the horse bean, when harvested at the flowering period. The nitrogen content of tissues of the fertilized plants differed from the control plants (without nitrogen addition) only at the highest nitrogen level (2.7% compared to 3.4% N). The proportion of nitrogen absorbed from the nitrogen fertilizer by whole plant, increased almost as a linear function of nitrogen supplied. Thus the whole plant consumed 51 to 57% of the nitrogen from the first two fertilizer levels, and 64 to 69% from the last two levels of fertilizer, the 52.5-mg and 105-mg levels. In comparing nitrogen supplied as potassium nitrate with nitrogen in ammonium sulphate, at a level of 26.2 mg N/kg of soil, no difference of yield and of percentage nitrogen content in the aerial part of horse bean was found between the plants grown with the nitrogen fertilizers and control plants. The isotopical analysis of nitrogen showed that in the aerial part of horse bean plant the percentage proportion of nitrogen deriving from the fertilizer was higher when potassium nitrate was used (10.8%), than in case of

  10. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  11. Role of O2 in the Growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 on Glucose and Succinate

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Rachel M.; Ramachandran, Vinoy K.; Geddes, Barney A.; Perry, Benjamin J.; Yost, Chris K.; Poole, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Insertion sequencing (INSeq) analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv3841) grown on glucose or succinate at both 21% and 1% O2 was used to understand how O2 concentration alters metabolism. Two transcriptional regulators were required for growth on glucose (pRL120207 [eryD] and RL0547 [phoB]), five were required on succinate (pRL100388, RL1641, RL1642, RL3427, and RL4524 [ecfL]), and three were required on 1% O2 (pRL110072, RL0545 [phoU], and RL4042). A novel toxin-antitoxin s...

  12. Induction of fungal disease resistance in Vicia faba by dual inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, G H

    1998-01-01

    Infection of Vicia faba with Bothytis fabae causes significant decreases in growth vigour, total nitrogen content, number of nodules and nutrient accumulation. Na-uptake and phenolics concentration increased compared to that of noninfected plants. In contrast, dual inoculation of Rhizobium and VA mycorrhizae increased all above parameters suggesting a distinct improvement of the plants. The results also revealed that an inverse correlation may exist between phenolic, calcium, magnesium and zinc concentrations in mycorrhizal plant tissues grown in presence of rhizobial bacteria and the disease severity. From these findings we conclude a possible role of both VA mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobial bacteria in the decrease of susceptibility of plants.

  13. In situ hybridization of iodinated 5S and 18/25S RNA to Vicia faba metaphase chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, I.; Baeumlein, H.; Wobus, U.

    1978-01-01

    In vitro labelled 125 I ribosomal RNA fractions (18/25S and 5S) were in situ hybridized to metaphase chromosomes of a reconstructed karyotype of Vicia faba (characterized by two translocations and one pericentric inversion, each being present homozygously). The sites of 18S and 25S RNA were found to be confined to the nucleolus organizing secondary constriction. Two loci of 5S RNA were recognized on the satellite of nucleolus bearing chromosome. Possible correlations between the location of ribosomal genes, heterochromatic G-bands and clusters of mutagen induced chromatid aberrations are discussed. (author)

  14. Effects of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide on net photosynthesis and dark respiration of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, V J; Unsworth, M H

    1979-01-01

    Rates of net photosynthesis, P/sub N/, and dark respiration of Vicia faba plants were measured in the laboratory in clean air and in air containing up to 175 parts 10/sup -9/ (500 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) SO/sub 2/. At all SO/sub 2/ concentrations exceeding 35 parts 10/sup -9/, P/sub N/ was inhibited compared with clean air. At light saturation, the magnitude of inhibition depended on SO/sub 2/ concentration but at low irradiances the inhibition was independent of concentration. Dark respiration rates increased substantially, independent of concentration. When exposures continued for up to 3 days, P/sub N/ returned to clean air values about 1 h after fumigation ceased: dark respiration recovered after one photoperiod. There were no visible injuries. Reviewing possible mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of P/sub N/, it is suggested that SO/sub 2/ competes with CO/sub 2/ for binding sites in RuBP carboxylase. Analysis of resistance analogues demonstrates that SO/sub 2/ altered both stomatal and internal (residual) resistances. A model of crop photosynthesis shows the implications of the observed responses for the growth of field crops in which plants are assumed to respond like laboratory plants. Photosynthesis of the crop would be less sensitive than that of individual plants to SO/sub 2/ concentration. Daily dry matter accumulation of hypothetical polluted crops would be substantially less than clean air values but would vary relatively little with SO/sub 2/ concentration. It is concluded that physiological bases exist to account for observed reductions in growth of plants at very low SO/sub 2/ concentrations, and that thresholds for plant responses to SO/sub 2/ require reassessment. 30 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  15. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  16. Competitive nodulation blocking of cv. Afghanistan pea is related to high levels of nodulation factors made by some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, B.; Davies, A.E.; Wilson, K.E.; Bisseling, T.; Downie, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivar Afghanistan peas are resistant to nodulation by many strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae but are nodulated by strain TOM, which carries the host specificity gene nodX. Some strains that lack nodX can inhibit nodulation of cv. Afghanistan by strain TOM. We present evidence that

  17. Dietary effects of faba-bean (Vicia faba L.) tannins on the morphology and function of the small-intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wiebenga, J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of condensed tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on morphological and functional variables of the small-intestinal mucosa of piglets. In an experiment with young piglets (8-17 kg body weight), fed on either a control diet or a diet

  18. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch

  19. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M.; Sillero, Josefina C.

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri, or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited in faba

  20. Characterization resistance mechanisms in faba bean (Vicia faba against broomrape species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rubiales

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata, although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca, and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida. Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa, neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri or P. aegyptiaca. Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegytiaca, suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further

  1. Characterization of Resistance Mechanisms in Faba Bean (Vicia faba) against Broomrape Species (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Rojas-Molina, Maria M; Sillero, Josefina C

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean ( Vicia faba ) production in Mediterranean and Near East agriculture is severely constrained by broomrape infection. The most widely distributed broomrape species affecting faba bean is Orobanche crenata , although O. foetida and Phelipanche aegyptiaca are of local importance. Only moderately resistant cultivars are available to farmers. Rizotrons studies allowed the dissection of resistance components in faba bean accessions against the very infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri and P. aegyptiaca , and to the inappropriate P. ramosa and O. foetida var. foetida . Results confirm that some levels of incomplete resistance are available, resulting in a reduced number of broomrape tubercles successfully formed per faba bean plant. Interestingly, the intermediate levels of resistance of cv. Baraca were operative against all broomrape populations and species studied, confirming previous reports on the stability of resistance of Baraca in field trials in different countries. Low induction of seed germination played a major role in the resistance against the inappropriate O. foetida var. foetida but not against the also inappropriate P. ramosa , neither to the infective species O. crenata, O. foetida var. broteri , or P. aegyptiaca . Negative tropism of germinated seeds with radicles growing away from faba bean roots was marked for both inappropriate species but was not observed in any of the infective species. Also, a proportion of radicles that had successfully contacted faba bean roots became necrotic, failing in starting tubercle development, particularly frequent for the two inappropriate species. Such necrosis was significant also on radicles contacting resistant faba bean accessions, being particularly relevant for Spanish O. crenata population, and lower although still significant in some accessions against Syrian O. crenata and P. aegyptiaca , suggesting that this might also be an operative mechanism to be selected and further exploited

  2. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  3. Inducing somatic meiosis-like reduction at high frequency by caffeine in root-tip cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Zhang, L; Zhou, Y; Geng, Y; Chen, Z

    2000-07-20

    Germinated seeds of Vicia faba were treated in caffeine solutions of different concentration for different durations to establish the inducing system of somatic meiosis-like reduction. The highest frequency of somatic meiosis-like reduction could reach up to 54.0% by treating the root tips in 70 mmol/l caffeine solution for 2 h and restoring for 24 h. Two types of somatic meiosis-like reduction were observed. One was reductional grouping, in which the chromosomes in a cell usually separated into two groups, and the role of spindle fibers did not show. The other type was somatic meiosis, which was analogous to meiosis presenting in gametogenesis, and chromosome pairing and chiasmata were visualized.

  4. Effect of crude seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and some metabolic processes of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sheekh, M M; el-Saied A el-D

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts from three green seaweeds (Cladophora dalmatica, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and the three red algae (Corallina mediterranea, Jania rubens, Pterocladia pinnate) were prepared. Their effects on germination, growth of seedlings, chlorophyll content and other metabolic activities of Vicia faba were investigated. The crude extract of C. dalmatica showed maximal activity, and it increased seed germination, length of main root and shoot systems and the number of lateral roots. All the crude extracts of seaweed increased protein content in both root and shoot systems, total soluble sugars and chlorophyll content in leaves. The cytokinin content of the green algae was higher than that in red algae. Growth of seedlings of V. faba was stimulated but to different degrees.

  5. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  6. Vicia cytogenetic tests for environmental mutagens. A report of the US Environmental Protection Agency gene-tox program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T H

    1982-01-01

    Vicia root-tip mitotic and pollen mother-cell meiotic tests are two major kinds of cytogenetic tests for environmental mutagens. According to the present review, 81 of 85 earlier studies used mitotic tests to determine the frequencies of chromosome or chromatid aberrations and/or sister-chromatid exchange from root-tip meristematic cells; only 4 used meiotic tests to determine the frequencies of chromosome aberration from pollen mother cells. Treatment of root-tip meristem can be done by allowing the newly germinated roots to absorb the chemical mutagens from a water solution. Pollen mother cells can be treated by spraying the solution or pipetting the liquid over the flower buds. After an appropriate recovery time, the samples are fixed and stained, and the slides are prepared for metaphase or anaphase figures for scoring aberration frequencies. Slides for meiotic tests are prepared for metaphase I and/or Anaphase I stages for scoring chromosome aberration frequencies. Results of both cytogenetic tests should be expressed in terms of number of breaks per cell or per 100 cells. Test results of 76 chemicals from 32 classes in this review indicate that the Vicia root-tip mitotic test is reliable, efficient, and relatively inexpensive. These results also reveal that antibiotics are most frequently studied, followed by alkyl sulfones, pyrimidine, and purine derivatives. Of all the agents studied through root-tip mitotic tests, about 90% gave positive responses; antibiotics (phyleomycin and bleomycin) had very high mutagenicity (less than 1 ppM gave positive response).

  7. Effect of exogenous abscisic acid on accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the abscisic acid (ABA in biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols (Gal-C in tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds was investigated. The ABA was applied through incubation of seed at various stage of its development. The level of RFOs and Gal-C was determined in seed maturing on plant and in seed maturing in vitro. In early stages of V. hirsuta seed development, the ABA activated the biosynthesis of galactinol, although the level of arisen galactinol quickly declined. In the later stages of V. hirsuta seed development ABA had stimulatory effect of RFOs and Gal-C biosynthesis. Influence of ABA on biosynthesis of a-galactosides in Vicia hirsuta seed seems to be dependent on abscisic acid concentration. Low concentration of ABA had stimulatory effect on a-galactosides biosynthesis, but high concentration of ABA inhibited the process.

  8. Solid phase measurements of antibody and lectin binding to xenogenic carbohydrate antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In future pig-to-man xenotransplantation it is important to master tools that identify potentially xenogenic alphagalactose (Galalpha) antigens in the doner tissue. DESIGN AND METHODS: We have measured the binding potentials of Galalpha detecting lectins and antibodies, including...

  9. Mannose-Binding Lectin Binds to Amyloid Protein and Modulates Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykol Larvie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a soluble factor of the innate immune system, is a pattern recognition molecule with a number of known ligands, including viruses, bacteria, and molecules from abnormal self tissues. In addition to its role in immunity, MBL also functions in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. We present evidence here that MBL binds to amyloid β peptides. MBL binding to other known carbohydrate ligands is calcium-dependent and has been attributed to the carbohydrate-recognition domain, a common feature of other C-type lectins. In contrast, we find that the features of MBL binding to Aβ are more similar to the reported binding characteristics of the cysteine-rich domain of the unrelated mannose receptor and therefore may involve the MBL cysteine-rich domain. Differences in MBL ligand binding may contribute to modulation of inflammatory response and may correlate with the function of MBL in processes such as coagulation and tissue homeostasis.

  10. Lectin binding assays for in-process monitoring of sialylation in protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiduan; Chen, Jianmin; Yamasaki, Glenn; Murphy, John E; Mei, Baisong

    2010-07-01

    Many therapeutic proteins require appropriate glycosylation for their biological activities and plasma half life. Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is a glycoprotein which has extensive post-translational modification by N-linked glycosylation. The terminal sialic acid in the N-linked glycans of FVIII is required for maximal circulatory half life. The extent of FVIII sialylation can be determined by high pH anion-exchange chromatography coupled with a pulse electrochemical detector (HPAEC-PED), but this requires a large amount of purified protein. Using FVIII as a model, the objective of the present study was to develop assays that enable detection and prediction of sialylation deficiency at an early stage in the process and thus prevent downstream product quality excursions. Lectin ECA (Erythrina Cristagalli) binds to unsialylated Galbeta1-4 GlcNAc and the ECA-binding level (i.e., terminal Gal(beta1-4) exposure) is inversely proportional to the level of sialylation. By using ECA, a cell-based assay was developed to measure the global sialylation profile in FVIII producing cells. To examine the Galbeta1-4 exposure on the FVIII molecule in bioreactor tissue culture fluid (TCF), an ELISA-based ECA-FVIII binding assay was developed. The ECA-binding specificity in both assays was assessed by ECA-specific sugar inhibitors and neuraminidase digestion. The ECA-binding specificity was also independently confirmed by a ST3GAL4 siRNA knockdown experiment. To establish the correlation between Galbeta1-4 exposure and the HPAEC-PED determined FVIII sialylation value, the FVIII containing bioreactor TCF and the purified FVIII samples were tested with ECA ELISA binding assay. The results indicated an inverse correlation between ECA binding and the corresponding HPAEC-PED sialylation value. The ECA-binding assays are cost effective and can be rapidly performed, thereby making them effective for in-process monitoring of protein sialylation.

  11. Lectins binding during alloxan-induced diabetes in rat soleus muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Membrane structural changes of soleus muscle of alloxan-diabetic rats were detected with a panel of six biotinylated lectins. Samples of muscles were obtained from normal and diabetic rats. The biotinylated lectins in staining were detected by avidin-peroxidase complex. Lectin stainning of soleus muscle cryostat sections ...

  12. Lectins as endocytic ligands: an assessment of lectin binding and uptake to rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaddoumi, Mohamed; Lee, Vincent H L

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the binding and uptake pattern of three plant lectins in rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells (RCECs) with respect to their potential for enhancing cellular macromolecular uptake. Three fluorescein-labeled plant lectins (Lycoperison esculentum, TL; Solanum tuberosum, STL; and Ulex europaeus 1, UEA-1) were screened with respect to time-, concentration-, and temperature-dependent binding and uptake. Chitin (30 mg/ml) and L-alpha-fucose (10 mM) were used as inhibitory sugars to correct for nonspecific binding of TL or STL and UEA-1, respectively. Confocal microscopy was used to confirm internalization of STL. The binding and uptake of all three lectins in RCECs was time-dependent (reaching a plateau at 1-2 h period) and saturable at 1-h period. The rank order of affinity constants (km) was STL>TL>UEA-1 with values of 0.39>0.48>4.81 microM, respectively. However, maximal, specific binding/uptake potential was in the order UEA-1>STL>TL with values of 53.7, 52.3, and 15.0 nM/mg of cell protein, respectively. Lectins showed temperature dependence in their uptake, with STL exhibiting the highest endocytic capacity. Internalized STL was visualized by confocal microscopy to be localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Based on favorable binding and uptake characteristics, potato lectin appears to be a useful candidate for further investigation as an ocular drug delivery system.

  13. [The significance of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I lectin binding fibers in various muscular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, K; Hiraguri, M; Sueishi, M; Takeuchi, M; Nonaka, I; Kawai, M

    1998-05-01

    In the present study, we have reported that Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I) lectin labeled muscle fibers in distal myopathy with rimmed vacuole formation (DMRV). UEA I binding to muscle fibers was also observed in a small number of biopsies with inflammatory myopathy, but not in other diseases, including neurogenic muscular atrophies and muscular dystrophies. In order to elucidate the relationship between this UEA I binding, rimmed vacuole formation and active autophagocytosis, we examined the UEA I binding fibers in other myopathies which frequently showed rimmed vacuoles, including adult onset acid maltase deficiency, oculo-pharyngo-distal type myopathy and oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. No UEA I lectin labeling fiber was observed in the diseases examined. We then studied UEA I binding behavior on 70 biopsies of inflammatory myopathy to characterize the clinical features of UEA I binding positive patients. UEA I binding fibers were observed in 3 of 28 patients (11%) with other collagen diseases, 11 of 36 (31%) without these disorders, and 2 of 6 (33%) with inclusion body myositis. There were no common clinical histories, complications or laboratory findings among the UEA I binding positive patients. In conclusion, a common process may exist between the muscle fiber degeneration in DMRV and subgroups of inflammatory myopathy patients, but the basic mechanism remains to be elucidated.

  14. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137Cs pollution.

  15. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-Francois

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137 Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137 Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137 Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137 Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137 Cs pollution

  16. Variation in seed mineral elements profile and yield in field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor is one of the major leguminous crops cultivated in the world and mainly destined for animal feed. Although its seed is generally recognised as a good protein source, little is known about its mineral elements profile, which is an important aspect for a balanced animal diet. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the seed mineral elements composition, along with some key production parameters, in eight field bean genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment, without intensive management, over two years (2009/10 and 2010/11. Independently of the year, the seed of Chiaro di Torre Lama was the richest in phosphorus (P, magnesium, calcium and iron contents, while that of Sint 6 and Motta Chiaro 69 were the most effective accumulators of potassium and zinc, respectively. While all the genotypes yielded better in the second year (with more rainfall, the seasonal effect on seed mineral elements composition depended on the genotype. Indeed, the P content was 46% lower in Chiaro di Torre Lama, Motta Chiaro 69 and Sint 6 in the second year, while there was only a negligible seasonal effect for Sint 8 with respect to Fe content. Overall, this crop is reasonably productive under a low management regime and its seed can supply significant amounts of certain minerals (particularly P in feed formulations. Both aspects are important in a perspective of optimising field bean production in the Mediterranean area and, hence, improving farmers’ income.

  17. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  18. Efecto de la acetilación sobre las propiedades funcionales y nutricionales de almidones de haba (VICIA FABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron algunas propiedades funcionales del almidón de haba (Vicia faba, con dos niveles de proteína -12,89% y 4,41%-, obtenido por fraccionamiento por vía húmeda de las semillas secas. Se comparan el secado en rodillos y la liofilización como métodos para deshidratar la muestra, así como las propiedades funcionales del almidón antes y después de acetilarlo con anhídrido acético. También se investigaron ciertas propiedades de interés nutricional con el fin de observar la influencia de la modificación química en la biodisponibilidad del almidón de haba. Se realizó la determinación de almidón total, almidón resistente por retrogradación (AR3, almidón disponible y la velocidad de hidrólisis enzimática en el almidón nativo y en el modificado.

  19. Estimation of the effect of radionuclide contamination on Vicia sativa L. induction of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters using "Floratest" optical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Yu.; Illienko, V.; Nesterova, N.; Pareniuk, O.; Shavanova, K.

    2017-12-01

    The presented research was aimed to determine the parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence (IChH) curve induction for Vicia sativa L. that were grown on radionuclide contaminated soils by using "Floratest" fluorometer. Plants were inoculated with 5 species of bacteria that might potentially block radionuclide uptake (Agrobacterium radiobacter IMBB-7246, Azotobacter chroococcum UKMB-6082, A. chroococcum UKMB-6003, Bacillus megaterium UKMB-5724, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae) and grown in sod-podzolic, chernozem and peat-bog soils, contaminated with 137Cs (4000±340 Bq/kg). As a result of research, it was determined that the most stressful factors for vetch plants are combination of soil radionuclide and presence of Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724, as the number of inactive chlorophyll increased. In addition, the vetch plants significantly increased fixed level of fluorescence (Fst) under the influence of radioactive contamination in presence of Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724, indicating inhibition of photosynthetic reactions. Other bacteria showed radioprotective properties in almost all types of soil.

  20. The Kok effect in Vicia faba cannot be explained solely by changes in chloroplastic CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Vice, Heather; Adams, Mark A

    2017-12-01

    The Kok effect - an abrupt decline in quantum yield (QY) of net CO 2 assimilation at low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) - is widely used to estimate respiration in the light (R), which assumes the effect is caused by light suppression of R. A recent report suggested much of the Kok effect can be explained by declining chloroplastic CO 2 concentration (c c ) at low PPFD. Several predictions arise from the hypothesis that the Kok effect is caused by declining c c , and we tested these predictions in Vicia faba. We measured CO 2 exchange at low PPFD, in 2% and 21% oxygen, in developing and mature leaves, which differed greatly in R in darkness. Our results contradicted each of the predictions based on the c c effect: QY exceeded the theoretical maximum value for photosynthetic CO 2 uptake; QY was larger in 21% than 2% oxygen; and the change in QY at the Kok effect breakpoint was unaffected by oxygen. Our results strongly suggest the Kok effect arises largely from a progressive decline in R with PPFD that includes both oxygen-sensitive and -insensitive components. We suggest an improved Kok method that accounts for high c c at low PPFD. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  2. Profiling of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of European varieties and cultivars of Vicia faba L. pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Inês M; Maia, Margarida R G; Malushi, Nertila; Oliveira, Hugo M; Papa, Lumturi; Rodrigues, José A; Fonseca, António J M; Cabrita, Ana R J

    2018-08-01

    Vicia faba L. pods are a by-product generated from the industrial processing of beans for human and animal consumption. As phenolic compounds may play important roles in health, the present work envisaged the phenolic characterization of seven European varieties and cultivars of V. faba (major and minor) pods and the assessment of their antioxidant activity. The V. faba methanolic extracts were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS for identification of polyphenolic compounds. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were evaluated by colorimetric methods (Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH scavenging capacity assay, and FRAP assay). Main compounds identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were derivatives of caffeic acid, coumaric acid and kaempferol. The broad bean Jögeva variety presented the highest content of free and esterified phenolics (26.3 and 26.7 mg 100 g -1 dry weight, respectively), followed by the horse bean varieties Bauska and Lielplatones. These results were corroborated by the analysis of total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging capacity and FRAP. This study confirmed the rich phenolic content of V. faba pods suggesting to be an interesting novel source for animal nutrition, promoting product quality and consumers' health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An analysis of the energetic reward offered by field bean (Vicia faba) flowers: Nectar, pollen, and operative force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Emily J; Pattrick, Jonathan G; Glover, Beverley J

    2018-03-01

    Global consumption of crops with a yield that is dependent on animal pollinators is growing, with greater areas planted each year. However, the floral traits that influence pollinator visitation are not usually the focus of breeding programmes, and therefore, it is likely that yield improvements may be made by optimizing floral traits to enhance pollinator visitation rates. We investigated the variation present in the floral reward of the bee-pollinated crop Vicia faba (field bean). We examined the genetic potential for breeding flowers with a greater reward into current commercial varieties and used bee behavioral experiments to gain insight into the optimal nectar concentration to maximize bee preference. There was a large range of variation in the amount of pollen and nectar reward of flowers in the genotypes investigated. Bee behavioral experiments using nectar sugar concentrations found in V. faba lines suggest that Bombus terrestris prefers 55% w/w sugar solution over 40% w/w, but has no preference between 55% w/w and 68% w/w sugar solution. We provide a first indication of the force required to open V. faba flowers. Our results provide a valuable starting point toward breeding for varieties with optimized floral reward. Field studies are now needed to verify whether the genetic potential for breeding more rewarding flowers can translate into higher yield and yield stability.

  4. Modulation of adverse impact of chilling in Vicia faba L. by methyl jasmonate involves changes in antioxidant metabolism and metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Rashed, S.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted experiments to assess the effect of chilling (10 degree C) stress on growth, nitrogen and antioxidant components of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and the role of methyl jasmonate (MJ 25 meu M) in growth regulation and amelioration of chilling stress. Chilling temperature significantly reduced growth and pigment synthesis which was however significantly improved by application of MJ. Nodule growth, nitrogenase activity and nitrogen content were negatively affected by chilling and MJ application caused significant improvement in these attributes. Application of MJ significantly enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes resulting in reduced oxidative damage. Chilling stressed plants exhibited higher lipid peroxidation and production of hydrogen peroxide. Ascorbic acid and phenol contents were observed to increase by 8.4% and 7.9% due to MJ providing strength to plants against chilling stress. In addition application of MJ was observed to maintain optimal levels of abscissic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) resulting in coordinated regulation of defence mechanisms against chilling stress. (author)

  5. De novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L. for transfer cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruba Shankari eArun Chinnappa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba (L. is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC development. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC development. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb, however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form TCs, generated 69.5M reads, of which 65.8M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach within CLC Genomics Workbench v6.1 generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species.

  6. Validation of QTLs for Orobanche crenata resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) across environments and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ruiz, Ramón; Torres, A M; Satovic, Z; Gutierrez, M V; Cubero, J I; Román, Belén

    2010-03-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a major root-parasite of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), that seriously limits crop cultivation in the whole Mediterranean area. This parasitic weed is difficult to control, difficult to evaluate and the resistance identified so far is of polygenic nature. This study was conducted to identify genetic regions associated with broomrape resistance in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and to validate their previous location in the original F(2) population derived from the cross between lines Vf6 and Vf136. A progeny consisting of 165 F(6) RILs was evaluated in three environments across two locations in 2003 and 2004. Two hundred seventy seven molecular markers were assigned to 21 linkage groups (9 of them assigned to specific chromosomes) that covered 2,856.7 cM of the V. faba genome. The composite interval mapping on the F(6) map detected more quantitative trait loci (QTL) than in the F(2) analysis. In this sense, four QTLs controlling O. crenata resistance (Oc2-Oc5) were identified in the RI segregant population in three different environments. Only Oc1, previously reported in the F(2) population, was not significant in the advanced lines. Oc2 and Oc3 were found to be associated with O. crenata resistance in at least two of the three environments, while the remaining two, Oc4 and Oc5, were only detected in Córdoba-04 and Mengíbar-04 and seemed to be environment dependent.

  7. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  8. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in stem of Vicia faba: possible involvement of a sucrose carrier and osmotic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloni, B.; Wyse, R.E.; Griffith, S.

    1986-01-01

    After pulse labeling of a source leaf with 14 CO 2 , stem sections of Vicia faba plants were cut and the efflux characteristics of 14 C-labeled sugars into various buffered solutions were determined. Radiolabeled sucrose was shown to remain localized in the phloem and adjacent phloem parenchyma tissues after a 2-hour chase. Therefore, sucrose leakage from stem segments prepared following a 75-minute chase period was assumed to be characteristic of phloem unloading. The efflux of 14 C assimilates from the phloem was enhanced by 1 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) and by 5 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenly hydrazone (CCCP). However, PCMBS inhibited and CCCP enhanced general leakage of nonradioactive sugars from the stem segments. Sucrose at concentrations of 50 millimolar in the free space increased efflux of [ 14 C]sucrose, presumably through an exchange mechanism. This exchange was inhibited by PCMBS and abolished by 0.2 molar mannitol. Increasing the osmotic concentration of the efflux medium with mannitol reduced [ 14 C]sucrose efflux. However, this inhibition seems not to be specific to sucrose unloading since leakage of total sugars, nonlabeled sucrose, glucose, and amino acids from the bulk of the tissue was reduced in a similar manner. The data suggest that phloem unloading in cut stem segments is consistent with passive efflux of sucrose from the phloem to the apoplast and that sucrose exchange via a membrane carrier may be involved

  10. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Biochemical toxicity and DNA damage of imidazolium-based ionic liquid with different anions in soil on Vicia faba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-12-17

    In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) in soil on Vicia faba (V. faba) seedlings at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1) were assessed for the first time at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the toxicity of these three ionic liquids (ILs) was evaluated, and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs was assessed. The results showed that even at 100 mg kg(-1), the growth of V. faba seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the three ILs, and the inhibitory effect was enhanced with increasing concentrations of the three ILs. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased after exposure to the three ILs, which resulted in lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidative damage in the cells of the V. faba seedlings. In addition, the anion structure could influence the toxicity of ILs, and toxicity of the three tested ILs decreased in the following order: [Omim]BF4 > [Omim]Br > [Omim]Cl. Moreover, oxidative damage is the primary mechanism by which ILs exert toxic effects on crops, and ILs could reduce the agricultural productivity.

  12. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associated with grazing vetch (Vicia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. L. Barros

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois surtos de uma doença associada ao pastoreio de duas espécies de ervilhaca (predominantemente Vicia villosa e, em menor grau, V. sativa foram observados em agosto-setembro de 2001, em vacas Holandesas adultas de duas propriedades rurais do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram afetadas, em uma das propriedades, quatro de 42 vacas (9,5% e, na outra, uma de oito vacas (12,5%. Os sinais clínicos incluíam, embora não em todos os casos, febre, prurido, espessamento e enrugamento da pele com placas multifocais de alopecia, conjuntivite, corrimento nasal seroso, perda de peso, acentuada queda na produção de leite e diarréia. O curso clínico foi de aproximadamente duas semanas. Todas as vacas afetadas clinicamente morreram, uma foi sacrificada; três foram necropsiadas. Em cada um desses animais havia um padrão de lesões sistêmicas que consistiam de nódulos multifocais ou coalescentes, macios ou moderadamente firmes e branco-acinzentados, que infiltravam vários órgãos, mas eram particularmente proeminentes no miocárdio, nos linfonodos, no baço, na glândula adrenal e no córtex renal. Essas lesões resultavam em aumento de volume e alteração na arquitetura do órgão invadido. Microscopicamente, as lesões consis-tiam de extensa infiltração celular composta de proporções variáveis de macrófagos epitelióides, linfócitos, plasmócitos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos. Os números de eosinófilos eram geralmente altos. Essa infiltração granulomatosa causava degeneração e perda de células parenquimatosas no órgão afetado. A intensidade das lesões variou entre as três vacas e entre os vários órgãos de cada animal. Essa é a primeira documentação no Brasil de doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca.Two outbreaks of a disease associated with grazing vetch species (predominantly Vicia villosa and to a lesser extent V. sativa were observed during August-September 2001, in

  13. Alleviation of adverse impact of salinity on faba bean (vicia faba l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungialleviation of adverse impact of salinity on faba bean (vicia faba l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeer, H.; Didamony, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) in presence and absence of AMF on growth, physio-biochemical and enzymatic activity in faba bean (Vicia faba). Different concentrations of NaCl showed reduction in growth and yield parameters, which indicates the deleterious effects of salinity on the plant. The total spore count and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is also decreasing at higher concentrations of NaCl. Application of AMF mitigates the effect of NaCl stress and improved the growth and yield in the present study. NaCl also decreased the nodulation as well as nodule activity and pigments content, however the supplementation of by AMF to plants treated with sodium chloride showed enhancement in nodule activity and pigment content. Polyamines (Putresciene, Spermidine, Spermine), acid and alkaline phosphates increased with increasing concentration of sodium chloride and application of by AMF showed further increase in the above phytoconstituents, proving the protective role of these phytoconstituents against salt stress. Salinity stress is responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species, which lead to the membrane damage through lipid peroxidation in the present study. Maximum lipid peroxidation was observed at higher concentration of sodium chloride and AMF treatment minimized the effect of salinity on lipid peroxidation. To combat with the reactive oxygen species, plants upregulate the enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. As the concentration of sodium chloride increases the enzyme activity also increases and further increase was observed with supplementation of AMF to salt treated plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi also restores the potassium and calcium contents and maintain their ratio that was hampered with increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the present study. In conclusion, application of AMF

  14. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and...

  15. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los distintos estados fenológicos de Vicia faba ofrecen recursos alimenticios y sustratos para el desarrollo de una importante diversidad de insectos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanópteros antófilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecológicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociación. El estudio se realizó durante el período floración-fructificación del cultivo de haba, en dos etapas y regiones fitogeográficas de Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479msnm, semanalmente desde octubre-diciembre de 1995-1996 y Puna (3 367msnm, quincenalmente desde diciembre 2007-marzo 2008. Cada muestra consistió de 25 flores tomadas al azar; sólo en Prepuna se realizó un muestreo complementario de tres golpes/planta (n=10 plantas. Se realizaron observaciones sobre sitios de oviposición, ingreso a la flor, lugares de pupación, comportamiento alimenticio y lesiones producidas. En Prepuna, el complejo de tisanópteros está formado por Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei y Thrips tabaci; en Puna la diversidad específica está restringida a F. australis y F. gemina. A pesar de que el período siembra-cosecha no coincide en ambas áreas, las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones presentan un mismo patrón: a medida que avanza la floración aumenta el número de tisanópteros, que coincide con la disponibilidad del recurso alimenticio. En ambas áreas, F. australis es la especie dominante y mantiene poblaciones sucesivas en el cultivo; deposita los huevos en los botones florales y las larvas eclosionan cuando se produce la apertura de las flores; la alimentación de larvas y adultos ocasiona manchas plateadas con puntuaciones negras. En la Prepuna, F. australis atraviesa los estados inmaduros móviles en las flores y los quiescentes en el suelo; en la Puna, todos los estados de desarrollo transcurren dentro de las flores. Thrips tabaci, F. gemina, F. shultzei y F

  16. Characterization and functional analysis of seven flagellin genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Characterization of R. leguminosarum flagellins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambalo Dinah D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae establishes symbiotic nitrogen fixing partnerships with plant species belonging to the Tribe Vicieae, which includes the genera Vicia, Lathyrus, Pisum and Lens. Motility and chemotaxis are important in the ecology of R. leguminosarum to provide a competitive advantage during the early steps of nodulation, but the mechanisms of motility and flagellar assembly remain poorly studied. This paper addresses the role of the seven flagellin genes in producing a functional flagellum. Results R. leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM have seven flagellin genes (flaA, flaB, flaC, flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG, which are transcribed separately. The predicted flagellins of 3841 are highly similar or identical to the corresponding flagellins in VF39SM. flaA, flaB, flaC, and flaD are in tandem array and are located in the main flagellar gene cluster. flaH and flaG are located outside of the flagellar/motility region while flaE is plasmid-borne. Five flagellin subunits (FlaA, FlaB, FlaC, FlaE, and FlaG are highly similar to each other, whereas FlaD and FlaH are more distantly related. All flagellins exhibit conserved amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminal ends and are variable in the central regions. Strain 3841 has 1-3 plain subpolar flagella while strain VF39SM exhibits 4-7 plain peritrichous flagella. Three flagellins (FlaA/B/C and five flagellins (FlaA/B/C/E/G were detected by mass spectrometry in the flagellar filaments of strains 3841 and VF39SM, respectively. Mutation of flaA resulted in non-motile VF39SM and extremely reduced motility in 3841. Individual mutations of flaB and flaC resulted in shorter flagellar filaments and consequently reduced swimming and swarming motility for both strains. Mutant VF39SM strains carrying individual mutations in flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG were not significantly affected in motility and filament morphology. The flagellar filament and the motility of 3841 strains

  17. NO and H2O2 contribute to SO2 toxicity via Ca2+ signaling in Vicia faba guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Min; Bai, Heli; Xue, Meizhao; Yi, Huilan

    2017-04-01

    NO and H 2 O 2 have been implicated as important signals in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants to the environment. Previously, we have shown that SO 2 exposure increased the levels of NO and H 2 O 2 in plant cells. We hypothesize that, as signaling molecules, NO and H 2 O 2 mediate SO 2 -caused toxicity. In this paper, we show that SO 2 hydrates caused guard cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range of 0.25 to 6 mmol L -1 , which was associated with elevation of intracellular NO, H 2 O 2 , and Ca 2+ levels in Vicia faba guard cells. NO donor SNP enhanced SO 2 toxicity, while NO scavenger c-PTIO and NO synthesis inhibitors L-NAME and tungstate significantly prevented SO 2 toxicity. ROS scavenger ascorbic acid (AsA) and catalase (CAT), Ca 2+ chelating agent EGTA, and Ca 2+ channel inhibitor LaCl 3 also markedly blocked SO 2 toxicity. In addition, both c-PTIO and AsA could completely block SO 2 -induced elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ level. Moreover, c-PTIO efficiently blocked SO 2 -induced H 2 O 2 elevation, and AsA significantly blocked SO 2 -induced NO elevation. These results indicate that extra NO and H 2 O 2 are produced and accumulated in SO 2 -treated guard cells, which further activate Ca 2+ signaling to mediate SO 2 toxicity. Our findings suggest that both NO and H 2 O 2 contribute to SO 2 toxicity via Ca 2+ signaling.

  18. Agro-physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor' genotypes to water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid, G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Drought is one of the major abiotic factors affecting growth and productivity of plants by imposing certain morphological, physiological and biochemical changes at different growth stages. Objectives. The objective of this work is to study key morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. 'minor' to soil water deficit stress and to assess the contribution of genetic factors in improving faba bean tolerance to water deficit. Method. Plants of 11 faba bean cultivars were grown in the greenhouse and subjected to three levels of water deficit (90, 50 and 30% of field capacity [FC] in a simple randomized design for 20 days. Water deficit effects on plant growth, relative water content (RWC, gas exchange, chlorophyll a (Chla and chlorophyll b (Chlb content, osmoprotectant accumulations (such as proline and soluble sugars, antioxidant enzyme activities and grain yield were determined. Results. Soil water deficit stress reduced growth and affected physiological parameters, especially antioxidant enzyme activities. Water deficit also increased proline, soluble sugars and protein contents. The studied cultivars significantly differed in their responses to water deficit stress. Photosynthetic parameters were less affected in the 'Hara' cultivar. Furthermore, this cultivar produced the highest value of grain yield at 30% FC, and showed higher antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, GPX and APX, osmoprotectant accumulations, Chlb and RWC. The 'Hara' cultivar was found to be more tolerant to water deficit stress than the other cultivars. Conclusions. Our methodology can be used for assessing the response of faba bean genetic resources to soil water deficit. The identified tolerant cultivar can be utilized as a source for water stress tolerance in faba bean breeding programs aimed at improving drought tolerance.

  19. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Zahoor A.; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed “graphene oxide”) are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop—faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L −1 ) of graphene oxide (0.5–5 μm) and evaluates glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L −1 ), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L −1 ) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and glutathione

  20. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vicia sativa (the common vetch possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  1. Biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols in developing and maturing seeds of winter vetch (Vicia vlllosa Roth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the accumulation of two types of α-D-galactosides: raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols were compared with changes in the activities of galactosyltransferases during winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seed development and maturation. Occurrence of galactinol and raffinose in young seeds and changes in activities of galactinol synthase and raffinose synthase during seed development indicated that formation of raffinose oligosaccharides (RFOs preceded synthesis of galactopinitols. Although transfer of galactose residues into raffinose oligosaccharides increased as seeds were maturing, at late stages of seed maturation the accumulation of galactopinitols was preferred to that of RFOs. In the present study, activities of enzymes transferring galactose moieties from galactinol to D-pinitol forming galactopinitol A, and further transfer of galactose moieties from galactinol to mono- and di-galactopinitol A were detected throughout seed development and maturation. This is a new observation, indicating biological potential of winter vetch seeds to synthesize mono-, di- and tri-galactosides of D-pinitol in a pathway similar to RFOs. The pattern of changes in activities of stachyose synthase and enzymes synthesizing galactopinitols (named galactopinitol A synthase and ciceritol synthase suggests that formation of stachyose, mono- and di-galactopinitol A (ciceritol is catalyzed by one enzyme. High correlation between activities of verbascose synthase and enzyme catalyzing synthesis of tri-galactopinitol A from galactinol and ciceritol (named tri-galactopinitol A synthase also suggests that biosynthesis of both types of tri-galactosides was catalyzed by one enzyme, but distinct from stachyose synthase. Changes in concentrations of galactosyl acceptors (sucrose and D-pinitol can be a factor which regulates splitting of galactose moieties between both types of galactosides in winter vetch seeds.

  2. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Naser A. [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal); Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K. [University of Aveiro, Center for Mechanical Technology and Automation (TEMA) and Department of Mechanical Engineering (Portugal); Shah, Zahoor A. [University of Toledo, Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal, E-mail: ahmadr@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) and Department of Chemistry (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed 'graphene oxide') are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L{sup -1}) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 {mu}m) and evaluates glutathione ({gamma}-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L{sup -1}), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L{sup -1}) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and

  3. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  4. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...... the expression pattern of VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Although the expression of these genes is largely similar to that of the pea counterparts, differences where found for the expression of VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 in Vicia. VsENOD12 is expressed in the whole...... prefixation zone II, whereas in pea ENOD12 is only expressed in the distal part of this zone. VsENOD40 is expressed in the uninfected cells of interzone II-III, while in pea ENOD40 is expressed in both the uninfected and infected cells of this zone. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Sep...

  5. Effect of replacing a soy diet with Vicia faba and Pisum sativum on performance, meat and fat traits of Cinta Senese pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sirtori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets containing genetically modified organism-free legumes as a replacement of soybean on the basis of performance, carcass composition and quality of local pig meat (Cinta Senese. Twenty-four Cinta Senese barrows were divided into 3 dietary groups and were each fed with a diet containing different protein sources: soybean meal (SOY, Vicia faba (FABA and Pisum sativum (PEA (8 pigs for each group. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric and contained approximately 14.5% crude protein and 14.8 MJ/kg of digestible energy (on dry matter. Each group was reared outdoors in a paddock of 3500 m2. In vivo performances were not different among groups. At slaughter, differences in subcutaneous fat thickness appeared only in the outer layer, at the last thoracic vertebra level, which was lowest in the PEA group. No differences were found in the sample joint composition. With regard to the chemico-physical traits of meat and fat, the FABA group had the highest values of redness in lean and backfat, while the PEA group showed higher moisture and lower fat content in meat compared to the SOY group. Differences in the fatty acid profile of backfat were found only for the C16:1 percentage that was higher in FABA than SOY pigs. In conclusion, Vicia faba and Pisum sativum could be a good alternative to soybean in the growing-fattening of Cinta Senese pigs.

  6. Analysis of rhizobial endosymbionts of Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium species used to maintain mountain firewalls in Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadas, Pablo J; Lasa, Ana V; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Flores-Félix, José David; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Forest fires lead to the annual disappearance of many natural formations that require the creation of firewall areas. They can be maintained by enriching their pastures with attractive plants for grazing livestock, mainly legumes, which have a high protein content and low dependence on N fertilizers due to their ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. In this study, the rhizobia isolated from the nodules of six legumes from the genera Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium were analysed in a firewall zone established in Lanjarón (Granada) close to the Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain). The results showed a high genetic diversity of the isolated strains that had 3, 16, 14 and 13 different types of rrs, recA, atpD and glnII genes, respectively. All strains were phylogenetically close to the species from the Rhizobium leguminosarum group, although they were not identified as any of them. The isolated strains belonged to the symbiovars viciae and trifolii but high phylogenetic diversity was found within both symbiovars, since there were 16 and 14 nodC gene types, respectively. Some of these strains clustered with strains isolated in other countries and continents, but others formed atpD, recA, glnII and nodC clusters and lineages only found to date in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Chlorella induces stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and its effects on instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs. Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 scavenger, catalase (CAT, significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI, and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels.

  8. A novel natural source Vicia faba L. membranes as colourant: development and optimisation of the extraction process using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouatay, Feriel; Baaka, Noureddine; Shahid, Adeel; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk

    2018-02-02

    In this research paper, an eco-friendly extraction process of dyes from Vicia faba L. membranes was developed. In this regard, the influence of independent process factors like the weight of material, the extraction time, the temperature and the sodium hydroxide concentration on the natural dye extraction from Vicia faba membranes was investigated. The optimisation of the extraction conditions and the effect evaluation of the different operating parameters were carried out using a Box-Behnken design under response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were found to be 66 °C, 90 min, 5 g and 0.1628 mol·L -1 for extraction temperature, time, mass of the material and sodium hydroxide concentration, respectively. The efficiency of this extraction process under these optimum conditions was evaluated by measuring the total phenolic content (TPC), the total flavonoid content and the relative colour yield (K/S). In these operating conditions, good fastness ratios were observed for the dyed fabrics.

  9. Effects of hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) with a low or high content of condensed tannins on the apparent ileal and fecal digestibility of nutrients and the excretion of endogenous protein in ileal digesta and feces of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huisman, J.; Berg, J.W.O. van den

    1995-01-01

    In three experiments (Exp. 1, 2, and 3) with young pigs (BW 10 to 26 kg), the effects of dietary inclusion of hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) (200 g/kg) with a low (< .1% catechin equivalents; LT) or high tannin content (3.3% catechin equivalents; HT) on the apparent ileal (Exp. 1 and 2) and

  10. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  11. Mapping of the spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in root tissues of Vicia faba by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcarová, L; Novotný, K; Kummerová, M; Dubová, J; Gloser, V; Kaiser, J

    2017-10-01

    The manuscript presents a procedure for optimal sample preparation and the mapping of the spatial distribution of metal ions and nanoparticles in plant roots using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a double-pulse configuration (DP LIBS) in orthogonal reheating mode. Two Nd:YAG lasers were used; the first one was an ablation laser (UP-266 MACRO, New Wave, USA) with a wavelength of 266nm, and the second one (Brilliant, Quantel, France), with a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm, was used to reheat the microplasma. Seedlings of Vicia faba were cultivated for 7 days in CuSO 4 or AgNO 3 solutions with a concentration of 10µmoll -1 or in a solution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a concentration of 10µmoll -1 of total Ag, and in distilled water as a control. The total contents of the examined metals in the roots after sample mineralization as well as changes in the concentrations of the metals in the cultivation solutions were monitored by ICP-OES. Root samples embedded in the TissueTek medium and cut into 40µm thick cross sections using the Cryo-Cut Microtome proved to be best suited for an accurate LIBS analysis with a 50µm spatial resolution. 2D raster maps of elemental distribution were created for the emission lines of Cu(I) at 324.754nm and Ag(I) at 328.068nm. The limits of detection of DP LIBS for the root cross sections were estimated to be 4pg for Cu, 18pg for Ag, and 3pg for AgNPs. The results of Ag spatial distribution mapping indicated that unlike Ag + ions, AgNPs do not penetrate into the inner tissues of Vicia faba roots but stay in their outermost layers. The content of Ag in roots cultivated in the AgNP solution was one order of magnitude lower compared to roots cultivated in the metal ion solutions. The significantly smaller concentration of Ag in root tissues cultivated in the AgNP solution also supports the conclusion that the absorption and uptake of AgNPs by roots of Vicia faba is very slow. LIBS mapping of root sections

  12. Clastogenic adaption of Vicia faba root tip meristem cells after consecutive treatments with S-phase dependent and S-phase independent agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindorff, K.; Schubert, I.; Rieger, R.; Michaelis, A.

    1987-01-01

    Pretreatment of Vicia faba root tip meristems with low doses of S-phase independent clastogens, such as X-rays or bleomycin, prior to a high (challenge) dose of S-phase dependent clastogens, such as alkylating agents (TEM, Trenimon) or the pyridazine derivative MH, led to decreased challenge treatment-induced aberration frequencies, i.e., clastogenic adaptation. Using the inverse treatment sequence bleomycin and MH proved to be able to substitute for each other in provoking clastogenic (cross) adaptation while bleomycin and alkylating agents were unable to do so. The data support the assumption of inducible cellular functions that become triggered by low clastogen doses and additionally describe some particular properties of bleomycin when used for conditioning. Bleomycin proved to be capable to exert protection independent of the agent used for challenge treatment. (author)

  13. Investigations on the influence of radiation with variable linear energy transfer (LET) on the DNA-content and DNA-repair-mechanisms in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckl, P.

    1981-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate, whether there are any radiation-induced changes in DNA-content and if these changes can be repaired. Seeds of Vicia faba L. were grown in glass culture vessels. After 10 to 20 days the seedings were irradiated using a 1 C1 60 Co gammasource (90mrad/h and 33 rad/h) and a 5 mCi 252 Cf neutronsource (90 mrad/h). Both, neutron and gamma irradiation cause a reduction in nuclear DNA-content even after low doses (1 to 10 rad). The extent of depression is only depending on linear energy transfer. Parallel to the induced minimum in DNA-content, but shifted to higher doses, also the mitotic activity reaches a minimum. Whereas neutron irradiation results in a total stop after doses of 8 rad, gamma-irradiation only induces a depression of 80 %. Whith higher doses the mitotic activity increases again. The neutron-induced changes in DNA-content seem to be restored within 90 minutes after irradiation. No continuous increase could be found after low gamma-doses. Gamma-irradiation with higher dose rates ( 60 Co, 33 rad/h) causes a general decrease over the dose-range studied (100 to 1600 rad). Following doses of 100 rad the mitotic activity increases significantly. With higher doses the decrease is exponential. A dose-dependent mitotic delay could also be observed. As described by many authors, unscheduled DNA-synthesis (UDS) could not be detected in nuclei of Vicia faba. This indicates that an other system, perhaps acting in situ - at the damaged place - is responsible for the repair of radiation-induced thymine-damages. (Author)

  14. (Vicia sativa L.) - triticale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... This study was carried to determine the best seed mixture of vetch and triticale for East Mediterranean .... Averaged dry matter yield in the second year was signifi- ... ever, dry matter yields of all mixtures with the exceptions ...

  15. Vicia faba L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... crossing, when they visit other plants flowers (Nadal et al,. 2003). ... programs, (2) offer evidence of the evolutionary forces shaping the genotypic diversities, ... classification of these populations, both UPGMA and. Principal ...

  16. Visualisation of lectin binding sites on the surface of human platelets using lectins adsorbed to gold granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurden, A T; Horisberger, M; Savariau, E; Caen, J P

    1980-10-15

    Washed human platelets have been incubated with the lectins WGA, ConA and RCA1, adsorbed to different-sized gold particles. Plasma membrane receptors for each lectin were then located by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Glycoprotein profiles of macrophages at different stages of activation as revealed by lectin binding after electrophoretic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimura, T; North, S M; Nicolson, G L

    1987-01-01

    Glycoprotein profiles of rat macrophages (M phi) at different stages of activation were studied by examining the reactivity of various lectins to the glycoproteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA1) revealed several components including glycoproteins of Mr 160 kDa and 65 kDa prominent in resident M phi. A pokeweed mitogen (PWM) isolectin, Pa-4, recognizes branched poly(N-acetyllactosamine)-type carbohydrate chains, and revealed a significant increase in glycoproteins of Mr ranging from 70 kDa to 150 kDa on thioglycolate-elicited M phi. Increased reactivity of PWM to thioglycolate-elicited M phi was observed by direct binding of 125I-labeled Pa-4 to intact or glutaraldehyde-fixed M phi. Histochemical staining of formaldehyde-fixed M phi in vitro with biotinylated Pa-4 was consistent with the gel analysis, that is, resident M phi had no reactivity while thioglycolate-elicited M phi showed slight reactivity. Alveolar and intratumoral M phi bound more Pa-4 than resident or thioglycolate-elicited M phi. The PWM isolectin may therefore serve as a marker for an early stage of M phi activation.

  18. Development of a lectin binding assay to differentiate between recombinant and endogenous proteins in pharmacokinetic studies of protein-biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alfred; Minibeck, Eva; Scheiflinger, Friedrich; Turecek, Peter L

    2015-04-10

    Human glycoproteins, expressed in hamster cell lines, show similar glycosylation patterns to naturally occurring human molecules except for a minute difference in the linkage of terminal sialic acid: both cell types lack α2,6-galactosyl-sialyltransferase, abundantly expressed in human hepatocytes and responsible for the α2,6-sialylation of circulating glycoproteins. This minute difference, which is currently not known to have any physiological relevance, was the basis for the selective measurement of recombinant glycoproteins in the presence of their endogenous counterparts. The assay is based on using the lectin Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), selectively binding to α2,6-sialylated N-glycans. Using von Willebrand factor (VWF), factor IX (FIX), and factor VIIa (FVIIa), it was demonstrated that (i) the plasma-derived proteins, but not the corresponding recombinant proteins, specifically bind to SNA and (ii) this binding can be used to deplete the plasma-derived proteins. The feasibility of this approach was confirmed in spike-recovery studies for all three recombinant coagulation proteins in human plasma and for recombinant VWF (rVWF) in macaque plasma. Analysis of plasma samples from macaques after administration of recombinant and a plasma-derived VWF demonstrated the suitability and robustness of this approach. Data showed that rVWF could be selectively measured without changing the ELISAs and furthermore revealed the limitations of baseline adjustment using a single measurement of the predose concentration only. The SNA gel-based depletion procedure can easily be integrated in existing procedures as a specific sample pre-treatment step. While ELISA-based methods were used to measure the recombinant coagulation proteins in the supernatants obtained by depletion, this procedure is applicable for all biochemical analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential Lectin Binding Patterns Identify Distinct Heart Regions in Giant Danio (Devario aequipinnatus) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Trina; May, Adam; Quinn, Joshua; Lafontant, Dominique S.; Shifatu, Olubusola; He, Wei; Gonzalez-Rosa, Juan M.; Burns, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, Alan R.; Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins commonly used as biochemical and histochemical tools to study glycoconjugate (glycoproteins, glycolipids) expression patterns in cells, tissues, including mammalian hearts. However, lectins have received little attention in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) heart studies. Here, we sought to determine the binding patterns of six commonly used lectins—wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS lectin), concanavalin A (Con A), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), and Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin)—in these hearts. Con A showed broad staining in the myocardium. WGA stained cardiac myocyte borders, with binding markedly stronger in the compact heart and bulbus. BS lectin, which stained giant danio coronaries, was used to measure vascular reconstruction during regeneration. However, BS lectin reacted poorly in zebrafish. RCA I stained the compact heart of both fish. Tomato lectin stained the giant danio, and while low reactivity was seen in the zebrafish ventricle, staining was observed in their transitional cardiac myocytes. In addition, we observed unique staining patterns in the developing zebrafish heart. Lectins’ ability to reveal differential glycoconjugate expression in giant danio and zebrafish hearts suggests they can serve as simple but important tools in studies of developing, adult, and regenerating fish hearts. PMID:27680670

  20. Studies on the relationship between lectin binding carbohydrates and different strains of Leishmania from the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schottelius

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available The culture forms of L. mexicana pifanoi (LRC L-90, L. mexicana mexicana (LRC L-94, M-379; L. braziliensis braziliensis (LRC L-77, L-1, M-2903, H-LSS and L. mexicana amazonensis (H-JMMO, M-JOF, H-21, H-PLL,M-1696 were tested with the following lectins: Canavalia ensiformis, Ricinus communis-120, Axinella polypoides, Phaseolus vulgaris, Evonymus europaeus, lotus tetragonolobus, Dolichos biflorus, Aaptos papillata II, Laburnum alpinum, Ulex europaeus, Arachis hypogaea and Soja hispida. All examined strains of Leishmania were agglutinated by C. ensiformis, R. communis-120 and A. popypoides. No agglutination reactions were observed with P. vulgaris, D.biflorus, A. papillata II, E. europaeus and L. tetragonolobus. Only L. m. pifanoi and the L. m. amazonensis strains H-JMMO and MJOF showed agglutination reactions with S. hispida, U. europaeus, L. alpinum and A. hypogaea, while L. m. mexicana (LRC L-94; M-379 strains, L. b. braziliensis H. LSS, LRC L-77; L-1; M-2903 and the L. m. amazonensis strains, H-PLL, H-21, M-1696 showed no agglutination reactions with these four lectins.

  1. INFLUÊNCIA DO CULTIVO CONSORCIADO DE AVEIA PRETA (AVENA STRIGOSA SCHIEB. E ERVILHACA COMUM (VICIA SATIVA L. NA PRODUÇÃO DE FITOMASSA E NO APORTE DE NITROGÊNIO INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPPED COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. AND NAKED OAT (AVENA STRIGOSA ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heinrichs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo e sob preparo convencional, foi avaliada a influência de proporções de sementes de ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb. cultivadas em consórcio, na produção de fitomassa e no aporte de nitrogênio no sistema. O experimento foi implantado em solo podzolico vermelho amarelo, de Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram casualizados em quatro blocos, constituindo-se de: 1- 100% Ervilhaca comum (E; 2- 90% E + 10% Aveia preta (A; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- pousio de inverno. A amostragem da fitomassa das coberturas verdes foi efetuada na ocasião do pleno florescimento em área de 0,8m2 por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram que a aveia preta e a ervilhaca comum podem ser consorciadas, beneficiando assim, a produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nitrogênio.The effect of intercropping common vetch (Vicia sativa L. with naked oat (Avena strigosa Schieb. at different seed proportions was evaluated. The trial was set up on a Red Yellow Podzolic soil of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The treatments were the following: 1- 100% E (common vetch; 2- 90% E + 10% A (naked oat; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- fall tillage organized in four randomized blocks. Biomass production was evaluated at the flowering stage in an area of 0.8 m2 per plot. Data show that both species can be intercropped which is beneficial to biomass production and nitrogen accumulation.

  2. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (pMeat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (pmeat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  3. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanapandian, T; Geilfus, C-M; Mühling, K-H; Novák, O; Gloser, V

    2017-02-01

    Changes in pH of the apoplast have recently been discussed as an important factor in adjusting transpiration and water relations under conditions of drought via modulatory effect on abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Using Vicia faba L., we investigated whether changes in the root, shoot and leaf apoplastic pH correlated with (1) a drought-induced reduction in transpiration and with (2) changes in ABA concentration. Transpiration, leaf water potential and ABA in leaves were measured and correlated with root and shoot xylem pH, determined by a pH microelectrode, and pH of leaf apoplast quantified by microscopy-based in vivo ratiometric analysis. Results revealed that a reduction in transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying could not be linked with changes in the apoplastic pH via effects on the stomata-regulating hormone ABA. Moreover, drought-induced increase in pH of xylem or leaf apoplast was not the remote effect of an acropetal transport of alkaline sap from root, because root xylem acidified during progressive soil drying, whereas the shoot apoplast alkalized. We reason that other, yet unknown signalling mechanism was responsible for reduction of transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High CO/sub 2/ partial pressure effects on dark and light CO/sub 2/ fixation and metabolism in Vicia faba leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudret, A.; Ferron, F.; Laffray, D.

    1985-01-01

    Stomatal opening on Vicia faba can be induced by high CO/sub 2/ partial pressures (10.2%) in dark as well as in light. Stomatal aperture was measured in both cases with a hydrogen porometer. The distribution of /sup 14/C among early products of photosynthesis was studied. Comparisons are made with carboxylations occurring when stomata were open in the dark with CO/sub 2/-free air and in light with 0.034% CO/sub 2/. Results showed that in high CO/sub 2/ partial pressure in light, less radioactivity was incorporated in Calvin cycle intermediates and more in sucrose. ..beta.. carboxylations and photorespiration seemed to be inhibited. In the dark in both CO/sub 2/ conditions, /sup 14/C incorporation was found in malate and aspartate but also in serine and glycerate in high CO/sub 2/ conditions. In light these changes in metabolic pathways may be related with the deleterious effects recorded on leaves after long-term expositions to high partial pressure of CO/sub 2/.

  5. The effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} on seed germination, development and mitosis of root tip cells of Vicia narbonensis L. and Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica, E-mail: mruffini@biologia.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy); Giorgetti, Lucia; Geri, Chiara [Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology (IBBA/CNR), UOS Pisa (Italy); Cremonini, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    This study aimed to provide new information about phyto-toxicology of nano-TiO{sub 2} on plant systems. To contribute to the evaluation of the potential harmful effects of the nanoparticles on monocots and dicots we considered their effects on seed germination and root elongation applying a concentration range from 0.2 to 4.0 Per-Mille-Sign in the plants Zea mays L. and Vicia narbonensis L. Moreover, we achieved a genotoxicity study at cytological level in root meristems by means of traditional cytogenetic approach, to evidence possible alterations in mitotic activity, chromosomal aberrations, and micronuclei release. From these analyses it comes out that nano-TiO{sub 2} particles, after short-term exposure and under our experimental conditions, delayed germination progression for the first 24 h in both materials. Root elongation was affected only after treatment with the higher nano-TiO{sub 2} concentration. Further significant effects were detected showing mitotic index reduction and concentration-dependent increase in the aberration emergence that evidenced a nano-TiO{sub 2}-induced genotoxic effect for both species.

  6. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  7. Linkage Map of a Gene Controlling Zero Tannins (zt-1 in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. with SSR and ISSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwei Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L., a partially allogamous species, is rich in protein. Condensed tannins limit the use of faba beans as food and feed. Two recessive genes, zt-1 and zt-2, control the zero tannin content in faba bean and promote a white flower phenotype. To determine the inheritance and develop a linkage map for the zt-1 gene in the faba bean germplasm M3290, F2 and F3 progenies were derived from the purple flower and high tannin content genotypes Qinghai12 and zt-1 line M3290, respectively. Genetic analysis verified a single recessive gene for zero tannin content and flower colour. In total, 596 SSR markers and 100 ISSR markers were used to test the polymorphisms between the parents and bulks for the contrasting flower colour via Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA. Subsequently, six SSR markers and seven ISSR markers were used to genotype the entire 413 F2 population. Linkage analysis showed that the zt-1 gene was closely linked to the SSR markers SSR84 and M78, with genetic distances of 2.9 and 5.8 cM, respectively. The two flanked SSR markers were used to test 34 faba bean genotypes with different flower colours. The closely linked SSR marker SSR84 predicted the zt-1 genotypes with absolute accuracy. The results from the marker-assisted selection (MAS from this study could provide a solid foundation for further faba bean breeding programmes.

  8. Rumen microbial protein supply as estimated from purine derivative excretion on sheep receiving faba beans (vicia faba as supplement delivered at different feeding frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmuddin Natsir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and extensive degradation of faba beans (Vicia faba by ruminal microbes can result in substantial and undesirable N loss from the rumen. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that offering faba beans as a supplement more than once a day to sheep receiving a combination of oaten chaff and lucerne chaff as a basal diet will increase microbial protein supply to the intestines. The experiment was conducted in a Latin square design (4 x 4 using four mature merino sheep. The treatments were: T0 = basal diet ad libitum + nil supplements, T1 = T0 + faba beans (FB fed once daily, T2 = T0 + FB fed twice daily, T3 = T0 + FB fed 8 times daily. The basal diet was given once per day at 09:00 in the morning while FB were given at the rate of approximately 0.5% of live body weight and delivered according to the treatment protocol. Urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD was used to estimate microbial protein supply. The results indicated that even though treatment statistically had no effects on total urine output, PD excretion in the urine, PD absorbed, estimated microbial N supply, and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis, provision of supplement to sheep numerically improved microbial N supply by 92% compared to that of control group. However, there were no differences within the supplemented group. Therefore, it is concluded that feeding faba beans more than once a day was unnecessary.

  9. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chengrun; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun; Tian, Yuan; Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MWCNTs-COOH disturb mineral elements and cause oxidative damages in the leaves. • Cd and Pb combination result in reduction of mineral elements and enrichment of Na, involving in toxicity mechanisms. • MWCNTs-COOH facilitate Cd and Pb uptake, and aggravate biochemical and subcellular damages. - Abstract: Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb + Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb + Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb + Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb + Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals

  10. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  11. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Badii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. This  study thus examined the combined effect of 4 levels of dietary CP (13, 15, 18, 20% DM and 4 levels of rumen protected  lysine and methionine, replacing 4 levels of field bean CP (0, 1, 2, 3 percent units, upon intakes, gains, digestibility and  retentions of nutrients within gains. The animals had rather high gains (250 g/d on average and retention efficiencies both  of feed nitrogen and energy. Dietary CP levels higher than 18% and amino acid supplementation appeared of no use in  improving the lambs’ performance. It is concluded that field bean may represent a valid alternative to soy bean as a pro-  tein feed for growing ruminants in the so-called “organic” animal production where transgenic soy is banned. 

  12. Modification of catalase and MAPK in Vicia faba cultivated in soil with high natural radioactivity and treated with a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Nazanin; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Payez, Atefeh

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) and high natural radioactivity (HR) on catalase and MAPK genes in Vicia faba were investigated. Soil samples with high natural radioactivity were collected from Ramsar in north Iran where the annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation is higher than 20mSv/year. The specific activity of the radionuclides of (232)Th, (236)Ra, and (40)K was measured using gamma spectrometry. The seeds were planted either in the soil with high natural radioactivity or in the control soils and were then exposed to a SMF of 30mT for 8 days; 8h/day. Levels of expression of catalase and MAPK genes, catalase activity and H2O2 content were evaluated. The results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of catalase and MAPK genes in SMF- and HR-treated plants compared to the controls. An increase in catalase activity was accompanied by increased expression of its gene and accumulation of H2O2. Relative expression of the MAPK gene in treated plants, however, was lower than those of the controls. The results suggest that the response of V. faba plants to SMF and HR may be mediated by modification of catalase and MAPK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect in field of the native strain COL6 of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae on common bean cv. Percal in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klever Iván Granda-Mora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation with selected Rhizobium strains of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contributes to the agricultural yield of this legume, improves soil fertility and reduces the use of nitrogen fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems. The research aimed to determine the effect in field of the native strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae COL6 on growth, N fixation and agricultural yield in common bean cv. Percal. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the parameters of nodulation, biomass, nitrogen fixation, yield components and agricultural yield in common bean. In addition, soil analyzes were performed before and after experimentation. Prior to planting an inoculant was formulated with the strain COL6. The seeds of cv. Percal were mixed in 250 g inoculant per 10 kg of seed and it was sown manually in the soil. The results of growth, N fixation (total N % and agricultural yield demonstrated the positive effect of inoculation with the bacterial inoculant comparable with chemical fertilizers. The increase in agricultural yield with bacterial inoculant application and chemical fertilization with respect to control was 62 and 64 %, respectively. The results of the soil analysis were variable with respect to the initial physical-chemical characteristics. The promising results of bacterial inoculant use and the effective stimulation in common bean, open the doors for its potential use in Ecuadorian soils and with that the desired potential yield can be reached.

  14. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 micrometers. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism

  15. Chemical control of wild sorghum (sorghum arundinaceum Del. Stapf. in faba bean (vicia faba L.) in the Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedry, K. A. M.; Elamin, A. E. M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Merowe Research Station farm, in the Northern State, Sudan, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the damage inflicted by a wild sorghum species (Sorghum arundinaceum (Del.) Stapf. ) on the yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and to evaluate the efficacy of the post-emergence herbicide clodinafop-propargyl (Topik) on wild sorghum and its effect on faba bean yield. The wild sorghum reduced faba bean crop stand and straw and seed yields by 53% - 76%, 76% - 79% and 88% - 91%, respectively, compared with the hand-weeded control. Faba bean was tolerant to the herbicide. The herbicide, at all rates, effected complete (100%) and persistent control of the wild sorghum and resulted in faba bean seed yield comparable to the hand-weeded control. The lowest dose (0.075 kg a.i/ha) of the herbicide used was equal to 75% of the dose recommended for the control of wild sorghum in wheat. It is concluded that clodinafop-propargyl at 0.075 kg a.e/ha could be used in controlling wild sorghum in faba bean. At this rate, the marginal rate of return was about 35 which indicating that every monetary unit (SDG 1) invested in the mentioned treatment would be returned back, plus additional amount of 35 SDG.(Author)

  16. Evaluation Of Yield And Chemical Properties Of Some Faba Bean (Vicia FABA L.) Mutants Induced By GAMMA Radiation And Ethyl Methane Sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, E.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Attia, Z.M.; Shawki, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the effect of physical and chemical mutagens on the yield and chemical properties as well as amino acids composition of defatted faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds meal as a control (Giza 2) compared with mutants produced by gamma radiation and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Also, the functional properties of these samples were determined. The results indicated high differences between mutation for seed yield and its components than the untreated samples. In addition, radiation mutation of faba bean seeds showed slight increase in protein content as the main constituent of faba bean seeds as well as total oil percentages in some mutant of these seeds in return of decreasing in total carbohydrate. Furthermore, radiation mutation had detectable effects on the total amino acids contents of faba bean seeds meal which had a higher percentages on essential amino acids (EAA) and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and mutant 3 was the highest values of EAA and NEAA as compared to the control. On the other hand, radiation mutation improved the protein functional properties of some mutant of faba bean meal flour than the other mutant samples as compared to local commercial variety

  17. Three major nucleolar proteins migrate from nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. exposed to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rong; Zhang, Huaning; Li, Shaoshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-09-01

    Results from our previous investigation indicated that Al could affect the nucleolus and induce extrusion of silver-staining nucleolar particles containing argyrophilic proteins from the nucleolus into the cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. So far, the nucleolar proteins involved have not been identified. It is well known that nucleophosmin (B23), nucleolin (C23), and fibrillarin are three major and multifunctional nucleolar proteins. Therefore, effects of Al on B23, C23, and fibrillarin in root tip cells of V. faba exposed to 100 μM Al for 48 h were observed and analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. The results from this work demonstrated that after 100 μM of Al treatment for 48 h, B23 and C23 migrated from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm and fibrillarin from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. In some cells, fibrillarin was present only in the cytoplasm. Western blotting data revealed higher expression of the three major nucleolar proteins in Al-treated roots compared with the control and that the B23 content increased markedly. These findings confirmed our previous observations.

  18. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 Adapts to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with "Auxin-Like" Morphological Changes, Cell Envelope Remodeling and Upregulation of Central Metabolic Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya V Bhat

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to characterize the effects of environmental stressors at the molecular level on model organisms with the ever increasing number and variety of anthropogenic chemical pollutants. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, as one of the most widely applied pesticides in the world, is one such example. This herbicide is known to have non-targeted undesirable effects on humans, animals and soil microbes, but specific molecular targets at sublethal levels are unknown. In this study, we have used Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv as a nitrogen fixing, beneficial model soil organism to characterize the effects of 2,4-D. Using metabolomics and advanced microscopy we determined specific target pathways in the Rlv metabolic network and consequent changes to its phenotype, surface ultrastructure, and physical properties during sublethal 2,4-D exposure. Auxin and 2,4-D, its structural analogue, showed common morphological changes in vitro which were similar to bacteroids isolated from plant nodules, implying that these changes are related to bacteroid differentiation required for nitrogen fixation. Rlv showed remarkable adaptation capabilities in response to the herbicide, with changes to integral pathways of cellular metabolism and the potential to assimilate 2,4-D with consequent changes to its physical and structural properties. This study identifies biomarkers of 2,4-D in Rlv and offers valuable insights into the mode-of-action of 2,4-D in soil bacteria.

  19. Exploiting Illumina Sequencing for the Development of 95 Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa, a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  20. Indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels in G1 and G2 cells of the carbohydrate-starved root meristems in Vicia faba var. minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Polit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the 34kDa kinase (p34 encoded by the cdc2 gene is a key regulator of both the onset of DNA synthesis (G1 to S phase transition and the onset of mitosis (G1 to M phase transition. Using mouse anti-human PSTAIRE and FITClabelled goat antibodies, indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels was performed in meristematic cells from the control (intact and excised, carbohydrate-starved main roots of Vicia faba var. minor. No evident differences in the intensity of fluorescence was found either between the G1 and G2 cells or between the control cells and the cells arrested at both Principal Control Points by carbohydrate starvation. It seems thus, that the cell cycle block induced in meristematic cells of V. faba var. minor is not correlated with the absolute level of the key cell cycle enzyme responsible for phosphory-lution of cellular proteins, but primarily with the altered activity of p34cdc2.

  1. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Li

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L./faba bean (Vicia faba L. intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  2. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  3. Fate of nuclear material during subsequent steps of the kinetin-induced PCD in apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Soboska, Kamila

    2018-07-01

    In animals during apoptosis, the best examined type of programmed cell death (PCD), three main phases are distinguished: (i) specification (signaling), (ii) killing and (iii) execution one. It has bean postulated that plant PCD also involves three subsequent phases: (i) transmission of death signals to cells (signaling), (ii) initiation of killing processes and (iii) destruction of cells. One of the most important hallmarks of animal and plant PCD are those regarding nucleus, not thoroughly studied in plants so far. To study kinetin-induced PCD (Kin-PCD) in the context of nuclear material faith, 2-cm apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots were used. Applied assays involving spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence and white light microscopy allowed to examine metabolic and cytomorphologic hallmarks such as changes in DNA content, ssDNA formation and activity of acidic and basic nucleases (DNases and RNases) as well as malformations and fragmentation of nucleoli and nuclei. The obtained results concerning the PCD hallmarks and influence of ZnSO 4 on Kin-PCD allowed us to confirmed presence of specification/signaling, killing and execution/degradation phases of the process and broaden the knowledge about processes affecting nuclei during PCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Rybaczek

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD was a secondary result of caffeine (CF induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU [double-stranded breaks (DSBs mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs. The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i extensive vacuolization; (ii abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv protoplast shrinkage (v fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD.

  5. Allelopathy in the natural and agricultural ecosystems and isolation of potent allelochemicals from Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2003-06-01

    We have studied on allelopathy of plants and developed methods to identify the effective substances in root exudates, leaf leacheate, and volatile chemicals emitted from plants. We found traditional cover plants that show allelopathic activity are useful for weed control. It could eliminate the use of synthetic chemicals for this purpose. Allelopathy is a natural power of plants to protect themselves by producing natural organic chemicals. Some endemic plants in Asia, already known by farmers in the region, as either cover crops used in intercropping, hedgerow, or agroforestry, were found to possess strong allelopathic abilities. Our group identified several allelochemicals from these plants. These allelopathic cover crops, mostly leguminous plants, provide protein rich food, and grow easily without artificial fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. In this regards, these allelopathic cover crops could save food shortage in rural area, and are useful for environmental conservation. Screenings of allelopathic plants by specific bioassays and field tests have been conducted. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) are two promising species for the practical application of allelopathy. An amino acid, L-DOPA, unusual in plants, plays an important role as allelochemical in Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens). Hairy vetch is the most promising cover plant for the weed control in orchard, vegetable and rice production and even for landscape amendment in abandoned field in Japan. We have isolated "cyanamide", a well known nitrogen fertilizer, from Hairy vetch. This is the first finding of naturally produced cyanamide in the world.

  6. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion.

  7. IMPROVING THE TOLERANCE OF VICIA FABA AGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY RESULTED FROM THE IRRIGATION WITH SEA WATER BY USING KNO3 AND (NH4)2SO4 AS CHEMICAL OSMOREGULATORS.

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED KAMEL

    2012-01-01

    Los solutos Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO43-, SO42-, carbohidratos y proteínas solubles, así como amino ácidos son importantes en ajuste osmótico y fueron estimados para determinar el papel de nitrato de potasio y sulfato de amonio como osmoreguladores y su efecto en la composición de solutos. Vicia faba L. fue cultivada e irrigada con 5, 10, 15 y 20 % (v:v) de agua de mar permitiendo crecimiento hasta el estado de floración. Las plantas fueron divididas en tres grupos. El primero fue irrigado...

  8. Citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de los ríos Jequetepeque y Moche mediante el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Antonio Beltrán Orbegoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de la toxicidad de las aguas de los ríos como método complementario al análisis físico, químico y biológico proporciona una información integral de la calidad del agua, por tanto, el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los niveles de citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de las cuencas alta, media y baja de los ríos Moche y Jequetepeque, usando el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L. “haba” (2n = 12. Se germinaron semillas de V. faba L.; luego las raicillas emergentes se expusieron, durante tres horas, a siete tratamientos: T1 (100 ml de agua destilada, T2 (1 ml agua de río Jequetepeque / 99 ml de agua destilada, T3 (5 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 95 ml de agua destilada, T4 (10 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 90 ml de agua destilada, T5 (1 ml agua de río Moche/ 99 ml de agua destilada, T6 (5 ml agua de río Moche/ 95 ml de agua destilada y T7 (10 ml agua de río Moche/ 90 ml de agua destilada. Los ápices de las raicillas fueron sometidos a la técnica de Tjio y Levan. El agua de la cuenca media del río Moche del T7, presenta una alta citotoxicidad (índice mitótico de 5,4 % y alteraciones de los índices de fases y un alto efecto genotóxico; las aguas del río Jequetepeque no evidencian efecto citotóxico ni genotóxico de importancia.

  9. Bacterially produced Pt-GFP as ratiometric dual-excitation sensor for in planta mapping of leaf apoplastic pH in intact Avena sativa and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mühling, Karl H; Kaiser, Hartmut; Plieth, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Ratiometric analysis with H(+)-sensitive fluorescent sensors is a suitable approach for monitoring apoplastic pH dynamics. For the acidic range, the acidotropic dual-excitation dye Oregon Green 488 is an excellent pH sensor. Long lasting (hours) recordings of apoplastic pH in the near neutral range, however, are more problematic because suitable pH indicators that combine a good pH responsiveness at a near neutral pH with a high photostability are lacking. The fluorescent pH reporter protein from Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Pt-GFP) comprises both properties. But, as a genetically encoded indicator and expressed by the plant itself, it can be used almost exclusively in readily transformed plants. In this study we present a novel approach and use purified recombinant indicators for measuring ion concentrations in the apoplast of crop plants such as Vicia faba L. and Avena sativa L. Pt-GFP was purified using a bacterial expression system and subsequently loaded through stomata into the leaf apoplast of intact plants. Imaging verified the apoplastic localization of Pt-GFP and excluded its presence in the symplast. The pH-dependent emission signal stood out clearly from the background. PtGFP is highly photostable, allowing ratiometric measurements over hours. By using this approach, a chloride-induced alkalinizations of the apoplast was demonstrated for the first in oat. Pt-GFP appears to be an excellent sensor for the quantification of leaf apoplastic pH in the neutral range. The presented approach encourages to also use other genetically encoded biosensors for spatiotemporal mapping of apoplastic ion dynamics.

  10. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean ( Vicia faba ) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug ( Nezara viridula ) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis ( A ) and stomatal conductance ( g s ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H 2 O 2 . However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H 2 O 2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H 2 O 2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  11. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, T.; Majstrenko, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Brown, J.E., E-mail: Justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, 1332 Osteras (Norway); Belykh, E. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and {sup 226}Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles = 5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  12. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  14. Toxicological effects, mechanisms, and implied toxicity thresholds in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings grown in copper-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Huang, Zhicheng; Wang, Chengrun; Zhong, Li; Tian, Yuan; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Gaojian; Shi, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Copper (Cu) contamination has become a global concern because of industrial, agricultural, and other anthropogenic activities. In the present experiments, the toxicological effects, mechanisms, and potential toxicity thresholds were investigated in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings that were cultivated in Cu-amended soils (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg kg(-1)) for 20 days, based on an analysis of the soil physicochemical properties, native Cu, available Cu, and root-enriched Cu contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) isozymes and activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), changed like biphasic dose-response curves, cooperating to control the redox homeostasis. The APX and POD enzymes exhibited enhanced activities and became H2O2 scavengers primarily when the catalase (CAT) activities tended to decrease. Endoprotease (EP) isozymes and activities might be enhanced to degrade carbonylated proteins and alleviate metabolic disturbance in the roots. Additionally, HSP70 may not be suitable as a biomarker for relatively higher soil Cu concentrations and relatively longer exposure times for the roots. As a result, the isozymes and activities of SOD, CAT, and EP, as well as GSH, can be adopted as the most sensitive biomarkers. The toxicity threshold is estimated as 0.76-1.21 mg kg(-1) of available Cu in the soils or 25.04-36.65 μg Cu g(-1) dry weights (DW) in the roots.

  15. Variaciones en el pH de la rizosfera y en el porcentaje de materia seca de Vicia sativa al aplicar dos fuentes fosfatadas de baja solubilidad en un andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar F. Juan Carlos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En el estudio se utilizaron seis tratamientos: el testigo (T0, sin fuentes fosfatadas (T1 y con adiciones de 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3 y calfós (T4 y T5. Los cambios generados por la raíz se evaluaron utilizando la solución nutritiva de Marschner Römheld y Ossenberg-Neuhaus, acondicionada con agar. El porcentaje de materia seca parcial de Vicia sativa se incrementó significativamente al aplicar 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3 y calfos (T5 y T6 en la localidad de Genoy. El pH de la solución agarizada sufrió disminuciones significativas a través del tiempo especialmente en los tratamientos T3 y T2.

    Palabras claves: pH rizosférico, Vicia sativa, Papilionoidea, fuentes fosfatadas, solubilidad

  16. lAA and BAP affect protein phosphorylation-dependent processes during sucrose-mediated G1 to S and G2 to M transitions in root meristem cells of Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Teresa Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carbohydrate-starved root meristems of Vicia faba subsp. minor, the expression of two Principal Control Points located at the final stages of the G1 (PCP1 and G2 (PCP2 phases has been found to be correlated with a marked decrease of protein phosphorylation within cell nuclei, nucleoli and cytoplasm. Adopting the same experimental model in our present studies, monoclonal FITC conjugated antibodies that recognize phosphorylated form of threonine (αTPab-FITC were used to obtain an insight about how the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP, and the mixture of both phytohormones influence the time-course changes in an overall protein phosphorylation during sucrose-mediated PCP1→S and PCP2→M transitions. Unsuspectedly, neither IAA, BAP, nor the mixture of both phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose did up-regulate protein phosphorylation. However using the block-and-release method, it was shown that root meristems of Vicia provided with sucrose alone indicated higher levels of αTPab-FITC. Contrarily, phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose induced apparent decline in phosphorylation of cell proteins, which - when compared with the influence of sucrose alone - became increasingly evident in time. Thus, it seems probable, that a general decline in the amount of αTPab-FITC labeled epitopes may overlay specific phosphorylations and dephosphorylations governed by the main cell cycle kinases and phosphatases.

  17. Long-term no-tillage application increases soil organic carbon, nitrous oxide emissions and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) yields under rain-fed Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badagliacca, Giuseppe; Benítez, Emilio; Amato, Gaetano; Badalucco, Luigi; Giambalvo, Dario; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Ruisi, Paolo

    2018-05-20

    The introduction of legumes into crop sequences and the reduction of tillage intensity are both proposed as agronomic practices to mitigate the soil degradation and negative impact of agriculture on the environment. However, the joint effects of these practices on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions from soil remain unclear, particularly concerning semiarid Mediterranean areas. In the frame of a long-term field experiment (23 years), a 2-year study was performed on the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to evaluate the effects of the long-term use of no tillage (NT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) on yield and N 2 O and NH 3 emissions from a Vertisol in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Changes induced by the tillage system in soil bulk density, water filled pore space (WFPS), organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN), denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), and bacterial gene (16S, amoA, and nosZ) abundance were measured as parameters potentially affecting N gas emissions. No tillage, compared with CT, significantly increased the faba bean grain yield by 23%. The tillage system had no significant effect on soil NH 3 emissions. Total N 2 O emissions, averaged over two cropping seasons, were higher in NT than those in CT plots (2.58 vs 1.71 kg N 2 O-N ha -1 , respectively; P emissions in NT plots were ascribed to the increase of soil bulk density and WFPS, bacteria (16S abundance was 96% higher in NT than that in CT) and N cycle genes (amoA and nosZ abundances were respectively 154% and 84% higher in NT than that in CT). The total N 2 O emissions in faba bean were similar to those measured in other N-fertilized crops. In conclusion, a full evaluation of NT technique, besides the benefits on soil characteristics (e.g. TOC increase) and crop yield, must take into account some criticisms related to the increase of N 2 O emissions compared to CT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  19. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafke, Jens B; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (-130 mV to -110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. -100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to -55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H(+)-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie-Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: K m1 1.2-1.8 mM, K m2 6.6-9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, K m values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher K m values (EH: K m1 10 mM, K m2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (-0.1 to -0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) K m values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of K m values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved in sucrose

  20. Evaluation of microbial biomass C and N content of the soils cultivated with vetch (Vicia sativa L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Bolat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume forage crops have the ability of retaining free nitrogen in the air through symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria found in their roots. Additionally, microbial biomass (MB–an essential living component of soil and a significant factor influencing plant nutrient dynamics–is considered to be accurate indicator of soil’s biological condition. Given the aforementioned aspects, soil MB C (Cmic and MB N (Nmic of different legume forage crops were investigated in this study. Soil samples were taken in order to identify certain physical and chemical characteristics of the soil using volume cylinders (0 – 6.5 cm depth from Vicia sativa L. (VSP and Medicago sativa L. planted (MSP areas. To determine the Cmic and Nmic contents, topsoil samples were also taken from 0 – 6.5 cm depth. Cmic and Nmic contents were identified using chloroform – fumigation – extraction method. There was no statistical significance for particle density, bulk density, electrical conductivity, CaCO3 %, and decomposition ratio (Corg/Ntotal of the VSP and MSP soil (P > 0.05. However, some other soil characteristics such as temperature, porosity, sand, silt and clay contents, pH, organic C and total N differed significantly (P < 0.05. Compared to VSP soil, the Cmic contents were determined to be 27 % higher (P < 0.05 in MSP soil. In VSP soil, the soil Nmic content ranged from 83.38 µg g-1 to 124.67 µg g-1, while it ranged from 91.62 µg g-1 to 187.07 µg g-1 in MSP soil. The Nmic content of the MSP soil was observed to be approximately 35 % higher than VSP soil, and a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was noticed between the two. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found not only between the Cmic and organic C contents (r = 0.667; P < 0.05 but also between the Nmic and total N contents of MSP and VSP soil (r = 0.881; P < 0.01. The results of the study revealed that soil Cmic and Nmic values differ as the types of planted legume forage crops

  1. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  2. Detección del antígeno Tn en tumores epiteliales con la lectina de Vicia villosa isolectina B4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Limpias

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Los epítopes T, Tn y sTn, se expresan en un alto porcentaje de tumores epiteliales y pueden detectarse con anticuerpos monoclonales y lectinas. Objetivo. Evaluar diferencias de expresión del antígeno Tn en cortes histológicos de epitelios no neoplásicos y tumores epiteliales mediante isolectina B4 de Vicia villosa. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron semicuantitativamente localización, intensidad y porcentaje de expresión del antígeno en carcinomas in-situ e infiltrantes y epitelios no neoplásicos de cérvix, seno y urotelio, mediante isolectina B4. Resultados La expresión de Tn en cérvix predominó en membrana de células no neoplásicas y citoplasma de células tumorales; su intensidad fue mayor en carcinomas in-situ e infiltrantes comparado con epitelio no neoplásico aunque en este el porcentaje de expresión fue mayor. En seno, la expresión de Tn fue predominantemente citoplasmática con intensidad similar, el porcentaje de expresión fué mayor en carcinomas ductales in-situ e infiltrantes. En urotelio no neoplásico y tumoral la expresión de Tn predominó en citoplasma; la intensidad y el porcentaje de expresión fueron mayores en neoplasias no invasivas de bajo y alto grado, mientras que en urotelio no neoplásico fue baja y no hubo tendencia definida en tumores infiltrantes. Conclusiones. La detección del antígeno Tn mediante la lectina VVB4 mostró una mayor extensión de marcación en carcinomas ductales de seno en relación con el epitelio no neoplásico, pero no mostró una tendencia definida entre el tejido normal, ni diferentes etapas del desarrollo de los tumores de cérvix y urotelio. Estos hallazgos pueden atribuirse a la heterogeneidad de los procesos carcinogénicos o a que la especificidad de la lectina VVB4 no está restringida a este antígeno.

  3. The Effects of Biological Fertilizers, Chemical Fertilizers and Manure Application on Some Qualitative Characteristics of Vicia villosa Roth Forage under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2017-03-01

    % probability level. Results and Discussion The results showed that in vitro DM digestibility was significantly (P P > 0.5 effect on in vitro organic matter digestibility. The highest and the lowest in vitro OM digestibility values were observed in the Rhizobium + mycorrhiza (77.86% and control (66.48%, respectively. Similarly, the results of previous studies indicated that forage quality significantly improved by inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi fertilizer in comparison with control. There was a significant difference between experimental treatments for percentage of crude protein. All fertilizer treatments increased CP content of forages as compared to that control. The effect of M, M + V and M+NPK treatments on CP was similar and the highest CP was associated to M + These effects of fertilizer treatments may be related to increasing the nitrogen fixation and absorption capacity of plant. Although a negative correlation has been reported between CP and fiber content of forages, the results of our study showed a low non-significant impact of fertilizer treatments on fiber content of forage expressed as NDA and ADF. Moreover, the percentage of Ash for all fertilizer treatments was similar to control, except for Rhizobium + mycorrhiza treatment that showed a higher significant Ash content than control. In this experiment, a significant effect of fertilizer treatments was also observed for dry matter yield of forage. In comparison with control, the combination of mycorrhizal and Rhizobium increased forage dry matter yield by 37.89%. These results are in agreement with. Conclusions The use of biological and organic fertilizers improves availability of nutrients for plant without negative impact on soil and environment. In the present study, we showed an increase in qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Vicia villosa Roth forage by bio-fertilizers application under greenhouse condition. However, a combination of mycorrhiza and Rhizobium had the highest positive impact

  4. Determination of Relative Biological Efficacy (RBE) and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) for the entire negative and positive pion beam profile using Vicia faba roots and Drosophila embryos as biological model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.; Bianchi, M.; Keusch, F.; Mindek, G.; Sullivan, A.H.

    As an introduction to preclinical studies, pilot studies of pion beams are planned with relatively simple biological model systems that can be quickly evaluated and that yield indicative data for further action. Inhibition of growth was studied in Vicia faba roots, a biological system excellently suited for RBE and OER studies. For comparison there are already results from a low-intensity pion irradiation. A second system used Drosophila embryos 1 and 4 hours old, which are especially well suited for LET studies. The unambiguous criterion will be failure to slip out of the oolemma. The smallness of the objects (their beam sensitivity) will make it possible to determine empirically the peak region and to determine Gain factors; furthermore, the known dependency of RBE on the development stage promises highly informative results

  5. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  6. LC-MSdetermination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia fabaL. lines with common and rare flowercolors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of muscle control, which causes trembling of the limbs and head as well as impaired balance. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine is the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat PD. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the few plant species that is known to produce L-DOPA and has the potential to be developed as a functional food crop for people suffering with PD. Objective: Aimed to provide needed information for people who want to use faba bean as a natural remedy or functional food to relieve PD symptoms, this study analyzed the variation of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors. Methods: Leaf and flower samples were taken from field grown plants with different flower colors, namely, pink with purple lines and black dots, pure white, brown, and crimson. Samples were freeze-dried and L-DOPA was quantified by a LC-MS system consisting of an ACQUITY UPLC in line with a Synapt G2 HDMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This experiment was carried out in two consecutive years (2012 and 2013 and the plants used in the second year were grown from the seeds harvested from the plants used in the first year. Results and Discussion: Our two-year study revealed a high level of variation in L-DOPA concentration for leaf and flower tissues among the six faba bean lines studied. The average L-DOPA concentration based on dry weight (DW in flowers ranged from 27.8 to 63.5 mg/g and 18.2 to 48.7 mg/g for leaf tissues. There was no significant correlation between L-DOPA concentrations in flowers and leaves. The L-DOPA concentration in flowers and in leaves of the same line varied but were not statistically significant between the two years. Ideally, the genotype with the highest average L-DOPA concentration in both flowers and leaves would be grown

  7. Fucosylated glycans in the periventricular structures and the cerebrospinal fluid of the fetal rat forebrain. An autoradiographic and lectin binding histiotopic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Vladislav; Brückner, G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2001), s. 297-303 ISSN 0736-5748 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : fetal rat brain * fucosylated glycans * cerebrospinal fluid Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.156, year: 2001

  8. Morphological variability, lectin binding and Na+,K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity of isolated Müller (glial) cells from the rabbit retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Dettmer, D; Brückner, G; Neumann, M; Birkenmeyer, G

    1985-03-22

    Rabbit retinal Müller cells were isolated by means of papaine and mechanical dissociation. These cells were shown to have a well preserved morphology and to preserve viability for many hours. Intense wheat germ agglutinin binding occurs on the photoreceptor side of Müller cells, especially in the microvillous region. Rabbit retinal Müller cells have a Na+,K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity in the same order of magnitude as brain astroglial cells.

  9. Analyse de la tolérance des populations locales de fève (Vicia faba L. à la sécheresse au stade juvénile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora AQTBOUZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most important abiotic stress responsible of the production instability and lower levels of yields of faba bean (Vicia faba L.. The cropping of tolerant varieties can be an opportunity to stabilize production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability and to study the drought tolerance in the juvenile plant stage in a collection of local Moroccan faba bean populations from the province of Taounate. A number of 60 local populations were studied under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Different morphological and physiological traits were studied before and under water stress and during the recovery phase. The difference between recovery and water stress phases estimates the capacity of local populations to recover from drought. The local populations contain a wide diversity for different studied traits. The gain in dry matter has a negative and highly significant correlation with dry matter yield under water stress (r = -0.64 **. The populations 16, 47, 1 and 9 have proven to be the most drought tolerant at juvenile stage.

  10. Exogenously applied D-pinitol and D-chiro-inositol modifies the accumulation of α-D-galactosides in developing tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have investigated the effect of exogenous cyclitols on the accumulation of their galactosides and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs, as well as on some enzymes important for their biosynthesis in seeds of tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray. Immature seeds during 6-day incubation with D-chiro-inositol (naturally does not appear in seeds of tiny vetch were accumulated cyclitol and its galactosides (fagopyritols: B1 and B2. Short 4-hour incubation with D-chiro-inositol, and subsequent slow desiccation process caused accumulation of free cyclitol only, without biosynthesis of its galactosides. Feeding D-chiro-inositol to pods of tiny vetch induced accumulation of high levels of its galactosides (fagopyritol B1, B2 and B3 in maturing seeds. Similarly, feeding D-pinitol increased accumulation of its mono-, di- and tri-galactosides: GPA, GPB, DGPA and TGPA in tiny vetch seed. Accumulation of both cyclitols and their galactosides drastically reduced accumulation of verbascose. Inhibition of RFOs biosynthesis by elevated levels of free cyclitols suggests some competition between formation of both types of galactosides and similarity of both biosynthetic routes in tiny vetch seeds. Galactinol synthase (GolS from tiny vetch seeds demonstrated ability to utilize D-chiro-inositol as galactosyl acceptor, instead of myo-inositol. Presence of both cyclitols, as substrates for GolS, caused synthesis of their galactosides: fagopyritol B1 and galactinol. However, formation of galactinol was more efficient than fagopyritol B1. D-chiro-Inositol and D-pinitol at concentrations several-fold higher than myo-inositol had inhibitory effect on GolS. Thus, we suggest that a level of free cyclitols can have an influence on the rate of galactinol biosynthesis and further accumulation of RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds.

  11. Caractérisation phéno-morphologique de quelques lignées de fève (Vicia faba L. sélectionnées et adaptées aux conditions de culture dans les régions arides en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouthaina Al Mohandes Dridi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to produce a pheno-morphological characterization of 13 faba bean lines selected by the Institute of Arid Regions from 42 local populations. The pheno-morphological variability of these lineages was observed and followed from planting through to seed maturity by biometric measurements and by qualitative evaluations on different plant parts. Morphological characteristics were described by using the UPOV (2000 descriptor. The analysis of results made it possible to distinguish between 2 groups based on precocity and hundred-seed weight. The first group was represented by line 8 which differs from others by the fact that it was the earliest and had the highest one hundred-seed weight. The second group was divided into 3 subgroups that differed in terms of plant vigour and productivity. The first subgroup was characterized by a lower number of flowers per raceme, a hundred-seed weight average ranging from 162.96 g to 165.24 g and a highest number of seeds per pod. This first subgroup contained the lines 5, 10, 11, 12 and 13. The second subgroup included lines 6, 7 and 9 which were the most homogenous on 50 % owering date, plant height and length of lea et. The latter subgroup included the lines 1, 2, 3 and 4, characterized by a highest number of pods per plant, number of stems per plant, and number of flowers per raceme. These lines should be preserved and valued for the varietal improvement programs of Vicia faba. Successive selection should be practiced until a more productive synthetic variety is obtained that is better adapted to the dry conditions of South Tunisia. Key words: Phenology, agromorphology, characterization, Vicia faba

  12. SUPPLEMENTARY VALUE OF VETCH (VICIA DASYCARPA) HAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal

    on feed intake and digestibility as well as milk production and composition in lactating F1 crossbred. (Boran x Friesian) cows fed .... the start of the experiment. The calves were separated from their dams five days after parturition. Experimental feeds. Vetch was harvested at 50% flowering, field cured, baled and stored in a ...

  13. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  14. The lectin domains of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases exhibit carbohydrate-binding specificity for GalNAc: lectin binding to GalNAc-glycopeptide substrates is required for high density GalNAc-O-glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Irazoqui, Fernando; Tarp, Mads Agervig

    2007-01-01

    Initiation of mucin-type O-glycosylation is controlled by a large family of UDP GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-transferases). Most GalNAc-transferases contain a ricin-like lectin domain in the C-terminal end, which may confer GalNAc-glycopeptide substrate specificit...

  15. Асимметрия формы и полярная сократимость клеток палисадной паренхимы листа Vicia faba L

    OpenAIRE

    Фомин, Лев

    2011-01-01

    Измерение клеток мезофилла листа (Vicia faba L.) в тургорном и бестургорном состоянии показало, что клетки асимметричны и имеют две части, различных в диаметре. Часть клетки с большим диаметром обладает большим объёмом и сократимостью оболочки.

  16. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, James W.; Wilson, Michael H.; Derks, M.F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J.; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed

  17. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James W; Wilson, Michael H; Derks, Martijn F L; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-04-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly. Genomic reads were assembled de novo into contigs with a size range of 50-5000 bp. Over 85% of sequences did not align to known genes, of which ~10% could be aligned to known repetitive genetic elements. Over 26 000 of the reference transcriptome unigenes could be aligned to DNA-sequencing (DNA-seq) reads with high confidence. Moreover, this comparison identified 56 668 potential splice points in all identified unigenes. Sequence length data were extended at 461 putative loci through alignment of DNA-seq contigs to full-length, publicly available linkage marker sequences. Reads also yielded coverages of 3466× and 650× for the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Inter- and intraspecies organelle genome comparisons established core legume organelle gene sets, and revealed polymorphic regions of faba bean organelle genomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. An evaluation of fababean ( Vicia faba ) and lupin ( Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to compare fababean with lupin crop residues for summer grazing by young Merino wethers. The crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) degradability as well as chemical composition of fababean and lupin seed and stalks were also determined. Sheep which utilized both crop residues ...

  19. Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Faba Bean ( Vicia faba L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v3i3.2 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  20. An evaluation of fababean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sheep which utilized both crop residues gained in live mass ... live masses than sheep which grazed lupin crop residues at the fourth week .... model of 0rskov & McDonald (1979): p .... Production Laboratory are thanked for chemical analyses.

  1. Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.

    1992-01-01

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments,

  2. Study of the role of epididymal alpha-glucosidase in the fertility of male rats by the administration of the enzyme inhibitor castanospermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C H; Cooper, T G

    1994-11-01

    The activity of epididymal alpha-glucosidase in adult rats was rapidly suppressed to histochemically undetectable levels within 2 days by the continuous release of the enzyme inhibitor castanospermine via a peritoneal osmotic pump at a rate of 100-200 nmol h-1. It was established that mating activities overnight depleted 72% of the spermatozoa in the distal cauda, which was replenished in 2 days, and that fertility began to decline 3 weeks after efferent duct ligation. Male rats of proven mating proficiency and fertility were treated with castanospermine, or buffered saline as control, for up to 30 days and enzyme inhibition was confirmed at the end of treatment by histochemistry. Fertility was normal at the first mating test on day 7, significantly decreased at the second mating on day 9, but recovered in a stepwise manner at subsequent matings on days 12 and 14. Delaying the third mating until day 25 did not sustain the transient subfertility. However, prolonging sperm storage in the distal cauda epididymides and preventing replenishment with freshly matured spermatozoa, by efferent duct ligation for 14 days performed on day 15 during castanospermine administration, caused a decrease in fertility and a change in the kinematics of epididymal spermatozoa of the castanospermine-treated group. In control rats, binding of epididymal spermatozoa to Vicia faba, a lectin specific for glucose and glucosamine, and mannose and mannosamine residues, decreased from the proximal caput to the distal corpus coincident with the increase in alpha-glucosidase activity on the epithelial brush border. Lectin binding then increased in the cauda where enzyme activity was absent. However, castanospermine treatment did not significantly alter this binding profile. The findings suggest that epididymal alpha-glucosidase does not play a crucial role in the development of sperm fertilizing capacity, but may be involved in the preparation of spermatozoa for storage.

  3. Effect of Radiation processing on sensory and chemical characteristics of broad beans (Giza,2)(Vicia Faba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Niely, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Broad bean is the important leguminous protein consumed in egypt as a source of protein diet. The most popular way of preparing beans is the stewd form (Fool Medames). However, great losses due to insect infestation occur during storage. To combat these losses radiation processing has been used as an effective alternative of chemical fumigants to combat insect pets. The beans were irradiated at 25.5, 10 and kgy. The effects of treatments were investigated on sensory and chemical characteristics and on the solubility of broad beans protein, the amino acids content and on the nutritive value of bean protein from the view of its amino acids profile. The results of study indicate that the sensory evaluation of sewed irradiated 2.5 and 5 kGy samples revealed no significantdiffference in hardness, gumminess and acceptability. moreover, no significant changes in adhesivess, between samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 KGy, irradiation up to 20 KGy was found to improve the hardness of stewed broad bean which would improve the quality of broad of bean

  4. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase

  5. Nutritional and Biochemical Studies on Irradiated Broad Beans (Giza-2)(Vicia Faba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M. D.; Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Niely, H.F.G.; Seda, H. A.; Ibrahim, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Broad bean is an important source of dietary protein in Egypt. High losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. Radiation processing is an excellent alternative method which could be used to combat these losses. The beans were irradiated at doses of 2.5,5, 10 and 20 kGy. The effects of treatments were investigated on trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutination activity, in vitro protein digestibility, in vivo protein efficiency ratio (PER) and short-term rats feeding. A dose of 20 kGy significantly caused a great reduction in trypsin inhibitor (by 67.12%) and hemagglutination activity (by 87.5%) in broad bean, whereas its in vitro protein digestibility increased from 67.15 to 80, 68% and PER also increased from 1.01 to 1.22. The results of short term of rat feeding experiments indicated that the growth of young rats given raw or irradiated beans at 2.5 and 5 kGy was much lower than that of rats given diet based upon casein or irradiated beans up to 20 kGy. Feeding raw and processed beans at 2.5 and 5 kGy, caused a significant increase in the relative weight of pancreas while feeding irradiated beans at 10 and 20 kGy normalized the relative pancreas weight. No changes have been observed in relative weight for stomach, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and lungs in rats fed casein diet as compared with those fed raw and irradiated beans up to 20 kGy for 8 weeks

  6. Divergent adaptations in different parts of introduced range in tetraploid Vicia cracca

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Líblová, Z.; Eliášová, A.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    Roč. 234, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 245-255 ISSN 0367-2530 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : common garden experiments * autoploid * cytotype * biological invasions * evolutionary plasticity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2016

  7. Acumulación de arsénico en el cultivo de habas (Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de arsénico en aguas y suelos de Zimapán, en el estado de Hidalgo, México, causa que los cultivos de haba presenten concentraciones apreciables de dicho elemento. Los suelos evaluados presentaron texturas, conductividad, contenidos de N y de arsénico diferentes, pero resultados similares en pH, potencial redox, y contenido de materia orgánica. La elevada bioacumulación de arsénico en estos suelos fue directamente proporcional al tiempo de exposición. Las concentraciones de arsénico acumuladas más altas se obtuvieron en la raíz, el tallo, y las hojas, respectivamente. Concentraciones de 4 mg l-1, fueron letales para el cultivo; el fenómeno se apreció a partir de la etapa III de desarrollo, con la aparición de daños en las raíces y un fuerte efecto en la floración, que inhibió la formación de vainas.

  8. Ca2+-mediated remote control of reversible sieve tube occlusion in em>Vicia faba em>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furch, Alexandra C.U.; Hafke, Jens B.; Schulz, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    According to an established concept, injury of the phloem triggers local sieve plate occlusion including callose-mediated constriction and, possibly, protein plugging of the sieve pores. Sieve plate occlusion can also be achieved by distant stimuli, depends on the passage of electropotential waves...

  9. Synthetic polyploids in Vicia cracca: methodology, effects on plant performance and aneuploidy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, Z.; Paštová, Ladislava; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 7 (2017), s. 827-839 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : chromosome number * colchicine * neopolyploid Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2016

  10. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    food intake increased linearly with faba bean inclusion, reflecting a need by the hens ... Hens consumed the same amount of each basal feed when given a choice ... reduced transport cost could make this an attractive alternative to soybeans.

  11. Chimerism in M1 plants of Vicia faba, Capsicum annuum and Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, T.; Brunner, H.; Daskalov, S.; Nakai, H.

    1983-01-01

    One important task of our group at IAEA is to develop procedures aiming to improve sampling of M 2 seeds to facilitate the recovery of a maximum number of induced mutations in crop plants. Results from studies on three species are reported in this paper. Seeds have been mutagen treated and the chimeric M 1 plants were progeny tested in M 2 . The position of the M 2 seeds on the M 1 plants has been recorded

  12. Inheritance and performance of the stiff-strawed mutant in Vicia faba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauen, M.; Sass, O.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The tall and leafy types are considered to produce more vegetative mass than is necessary for high grain yield. A mutant with stunted growth, smaller leaves with dark green colour, and a stiff stem showing excellent lodging resistance, found special interest among breeders. This stiff-stem growth-type was selected as a spontaneous mutation in a breeding population. A stiff-stem line was crossed with the varieties 'Alfred' and 'Minica'. The stiff-stem recombinants showed a 20% shorter plant height, excellent lodging resistance, higher harvest index and a promise of 30% yield increase. The monogenic inheritance of the mutant trait is an advantage for further breeding work. We propose the symbol st for the new allele. (author)

  13. Resolving browning during the establishment of explant cultures in Vicia faba L. for genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Klenotičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of in vitro regeneration systems of two explant types for low-tannine cultivars of faba bean based on culturing of shoot apices and cotyledonary nodes were provided by usage of various antioxidants - ascorbic acid, citric acid, glutathione and activated charcoal. In subsequent testing, the combined effects of antioxidants with transformation co-cultivation compounds acetosyringone and L-cysteine was studied. The application of antioxidants lead to decreased callogenesis, citric acids treatments (50 mg.l−1 dramatically decreased necrotic response of explants. However, citric acid, used together with ascorbic acid completely inhibited shoot growth in shoot apex cultures. Glutathion evoked hyperhydricity of explants. Activated charcoal induced rooting on media which are commonly used for shoot proliferation. Combination of acetosyringone with antioxidants influenced shoot proliferation, except of variant with ascorbic acid. Citric acid was the best and universal antioxidant in faba bean in vitro cultures and its use is recommended for faba bean genetic transformation experiments.

  14. ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein source for laying hens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dehulled faba beans were evaluated as an alternative to soybeans as a protein source for laying hens using 240 individually caged birds, 50 weeks of age. Two basal feeds were formulated to the same nutrient specifications but with one containing no faba beans and the other containing 200 g dehulled faba bean meal/kg.

  15. THE VARIATION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS CONTENT AFTER SIMAZIN TREATMENT ON VICIA SATIVA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeta Grama-Tiganasu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Simazin has in certain conditions stimulatory effects on nucleic acids biosynthese. The biosyntese and mitotic division stimulation sugest the possibility to use simazin like growing and germination stimulator.

  16. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m -2 ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m -2 ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m -2 ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m -2 ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The dynamics of faba bean (Vicia faba L. parasitism by Orobanche foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaier ABBES

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The dynamics of Orobanche foetida parasitizing faba bean are examined using Petri dish experiments. Rates of broomrape seed germination and seedling attachment to the host roots were quantified on three resistant genotypes (the Egyptian line Giza 429, the Spanish cultivar Baraca, and the Tunisian cultivar Najeh [XBJ90.03-16-1-1-1] and the susceptible cv. Bachaar. The percentage of O. foetida seed germination (11 to 38% was lower near the roots of resistant host plants than it was near the roots of ‘Bachaar’ (67%. O. foetida parasitism was followed using three parametric logistic functions. In this way some major parameters of the infection process were quantified: the maximal number (Nmax and the maximal rate (Rmax of broomrape attachments to the host roots, the median time required for attachment (T50, the maximal percentage of established tubercles reaching the final growth stage at 70 days after inoculation (DAI (%max, and the maximal rate of established tubercle growth (R’max. Broomrape attachment was lower and slower in resistant plants, as indicated by low Nmax and Rmax values combined with high T50 values. Furthermore the precocity of the resistant genotypes was correlated with low attachment. The parameters %max and R’max did not discriminate the susceptible cultivar Bachaar from Giza 429 or Baraca. On the other hand, the %max and the R’max were lower in the ‘Najeh’ plants. The findings indicated that both low attachment and limited growth of established tubercles contributed to resistance in the Najeh cultivar.

  18. Mucilage production during the incompatible interaction between Orobanche crenata and Vicia sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Lozano, M Dolores; Cubero, José I; González-Melendi, Pablo; Risueño, M Carmen; Rubiales, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Orobanche spp. (broomrapes) are holoparasites lacking in chlorophyll and totally dependent on their host for their supply of nutrients. O. crenata is a severe constraint to legumes cultivation and breeding for resistance remains as one of the best available methods of control. However, little is known about the basis of host resistance to broomrapes. It is a multicomponent event, and resistance based on hampering development and necrosis of broomrape tubercles has been reported. In the present work, the formation of mucilage and occlusion of host xylem vessels associated with the death of O. crenata tubercles were studied histologically. Samples of necrotic O. crenata tubercles established on resistant and susceptible vetch genotypes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. The sections were observed at the light microscopy level, either under bright field, epi-fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy. A higher proportion of necrotic tubercles was found on the resistant genotype and this was associated with a higher percentage of occluded vessels. Mucilage is composed mainly by carbohydrates (non-esterified pectins) and the presence of polyphenols was also detected. The mucilage and other substances composed by parasite secretions and host-degraded products was found to block host vessels and obstruct the parasite supply channel, being a quantitative defensive response against O. crenata in vetch, and probably also in other legumes and plants. The presence of foreign substances (i.e. parasite secretions) and host-degraded products (i.e. carbohydrates from cell walls) inside host vessels seems to activate this response and leads to xylem occlusion and further death of established Orobanche tubercles.

  19. Nutritional evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Where a choice was offered between feeds containing soya and faba bean the ... An important question is whether the responses in food intake, growth or feed ..... that the slightly astringent taste of condensed tannins increases palatability and.

  20. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjouji, H.; Pinelli, E.; Revel, J. C.; Hafidi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m 3 during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  1. Some Morphological Characters and Yield of Common Field Bean (Vicia faba.L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Golchin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To evalauate the influences of irrigation time with wastewater of Iran mayhes factory (producing leaven on some morphological characters and yield of faba bean, a factorial experiment carried out on the base of randomized complete block design (CRBD in Iran Mayehs factory farm in spring2012. Experimental factors consisted of irrigation times at 3 levels I1 = one irrigation with determined amount of wastewater, I2 = two irrigations with determined amount of wastewater, I3 = irrigation during the growth period of plants with determined amount of wastewater and wastewater concentration at 6 levels (P0 = irrigation with normal water (control, P15=15% wastewaters + normal water, P30= 30% wastewaters + normal, P45= 45% wastewaters + normal water, P60= 60% wastewaters + normal water, P100= all wastewater with three replications. Results showed that the effect irrigation numbers on traits such as plant height, number of pods per plant and seed yield was significant. Results also revealed that the effect of weastwater concentration on1000seed weight was significant. The interaction of number of irrigations by weastwater concentrations on stem dry weight was also signification. Evaluation of different treatments showed that 45 percent concentration of wastewater was increased traits under study. It seems, that controlled irrigation of bean with wastewater of factory (producing yeast can be effective in improving its yield in the region.

  2. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ocaña

    Full Text Available Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136 subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H and susceptible genotype (Vf136, respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  3. Yield stability and relationships among stability parameters in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamene Temesgen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen faba bean genotypes were evaluated in 13 environments in Ethiopia during the main cropping season for three years (2009–2011. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the yield stability of the genotypes and the relative importance of different stability parameters for improving selection in faba bean. The study was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replications. G × E interaction and yield stability were estimated using 17 different stability parameters. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed that the main effects of both genotypes and environments, and the interaction effect, were highly significant (P ≤ 0.001 and (P ≤ 0.01, respectively. The environment main effect accounted for 89.27% of the total yield variation, whereas genotype and G × E interaction effects accounted for 2.12% and 3.31%, respectively. Genotypic superiority index (Pi and FT3 were found to be very informative for selecting both high-yielding and stable faba bean genotypes. Twelve of the 17 stability parameters, including CVi, RS, α, λ, S2di, bi, Si(2, Wi, σi2, EV, P59, and ASV, were influenced simultaneously by both yield and stability. They should accordingly be used as complementary criteria to select genotypes with high yield and stability. Although none of the varieties showed consistently superior performance across all environments, the genotype EK 01024-1-2 ranked in the top third of the test entries in 61.5% of the test environments and was identified as the most stable genotype, with type I stability. EK 01024-1-2 also showed a 17.0% seed size advantage over the standard varieties and was released as a new variety in 2013 for wide production and named “Gora”. Different stability parameters explained genotypic performance differently, irrespective of yield performance. It was accordingly concluded that assessment of G × E interaction and yield stability should not be based on a single or a few stability parameters but rather on a combination of stability parameters.

  4. Screening of faba bean (Vicia faba L. accessions to acidity and aluminium stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiflemariam Y. Belachew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. Methods A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems. The accessions were grown in solution culture and a subset of 10 was grown first in peat and later in perlite potting media. In solution culture, morphological parameters including taproot length, root regrowth and root tolerance index were measured, and in the pot experiments the key measurements were taproot length, plant biomass, chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance. Result Responses to acidity and aluminium were apparently independent. Accessions Dosha and NC 58 were tolerant to both stress. Kassa and GLA 1103 were tolerant to acidity showing less than 3% reduction in taproot length. Aurora and Messay were tolerant to aluminium. Babylon was sensitive to both, with up to 40% reduction in taproot length from acidity and no detectable recovery from Al3+ challenge. Discussion The apparent independence of the responses to acidity and aluminium is in agreement with the previous research findings, suggesting that crop accessions separately adapt to H+ and Al3+ toxicity as a result of the difference in the nature of soil parent materials where the accession originated. Differences in rankings between experiments were minor and attributable to heterogeneity of seed materials and the specific responses of accessions to the rooting media. Use of perlite as a potting medium offers an ideal combination of throughput, inertness of support medium, access to leaves for detection of their stress responses, and harvest of clean roots for evaluation of their growth.

  5. Effect of salt stress on plant growth and metabolism of bean plant Vicia faba (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M.S. Abdul Qados

    2011-01-01

    An increase was observed in the protein content in the two measurement periods due to the impact of salinity stress. A directly proportional relationship was found between protein content and the increase in salt concentrations in the first measurement period, while it was inversely proportional in the second.

  6. N2-fixation in fababean (vicia faba l.) grown in saline and non saline conditions using 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Kurdali, F.

    2002-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of growing fababean and barley under saline conditions, in terms of, dry matter yield, total nitrogen and, percentages and amount of N derived from soil, fertilizer and atmosphere using 15 N isotope dilution method. Three saline treatments were performed: First, plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss), Second, Plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss); and Third, Plants grown in non saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Sn). Furthermore, a control treatment was performed by using non-saline soil and non-saline water (Wn Sn). The different salinity treatments reduced plant growth and the reduction was more pronounced in fababean than in barley. However, under conditions of either saline soil-soft irrigation water or non saline soil-salty irrigation water, the relative growth reduction did not exceed 50% of the control; whereas, a significant negative effect was obtained when plants were grown under completely saline conditions of both soil and irrigation water. Percentage of N 2 -fixed (% Ndfa) was not negatively affected by saline conditions. However, our results clearly demonstrated that the effect of salinity in fababean was more evident on plant growth than on N 2 -fixing activity. Further studies are needed to obtain more salt tolerant faba bean genotypes in terms of growth and yield. This could be simultaneously improve yield and N 2 -fixation under sever saline conditions. (author)

  7. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  8. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  9. Effect of Processing on the In Vitro and In Vivo Protein Quality of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Nosworthy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the protein quality of different bean types after undergoing the preparatory methods of baking, cooking and extrusion was assayed. Protein quality was assessed using a rodent bioassay to evaluate growth and protein digestibility while amino acid composition was determined via HPLC. In vivo protein digestibility was compared to an in vitro assessment method. The average protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS for processed beans was higher than the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS (61% vs. 45%. Extrusion/cooking of Phaseolus varieties resulted in higher PDCAAS (66% on average and DIAAS values (61% on average than baked (52% and 48% while baked faba beans had higher PDCAAS (66% and DIAAS (61% values. A significant correlation was found between PDCAAS and in vitro PDCAAS (R2 = 0.7497. This demonstrates which bean processing method will generate the optimal protein quality, which has benefits for both industrial production and individual domestic preparation.

  10. Preparación y determinación de propiedades funcionales de Concentrados proteicos de haba (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Modercay

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Con cl propósito de obtener concentrados proteicos de haba, que eventualmente puedan ser empleados en la elaboración de alimentos para consumo humano, se establecieron a nivel de laboratorio, las condiciones para la extracción de las proteínas a partir de harina de haba baja en tegumento. Los resultados muestran que se obtiene un concentrado con más de 60% de proteína bruta en base seca, al suspender la harina de haba en agua en unarclaci'on I:6apH 8 manteniendo el sistema con agitación constante durante 0.5 hora a 40 °C y posteriormente acidificando el sobrenadante con HCl IN hasta pH 5.5. El método más aconsejable para el proceso de secado, es cl de rodillos de acuerdo con las características químicas, físicas y funcionales del producto.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flavour and flatulence causing oligosaccharides from broad bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaddou, H.; Mhaisen, M.T.; Al-Adamy, L.Z.; Naji, E.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Effect of gamma-irradiation (2.5 to 10 KGy) on the flavour and flatulence causing oligosaccharides of broad bean were investigated. The method used for the cooked flavour analysis involved low temperature distillation. Gas-chromatography was used to separate the flavour extracts into their various constituents. The major volatile free fatty acids isolated are C16, C18, C18:1, and C20. Identification of the major peaks from the non-acid fraction were carried out. Identified peaks were hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and phenols. Most of the compounds found to increase with increase in radiation dose. On the other hand, sensory evaluation tests indicated no changes in broad bean flavour quality after irradiation. Sugars were also analysed by gas chromatographic method after TMS-ether derivatization. Fructose, α and β-glucose, sucrose, raffinose and stachyose were the major sugars present. The gas-forming oligosaccharides were found to decrease with increase in dose applied. On the other hand, other sugars found to increase with increase in radiation dose. (author)

  12. Genotoxic effect of Peganum harmala extracts on the growth of Vicia faba L. and DNA using nuclear microsatellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekki, L.; Mansour, H.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of genotoxins-induced DNA damage and mutations at molecular level is important in ecogenotoxicology. Treatment with Peganum harmala crude extract can result in cytotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Mutagenesis is indicative of genetic instability and can be assayed using microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The application of SSR marker analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE) apparatus showed differences in SSR profiles within the extract as well as between the two extracts. All the 12 SSR primer pairs used produced amplification products which showed 100% polymorphism. The total number of scoreable loci obtained with the 12 used primers were 112 alleles. Of the 112 alleles detected 12 alleles (10.7 %) were considered as zero alleles. Three alleles produced by various primers were detected at locus VfG 2 2 to 15 at locus VfG 6 93 and VfG 8 73, with an average of 9.3 bands/SSR. The discrimination power of each SSR locus was estimated by the PIC, which ranged from 0.47 for locus VfG 2 2 to 0.88 for locus VfG 6 93 with a mean of 0.70. About 83.3% of the 18 alleles observed in untreated samples using the 12 primers disappeared from almost all the treatments with water and ethanol extracts. Statistical analysis of morphometric traits showed significant differences between the two extracts in all studied traits except the percentage of germination and root dry weight which were non significant. However, on the other hand significant differences were observed between treatments and the control for all the traits studied. (author)

  13. Measuring and modeling three-dimensional water uptake of a growing faba bean (Vicia faba) within a soil column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Katrin; Koebernick, Nicolai; Kerkhofs, Elien; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu; Vetterlein, Doris; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    A faba bean was grown in a column filled with a sandy soil, which was initially close to saturation and then subjected to a single drying cycle of 30 days. The column was divided in four hydraulically separated compartments using horizontal paraffin layers. Paraffin is impermeable to water but penetrable by roots. Thus by growing deeper, the roots can reach compartments that still contain water. The root architecture was measured every second day by X-ray CT. Transpiration rate, soil matric potential in four different depths, and leaf area were measured continously during the experiment. To investigate the influence of the partitioning of available soil water in the soil column on water uptake, we used R-SWMS, a fully coupled root and soil water model [1]. We compared a scenario with and without the split layers and investigated the influence on root xylem pressure. The detailed three-dimensional root architecture was obtained by reconstructing binarized root images manually with a virtual reality system, located at the Juelich Supercomputing Centre [2]. To verify the properties of the root system, we compared total root lengths, root length density distributions and root surface with estimations derived from Minkowski functionals [3]. In a next step, knowing the change of root architecture in time, we could allocate an age to each root segment and use this information to define age dependent root hydraulic properties that are required to simulate water uptake for the growing root system. The scenario with the split layers showed locally much lower pressures than the scenario without splits. Redistribution of water within the unrestricted soil column led to a more uniform distribution of water uptake and lowers the water stress in the plant. However, comparison of simulated and measured pressure heads with tensiometers suggested that the paraffin layers were not perfectly hydraulically isolating the different soil layers. We could show compensation efficiency of water uptake by the roots in the lower and wetter compartments. By comparing transpiration rates of experiments with and without additional paraffin layers, we were able to quantify restrictions of plant growth to available soil water. [1] Javaux, M., T. Schröder, J. Vanderborght, and H. Vereecken (2008), Use of a Three-Dimensional Detailed Modeling Approach for Predicting Root Water Uptake, Vadose Zone Journal, 7(3), 1079-1079. [2] Stingaciu, L., H. Schulz, A. Pohlmeier, S. Behnke, H. Zilken, M. Javaux, H. Vereecken (2013), In Situ Root System Architecture Extraction from Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Water Uptake Modeling, Vadose Zone Journal, 12(1). [3] Koebernick, N., U. Weller, K. Huber, S. Schlüter, H.-J. Vogel, R. Jahn; H. Vereecken, D. Vetterlein, In situ visualisation and quantification of root-system architecture and growth with X-ray CT, Manuscript submitted for publication.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Babiker, Elfadil E.; Hassan, Amro B.; Osman, Gammaa A.M.; Mohammed, Nagat; Diab, Eiman E.; Rushdi, Mohamed A.H.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P≤0.05) reduction on tannin content for both cultivars. Cooking of faba bean seeds also insignificantly (P≤0.05) reduced phytic acid content for both cultivars, while irradiation process and/or cooking had fluctuated effect. For both cultivars, irradiation of seeds and/or cooking increased the invitro protein digestibility (IVPD), with maximum value of IVPD (79.97%) obtained for cultivar BB7-S1. The results indicate that the treatments used in this study might improve the nutritive quality of faba bean seed due to reduction in anti-nutritional factors with a concomitant increase in IVPD.(author)

  15. Factors influencing distribution and local coexistence of diploids and tetraploids of Vicia cracca: inferences from a common garden experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliášová, A.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 4 (2017), s. 677-687 ISSN 0918-9440 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : drought stress * seed production * vegetative growth Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.899, year: 2016

  16. Study of some resistance mechanisms to Orobanche spp. infestation in faba bean (Vicia faba L. breeding lines in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Trabelsi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of seven faba bean breeding lines toward Orobanche foetida and Orobanche crenata infestation was examined under field, pots, and in vitro conditions and compared to reference cultivars. The breeding lines presented resistance reaction to Orobanche spp. in different experiment conditions. In infested field by O. foetida, the grain yield reduction ranged from 55.7 to 83% for the breeding lines compared to 97% for the susceptible cultivar Badï. Lines L6 and L7 were the less affected by Orobanche parasitism considering severity, number of emerged Orobanche, and yield. In pots, the number of attachments varied from .6 to 3.4 and from 1.4 to 6.4 for the breeding lines against 10.4 and 12.3 for Badï inoculated, respectively, by O. foetida and O. crenata. In Petri dish experiment, Orobanche germination reached the highest rates; 69.9 and 59.7%, respectively, with O. crenata and O. foetida for Badï. For the breeding lines, it ranged from 6.3 to 44.9% for O. crenata and from 4.8 to 40.8% for O. foetida. Moreover, all breeding lines showed low tubercles number and delay in Orobanche attachments as compared to Badï. All breeding lines, except L5, maintained an acceptable level of resistance to Orobanche species manifested by a reduced Orobanche germination rate, low Orobanche number and dry weight, delay of attachments, and higher grain production compared to Badï. L5 seems to be less resistant even it behaves better than Badï in different culture conditions. The studied breeding lines could be recommended as resistance sources or candidates for varieties registrations.

  17. Effekte temporärer Direktsaat von Ackerbohnen (Vicia faba sp.) auf die Segetalflora im Ökologischen Landbau

    OpenAIRE

    Massucati, Luiz; Geib, Ben; Köpke, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Firm soil mulch husbandry, especially direct seeding, may provide an opportunity for Organic Agriculture to increase soil fertility by efficient erosion control and save labour and energy. In this context, occasional direct seeding (oDS) of faba bean into a straw mulch of residues from precrop oats should be scrutinized. A one-factorial field trial with four replicates was carried out 2010 at the organic research farm Wiesengut of the University of Bonn in Hennef/Sieg. Direct seeding was perf...

  18. Fungitoxicity of vicine isolated from .I.Vicia faba./I. L. to selected genera of fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Váňová, M.; Laudová, Věra

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 54, Suppl. 7 (1999), s. 62 ISSN 0006-3088. [International Symposium Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology /3./. 04.09.1999-10.09.1999, Stará Lesná] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  19. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  20. Incorporación de Vicia sativa L. y fertilización fosfatada en un pastizal del nordeste argentino

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, M.; Hack, C.M.; Castelán, M.E.; Golluscio, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    En el nordeste argentino, los pastizales megatérmicos constituyen un importante recurso forrajero para la ganadería. Sus principales limitantes son el déficit forrajero invernal y la baja calidad nutritiva. En amplias regiones se agrega, además, el bajo contenido de P en el suelo y, consecuentemente, en el forraje. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar el potencial de la incorporación de una leguminosa y la fertilización fosfatada para aumentar la biomasa de leguminosas y el contenido ...

  1. Influence of low Gamma Irradiation Doses And Weed Control On Faba Bean (VICIA FABA L.) Yield Attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, I.A.A; Abd El Hameed, I.M

    2013-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out in an administration field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during two successive winter seasons (2007⁄08-2008⁄09). The study aimed to investigate the effect of four gamma irradiation doses (un irradiated seeds as a control, 10,20 and 30 Gy)and five treatments of weed management practices 1- Un weeded (control), 2- Two hand hoeings at 21 and 42 days after sowing, 3- prometryn, commercially known as Gizagared,, sprayed at pre-emergence with rate of 1 Kg⁄300 liters⁄fad. 4-Bentazon 48⁒, commercially known as Basagran 48⁒ ,sprayed at pre-emergence with the rate of 500 Cm 3 ⁄200 ;liters water⁄fad. Sprayed at pre-emergence. 5-48⁒ sprayed at pre-emergence with the rate of 500 cm 3 ⁄200 liters water⁄fad. On yield and yield attributes of faba bean. Results indicate that :1- Gamma irradiation with the lowest dose of 10 Gy, gave high values for plant height (112.54 cm) and number of pods⁄plant (12.22), while the highest gamma irradiation dose of 30 Gy, resulted in high values for number of seeds⁄pod (4.52), number of seeds⁄plant (52.3) , seed weight (g)⁄plant, 100- seeds weight (79.79 g), seed yield (11.39 ardab⁄fad) and straw yield (ton⁄fad). The lowest values for each of the aforementioned traits were obtained in non irradiated treatment in the combined analysis 2- Weed control by hand hoeing twice (after 21 and 24 DAS) gave the highest values for each of the aforementioned traits, followed by spraying both herbicides., prometryn + bentazon 48⁒ followed by sole herbicide Bentazon 48⁒ and sole prometryn, while unweeded treatment gave the lowest values for the respective order, in the combined analysis.

  2. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Repair of X-ray induced DNA damage measured by the comet assay in roots of Vicia faba

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koppen, G.; Angelis, Karel

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (1998), s. 281-285 ISSN 0893-6692 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5038505; GA ČR GA521/96/0396; GA ČR GA204/97/0154; GA ČR GA203/98/0682; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Grant - others:FWO(BE) AGR/PR(97)FS/A Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.259, year: 1998

  4. Genetic variation for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman SHARIFI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  An investigation was carried out to select the most successful faba bean genotype(s and to estimate the heritability for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the traits. For 100-seed weight, two north's of Iran landraces (G1 and G2 and two improved breeding cultivars containing France (G4 and Barrakat (G10 possessed the heaviest seed weight, 161.33, 139, 119.67 and 166 g, respectively. G1 and G10 presented the highest values for dry seed weight (473.98 and 495.44 g m-2, respectively. G1 and G10 showed significantly higher magnitude values of the other traits. Broad sense heritability (h2 estimates were generally high to moderate for all of the studied traits. The highest estimates of broad sense heritability was inscribed as 98 % for pod length, dry seed length and dry seed width and 0.95 for hundred seed weight. The estimated broad-sense heritability was 0.80 for dry seed yield per m2. These results suggested that the environmental factors had a small effect on the inheritance of traits with high heritability. High estimates of heritability indicated that selection based on mean would be successful in improving of these traits. High heritability indicate an additive gene action for the traits, and hence, possible trait improvement through selection. Path coefficient analysis indicated that the traits containing day to harvesting, pod length, hundred seed weight and number of stems per plant play major role in seed yield determination of faba bean. Attention should be paid to these characters for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. 

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 7, No 4 (2017) - Articles Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goats from two Argentinean provinces. Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 1 (2018) - Articles Lectin binding patterns and immunohistochemical antigen detection in placenta and lungs of Brucella abortus-bovine infected fetuses

  6. Carbohydrate epitopes on Haemonchus contortus antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of infective larvae and adults of the trichostrongylid Haemonchus contortus were studied for the presence of carbohydrate moieties. Several different lectin-binding sites were demonstrated in both stages using a panel of nine lectins. The carbohydrate specificity of the lectins used

  7. [Binding studies with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) of the vascular endothelium of the synovial membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschäbitz, A; Stofft, E

    1988-01-01

    The lectin binding sites of the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis were investigated. It was shown that Ulex europaeus agglutinin is a constant marker of the vascular endothelium and is not induced during the course of inflammatory process in rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. 111-118 Efficacy of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meseret

    of Botrytis fabae and to manage chocolate spot of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), ... Keywords: Disease incidence/severity, In vitro, In vivo, Plant extract, Schinus molle, Shallo, Vicia faba. 1. ..... extract deters feeding and oviposition of Plutella.

  9. Effect of pre-sowing treatment of seeds by laser light on development and yielding of faba bean (Vicia faba minor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlesny, J.

    1998-01-01

    The study was conducted at Experimental Station Pulawy - Kepa during 1995-97. The first row factor were three faba bean varieties, and the second one - doses of laser irradiation: without irradiation, three fold, five fold. It was found that irradiation of faba bean seeds by helneon laser light significantly increased the seeds yield and some elements of its structure, especially number of pods per plant. Three fold irradiation was more effective than five fold

  10. Influence of copper on the Golgi apparatus of the meristematic cells of the horse-bean - Vicia faba c. v. Povazsky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, L

    1974-01-01

    The influence of copper on the Golgi apparatus of beans was investigated. At 1 mg/l copper was toxic within 24 hours. After application of 1 mg/l Cu, a striking increase in the number of split vesicles was noted together with a significant decrease in the number of cisterns. The endoplasmic reticulum is often fragmented after application of Cu, showing separation of membrane.

  11. Immobilization of Lead Migrating from Contaminated Soil in Rhizosphere Soil of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) Using Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masahiko; Risky, Elsya; Sato, Takeshi

    2017-10-23

    This study conducted plant growth tests using a rhizobox system to quantitatively determine the distance of immobilization lead migrating from contaminated soil into uncontaminated rhizosphere soil, and to assess the lead phases accumulated in rhizosphere soil by sequential extraction. Without the hydroxyapatite, exchangeable lead fractions increased as the rhizosphere soil got closer to the contaminated soil. Exchangeable lead fractions were higher even in the rhizosphere soil that shares a boundary with the root surface than in the soil before being planted. Thus, plant growth of hairy vetch was lower in the soil without the hydroxyapatite than in the soil with the hydroxyapatite. The presence of hydroxyapatite may immobilize the majority of lead migrating from contaminated soil into the rhizosphere soil within 1 mm from the contaminated soil. The dominant lead fraction in the rhizosphere soil with the hydroxyapatite was residual. Thus, plant growth was not suppressed and the lead concentration of the plant shoot remained at the background level. These results indicate that the presence of hydroxyapatite in the rhizosphere soil at 5% wt may immobilize most of the lead migrating into the rhizosphere soil within 1 mm from the contaminated soil, resulting in the prevention of lead migration toward the root surface.

  12. Studies on the dependence of fructification on the formation and translocation of assimilates in the broad bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freye, E.; Schilling, G.

    1983-01-01

    Studies on the net CO 2 assimilation of growing pods in situ and the translocation of assimilates (application of 14 CO 2 ) from individual leaves have revealed that after flowering most of the assimilates (more than 70 %) are utilized by the fruits. Amputation of some pods resulted in a better supply of other organs of this kind, but not in an increased accumulation of 14 C in vegetative parts. The net CO 2 assimilation rate of the donor leaves was not influenced. Obviously, the sink capacity of the fruit was not fully used at normal supply with assimilates. As exposure of whole plants to CO 2 -enriched air (0.13 % by volume) strongly inhibited the early fall of pods, a lack of assimilates seems to be the main cause of weak fruit setting and thus low seed yield. The great yield variations of broad bean are likely to be attributed to the great dependence of its net assimilation rate on environment. (author)

  13. Investigating the Effect of Cultivate Lines Direction, Bio-Fertilizer Nitroxin and Superabsorbent Materials on Yield and Yield Components of Broad Leaf Vetch (Vicia narbonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Latifinia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The excessive use of fertilizers has caused severe damages to the bio-cycle in the fields and has destroyed the sustainable agricultural machinery. These destructive effects have led to the recommended use of bio-fertilizers. Biodiversity is one of the key sources of supplying nutrients in sustainable agriculture. The use of biological fertilizers in a sustainable agricultural system leads to sustained yield in plant production. Biological fertilizer of nitroxin has increased biological yield and grain yield in fodder corn. Water shortage as a limiting factor has limited vegetation growth and development in these areas. Considering that Iran is a dry country, the use of super adsorbent is one of the ways to reduce water consumption. Investigators in the study of superabsorbent showed that superabsorbent had a significant and positive effect on the yield of forage plants. Crop directions can affect the amount of the product by increasing the leaf area and absorbing light. Proper orientation of crop lines increases the photosynthetic efficiency and increases the yield and yield components of the plant. Research has shown that yields are much higher in plants planted on the north-south lines compared with plants planted on east-west lines. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effect of nitroxin and superabsorbent fertilizer on yield and yield components of broad leaf vetch in a research field of agricultural faculty, Lorestan University, as a split plot factorial based on a complete block design randomization was performed in three replicates. In this research, for main lines, the main factors were considered in the North-South and East-West directions in the main plots. Sub-factors In this experiment, nitroxin biosynthesis and superabsorbent materials were applied at two levels of consumption and non-consumption in sub plots. Nitroxin fertilizer was used as a seed lot at a rate of 1 liter per hectare and the stockosorb polymer was 100 kg/ha at planting time under cultivating lines under the seed at a distance of 2 cm. In this experiment, the pesticide leaf was grown with 97% volatility and 1000-weight weight of 109.56 grams with plant density of 200 plants per square meter. The raw data obtained from the measurement of each of the traits tested after the normal distribution was analyzed using MSTAT-C software. Comparisons of the meanings were compared using Duncan's multiple range tests at probability levels (1 and 5%. Results and Discussion The results showed that using nitroxin fertilizer on stem diameter, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 1000 seed weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index had significant effect. Probably the secretion of plant growth hormones due to the presence of stabilizing bacteria in nitroxin and the gradual release of substances has been shown to stimulate growth and increase yield. Studies have shown that the use of nitroxin biological fertilizer has increased biological yield and seed yield in rapeseed plants due to the availability of food in the critical stages of plant growth. Therefore, increasing the amount of nutrients available to the plant, especially nitrogen, stimulates plant growth and increases dramatically and increases yield. Also, plant height, stem diameter, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index increased in superabsorbent application than control. Super absorbent polymer has reduced the negative effects of drought stress and increased yield. Under stress conditions, the plant faces a severe decrease in cellular inflammation, cell growth and division, which leads to a decrease in vegetative growth while the use of superabsorbent prevents stress and increases vegetative growth. The results of reaserch on corn showed that the use of superabsorbent increased plant yield, which was consistent with the results of this study (Yousefifard et al., 2011. North-South cultivation direction had a positive effect on many traits. Performance in different directions of planting is affected by the efficiency of light consumption and photosynthesis activity. The results of this study indicate that the plants cultivated on the north-south lines have been more favorable in terms of plant height. Research showed that the yield of barley, corn, wheat and pearl millet in different directions was different, and cultivated plants in the north-south direction had a higher yield. Differences in plant height in different planting orientations can result from better water productivity or more sunlight. Conclusions The results show that the North-South crop line has better results than the East-West lines. The remarkable point in this study was that the combined application of superabsorbent and bio-fertilizer nitroxin in all treatments affected all studied traits and significantly increased their amounts. The use of nitroxin and superabsorbent fertilizers for plants planted on the northern-southern rows increases the yield and yield components of the pesticide plant.

  14. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  15. Localizatlon of expansin-like protein in apoplast of pea (Pisum sativum L. root nodules during interaction with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Sujkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During nodule development on pea roots, apoplast undergoes changes in activity of plant cell wall proteins such as expansins (EXPs. Because the accumulation of EXP protein has been correlated with the growth of various plant organs, we investigated using Western Blot and immunolocalization studies with antibody against PsEXP1, whether this protein was accumulated in the expanding cells of nodule. Immunoblot results indicated the presence of a 30-kDa band specific for pea root nodules. The EXP proteins content rose during growth of pea root nodules. Expansin(s protein was localized in nodule apoplast as well as in the infection thread walls. The enhanced amount of expansin-like proteins in meristematic part of nodule, root and shoot was shown. The localization of this protein in the meristematic cell walls can be related to the loosening of plant cell wall before cell enlargement. Both, plant cell enlargement and infection thread growth require activity of expansin(s. Possible involvement of EXPs in the process of pea root nodule development is also discussed.

  16. CONTENIDO Y TRASLOCACIÓN DE PLOMO EN AVENA (Avena sativa, L. Y HABA (Vicia faba, L. DE UN SUELO CONTAMINADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth García-Gallegos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento en invernadero se estableció para determinar la concentración de plomo (Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea de haba y avena; se calculó el factor de bioconcentración y traslocación en las dos especies. Se probaron 50, 100 y 150 mg·Pb·kg-1 de suelo, incluyendo un control. Las plantas se colectaron a los 60 días después de la siembra y se midieron altura de planta (AP, volumen radical (VR y biomasa seca total (BST, además del contenido de Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea. La cuantificación de Pb se realizó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. El suelo cultivado con haba presentó un 28.48 % de PbEDTA. Las variables AP, VR y BST no fueron afectadas de manera drástica por las concentraciones de Pb probadas. Las plantas de haba y avena absorbieron un total de 55 mg·kg-1 y 45.3 mg·kg-1, respectivamente, las cuales se consideran tóxicas para plantas cultivadas. Los resultados pueden servir de base para ampliar el conocimiento del contenido de Pb absorbido y traslocado en plantas de haba y avena, ya que la capacidad de tolerar y absorber Pb es específica de la especie, inclusive de la variedad de planta.

  17. The Weeds Response to the Winter Vetch (Vicia villosa and Chicklingpea (Lathyrus sativus Cover Crops under Different Tillage Methods in Corn Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamzei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using cover crops in conservation tillage systems offers many advantages, one of which is weed control through physical and chemical interferences. Most of the benefits of cover crops are well known. They prevent form wind and water erosions, conserve soil moisture by reducing evaporation and increasing infiltration, increase the content of organic matter, increase fertility by recycling nutrients, add nitrogen if they are legumes, and improve soil structure. Proper cover crops can also suppress weed growth by allelopathic activities and light interference. They impact on environmental quality through the protection of surface water and groundwater, as well as eliminating the need for using preemergence herbicides. Either increase or decreases have been reported for crop yields when the crop residues remain on soil surface. No-till system has been reported to increase the presence of certain difficult to control weeds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage systems and cover crops on weed control and corn yield. Materials and Methods: Experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Bu-Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Tillage with moldboard, tillage with chisel (minimum tillage, and no tillage were considered as main plots and two cover crops, winter vetch and chicklingpea, chemical weed control and weed-infest treatment (control were considered as sub-plots. Cover crops were cultivated in late March 2011. In early June 2011, cover crops were harvested and were spread over the soil surface. The Plot size was 22.50 m-2. Five rows were in each plot with 75 cm intervals among rows and 18 cm among seedlings. 2 square were picked in the three central rows of each plot in order to determine the yield and yield components. From each plot three quadrants (1×1 mrandomly were picked and weeds and cover crops was separated. All samples were dried at 72 ° C for 48 hours and then were weighed. Data were analyzed using SAS software. Wherever the F test showed significant effect for a source of variance, the differences among treatments were compared by LSD test at the 0.05 level of significance. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that the effects of tillage systems and weed control methods were significant on all traits, except number of seed per ear. Also, the interaction effect of them had significant effect on number of grain row/ear and grain yield. The highest grain yield (1271 g m-2 was observed at combined treatment of winter vetch cover crop and moldboard tillage. This treatment had no significant difference with combined treatments of cover crops and tillage with chisel. In comparison with winter vetch cover crop and conventional tillage treatment, the lowest grain yield by 45% reduction was recorded at weed infested and no tillage treatment. Also, the effects of tillage systems and weed control methods and their interaction were significant on weed density and biomass. Maximum weed density and biomass (60 plant m-2 and 335 g m-2 were belonged to weed-infested treatment under no tillage system. The lowest values for weed density and biomass with reduction of 62 and 53%, respectively, were observed at combined treatment of chicklingpea cover crop and minimum tillage. Chicklingpea and winter vetch cover crops due to rapid establishment and growth capacity are more suitable for weed control. Cover crops can affect weed establishment through effects on the radiation and chemical environment of weed and inhibit weed emergence by physically impeding the progress of seedlings from accessing light as well as by releasing phytotoxins that inhibit seedling growth. Minimum tillage is often cause changes in of weed flora and their population, and this is one of the methods for integrated weed management. In general, using winter vetch and chicklingpea as a cover crop and tillage with chisel suppressed about 50-60% weeds and increase corn yield which is effective step towards achieving sustainable agriculture.

  18. Oxidative Damage and Mutagenic Potency of Fast Neutron and UV-B Radiation in Pollen Mother Cells and Seed Yield of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram Abdel Haliem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by exposure of crop plant cells to physical radiations. Henceforth, the current study was planned to compare oxidative stress and mutagenic potential of different irradiation doses of fast neutron (FN and UV-B on meiotic-pollen mother cells (PMCs, pollen grains (PGs and seeds yielded from irradiated faba beans seedlings. On the cytogenetic level, each irradiation type had special interference with DNA of PMC and exhibited wide range of mutagenic action on the frequency and type of chromosomal anomalies, fertility of PGs and seed yield productivity based on the irradiation exposure dose and radiation sensitivity of faba bean plants compared with un-irradiated ones. On the molecular level, SDS-PAGE and RPAD-PCR analyses of seeds yielded from irradiated seedlings exhibited distinctive polymorphisms based on size, intensity, appearance, and disappearance of polypeptides bands compared with un-irradiated ones. The total values of protein and DNA polymorphisms reached 88% and 90.80% respectively. The neutron fluency (2.3 × 106 n/cm2 and UV-B dose for 1 hr were recorded as bio-positive effects. The present study proved that genetic variations revealed by cytogenetic test could be supported by gene expression (alterations in RAPD and protein profiles.

  19. The fungi communities of the soil environment of Triticum aestivum and its forecrops: Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba ssp. minor and Trifolium pratense

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Pląskowska

    2014-01-01

    The species spectrum and abundance of the fungi communities were affected by the soil environment developed by wheat and its forecrops, and by atmospheric conditions. The fungi of the genus Fusarium were the greatest threat to winter wheat regardless of the forecrop. The field bean was the best forecrop to the wheat whereas spring barley was the worst.

  20. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karuppanapandian, T.; Geilfus, C.M.; Muehling, K.H.; Novák, Ondřej; Gloser, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 255, FEB (2017), s. 51-58 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : xylem sap constituents * abscisic-acid * stomatal conductance * leaf apoplast * helianthus-annuus * plant-responses * intact plants * nacl stress * drying soil * guard-cells * Drought stress * Abscisic acid * Soil drying * Xylem sap * Osmolality * Water relations * Leaf water potential Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  1. VARIABILITY OF LENGTH OF STEM OF DETERMINATE AND INDETERMINATE CULTIVARS OF COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. SSP. SATIVA AND ITS IMPACT ON SELECTED CROPPING FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga ANDRZEJEWSKA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2001 and 2002, the study was conducted in six experiments in order to examine the conditioning of the length of stem variability and its impact on cropping features of determinate and indeterminate cultivars of common vetch. Rainfall in June and July as well as during the whole growing season was positively correlated with length of stem, but negatively correlated with seed yield, to a larger extent in the group of indeterminate cultivars than in the determinate one. Duration of blooming stage, length of stem, and seed yield showed the largest variability in both groups. Increase in length of stem of plants of indeterminate cultivars led to the delay in maturation, to less even maturation, and to the decrease in the thousand seed weight and seed yield. Increase in length of stem of plants of determinate cultivars delayed reaching the phase of technical maturation and decreased evenness of plant maturation. Determinate growth of common vetch did not lead to the reduction of lodging.

  2. Economical Evaluation of Faba bean (Vicia faba and Maize (Zea mays L. Intercropping Based on Total Relative Value Index and Weeds Growth Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of weeds raises serious concerns about food safety and environmental quality, which have necessitated the need for non chemical weed management techniques such as intercropping. Intercropping can suppress weeds and reduce the use of herbicides in production systems. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping of faba bean and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize grain yield and total grain yield. The experiment was carried out during growing season of 2010 as a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Sole cropping of maize with weed control (MWF, sole cropping of maize without weed control (MWI, intercropping of 15% faba bean+maize (M+15%F, 30% faba bean+maize (M+30%F, 45% faba bean+maize (M+45%F  and sole cropping of faba bean were the experimental treatments. Weed biomass and density were affected by treatments. With increasing faba bean density in the intercropping treatments, weed biomass and density decreased significantly from 85 plants and 310 g m-2 for MWI treatment to 22 plants and 63 g m-2 for M+45%F treatment, respectively. The greatest number of seed row per ear, seed number per ear and grain and biological yields (8033 and 17933 kg ha-1, respectively were achieved at MWF treatment and the smallest values for these attributes were revealed at MWI treatment. There was no significant difference between MWF and M+45%F treatments for total grain yield (i.e. grain yield of maize + faba bean. Sole cropping of faba bean led to the greatest yield components and grain and biological yields. With increasing faba bean density in intercropping treatments, above mentioned traits (except number of pods per plant were increased significantly. The great values for weed control efficiency (73% and total relative value (1.14 were achieved at M+45%F treatment. Results of this experiment indicated that additive intercropping of faba bean (especially with a high planting density as a companion crop with maize may, potentially, lead to sufficient weed suppression concomitant to an acceptable level of grain yield.

  3. Investigating the Effect of Cultivate Lines Direction, Bio-Fertilizer Nitroxin and Superabsorbent Materials on Yield and Yield Components of Broad Leaf Vetch (Vicia narbonensis)

    OpenAIRE

    E Latifinia; N Akbari; F Nazarian Firozabadi; S Heidari

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The excessive use of fertilizers has caused severe damages to the bio-cycle in the fields and has destroyed the sustainable agricultural machinery. These destructive effects have led to the recommended use of bio-fertilizers. Biodiversity is one of the key sources of supplying nutrients in sustainable agriculture. The use of biological fertilizers in a sustainable agricultural system leads to sustained yield in plant production. Biological fertilizer of nitroxin has increased ...

  4. Mutation of a Broadly Conserved Operon (RL3499-RL3502) from Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae Causes Defects in Cell Morphology and Envelope Integrity▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M.; Magnus, Samantha A.; Tambalo, Dinah D.; Koval, Susan F.; Yost, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial cell envelope is of critical importance to the function and survival of the cell; it acts as a barrier against harmful toxins while allowing the flow of nutrients into the cell. It also serves as a point of physical contact between a bacterial cell and its host. Hence, the cell envelope of Rhizobium leguminosarum is critical to cell survival under both free-living and symbiotic conditions. Transposon mutagenesis of R. leguminosarum strain 3841 followed by a screen to isolate mutants with defective cell envelopes led to the identification of a novel conserved operon (RL3499-RL3502) consisting of a putative moxR-like AAA+ ATPase, a hypothetical protein with a domain of unknown function (designated domain of unknown function 58), and two hypothetical transmembrane proteins. Mutation of genes within this operon resulted in increased sensitivity to membrane-disruptive agents such as detergents, hydrophobic antibiotics, and alkaline pH. On minimal media, the mutants retain their rod shape but are roughly 3 times larger than the wild type. On media containing glycine or peptides such as yeast extract, the mutants form large, distorted spheres and are incapable of sustained growth under these culture conditions. Expression of the operon is maximal during the stationary phase of growth and is reduced in a chvG mutant, indicating a role for this sensor kinase in regulation of the operon. Our findings provide the first functional insight into these genes of unknown function, suggesting a possible role in cell envelope development in Rhizobium leguminosarum. Given the broad conservation of these genes among the Alphaproteobacteria, the results of this study may also provide insight into the physiological role of these genes in other Alphaproteobacteria, including the animal pathogen Brucella. PMID:21357485

  5. Determinación de las mejores condiciones para la extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. De navarro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Para la determinación de las mejores condiciones de extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (LRH, se utilizaron iniciaimente raíces enteras y paredes celulares de raíces. De acuerdo con los resultados, se establecieron las condiciones experimentales para la preparación de paredes celulares por tres métodos. Se encontró que el Método I, en el cual se usó Sarkosyl 0.5%, KH2PO4 0.01 M pH 6.0 para la obtención de paredes celulares y luego se extrajo la lectina con buffer de citrato de sodio 0.1 M pH 4.2, es el más adecuado. El fraccionamiento se realizó por filtración por gel usando Sephadex G-25.

  6. Chemical composition and some anti-nutrient content of raw and processed bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for use as feeding stuff in poultry diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J; Samei, A; Rahmani, H

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine chemical composition of raw and treated bitter vetch seed for use in poultry diets. Processing methods were: soaked in water for 12 h, then autoclaved and dried (SA); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSA); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange of water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSC); coarsely ground, soaked in solution of 1% acetic acid for 24 h at 60 degrees C and dried (GAA). Raw bitter vetch seed was contained 94.52, 26.56, 0.4, 58.86, 3.38, 5.32, 12.28 and 14.20 percent DM, CP, EE, NFE, Ash, CF, ADF and NDF, respectively. Its GE, AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn values were 18.10, 13.15, 14.38, 14.10 and 14.69 MJ/kg, respectively. Results indicated that bitter vetch is a good source of Fe (340 ppm) and Cu (46.7 ppm). It s amino acid profile was suitable and methionine was the first limiting amino acid when compared with broiler and layer chicks requirements. Its canavanine and tannin content were 0.78 and 6.7 mg/kgDM, respectively. Processing methods improved CP and in some cases AMEn. All processing methods especially GSC resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in canavanine and tannin.

  7. Effects of phytase, cellulase, and dehulling treatments on iron and zinc in vitro solubility in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) Flour and Legume Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-Wei; Xie, Wei-Hua; Cui, Qun-Xiang

    2010-02-24

    Simulations of gastrointestinal digestion were used to try to identify the nature of the complexes between antinutritional factors and iron and zinc in faba bean and legume fractions. In digestible residue of raw faba bean flour, simultaneous action of cellulase and phytases made it possible to release about 28% units more iron than that released with the treatment without enzymes. About 49.8% of iron in raw faba bean flour was solubilized after in vitro digestion and simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase. In the hull fraction, the action of phytases and the simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase allowed about 7 and 35% units of additional zinc to be solubilized, respectively. Single enzymatic degradation of phytates from dehulled faba bean allowed solubilization from 65 to 93% of zinc, depending upon the treatment. In dehulled faba bean, iron was chelated by phytates and by fibers, whereas zinc was almost exclusively chelated by phytates. In the hull of faba bean, a high proportion of iron was chelated by iron-tannins, while the rest of iron as well as the majority of zinc were chelated in complexes between phytates and fibers.

  8. Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on ß-carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron, Aretit (dinoseb acetate, Gesatop 50 (simazine was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha on the ß-carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/v. An increase of ß-carotene content in the field bean leaves at the flower-bud formation stage was found, after application of above mentioned herbicides and high dosage NPK fertilization levels. No influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the (ß-carotene content in the plant leaves could be demonstrated at the full pods stage.

  9. Hollow fibre liquid phase micro-extraction by facilitated anionic exchange for the determination of flavonoids in faba beans (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaieb, Nadia; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Luis González, Johannes; Mars, Messaoud; Valiente, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. They are commonly extracted from plant materials with ethanol, methanol, water, their combination or even with acidified extracting solutions. The disadvantages of these methods are the use of high quantity of organic solvent, the possible loss of analytes in the different steps and the laborious process of the techniques. In addition, the complexity of the phenolic mixtures present in plant materials requires a preliminary clean-up and fractionation of the crude extracts. To develop a hollow fibre liquid phase micro-extraction (HF-LPME) method for a one step clean-up and pre-concentration of flavonoids. Two flavonoids (catechin and rutin) has been extracted by HF-LPME and analysed by HPLC. The related driving force for the liquid membrane has been studied by means of facilitated and non-facilitated transport. Different ionic and non-ionic water insoluble compounds [trioctylamine (TOA), tributyl phosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and methyltrioctylammonium chloride (aliquat 336)] were used as carriers. The liquid membrane was constituted by a solution of n-decanol in the presence or absence of carriers. Maximum enrichment factors were obtained with n-decanol/aliquat 336 (20%) as organic liquid membrane, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0.1 M) as donor solution, sodium chloride (NaCl) (2 M) as acceptor solution and 3 h as extraction time. Under these conditions, good results for validation parameters were obtained [for linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and repeatability]. The developed method is simple, effective and has been successfully applied to determine catechin and rutin in ethanolic extracts of faba beans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Genotypic variability in faba bean (vicia faba L.) for seed yield and protein content under drought stress during vegetative and Reproductive Stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmula, A. A.; Gasim, S. M.; Link, W.; Mohamed, A. A.; Khalifa, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Faba bean (viciafaba L.) is subjected to drought stress during different growth stages. In this study, variability in seed yield and protein content was investigated when drought occurred during the vegetative and reproductive stages. Twenty two genotypes of faba bean were field evaluated under three levels of drought stress at two locations in the Sudan. The three levels of drought were normal watering (non-stress), drought during the vegetative stage and drought during the reproductive stage. Data were collected on yield and vegetative traits and protein content. The results showed that yield, as well as other traits, were reduced by drought. The genotypes exhibited significant differences for 100 seed weight, plant height and protein content. The interaction between the genotypes and drought was significant for yield/plant. Some genotypes were more sensitive when drought occurred during the vegetative stage, some when drought occurred during the vegetative stage, and others were more stable under the three levels of drought. yield/plant showed significant covariance with pods/plant and plant height. The association between different characters varied according to trait and the time of drought incidence. The correlation of yield/plant with protein content was negative under all drought levels, and the average correlation coefficient was 0.32. It could be concluded that the specific adaptation and the wide adaptation have great implication for improving faba bean under drought. To select for high seed yield under drought, secondary characters, such as pods/plant and plant height could be of great importance. Drought could reduce protein content and affect its association with yield/plant.(Author)

  11. Response of bean (Vicia faba L.) plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo-Fang; Duan, Wei; Liu, Guo-Tian; Xu, Hong-Guo; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII) function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand). On the 1(st) day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca). From the 3(rd) to 9(th) day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII) values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII) values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5(th) day. From the 11(th) to 21(st) day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21(st) day. Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn reduction. The non-stomatal limitation was associated with the inhibition of PSII electron transport chain. Our data suggests that the donor side of PSII was the most sensitive to low sink demand followed by the reaction center of PSII. The acceptor side of PSII may be the least sensitive.

  12. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops, wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. horani) and broad beans (Vicia Faba L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author). 17 Tabs. 36 Refs

  13. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of significant 1% and 5%. Results and discussion There was significant difference between minimum and maximum dry weight of weeds, the results showed that barley have important role in weed control wild safflower. Therefore, weed control efficiency in 15 plant in m2 was higher than two 10 and 20 plant in m2. The lowest WCE (161.27% was found at 15-35-65 treatment, but, the highest WCE (51.99 was obtained from 15-65-35 (Wild safflower-common vetch-barley treatment. Computes showed that WCE, in 15 plants of wild safflower/m2, was more than 10 and 20 p/m2. The reduction in weed population and biomass in intercropping systems with barley may be attributed to shading effect and competition stress created by the canopy. Thus, result showed that reduction rate of common vetch in intercropping, with bearing compatibility power to weeds reduced LER. CR for common vetch intercropping component in comparison with barley in total treatments was>1. The highest CR, for vetch obtained from treatment 45-55-control (2.64 and for barley from seed ratio 65-35-control (1.83. Conclusion The results in this study showed various seed rate had noticeable effect on forage yield, LER and weed control. In this experiment changing seed rate in two tested plants (barly- commen vetch changed the number and weed species, as a result noticeable changing was created in their competitive power. Result showed that seed rate (35% barley-65% common vetch was better than other treatment, not only in use efficiency of environment, but also it had more dry forage yield. Also, former seed rate had effective role in decreasing the weed biomass. This important result was related to reduced light penetrate at the bottom of cover crop and probably lack of competition in access to environmental resources was also affected. So using this seed density for mentioned area is recommended for reducing weed competition and improving the quality and quantity of dry forage. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the teachers of College of Agriculture of Lorestan University, for their critical review of the manuscript.

  14. Impact of seeding rate, seeding date, rate and method of phosphorus application in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor in the absence of moisture stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 1998-1999, 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 at the semi-arid region in north of Jordan, to study the effect of seeding dates (14 January, 28 January and 12 February, seeding rates (50, 75 and 100 plants per metre, phosphorus levels (0, 17.5, 35.0 and 52.5 kg P per ha and two methods of P placement (banding and broadcast. Seeding rate, seeding date, and rate of phosphorus had a significant effect on most of the measured traits and the yield determinates. Method of phosphorus application had only a significant effect on seed yield and seed weight per plant. In general high yields were obtained by early seeding (14 January, high seeding rate (100-plant per square metre, and P application (52.5 kg P per ha drilled with the seed after cultivation (banded.

  15. Researches on Determination Yield and Yield Components of Some Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L. Genotypes in Ecological Conditions of Diyarbakır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyithan SEYDOŞOĞLU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to determine yield and yield components of some common vetch genotypes in order to examine some of the traits, during 2011-2013 seasons in GAP International Agricultural Research and Training Center was carried out on the experimental field. In the study, a total of 20 different genotypes were used common vetch, field trials randomized block design with 3 replications was established. In the study, herbage yield, hay yield and seed yield in addition to days to %50 flowering duration, plant height, main stem length, main stem number, pod number per plant, grain number per pod as affecting yield some properties were also investigated. In both years of the study, days to %50 flowering duration and grain number per pod characteristics examined, except among genotypes for all other parameters are determined significant differences in statistical terms. According to the average of two years result; days to %50 flowering duration, plant height, main stem length, main stem number, pod number per plant, grain number per pod, herbage yield, hay yield, seed yield, 1000 seed weight were changed between 157.8-174.0 days, 33.9-62.6 cm, 52.0-83.3 cm, 1.6-2.6 number, 13.5-21.2 number, 4.7-5.6 number, 1522.0-3232.3 kg da-1, 308.0-919.5 kg da-1, 92.2-293.7 kg da-1, 46.5-84.5 g, respectively. According to these results, under the climate and soil conditions of Diyarbakır; for the grass production common vetch genotypes "D-135" was suggested and for the seed production common vetch genotypes "IFVS-715" and "GAP-59998" were suggested.

  16. Flow cytometry analysis of FITC-labeled concanavalin A binding to human blood cells as an indicator of radiation-induced membrane alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnadieu-Claraz, M.; Paillole, N.; Voisin, P.

    1995-01-01

    The 3 H concanavalin-A binding to human blood cells have been described as a promising biological indicator of radiation overexposure. Flow cytometry adaptation of this technique using fluorescein-labelled concanavalin-A were performed to estimate time-dependent changes in binding on human blood cells membranes after in vitro γ irradiation ( 60 Co). Result revealed significant enhanced lectin-binding to platelets and erythrocytes in a dose range of 0,5-5 Gy, 1 and 3 hours after irradiation. However for both platelets and erythrocytes, it was impossible to discriminate between the different doses. Further studies are necessary to confirm the suitability of lectin-binding as a biological indicator for radiation dose assessment. (authors). 5 refs., 1 fig

  17. Links between CD147 Function, Glycosylation, and Caveolin-1

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei; Chang, Sharon B.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2004-01-01

    Cell surface CD147 shows remarkable variations in size (31-65 kDa) because of heterogeneous N-glycosylation, with the most highly glycosylated forms functioning to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. Here we show that all three CD147 N-glycosylation sites make similar contributions to both high and low glycoforms (HG- and LG-CD147). l-Phytohemagglutinin lectin binding and swainsonine inhibition experiments indicated that HG-CD147 contains N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V-cataly...

  18. Sugar residues content and distribution in atrophic and hyperplastic postmenopausal human endometrium: lectin histochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Gheri, G.; Gheri Bryk, S.; Taddei, G.; Moncini, D.; Noci, I.

    1996-01-01

    A lectin histochemical study was performed to investigate the glycoconjugate saccharidic moieties of the human postmenopausal endometrium (14 atrophic and 15 hyperplastic). For this purpose a battery of seven horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEA I) was used. No differences in lectin binding between atrophic and hyperplastic endometria were observed. This investigation allowed us to provide a basic picture of the oligo...

  19. Characterisation of cytotrophoblastic-like cells present in subinvolutioned placental sites of the bitch

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, P.E.; Portiansky, E.L.; Barbeito, C.G.; Gimeno, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to study the cells present in the subinvolution of placental sites (SIPS), a pathological post partum condition of the bitch that causes persistent hemorrhage of the genital tract. The expression of intermediate filament proteins was examined to determine the fetal or maternal origin of the cytotrophoblastic-like cells found in this entity. Lectin binding on tissue sections were also studied to characterise cellular glycoconjuga...

  20. Cell surface of sea urchin micromeres and primary mesenchyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSimone, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of the sea urchin embryo were studied during the early morphogenetic events involved in the differentiation of the micromere cell lineage. Sixteen-cell and early cleavage stage blastomeres were isolated and the protein composition of their cell surfaces examined by 125 I-labelling followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Micromere-specific cell surface proteins are reported for Arbacia punctulata, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Cell surface glycoproteins were characterized on the basis of lectin binding specificity with a novel lectin affinity transfer technique. Using this procedure, cell-type specific surface proteins, which are also lectin-binding specific, can be detected. In addition, fluorescein conjugated lectins were microinjected into the blastocoels of living S. drobachiensis and Lytechinus pictus embryos and the patterns of lectin bindings observed by fluorescence microscopy. The evidence presented in this thesis suggests that the differentiation of the primary mesenchyme cells is correlated with changes in the molecular composition of the cell-surface and the ECM

  1. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Prandini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment. The RP and RF diets did not negatively affect the carcass characteristics both of the pigs slaughtered at the conventional weight (127.5 kg and heavy pigs (158.5 kg. The pigs fed the RP and RF diets ate similarly to the pigs fed the CTR overall the trial but RF pigs grew better than CTR animals. The subcutaneous fat of the fresh hams destined for Parma ham production and obtained from pigs fed RP diet had a higher omega 3 fatty acid percentage. Moreover, the RP and RF diets resulted in fat with better omega 3/omega 6 ratio compared with CTR. All the fat samples had iodine numbers within the limit value (70 reported by the Production Disciplinary of Parma ham. No treatment effect was found on the analytical and sensorial characteristics of the Parma hams, except for the aged taste which was more intense in the hams obtained from pigs fed the RF diet. These results indicate that pea and faba bean may be used as an alternative to imported SBM.

  2. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegi, Teklu; Tolera, Adugna; Wamatu, Jane; Animut, Getachew; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2017-12-19

    A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of the animals. Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85+0.29 kg (mean + SD were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws include in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S) and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at the end. Local variety had lower (Pdigestibility. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of sheep fed Walki and Mosisa straws were higher than (P0.05) by variety of the faba bean straws. There is significant varietal differences between faba bean straws both in quality and quantity. Similarly, significant variation observed among sheep in feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency among sheep fed different straws of faba bean varieties with concentrate supplement. Based on these results, Walki and Mosisa varieties could be recommended as pulse crop rotation with cereals in the study area.

  3. Obtención de carbón activado a partir de la cubierta seminal de leguminosa haba (Vicia-Faba) y su uso en el proceso de recuperación de oro desde soluciones cianuradas

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Zea, Norberto Sixto

    2008-01-01

    La minería aurífera en el Perú, carece de tecnologías adecuadas para recuperar oro eficientemente, teniéndose pérdidas significativas en los relaves como oro sedimentado o submicroscópico. Los procesos en nuevos proyectos de recuperación de oro, desarrollan la aplicación de la tecnología del carbón activado que adsorbe oro de soluciones lixiviadas en cianuro que permite trabajar minerales de baja ley consiguiendo ventajas en costos de operación y mejor productividad. El carbón activado para r...

  4. Chloramine-T induced binding of monoclonal antibody B72. 3 to concanavalin-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, W.C.; Jhingran, S.G. (Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States) Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-07-01

    The effects of chloramine-T (CT) on monoclonal antibody B72.3 were studied with particular reference to Con-A lectin binding. After exposure to chloramine-T concentrations from 0.8 to 4.0 mg/mL (115-574 mol CT/mol B72.3), B72.3 showed progressive binding to agarose-linked Con-A. This behavior was paralleled by decreasing immunoreactivity and increasing fragmentation and aggregation of B72.3 demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and size exclusion HPLC. (Author).

  5. Characterization of changes in IgG associated oligosaccharide profiles in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis using fluorophore linked carbohydrate electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K; Talukder, R; Hay, F C; Axford, J S

    2001-07-01

    To investigate fluorophore linked carbohydrate electrophoresis (FCE) as a method of analyzing serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) oligosaccharides in healthy individuals and those with rheumatic disease and compare with lectin binding assays of carbohydrate composition. IgG was isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 21), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (n = 20), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) (n = 20), and healthy adults (n = 36). IgG oligosaccharides were released enzymatically, fluorescently labelled using 8 aminonaphthalene-136 trisulfonic acid; and identification of the oligosaccharide bands was by stepwise enzymatic degradation. Comparison of FCE was made with lectin binding analysis in which the lectins Ricinus communis (RCA1) and Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BSII) were used to detect galactose (Gal) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), respectively. Each disease could be differentiated from healthy adults on the basis of Band 1 asialodigalacto core fucosylated oligosaccharide (gf2) intensity (p = 0.001), but not from each other. Reduced levels of different sugars were associated with specific diseases: reduced gf2 with RA (p < 0.001), PsA (p < 0.001) and AS (p < 0.02), reduced Band 5 disialo-digalacto core fucosylated (a2f) oligosaccharide with AS (p < 0.001), reduced Band 6 disialo-digalacto (a2) oligosaccharide with AS (p < 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.021). All diseases were associated with a significant increase in Band 4 asialo-agalacto core fucosylated oligosaccharide (g0f) (p < 0.001). In RA, FCE band intensities correlated with sugar quantity when identified using lectin binding analysis (p < 0.003). In contrast, there was no correlation between the same bands in healthy individuals. FCE is an accurate method of analyzing IgG associated oligosaccharides and reveals unique band patterns or sugar prints associated with healthy adults and patients with RA, PsA, and AS, and comparison with lectin binding analysis suggests undetected RA glycoprotein structural

  6. Structural comparisons of two allelic variants of human placental alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J L; Stigbrand, T; Jörnvall, H

    1985-01-01

    A simple immunosorbent purification scheme based on monoclonal antibodies has been devised for human placental alkaline phosphatase. The two most common allelic variants, S and F, have similar amino acid compositions with identical N-terminal amino acid sequences through the first 13 residues. Both variants have identical lectin binding properties towards concanavalin A, lentil-lectin, wheat germ agglutinin, phytohemagglutinin and soybean agglutinin, and identical carbohydrate contents as revealed by methylation analysis. CNBr fragments of the variants demonstrate identical high performance liquid chromatography patterns. The carbohydrate containing fragment is different from the 32P-labeled active site fragment and the N-terminal fragment.

  7. Ulex europaeus I and glycine max bind to the human olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Oka, N; Kamo, H; Akiguchi, I; Kimura, J

    1993-12-24

    The distribution of binding sites for the fucose-selective lectin Ulex europaeus I and the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine-selective lectin glycine max in the human olfactory bulb were studied. These lectins bound to primary olfactory axons in the olfactory nerve layer and the glomerular layer. They also bound to fibers located in the deeper layers such as the external plexiform layer and the granular layer. Furthermore they projected to the olfactory stalk but not in the cerebrum. The deeper projections of the lectin binding fibers may affect the function of the olfactory bulb in humans.

  8. Lectin histochemical evaluation of glycoconjugates in dog efferent ductules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, S; Furusato, M; Takahashi, H; Motoya, M; Ushigome, S

    1996-06-01

    Glycoconjugates in the epithelial cells of the efferent ductules in the dog were investigated using lectin histochemistry. These ductules connect the extratesticular rete with the epididymis. The epithelium of the ductules consisted both of ciliated and nonciliated cells. Whereas the apical zone of ciliated cells showed selective binding with WGA, SWGA, SNA, MAA and neuraminidase-PNA, that of nonciliated cells bound to all lectins used in the present study: WGA, SWGA, SNA, MAA, PNA, neuraminidase-PNA, RCA1, DBA and SBA. The nonciliated cells were divided into 3 types: type A cells which lacked both specific granules and vacuoles, type B cells which were characterised by a few specific apical vacuoles and many large specific granules, and type C cells which were characterised by some specific apical vacuoles and small basal granules. The specific granules and vacuoles of type B cells showed binding with WGA, SWGA and MAA. The specific granules of type C cells showed binding with WGA, SWGA, SNA, MAA, PNA and neuraminidase-PNA, while their specific vacuoles showed binding with WGA, SWGA, SNA and MAA. The Golgi zone both of ciliated and type A cells did not bind with any lectins used in this study, while type B and C cells showed similar lectin binding patterns between the Golgi zone and their specific granules. Specific lectin binding patterns revealed a different carbohydrate composition of each type of cell, indicating a biological difference between the ciliated cells and the 3 types of nonciliated cells in dog efferent ductules.

  9. Factors influencing the adequacy of microencapsulation of rat pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, P; De Haan, B; Wolters, G H; Van Schilfgaarde, R

    1996-10-15

    The observation that only a portion of all alginate-polylysine microcapsules are overgrown after implantation suggests that physical imperfections of individual capsules, rather than the chemical composition of the material applied, are responsible for inducing insufficient biocompatibility and thereby fibrotic overgrowth of those capsules. We recently developed a lectin binding assay that allows for quantifying the portion of inadequately encapsulated islets, and demonstrated that inadequately encapsulated islets induce a fibrotic response associated with graft failure. The present study investigates factors influencing the adequacy of encapsulation of pancreatic islets. We applied our lectin binding assay and found that the number of inadequate, and particularly incomplete, capsules is influenced by the following factors. (1) A capsule diameter of 800 micrometers is associated with a lower percentage of inadequate capsules than smaller (500 micrometers and 600 micrometers) or larger (1800 micrometers) capsules. (2) A high rather than low guluronic acid content of the alginate is associated with a lower percentage of inadequate capsules. This can be explained, at least in part, by smaller ranges of swelling and subsequent shrinkage during the encapsulation procedure. (3) An increase in viscosity caused by applying a higher alginate concentration compensates for a low guluronic acid content. This effect of increased viscosity cannot be explained by a reduced range of swelling and shrinkage during the encapsulation procedure. We conclude that alginates with a high guluronic acid content and a viscosity near the filtration limit are preferable in order to minimize the number of inadequate capsules.

  10. Characterisation of cytotrophoblastic-like cells present in subinvolutioned placental sites of the bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, P E; Portiansky, E L; Barbeito, C G; Gimeno, E J

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes an approach to study the cells present in the subinvolution of placental sites (SIPS), a pathological post partum condition of the bitch that causes persistent hemorrhage of the genital tract. The expression of intermediate filament proteins was examined to determine the fetal or maternal origin of the cytotrophoblastic-like cells found in this entity. Lectin binding on tissue sections were also studied to characterise cellular glycoconjugates. Image processing and morphometrical analysis of the histological images were done. The results revealed that the cells observed in bitches with SIPS expressed pancytokeratins but neither vimentin nor desmin, in coincidence with normal cytotrophoblasts. The lectin binding pattern of both types of cells was similar, with the only exception of Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA) and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA). These observations, in addition to the non statistically significant differences between morphometrical characteristics of cytotrophoblastic and cytotrophoblastic-like cells in SIPS, might suggest the fetal origin of the latter cells which could play a role in the pathogenesis of this entity.

  11. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling Orobanche foetida Poir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling Orobanche foetida Poir. resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) R Díaz-Ruiz, A Torres, MV Gutierrez, D Rubiales, JI Cubero, M Kharrat, Z Satovic, B Román ...

  12. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 7 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biology. ... Induced by Copper and Cadmium Stress in Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, ...

  13. East African Journal of Sciences - Vol 9, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of Arabica coffee quality attributes with selected soil chemical properties ... change resilient cultural practices on productivity of faba bean (Vicia faba l.) ... for enhanced livelihood and food security in Dilla District, Southern Ethiopia ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 801 - 850 of 2157 ... South African Journal of Animal Science. ... and growth in Bonsmara bulls and evaluation of alternative measures of feed efficiency, Abstract PDF ... Vol 41, No 2 (2011), Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv.

  15. Sucrose effect on broomrape (Orobanche crenata) development on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Key words: Sucrose, Orobanche crenata, Vicia narbonensis and broomrape control. INTRODUCTION ... and forage legume used for livestock feed in the .... the yield of faba bean significantly (Kukula and Masri, 1984). More-.

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND CROSS-SPECIES AMPLIFICATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    In this study, publicly available grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) EST sequences were used to develop 21 ... which are important food legumes, with whom it could share genes ... (Pisum saivum), faba bean (Vicia faba), chickpea. (Cicer arietinum) ...

  17. The effect of endogenous hydrogen peroxide induced by cold treatment in the improvement of tissue regeneration efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Skrzypek, E.; Dabrowska, G.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose that oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance between generation and scavenging hydrogen peroxide contributes to tissue regeneration efficiency during somatic embryogenesis of hexaploid winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Kamila) and organogenesis of faba bean (Vicia faba ssp. minor

  18. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 1, No 1 (1993)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vicine and Convicine: the Favic and Egg Weight Depressing Factors in Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) - A Review · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G Olaboro, 55-57 ...

  19. A comparison of different legume seeds as protein supplement to optimise the use of low quality forages by ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yánez-Ruiz, David R; Martin-Garcia, Antonio I; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    The potential of different legume seeds species, including recently new developed varieties (Vicia faba: a commercial variety and varieties Alameda, Palacio and Baraka; Lupinus angustifolius; Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum: varieties Fardon and Zegr ) as protein supplements to low quality...

  20. Symbiotic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... root nodule bacteria known as Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. ... nodules, as before by streaking on Yeast-extract mannitol agar medium ... Colony morphology was characterized on YEMA according to. (Ahmed et al.

  1. The geographical patterns of symbiont diversity in the invasive legume Mimosa pudica can be explained by the competitiveness of its symbionts and by the host genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, Rémy; Moulin, Lionel; Béna, Gilles; Tisseyre, Pierre; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Heulin, Karine; Rezkallah, Naïma; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Gonzalez, Sophie; Simon, Marcelo; Chen, Wen-Ming; James, Euan K; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2014-07-01

    Variations in the patterns of diversity of symbionts have been described worldwide on Mimosa pudica, a pan-tropical invasive species that interacts with both α and β-rhizobia. In this study, we investigated if symbiont competitiveness can explain these variations and the apparent prevalence of β- over α-rhizobia. We developed an indirect method to measure the proportion of nodulation against a GFP reference strain and tested its reproducibility and efficiency. We estimated the competitiveness of 54 strains belonging to four species of β-rhizobia and four of α-rhizobia, and the influence of the host genotype on their competitiveness. Our results were compared with biogeographical patterns of symbionts and host varieties. We found: (i) a strong strain effect on competitiveness largely explained by the rhizobial species, with Burkholderia phymatum being the most competitive species, followed by B. tuberum, whereas all other species shared similar and reduced levels of competitiveness; (ii) plant genotype can increase the competitiveness of Cupriavidus taiwanensis. The latter data support the likelihood of the strong adaptation of C. taiwanensis with the M. pudica var. unijuga and help explain its prevalence as a symbiont of this variety over Burkholderia species in some environments, most notably in Taiwan. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparative responses of river biofilms at the community level to common organic solvent and herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule, A; Roubeix, V; Swerhone, G D W; Roy, J; Lauga, B; Duran, R; Delmas, F; Paul, E; Rols, J L; Lawrence, J R

    2016-03-01

    Residual pesticides applied to crops migrate from agricultural lands to surface and ground waters. River biofilms are the first aquatic non-target organisms which interact with pesticides. Therefore, ecotoxicological experiments were performed at laboratory scale under controlled conditions to investigate the community-level responses of river biofilms to a chloroacetanilide herbicide (alachlor) and organic solvent (methanol) exposure through the development referenced to control. Triplicate rotating annular bioreactors, inoculated with river water, were used to cultivate river biofilms under the influence of 1 and 10 μg L(-1) of alachlor and 25 mg L(-1) of methanol. For this purpose, functional (thymidine incorporation and carbon utilization spectra) and structural responses of microbial communities were assessed after 5 weeks of development. Structural aspects included biomass (chlorophyll a, confocal laser scanning microscopy) and composition (fluor-conjugated lectin binding, molecular fingerprinting, and diatom species composition). The addition of alachlor resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial biomass at 1 μg L(-1), whereas at 10 μg L(-1), it induced a significant reduction of exopolymer lectin binding, algal, bacterial, and cyanobacterial biomass. However, there were no changes in biofilm thickness or thymidine incorporation. No significant difference between the bacterial community structures of control and alachlor-treated biofilms was revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses. However, the methanol-treated bacterial communities appeared different from control and alachlor-treated communities. Moreover, methanol treatment resulted in an increase of bacterial biomass and thymidine incorporation as well. Changes in dominant lectin binding suggested changes in the exopolymeric substances and community composition. Chlorophyll a and cyanobacterial biomass were also altered by methanol. This study suggested

  3. Suspected natural lysosomal storage disease from ingestion of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) in goats in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Elvio E; Cholich, Luciana A; Chileski, Gabriela; García, Enrique N; Lértora, Javier; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Guidi, María G; Mussart, Norma; Teibler, Gladys P

    2015-07-01

    This study describes an occurrence of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) intoxication in goats in northern Argentina. The clinical signs displayed by the affected animals were ataxia, lethargy, emaciation, hypertonia of the neck muscles, spastic paresis in the hind legs, abnormal postural reactions and death. The clinico-pathologic examination revealed that the affected animals were anemic and their serum level of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased. Cytoplasmic vacuolation in the Purkinje cells and pancreatic acinar cells was observed by histological examination. The neuronal lectin binding pattern showed a strong positive reaction to WGA (Triticum vulgaris), sWGA (succinylated T. vulgaris) and LCA (Lens culinaris). Although I. carnea is common in tropical regions, this is the first report of spontaneous poisoning in goats in Argentina.

  4. Conglutinin binds the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp 160 and inhibits its interaction with cell membrane CD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Sørensen, A M; Svehag, S E

    1991-01-01

    The highly glycosylated envelope glycoprotein (gp 160) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interacts with the CD4 molecule present on the membrane of CD4+ cells and is involved in the pathobiology of HIV infection. Lectins bind glycoproteins through non-covalent interactions with specific hexose...... residues. The mammalian C-type lectin bovine conglutinin was examined for its ability to interact with recombinant gp160 (rgp160) produced in vaccinia virus-infected BHK21 cells. Specific binding of conglutinin to rgp160 was demonstrated by ELISA. The interaction of bovine conglutinin with rgp160...... of the binding of rgp160 to the CD4 receptor on CEM 13 cells, as demonstrated by FACS analyses. These results indicate that conglutinin may inhibit the infection with HIV-1 through its interaction with the viral envelope glycoprotein....

  5. The role of carbohydrates in the radioimmunoassay of human low-molecular-mass kininogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpeinen, U.; Kaerkkaeinen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of human low-molecular-mass kininogen from Cohn plasma fraction IV was investigated after deglycosylations and carbohydrate modifications by radioimmunoassay using the conformation-specific antiserum. Removal of all sialic acids, 44% of amino sugars and 63% of neutral sugars did not alter the immunoreactivity of the protein but the periodate-treated concanavalin A fractions showed strikingly diminished immunoreactivity. A conformational change could account for the observed effect of periodate on the decreased reactivity of the protein in radioimmunoassay. Externally added carbohydrates had no effect on immunoreactivity. The results suggest that the carbohydrate part of kininogen is not involved in the immunoreactivity although it accounts for the observed lectin-binding heterogeneity. (Auth.)

  6. Lectin receptors in the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M J; Mannis, M J; Lund, J; Jacobs, L

    Five different biotin labeled lectins, Concanavalin-A (Con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA1), and soybean agglutinin (SBA) were used to study lectin receptors on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human corneas. Con A stained the cytoplasm, cell, and nuclear membranes of the epithelial cells and stained the stroma diffusely. WGA stained the superficial epithelial cells, the epithelial cell membranes, and the keratocytes of the stroma. SBA did not react with any of the corneal layers. RCA1 heavily stained the keratocytes but did not stain the epithelium. UEA1 lightly stained the epithelial cell cytoplasm and interstitial stroma. All staining reactions could be abolished by omission of the lectin or by the use of the appropriate inhibitory sugar. The lectin binding patterns reported here provide a means for further investigation of carbohydrate structures in the human cornea in both normal and disease states.

  7. Lectin histochemistry of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H J

    1983-10-01

    Lectins linked to fluorescein were used as carbohydrate probes to examine the goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell surface glycoconjugate alterations in an experimental rodent model of colonic neoplasia induced with parenteral 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Lectins derived from Triticum vulgare (WGA), Ricinus communis (RCA1), and Limulus polyphemus (LPA) showed reduced labeling of goblet cell mucin in these tumors, while binding with peanut lectin from Arachis hypogaea (PNA), a lectin ordinarily failing to bind to mucin in normal colon, was positive. In addition, RCA1 and LPA showed increased cell surface labeling of neoplastic epithelial cells. Finally, alterations were observed in lectin binding to "transitional" colonic mucosa adjacent to colonic tumors from carcinogen-treated rats. These findings indicate that significant alterations in both membrane and mucin glycoconjugates occur in colonic tumors and mucosa adjacent to tumors in a chemically induced experimental animal model of human colon cancer.

  8. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  9. Osteopontin adsorption to Gram-positive cells reduces adhesion forces and attachment to surfaces under flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M F; Zeng, G; Neu, T R

    2017-01-01

    caries or medical device-related infections. It further investigated if OPN's effect on adhesion is caused by blocking the accessibility of glycoconjugates on bacterial surfaces. Bacterial adhesion was determined in a shear-controlled flow cell system in the presence of different concentrations of OPN......The bovine milk protein osteopontin (OPN) may be an efficient means to prevent bacterial adhesion to dental tissues and control biofilm formation. This study sought to determine to what extent OPN impacts adhesion forces and surface attachment of different bacterial strains involved in dental......, and interaction forces of single bacteria were quantified using single-cell force spectroscopy before and after OPN exposure. Moreover, the study investigated OPN's effect on the accessibility of cell surface glycoconjugates through fluorescence lectin-binding analysis. OPN strongly affected bacterial adhesion...

  10. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......% of the total molecular weight, and the molar ratios of the individual sugars to protein of the O-linked glycans were determined. The glycan structures of MUC15 were further studied by enzymatic deglycosylation experiments using different endo- and exoglycosidases as well as a panel of lectins. The N......-linked glycans. By comparing the results of peanut agglutinin lectin binding, enzymatic deglycosylation, and monosaccharide composition analysis, we concluded that bovine MUC15 also contains more complex O-glycans containing high amounts N-acetylglucosamine residues. Furthermore, a small subset of the O...

  11. Lectin histochemistry of goblet cell sugar residues in the gut of the chick embryo and of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, S G; Sgambati, E; Gheri Bryk, G

    1999-04-01

    The anlage of duodenum, ileum and colon were removed from chick embryos of day 8-21 of incubation and from 1-day-old chicks. A battery of seven different horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, Con A, WGA, LTA and UEAI) was used to study the carbohydrate residues of the glycoconjugates in the goblet cells of the three parts of the intestine. The main results can be summarized as follows: differences in lectin binding were absent in the proximal and distal parts of the duodenum, ileum and colon. Lectin histochemistry showed differences among the three intestinal segments for the time of appearance of the oligosaccharides in the goblet mucus. In the colonic goblet cells of 1-day-old chicks, LTA and UEAI lectins showed two different types of linkage of alpha-L-fucose. This is the first demonstration of UEAI reactive sites in Gallus domesticus.

  12. Lectins in fish skin: do they play a role in host-monogenean interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, K

    2001-09-01

    Mucus samples from rainbow trout skin with or without infections by Gyrodactylus derjavini were tested for the presence of lectins reacting with mannose, galactose and lactose. The samples inhibited the binding of biotinylated lectins (from Canavalia ensiformis, Artocarpus integrifolia and Erythrina corallodendron, respectively) to microtitre plates with covalently bound carbohydrates (mannopyranoside, galactopyranoside and lactose, respectively). However, the inhibition of C. ensiformis and A. integrifolia lectins was slightly greater when mucus from infected (but recovering) fish was used, suggesting an increase of mannose and galactose binding lectins in fish skin exposed to parasites. As mannose, galactose and lactose are present on the glycocalyx of Gyrodactylus derjavini, it is suggested that lectins could play a dual role in interactions between fish hosts and their monogenean parasites. Thus, recognition between parasite and host and also host responses towards parasite infections could both, at least partly, involve carbohydrate-lectin binding.

  13. [Effect of thyroid hormones on the histotopography of lectin receptors in the rat salivary gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsik, A D; Iashchenko, A M; Detiuk, E S

    1987-04-01

    Using lectin-peroxidase technique, the influence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on histotopography of glycoconjugates has been investigated in rat submandibular gland. The following lectins were used: peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Laburnum anagyroides lectin (LAL) and concanavalin A (con A). It has been demonstrated that hyperthyroidism is accompanied by the loss of con A, WGA and LAL receptor sites. Hypothyrodism enhanced con A binding to granular duct cells with a parallel reduction in WGA and LAL binding to these or other duct cells. Hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism markedly enhanced PNA binding to duct epitheliocytes with redistribution of these lectin binding sites from the luminal surface of salivary ducts into the cytoplasm of duct cells. Possible interpretations of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  14. Preventing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum infections by anti-adhesion-active components of edible seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmaninov Ofra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to animal/human cells for infection establishment involves adhesive proteins, including its galactose- and fucose-binding lectins PA-IL (LecA and PA-IIL (LecB. The lectin binding to the target-cell receptors may be blocked by compatible glycans that compete with those of the receptors, functioning as anti-adhesion glycodecoys. The anti-adhesion treatment is of the utmost importance for abrogating devastating antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa infections in immunodeficient and cystic fibrosis (CF patients. This strategy functions in nature in protecting embryos and neonates. We have shown that PA-IL, PA-IIL, and also CV-IIL (a PA-IIL homolog produced in the related pathogen Chromobacterium violaceum are highly useful for revealing natural glycodecoys that surround embryos in diverse avian eggs and are supplied to neonates in milks and royal jelly. In the present study, these lectins were used as probes to search for seed embryo-protecting glycodecoys. Methods The lectin-blocking glycodecoy activities were shown by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Lectin-binding glycoproteins were detected by Western blotting with peroxidase-labeled lectins. Results The present work reports the finding - by using PA-IL, PA-IIL, and CV-IIL - of rich glycodecoy activities of low ( 10 kDa compounds (including glycoproteins in extracts of cashew, cocoa, coffee, pumpkin, and tomato seeds, resembling those of avian egg whites, mammal milks, and royal jelly. Conclusions Edible seed extracts possess lectin-blocking glycodecoys that might protect their embryos from infections and also might be useful for hampering human and animal infections.

  15. Characterizing the glycocalyx of poultry spermatozoa: I. Identification and distribution of carbohydrate residues using flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Jesús; Long, Julie A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to use a battery of lectins to 1) delineate the carbohydrate content of sperm glycocalyx in the turkey and chicken using flow cytometry analysis, and 2) evaluate the distribution of existing sugars over the sperm plasma membrane surface with epifluorescent microscopy. Carbohydrate groups (corresponding lectins) that were investigated included galactose (GS-I, Jacalin, RCA-I, PNA), glucose and/or mannose (Con A, PSA, GNA), N-acetyl-glucosamine (GS-II, s-WGA, STA), N-acetyl-galactosamine (SBA, WFA), fucose (Lotus, UEA-I), sialic acid (LFA, LPA), and N-acetyl-lactosamine (ECA). Spermatozoa were assessed before and after treatment with neuraminidase to remove sialic acid. Mean fluorescence intensity (MnFI) was used as indicator of lectin binding for flow cytometry analysis. Nontreated spermatozoa from both species showed high MnFI when incubated with RCA-I, Con A, LFA, and LPA, as did chicken spermatozoa incubated with s-WGA. Neuraminidase treatment increased the MnFI for most lectins except LFA and LPA, as expected. Differences in MnFI between species included higher values for s-WGA and ECA in chicken spermatozoa and for WFA in turkey spermatozoa. Microscopy revealed segregation of some sugar residues into membrane-specific domains; however, the 2 staining techniques (cell suspension vs fixed preparation) differed in identifying lectin binding patterns, with fixed preparations yielding a high degree of nonspecific binding. We conclude that 1) the glycocalyx of turkey and chicken spermatozoa contains a diversity of carbohydrate groups, 2) these residues are extensively masked by sialic acid, 3) the glycocalyx composition is species-specific, and 4) some glycoconjugates appear to be segregated into membrane-specific domains. Characterization of the poultry sperm glycocalyx is the first step in identifying the physiological impact of semen storage on sperm function.

  16. A 200 bp region of the pea ENOD12 promoter is sufficient for nodule-specific and nod factor induced expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Christiansen, H; Lauridsen, P

    1995-01-01

    previously described. The isolation and characterization of a PsENOD12A genomic clone is presented in this paper. By using a Vicia hirsuta-Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation system it is shown that both genes have a similar expression pattern in transgenic V. hirsuta root nodules. Promoter analyses...

  17. The effect of seed coat on the susceptibility of Faba bean to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve faba bean (Vicia faba L.) varieties were tested for their resistance to Kenyan and Indonesian strains of Callosobruchus chinensis under conditions of whole and decorticated seeds. It was evident that the seed coat acts as a barrier both to the penetration of the newly hatched larvae into the cotyledon and emergence ...

  18. The Effect of Designated Pollutants on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    aberration and mitotic inhibition induced by sodium fluoride and diethyl amine in root-tip cells of Allium cepa, A. sativum and Vicia faba, Egypt J...induced by sodium fluoride in Allium cepa root tip chromosomes, Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 8:241-244. Mohamed, A. H., J. D. Smith, and H. G. Applegate

  19. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  20. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality : with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional

  1. Effects of copper on mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, L

    1971-01-01

    The author deals with the effects of copper on mitosis. He found that a Cu concentration of 1 mg per liter is very toxic and strongly inhibits the course of mitosis in Vicia fabia. The effects of 0.5 mg and 0.25 mg Cu concentrations per liter were similar but a much weaker character.

  2. Effects of nano-TiO2 on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of nano-TiO2 on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO2 did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egigu, Meseret Chimdessa. Vol 10, No 2 (2016) - Articles Efficacy of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Extracts to Suppress Growth of Botrytis fabae and Manage Chocolate Spot Severity on Faba Bean (Vicia faba) at Sinana, Bale Zone, Southeastern Ethiopia Abstract. ISSN: 1992-0407. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  4. PLANT REMAINS FROM ASIKLI-HOYUK, A PRE-POTTERY NEOLITHIC SITE IN CENTRAL ANATOLIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANZEIST, W; DEROLLER, GJ

    Cereal crop plants at Asikli Hayuk included einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum), emmer wheat (T. dicoccum), free-threshing wheat (T. cf. durum), hulled two-rowed barley (Hordeum distichum) and naked barley (H. vulgare var. nudum). As for pulses, bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia), lentil (Lens culinaris)

  5. Of mice and men

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  6. Cover crop and nitrogen fertilization influence soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crop and N fertilization may maintain soil C and N levels under sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) biomass harvested for bioenergy production. The effect of cover crops (hairy vetch [Vicia villosa Roth], rye [Secaele cereale L.], hairy vetch/rye mixture, and the control [no cover crop...

  7. Effect of condensed tannins in hulls of faba beans (Vivia faba L.) on the activities of trypsin (EC 2.4.21.4) and chymotrypsin (EC 2.4.21.1) in digesta collected from the small intestine of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Enting, H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huisman, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of condensed tannins in hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on the activities of trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) and chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) in digesta obtained from the small intestine of pigs were studied. Using four castrated male pigs (mean body weight 83 kg) fitted with both a simple

  8. Benefits of Vetch and Rye Cover Crops to Sweet Corn under No-Tillage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Avila, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Alves, B.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Leguminous cover crops (CCs) may reduce N fertilizer requirements by fixing N biologically and storing leftover N-fertilizer applied in the previous year. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of CCs [rye (Secale cereal L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)] on plant N

  9. The use of reproductive vigor descriptors in studying genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of reproductive vigor descriptors in studying genetic variability in nine Tunisian faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) populations. ... The dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance of the 9 populations using UPGMA method, show some genetic drift between populations. Key words: Faba bean, agromorphological traits, ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein source for laying hens. Abstract PDF · Vol 42, No 1 (2012) - Articles The performance of broilers on a feed depends on the feed protein content given previously. Abstract PDF · Vol 42, No 4 (2012) - Articles Broiler breeders utilise body lipid as an energy ...

  11. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, aphids and ants: are there competition effects between plant and homopteran sugar sources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, V.; Fischer, M.D.; Wäckers, F.L.; Volkl, W.

    2001-01-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba), an annual plant bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFN) at the base of the upper leaves, is regularly infested by two aphid species, Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum. EFN and A. fabae are commonly attended by the ant, Lasius niger, while Ac. pisum usually remains uninfested.

  12. East African Journal of Sciences (2009) Volume 3 (1) 95-101 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traits in Faba Bean Genotypes Grown under Waterlogged Verisols. Gemechu Keneni* ... Seven faba bean variety trials consisting of 17-25 different genotypes each were conducted at ..... cool-season food legumes review conference, 16-20. December 1993 ... stability and thousand grain weight in Vicia faba. FABIS. 2: 20.

  13. Effect of environment on protein, mineral and fat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    BACKGROUND: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important high land pulse crops of ... on the protein, mineral and fat contents of advanced lines of faba bean genotypes grown .... proved essential in human nutrition (5). Faba bean ...

  14. Estimates of genetic variability in mutated populations and the scope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield per plant was noticed in mutants of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) – a self- fertilized crop. ... 2001), Triticum durum (Sakin & Yildirim 2004), Vicia faba (Ismail et al. 1977) ..... Desf.). Food, Agriculture and Environment 2(1): 285-290.

  15. East African Journal of Sciences - Vol 10, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Extracts to Suppress Growth of Botrytis fabae and Manage Chocolate Spot Severity on Faba Bean (Vicia faba) at Sinana, Bale Zone, Southeastern Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Addisu Tegegn ...

  16. Effect of imazapyr treated maize on Striga infestation and time of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... Falconer, D. S. (1989) Introduction to quantitative genetics, 3rd edition. Longman Scientific and. Technical Essex England. Garcia-Torres, L. and Lopez-Granados, F. (1991). Control of bromerape (Orobanche crenata. Forsk.) in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) with imadazolines and other herbicides. Weed. Res.

  17. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide ethion in root of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... In this study, the genotoxic effects of ethion were investigated in the mitotic cell division of Allium ... The use of plant root tips, particularly those of A. cepa and Vicia faba, as a bioassay test system for the genotoxicity of pesticides has shown extremely ..... the long run, even below the recommended dose.

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    (Vicia faba L.) collected from different fields in Qena, Upper Egypt. Effect of fungicides on cellulase enzymes. Equation pro and Kema zed fungicides were investigated for their effect on cellulaes and pectinase enzymes by the most active fungi for enzyme production. The chemical names, structural formula, active ingredient ...

  19. Symbiotic effectiveness of pea-rhizobia associations and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected strains were isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris L.) plants in the Loess Plateau of China. Analyses focused on the nodule number, nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, nitrogenase activity, total N accumulation of per plant and seed yield.

  20. ISSR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Mediterranean faba bean (Vicia faba L.) with ISSR markers. Field. Crops Res. 108: 39-44. Thimmappaiah WG, Santhosh D, Shobha, Melwyn GS (2008). Assessment of genetic diversity in cashew germplasm using RAPD and ISSR markers. Scientia Horticulturae. 11(022): 1-7. Veerle L, Isabel RR, Els C, De ...

  1. Effect of industrial wastewater ontotal protein and the peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of industrial wastewaters on protein and the peroxidase activity in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Capsicum annuum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vicia faba L. Industrial wastewaters were taken from Dardanel Fisheries Company, Tekel alcoholic drinks companies' ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vermicompost application as affected by Rhizobium inoculation on nodulation and yield of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.) Abstract PDF · Vol 28, No 1 (2018) - Articles Effect of inoculating Bradyrhizobium on phosphorus use efficiency and nutrient uptake of soybean in calcareous soil, central Rift Valley, Ethiopia Abstract PDF.

  3. Isolation of chromosomes from Picea abies L. and their analysis by flow cytometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Überall, I.; Vrána, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Šmerda, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Havel, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2004), s. 199-203 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Vicia faba * composite map Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2004

  4. Evaluation of pathogenic isolates in Ethiopia for the control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the earliest domesticated food legumes in Ethiopia and is now cultivated on large areas in many countries. Production of the crop is, however, constrained by several disease infections including fungal diseases. The objectives of this work was to find out natural prevalence of Bacillus ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 106 of 106 ... Vol 27, No 2 (2017), Vermicompost application as affected by Rhizobium inoculation on nodulation and yield of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.) Abstract PDF. Anteneh Argaw, Abere Mnalku. Vol 27, No 2 (2017), Vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate change in the central rift valley of Ethiopia: a ...

  6. evaluation of pathogenic isolates in ethiopia for the control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the earliest domesticated food legumes in Ethiopia and is now cultivated on large areas in many countries. Production of the crop is, however, constrained by several disease infections including fungal diseases. The objectives of this work was to find out natural prevalence of Bacillus ...

  7. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology - Vol 9 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional, eco-physiological and symbiotic characteristics of rhizobia nodulating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collected from acidic soils of Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. D Tsegaye, F Assefa, H Gebrekidan, G Keneni, 646-654.

  8. Molecular Reassessment Of Relationships Within Vicieae Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serologically, the legumins of V. faba and L. esculentum gave a total identity with P. sativum legumin antiserum under non-reducing conditions, whereas the ... et albumines des protéines des graines de petit pois (Pisum sativum), haricot (Vicia faba), lentille (Lens esculentum) et culin (Cicer arientinum) pour limiter les ...

  9. Health and Dietary Diversity in Yemen | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Review report : health and dietary diversity in Yemen; traditional Yemeni rural diets and local food systems: enhancing contributions to health and environment. Études. Estimation genetic variation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces in Yemen : a thesis. Rapports. Health and dietary diversity in Yemen : traditional Yemeni ...

  10. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 56 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of agromorphological diversity of southern Tunisia faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Yassine Yahia, Arbi Guetat, Walid Elfalleh, Ali Ferchichi, Hédi Yahia, Mohamed Loumerem, 11913-11924.

  11. The effect of water saturation deficit on the volume of intercellular space in laeves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume of intercellular spaces in leaves at various stages of water saturation was determined by method of Czerski (1964, 1968. The investigation were performed with the following plant species: Vicia faba L., Nicotiana tabacum L. var. rustica, Solarium tuberosum L. var. Flisak, Helichrysum bracteatum Wild., Bmssica napus L. var. oleifera, Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera.

  12. Biomass and nitrogen accumulation of hairy vetch-cereal rye cover crop mixtures as influenced by species proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance and suitability of a legume-grass cover crop mixture for specific functions may be influenced by the proportions of each species in the mixture. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate aboveground biomass and species biomass proportions at different hairy vetch (Vicia villo...

  13. Resistance source to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The present study evaluated the resistance of 7 varieties of the broad bean Vicia faba L. to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854. These landraces from the region of Biskra (in the south of Algeria) were selected in an initial field trial and subjected to further testing in the greenhouse. Landrace V51.

  14. Environmental, genetic and cellular toxicity of tenuazonic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternaria alternata, an important pathogen of many plants, produces tenuazonic acid (TeA) with bioactivity to microbes, plants and animals. TeA is one of the main mycotoxin to humans and other organisms. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Vicia faba root tip and three mammalian normal cell lines as target materials, ...

  15. A novel type of DNA-binding protein interacts with a conserved sequence in an early nodulin ENOD12 promoter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiansen, H.; Hansen, A.C.; Vijn, I.; Pallisgaard, N.; Larsen, K.; Yang, W.C.; Bisseling, T.; Marcker, K.A.; Jensen, E.O.

    1996-01-01

    The pea genes PsENOD12A and PsENOD12B are expressed in the root hairs shortly after infection with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae or after application of purified Nod factors. A 199 bp promoter fragment of the PsENOD12B gene contains sufficient information for Nod

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-05-25

    May 25, 2014 ... Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Strains Isolated from Faba Bean. Producing ... dietary protein to the majority of population in the country. Soil acidity ...... and nitrogenase activity of pea nodules as affected by low. pH and ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaboro, G. Vol 1, No 1 (1993) - Articles Methionine in Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter Diets and Bean Influence on Finishing Broilers Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 1 (1993) - Articles Vicine and Convicine: the Favic and Egg Weight Depressing Factors in Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) - A Review Abstract PDF.

  18. Antagonistic Effect of Native Bacillus Isolates against Black Root Rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in eastern Africa. Black root rot (Fusarium solani) is known to cause great yield losses in faba bean, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control ability of native Bacillus species on the basis of ...

  19. Dynamics of phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere of fababean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Li, Haigang; Leffelaar, P.A.; Shen, J.; Zhang, F.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of soil phosphorus (P) fractions were investigated, in the rhizosphere of fababean (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils. Plants were grown in a mini-rhizotron with a thin (3 mm) soil layer, which was in contact with the root-mat, and considered as

  20. Correlation between carbohydrate structures on the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and syncytium inhibition with lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C M; Nielsen, C

    1989-01-01

    The binding of 13 different lectins to gp120 partially purified from two HIV-1 isolates and one HIV-2 isolate was studied by in situ staining on electrophoretically separated and electroblotted HIV antigens. The lectins concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, Vicia faba...

  1. Assessment of multi-strain PGPRs biofertilization as compared to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sids 1, grown in clayey soil to inoculation with plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) such as cyanobacteria spp; Serratia sp; Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and Bacillus polymyxa either solely or in combinations in comparison to mineral N-fertilization, Full N-dose; 75 Kg N/fed. Results revealed the superiority ...

  2. Effects of nano-ZnO on the agronomically relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of nano-ZnO (nZnO) on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied with garden pea and its compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure of peas to nZnO had no impact on germination, but significantly affected root length. Chronic exposure of plant to nZnO impac...

  3. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  4. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, Bernard J; Chappell, Catherine A; Debo, Brian M; Meyn, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the glycome of cervical-vaginal fluid, collected with a Catamenial cup. We quantified: glycosidase levels; sialic acid and high mannose specific lectin binding; mucins, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7; and albumin in the samples collected. These data were analyzed in the context of hormonal status (day of menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception use) and role, if any, of the type of the vaginal microflora present. When the Nugent score was used to stratify the subjects by microflora as normal, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis, several important differences were observed. The activities of four of six glycosidases in the samples from women with bacterial vaginosis were significantly increased when compared to normal or intermediate women: sialidase, P = <0.001; α-galactosidase, P = 0.006; β-galactosidase, P = 0.005; α-glucosidase, P = 0.056. Sialic acid binding sites as measured by two lectins, Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra binding, were significantly lower in women with BV compared to women with normal and intermediate scores (P = <0.0001 and 0.008 respectively). High mannose binding sites, a measure of innate immunity were also significantly lower in women with BV (P = <0.001). Additionally, we observed significant increases in MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC7 concentrations in women with BV (P = <0.001, 0.001, <0.001, 0.02 respectively). Among normal women we found that the membrane bound mucin MUC4 and the secreted MUC5AC were decreased in postmenopausal women (P = 0.02 and 0.07 respectively), while MUC7 (secreted) was decreased in women using levonorgestrel-containing IUDs (P = 0.02). The number of sialic acid binding sites was lower in the postmenopausal group (P = 0.04), but the number of high mannose binding sites, measured with Griffithsin, was not significantly different among the 6 hormonal groups. The glycosidase levels in the cervical-vaginal mucus were rather low in the groups, with exception of α-glucosidase activity

  5. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J Moncla

    Full Text Available In this study, we characterized the glycome of cervical-vaginal fluid, collected with a Catamenial cup. We quantified: glycosidase levels; sialic acid and high mannose specific lectin binding; mucins, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7; and albumin in the samples collected. These data were analyzed in the context of hormonal status (day of menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception use and role, if any, of the type of the vaginal microflora present. When the Nugent score was used to stratify the subjects by microflora as normal, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis, several important differences were observed. The activities of four of six glycosidases in the samples from women with bacterial vaginosis were significantly increased when compared to normal or intermediate women: sialidase, P = <0.001; α-galactosidase, P = 0.006; β-galactosidase, P = 0.005; α-glucosidase, P = 0.056. Sialic acid binding sites as measured by two lectins, Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra binding, were significantly lower in women with BV compared to women with normal and intermediate scores (P = <0.0001 and 0.008 respectively. High mannose binding sites, a measure of innate immunity were also significantly lower in women with BV (P = <0.001. Additionally, we observed significant increases in MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC7 concentrations in women with BV (P = <0.001, 0.001, <0.001, 0.02 respectively. Among normal women we found that the membrane bound mucin MUC4 and the secreted MUC5AC were decreased in postmenopausal women (P = 0.02 and 0.07 respectively, while MUC7 (secreted was decreased in women using levonorgestrel-containing IUDs (P = 0.02. The number of sialic acid binding sites was lower in the postmenopausal group (P = 0.04, but the number of high mannose binding sites, measured with Griffithsin, was not significantly different among the 6 hormonal groups. The glycosidase levels in the cervical-vaginal mucus were rather low in the groups, with exception of

  6. Glycosylation differences contribute to distinct catalytic properties among bone alkaline phosphatase isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Magnusson, Per

    2009-11-01

    Three circulating human bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) isoforms (B1, B2, and B/I) can be distinguished in healthy individuals and a fourth isoform (B1x) has been discovered in patients with chronic kidney disease and in bone tissue. The present study was designed to correlate differing glycosylation patterns of each BALP isoform with their catalytic activity towards presumptive physiological substrates and to compare those properties with two recombinant isoforms of the tissue-nonspecific ALP (TNALP) isozyme, i.e., TNALP-flag, used extensively for mutation analysis of hypophosphatasia mutations and sALP-FcD(10), a chimeric enzyme recently used as therapeutic drug in a mouse model of infantile hypophosphatasia. The BALP isoforms were prepared from human osteosarcoma (SaOS-2) cells and the kinetic properties were evaluated using the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) at pH 7.4 and 9.8, and the three suggested endogenous physiological substrates, i.e., inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)), pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and phosphoethanolamine (PEA) at pH 7.4. Qualitative glycosylation differences were also assessed by lectin binding and precipitation. The k(cat)/K(M) was higher for B2 for all the investigated substrates. The catalytic activity towards PEA was essentially undetectable. The kinetic activity for TNALP-flag and sALP-FcD(10) was similar to the activity of the human BALP isoforms. The BALP isoforms differed in their lectin binding properties and dose-dependent lectin precipitation, which also demonstrated differences between native and denatured BALP isoforms. The observed differences in lectin specificity were attributed to N-linked carbohydrates. In conclusion, we demonstrate significantly different catalytic properties among the BALP isoforms due to structural differences in posttranslational glycosylation. Our data also suggests that PEA is not an endogenous substrate for the BALP isoforms or for the recombinant TNALP isoforms. The TNALP

  7. Influence of a reducing agent used to prepare radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m on the adhesive properties of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.M.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Hirata, R. Jr.; Moreira, L.O.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In this work we investigated the influence of stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) used in nuclear medicine as a reducing agent to prepare radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m, on the survival and adhesive properties of two toxigenic C. diphtheriae of the sucrose fermenting (241strain) and non fermenting (CDC-E8392 strain) biotypes. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains were submitted to survival and filamentation induction assays using different concentrations of SnCl 2 . The influence of SnCl 2 on the adhesive properties of C.diphtheriae were evaluated by bacterial autoaggregation, haemagglutination, adherence to glass surface and lectin-binding assays. Results: Differences in survival fractions suggested differences in susceptibility of microorganisms to bactericidal effect of stannous chloride. A percentage of 0.4% bacterial cells of no.241 strain and 0.04% of CDC-E8392 strain survived after 220 μl ml -1 SnCl 2 treatment. Results of both polystyrene and spontaneous autoaggregation tests showed an increase in the hydrophobic surface properties of C. diphtheriae strains. SnCl 2 induced spontaneous bacterial autoaggregation of sucrose fermenting 241 strain. SnCl 2 enhanced adherence to glass and totally inhibited the haemagglutinating activity of the non-sucrose fermenting strain CDC-E8392 strain (original titer=32). Decrease in haemagglutinatination was dependent on the concentration of SnCl 2 used. Lectin-binding assays demonstrated increase in the expression of cell surface receptors to lectin with affinity for molecules containing mannose residues after treatment with SnCl 2 . The presence of SnCl 2 induced differences in the expression of bacterial surface carbohydrates possibly related with differences in degrees of haemagglutination and adherence to glass of diphtheria bacilli. Conclusion: The presence of SnCl 2 may influence on the adhesive properties of bacterial pathogens. The occurrence of cell filamentation suggests a potential genotoxicity

  8. Sweet Polymers: Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) Glycopolymers by Reductive Amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, Maarten A; Effenberg, Christiane; Appelhans, Dietmar; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2016-12-12

    Carbohydrates are important in signaling, energy storage, and metabolism. Depending on their function, carbohydrates can be part of larger structures, such as glycoproteins, glycolipids, or other functionalities (glycoside). To this end, polymers can act as carriers of carbohydrates in so-called glycopolymers, which mimic the multivalent carbohydrate functionalities. We chose a biocompatible poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx) as the basis for making glycopolymers. Via the partial hydrolysis of PEtOx, a copolymer of PEtOx and polyethylenimine (PEI) was obtained; the subsequent reductive amination with the linear forms of glucose and maltose yielded the glycopolymers. The ratios of PEtOx and carbohydrates were varied systematically, and the solution behaviors of the resulting glycoconjugates are discussed. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that, depending on the carbohydrate ratio, the glycopolymers were either fully water-soluble or formed agglomerates in a temperature-dependent manner. Finally, these polymers were tested for their biological availability by studying their lectin binding ability with Concanavalin A.

  9. Glycans: bioactive signals decoded by lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2008-12-01

    The glycan part of cellular glycoconjugates affords a versatile means to build biochemical signals. These oligosaccharides have an exceptional talent in this respect. They surpass any other class of biomolecule in coding capacity within an oligomer (code word). Four structural factors account for this property: the potential for variability of linkage points, anomeric position and ring size as well as the aptitude for branching (first and second dimensions of the sugar code). Specific intermolecular recognition is favoured by abundant potential for hydrogen/co-ordination bonds and for C-H/pi-interactions. Fittingly, an array of protein folds has developed in evolution with the ability to select certain glycans from the natural diversity. The thermodynamics of this reaction profits from the occurrence of these ligands in only a few energetically favoured conformers, comparing favourably with highly flexible peptides (third dimension of the sugar code). Sequence, shape and local aspects of glycan presentation (e.g. multivalency) are key factors to regulate the avidity of lectin binding. At the level of cells, distinct glycan determinants, a result of enzymatic synthesis and dynamic remodelling, are being defined as biomarkers. Their presence gains a functional perspective by co-regulation of the cognate lectin as effector, for example in growth regulation. The way to tie sugar signal and lectin together is illustrated herein for two tumour model systems. In this sense, orchestration of glycan and lectin expression is an efficient means, with far-reaching relevance, to exploit the coding potential of oligosaccharides physiologically and medically.

  10. Changes in cell surface structure by viral transformation studied by binding of lectins differing in sugar specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, M; Kurokawa, T; Takeuchi, M; Sugino, Y

    1975-10-01

    Changes in cell surface structure by viral transformation were studied by examining changes in the binding of various lectins differing in carbohydrate specificities. Binding of lectins was assayed directly using cells grown in coverslips. The following 125I-lectins were used: Concanavalin-A (specific for glucose and mannose), wheat germ agglutinin (specific for N-acetylglucosamine), castor bean agglutinin (specific for galactose), Wistaria floribunda agglutinin (specific for N-acetylgalactosamine), and soybean agglutinin (specific for N-acetyl-galactosamine). Cells for a clone, SS7, transformed by bovine adenovirus type-3, were found to bind 5 to 6 times more Wistaria floribunda agglutinin than the normal counterpart cells (clone C31, from C3H mouse kidney). In contrast, the binding of soybean agglutinin, which has a sugar specificity similar to Wistaria floribunda agglutinin, to normal and transformed cells was similar. The binding of wheat germ agglutinin and castor bean agglutinin, respectively, to normal and transformed cells was also similar. However, normal cells bound twice as much concanavalin-A as transformed cells. Only half as much Wistaria floribunda agglutinin was bound to transformed cells when they had been dispersed with EDTA. These changes in the number of lectin binding sites on transformation are thought to reflect alteration of the cell surface structure. The amount of lectins bound per cell decreased with increase in cell density, especially in the case of binding of Wistaria floribunda agglutinin to normal cells.

  11. Honeycomb structured porous interfaces as templates for protein adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, J; Munoz-Bonilla, A; Ibarboure, E; Bordege, V; Fernandez-Garcia, M, E-mail: jrodriguez@ictp.csic.es

    2010-11-01

    We prepared breath figure patterns decorated with a statistical glycopolymer, (styrene-co-2-{l_brace}[(D-glucosamin-2-N-yl)carbonyl]oxy{r_brace}ethyl methacrylate, S-HEMAGl). The preparation of the glycopolymer occurs in one single step by using styrene and S-HEMAGl. Blends of this copolymer and high molecular weight polystyrene were spin coated from THF solutions leading to the formation of surfaces with both controlled functionality and topography. AFM studies revealed that both the composition of the blend and the relative humidity play a key role on the size and distribution of the pores at the interface. The porous films shows the hydrophilic glycomonomer units are oriented towards the pore interface since upon soft annealing in water, the holes are partially swelled. The self-organization of the glycopolymer within the pores was additionally confirmed both by reaction of carbohydrate hydroxyl groups with rhodamine-isocyanate and by means of the lectin binding test using Concanavalin A (Con A).

  12. Adenoid Reservoir for Pathogenic Biofilm Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistico, L.; Kreft, R.; Gieseke, A.; Coticchia, J. M.; Burrows, A.; Khampang, P.; Liu, Y.; Kerschner, J. E.; Post, J. C.; Lonergan, S.; Sampath, R.; Hu, F. Z.; Ehrlich, G. D.; Stoodley, P.; Hall-Stoodley, L.

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms of pathogenic bacteria are present on the middle ear mucosa of children with chronic otitis media (COM) and may contribute to the persistence of pathogens and the recalcitrance of COM to antibiotic treatment. Controlled studies indicate that adenoidectomy is effective in the treatment of COM, suggesting that the adenoids may act as a reservoir for COM pathogens. To investigate the bacterial community in the adenoid, samples were obtained from 35 children undergoing adenoidectomy for chronic OM or obstructive sleep apnea. We used a novel, culture-independent molecular diagnostic methodology, followed by confocal microscopy, to investigate the in situ distribution and organization of pathogens in the adenoids to determine whether pathogenic bacteria exhibited criteria characteristic of biofilms. The Ibis T5000 Universal Biosensor System was used to interrogate the extent of the microbial diversity within adenoid biopsy specimens. Using a suite of 16 broad-range bacterial primers, we demonstrated that adenoids from both diagnostic groups were colonized with polymicrobial biofilms. Haemophilus influenzae was present in more adenoids from the COM group (P = 0.005), but there was no significant difference between the two patient groups for Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, lectin binding, and the use of antibodies specific for host epithelial cells demonstrated that pathogens were aggregated, surrounded by a carbohydrate matrix, and localized on and within the epithelial cell surface, which is consistent with criteria for bacterial biofilms. PMID:21307211

  13. X irradiation of human epidermis in vitro. 2. Comparison of single 44 kV and 200 kV X irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollina, U; Fueller, J; Burger, B; Hipler, C

    1989-01-01

    On the example of the reduction of epidermal adhesion of FITC wheat germ agglutinine (WGA) the direct membrane effect of a single X irradiation (44 kV and 220 kV) was analyzed in vitro. Human normal skin and psoriasis centres were compared. Normal skin showed no alteration of microscopically visible FITC-WGA adhesion on epidermal cells over the whole dose range. Foci of psoriasis responded to doses of /ge/ 5 Gy (44 and 220 kV) with a drastic reduction of epidermal lectin binding to lower and medium cell layers. Maximum efficacy was with 5 Gy (44 kV) or 10 Gy (220 kV). A dose elevation up to 20 Gy did not result in an increase of efficacy. Topographically the radiosensitive FITC-WGA adhesion could chiefly be seen in the dermal ridges. The findings support the impression of an increased radiosensitivity of the lesional psoriatic epidermis compared with normal skin. This is connected with an abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes in psoriasis. (author).

  14. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Design and syntheses of mono and multivalent mannosyl-lipoconjugates for targeted liposomal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štimac, Adela; Cvitaš, Jelena TrmĿiĿ; Frkanec, Leo; Vugrek, Oliver; Frkanec, Ruža

    2016-09-10

    Multivalent mannosyl-lipoconjugates may be of interest for glycosylation of liposomes and targeted drug delivery because the mannose specifically binds to C-type lectin receptors on the particular cells. In this paper syntheses of two types of novel O-mannosides are presented. Conjugates 1 and 2 with a COOH- and NH2-functionalized spacer and the connection to a lysine and FmocNH-PEG-COOH, are described. The coupling reactions of prepared intermediates 6 and 4 with a PEGylated-DSPE or palmitic acid, respectively, are presented. Compounds 5, mono-, 8, di- and 12, tetravalent mannosyl-lipoconjugates, were synthesized. The synthesized compounds were incorporated into liposomes and liposomal preparations featuring exposed mannose units were characterized. Carbohydrate liposomal quartz crystal microbalance based assay has been established for studying carbohydrate-lectin binding. It was demonstrated that liposomes with incorporated mannosyl-lipoconjugates were effectively recognized by Con A and have great potential to be used for targeted liposomal drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyphal walls of isolated lichen fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galun, M.; Braun, A.; Frensdorff, A.; Galun, E.

    1976-01-01

    The hyphal walls of three mycobionts, isolated from the lichens Xanthoria parietina, Tornabenia intricata and Sarcogyne sp. were investigated by two techniques: microaudiography of fungal colonies exposed to radioactive carbohydrate precursors; and binding, in vivo, of fluorescein conjugated lectins to hyphal walls of such colonies. N-( 3 H) acetylglucosamine was readily incorporated into tips, young hyphal walls and septa of the three mycobionts and the free-living fungus Trichoderma viride, but not into Phytophthora citrophthora, indicating that chitin is a major component of the mycobionts' hyphal walls. All three mycobionts, but neither of the free-living fungi, incorporated ( 3 H) mannose and ( 3 H) mannitol into their hyphal walls. Fluorescein-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin was bound to the hyphal walls of the three mycobionts and T. viride, but not to the walls of P. citrophthora; the binding pattern was similar to the grain pattern obtained in audiographs after short N-( 3 H) acetylglucosamine labelling. As wheat germ agglutinin binds specifically to chitin oligomers, the lectin binding tests further confirmed that chitin is a mycobiont hyphal wall component. Binding characteristics of several fluorescein-conjugated lectins to the three mycobionts indicated that this technique can yield useful information concerning the chemical composition of hyphal wall surfaces. (orig./AJ) [de

  17. Identification of sporozoite surface proteins and antigens of Eimeria nieschulzi (Apicomplexa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilley, M.; Upton, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, lectin binding, and 125 I surface labeling of sporozoites were used to probe sporozoites of the rat coccidian, Eimeria nieschulzi. Analysis of silver stained gels revealed greater than 50 bands. Surface iodination revealed about 14 well labeled, and about 10 weakly labeled but potential, surface proteins. The most heavily labeled surface proteins had molecular masses of 60, 53-54, 45, 28, 23-24, 17, 15, 14, 13, and 12 kD. Following electrophoresis and Western blotting, 2 of the 12 125I labeled lectin probes bound to two bands on the blots, which collectively indicated that two bands were glycosylated. Concanavalin A (ConA) specifically recognized a band at 53 kD, which may represent a surface glycoprotein, and a lectin derived from Osage orange (MPA) bound to a single band at 82-88 kD, that may also be a surface molecule. Immunoblotting using sera collected from rats inoculated orally with oocysts, as well as sera from mice hyperimmunized with sporozoites, revealed that many surface molecules appear to be immunogenic

  18. Cytochemical localization of small intestinal glycoconjugates by lectin histochemistry in controls and subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, L R; De Fontes, D; Cox, K L

    1983-05-01

    Human mucosal glycoconjugates were examined in normal small intestinal biopsies from five control subjects using six different fluorescein-conjugated lectins: Triticum vulgare agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), glycin max-soy bean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichus biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and Arachis hypogaea peanut agglutinin (PNA). These plant agglutinins bind to specific nonreducing end-terminal carbohydrate residues. Only the lectins derived from WGA, which produced the strongest staining, and UEA1 consistently bound to both intestinal goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell microvillar membranes. The intensity of lectin binding was greatest in the upper villus and diminished down towards the crypt, being weakest in the crypt base. Similar histochemical studies carried out on small bowel biopsies from five patients with cystic fibrosis revealed no major qualitative differences between the intestinal glycoconjugates in normal subjects and those with cystic fibrosis. These results suggest that glycoconjugate biosynthesis of human intestinal goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell membranes may be complete and hence full differentiation achieved only when these cells have migrated out of the crypt and onto the villus.

  19. Integrated Microfluidic Lectin Barcode Platform for High-Performance Focused Glycomic Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuqin; Zeng, Yun; Zeng, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the key processes that play essential roles in biological functions and dysfunctions. However, progress in glycomics has considerably lagged behind genomics and proteomics, due in part to the enormous challenges in analysis of glycans. Here we present a new integrated and automated microfluidic lectin barcode platform to substantially improve the performance of lectin array for focused glycomic profiling. The chip design and flow control were optimized to promote the lectin-glycan binding kinetics and speed of lectin microarray. Moreover, we established an on-chip lectin assay which employs a very simple blocking method to effectively suppress the undesired background due to lectin binding of antibodies. Using this technology, we demonstrated focused differential profiling of tissue-specific glycosylation changes of a biomarker, CA125 protein purified from ovarian cancer cell line and different tissues from ovarian cancer patients in a fast, reproducible, and high-throughput fashion. Highly sensitive CA125 detection was also demonstrated with a detection limit much lower than the clinical cutoff value for cancer diagnosis. This microfluidic platform holds the potential to integrate with sample preparation functions to construct a fully integrated “sample-to-answer” microsystem for focused differential glycomic analysis. Thus, our technology should present a powerful tool in support of rapid advance in glycobiology and glyco-biomarker development.

  20. Hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis and melanization in the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus following immune challenge by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F; Schmidt, Shelley L; Christensen, Bruce M

    2003-07-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of disease. These insects respond to invading organisms with strong cellular and humoral immune responses that share many similarities with vertebrate immune systems. The strength and specificity of these responses are directly correlated to a mosquito's ability to transmit disease. In the current study, we characterized the hemocytes (blood cells) of Armigeres subalbatus by morphology (ultrastructure), lectin binding, enzyme activity, immunocytochemistry, and function. We found four hemocyte types: granulocytes, oenocytoids, adipohemocytes, and thrombocytoids. Granulocytes contained acid phosphatase activity and bound the exogenous lectins Helix pomatia agglutinin, Galanthus nivalis lectin, and wheat germ agglutinin. Following bacteria inoculation, granulocytes mounted a strong phagocytic response as early as 5 min postexposure. Bacteria also elicited a hemocyte-mediated melanization response. Phenoloxidase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the melanization pathway, was present exclusively in oenocytoids and in many of the melanotic capsules enveloping bacteria. The immune responses mounted against different bacteria were not identical; gram(-) Escherichia coli were predominantly phagocytosed and gram(+) Micrococcus luteus were melanized. These studies implicate hemocytes as the primary line of defense against bacteria.

  1. [Separation of osteoclasts by lectin affinity chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokazu, M; Tan, A; Tanaka, S

    1991-09-01

    Newborn rat calvaria bone cells obtained by digestion were fractionated on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) sepharose 6MB for osteoclast isolation. The initial nonspecific binding cells which were passed through the WGA sepharose column by a buffer acquired a high enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, but not that of acid phosphatase. However, elution of cells using a buffer with the addition of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in a high acid phosphatase activity but no alkaline phosphatase activity. The former WGA binding negative fraction enriched osteoblasts averaging 30 microns in size. The latter WGA binding positive fraction enriched osteoclasts ranging from 20 microns to 60 microns in size. The electron-microscope clearly demonstrated the cellular details of osteoclasts. Isolated cell counts showed a ratio of six to four. These results indicate that our method of osteoclast isolation is simple and useful in lectin affinity chromatography because all cells have sugar moieties on their surface and the binding of osteoclasts can be reversed by the addition of specific lectin-binding sugars to the eluting buffer.

  2. Lectin histochemistry and alkaline phosphatase activity in the pia mater vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumańska, G; Gadamski, R

    1992-01-01

    Some lectins were used to study the localization of sugar residues on the endothelial cell surface in the pia mater blood vessels of control (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR). The lectins tested recognized the following residues: beta-D-galactosyl (Ricinus communis agglutinin 120, RCA-1), alpha-L-fucosyl (Ulex europaeus agglutinin, UEA-1), N-acetylglucosaminyl and sialyl (Wheat germ agglutinin, WGA), N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (Limax flavus agglutinin, LFA), and N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl (Helix pomatia agglutinin, HPA). Several differences were revealed in the presence of sugar receptors on the surface of endothelial cells between the control and the hypertensive rats. Our studies showed also differences in the localization of the tested glycoconjugates between pial capillaries, small, medium-size and large pial arteries. The histochemical evaluation of alkaline phosphatase revealed an increased activity of the enzyme in the pial vessels of SHRs as compared with control rats with a similar localization of the enzyme activity. Some differences in the distribution of lectin binding sites and alkaline phosphatase activity could be associated with the different functions of particular segments of the pial vascular network.

  3. Role of integrin-linked kinase for functional capacity of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Christian; Boehm, Michael; Friedrich, Erik B.

    2008-01-01

    Number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are down-regulated in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a signal and adaptor protein that regulates survival of mature endothelial cells and vascular development. Here we show that EPC dysfunction in patients with CAD is paralleled by down-regulation of ILK while restoration of ILK expression rescues the migratory defect of CAD-EPCs. Human EPCs transduced with dominant-negative ILK (DN-ILK) display significantly reduced expression of CD34 + /VEGFR-2 + , DiI-Ac-LDL uptake, and Ulex europaeus lectin binding. Mechanistically, DN-ILK-transfected EPCs are characterized by decreased proliferation, while proliferation is increased in wild-type ILK-transfected EPCs. These effects are paralleled by changes in cyclin D1 expression, colony forming units, and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Functionally, ILK is necessary and sufficient for SDF-1-triggered migration and adhesion in EPCs. These data extend current knowledge about the role of ILK in EPC biology and implicate ILK as a therapeutic target in CAD.

  4. Effect of the lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) on the alpha-amylase secretion of rat pancreas in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkat, U; Damm, I; Schröder, G; Schmidt, K; Wirth, C; Weber, H; Jonas, L

    1998-05-01

    Lectins are able to bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors and other glycosylated membrane proteins. The lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) are used for affinity chromatography to isolate the highly glycosylated CCK-A receptor of pancreatic acinar cells. According to the working hypothesis that lectin binding to the CCK receptor should alter the ligand-receptor interaction, the effect of WGA and UEA-I on CCK-8-induced enzyme secretion was studied on isolated rat pancreatic acini in vitro. In vitro both lectins showed a dosage-dependent inhibition of CCK-8-induced alpha-amylase secretion of acini over 60 min. WGA showed a strong inhibitory effect on amylase secretion, approximately 40%, in vitro. UEA-I caused a smaller, but significant decrease, approximately 20%, in enzyme secretion of isolated acini. Additionally, both lectins inhibited cerulein/secretin- or cerulein-induced pancreatic secretion of rats in vivo, but not after secretin alone. The results are discussed with respect to a possible influence of both lectins on the interaction of CCK or cerulein with the CCK-A receptor.

  5. Targeting the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Cell Wall Using Lectins: Study of the Carbohydrate-Binding Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella de Brito Ximenes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is considered to be the major cause of cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed patients. Understanding cell wall glycoproteins using lectins is of medical interest and can contribute to specific therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the carbohydrates on the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii clinical isolates, using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin binding protocol. Thirty yeast strains stocked in the culture collection were cultivated for 2 days at 30 °C with shaking. Cells were obtained by centrifugation, washed in phosphate-buffered saline, and a suspension of 107 cells/mL was obtained. To determine the binding profile of lectins, concanavalin A (Con A, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, and peanut agglutinin (PNA conjugated to fluorescein were used. All the tested clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii were intensely stained by WGA, moderately stained by Con A, and weakly stained by PNA and UEA-I. Thus, Cryptococcus can be detected in clinical specimens such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid using the fluorescent lectin WGA, which may be considered as an option for detection in cases of suspected cryptococcosis with low laboratory sensitivity. Future applications may be developed using this basic tool.

  6. Carbohydrate specificity of lectin, purified from the fruiting bodies of Mycena pura /Fr./ Kumm. and its use in histochemical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarova N. O.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this investigation was to research carbohydrate specificity of a new lectin from fruiting body of Mycena pura and possibilities of its application in histochemical studies. Methods. The lectin has been purified by affinity chromatography on «îvomucine». The lectin carbohydrate specificity has been determined by a reaction of inhibiting haemagglutination by haptens. Histological materials were fixed in 4 % neutral formalin solution. Alkaline phosphatase was revealed in the cryostat unfixed microscopical sections. Results. The lectin yield from fresh fruit bodies of raw material was 9 mg/kg. Mol. mass of the lectin is 40 kDa. The lectin poorly interacted with D-glucose and D-mannose in contrast to lectins from Pisum sativum and Leucojum vernum. The peculiarity of this lectin is its strong interaction with alkaline phosphatase, the highest among twenty tested lectins. However, the receptors for Mycena lectin binding in mammalian tissues are not limited by this enzyme being presented also by glycoconjugates of another structure, as it was shown for fetus calf small intestine and kidney of rat. Conclusions. An important role in the lectin interaction with glycoproteins probably belongs to the disaccharide links of GlcNAcb(1-2Mana(1-6 or GlcNAcb(1- 2Mana(1-2, which not necessarily are terminal

  7. Sugar residues content and distribution in atrophic and hyperplastic postmenopausal human endometrium: lectin histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, G; Bryk, S G; Taddei, G; Moncini, D; Noci, I

    1996-10-01

    A lectin histochemical study was performed to investigate the glycoconjugate saccharidic moieties of the human postmenopausal endometrium (14 atrophic and 15 hyperplastic). For this purpose a battery of seven horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEA I) was used. No differences in lectin binding between atrophic and hyperplastic endometria were observed. This investigation allowed us to provide a basic picture of the oligosaccharidic distribution in postmenopausal endometria. The data on the saccharidic distribution at the postmenopausal endometria showed a large amount of sugar residues at all the investigated sites, i.e. the lining and glandular epithelium, the stroma and the vessels (capillary and large vessels). Furthermore, at the endometrial lining epithelium, at the glands and at the wall of the blood vessels of some postmenopausal women the presence of alpha-L-fucosyl residues which bind via alpha (1-6) linkage to penultimate glucosaminyl residues and/or difucosylated oligosaccharides was demonstrated for the first time.

  8. The distribution of lectin receptor sites in human breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutelsky, E; Hoenig, S; Griffel, B; Alroy, J

    1988-08-01

    Conflicting data regarding the status of A, B, H and T antigens in epithelium of normal, mastopathies, fibroadenomas and carcinomas of the breast stimulated us to re-examine the carbohydrate residues in these condition. Currently, we extended the number of carbohydrate residues studied by using ten different biotinylated lectins as probes and avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) as a visualant. In addition, the pattern of lectin staining of cancerous cells in primary and metastatic sites was compared. In primary and metastatic breast carcinomas, lectin receptor sites were stained more intensely with Concanavalia ensiformi agglutinin (*Con A), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), than in normal breast, in mastopathies or in fibroadenomas. Cryptic receptor sites for peanut agglutinin (PNA) were stained in all cases of breast carcinomas, while free PNA sites stained only in a few cases of well-differentiated carcinomas. Receptors sites for Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) stained non-malignant epithelium of patients with blood group H but did not stain malignant cells. The results show significant differences in lectin-binding patterns and staining intensities between normal and non-malignant, and malignant epithelial breast cells. Furthermore, these results indicate that in malignant cells, there is an increased content of sialic acid-rich carbohydrates but not of asialylated glycoconjugates.

  9. X irradiation of human epidermis in vitro. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollina, U.; Fueller, J.; Burger, B.; Hipler, C.; Jena Univ.

    1989-01-01

    On the example of the reduction of epidermal adhesion of FITC wheat germ agglutinine (WGA) the direct membrane effect of a single X irradiation (44 kV and 220 kV) was analyzed in vitro. Human normal skin and psoriasis centres were compared. Normal skin showed no alteration of microscopically visible FITC-WGA adhesion on epidermal cells over the whole dose range. Foci of psoriasis responded to doses of ≥ 5 Gy (44 and 220 kV) with a drastic reduction of epidermal lectin binding to lower and medium cell layers. Maximum efficacy was with 5 Gy (44 kV) or 10 Gy (220 kV). A dose elevation up to 20 Gy did not result in an increase of efficacy. Topographically the radiosensitive FITC-WGA adhesion could chiefly be seen in the dermal ridges. The findings support the impression of an increased radiosensitivity of the lesional psoriatic epidermis compared with normal skin. This is connected with an abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes in psoriasis. (author)

  10. Capture of cell culture-derived influenza virus by lectins: strain independent, but host cell dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Lars; Zimmermann, Anke; Lehmann, Sylvia; Genzel, Yvonne; Lübben, Holger; Reichl, Udo; Wolff, Michael W

    2008-12-01

    Strategies to control influenza outbreaks are focused mainly on prophylactic vaccination. Human influenza vaccines are trivalent blends of different virus subtypes. Therefore and due to frequent antigenic drifts, strain independent manufacturing processes are required for vaccine production. This study verifies the strain independency of a capture method based on Euonymus europaeus lectin-affinity chromatography (EEL-AC) for downstream processing of influenza viruses under various culture conditions propagated in MDCK cells. A comprehensive lectin binding screening was conducted for two influenza virus types from the season 2007/2008 (A/Wisconsin/67/2005, B/Malaysia/2506/2004) including a comparison of virus-lectin interaction by surface plasmon resonance technology. EEL-AC resulted in a reproducible high product recovery rate and a high degree of contaminant removal in the case of both MDCK cell-derived influenza virus types demonstrating clearly the general applicability of EEL-AC. In addition, host cell dependency of EEL-AC was studied with two industrial relevant cell lines: Vero and MDCK cells. However, the choice of the host cell lines is known to lead to different product glycosylation profiles. Hence, altered lectin specificities have been observed between the two cell lines, requiring process adaptations between different influenza vaccine production systems.

  11. Differential effect on TCR:CD3 stimulation of a 90-kD glycoprotein (gp90/Mac-2BP), a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain protein family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestri, B; Calderazzo, F; Coppola, V

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effects of a 90-kD glycoprotein (gp90/Mac-2BP) belonging to the scavenger receptor family, present in normal serum and at increased levels in inflammatory disease and cancer patients, on some T cell function parameters. Whereas the lymphocyte proliferative response to non-specific ......We studied the effects of a 90-kD glycoprotein (gp90/Mac-2BP) belonging to the scavenger receptor family, present in normal serum and at increased levels in inflammatory disease and cancer patients, on some T cell function parameters. Whereas the lymphocyte proliferative response to non......-specific mitogens such as phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A), but not pokeweed mitogen (PWM), was strongly reduced, probably due to the lectin-binding properties of gp90/Mac-2BP, the response to T cell receptor (TCR) agonists such as superantigens and allogeneic cells was potentiated. When...... lymphocytes were stimulated with different anti-TCR:CD3 MoAbs, both in soluble and solid-phase form, gp90/Mac-2BP was able to down-regulate the proliferative response to anti-CD3 MoAb, whereas the response to anti-TCR alphabeta MoAb was enhanced. A similar differential effect was observed when a MoAb against...

  12. Global identification of prokaryotic glycoproteins based on an Escherichia coli proteome microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Xiu Wang

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most abundant protein posttranslational modifications. Protein glycosylation plays important roles not only in eukaryotes but also in prokaryotes. To further understand the roles of protein glycosylation in prokaryotes, we developed a lectin binding assay to screen glycoproteins on an Escherichia coli proteome microarray containing 4,256 affinity-purified E.coli proteins. Twenty-three E.coli proteins that bound Wheat-Germ Agglutinin (WGA were identified. PANTHER protein classification analysis showed that these glycoprotein candidates were highly enriched in metabolic process and catalytic activity classes. One sub-network centered on deoxyribonuclease I (sbcB was identified. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that prokaryotic protein glycosylation may play roles in nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism. Fifteen of the 23 glycoprotein candidates were validated by lectin (WGA staining, thereby increasing the number of validated E. coli glycoproteins from 3 to 18. By cataloguing glycoproteins in E.coli, our study greatly extends our understanding of protein glycosylation in prokaryotes.

  13. Characterization of Cell Surface and EPS Remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis-like 1 Signal Transduction Pathway mutants by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, Amanda N [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Bible, Amber [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alexandre, Gladys [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must quickly sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the modulation of multiple cellular responses, including motility, EPS production, and cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from Azospirillum brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation. In A. brasilense, cell surface properties, including EPS production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have detected distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains that are absent in the wild type strain. Whereas the wild type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition and lectin-binding assays suggest that the composition of EPS components in the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that mutations in the Che1 pathway that result in increased flocculation are correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix structure produced by the mutants, including likely changes in the EPS structure and/or composition.

  14. Sialoglycoproteins in morphological distinct stages of Mucor polymorphosporus and their influence on phagocytosis by human blood phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Travassos, Luiz R; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2013-10-01

    The possible role of sialic acids in host cells-fungi interaction and their association with glycoproteins were evaluated using a clinical isolate of the dimorphic fungus Mucor polymorphosporus. Lectin-binding assays with spores and yeast cells denoted the presence of surface sialoglycoconjugates containing 2,3- and 2,6-linked sialylglycosyl groups. Western blotting with peroxidase-labeled Limulus polyphemus agglutinin revealed the occurrence of different sialoglycoprotein types in both cell lysates and cell wall protein extracts of mycelia, spores, and yeasts of M. polymorphosporus. Sialic acids contributed to the surface negative charge of spores and yeast forms as evaluated by adherence to a cationic substrate. Sialidase-treated spores were less resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils and monocytes from healthy individuals than control (untreated) fungal suspensions. The results suggest that sialic acids are terminal units of various glycoproteins of M. polymorphosporus, contributing to negative charge of yeasts and spore cells and protecting infectious propagules from destruction by host cells.

  15. Combinatorial chemoenzymatic synthesis and high-throughput screening of sialosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhawala, Harshal A; Huang, Shengshu; Lau, Kam; Yu, Hai; Cheng, Jiansong; Thon, Vireak; Hurtado-Ziola, Nancy; Guerrero, Juan A; Varki, Ajit; Chen, Xi

    2008-09-19

    Although the vital roles of structures containing sialic acid in biomolecular recognition are well documented, limited information is available on how sialic acid structural modifications, sialyl linkages, and the underlying glycan structures affect the binding or the activity of sialic acid-recognizing proteins and related downstream biological processes. A novel combinatorial chemoenzymatic method has been developed for the highly efficient synthesis of biotinylated sialosides containing different sialic acid structures and different underlying glycans in 96-well plates from biotinylated sialyltransferase acceptors and sialic acid precursors. By transferring the reaction mixtures to NeutrAvidin-coated plates and assaying for the yields of enzymatic reactions using lectins recognizing sialyltransferase acceptors but not the sialylated products, the biotinylated sialoside products can be directly used, without purification, for high-throughput screening to quickly identify the ligand specificity of sialic acid-binding proteins. For a proof-of-principle experiment, 72 biotinylated alpha2,6-linked sialosides were synthesized in 96-well plates from 4 biotinylated sialyltransferase acceptors and 18 sialic acid precursors using a one-pot three-enzyme system. High-throughput screening assays performed in NeutrAvidin-coated microtiter plates show that whereas Sambucus nigra Lectin binds to alpha2,6-linked sialosides with high promiscuity, human Siglec-2 (CD22) is highly selective for a number of sialic acid structures and the underlying glycans in its sialoside ligands.

  16. Technical Report for DE-FG02-03ER46029 Sugar-Coated PPEs, Novel Nanomaterials and Sensing Modules for Disease and Bioterrorism Related Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwe Bunz

    2003-08-27

    The detection and sensing of biological warfare agents (Ricin, Anthrax toxin), of disease agents (cholera, botulinum and tetanus toxins, influenza virus etc) and of biologically active species is important for national security and disease control. A premiere goal would be the simple colorimetric or fluorimetric detection of such toxins by a dipstick test. It would be desirable to sense 5,000-10,000 toxin molecules, i.e. 10-100 fg of a toxin contained 1-5 mL of sample. Fluorescent conjugated polymers should be particularly interesting in this regard, because they can carry multiple identical and/or different recognition units. Such an approach is particularly valuable for the detection of lectin toxins, because these bind to oligomeric carbohydrate displays. Lectins bind multivalently to sugars, i.e. several covalently connected sugar moieties have to be exposed to the lectin at the same time to obtain binding. The requirement of multivalency of the lectin-sugar interactions should allow a very sensitive detection of lectins with sugar coated conjugated polymers in an agglutination type assay, where the fluorescence of the PPEs disappears upon binding to the lectins. High molecular weights of the used PPEs would mean high sensitivity. Herein we present our progress towards that goal up to date.

  17. Application of Lectin Array Technology for Biobetter Characterization: Its Correlation with FcγRIII Binding and ADCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Roucka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lectin microarray technology was applied to compare the glycosylation pattern of the monoclonal antibody MB311 expressed in SP2.0 cells to an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic effector function (ADCC-optimized variant (MB314. MB314 was generated by a plant expression system that uses genetically modified moss protoplasts (Physcomitrella patens to generate a de-fucosylated version of MB311. In contrast to MB311, no or very low interactions of MB314 with lectins Aspergillus oryzae l-fucose (AOL, Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA, Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA, and Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL were observed. These lectins are specific for mono-/biantennary N-glycans containing a core fucose residue. Importantly, this fucose indicative lectin-binding pattern correlated with increased MB314 binding to CD16 (FcγRIII; receptor for the constant region of an antibody—whose affinity is mediated through core fucosylation—and stronger ADCC. In summary, these results demonstrate that lectin microarrays are useful orthogonal methods during antibody development and for characterization.

  18. Glyco-centric lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA − proteomics dataset of human serum samples from healthy, Barrett׳s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok K. Shah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification datasets generated using lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA – mass spectrometry techniques, “Serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification pipeline reveals novel diagnostic biomarker candidates for esophageal adenocarcinoma” [1]. Serum samples collected from healthy, metaplastic Barrett׳s esophagus (BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC individuals were profiled for glycoprotein subsets via differential lectin binding. The biomarker discovery proteomics dataset consisting of 20 individual lectin pull-downs for 29 serum samples with a spiked-in internal standard chicken ovalbumin protein has been deposited in the PRIDE partner repository of the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PRIDE: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002442. Annotated MS/MS spectra for the peptide identifications can be viewed using MS-Viewer (〈http://prospector2.ucsf.edu/prospector/cgi-bin/msform.cgi?form=msviewer〉 using search key “jn7qafftux”. The qualification dataset contained 6-lectin pulldown-coupled multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS data for 41 protein candidates, from 60 serum samples. This dataset is available as a supplemental files with the original publication [1].

  19. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amanda Nicole; Siuti, Piro; Bible, Amber N; Alexandre, Gladys; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition. FEMS Microbiology Letters © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  20. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition.

  1. Scaling down the size and increasing the throughput of glycosyltransferase assays: activity changes on stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shilpa A; Chandrasekaran, E V; Matta, Khushi L; Parikh, Abhirath; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2012-06-15

    Glycosyltransferases (glycoTs) catalyze the transfer of monosaccharides from nucleotide-sugars to carbohydrate-, lipid-, and protein-based acceptors. We examined strategies to scale down and increase the throughput of glycoT enzymatic assays because traditional methods require large reaction volumes and complex chromatography. Approaches tested used (i) microarray pin printing, an appropriate method when glycoT activity was high; (ii) microwells and microcentrifuge tubes, a suitable method for studies with cell lysates when enzyme activity was moderate; and (iii) C(18) pipette tips and solvent extraction, a method that enriched reaction product when the extent of reaction was low. In all cases, reverse-phase thin layer chromatography (RP-TLC) coupled with phosphorimaging quantified the reaction rate. Studies with mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) demonstrated an increase in overall β(1,3)galactosyltransferase and α(2,3)sialyltransferase activity and a decrease in α(1,3)fucosyltransferases when these cells differentiate toward cardiomyocytes. Enzymatic and lectin binding data suggest a transition from Lewis(x)-type structures in mESCs to sialylated Galβ1,3GalNAc-type glycans on differentiation, with more prominent changes in enzyme activity occurring at later stages when embryoid bodies differentiated toward cardiomyocytes. Overall, simple, rapid, quantitative, and scalable glycoT activity analysis methods are presented. These use a range of natural and synthetic acceptors for the analysis of complex biological specimens that have limited availability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenotypic and functional characterization of earthworm coelomocyte subsets: Linking light scatter-based cell typing and imaging of the sorted populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Péter; Hayashi, Yuya; Bodó, Kornélia; Ernszt, Dávid; Somogyi, Ildikó; Steib, Anita; Orbán, József; Pollák, Edit; Nyitrai, Miklós; Németh, Péter; Molnár, László

    2016-12-01

    Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes and eleocytes) can be physically isolated with good sort efficiency and purity confirmed by downstream morphological and cytochemical applications. Immunocytochemical analysis using anti-EFCC monoclonal antibodies combined with phalloidin staining has revealed antigenically distinct, sorted subsets. Screening of lectin binding capacity indicated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) as the strongest reactor to amoebocytes. This is further evidenced by WGA inhibition assays that suggest high abundance of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine in amoebocytes. Post-sort phagocytosis assays confirmed the functional differences between amoebocytes and eleocytes, with the former being in favor of bacterial engulfment. This study has proved successful in linking flow cytometry and microscopy analysis and provides further experimental evidence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in earthworm coelomocyte subsets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anzeichen einer linearen dosis-effekt beziehung bei sehr kleinen bestrahlungsdosen

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, I.

    1980-01-01

    Zur Aufstellung einer Strahlungsdosis - Effekt - Kurve bei kleinen Dosen wurde der Mikrokerntest verwendet, da er relativ einfach und gleich- zeitig sehr empfindlich ist. Die Bohne Vicia Faba (Fillbasket) wurde mit 60Co Gammastrahlen und mit hochenergetischen Neutronen bestrahlt. Die Neutronen wurden von 600 MeV Protonen, die auf ein Be—Target auftrafen produziert und unter einem Winkel von 0 Grad extrahiert. Informationen fiber Dosimetrie und Eigenschaften der verwandeten Strahlung wurder bereits an anderer Stelle beschriebenl) des gleichen auch Einzelheiten fiber die Aufzucht der BORE Vicia Fabaz). Nach der Bestrahlung wurden jeweils 5 Bohnen zu bestimmten Zeitpunkten fixiert und danach die Prfiparate herge— stellt. Pro Préparat wurden 1000 Zellen ausgewertet.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  5. Radioactive stimulated mutagenesis for a higher crop yield - past and present examples from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micieta, K.; Murin, G.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation resistance of Vicia faba L. seeds was studied in this paper. Germination of seeds as well as vitality, cytological evaluation and frequency of chromosomal aberrations for Vicia faba L. seeds sets was also evaluated. The experiment did not show any significant differences between time of seed storage and doses of a radiation. On the other hand tendency of improvement in vitality from oldest to youngest seed sets and from lowest to highest doses of a radiation was more uniform. The wide variety of particular results still made most of comparisons between doses inside of a particular seed set insignificant. We may confirm that with younger seeds sets their vitality improved clearly up to a control level.

  6. The Natural and Cultural Environmental Resources of the Aquilla Creek Watershed, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-11-01

    Vernonia baldwinii Torr. Western Ironweed Viburnum rufidulum Raf. Black Haw Vicia dasycarpa Ten. Winter (Wooly-pod) Vetch Vitex agnus -castus L. Chaste-tree... DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered In...Bacteria. 207 Table 45. Macrobenthos. 208 Table 46. Turbidity. 209 Table 47. Relative Transparency. 209 Table 48. Distribution of invertebrates in

  7. Ruminal degradability and carbohydrates and proteins fractioning of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbieris Junior, Valter Harry; Jobim, Cloves Cabreira; Emile, Jean Claude; Rossi, Robson; Calixto Junior, Moyses; Branco, Antonio Ferriani

    2011-01-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the ruminal degradability, and the fractioning of carbohydrates, as well as of the nitrogen fractions of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The treatments had been: triticale silage (X. Triticosecale Wittimack) (ST); triticale silage + forage pea (Pisum arvense) (STE); triticale silage + oats (Avena strigosa Scheb) + forage pea + vetch (Vicia sativa) (STAE). Three castrated bovine Prim’Holstein males had been used, with aver...

  8. Radiobiological work using a negative pion beam at the Rutherford Laboratory 1971-76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.E.; Lindop, P.J.; Coggle, J.E.; Fraser, G.

    1976-08-01

    The subject is discussed in two sections: physics experiments (including, inter alia, dose measurement, LET distribution, radiation products of spallation); radiobiological studies (including separate reports as follows: review of experimental programme; some in vivo effects of negative pions in mice; survival and recovery of Hela cells in vitro; negative pion dose-response curves for frozen Hela cells; response of vicia faba to irradiation with negative pions; pion experiments with chromosome aberrations). (U.K.)

  9. BEAN CULTURE IN CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Balashova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin, food value of seeds are presented in this review. Botanical characteristics of three bean varieties of VNIISSOK breeding are described.

  10. [Antimutagenic activity of Armoracia rusticana, Zea mays and Ficus carica plant extracts and their mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E

    2005-01-01

    Antimutagenic action of plant extracts of Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica, Zea mays and their mixture on environmental xenobiotics has been investigated. The plant extracts and their mixture decreased the level of mutations induced by N-metil-N'-nitro-N-nitrozoguanidin (MNNG) in Vicia faba cells, chlorophyll mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana and NaF induced mutability in rat marrow cells. The studied plant extracts and their mixture demonstrate the ability to decrease the genotoxicity of environmental mutagens.

  11. [Antimutagenic activity of plant extracts from Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica and Zea mays and peroxidase in eukaryotic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E; Alekperov, U K

    2004-01-01

    Antimutagene activity and high efficiency of antimutagene action of plant extracts from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana), fig brunches (Ficus carica) and mays seedlings (Zea mays) and their ability to decrease the frequency of spontaneous and induced by gamma-rays chromosome aberrations in meristematic cells of Vicia faba and marrow cells of mice have been shown. Comparative assessment of genoprotective properties of peroxidase and the studied extracts has revealed higher efficiency of antimutagene action of peroxidase.

  12. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 92

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-26

    radiation sources Sr90-Y90 (E = 0.55 Meq) and Pml47 (E = 0.06 Meq). Experimental objects were chlorella (C. vulgaris Beijer, strain LARG-1), beans...Vicia faba L., Russian Black sort), wheat (Triticum aestivum, Scala sort) and developing roe (Misquarnus fossilus L.). Synchronized chlorella cells...and meioses were recorded. The yield of point muta- tions in chlorella and of chromosomal aberrations in beans and wheat is ex- perimentally

  13. Water erosion in surface soil conditions: runoff velocity, concentration and D50 index of sediments in runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos,Júlio César; Bertol,Ildegardis; Barbosa,Fabrício Tondello; Bertól,Camilo; Mafra,Álvaro Luiz; Miquelluti,David José; Mecabô Júnior,José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water erosion and contamination of water resources are influenced by concentration and diameter of sediments in runoff. This study aimed to quantify runoff velocity and concentration and the D50 index of sediments in runoff under different soil surface managements, in the following treatments: i) cropped systems: no-tilled soil covered by ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) residue, with high soil cover and minimal roughness (HCR); no tilled soil covered by vetch (Vicia sativa L.) res...

  14. Indicators of soil quality in the implantation of no-till system with winter crops.

    OpenAIRE

    NOGUEIRA, M. A.; TELLES, T. S.; FAGOTTI, D. dos S. L.; BRITO, O. R.; PRETE, C. E. C.; GUIMARÃES, M. de F.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effect of different winter crops on indicators of soil quality related to C and N cycling and C fractions in a Rhodic Kandiudult under no-till system at implantation, during two growing seasons, in Londrina PR Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-plot in time arrangement, with four replications. The parcels were the winter crops: multicropping of cover crops with black oat (Avena strigosa), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and fodder radish (Raphanus sat...

  15. Studies on the effects of cosmic HZE-particles on different biological systems in the Biostack experiments I and II flown on board of Apollo 16 and 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucker, H.; Horneck, G.

    1975-01-01

    The Biostack experiments are described and the effects of cosmic HZE-particles on different biological systems are discussed. The biological systems contained in the experimental packages include spores of Bacillus subtilis, cysts of Colpoda cucullus, seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, radiculae of Vicia faba, and eggs of Artemia solina, Tribolium castaneum, and Carausius moresus. The physical characteristics of the particles are given and the implications for manned spaceflight are discussed

  16. Impact of cytomixis on meiosis, pollen viability and pollen size in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srinivas

    mother cells of Medicago sativa L.; J. Heredity 94 512–516. Bhat T A, Parveen S and Khan A H 2006 MMS-induced cytomixis in pollen mother cells of broad bean (Vicia faba L.); Turk. J. Bot. 30 273–279. Bione N C P, Pagliarini M S and de Toledo J F F 2000 Meiotic behavior of several Brazilian soybean varieties; Genet.

  17. Selección de abonos verdes para los suelos de Turmequé (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viteri Silvio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar asociaciones de abonos verdes con el mejor potencial como fuente de materia orgánica para los suelos del municipio de Turmequé (Boyacá. Los experimentos se desarrollaron en tres fincas, ubicadas a 2.300, 2.650 y 2.860 msnm. De cada finca se tomó una muestra representativa de suelo, que se envió al laboratorio para análisis de fertilidad. Los tratamientos incluyeron 10 asociaciones triples y 3 cuádruples. Las asociaciones se conformaron con la leguminosa vicia atropurpúrea (Vicia sativa L. en combinación con avena caldas (Avena sativa L., girasol (híbrido Hi Doris (Helianthus annus L., higuerilla (Ricinus communis L., nabo forrajero (Raphanus sativus L. o quinua (Chenopodium quinua. El porcentaje de semilla leguminosa respecto a las otras especies en las asociaciones triples fue 40:30:30 y en las cuádruples 40:20:20:20. El porcentaje de semilla de cada especie se calculó con base en la cantidad recomendada para siembra en monocultivo. Se utilizó el diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 13 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones. Las variables determinadas fueron producción de materia verde por especie, por asociación y por las plantas arvenses y materia seca por asociación. Además, se observó la tolerancia de las especies al ataque de plagas y enfermedades. Los resultados indicaron que entre las especies estudiadas las más promisorias son el nabo forrajero, la avena y la vicia, conformando la asociación vicia × avena × nabo forrajero.

  18. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the ma...

  19. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurement...

  20. Prospects of using leguminous species in phytoremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the plant species to grow on aged petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soils is an important factor for a successful phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a green technology that can become a promising solution for decontaminating polluted soils and ecological restoration of the landscape. Our comparative studies evaluate the effect of oil hydrocarbon pollution with high initial concentration on the growth leguminous plant species: Vicia sativa and Glycine max. The experimental block contains control variants, polluted soil unfertilized / fertilized with municipal sludge anaerobically stabilized in absence/presence of modified volcanic tuff amendment. After period of time the experiment’s soil in which plant species had grown well was sampled and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons removal. Both species showed promising efficiency in the phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon highly polluted soils but a reduced growth of the surveyed plants was noticed. The efficiency of the petroleum hydrocarbons diminution is increased in the case of the addition of fertilizer 16.6 % for Vicia sativa and 30 % for Glycine max vs. the initial quantity. In the case of the phytoremediation of polluted soils treated with fertilizer and volcanic tuff, the efficiency of the petroleum hydrocarbons reduction was 72.9 % for Vicia sativa and 53.7 % for Glycine max.

  1. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  2. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  3. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  4. Nutritive evaluation of legume seeds for ruminant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Morales, E; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2010-02-01

    Chemical composition, rumen degradability and the effect of particle losses, and intestinal digestibility of protein by using in situ-in vitro and in vitro techniques were stated for beans (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus albus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and four diets including those legume seeds. In addition, the apparent digestibility of experimental diets was determined in goats. The legume seeds showed high protein content (206-319 g/kg dry matter). Effective degradability of protein for legumes and diets varied from 0.80 to 0.87 and 0.76 to 0.82, respectively, decreasing to 0.53-0.76 and 0.61-0.67, respectively, when particle loss was taken into account. Different intestinal digestibility values were obtained with both methodologies without significant relationship between them (y = 1.058-0.463x; R(2)=0.068; RSD = 0.140; p = 0.53). There were no differences in the apparent nutrients and energy digestibility among diets (p > 0.05). These legumes can supply rapidly degradable protein for microbial protein synthesis and contribute to the pool of amino acids available for the synthesis of milk protein and for retention in the body.

  5. Agronomic performances of three vetch species growing under different drought levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sywar Haffani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current challenge of agriculture is to get the best yields while overcoming frequent water deficit conditions. The objective of this study was to compare performances of three vetch species (Vicia narbonensis L., V. sativa L., and V. villosa Roth subjected to water stress. Plants were sown in pots under rainout shelter and submitted to four water regimes: control (100% field capacity [FC], 80%, 60%, and 40% FC through 3 yr experiment. Results showed that V. narbonensis had the smallest declines in all the studied variables in response to water restriction but the highest water use efficiency (WUE and stress tolerance index (STI in both control and water-treated plants. This indicates the greater tolerance of this species to water constraint and its better water use. Vicia villosa was characterized by drastic declines in leaf area and DM yield (75% and 64%, respectively. It had also the smallest WUE and STI suggesting its low adaptation to water stress. Vicia sativa showed severe reductions in seed yield and yield components; accordingly, it was the most sensitive species in terms of seed yield. The three species implied avoidance strategies to cope with water stress. The different levels of drought tolerance explain the species ecological distribution in Tunisia.

  6. The effect of the incorporated organic materials available and the profit in the soil moisture, in the ICTA, la Alameda, Chimaltenango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corado Recinos, M.J. de

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out during the period from June 1995 to November 1996 supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) jointly with the Direction General de Energia Nuclear (DGEN) through the Agricultural Section. The objectives consisted on evaluating the effect of the incorporation of the organic residues of Bean (Phascolus vulgaris L.), MUCUNA (STIZOLOBIUM PRURITUM L.), vicia (Vicia sativa L.) and the stubble of maiz (Zea mays L.) all these compared with a witness in the yield of corn grain of the variety Don Marshall, expressed in kg/ha; to determine the calibration curve of the moisture gauge CPN 503 for the soils of Tecp ; to determine the indexes of consumption of moisture (kc) of corn and lastly to determine the soil moisture contents during the corn cultivation cycle (rainy season) and the beginning of the dry period. The response variables were: Content surface moisture (%), yield grain of corn (kg/ha), real evapotranspiration (Etr). The different valued treatments were: Witness (TO), stubble corn (B), bean (C), Mucuna (D) and Vicia (E); set up in an experimental design of random blocks with 4 repetitions. The moisture contents were determined by means of the use of the moisture gauge, taking in consideration the obtained calibration curve for each stratum, with the purpose to transform the gravimetric humidity in volumetric humidity, being obtained the higher values for the stratum 0-20 cm where the corn stubble was incorporated (B) with 20.11% and for the stratum 20-40 cm the best treatment it was where the organic residual of Vicia was incorporated measuring values of moisture of 25.97%. With regard to the yield corn of the variety Don Marshall (kg/ha), the best treatment was where the residual of Vicia was incorporated with a yield 4,595.13 kg/ha. The pluvial precipitation (PP) and evapotranspiration (ETP) during the cultivation cycle was 1,014.1 mm and 708.14 mm respectively. The values of moisture consumption indexes gives (kc) for

  7. The Recognition of N-Glycans by the Lectin ArtinM Mediates Cell Death of a Human Myeloid Leukemia Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernanda Caroline; Soares, Sandro Gomes; Tamarozzi, Mirela Barros; Rego, Eduardo Magalhães; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2011-01-01

    ArtinM, a d-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit), interacts with N-glycosylated receptors on the surface of several cells of hematopoietic origin, triggering cell migration, degranulation, and cytokine release. Because malignant transformation is often associated with altered expression of cell surface glycans, we evaluated the interaction of ArtinM with human myelocytic leukemia cells and investigated cellular responses to lectin binding. The intensity of ArtinM binding varied across 3 leukemia cell lines: NB4>K562>U937. The binding, which was directly related to cell growth suppression, was inhibited in the presence of Manα1-3(Manα1-6)Manβ1, and was reverted in underglycosylated NB4 cells. ArtinM interaction with NB4 cells induced cell death (IC50 = 10 µg/mL), as indicated by cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential unassociated with caspase activation or DNA fragmentation. Moreover, ArtinM treatment of NB4 cells strongly induced reactive oxygen species generation and autophagy, as indicated by the detection of acidic vesicular organelles in the treated cells. NB4 cell death was attributed to ArtinM recognition of the trimannosyl core of N-glycans containing a ß1,6-GlcNAc branch linked to α1,6-mannose. This modification correlated with higher levels of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V transcripts in NB4 cells than in K562 or U937 cells. Our results provide new insights into the potential of N-glycans containing a β1,6-GlcNAc branch linked to α1,6-mannose as a novel target for anti-leukemia treatment. PMID:22132163

  8. The recognition of N-glycans by the lectin ArtinM mediates cell death of a human myeloid leukemia cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Caroline Carvalho

    Full Text Available ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit, interacts with N-glycosylated receptors on the surface of several cells of hematopoietic origin, triggering cell migration, degranulation, and cytokine release. Because malignant transformation is often associated with altered expression of cell surface glycans, we evaluated the interaction of ArtinM with human myelocytic leukemia cells and investigated cellular responses to lectin binding. The intensity of ArtinM binding varied across 3 leukemia cell lines: NB4>K562>U937. The binding, which was directly related to cell growth suppression, was inhibited in the presence of Manα1-3(Manα1-6Manβ1, and was reverted in underglycosylated NB4 cells. ArtinM interaction with NB4 cells induced cell death (IC(50 = 10 µg/mL, as indicated by cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential unassociated with caspase activation or DNA fragmentation. Moreover, ArtinM treatment of NB4 cells strongly induced reactive oxygen species generation and autophagy, as indicated by the detection of acidic vesicular organelles in the treated cells. NB4 cell death was attributed to ArtinM recognition of the trimannosyl core of N-glycans containing a ß1,6-GlcNAc branch linked to α1,6-mannose. This modification correlated with higher levels of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V transcripts in NB4 cells than in K562 or U937 cells. Our results provide new insights into the potential of N-glycans containing a β1,6-GlcNAc branch linked to α1,6-mannose as a novel target for anti-leukemia treatment.

  9. Removal of tetracycline from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andréa F S; Matos, Maria; Sousa, Ângela; Costa, Cátia; Nogueira, Regina; Teixeira, José A; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Parpot, Pier; Coelho, Luana C B B; Brito, António G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tetracycline antibiotic (TA) removal from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations. The composition of synthetic water approximate river natural contaminated water and TA simulated its presence as an emerging pollutant. Interactions between TA and protein preparations (extract; fraction and lectin) were also evaluated. TA was determined by solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moringa extract and flour removed TA from water. The extract removed TA in all concentrations, and better removal (40%) was obtained with 40 mg L(-1); seed flour (particles  5 mm (0.50 g L(-1)) removed 55% of antibiotic. Interactions between TA and seed preparations were assayed by haemagglutinating activity (HA). Specific HA (SHA) of extract (pH 7) was abolished with tetracycline (5 mg L(-1)); fraction (75%) and lectin HA (97%) were inhibited with TA. Extract SHA decreased by 75% at pH 8. Zeta potential (ZP) of extract 700 mg L(-1) and tetracycline 50 mg L(-1) , pH range 5-8, showed different results. Extract ZP was more negative (-10.73 to -16.00 mV) than tetracycline ZP (-0.27 to -20.15 mV); ZP difference was greater in pH 8. The focus of this study was achieved since Moringa preparations removed TA from water and compounds interacting with tetracycline involved at least lectin-binding sites. This is a natural process, which do not promote environmental damage.

  10. CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Radha; Eligar, Sachin M.; Kumar, Natesh; Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Swamy, Bale M.; Shastry, Padma

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. ► RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. ► Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. ► RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL–induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.

  11. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  12. Altered levels of acetylcholinesterase in Alzheimer plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Salud García-Ayllón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have been conducted in an extensive effort to identify alterations in blood cholinesterase levels as a consequence of disease, including the analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in plasma. Conventional assays using selective cholinesterase inhibitors have not been particularly successful as excess amounts of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE pose a major problem. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have estimated the levels of AChE activity in human plasma by first immunoprecipitating BuChE and measuring AChE activity in the immunodepleted plasma. Human plasma AChE activity levels were approximately 20 nmol/min/mL, about 160 times lower than BuChE. The majority of AChE species are the light G(1+G(2 forms and not G(4 tetramers. The levels and pattern of the molecular forms are similar to that observed in individuals with silent BuChE. We have also compared plasma AChE with the enzyme pattern obtained from human liver, red blood cells, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and brain, by sedimentation analysis, Western blotting and lectin-binding analysis. Finally, a selective increase of AChE activity was detected in plasma from Alzheimer's disease (AD patients compared to age and gender-matched controls. This increase correlates with an increase in the G(1+G(2 forms, the subset of AChE species which are increased in Alzheimer's brain. Western blot analysis demonstrated that a 78 kDa immunoreactive AChE protein band was also increased in Alzheimer's plasma, attributed in part to AChE-T subunits common in brain and CSF. CONCLUSION: Plasma AChE might have potential as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis in AD and warrants further investigation.

  13. Three-Dimensional Vascular Network Assembly From Diabetic Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Xin Yi; Black, Rebecca; Dickerman, Kayla; Federico, Joseph; Lévesque, Mathieu; Mumm, Jeff; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-12-01

    In diabetics, hyperglycemia results in deficient endothelial progenitors and cells, leading to cardiovascular complications. We aim to engineer 3-dimensional (3D) vascular networks in synthetic hydrogels from type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), to serve as a transformative autologous vascular therapy for diabetic patients. We validated and optimized an adherent, feeder-free differentiation procedure to derive early vascular cells (EVCs) with high portions of vascular endothelial cadherin-positive cells from hiPSCs. We demonstrate similar differentiation efficiency from hiPSCs derived from healthy donor and patients with T1D. T1D-hiPSC-derived vascular endothelial cadherin-positive cells can mature to functional endothelial cells-expressing mature markers: von Willebrand factor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase are capable of lectin binding and acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake, form cords in Matrigel and respond to tumor necrosis factor-α. When embedded in engineered hyaluronic acid hydrogels, T1D-EVCs undergo morphogenesis and assemble into 3D networks. When encapsulated in a novel hypoxia-inducible hydrogel, T1D-EVCs respond to low oxygen and form 3D networks. As xenografts, T1D-EVCs incorporate into developing zebrafish vasculature. Using our robust protocol, we can direct efficient differentiation of T1D-hiPSC to EVCs. Early endothelial cells derived from T1D-hiPSC are functional when mature. T1D-EVCs self-assembled into 3D networks when embedded in hyaluronic acid and hypoxia-inducible hydrogels. The capability of T1D-EVCs to assemble into 3D networks in engineered matrices and to respond to a hypoxic microenvironment is a significant advancement for autologous vascular therapy in diabetic patients and has broad importance for tissue engineering. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Predominant Expression of Hybrid N-Glycans Has Distinct Cellular Roles Relative to Complex and Oligomannose N-Glycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kristen Hall

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation modulates growth, maintenance, and stress signaling processes. Consequently, altered N-glycosylation is associated with reduced fitness and disease. Therefore, expanding our understanding of N-glycans in altering biological processes is of utmost interest. Herein, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/caspase9 (CRISPR/Cas9 technology was employed to engineer a glycosylation mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell line, K16, which expresses predominantly hybrid type N-glycans. This newly engineered cell line enabled us to compare N-glycan effects on cellular properties of hybrid type N-glycans, to the well-established Pro−5 and Lec1 cell lines, which express complex and oligomannose types of N-glycans, respectively. Lectin binding studies revealed the predominant N-glycan expressed in K16 is hybrid type. Cell dissociation and migration assays demonstrated the greatest strength of cell–cell adhesion and fastest migratory rates for oligomannose N-glycans, and these properties decreased as oligomannose type were converted to hybrid type, and further decreased upon conversion to complex type. Next, we examined the roles of three general types of N-glycans on ectopic expression of E-cadherin, a cell–cell adhesion protein. Microscopy revealed more functional E-cadherin at the cell–cell border when N-glycans were oligomannose and these levels decreased as the oligomannose N-glycans were processed to hybrid and then to complex. Thus, we provide evidence that all three general types of N-glycans impact plasma membrane architecture and cellular properties.

  15. Successful in vitro expansion and differentiation of cord blood derived CD34+ cells into early endothelial progenitor cells reveals highly differential gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Ahrens

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs can be purified from peripheral blood, bone marrow or cord blood and are typically defined by a limited number of cell surface markers and a few functional tests. A detailed in vitro characterization is often restricted by the low cell numbers of circulating EPCs. Therefore in vitro culturing and expansion methods are applied, which allow at least distinguishing two different types of EPCs, early and late EPCs. Herein, we describe an in vitro culture technique with the aim to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically defined early EPCs from human cord blood. Characterization of EPCs was done by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, colony forming unit (CFU assay and endothelial tube formation assay. There was an average 48-fold increase in EPC numbers. EPCs expressed VEGFR-2, CD144, CD18, and CD61, and were positive for acetylated LDL uptake and ulex lectin binding. The cells stimulated endothelial tube formation only in co-cultures with mature endothelial cells and formed CFUs. Microarray analysis revealed highly up-regulated genes, including LL-37 (CAMP, PDK4, and alpha-2-macroglobulin. In addition, genes known to be associated with cardioprotective (GDF15 or pro-angiogenic (galectin-3 properties were also significantly up-regulated after a 72 h differentiation period on fibronectin. We present a novel method that allows to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically characterized early EPCs. Furthermore, we identified several genes newly linked to EPC differentiation, among them LL-37 (CAMP was the most up-regulated gene.

  16. Effects of Lectins on initial attachment of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Shiota, Yasuyoshi; Ito, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2018-02-01

    Oral bacteria initiate biofilm formation by attaching to tooth surfaces via an interaction of a lectin-like bacterial protein with carbohydrate chains on the pellicle. This study aimed to find naturally derived lectins that inhibit the initial attachment of a cariogenic bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), to carbohydrate chains in saliva in vitro. Seventy kinds of lectins were screened for candidate motifs that inhibit the attachment of S. mutans ATCC 25175 to a saliva-coated culture plate. The inhibitory effect of the lectins on attachment of the S. mutans to the plates was quantified by crystal violet staining, and the biofilm was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis was performed to examine the binding of S. mutans to carbohydrate chains and the binding of candidate lectins to carbohydrate chains, respectively. Moreover, binding assay between the biotinylated-lectins and the saliva components was conducted to measure the lectin binding. Lectins recognizing a salivary carbohydrate chain, Galβ1-3GalNAc, inhibited the binding of S. mutans to the plate. In particular, Agaricus bisporus agglutinin (ABA) markedly inhibited the binding. This inhibition was confirmed by SEM observation. SPR analysis indicated that S. mutans strongly binds to Galβ1-3GalNAc, and ABA binds to Galβ1-3GalNAc. Finally, the biotinylated Galβ1-3GalNAc-binding lectins including ABA demonstrated marked binding to the saliva components. These results suggest that ABA lectin inhibited the attachment of S. mutans to Galβ1-3GalNAc in saliva and ABA can be useful as a potent inhibitor for initial attachment of oral bacteria and biofilm formation.

  17. Three distinct subsets of thymic epithelial cells in rats and mice defined by novel antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Sawanobori

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are thought to play an essential role in T cell development and have been detected mainly in mice using lectin binding and antibodies to keratins. Our aim in the present study was to create a precise map of rat TECs using antibodies to putative markers and novel monoclonal antibodies (i.e., ED 18/19/21 and anti-CD205 antibodies and compare it with a map from mouse counterparts and that of rat thymic dendritic cells.Rat TECs were subdivided on the basis of phenotype into three subsets; ED18+ED19+/-keratin 5 (K5+K8+CD205+ class II MHC (MHCII+ cortical TECs (cTECs, ED18+ED21-K5-K8+Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-1+CD205- medullary TECs (mTEC1s, and ED18+ED21+K5+K8dullUEA-1-CD205- medullary TECs (mTEC2s. Thymic nurse cells were defined in cytosmears as an ED18+ED19+/-K5+K8+ subset of cTECs. mTEC1s preferentially expressed MHCII, claudin-3, claudin-4, and autoimmune regulator (AIRE. Use of ED18 and ED21 antibodies revealed three subsets of TECs in mice as well. We also detected two distinct TEC-free areas in the subcapsular cortex and in the medulla. Rat dendritic cells in the cortex were MHCII+CD103+ but negative for TEC markers, including CD205. Those in the medulla were MHCII+CD103+ and CD205+ cells were found only in the TEC-free area.Both rats and mice have three TEC subsets with similar phenotypes that can be identified using known markers and new monoclonal antibodies. These findings will facilitate further analysis of TEC subsets and DCs and help to define their roles in thymic selection and in pathological states such as autoimmune disorders.

  18. The synthesis and host-guest applications of synthetic receptor molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osner, Zachary R.

    2011-12-01

    Host-guest chemistry involves the complimentary binding between two molecules. Host molecules have been synthesized to bind negative, positive, and neutral molecules such as proteins and enzymes, and have been used as optical sensors, electrochemical sensors, supramolecular catalysts, and in the pharmaceutical industry as anti-cancer agents.1 The field of nanoscience has exploited guest-host interactions to create optical sensors with colloidal gold and Dip-Pen nanolithography technologies. Gold nanoparticles, have been functionalized with DNA, and have been developed as a selective colorimetric detection system, that upon binding turns the solution from a red to blue in color.2 Cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) 1 is a common supramolecular scaffold that has been previously employed in guest-host chemistry, and the construction of CTV involves the cyclic trimerization of veratryl alcohol via the veratryl cation.3 Due to the rigid bowl shaped structure of CTV, CTV has been shown to act as a host molecule for fullerene-C60.4 Lectin binding receptor proteins are a specific class of proteins found in bacteria, viruses, plants, and animals that can bind to complimentary carbohydrates. It is these lectins that are believed to be responsible for cell-cell interactions and the formation of biofilms in pathenogenic bacteria.5 P. aeruginosa is a pathenogenic bacterium, shown to have a high resistance to many antibiotics, which can form biofilms in human lung tissue, causing respiratory tract infections in patients with compromised immune systems. 5 I will exploit guest-host interactions to create synthetic supramolecular and carbohydrate receptor molecules to that will be of use as biological sensing devices via self-assembled monolayers on solid surfaces and nanoparticle technologies. *Please refer to dissertation for references/footnotes.

  19. Comparative glycopattern analysis of mucins in the Brunner's glands of the guinea-pig and the house mouse (Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scillitani, Giovanni; Mentino, Donatella

    2015-09-01

    The mucins secreted by the Brunner's glands and the duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig and the house mouse were compared by conventional and FITC-conjugated lectin histochemistry. Methylation/saponification and sialidase digestion were performed prior to lectin binding to detect the residues subterminal to sulfated groups and sialic acid, respectively. In the Guinea-pig the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable sulfosialomucins. Sialic acid is mostly 2,6-linked to galactose or to N-acetylgalactosamine and is in part O-acetylated in C7, C8, and C9. Sulfated groups are probably linked to sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine. Terminal residuals of N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and fucose linked in α1,2, α1,3, and α1,4 are also present. Duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig present a lower number of residuals in respect to the Brunner's glandular ones, with sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine subterminal to sulfated groups. In the house mouse the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable neutral mucins, binding to same lectins as in the Guinea-pig except for those specific to sialic acid. A diversity of fucosylated residuals higher than in the Guinea-pig is observed. The mouse duodenal goblet cells lack stable class-III mucins, have little sialic acid and present a lower number of residuals in respect to the correspondent Brunner's glands. Regulation of the acidic intestinal microenvironment, prevention of pathologies and hosting of microflora can explain the observed results and the differences observed between the two rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Three-dimensional structure of lectin from Dioclea violacea and comparative vasorelaxant effects with Dioclea rostrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, B.A.M.; Bezerra, M.J.B.; Bezerra, G.A.; Alencar, K.L.L.; Nascimento, K.S.; Naganao, C.S.; Sampaio, A.H.; Cavada, B.S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Delatorre, P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Rodrigues, N.V.; Pires, A.F.; Assreuy, A.M.S. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Marins, J.L. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Lectins are a structural heterogeneous group of proteins possessing at least one non-catalytic domain that binds reversibly to a specific mono or oligosaccharide. Diocleinae lectins exhibit glucose/mannose monosaccharide binding specificity and studies of their chemical and physicochemical properties revealed a high degree of identity in their amino acid sequences and three dimensional structures. This study investigated structural/functional relationships between lectins obtained from Dioclea violacea (DVL) and Dioclea rostrata (DRL). The purified lectin (DVL) was solubilized in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6 with 5 mM CaCl{sub 2} and MnCl{sub 2} buffer and incubated during one hour before the crystallization experiments with the ligand X-Man (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-{alpha}-D-mannose) at 3 mM. Crystals of DVL grew in condition 33 of Crystal Screen I (4M Sodium formate) and belong to the orthorhombic space group I222. The structure of DVL at 2.6 resolution was obtained by molecular replacement using the coordinates of DRL (PDB code 2ZBJ), after the last refinement the structure presented R factor of 0.23 and R free of 0.27. The crystal structures reveal differences between them and could be related to relaxant activity. The conformation of residues HIS51, HIS131 and GLU205 and others positioned at CRD lead to different lectin binding activities. In fact, the pocket in DVL is small and deep and promotes weak interaction with carbohydrates, while DRL pocket is large and shallow, allowing strong interaction between CRD and sugars. This can explain why DVL and DRL elicited different degrees of aorta relaxation showing maximal effects of 43 % and 96 %, respectively. (author)

  1. Structural Variation of Chondroitin Sulfate Chains Contributes to the Molecular Heterogeneity of Perineuronal Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Miyata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggrecan, a chondroitin sulfate (CS proteoglycan, forms lattice-like extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs. Neocortical PNNs primarily ensheath parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (parvalbumin, PV cells late in brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that PNNs promote the maturation of PV cells by enhancing the incorporation of homeobox protein Otx2 and regulating experience-dependent neural plasticity. Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA, an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific plant lectin, binds to the CS chains of aggrecan and has been widely used to visualize PNNs. Although PNNs show substantial molecular heterogeneity, the importance of this heterogeneity in neural plasticity remains unknown. Here, in addition to WFA lectin, we used the two monoclonal antibodies Cat315 and Cat316, both of which recognize the glycan structures of aggrecan, to investigate the molecular heterogeneity of PNNs. WFA detected the highest number of PNNs in all cortical layers, whereas Cat315 and Cat316 labeled only a subset of PNNs. WFA+, Cat315+, and Cat316+ PNNs showed different laminar distributions in the adult visual cortex. WFA, Cat315 and Cat316 detected distinct, but partially overlapping, populations of PNNs. Based on the reactivities of these probes, we categorized PNNs into four groups. We found that two subpopulation of PNNs, one with higher and one with lower WFA-staining are differentially labeled by Cat316 and Cat315, respectively. CS chains recognized by Cat316 were diminished in mice deficient in an enzyme involved in the initiation of CS-biosynthesis. Furthermore, WFA+ and Cat316+ aggrecan were spatially segregated and formed microdomains in a single PNN. Otx2 co-localized with Cat316+ but not with WFA+ aggrecan in PNNs. Our results suggest that the heterogeneity of PNNs around PV cells may affect the functional maturation of these cells.

  2. Structural inferences for the native skeletal muscle sodium channel as derived from patterns of endogenous proteolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, S.; Yang, J.; Barchi, R.

    1989-01-01

    The alpha subunit (Mr approximately 260,000) of the rat skeletal muscle sodium channel is sensitive to cleavage by endogenous proteases during the isolation of muscle surface membrane. Antisera against synthetic oligopeptides were used to map the resultant fragments in order to identify protease-sensitive regions of the channel's structure in its native membrane environment. Antibodies to the amino terminus labeled major fragments of Mr approximately 130,000 and 90,000 and lesser amounts of other peptides as small as Mr approximately 12,000. Antisera to epitopes within the carboxyl-terminal half of the primary sequence recognized two fragments of Mr approximately 110,000 and 78,000. Individual antisera also selectively labeled smaller polypeptides in the most extensively cleaved preparations. The immunoreactivity patterns of monoclonal antibodies previously raised against the purified channel were then surveyed. The binding sites for one group of monoclonals, including several that recognize subtype-specific epitopes in the channel structure, were localized within a 12-kDa fragment near the amino terminus. The distribution of carbohydrate along the primary structure of the channel was also assessed by quantitating 125 I-wheat germ agglutinin and 125I-concanavalin A binding to the proteolytic peptides. Most of the carbohydrate detected by these lectins was located between 22 and 90 kDa from the amino terminus of the protein. No lectin binding was detected to fragments arising from carboxyl-terminal half of the protein. These results were analyzed in terms of current models of sodium channel tertiary structure. In its normal membrane environment, the skeletal muscle sodium channel appears sensitive to cleavage by endogenous proteases in regions predicted to link the four repeat domains on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane while the repeat domains themselves are resistant to proteolysis

  3. Probing the cons and pros of lectin-induced immunomodulation: case studies for the mistletoe lectin and galectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabius, H J

    2001-07-01

    When imagining to monitor animal cells through a microscope with resolution at the molecular level, a salient attribute of their surfaces will be the abundance of glycan chains. They present galactosides at their termini widely extending like tentacles into the extracellular space. Their spatial accessibility and their potential for structural variability endow especially these glycan parts with capacity to act as docking points for molecular sensors (sugar receptors such as lectins). Binding and ligand clustering account for transmission of post-binding signals into the cell interior. The range of triggered activities has turned plant lectins into popular tools in cell biology and immunology. Potential for clinical application has been investigated rigorously only in recent years. As documented in vitro and in vivo for the galactoside-specific mistletoe lectin, its apparent immunomodulatory capacity reflected in upregulation of production of proinflammatory cytokines will not necessarily be clinically favorable but a double-edged sword. In fact, lectin application has been shown to stimulate tumor growth in cell lines, histocultures of human tumors and in two animal models using chemical carcinogenesis or tumor transplantation. When testing immunological effects of the endogenous lectin galectin-1, protection against disorders mediated by activated T cells came up for consideration. Elimination of these cells via CD7-dependent induction of apoptosis, and a shift to the Th2 response by the galectin, are factors to ameliorate disease states. This result encourages further efforts with other galectins. Functional redundancy, synergism, diversity or antagonism among galectins are being explored to understand the actual role of this class of endogenous lectins in inflammation. Regardless of the results of further preclinical testing for galectin-1, these two case studies break new ground in our understanding how glycans as ligands for lectins convey reactivity to

  4. Doxorubicin attached to HPMA copolymer via amide bond modifies the glycosylation pattern of EL4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Lubomir; Etrych, Tomas; Kabesova, Martina; Subr, Vladimir; Vetvicka, David; Hovorka, Ondrej; Strohalm, Jiri; Sklenar, Jan; Chytil, Petr; Ulbrich, Karel; Rihova, Blanka

    2010-08-01

    To avoid the side effects of the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (Dox), we conjugated this drug to a N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer backbone. Dox was conjugated via an amide bond (Dox-HPMA(AM), PK1) or a hydrazone pH-sensitive bond (Dox-HPMA(HYD)). In contrast to Dox and Dox-HPMA(HYD), Dox-HPMA(AM) accumulates within the cell's intracellular membranes, including those of the Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum, both involved in protein glycosylation. Flow cytometry was used to determine lectin binding and cell death, immunoblot to characterize the presence of CD7, CD43, CD44, and CD45, and high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detector analysis for characterization of plasma membrane saccharide composition. Incubation of EL4 cells with Dox-HPMA(AM) conjugate, in contrast to Dox or Dox-HPMA(HYD), increased the amounts of membrane surface-associated glycoproteins, as well as saccharide moieties recognized by peanut agglutinin, Erythrina cristagalli, or galectin-1 lectins. Only Dox-HPMA(AM) increased expression of the highly glycosylated membrane glycoprotein CD43, while expression of others (CD7, CD44, and CD45) was unaffected. The binding sites for galectin-1 are present on CD43 molecule. Furthermore, we present that EL4 treated with Dox-HPMA(AM) possesses increased sensitivity to galectin-1-induced apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate that Dox-HPMA(AM) treatment changes glycosylation of the EL4 T cell lymphoma surface and sensitizes the cells to galectin-1-induced apoptosis.

  5. Structural Insight Into the Role of Mutual Polymorphism and Conservatism in the Contact Zone of the NFR5-K1 Heterodimer With the Nod Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igolkina, A A; Porozov, Yu B; Chizhevskaya, E P; Andronov, E E

    2018-01-01

    Sandwich-like docking configurations of the heterodimeric complex of NFR5 and K1 Vicia sativa receptor-like kinases together with the putative ligand, Nod factor (NF) of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae , were modeled and two of the most probable configurations were assessed through the analysis of the mutual polymorphisms and conservatism. We carried out this analysis based on the hypothesis that in a contact zone of two docked components (proteins or ligands) the population polymorphism or conservatism is mutual, i.e., the variation in one component has a reflected variation in the other component. The population material of 30 wild-growing V. sativa (leaf pieces) was collected from a large field (uncultivated for the past 25-years) and pooled; form this pool, 100 randomly selected cloned fragments of NFR5 gene and 100 of K1 gene were sequenced by the Sanger method. Congruence between population trees of NFR5 and K1 haplotypes allowed us to select two respective haplotypes, build their 3D structures, and perform protein-protein docking. In a separate simulation, the protein-ligand docking between NFR5 and NF was carried out. We merged the results of the two docking experiments and extracted NFR5-NF-K1 complexes, in which NF was located within the cavity between two receptors. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated two out of six complexes as stable. Regions of mutual polymorphism in the contact zone of one complex overlapped with known NF structural variations produced by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae . A total of 74% of the contact zone of another complex contained mutually polymorphic and conservative areas. Common traits of the obtained two stable structures allowed us to hypothesize the functional role of three-domain structure of plant LysM-RLKs in their heteromers.

  6. Structural Insight Into the Role of Mutual Polymorphism and Conservatism in the Contact Zone of the NFR5–K1 Heterodimer With the Nod Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Igolkina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich-like docking configurations of the heterodimeric complex of NFR5 and K1 Vicia sativa receptor-like kinases together with the putative ligand, Nod factor (NF of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, were modeled and two of the most probable configurations were assessed through the analysis of the mutual polymorphisms and conservatism. We carried out this analysis based on the hypothesis that in a contact zone of two docked components (proteins or ligands the population polymorphism or conservatism is mutual, i.e., the variation in one component has a reflected variation in the other component. The population material of 30 wild-growing V. sativa (leaf pieces was collected from a large field (uncultivated for the past 25-years and pooled; form this pool, 100 randomly selected cloned fragments of NFR5 gene and 100 of K1 gene were sequenced by the Sanger method. Congruence between population trees of NFR5 and K1 haplotypes allowed us to select two respective haplotypes, build their 3D structures, and perform protein–protein docking. In a separate simulation, the protein-ligand docking between NFR5 and NF was carried out. We merged the results of the two docking experiments and extracted NFR5–NF–K1 complexes, in which NF was located within the cavity between two receptors. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated two out of six complexes as stable. Regions of mutual polymorphism in the contact zone of one complex overlapped with known NF structural variations produced by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae. A total of 74% of the contact zone of another complex contained mutually polymorphic and conservative areas. Common traits of the obtained two stable structures allowed us to hypothesize the functional role of three-domain structure of plant LysM-RLKs in their heteromers.

  7. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear.

  8. Dinámica del nitrógeno mineral y la biota edáfica durante la descomposición de enmiendas orgánicas en un ambiente semiárido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEYER, J.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El uso de leguminosas como abonos verdes, puede proveer una cantidad importante de nitrógeno para el cultivo posterior, dependiendo de la velocidad de descomposición de los residuos. La necesidad de siembra directa (SD en los suelos frágiles no permite el enterramiento de los residuos, dificultando su descomposición y la liberación de nitrógeno inorgánico (Ni. En este trabajo se estudió la relación entre descomposición de abonos verdes de vicia con y sin adición de estiércol, la liberación de Ni y la dinámica de las poblaciones microbianas asociadas a estos procesos en el semiárido de la provincia de San Luis, Argentina. En macetas con suelo de la región se incubó suelo solo, dos dosis de vicia y dos dosis de vicia+estiércol durante un año en condiciones reales de temperatura y humedad. Bolsas conteniendo residuos de planta entera de vicia con y sin estiércol fueron ubicadas en superficie (simulando SD y a 10 cm de profundidad (simulando una labranza mínima en el suelo de las macetas. Se tomaron muestras de suelo para medir Ni (Nitratos y Amonio y grupos funcionales microbianos (amonificantes, nitrificantes y celulolíticos. Al mismo tiempo, se retiraron bolsas para medir la velocidad de descomposición del residuo. El contenido de amonio en el suelo aumentó en 6,7 (D1, 28 (D2, 7,3 (D3 y 26 (D4 mg/Kg en un año; por otra parte, el contenido de nitratos aumentó 17 (D1, 32 (D2, 23 (D3 y 41 (D4 mg/Kg. El aumento en el contenido de Ni coincidió con la evolución de las poblaciones de microorganismos amonificantes y nitrificantes. La descomposición en los residuos enterrados (p una importante cantidad de Ni en el primer año (aún en presencia del estiércol que influye en los equilibrios de mineralización inmovilización por su alta relación C/N, pero para su mayor disponibilidad es recomendable realizar una labranza minima

  9. Effect of cooking on14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of cooking on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos in stored vicia faba beans was studied. The results indicated that over 50% of the dose originally present inside the grains (37 ppm), could be recovered in the aqueous extract of the cooked grains. Considerable portion of radioactivity (About 22%) was associated with the grains in a non-extractable from. Residues in cooked beans included, in addition to a small amount of the parent insecticide, desmethyl tetrachlorvinphos, mono methyl phosphate and dimethyl phosphate. The results obtained indicate that tetrachlorvinphos residues are not appreciably affected by cooking. 1 tab

  10. Effect of hydroxyurea on mitotic activity 3H-thymidine and 3H-phenylalanine incorporation in the antheridial filament cells of Chara vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielecka, A.

    1979-01-01

    Hydroxyurea inhibits mitotic activity in cells of the antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris by blocking phase S and phase G 2 . Blocking of cells in phase G 2 also occurs in the case of the root meristem cells of Helianthus annuus and Vicia faba var. minor. 3 H-thine incorporation confirmed autoradiographically the blocking of cells of the antheridial filaments in Chara vulgaris at phase S and slowing down of the rate of DNA replication. Incubation with 3 H-phenylalanine demonstrated that hydroxyurea inhibits protein synthesis. (author)

  11. TAREAN: a computational tool for identification and characterization of satellite DNA from unassembled short reads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Ávila Robledillo, Laura; Koblížková, Andrea; Vrbová, Iva; Neumann, Pavel; Macas, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 12 (2017), č. článku e111. ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015047 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : in-situ hybridization * repetitive sequences * tandem repeats * vicia-faba Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016

  12. Modification of genetic effect of gamma irradiation by electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, N.N.; Shakhbazov, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of direct electric current of different value and polarity on genetic sequences of γ-irradiation of Vicia faba seedlings has been studied. The previously found modifying effect of direct electric current is confirmed. The extent and character of this effect depend on the value and polarity of current as well as time between irradiation and electric effects. Current effect modes having no effect on irradiated seedlings protecting cells from injury and the modes aggravating radiation effect have been found. At certain modes the effects of direct electric current on irradiated seedlings changes in the rearrangement spectrum are observed, particularly the number of bridges is increased

  13. Modification of genetic effect of gamma-irradiation by electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, N.N.; Shakhbazov, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of direct current of different polarity on genetic sequels of #betta#-radiation of Vicia faba seedlings is studied. It is established that weak current might modify genetic sequels of #betta#-radiation. Protective current effect on irradiated meristem cells of seedlings manifests at negative polarization of the meristem before radiation and at positive polarization-after radiation. Modifying effect of electric current is brought about at the expense of redistribution of anions and cations between the meristem and other root zones

  14. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Hanno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Results Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23–16 million years ago (Ma and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Conclusions Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the

  15. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hanno; Hechenleitner, Paulina; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Menezes de Sequeira, Miguel; Pennington, R Toby; Kenicer, Gregory; Carine, Mark A

    2012-12-25

    Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23-16 million years ago (Ma)) and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba) and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the middle Miocene and spread from there across Eurasia, into

  16. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...

  17. Effect of Cooking on 14C-Chloropyrifos Residues in Stored Faba Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cooking on the amount and nature of 14 C-chloropyrifos residues in stored vicia faba beans was studied. faba beans treated with (ethyl-1- 14 C) chloropyrifos insecticide at a dose 15 and 45 mg insecticide/kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks had 50-54% of the actual applied doses inside the grains in the form of extractable and bound 14 C- chloropyrifos residues. Extractable residues in cooked beans included, in addition to the parent insecticide O-analogue, desethyl chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro pyridinol, as main degradation products of 14 C-chloropyrifos

  18. Modification of the genetic effect of gamma irradiation by electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, N.N.; Shakhbazov, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The authors study the effect of direct current of varying strength and polarity on the genetic damage due to gamma irradiation of Vicia faba seedlings. The modificational effect of direct current observed earlier is confirmed here. The extent and nature of this effect depends on the strength and polarity of the current as well as interval between irradiation and exposure to the electric field. Conditions having no effect on the irradiated seedlings, those protecting the cells from damage and enhancing the irradiation effect, are identified

  19. A study of the fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of some Fabaceae (Leguminosae plants from Turkey I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahim, Ahmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol, tocotrienol and plastochromanol-8 contents of some selected Fabaceae (Leguminosae species belonging to different genera (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella from Turkey were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. Some of the studied species are endemic to Turkey. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. Palmitic and stearic acids are the major saturated fatty acids in the seed oils. Vicia and Onobrychis patterns showed high similarity in means of qualitative fatty acid concentration. The tocopherol and tocochromanol patterns of the seed oils were also found to be highly variable among the genera investigated here. The total tocopherols was higher than the total tocotrienols. Alpha and gamma tocopherols were also the highest tocopherols present in the whole species. Beta, gamma and delta-tocotrienols were not found in most of the studied leguminous patterns. The results are discussed in view of renewable sources and chemotaxonomy.En este estudio, los contenidos en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, tocotrienoles y plastocromanol-8 de algunas especies seleccionadas de Fabaceae (Leguminosae, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella de Turquía, fueron determinadas usando técnicas de GLC y HPLC. Algunas de las especies estudiadas son endémicas de Turquía. Los aceites de semillas de los diferentes taxones de leguminosas contenían los ácidos linoleico, oleico y linolénico como principales componentes. Las proporciones de estos ácidos grasos fueron muy variables entre los géneros de leguminosas. Los ácidos palmítico y esteárico son los principales ácidos grasos saturados en los aceites de semillas. Los patrones

  20. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in wheat and field beans in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Seeds of three varieties of hexaploid wheat and of one variety of tetraploid wheat were treated with gamma rays in order to obtain mutants with improved resistance to stem rust, leaf rust and stripe rust. Mutants with resistance to prevailing races of rusts were selected; however, the race spectrum shifted and made the mutants useless for the time being. Induction of mutations for resistance to chocolate spot and rusts was attempted in Vicia faba. No resistant mutant was found but some mutants with lower levels of infection were. (author)

  1. Cytological study of radiation induced alterations in cytoplasmic factors controlling male sterility in corn. Progress report, February 28, 1975--December 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: cytoplasmic constituents of the embryo of various gymnosperms and angiosperms; cytoplasmic male sterility in corn; modification of cytoplasmic sterility factors using gamma radiation, EMS, and ethidium bromide; selection for sterile, blight-resistant corn plants; electron microscopy study of abnormal mitochondria in cytoplasm of corn; cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia; non-Mendelian variegation in Petunia and Nicotiana; graft transmission of cytoplasmic male sterility; cytoplasmic male sterility in Vicia faba; and studies on Blakeslee's I virus in Datura

  2. Insecticides and soil microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, I.Y.; Helal, G.A.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.

    1991-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of C-labelled methomyl in the culture media of Rihizobium leguminosarum (isolated from Vicia feba nodules), Aspergillus fumigatus, A.niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium notatum (isolated from Allium cepa rhizophere) was studied. The results revealed that 36.5, 28.6,27.9,32.5 and 20.1% of the applied doses were metabolized into hydrolytic products by the above organisms, respectively. The thin layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform and aqueous fractions of the media showed that C-labelled methomyl underwent a process of breakdown by these organisms into some metabolites.4 tab

  3. Induced leaf variations in faba bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The frequency and spectrum of M2 chlorophyll and other leaf mutations after gamma ray, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and nitrous oxide (N2O) seed treatment in two varieties of faba bean were studied. In general, cv JV1 was more sensitive and EMS treatment was most effective. The frequency of chlorina-type mutations was higher than that of xantha and chlorotica type chlorophyll mutations. The highest frequency of variations was observed in leaflet texture, followed by arrangement, shape and size in both varieties. The use of these leaf mutations in formulating an ideotype of Vicia faba L. are discussed

  4. Nitrogen mineralization from selected 15N-labelled crop residues and humus as affected by inorganic nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cover crops or crop residues as a source of N to succeeding crops has become a matter of increasing importance for economic and environmental reason. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the N contribution of four 15 N labelled crop residues, rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), crimson clover (Trifolium encarnatum L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia sativa L.), to successive crops and to evaluate the effect of different organic (ON) and inorganic N (IN) combinations on mineralization of the above residues. Total 15 N recovery from the residues ranged from 51% to 85% and 4% to 74% for the greenhouse and field studies, respectively

  5. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, S.; Huang, B.; Bembenek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation sin...

  6. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Natural and induced variability was studied in Vicia faba, Phaseolus, soybeans, maize, barley, wheat, rice, and other cereals. Studies included mutations induced by radiation and chemical mutagens and breeding for high protein production. Prospects for the future were considered with regard to cell cultures, plant transformations, and development of food and feed materials. Other studies included molecular basis of gene action in protein synthesis; genetic control of protein synthesis; automated assay of protease inhibitors; radioinduced mutants in mung beans; and improvement in lysine content in maize. (HLW)

  7. Unveiling common responses of Medicago truncatula to appropriate and inappropriate rust species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota; Rubiales, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of effective defense mechanisms in legumes to pathogens of remotely related plant species. Some rust species are among pathogens with broad host range causing dramatic losses in various crop plants. To understand and compare the different host and nonhost resistance (NHR) responses of legume species against rusts, we characterized the reaction of the model legume Medicago truncatula to one appropriate (Uromyces striatus) and two inappropriate (U. viciae-fabae and U. lupinicolus) rusts. We found that similar pre and post-haustorial mechanisms of resistance appear to be operative in M. truncatula against appropriate and inappropriate rust fungus. The appropriate U. striatus germinated better on M. truncatula accessions then the inappropriate U. viciae-fabae and U. lupinicolus, but once germinated, germ tubes of the three rusts had a similar level of success in finding stomata and forming an appressoria over a stoma. However, responses to different inappropriate rust species also showed some specificity, suggesting a combination of non-specific and specific responses underlying this legume NHR to rust fungi. Further genetic and expression analysis studies will contribute to the development of the necessary molecular tools to use the present information on host and NHR mechanisms to breed for broad-spectrum resistance to rust in legume species. PMID:25426128

  8. Dinitrogen fixation measurements in some legume crops grown under irrigated condition without bacteria inoculation using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Sharabi, N.D.

    1991-01-01

    N 2 -fixation in some legume crops: Faba bean Vicia faba, common bean pisum sativum, lentil lens esculenta, chick pea cicer artinum and vetch vicia arvillia grown under irrigated conditions without Rhizobium inoculation was estimated using 15 N-labelled fertilizer method. Barley was used as a reference crop. Significant differences occured in N 2 -fixation capacity among legume crops at flowering and podding stages. The highest percentage of Nitrogen fixed occured in faba bean (88% of total N), while lower values were observed in the other crops: Lentil 84%, vetch 68%, common pea 67% and chick pea 57%. Moreover, amounts of N 2 -fixed were 171, 138, 100, 90 and 13 Kg. N. ha -1 respectively for faba bean, lentil, vetch, common pea and chick pea. This clearly indicates the importance of biological dinitrogen fixation in local legume crops nodulated with indigenous Rhizobium strains regarding to N-soil enrichment. Further investigations must be focused on the selection of both plant species and Rhizobium strains in order to obtain a good symbiotic system. (author). 2 figs

  9. A novel type of DNA-binding protein interacts with a conserved sequence in an early nodulin ENOD12 promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, H; Hansen, A C; Vijn, I

    1996-01-01

    The pea genes PsENOD12A and PsENOD12B are expressed in the root hairs shortly after infection with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae or after application of purified Nod factors. A 199 bp promoter fragment of the PsENOD12B gene contains sufficient information for Nod...... factor-induced tissue-specific expression. We have isolated a Vicia sativa cDNA encoding a 1641 amino acid protein, ENBP1, that interacts with the 199 bp ENOD12 promoter. Two different DNA-binding domains were identified in ENBP1. A domain containing six AT-hooks interacts specifically with an AT...... of the ENBP1 transcript in cells expressing ENOD12 strongly suggest that ENBP1 is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of ENOD12. Finally, the C-terminal region of ENBP1 shows strong homology to a protein from rat that is specifically expressed in testis tissue. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Dec...

  10. Ensiling on chemical composition and in vitro fermentation in rabbits of different forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Angeles Hernandez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The effect of chemical composition of silages on in vitro gas fermentation profiles in rabbits was examined. The study was performed using 7 silages: beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, faba bean (FB, Vicia faba, common vetch (CV, Vicia sativa, ryegrass (Lolium perenne, barley (B, Hordeum vulgare, barley with common vetch (BCV and barley with faba bean (BFB. We used 3 New Zealand White (NZW rabbits as donors of caecal content in each incubation run (n=3. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized experimental design. The CV silage showed higher values of crude protein (CP, followed by FB and bean silages (P<0.001. Barley silage had the lowest CP content (96g kg-1 DM (P=0.001. The NDF and ADF content were lower (P<0.001 for beans and CV compared with the rest of the forage silages. Ryegrass silage had higher values of dry matter degradation, organic matter degradation, relative GP and SCFA (P<0.001. The highest values of digestible energy were for CV and bean silages (P<0.001. Ryegrass and CV silages showed higher levels in GP parameters, which could be associated with their better chemical composition characteristics, mainly protein and fiber content.

  11. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects

  12. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  13. Unveiling common responses of Medicago truncatula to appropriate and inappropriate rust species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carlota eVaz Patto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the nature of effective defense mechanisms in legumes to pathogens of remotely related plant species. Some rust species are among pathogens with broad host range causing dramatic losses in various crop plants. To understand and compare the different host and nonhost resistance responses of legume species against rusts, we characterized the reaction of the model legume Medicago truncatula to one appropriate (Uromyces striatus and two inappropriate (U. viciae-fabae and U. lupinicolus rusts. We found that similar pre and post-haustorial mechanisms of resistance appear to be operative in M. truncatula against appropriate and inappropriate rust fungus. The appropriate U. striatus germinated better on M. truncatula accessions then the inappropriate U. viciae-fabae and U. lupinicolus, but once germinated, germ tubes of the three rusts had a similar level of success in finding stomata and forming an appressoria over a stoma. However responses to different inappropriate rust species also showed some specificity, suggesting a combination of non specific and specific responses underlying this legume nonhost resistance to rust fungi. Further genetic and expression analysis studies will contribute to the development of the necessary molecular tools to use the present information on host and nonhost resistance mechanisms to breed for broad-spectrum resistance to rust in legume species.

  14. Inhibition of loading of 14C assimilate by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourquin, S.; Bonnemain, J.L.; Delrot, S.

    1990-01-01

    The apoplast of mature leaves excised from broadbean (Vicia faba L.) plants was infiltrated with 2 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) via the transpiration stream, and the ability of the tissues to take up sugars was tested. An infiltration time of 75 minutes was sufficient of obtain a maximal (75%) inhibition of exogenous [ 14 C]sucrose (1 millimolar) uptake. This infiltration affected neither CO 2 assimilation nor the transmembrane potential difference of leaf cells but strongly inhibited phloem loading of endogenous [ 14 C] assimilates. The study of the symplastic relations between the different cell types of the mature leaf showed that the density of the plasmodesmata is generally very low in comparison with other species investigated so far, particularly when considering the mesophyll/bundle sheath and the bundle sheath/phloem cells connections, as well as the connections of the transfer cell-sieve tube complex with the surrounding cells. These three successive barriers therefore strongly limit the possibilities of symplastic transit of the assimilates to the conducting cells. The comparison of the densities of plasmodesmata in an importing and an exporting leaf suggests that the maturation of the leaf is characterized by a marked symplastic isolation of the phloem, and, within the phloem itself, by the isolation of the conducting complex. As a consequence, these physiological and cytological data demonstrate the apoplastic nature of loading in the mature leaf of Vicia faba, this species undoubtedly presenting a typical model for apoplastic loading

  15. Synthesis of second phase hybrid ceramics using two different bio-source and a comparative study on their morphological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karivaratharajan, Adhitya; Baskaran, Sidharth; Thillairajan, K.

    2018-02-01

    Ceramics are generally synthesized with various sources and methods. The most common method for synthesis of ceramics with reduced cost and energy is SOL-GEL method. Combustion synthesis is also a most widely used method for ceramic synthesis. In general, ceramics have enhanced hardness and dimensional stability even at elevated temperatures. For this reason, they are used in the production of refractories, thermal barrier coatings, chemical resistant coatings, wear resistant coatings, and also as reinforcement material to produce metal matrix composites and polymer matrix composites. This work concentrates on the comparison of morphological characterization of such reinforcement particles synthesized from different sources. The particles size range varying from 7 μm to 250 μm with flaky and spongy structures are observed in the ash of Vicia faba. However, the ash of Cocos nucífera resulted in fibrous structure with a diameter of 50 μm to length above 600 μm, particles size ranging from 10 μm to 70 μm micro tubes of diameter 3.6 μm to length of 150 μm. The EDX and XRD analysis of Vicia faba showed the presence of carbon as the major element with a few other elements.

  16. The influence of intercrop plants and the date of their ploughing-in on weed infestation of root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2006-2008 in the Felin Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin on podzolic soil developed from dusty medium loam. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch. cv. Polanowicka was involved in the experiment. The experimental factors were 3 species of intercrop plants: common vetch (Vicia sativa, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia, oat (Avena sativa and 2 dates of ploughing-in: pre-winter and spring. In total, 26 taxons characteristic for vegetable plantations were identified in chicory weed infestation. Monocarpic species dominated, among which Senecio vulgaris, Chenopodium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Galinsoga ciliata, and Capsella bursa-pastoris were predominant. The date of ploughing-in did not significantly affect the status and size of weed infestation of chicory plots. Short-lived species occurred after pre-winter ploughing-in, while perennial - after spring ploughing-in. The application of intercrops significantly reduced chicory weed infestation as compared to the cultivation with no intercrop. The ploughing-in of Avena sativa biomass appeared to be the most efficient. The intercrop plants reduced the occurrence of Senecio vulgaris and Capsella bursa-pastoris which were the most numerous in the treatment without intercrops. Biomass of Vicia sativa favored the growth of Chenopodium album and Lamium amplexicaule. The secondary weed infestation did not depend on agrotechnical factors applied during the experiment.

  17. Effect of silage from ryegrass intercropped with winter or common vetch for grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Heredia-Nava, Darwin; Espinoza-Ortega, Angelica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of including silages of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) intercropped with winter vetch (Vicia villosa) (ARG-VV) or with common vetch (Vicia sativa) (ARG-VS) compared with maize silage (MS) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows grazing cultivated perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures with supplemented concentrate during the dry season. Six Holstein dairy cows with a mean yield of 19.0 kg/cow/day at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 repeated Latin square. Treatments were: 8 h/day intensive grazing, 3.6 kg of dry matter (DM) per cow per day of concentrate plus MS, and ARG-VV or ARG-VS ad libitum at a stocking rate of 3.0 cows/ha for three experimental periods of 3 weeks each. Milk yield (MY) and milk composition, live weight and body condition score as well as silage and concentrate intakes were recorded during the third week of each experimental period, and pasture intake was estimated indirectly from utilised metabolisable energy. Economic analysis was obtained by preparing partial budgets. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.10) in MY, milk fat or protein content nor for live weight, but there was significant difference (P dairy production systems in the dry season as it is comparable to MS in animal performance and slightly better in economic terms.

  18. Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Turco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legumes contain elevated levels of health functional components. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the nutritional properties and the post-prandial glycaemic responses of pasta obtained using 35% Vicia Faba (VF bean flour, which is an important source of fiber and phytochemical compounds. Results: Protein and fiber content were higher in VF pasta compared with durum wheat semolina (DWS pasta. The total phenol content in VF pasta was about two fold higher compared to that of DWS pasta. A higher total flavonoid content, higher antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay was also observed in VF pasta. The comparison of post-prandial increase of glucose after VF intake or DWS demonstrated significant differences and VF pasta exhibited a lower glycemic index value, a lower glycemic load and higher glycemic profile compared with DWS pasta. Conclusion: The results suggest that enrichment with 35% Vicia faba bean has potential health benefits and that VF flour can be used as an ingredient to prepare added-value products.

  19. Genetic Diversity among Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii Strains Revealed by Allozyme and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demezas, David H.; Reardon, Terry B.; Watson, John M.; Gibson, Alan H.

    1991-01-01

    Allozyme electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were used to examine the genetic diversity of a collection of 18 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, 1 R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, and 2 R. meliloti strains. Allozyme analysis at 28 loci revealed 16 electrophoretic types. The mean genetic distance between electrophoretic types of R. leguminosarum and R. meliloti was 0.83. Within R. leguminosarum, the single strain of bv. viciae differed at an average of 0.65 from strains of bv. trifolii, while electrophoretic types of bv. trifolii differed at a range of 0.23 to 0.62. Analysis of RFLPs around two chromosomal DNA probes also delineated 16 unique RFLP patterns and yielded genetic diversity similar to that revealed by the allozyme data. Analysis of RFLPs around three Sym (symbiotic) plasmid-derived probes demonstrated that the Sym plasmids reflect genetic divergence similar to that of their bacterial hosts. The large genetic distances between many strains precluded reliable estimates of their genetic relationships. PMID:16348600

  20. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.