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Sample records for vicia faba lipoxygenase

  1. Vicia faba L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... Haciseferogullari H, Gezer I, Bahtiyarca Y, Menges HO (2003). Determination of some chemical and physical properties of sakis faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major). J. Food .Eng. 60: 475-479. Hanelt P, Mettin D (1989). Biosystematics of the Genus vicia L. (Leguminosae). Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 20: 199-223.

  2. Vicia Faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate symbiotic characteristics between the crop and the rhizobia in major faba bean producing areas in Tigray ... Nodulation status of the field crops was poor except Ofla, D/Temben and Alaje districts. Though the ..... acknowledge Solomon Hishe and Biadglegn Desmisse for GIS data processing. 6. REFERENCE.

  3. vicia faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The failure of faba bean production in some regions of Semien. Shewa necessitated a research for a ... ppm) and potassium, a high concentration of calcium and magnesium, and a lower population density of .... Magnesium sulphate, 0.5g; Sodium chloride, 0.2g; Yeast extract, 0.1g;. Mannitol, 10g; Agar, 15.

  4. Vicia Faba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the color of nodules (pink which is effective, white which is ineffective in nitrogen fixation). The variation in nodule number and color in turn induce variation in growth and yield of the host due to variation in fixed N (Lupwayi and Mkandawire, 1996; Amijee and Giller, 1998). Faba bean in association with rhizobia can fix up to ...

  5. Vicia faba L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buzayehu

    Characterization of root nodule bacteria is used for selecting and using them as inoculants to improve legume production. To this end, faba bean (Vicia faba L.) rhizobia were isolated from nodules collected from acidic soils of Central and Southern-Western parts of ..... of the isolates were utilized all amino acids sources.

  6. Improvement of faba bean ( Vicia faba L .) yield and quality through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of faba bean ( Vicia faba L .) yield and quality through biotechnological approach: A review. ... yield and quality. This review work examines the role of various techniques with reference to faba bean improvement. Key words: Vicia faba, faba bean, grain quality, resistance breeding, nitrogen fixation, zero tannin.

  7. Words denoting faba bean (Vicia faba in European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L took part in the 'agricultural revolution' of post-glacial Europe along with other grain legumes and cereals. In order to assess the diversity and the origin of the words denoting faba bean in the languages of Europe, a lexicological study was carried out with emphasis upon etymological dictionaries. The words in almost all modern Indo-European languages in Europe owe their origin to the Proto-Indo-European root *bhabh bhabhā, also denoting faba bean. The Proto-Altaic root *bŭkrV, denoting pea nut and cone, through the Proto-Turkic *burčak, denoting both pea and bean is responsible for the words in several modern Altaic languages of Europe while the others are borrowings from Arabic. The origin of the words in modern Caucasian languages is the Proto-Caucasian root *howł[ā], meaning both bean and lentil. The words in Uralic languages are either borrowings, mostly from Slavic, or derived from their own words denoting pea.

  8. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid

  9. Leaf traits associated with drought adaptation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaei, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The potential for use of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is increasing worldwide due to its positive environmental impact and nutritional interest, but there are many challenges for faba bean breeding and cultivation. These include its mixed breeding system, its unknown origin and wild progenitor, its large genome being the biggest diploid genome among field crops, and its relative sensitivity to biotic and abiotic stresses (e.g., drought). Little is known about the ecological adaptation of faba be...

  10. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.); conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Jordan, Megan; Hane, James; Torres, Anna M; Avila, Carmen M; Cruz-Izquierdo, Serafín; Oliver, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    ... identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba...

  11. Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Faba Bean ( Vicia faba L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some species of rhizobial bacteria nodulating faba bean are characterized by phosphate solubilization. In order to study their in vitro and symbiotic characteristics, twelve rhizobial isolates nodulating faba bean were collected from acidic soil of Wollega, Ethiopia. Solubilization index of the isolates ranges from 1.25 to 2.10.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean (Vicia faba) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Göl, Şurhan; DOĞANLAR, Sami; FRARY, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important food and feed legume because of the nutritional value of its seed protein and starch content, good biomass, and high efficiency nitrogen fixation.This study analyzed the molecular genetic diversity and population structure of 101 Turkish faba bean accessions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers.A total of 32 SSR markers yielded 281 loci of which 277 (98.6%) were polymorphic.Mean dissimilarity between genotypes was 0.355, a relatively high value ...

  13. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  14. Variability in yield of faba beans (Vicia faba L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashoff, C.

    1992-01-01

    Yield variability is one of the major problems in growing faba beans. In this thesis, the effect of water supply pattern on yield variability of the crop is studied with experiments in the field and under controlled conditions, and with a simulation model. In a series of field experiments,

  15. Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. nodulates Vicia faba on several continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Sabrine; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Santillana, Nery; Zúñiga, Doris; Álvarez-Martínez, Estela; Peix, Alvaro; Mhamdi, Ridha; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    Several fast-growing strains nodulating Vicia faba in Peru, Spain and Tunisia formed a cluster related to Rhizobium leguminosarum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical to that of R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), whereas rpoB, recA and atpD gene sequences were phylogenetically distant, with sequence similarities of less than 96 %, 97 % and 94 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed a mean relatedness value of 43 % between strain FB206(T) and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). Phenotypic characteristics of the novel strains also differed from those of the closest related species of the genus Rhizobium. Therefore, based on genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify this group of strains nodulating Vicia faba as a novel species of the genus Rhizobium named Rhizobium laguerreae sp. nov. The type strain is FB206(T) ( = LMG 27434(T) = CECT 8280(T)).

  16. Molecular tools for utilization of mitochondrial diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed in silico PCR analyses utilizing complete mitochondrial (mtDNA genome sequences of faba bean (Vicia faba and two related species, Vigna angularis and Vigna radiata, currently available in GenBank, to infer whether 15 published universal primer pairs for amplification of all 14 cis-spliced introns in genes of NADH subunits (nad genes are suitable for V. faba and related species. Then, we tested via PCR reactions whether seven out of 15 primer pairs would generate PCR products suitable for further manipulation in 16 genotypes of V. faba representing all botanical varieties of this species (major, minor, equina and subsp. paucijuga of various levels of improvement (traditional and improved cultivars originating from Europe, Africa, Asia and south America. We provide new PCR primers for amplification of nad1 intron 2/3 in V. faba, and demonstrate intraspecific variability in primary nucleotide sequences at this locus. Based on outcomes of both in silico predictions and PCR amplification, we report a set of PCR primers for amplification of five introns in nad genes that are promising molecular tools for future phylogeographic and other studies in this species for which unambiguous data on wild ancestors, centre of origin and domestication are lacking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005

  17. Mathematical modeling of biological growth for some Vicia faba varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionel, Samfira; Andreea, Ghica; Marius, Boldea; Monica, Butnariu; Marius, Sendroni; Andrei, M.-Kiss

    2013-10-01

    Vicia faba is one of the legume species of importance for human and animal nutrition. Over the past decade, the areas cultivated with this species have significantly increased. Given that the levels of the yield and quality obtained from this species depend largely on the specific soil and climate conditions, the present paper focuses on the study of the morpho-productive features under the conditions in Banat Plain, in the west of Romania. A collection of varieties and genetic lines was studied, with focus on the interdependence between plant height, characteristics of the foliage and in the end the foliar surface of the leaf and of the entire plant. The observations led to the conclusion that variety Melodie has the best response of biological growth on the plain.

  18. Genetic diversity of Palestine landraces of faba bean (Vicia faba) based on RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer-Salimia, R; Shtaya, M; Awad, M; Abdallah, J; Hamdan, Y

    2013-09-03

    Until now, neither phenotypic nor molecular approaches have been used to characterize the landraces of Palestine faba beans (Vicia faba). We used PCR-based RAPD markers to determine the genetic diversity and relatedness among 26 Palestinian faba bean landraces (traditional farmers' varieties) from 8 localities in the West Bank, Palestine. In tests with 37 primers, 14 generated no polymorphic bands, 12 exhibited weak and unclear products, and 11 primers produced good amplification products with high intensity and pattern stability. Ninety-four DNA fragments (loci) were detected, with an average of 8.54 loci per primer and size ranging from 160 to 1370 bp. A minimum of 4 and a maximum of 14 DNA fragments were obtained using (OPA-05 and OPA-09) and (BC-261) primers, respectively. The maximum percentage of polymorphic markers was 71.4 (BC-298) and the minimum was 50.0 (OPA-05, -09, -16). The 11 primers exhibited relatively high collective resolving power (Rp) values of 26.316, and varied from 0.154 for the OPA-09 primer to 5.236 for the BC-261, with an overall mean of 2.392. The primers BC-261, -322, and -298 were found to be the most useful RAPD primers to assess the genetic diversity of Palestinian faba beans, as they revealed relatively high Rp rates (5.236, 3.618, and 3.150, respectively). Based on the Jaccard coefficient, the genetic distance ranged from 0.358 to 0.069, with a mean of 0.213. We conclude that the RAPD technique is useful for determining genetic diversity and for developing suitable fingerprints for faba bean landraces grown in Palestine.

  19. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. under Ascochyta fabae Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ocaña

    Full Text Available Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136 subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H and susceptible genotype (Vf136, respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection.

  20. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) under Ascochyta fabae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Sara; Seoane, Pedro; Bautista, Rocio; Palomino, Carmen; Claros, Gonzalo M.; Torres, Ana M.; Madrid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean is an important food crop worldwide. However, progress in faba bean genomics lags far behind that of model systems due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. Using the Illumina platform the faba bean transcriptome from leaves of two lines (29H and Vf136) subjected to Ascochyta fabae infection have been characterized. De novo transcriptome assembly provided a total of 39,185 different transcripts that were functionally annotated, and among these, 13,266 were assigned to gene ontology against Arabidopsis. Quality of the assembly was validated by RT-qPCR amplification of selected transcripts differentially expressed. Comparison of faba bean transcripts with those of better-characterized plant genomes such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula and Cicer arietinum revealed a sequence similarity of 68.3%, 72.8% and 81.27%, respectively. Moreover, 39,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 3,669 InDels were identified for genotyping applications. Mapping of the sequence reads generated onto the assembled transcripts showed that 393 and 457 transcripts were overexpressed in the resistant (29H) and susceptible genotype (Vf136), respectively. Transcripts involved in plant-pathogen interactions such as leucine rich proteins (LRR) or plant growth regulators involved in plant adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses were found to be differently expressed in the resistant line. The results reported here represent the most comprehensive transcript database developed so far in faba bean, providing valuable information that could be used to gain insight into the pathways involved in the resistance mechanism against A. fabae and to identify potential resistance genes to be further used in marker assisted selection. PMID:26267359

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS evaluation and regional analysis of Chinese faba bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the nutritional composition of faba bean (Vicia faba L. seed, estimation models were developed for protein, starch, oil, and total polyphenol using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Two hundred and forty-four samples from twelve producing regions were measured in both milled powder and intact seed forms. Partial least squares (PLS regression was applied for model development. The model based on ground seed powder was generally superior to that based on the intact seed. The optimal seed powder-based models for protein, starch, and total polyphenol had coefficients of correlation (r2 of 0.97, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The relationship between nutrient contents and twelve producing areas was determined by two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groupings were obtained with region-constituent features, i.e., Group 1 of high oil, Group 2 of high protein, and Group 3 of high starch as well as total polyphenol. The clustering accuracy was 79.5%. Moreover, the nutrition contents were affected by seeding date, longitude, latitude, and altitude of plant location. Cluster analysis revealed that the differences in the seed were strongly influenced by geographical factors.

  2. The digestibility in piglets of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as affected by breeding towards the absence of condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Poel, A F; Dellaert, L M; Van Norel, A; Helsper, J P

    1992-11-01

    Seed samples from two near-isogenic faba bean (Vicia faba L.) lines were examined for the levels of so-called anti-nutritional factors (ANF). From the ANF known to be present in faba beans, trypsin inhibitor activity, functional lectins, condensed tannins and pyrimidine glycosides were analysed. It was concluded that the lines differed only in the content of condensed tannins being 0.05). A multienzyme technique was used to predict the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of the two lines. The IVPD of the LT line was 0.965 and about 0.05 higher than the HT line, confirming the difference in digestibility as measured in vivo. The present study shows the positive effects on digestibility of removal of condensed tannins in faba beans which was achieved by plant breeding.

  3. Role of bioinoculants in development of salt-tolerance of Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in saline conditions was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense (NFB) and Arbuscular mycorrhizal (Am) fungus Glomus clarum on the host plants (Vicia faba) in pot cultures were investigated ...

  4. Meiotic changes in Vicia faba L. subsequent to treatments of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Husain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of mutagens for creating variations in crops like faba bean (Vicia faba L. is an important criterion in the contemporary world where food insecurity and malnutrition is alarming at the doors of various nations. Impact of two chemical mutagens viz. hydrazine hydrate (HZ and maleic hydrazide (MH on the two varieties (NDF-1 and HB-405 of Vicia faba were analysed in terms of meiotic behavior and pollen sterility. Since there are not enough data about the effect of these mutagens on the chromosomal behaviors of Vicia faba, this study presents the role of hydrazine hydrate and maleic hydrazide as well as various types of chromosomal aberrations in crop improvement. The lower concentration of mutagens showed less pollen sterility compared to the higher concentrations. Manipulation of plant structural component to induce desirable alternations provides valuable material for the breeders and could be used favorably for increasing mutation rate and obtaining a desirable spectrum of mutation in faba beans based on preliminary studies of cell division.

  5. Dietary effects of faba-bean (Vicia faba L.) tannins on the morphology and function of the small-intestinal mucosa of weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wiebenga, J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of condensed tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on morphological and functional variables of the small-intestinal mucosa of piglets. In an experiment with young piglets (8-17 kg body weight), fed on either a control diet or a diet

  6. Relationship between geographical origin, seed size and genetic diversity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göl, Şurhan; Doğanlar, Sami; Frary, Anne

    2017-05-11

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important legume species because of its high protein and starch content. Broad bean can be grown in different climatic conditions and is an ideal rotation crop because of the nitrogen fixing bacteria in its roots. In this work, 255 faba bean germplasm accessions were characterized using 32 SSR primers which yielded 302 polymorphic fragments. According to the results, faba bean individuals were divided into two main groups based on the neighbor-joining algorithm (r = 0.91) with some clustering based on geographical origin as well as seed size. Population structure was also determined and agreed with the dendrogram analysis in splitting the accessions into two subpopulations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed high levels of within population genetic variation. Genetic similarity and geographical proximity were related with separation of European accessions from African and Asian ones. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between landrace (38%) and cultivar (40%) diversity indicating that genetic variability has not yet been lost due to breeding. A total of 44 genetically well-characterized faba bean individuals were selected for a core collection to be further examined for yield and nutritional traits.

  7. Flowering and characteristics of useful traits of some faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz cultivars and breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Łabuda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted during the period 2008–2009, related to the growth, flowering, pod set, and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major cultivars and breeding lines. Biometric measurements, made on 20 randomly selected plants, included the following traits: plant height, number of branches per plant, number of inflorescences per plant and number of flowers per inflorescence, number of pods per plant: large pods (marketable, small pods (undeveloped, and pods with disease symptoms. Moreover, the following characters were determined: pod and seed weight per plant in faba bean plants harvested once at processing maturity of fresh green seeds, pod length, width and weight as well as single seed weight. The evaluated cultivars and breeding lines of faba bean were characterized by large variations in the most important commercial traits. The abundance and duration of flowering as well as the number and weight of pods per plant were clearly modified by weather factors during the growth of plants. The new breeding lines R-366/1 and R-384 as well as the cultivars 'Bachus' and 'Jankiel Biały' were characterized by quite stable pod and seed yield per plant. Single harvesting of faba bean pods for green seeds at green maturity stage produced positive results in the case of all cultivars and breeding lines investigated; marketable pods per plant accounted for 75–80% of the total number of pods.

  8. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Portuguese Cultivated Vicia faba L. through IRAP Markers

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    Diana Tomás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean have been grown in Portugal for a long time and locally adapted populations are still maintained on farm. The genetic diversity of four Portuguese faba bean populations that are still cultivated in some regions of the country was evaluated using the Inter Retrotransposons Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP technique. It was shown that molecular markers based on retrotransposons previously identified in other species can be efficiently used in the genetic variability assessment of Vicia faba. The IRAP experiment targeting Athila yielded the most informative banding patterns. Cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining algorithm generated a dendrogram that clearly shows the distribution pattern of V. faba samples. The four equina accessions are separated from each other and form two distinct clades while the two major faba bean accessions are not unequivocally separated by the IRAP. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis of sequences amplified by IRAP Athila revealed a wide distribution throughout V. faba chromosomes, confirming the whole-genome coverage of this molecular marker. Morphological characteristics were also assessed through cluster analysis of seed characters using the unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA, showing a clear discrimination between faba bean major and equina groups. It was also found that the seed character most relevant to distinguish accessions was 100 seed weight. Seed morphological traits and IRAP evaluation give similar results supporting the potential of IRAP analysis for genetic diversity studies.

  9. Synergistic interaction of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a plant growth promoting biofertilizers for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Nafady, Nivien Allam; Khalaf, David Mamdouh; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2014-01-20

    Egyptian soils are generally characterized by slightly alkaline to alkaline pH values (7.5-8.7) which are mainly due to its dry environment. In arid and semi-arid regions, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. Alkaline soils have fertility problems due to poor physical properties which adversely affect the growth and the yield of crops. Therefore, this study was devoted to investigating the synergistic interaction of Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for improving growth of faba bean grown in alkaline soil. A total of 20 rhizobial isolates and 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were isolated. The rhizobial isolates were investigated for their ability to grow under alkaline stress. Out of 20 isolates 3 isolates were selected as tolerant isolates. These 3 rhizobial isolates were identified on the bases of the sequences of the gene encoding 16S rRNA and designated as Rhizobium sp. Egypt 16 (HM622137), Rhizobium sp. Egypt 27 (HM622138) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The best alkaline tolerant was R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The effect of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 and mixture of AMF (Acaulospora laevis, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae and Scutellospora armeniaca) both individually and in combination on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth of Vicia faba under alkalinity stress were assessed. A significant increase over control in number and mass of nodules, nitrogenase activity, leghaemoglobin content of nodule, mycorrhizal colonization, dry mass of root and shoot was recorded in dual inoculated plants than plants with individual inoculation. The enhancement of nitrogen fixation of faba bean could be attributed to AMF facilitating the mobilization of certain elements such as P, Fe, K and other minerals that involve in synthesis of nitrogenase and leghaemoglobin. Thus it is

  10. Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in Vicia faba by arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Hernández-García, A; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1988-07-01

    Arsenic-contaminated drinking water from various towns of Comarca Lagunera, Coahuila, Mexico, was tested for its ability to induce sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba. 3-h treatments were applied and the differential staining technique of Tempelaar et al. (1982) was used. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed that the arsenic concentration in drinking water was 0.11-0.695 ppm, well over the maximum limit of 0.05 ppm (EPA, 1984). In all cases the SCE frequencies were significantly different from the controls. Some concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm) of sodium arsenate (V) and potassium arsenite (III) were also applied to Vicia faba and all produced significant SCE frequencies, except 0.2 ppm of sodium arsenate.

  11. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Zahoor A.; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2013-07-01

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed "graphene oxide") are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop—faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L-1) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 μm) and evaluates glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L-1), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L-1) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes.

  12. Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and pea seeds (Pisum sativum as protein sources in lactating ewes’ diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gatta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 Massese lactating ewes, divided into 3 homogeneous groups for parity and milk yield, were used to evaluate the replacement effects of soybean meal by Faba bean (Vicia faba minor and Pea (Pisum sativum seeds. During a 70 days trial (beginning after weaning: 30±1.5 days after lambing animals were fed three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Each diet was characterised by the presence of only one protein feed. The diets consisted of alfalfa hay (1.1 kg/head/d and a decreasing amount of mixed feed (from 1.1 to 0.7 kg/head/d to fit animals’ requirements. Milk yield, milk chemical composition, animals live weight and BCS, health state and hematochemical parameters were regularly monitored. No diets palatability problems were detected. No significant differences resulted for live weight, BCS, milk yield and milk chemical composition, except for milk protein: higher for faba bean (6.54% and soybean (6.39% respect pea (5.66% diets, P<0.05. No differences resulted for blood parameters too and no clinical signs of illness were observed. Therefore faba bean and pea seeds seem to be able to replace the soybean well.

  13. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m-2 , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m-2 ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m-2 , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m-2 ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m-2 ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m-2 ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. yield in different density and mixture intercropping via competition indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Eslami Khalili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. an experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications at Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University during 2009. The first factor was two seed ratios include D1: 75 and 150 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (optimum seed ratio and D2: 100 and 200 kg.ha-1 of faba bean and barley, respectively (high seed ratio and the second factor consisted of different planting ratio, P1: sole cropping of faba bean, P2: 50% faba bean + 50 % barley, P3: 75% faba bean + 25% barley, P4: 25% faba bean + 75% barley, P5: sole cropping of barley. Land equivalent ratio (LER indicated that intercropping of 25% faba bean + 75% barley was better than 50% faba bean + 50% barley. According to significant interaction effects of density and intercropping ratio in terms of seed yield and some competitive indices for both crop species, the highest barley and faba bean yield (3306.66 and 4884.56 kg.ha-1, respectively were observed in sole cropping with high density. In this experiment, the 75 % faba bean + 25 % mixture with high density was recorded highest intercropping yield, barley aggressivity value and 27% yield increases of barley in mix-proportion compared to sole crops. Also, the most of faba bean aggressivity value and faba bean yield increases in mix-proportion compared to sole crop were obtained when 25% faba bean + 75% barley mixture with optimum density was used. Furthermore the 75% faba bean + 25% barley treatment plus optimum seed ratio had highest system productivity index.

  15. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  16. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.); conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Jordan, Megan; Hane, James; Torres, Anna M; Avila, Carmen M; Cruz-Izquierdo, Serafín; Oliver, Richard P

    2008-08-09

    The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba), using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type) and Vf27 (paucijuga type). Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP) markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs), one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of small-scale duplication events in faba bean

  17. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.; conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila Carmen M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba, using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type and Vf27 (paucijuga type. Results Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs, one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of

  18. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  19. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase

  20. CAPs markers to assist selection for low vicine and convicine contents in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, N; Avila, C M; Duc, G; Marget, P; Suso, M J; Moreno, M T; Torres, A M

    2006-12-01

    The antinutritional factors (ANFs) present in Vicia spp. seeds are a major constraint to the wider utilization of these crops as grain legumes. In the case of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), a breeding priority is the absence vicine and convicine (v-c); responsible for favism in humans and for the reduced animal performance or low egg production in laying hens. The discovery of a spontaneous mutant allele named vc-, which induces a 10-20 fold reduction of v-c contents, may facilitate the process. However, the high cost and difficulty of the chemical detection of v-c seriously restricts the advances in breeding-selection. To identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to this gene, we have analysed an F(2 )population derived from a cross between a line with high v-c content (Vf6) and the vc- genotype (line 1268). Quantification of v-c was done by spectrophotometry on the parents and the F(2 )population (n = 136). By using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), two RAPD markers linked in coupling and repulsion phase to the allele vc- were identified and further converted into sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs). Amplification of SCARS was more consistent, although the initial polymorphism between pools was lost. To recover the polymorphisms several approaches were explored. Restriction digestion with HhaI (for SCAR SCH01(620)) and RsaI (for SCAR SCAB12(850)) revealed clear differences between the parental lines. The simultaneous use of the two cleavage amplified polymorphism (CAP) markers will allow the correct fingerprinting of faba bean plants and can be efficiently used in breeding selection to track the introgression of the vc- allele to develop cultivars with low v-c content and improved nutritional value.

  1. Molecular Diversity Assessment Using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers in Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationship among 58 faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes. Fourteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 1036 differently sized well-resolved peaks (fragments, of which all were polymorphic with a 0.96 PIC value and discriminated all of the 58 faba bean genotypes. An average pairwise similarity of 21% was revealed among the genotypes ranging from 2% to 65%. At a similarity of 28%, UPGMA clustered the genotypes into three main groups comprising 78% of the genotypes. The local landraces and most of the Egyptian genotypes in addition to the Sudan genotypes were grouped in the first main cluster. The advanced breeding lines were scattered in the second and third main clusters with breeding lines from the ICARDA and genotypes introduced from Egypt. At a similarity of 47%, all the genotypes formed separated clusters with the exceptions of Hassawi 1 and Hassawi 2. Group analysis of the genotypes according to their geographic origin and type showed that the landraces were grouped according to their origin, while others were grouped according to their seed type. To our knowledge, this is the first application of SRAP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in faba bean. Such information will be useful to determine optimal breeding strategies to allow continued progress in faba bean breeding.

  2. Structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujiao; Wu, Xuexia; Hou, Wanwei; Li, Ping; Sha, Weichao; Tian, Yingying

    2017-05-01

    The protein subunit is the most important basic unit of protein, and its study can unravel the structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean. In this study, we identified six specific protein subunits in Faba bean (cv. Qinghai 13) combining liquid chromatography (LC), liquid chromatography-electronic spray ionization mass (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and bio-information technology. The results suggested a diversity of seed storage proteins in faba bean, and a total of 16 proteins (four GroEL molecular chaperones and 12 plant-specific proteins) were identified from 97-, 96-, 64-, 47-, 42-, and 38-kD-specific protein subunits in faba bean based on the peptide sequence. We also analyzed the composition and abundance of the amino acids, the physicochemical characteristics, secondary structure, three-dimensional structure, transmembrane domain, and possible subcellular localization of these identified proteins in faba bean seed, and finally predicted function and structure. The three-dimensional structures were generated based on homologous modeling, and the protein function was analyzed based on the annotation from the non-redundant protein database (NR database, NCBI) and function analysis of optimal modeling. The objective of this study was to identify the seed storage proteins in faba bean and confirm the structure and function of these proteins. Our results can be useful for the study of protein nutrition and achieve breeding goals for optimal protein quality in faba bean.

  3. Weed control under integrated nutrient management systems in faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I.M. El-Metwally; M.T. Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, to determine whether management can improve faba bean competitiveness with weeds, thus helping to achieve its yield potential...

  4. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch

  5. Effect of fulvic acids on lead-induced oxidative stress to metal sensitive Vicia faba L. plant

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad; Dumat, Camille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant capable to induce various morphological, physiological, and biochemical functions in plants. Only few publications focus on the influence of Pb speciation both on its phytoavailability and phytotoxicity. Therefore, Pb toxicity (in terms of lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide induction, and photosynthetic pigments contents) was studied in Vicia faba plants in relation with Pb uptake and speciation. V. faba seedlings we...

  6. Vicia faba Hypersensitivity and ASA Intolerance in a Farmer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Damiani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The IgE-mediated allergic reactions to food are caused, generally, by ingestion. However, they can be rarely induced by exposure to airborne food particles through the handling or the cooking. Vicia faba is a vegetable which belongs to Legumes or Fabaceae family, Fabales order. Allergic reactions after ingestion of legumes and cases of asthma after exposure to the cooking vapors have been reported in the literature. A paper assessed the volatile substances (insect repellents released by V. faba. The authors demonstrated that this plant produces several chemical substances, such as small quantities of methyl salicylate. We describe a case of occupational allergy, induced by handling during picking up of fresh broad beans, in a farmer with history of adverse reaction after eating the cooked and raw vegetable.

  7. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembdner, G.; Dathe, W.; Bergner, C.; Roensch, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1983-01-01

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA/sub 3/-stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed.

  8. Influence of salicylic acid on seed germination of Vicia faba L. under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Anaya; Rachid Fghire; Said Wahbi; Kenza Loutfi

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination is the critical stage for species survival. Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as broad bean. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination and influence of salicylic acid on seed in order to improving salt tolerant on broad bean. Vicia faba L. is an important pulse crop in the Mediterranean region. In many cases broad bean is grown on saline soils where growth and yield are limited...

  9. Photosynthesis by Guard Cell Chloroplasts of Vicia faba L. : Effects of Factors Associated with Stomatal Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Weihua, WU; Sarah M., ASSMANN; The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University:(Current)Biology Department, Pennsylvania State University

    1993-01-01

    The properties of photosynthetic O_2 evolution by mesophyll cell chloroplasts (MCC) and guard cell chloroplasts (GCC) isolated from protoplasts of Vicia faba L. have been studied and effects on O_2 evolution of factors known to regulate stomatal movements have been compared. The O_2 evolution of GCC was CO_2-dependent. The saturating light intensity for O_2 evolution was between 150 and 200 μmol m^ s^ for MCC and was between 400 and 1,000μmol m^ s^ for GCC. Light quality (red vs. blue) had no...

  10. Faba beans (Vicia faba) in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Scipioni; Maurizio Moschini; Domenico Pietro Lo Fiego; Francesco Masoero; Michele Comellini; Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked) faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Regg...

  11. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiord) as a protein source for laying hens. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Although food intake increased linearly with faba bean inclusion, reflecting a need by the hens to consume more in an attempt to obtain sufficient of some unidentified limiting nutrient, laying performance was the same on all feeds in the ...

  12. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Dehulled faba beans were evaluated as an alternative to soybeans as a protein source for laying hens using 240 ... industry that is being forced to exclude animal protein sources in animal feeds. ... Wilson &. Teague (1974) reported that this latter rate of inclusion had no effect on laying performance or food intake,.

  13. Evaluation of faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    linearly, and food intake increased linearly, with increasing faba bean content, but when the feeds were ... higher proanthocyanidin (condensed tannin) content of the hulls of these varieties compared with the ..... qualitative treatments such as sex, vaccine, strain or growth promoter and are inappropriate for response.

  14. Faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (12% soybean meal, no faba beans was compared with a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% soybean meal and 10% flaked faba beans. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 1, hay only in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality and the characteristics of grab faecal samples as empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was slightly lower in the “Faba” group, particularly in experiment 2 (“Control” vs “Faba”: 34.6 vs 32.9 mg/dL in experiment 1, P<0.1; 27.4 vs 23.4 mg/dL in experiment 2, P<0.01; the plasma urea content in experiment 2 confirmed the trend observed in milk (3.9 vs 3.0 mmol/L, P<0.01. The inclusion of faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  15. Survey the Effect of Oil Pollution on Morphological Characteristics in Faba Vulgaris and Vicia Ervilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lorestani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollution results when a change in the environment harmfully affects the quality of human life including effect on animals, microorganisms and plants. Among the broad range of organic pollutants contaminating soil-water environment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great environment concern. Oil contaminated soil will affect germination, plant height, leaf area and biomass production. The aim of this research was to elucidate effects of oil pollution on morphological characteristics in Fabaceae family. For this purpose species of Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia were planted in different concentrations of oil in soil. For morphological studies, studied species were removed from polluted and non polluted soils separately and some morphological characters were studied in these species, then these characters were compared in plants, collected from polluted and non polluted soil. Finally, the level of significance of these differences was elucidated by using of SPSS. Obtained results showed that oil pollution can cause some abnormalities in structure of vegetative parts in plants grown on polluted soils. Decreasing of plant length and stem diameter and changing the leaf shape was among the most important effects of oil on morphological characteristics in Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia.

  16. [Effect of soil compaction on Vicia faba of growth in the Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Zhibiao; Zhao, Hongyang; Nie, Bin

    2002-08-01

    The effect of soil compaction on the growth of Vicia faba was studied by pot experiment, field plot experiment, and farmers' field production during two consecutive years. The results showed that increasing soil bulk density at 0-7 cm depth significantly decreased the root and shoot dry weight per plant, increased plant mortality caused by Fusarium species, and decreased seed yields. Field experiments indicated that compared to the plants grown on the plots with soil bulk density of 1.55 and 1.64 g.cm-3, the root and shoot dry weight of plants grown on the plots with soil bulk density of 1.84 g.cm-3 decreased by 30.8% and 27.9%, respectively, while the plant mortality rate increased by 21.0-48.7%, and seed yields decreased by 19.8%. The trials conducted on eight farmers' land illustrated that there existed significant negative correlations between soil bulk density in Spring and root and shoot dry weight of Vicia faba seedlings, and between soil bulk density in Autumn and seed yields. The causes of high soil compaction were discussed, and suggestions for improving soil quality were presented.

  17. Antioxidant Activities of Phenolic Compounds in Green and White Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-wei Luo; Wei-hua Xie; Xiao-xiao Jin; Qian (Janice) Wang; Zhen-ping Hao; Bei-bei Tao

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols and tannins have implications for health and nutrition because of their antioxidant activities. Foods with high content of phenolics, such as fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes, show decreasing incidence of several diseases upon their consumption. However, there are limited reports on ant oxidative properties of tannins present in legumes. Faba bean seed has been known for high content of condensed tannin which is attributed as one of the ant nutritional factors in this highly...

  18. Lead-induced DNA damage in Vicia faba root cells: potential involvement of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Jean, Séverine; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2011-12-24

    Genotoxic effects of lead (0-20μM) were investigated in whole-plant roots of Vicia faba L., grown hydroponically under controlled conditions. Lead-induced DNA damage in V. faba roots was evaluated by use of the comet assay, which allowed the detection of DNA strand-breakage and with the V. faba micronucleus test, which revealed chromosome aberrations. The results clearly indicate that lead induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependant manner with a maximum effect at 10μM. In addition, at this concentration, DNA damage time-dependently increased until 12h. Then, a decrease in DNA damages was recorded. The significant induction of micronucleus formation also reinforced the genotoxic character of this metal. Direct interaction of lead with DNA was also evaluated with the a-cellular comet assay. The data showed that DNA breakages were not associated with a direct effect of lead on DNA. In order to investigate the relationship between lead genotoxicity and oxidative stress, V. faba were exposed to lead in the presence or absence of the antioxidant Vitamin E, or the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor dephenylene iodonium (DPI). The total inhibition of the genotoxic effects of lead (DNA breakage and micronucleus formation) by these compounds reveals the major role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the genotoxicity of lead. These results highlight, for the first time in vivo and in whole-plant roots, the relationship between ROS, DNA strand-breaks and chromosome aberrations induced by lead. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gema and Šarac: The first Serbian cultivars of spring feed faba bean (Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the trials of the Department of Variety Protection and Registration of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia were carried out on four locations, including two new Novi Sad spring feed faba bean lines, B-412 and B-413, and the control cultivar Uran. In average, the highest grain yield was in the cultivar Gema (2905 kg ha-1, although there were no significant differences between three tested cultivars. In comparison to the control, Gema and Šarac had significantly higher crude protein content in grain dry matter, with 341.4 g kg-1 and 341.1 g kg-1. .

  20. Screening of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions to acidity and aluminium stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. Methods A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems. The accessions were grown in solution culture and a subset of 10 was grown first in peat and later in perlite potting media. In solution culture, morphological parameters including taproot length, root regrowth and root tolerance index were measured, and in the pot experiments the key measurements were taproot length, plant biomass, chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance. Result Responses to acidity and aluminium were apparently independent. Accessions Dosha and NC 58 were tolerant to both stress. Kassa and GLA 1103 were tolerant to acidity showing less than 3% reduction in taproot length. Aurora and Messay were tolerant to aluminium. Babylon was sensitive to both, with up to 40% reduction in taproot length from acidity and no detectable recovery from Al3+ challenge. Discussion The apparent independence of the responses to acidity and aluminium is in agreement with the previous research findings, suggesting that crop accessions separately adapt to H+ and Al3+ toxicity as a result of the difference in the nature of soil parent materials where the accession originated. Differences in rankings between experiments were minor and attributable to heterogeneity of seed materials and the specific responses of accessions to the rooting media. Use of perlite as a potting medium offers an ideal combination of throughput, inertness of support medium, access to leaves for detection of their stress responses, and harvest of clean

  1. Screening of faba bean (Vicia faba L. accessions to acidity and aluminium stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiflemariam Y. Belachew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. Methods A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems. The accessions were grown in solution culture and a subset of 10 was grown first in peat and later in perlite potting media. In solution culture, morphological parameters including taproot length, root regrowth and root tolerance index were measured, and in the pot experiments the key measurements were taproot length, plant biomass, chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance. Result Responses to acidity and aluminium were apparently independent. Accessions Dosha and NC 58 were tolerant to both stress. Kassa and GLA 1103 were tolerant to acidity showing less than 3% reduction in taproot length. Aurora and Messay were tolerant to aluminium. Babylon was sensitive to both, with up to 40% reduction in taproot length from acidity and no detectable recovery from Al3+ challenge. Discussion The apparent independence of the responses to acidity and aluminium is in agreement with the previous research findings, suggesting that crop accessions separately adapt to H+ and Al3+ toxicity as a result of the difference in the nature of soil parent materials where the accession originated. Differences in rankings between experiments were minor and attributable to heterogeneity of seed materials and the specific responses of accessions to the rooting media. Use of perlite as a potting medium offers an ideal combination of throughput, inertness of support medium, access to leaves for detection of their stress responses, and

  2. Seed Filling Trend of Faba bean (Vicia faba L. as Affected by Planting Date and Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahemi Karizaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of planting date and plant density on phenology, seed yield, its components, seed filling rate and grain filling period of faba bean, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at Research Farm of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Gonbad University, Iran, during growing season of 2012-2013. The factors were three planting dates (4th of November, 4th of December 2013 and 3th of January 2014 and four planting densities (8, 12, 16 and 18 plant/m2. The results showed that planting dates significantly affected on phenology, yield and its components, seed filling rate and periods while the effect of plant density on seed filling period was not significant. Comparison of sigmoid equation coefficients showed that seed filling rates in three planting dates were different. The highest seed filling rate was obtained in 3th of January and the lowest at November 4, planting dates. The effect of planting date on seed filling duration was also significant, but it was not on plant density. Regression analysis showed that increasing 0.01g seed growth rate in seed unit, resulted in seed weight increase by 45.11, 32.43 and 26.66 g for November 4, December 4 and January 3 planting dates respectively. Delaying planting dates decreased seed filling period by 8.53 days and seed weight by 0.27 g. due to its effect on day length and temperature changes. Delayed planting dates were more effective on the rate and period of seed filling and phenology of faba bean. Delaying in planting date increased time to emergence, while decreased seed filling period and seed yield because of coincidence of this period with high temperatures.

  3. N-(jasmonoyl)tyrosine-derived compounds from flowers of broad beans (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramell, Robert; Schmidt, Jürgen; Herrmann, Gabriele; Schliemann, Willibald

    2005-09-01

    Two new amide-linked conjugates of jasmonic acid, N-[(3R,7R)-(-)-jasmonoyl]-(S)-dopa (3) and N-[(3R,7R)-(-)-jasmonoyl]-dopamine (5), were isolated in addition to the known compound N-[(3R,7R)-(-)-jasmonoyl]-(S)-tyrosine (2) from the methanolic extract of flowers of broad bean (Vicia faba). Their structures were proposed on the basis of spectroscopic data (LC-MS/MS) and chromatographic properties on reversed and chiral phases and confirmed by partial syntheses. Furthermore, tyrosine conjugates of two cucurbic acid isomers (7, 8) were detected and characterized by LC-MS. Crude enzyme preparations from flowers of V. faba hydroxylated both (+/-)-2 and N-[(3R,7R/3S,7S)-(-)-jasmonoyl]tyramine [(+/-)-4] to (+/-)-3 and (+/-)-5, respectively, suggesting a possible biosynthetic relationship. In addition, a commercial tyrosinase (mushroom) and a tyrosinase-containing extract from hairy roots of red beet exhibited the same catalytic properties, but with different substrate specificities. The conjugates (+/-)-2, (+/-)-3, (+/-)-4, and (+/-)-5 exhibited in a bioassay low activity to elicit alkaloid formation in comparison to free (+/-)-jasmonic acid [(+/-)-1].

  4. The dynamics of faba bean (Vicia faba L. parasitism by Orobanche foetida

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    Zouhaier ABBES

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The dynamics of Orobanche foetida parasitizing faba bean are examined using Petri dish experiments. Rates of broomrape seed germination and seedling attachment to the host roots were quantified on three resistant genotypes (the Egyptian line Giza 429, the Spanish cultivar Baraca, and the Tunisian cultivar Najeh [XBJ90.03-16-1-1-1] and the susceptible cv. Bachaar. The percentage of O. foetida seed germination (11 to 38% was lower near the roots of resistant host plants than it was near the roots of ‘Bachaar’ (67%. O. foetida parasitism was followed using three parametric logistic functions. In this way some major parameters of the infection process were quantified: the maximal number (Nmax and the maximal rate (Rmax of broomrape attachments to the host roots, the median time required for attachment (T50, the maximal percentage of established tubercles reaching the final growth stage at 70 days after inoculation (DAI (%max, and the maximal rate of established tubercle growth (R’max. Broomrape attachment was lower and slower in resistant plants, as indicated by low Nmax and Rmax values combined with high T50 values. Furthermore the precocity of the resistant genotypes was correlated with low attachment. The parameters %max and R’max did not discriminate the susceptible cultivar Bachaar from Giza 429 or Baraca. On the other hand, the %max and the R’max were lower in the ‘Najeh’ plants. The findings indicated that both low attachment and limited growth of established tubercles contributed to resistance in the Najeh cultivar.

  5. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental impact of sunscreen nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of altered TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites on Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltete, Anne-Sophie, E-mail: as.foltete@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Masfaraud, Jean-Francois, E-mail: masfa@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Bigorgne, Emilie, E-mail: emilie.bigorgne@umail.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Nahmani, Johanne, E-mail: Johanne.nahmani@univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, CNRS UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France); Chaurand, Perrine, E-mail: chaurand@cerege.fr [Centre Europeen de Recherches et d' Enseignement des Geosciences de l' Environnement (CEREGE), UMR 6635 CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universite, Europole de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); iCEINT, International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Mineral sunscreen nanocomposites, based on a nano-TiO{sub 2} core, coated with aluminium hydroxide and dimethicone films, were submitted to an artificial ageing process. The resulting Altered TiO{sub 2} Nanocomposites (ATN) were then tested in the liquid phase on the plant model Vicia faba, which was exposed 48 h to three nominal concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg ATN/L. Plant growth, photosystem II maximum quantum yield, genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and phytochelatins levels showed no change compared to controls. Oxidative stress biomarkers remained unchanged in shoots while in roots, glutathione reductase activity decreased at 50 mg ATN/L and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased for 5 and 25 mg ATN/L. Nevertheless, despite the weak response of biological endpoints, ICP-MS measurements revealed high Ti and Al concentrations in roots, and X-ray fluorescence micro-spectroscopy revealed titanium internalization in superficial root tissues. Eventual long-term effects on plants may occur. - Highlights: > TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites were artificially aged. > Vicia faba was exposed 48 h to the alteration byproducts in liquid phase. > Few endpoints were modified significantly from control. > A clogging on the roots and titanium penetration in tissues were suspected. > Eventual long-term effects of the particles may occur. - Artificially aged TiO{sub 2}-containing sunscreen nanocomposites caused few damages to Vicia faba in 48 h exposure, but particles clogged on roots and Ti entered the root tissues.

  7. Promutagen activation of triazine herbicides metribuzin and ametryn through Vicia faba metabolism inducing sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes in vitro and in V. faba root tip meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Maya, Saúl; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan M; de la Cruz, Leticia Gómez

    2005-03-01

    The aim of our study was the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro and in root tip meristems of Vicia faba to evaluate the genotoxic effects of metribuzin and ametryn. Direct treatments of these herbicides on human lymphocytes in vitro applied 24 h after the beginning of culture did not induce SCE; however, they showed a cytotoxic effect in the cultures expressed as cellular death. On the contrary, when extracts of V. faba roots, treated for 4 h with metribuzin and ametryn (in vivo activation), were added to the lymphocyte cultures, SCEs were significantly induced with an asymptotic response. Negative responses appeared with the in vitro assays, in which metribuzin and ametryn were added directly to the 48 h lymphocyte cultures for 4 h. Nevertheless, in treatments in which the S10 metabolic mix was added, the SCE frequencies were significantly different to the control, although a concentration-response relationship was only observed with metribuzin. The results showed that both herbicides needed the V. faba metabolism to produce SCE in human lymphocyte cultures. Metribuzin and ametryn applied to V. faba root tip meristems for 4 h increased SCE frequency significantly, and a concentration-response relationship was observed with both herbicides.

  8. Between plant and diurnal variation in quantities and ratios of volatile compounds emitted by Vicia faba plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Ben; Gezan, Salvador; Bruce, Toby; Hardie, Jim; Pickett, John

    2010-01-01

    Ratios of volatile phytochemicals potentially offer a means for insects to recognise their host-plant species. However, for this to occur ratios of volatiles would need to be sufficiently consistent between plants and over time to constitute a host-characteristic cue. In this context we collected headspace samples from Vicia faba plants to determine how consistent ratios of key volatile phytochemicals used in host location by one of its insect pests, the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, were. These were (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, octanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (R)-linalool, methyl salicylate, decanal, undecanal, (E)-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene, (S)-germacrene D, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene, which had previously been found to be electrophysiologically and behaviourally active to A. fabae. Although the quantities of volatiles produced by V. faba showed large between plant and diurnal variation, correlations between quantities of compounds indicated that the ratios of certain pairs of volatiles were very consistent. This suggests that there is a host-characteristic cue available to A. fabae in the form of ratios of volatiles. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  10. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem.

  11. Contenidos de taninos y caracterización molecular de variedades de haba (Vicia faba L.) cultivadas por agricultores.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Aguilar, Bladimir

    2011-01-01

    En México el haba (Vicia faba L.) es importante para la alimentación de los habitantes del medio rural y urbano, contiene un alto contenido nutritivo, es un alimento balanceado, asimismo en la actualidad los productores demandan variedades con mayor calidad de semilla. El rango en cuanto al contenido de taninos en las semillas de haba cultivadas por los agricultores fue determinado, se estimaron las relaciones entre las variedades de haba mediante la utilización de marcadores moleculares tipo...

  12. Ca2+-mediated remote control of reversible sieve tube occlusion in Vicia faba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furch, Alexandra C.U.; Hafke, Jens B.; Schulz, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    (EPWs), and is reversible in intact plants. The time-course of the wound response was studied in sieve elements of main veins of intact Vicia faba plants using confocal and multiphoton microscopy. Only 15-45 s after burning a leaf tip, forisomes (giant protein bodies specific for legume sieve tubes...... reversible; callose degraded over the subsequent 1-2 h. The heat induction of both modes of occlusion coincided with the passage of an EPW visualized by electrophysiology or the potential-sensitive dye RH-414. In contrast to burning, cutting of the leaf tip induced neither an EPW nor callose deposition...

  13. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings induced by thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Cvjetko, Petra; Glavas, Katarina; Roje, Vibor; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a metal of great toxicological concern because it is highly toxic to all living organisms through mechanisms that are yet poorly understood. Since Tl is accumulated by important crops, the present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of Tl in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as well as the plant's antioxidative defense mechanisms usually activated by heavy metals. Thallium toxicity was related to production of reactive oxygen species in leaves and roots of broad bean seedlings following short-term (72 h) exposure to thallium (I) acetate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 mg/L) by evaluating DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters as well as antioxidative response. The possible antagonistic effect of potassium (K) was tested by combined treatment with 5 mg/L of Tl (Tl+) and 10 mg/L of potassium (K+) acetate. Accumulation of Tl+ in roots was 50 to 250 times higher than in broad bean shoots and was accompanied by increase in dry weight and proline. Despite responsive antioxidative defense (increased activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and pyrogallol peroxidase), Tl+ caused oxidative damage to lipids and proteins as evaluated by malondialdehyde and carbonyl group levels, and induced DNA strand breaks. Combined treatment caused no oxidative alternations to lipids and proteins though it induced DNA damage. The difference in Tl-induced genotoxicity following both acellular and cellular exposure implies indirect DNA damage. Results obtained indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of Tl toxicity and that the tolerance of broad bean to Tl is achieved, at least in part, through the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  15. Phytostabilization of moderate copper contaminated soils using co-inoculation of Vicia faba with plant growth promoting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programs. This article suggest a consortium of bacteria combining Rhizobium sp. CCNWSX0481, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas sp. 2(2010) that was examined for the ability to promote Vicia faba.L. growth when cultivated on the vineyard of soil moderately contaminated with copper. Data showed that inoculation was significant in nodulation; it increases the number and the weight of nodules of 50%. Co-inoculation was also found to positively influence growth and seed yield, through increasing fresh shoot and fresh root weights by 33 and 26%, respectively, and through rising numbers of seed per pod and pods per plant. In contrast, co-inoculation produced a significant reduction of accumulated copper in roots attending 35%, however, the treatment revealed no significant effects on the copper contents in pods and seeds. The tested inoculum could be an option to promote V. faba growth and to enhance soil fertilization in moderate copper contaminated soils. Further studies on the influence of co-inoculation practices on copper migration in soil-plant systems are recommended to acquire more information for evaluation of this legume safety. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Dumat, C

    2011-01-01

    Formation of organometallic complexes in soil solution strongly influence metals phytoavailability. However, only few studies deal with the influence of metal speciation both on plant uptake and genotoxicity. In the present study, Vicia faba seedlings were exposed for 6h in controlled hydroponic conditions to 5 μM of lead nitrate alone and chelated to varying degrees by different organic ligands. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid were, respectively, chosen as models of humic substances and low weight organic acids present in natural soil solutions. Visual Minteq software was used to estimate free lead cations concentration and ultimately to design the experimental layout. For all experimental conditions, both micronucleus test and measure of lead uptake by plants were finally performed. Chelation of Pb by EDTA, a strong chelator, dose-dependently increased the uptake in V. faba roots while its genotoxicity was significantly reduced, suggesting a protective role of EDTA. A weak correlation was observed between total lead concentration absorbed by roots and genotoxicity (r(2)=0.65). In contrast, a strong relationship (r(2)=0.93) exists between Pb(2+) concentration in exposure media and genotoxicity in the experiment performed with EDTA. Citric acid induced labile organometallic complexes did not demonstrate any significant changes in lead genotoxicity or uptake. These results demonstrate that metal speciation knowledge could improve the interpretation of V. faba genotoxicity test performed to test soil quality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contaminant bioavailability in soil and phytotoxicity/genotoxicity tests in Vicia faba L.: a case study of boron contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the model plant for genotoxicity studies Vicia faba L. was used to investigate the relation between Boron (B) content and bioavailability in soil and plant genotoxic/phytotoxic response. A total of nine soil samples were investigated: two soil samples were collected from a B-polluted industrial area in Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), the other samples were obtained by spiking control soil (from a not polluted area of the basin) with seven increased doses of B, from about 20 to 100 mg B kg(-1). As expected, B availability, evaluated by chemical extraction, was higher (twofold) in spiked soils when compared with collected polluted soils with the same B total content. To analyze the phytotoxic effects of B, seed germination, root elongation, biomass production, and B accumulation in plant tissues were considered in V. faba plants grown in the various soils. Moreover, the cytotoxic/genotoxic effects of B were investigated in root meristems by mitotic index (MI) and micronuclei frequency (MCN) analysis. The results highlighted that V. faba was a B-sensitive plant and the appearance of phytotoxic effects, which altered plant growth parameters, were linearly correlated to the bioavailable B concentration in soils. Concerning the occurrence of cytotoxic/genotoxic effects induced by B, no linear correlation was observed even if MCN frequency was logarithmic correlated with the concentration of B bioavailable in soils.

  19. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  20. Influence of ionizing irradiation on the antioxidant enzymes of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam E. S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vicia faba L. Giza 834 were exposed to γ-irradiation at dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy and after that exposed to He–Ne (632.8 nm or diode (650.0 nm laser irradiation for 5 min. The activities of POD, APOX, CAT, SOD and GST enzymes were significantly stimulated and this stimulation reached its maximum at a dose level of 5.0 kGy for enzymes POD, APOX, CAT and SOD, but for GST enzyme at a dose level 10.0 kGy. For He- Ne laser, with or without different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy of γ-irradiation, enzyme induction was significantly stimulated and positively correlated with the dose levels of γ-irradiation in combination with the He-Ne treatment. There was a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and this increase was more pronounced at dose level 20.0 kGy (38.2 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (3.9 μmol/g d.w. Laser treatment by He–Ne laser or diode laser only caused a slight increase (P 2O2 content significantly increased in all treatments and this increase reached its maximum at dose level 20.0 kGy (36.3 μmol/g d.w compared to the control (2.3 μmol/g d.w.. On the other hand, He-Ne or diode laser treatments combined with γ-irradiation significantly decreased in comparison with γ-irradiation treatments alone. In the case of glutathione content, there were significant increases by γ-irradiation at dose levels 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy. Furthermore, with a combination of γ-irradiation and He-Ne or diode laser, a marked increase in glutathione content was found and was more pronounced than that of gamma irradiation alone.Semillas de Vicia faba L. Giza 834 fueron expuestas a γ-irradiación a dosis de 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 y 20.0 kGy y después expuesta a una radiación laser de He–Ne (632.8 nm o de diodo (650.0 nm durante 5 minutos. Las actividades de las enzimas POD, APOX, CAT, SOD y GST fueron favorecidas significativamente, y éstas alcanzaron un máximo a una dosis de 5.0 kGy para las enzimas

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Hassan, Amro B; Osman, Gammaa A M; Mohammed, Nagat; Rushdi, Mohamed A H; Diab, Eiman E; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2014-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction on tannin content for both cultivars. Cooking of faba bean seeds also insignificantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced phytic acid content for both cultivars, while irradiation process and/or cooking had fluctuated effect. For both cultivars, irradiation of seeds and/or cooking increased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), with maximum value of IVPD (79.97%) obtained for cultivar BB7-S1. The results indicate that the treatments used in this study might improve the nutritive quality of faba bean seed due to reduction in antinutritional factors with a concomitant increase in IVPD.

  2. Sister chromatid exchanges in Vicia faba induced by arsenic-contaminated drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Armienta, M A; Cortés-Eslava, J; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1997-11-27

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba root tips were used to examine well water containing high levels of arsenic. The increased amount of arsenic was contained in well water from different towns of Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico. Treatments of 3 h were applied followed by the differential staining technique of Tempelaar et al. (Mutation Res. 103 (1982) 321-326). Concentrations of arsenic from 0.267 up to 1.070 mg/l were determined by colorimetry in the polluted samples used for this study. These values were above the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/l in drinking water. In all cases, except one in which the As concentration was 0.021, the arsenic-contaminated water produced significant increases of SCE compared with the control (p Comarca Lagunera and the results observed in Zimapan.

  3. LC-MSdetermination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia fabaL. lines with common and rare flowercolors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of muscle control, which causes trembling of the limbs and head as well as impaired balance. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine is the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat PD. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the few plant species that is known to produce L-DOPA and has the potential to be developed as a functional food crop for people suffering with PD. Objective: Aimed to provide needed information for people who want to use faba bean as a natural remedy or functional food to relieve PD symptoms, this study analyzed the variation of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors. Methods: Leaf and flower samples were taken from field grown plants with different flower colors, namely, pink with purple lines and black dots, pure white, brown, and crimson. Samples were freeze-dried and L-DOPA was quantified by a LC-MS system consisting of an ACQUITY UPLC in line with a Synapt G2 HDMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This experiment was carried out in two consecutive years (2012 and 2013 and the plants used in the second year were grown from the seeds harvested from the plants used in the first year. Results and Discussion: Our two-year study revealed a high level of variation in L-DOPA concentration for leaf and flower tissues among the six faba bean lines studied. The average L-DOPA concentration based on dry weight (DW in flowers ranged from 27.8 to 63.5 mg/g and 18.2 to 48.7 mg/g for leaf tissues. There was no significant correlation between L-DOPA concentrations in flowers and leaves. The L-DOPA concentration in flowers and in leaves of the same line varied but were not statistically significant between the two years. Ideally, the genotype with the highest average L-DOPA concentration in both flowers and leaves would be grown

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Hassan, Amro B.; Osman, Gammaa A. M.; Mohammed, Nagat; Rushdi, Mohamed A. H.; Diab, Eiman E.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction on tannin conte...

  5. Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Vicia faba: A Pilot Study on the Environmental Monitoring of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there have been some attempts to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs in mammalian and human cell-lines, there is little information on plants which play a vital role in ecosystems. The study reports the use of Vicia faba root-tip meristem to investigate the genotoxicity of AgNPs under modified GENE-TOX test conditions. The root tip cells of V. faba were treated with four different concentrations of engineered AgNPs dispersion to study toxicological endpoints such as mitotic index (MI, chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronucleus induction (MN. For each concentration, five sets of microscopy observations were carried out. The results demonstrated that AgNPs exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05 the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and decreased the MI in exposed groups compared to control. From this study we infer that AgNPs might have penetrated the plant system and may have impaired mitosis causing CA and MN. The results of this study demonstrate that AgNPs are genotoxic to plant cells. Since plant assays have been integrated as a genotoxicity component in risk assessment for detection of environmental mutagens, they should be given full consideration when evaluating the overall toxicological impact of the nanoparticles in the environment.

  6. Immunolocalization of dually phosphorylated MAPKs in dividing root meristem cells of Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Lupinus luteus and Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnicki, Konrad; Żabka, Aneta; Bernasińska, Joanna; Matczak, Karolina; Maszewski, Janusz

    2015-06-01

    In plants, phosphorylated MAPKs display constitutive nuclear localization; however, not all studied plant species show co-localization of activated MAPKs to mitotic microtubules. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved not only in the cellular response to biotic and abiotic stress but also in the regulation of cell cycle and plant development. The role of MAPKs in the formation of a mitotic spindle has been widely studied and the MAPK signaling pathway was found to be indispensable for the unperturbed course of cell division. Here we show cellular localization of activated MAPKs (dually phosphorylated at their TXY motifs) in both interphase and mitotic root meristem cells of Lupinus luteus, Pisum sativum, Vicia faba (Fabaceae) and Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae). Nuclear localization of activated MAPKs has been found in all species. Co-localization of these kinases to mitotic microtubules was most evident in L. esculentum, while only about 50% of mitotic cells in the root meristems of P. sativum and V. faba displayed activated MAPKs localized to microtubules during mitosis. Unexpectedly, no evident immunofluorescence signals at spindle microtubules and phragmoplast were noted in L. luteus. Considering immunocytochemical analyses and studies on the impact of FR180204 (an inhibitor of animal ERK1/2) on mitotic cells, we hypothesize that MAPKs may not play prominent role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics in all plant species.

  7. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomass growth, micronucleus induction, and antioxidant stress enzyme responses in Vicia faba exposed to cadmium in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Edson V Cordova; Valgas, Cleidson; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos

    2003-03-01

    Biomass growth, micronucleus induction, and antioxidative stress enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) were investigated simultaneously in the Vicia faba plant exposed to cadmium in solution. The biomass lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) value was 2,000 microM Cd2+. In the shoots, enzymic activities increased without concentration-response relationships. In the roots, after an initial increase, activities of all enzymes showed negative concentration-response relationships. A significant increase in micronucleus induction was observed at 20 microM Cd2+. Regarding sensitivity, our results showed that biomass endpoint was less sensitive than micronucleus induction, which was less sensitive than antioxidative enzyme activities. The increase of antioxidant stress enzyme activities in response to cadmium exposure may be taken as evidence for an enhanced detoxification capacity of V. faba plants toward reactive oxygen species (and derivatives) that might be generated in the stressed plants. Concomitant micronucleus induction may be also interpreted as a consequence of oxidative stress, upholding the view that cadmium-induced DNA damage is, to some extent, via generation of reactive (intermediate) oxygen species.

  9. Relations between the crude protein content and the amino acid profile of organically produced field beans (Vicia faba L.) and field peas (Pisum sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Stephanie; Aulrich, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In Organic Farming, grain legumes are important protein feedstuffs. There are hints indicating that the amino acid (AA) profile is affected by factors associated with varying crude protein (CP) contents of crops. The knowledge on this relationship between CP and AA profile needs to be extended to optimize feeding strategies for monogastrics as well as the selection of cultivars and varieties in fodder crop cultivation. Therefore, samples of 67 field beans (Vicia faba L.) and 86 field peas (Pi...

  10. Weed control under integrated nutrient management systems in faba bean (Vicia faba) production in Egypt Controle de plantas daninhas sob sistemas de manejo integrado em feijão de fava (Vicia faba) no Egito

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I.M. El-Metwally; M.T. Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, to determine whether management can improve faba bean competitiveness with weeds, thus helping to achieve its yield potential...

  11. Resolving browning during the establishment of explant cultures in Vicia faba L. for genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Klenotičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of in vitro regeneration systems of two explant types for low-tannine cultivars of faba bean based on culturing of shoot apices and cotyledonary nodes were provided by usage of various antioxidants - ascorbic acid, citric acid, glutathione and activated charcoal. In subsequent testing, the combined effects of antioxidants with transformation co-cultivation compounds acetosyringone and L-cysteine was studied. The application of antioxidants lead to decreased callogenesis, citric acids treatments (50 mg.l−1 dramatically decreased necrotic response of explants. However, citric acid, used together with ascorbic acid completely inhibited shoot growth in shoot apex cultures. Glutathion evoked hyperhydricity of explants. Activated charcoal induced rooting on media which are commonly used for shoot proliferation. Combination of acetosyringone with antioxidants influenced shoot proliferation, except of variant with ascorbic acid. Citric acid was the best and universal antioxidant in faba bean in vitro cultures and its use is recommended for faba bean genetic transformation experiments.

  12. Symbiotic effectiveness and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Sichuan hilly areas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai Wei; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Wang, Ke; Heng, Nan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhao, Ke; Chen, Yuan Xue

    2015-10-01

    A total of 54 rhizobial strains were isolated from faba bean root nodules in 21 counties of Sichuan hilly areas in China, and their symbiotic effectiveness, genetic diversity and phylogeny were assessed. Only six strains increased the shoot dry mass of the host plant significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Based on the cluster analysis of combined 16S rDNA and intergenic spacer region (IGS) PCR-RFLP, the strains were divided into 31 genotypes in 11 groups, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity among the strains. The sequence analysis of three housekeeping genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and 16S rDNA indicated that the strains represented two R. leguminosarum, two Rhizobium spp., R. mesosinicum, Agrobacterium sp. and A. tumefaciens. The strains representing four Rhizobium species were divided into two distinct nodC and nifH genotypes. However, the phylogeny of housekeeping genes and symbiotic genes was not congruent, implying that the strains had been shaped by vertical evolution of the housekeeping genes and lateral evolution of the symbiotic genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of faba beans (Vicia faDa cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLCKERS, R.C., 1991. Evaluering van gars as voedingsbron in varkdi€te in die Winterreenstreek. MSc.(Agric)-tesis. Universiteit van Stellenbosch,. Stellenbosch 7600, Suid-Afiika. ORTIZ, L.T., CENTENO, C. & TREVINO, J., 1993. Tannins in faba bean seeds: effects on the digestion of protein and antino acids in growing.

  14. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Efecto de la acetilación sobre las propiedades funcionales y nutricionales de almidones de haba (VICIA FABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron algunas propiedades funcionales del almidón de haba (Vicia faba, con dos niveles de proteína -12,89% y 4,41%-, obtenido por fraccionamiento por vía húmeda de las semillas secas. Se comparan el secado en rodillos y la liofilización como métodos para deshidratar la muestra, así como las propiedades funcionales del almidón antes y después de acetilarlo con anhídrido acético. También se investigaron ciertas propiedades de interés nutricional con el fin de observar la influencia de la modificación química en la biodisponibilidad del almidón de haba. Se realizó la determinación de almidón total, almidón resistente por retrogradación (AR3, almidón disponible y la velocidad de hidrólisis enzimática en el almidón nativo y en el modificado.

  16. Variation in seed mineral elements profile and yield in field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor is one of the major leguminous crops cultivated in the world and mainly destined for animal feed. Although its seed is generally recognised as a good protein source, little is known about its mineral elements profile, which is an important aspect for a balanced animal diet. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the seed mineral elements composition, along with some key production parameters, in eight field bean genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment, without intensive management, over two years (2009/10 and 2010/11. Independently of the year, the seed of Chiaro di Torre Lama was the richest in phosphorus (P, magnesium, calcium and iron contents, while that of Sint 6 and Motta Chiaro 69 were the most effective accumulators of potassium and zinc, respectively. While all the genotypes yielded better in the second year (with more rainfall, the seasonal effect on seed mineral elements composition depended on the genotype. Indeed, the P content was 46% lower in Chiaro di Torre Lama, Motta Chiaro 69 and Sint 6 in the second year, while there was only a negligible seasonal effect for Sint 8 with respect to Fe content. Overall, this crop is reasonably productive under a low management regime and its seed can supply significant amounts of certain minerals (particularly P in feed formulations. Both aspects are important in a perspective of optimising field bean production in the Mediterranean area and, hence, improving farmers’ income.

  17. The Kok effect in Vicia faba cannot be explained solely by changes in chloroplastic CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Vice, Heather; Adams, Mark A

    2017-08-31

    The Kok effect - an abrupt decline in quantum yield (QY) of net CO2 assimilation at low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) - is widely used to estimate respiration in the light (R), which assumes the effect is caused by light suppression of R. A recent report suggested much of the Kok effect can be explained by declining chloroplastic CO2 concentration (cc ) at low PPFD. Several predictions arise from the hypothesis that the Kok effect is caused by declining cc , and we tested these predictions in Vicia faba. We measured CO2 exchange at low PPFD, in 2% and 21% oxygen, in developing and mature leaves, which differed greatly in R in darkness. Our results contradicted each of the predictions based on the cc effect: QY exceeded the theoretical maximum value for photosynthetic CO2 uptake; QY was larger in 21% than 2% oxygen; and the change in QY at the Kok effect breakpoint was unaffected by oxygen. Our results strongly suggest the Kok effect arises largely from a progressive decline in R with PPFD that includes both oxygen-sensitive and -insensitive components. We suggest an improved Kok method that accounts for high cc at low PPFD. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los distintos estados fenológicos de Vicia faba ofrecen recursos alimenticios y sustratos para el desarrollo de una importante diversidad de insectos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanópteros antófilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecológicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociación. El estudio se realizó durante el período floración-fructificación del cultivo de haba, en dos etapas y regiones fitogeográficas de Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479msnm, semanalmente desde octubre-diciembre de 1995-1996 y Puna (3 367msnm, quincenalmente desde diciembre 2007-marzo 2008. Cada muestra consistió de 25 flores tomadas al azar; sólo en Prepuna se realizó un muestreo complementario de tres golpes/planta (n=10 plantas. Se realizaron observaciones sobre sitios de oviposición, ingreso a la flor, lugares de pupación, comportamiento alimenticio y lesiones producidas. En Prepuna, el complejo de tisanópteros está formado por Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei y Thrips tabaci; en Puna la diversidad específica está restringida a F. australis y F. gemina. A pesar de que el período siembra-cosecha no coincide en ambas áreas, las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones presentan un mismo patrón: a medida que avanza la floración aumenta el número de tisanópteros, que coincide con la disponibilidad del recurso alimenticio. En ambas áreas, F. australis es la especie dominante y mantiene poblaciones sucesivas en el cultivo; deposita los huevos en los botones florales y las larvas eclosionan cuando se produce la apertura de las flores; la alimentación de larvas y adultos ocasiona manchas plateadas con puntuaciones negras. En la Prepuna, F. australis atraviesa los estados inmaduros móviles en las flores y los quiescentes en el suelo; en la Puna, todos los estados de desarrollo transcurren dentro de las flores. Thrips tabaci, F. gemina, F. shultzei y F

  19. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  20. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  1. NO and H2O2 contribute to SO2 toxicity via Ca2+ signaling in Vicia faba guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Min; Bai, Heli; Xue, Meizhao; Yi, Huilan

    2017-04-01

    NO and H2O2 have been implicated as important signals in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants to the environment. Previously, we have shown that SO2 exposure increased the levels of NO and H2O2 in plant cells. We hypothesize that, as signaling molecules, NO and H2O2 mediate SO2-caused toxicity. In this paper, we show that SO2 hydrates caused guard cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range of 0.25 to 6 mmol L-1, which was associated with elevation of intracellular NO, H2O2, and Ca2+ levels in Vicia faba guard cells. NO donor SNP enhanced SO2 toxicity, while NO scavenger c-PTIO and NO synthesis inhibitors L-NAME and tungstate significantly prevented SO2 toxicity. ROS scavenger ascorbic acid (AsA) and catalase (CAT), Ca2+ chelating agent EGTA, and Ca2+ channel inhibitor LaCl3 also markedly blocked SO2 toxicity. In addition, both c-PTIO and AsA could completely block SO2-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ level. Moreover, c-PTIO efficiently blocked SO2-induced H2O2 elevation, and AsA significantly blocked SO2-induced NO elevation. These results indicate that extra NO and H2O2 are produced and accumulated in SO2-treated guard cells, which further activate Ca2+ signaling to mediate SO2 toxicity. Our findings suggest that both NO and H2O2 contribute to SO2 toxicity via Ca2+ signaling.

  2. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A; Johnson, David

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Weed control under integrated nutrient management systems in faba bean (Vicia faba production in Egypt Controle de plantas daninhas sob sistemas de manejo integrado em feijão de fava (Vicia faba no Egito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. El-Metwally

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, to determine whether management can improve faba bean competitiveness with weeds, thus helping to achieve its yield potential. The experiment included five treatments, composed of organic and mineral fertilizers, alone and mixed at different rates, along with a control and six weed control treatments, including oxadiargyl, prometryn, hand hoeing treatments alone or mixed with the herbicides, and a nonweeded treatment (control.The herbicide treatments were not superior to the two hand-hoeing treatments. Using compost favored growth and yield of faba bean more than of weeds. Adding fertilizer also improved most yield parameters. Application of compost alone or combined with 50 or 100% of the recommended NPK rate improved faba bean growth in terms of net assimilation rate, specific leaf area, and leaf weight ratio as components of relative growth rate. This improvement in growth resulted in increase of seed yield, yield components and protein of faba bean. Faba bean yield performance improved under interactive fertilizer effects and weed control treatments as growth improved, as a result of nutrient release from fertilizers and weed control.Dois experimentos em condições de campo foram conduzidos em duas épocas sucessivas - 2005/2006 e 2006/2007 - para determinar se o manejo pode melhorar a competitividade do feijão-fava contra plantas daninhas e contribuir para um maior potencial de produção. Os experimentos incluíram cinco tratamentos, compostos de: fertilizantes orgânicos e minerais, isoladamente ou em mistura em diferentes doses, além do tratamento controle, e seis tratamentos de controle de plantas daninhas, incluindo tratamentos usando oxadiargyl, prometryn, manualmente ou misturados com os herbicidas e um tratamento sem plantas daninhas (controle. Os tratamentos com os herbicidas não foram superiores aos dois tratamentos manuais (hand hoeing

  4. Chlorella induces stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and its effects on instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels.

  5. Thidiazuron-induced plant regeneration from protoplasts of Vicia faba cv. Mythos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Gebhardt, D; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts of 10 cultivars of V. faba were isolated from etiolated shoot-tips and tested for their regeneration capacity. After purification, protoplasts were embedded in sodium alginate and cultivated in the medium of Kao and Michayluk (1975) containing 0.5 mg·1(-1) of each 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine. Depending on cultivar, division frequencies of up to 40% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred to Gelrite-solidified media with different combinations of growth regulators. A two step protocol (auxin high/low) was tested for its ability to induce somatic embryogenesis. The formation of globular structures was observed, but no embryo formation could be achieved. In contrast, cultivation of protocalluses on medium supplemented with thidiazuron resulted in shoot development in cultivar Mythos. To generate mature plants, the shoots were grafted onto young seedlings. In order to optimize the in vitro-conditions, different concentrations of thidiazuron alone or in combination with naphthylacetic acid were tested, showing that an increase of thidiazuron and the addition of naphthylacetic acid positively affects both the viability of protocalluses and the regeneration frequency.

  6. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina

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    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los distintos estados fenológicos de Vicia faba ofrecen recursos alimenticios y sustratos para el desarrollo de una importante diversidad de insectos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanópteros antófilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecológicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociación. El estudio se realizó durante el período floración-fructificación del cultivo de haba, en dos etapas y regiones fitogeográficas de Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479msnm, semanalmente desde octubre-diciembre de 1995-1996 y Puna (3 367msnm, quincenalmente desde diciembre 2007-marzo 2008. Cada muestra consistió de 25 flores tomadas al azar; sólo en Prepuna se realizó un muestreo complementario de tres golpes/planta (n=10 plantas. Se realizaron observaciones sobre sitios de oviposición, ingreso a la flor, lugares de pupación, comportamiento alimenticio y lesiones producidas. En Prepuna, el complejo de tisanópteros está formado por Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei y Thrips tabaci; en Puna la diversidad específica está restringida a F. australis y F. gemina. A pesar de que el período siembra-cosecha no coincide en ambas áreas, las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones presentan un mismo patrón: a medida que avanza la floración aumenta el número de tisanópteros, que coincide con la disponibilidad del recurso alimenticio. En ambas áreas, F. australis es la especie dominante y mantiene poblaciones sucesivas en el cultivo; deposita los huevos en los botones florales y las larvas eclosionan cuando se produce la apertura de las flores; la alimentación de larvas y adultos ocasiona manchas plateadas con puntuaciones negras. En la Prepuna, F. australis atraviesa los estados inmaduros móviles en las flores y los quiescentes en el suelo; en la Puna, todos los estados de desarrollo transcurren dentro de las flores. Thrips tabaci, F. gemina, F. shultzei y F

  7. Economical Evaluation of Faba bean (Vicia faba and Maize (Zea mays L. Intercropping Based on Total Relative Value Index and Weeds Growth Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of weeds raises serious concerns about food safety and environmental quality, which have necessitated the need for non chemical weed management techniques such as intercropping. Intercropping can suppress weeds and reduce the use of herbicides in production systems. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping of faba bean and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize grain yield and total grain yield. The experiment was carried out during growing season of 2010 as a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Sole cropping of maize with weed control (MWF, sole cropping of maize without weed control (MWI, intercropping of 15% faba bean+maize (M+15%F, 30% faba bean+maize (M+30%F, 45% faba bean+maize (M+45%F  and sole cropping of faba bean were the experimental treatments. Weed biomass and density were affected by treatments. With increasing faba bean density in the intercropping treatments, weed biomass and density decreased significantly from 85 plants and 310 g m-2 for MWI treatment to 22 plants and 63 g m-2 for M+45%F treatment, respectively. The greatest number of seed row per ear, seed number per ear and grain and biological yields (8033 and 17933 kg ha-1, respectively were achieved at MWF treatment and the smallest values for these attributes were revealed at MWI treatment. There was no significant difference between MWF and M+45%F treatments for total grain yield (i.e. grain yield of maize + faba bean. Sole cropping of faba bean led to the greatest yield components and grain and biological yields. With increasing faba bean density in intercropping treatments, above mentioned traits (except number of pods per plant were increased significantly. The great values for weed control efficiency (73% and total relative value (1.14 were achieved at M+45%F treatment. Results of

  8. Composting of rice straw with oilseed rape cake and poultry manure and its effects on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) growth and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Magdi T; Horiuchi, Takatsugu; Oba, Shinya

    2004-06-01

    Composting of rice straw with poultry manure and oilseed rape cake and its effects on growth and yield of faba bean and soil properties was studied in pot experiments at Gifu University, Japan in 2001/2002. The composts reached maturity in 90 days, were rich in organic matter and mineral nutrients, had a high level of stability, and no phytotoxicity. The addition of compost (20-200 g pot(-1)) improved selected soil chemical (increased total N, total C and CEC), physical (decreased particle density) and biological (increased soil respiration rate) properties. Application of composts at a rate of 20 g pot(-1) significantly increased growth, yield, yield components and total crude protein of faba bean plants. The benefit of this compost without chemical fertilizer demonstrated the validity and possibility of sustainable agronomic performance of faba bean using locally available recycled organic materials. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ESTUDIO DE LA CALIDAD PROTEICA Y DEL CONTENIDO DE ENERGÍA METABOLIZABLE DEL HABA (VICIA FABA*

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    Ana Silvia Bermudez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determínate the faba bean CEP, the possible role of bis hemaglutinine on this valué and to know the metabolizable energy in this legume we made two experiments in the poultry section of the experimental Center of Tibaitatá. In each experiment we used 45 chickens in random distribution in groups of five. In the first experiment we used diets whose proteic source was respectively isolated soybean protein (control diet, raw faba bean, and faba bean treated with steam in an autoclave. The results obtained show a low utilization of food when the ratio was prepared with faba beans, probably due to the aminoacids imbalance, also it produced hypertrophia of the páncreas due probably to the presence of antitriptyc agents which were not destroyed by the heat treatment. The nutritional valué of the faba bean protein increase 67o with the inactivation of the favine, although it is still lower (27% compared with the control diet. In the second experiment we obtain relatively high valúes for the faba beans metabolical useful energy compared with other legume valúes like ajonjolí, which shows us that this bean is a good energy supplier.

  11. Effect of air classification and fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-133328 on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Melama, Leena; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Pulkkinen, Marjo; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-16

    The effects of air classification and lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (vicine and convicine, trypsin inhibitor activity, condensed tannins and phytic acid) and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of faba bean flour were studied. Free amino acid (FAA) profile analysis was also carried out. Air classification allowed the separation of the flour into protein and starch rich fractions, showing different chemical compositions and microstructures. Lactobacillus plantarum growth and acidification in faba bean flour and its fractions were assessed. The anti-nutritional compounds were separated mostly to the fine protein-rich fraction. Fermentation caused the decrease of vicine and convicine contents by more than 91% and significantly reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and condensed tannins (by more than 40% in the protein-rich fraction). No significant (P>0.05) variation was observed for total phenols and phytic acid content. Fermentation increased the amount of FAA, especially of the essential amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and significantly lowered the hydrolysis index. This work showed that the combination of air classification and fermentation improved nutritional functionality of faba bean flour which could be utilized in various food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  13. Citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de los ríos Jequetepeque y Moche mediante el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L.

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    Raúl Antonio Beltrán Orbegoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de la toxicidad de las aguas de los ríos como método complementario al análisis físico, químico y biológico proporciona una información integral de la calidad del agua, por tanto, el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los niveles de citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad de las aguas de las cuencas alta, media y baja de los ríos Moche y Jequetepeque, usando el bioindicador ambiental Vicia faba L. “haba” (2n = 12. Se germinaron semillas de V. faba L.; luego las raicillas emergentes se expusieron, durante tres horas, a siete tratamientos: T1 (100 ml de agua destilada, T2 (1 ml agua de río Jequetepeque / 99 ml de agua destilada, T3 (5 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 95 ml de agua destilada, T4 (10 ml agua de río Jequetepeque/ 90 ml de agua destilada, T5 (1 ml agua de río Moche/ 99 ml de agua destilada, T6 (5 ml agua de río Moche/ 95 ml de agua destilada y T7 (10 ml agua de río Moche/ 90 ml de agua destilada. Los ápices de las raicillas fueron sometidos a la técnica de Tjio y Levan. El agua de la cuenca media del río Moche del T7, presenta una alta citotoxicidad (índice mitótico de 5,4 % y alteraciones de los índices de fases y un alto efecto genotóxico; las aguas del río Jequetepeque no evidencian efecto citotóxico ni genotóxico de importancia.

  14. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália R A; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure.

  15. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes—fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures. PMID:26624625

  16. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures.

  17. Drosophila melanogaster, Vicia faba and Arabidopsis thaliana short-term bioassays in genotoxicity evaluation of air and soil samples from sites surrounding two industrial factories in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroust, K; Kuglík, P; Relichová, J; Holoubek, I; Cáslavský, J; Veselská, R; Rysková, M; Benedík, J

    1997-01-01

    The Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in wing cells of Drosophila melanogaster, the Vicia faba cytogenetic tests-Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and Micronucleus Test (MN), and the Müller test for gametic mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana were used for genotoxicity testing of environmental samples of pollutants from the surroundings of LACHEMA chemical factory (Brno, Czech Republic) and DEZA factory in Valasské Mezirící (Moravia, Czech Republic). Tested soil and air samples were taken from the near vicinity of both factories. The surroundings of both sites are heavy loaded by exhalation of chemicals from the factories. Chemical analyses of the 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) list of priority pollutants and heavy metals were performed in both soil and air samples. The Drosophila wing spot test was positive in 70.6% of the tested samples, the Vicia sister chromatid exchange test in 62.5%, and the Arabidopsis Müller test in 58.9%. The micronucleus Vicia faba test was quite insensitive in tested environmental samples. The concordance between SMART and SCE was 62.5%, between SMART and Müller test 76.5%, and between Müller test and SCE 100%. Total concordance of these three tests was 79.7%. Müller test for gametic mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana and cytogenetic SCE test in Vicia faba seem to be quite sensitive and convenient plant bioassays for assessing the mutagenic potential of environmental agents, when compared to the SMART test in Drosophila melanogaster.

  18. Controle de plantas daninhas sob sistemas de manejo integrado em feijão de fava (Vicia faba) no Egito

    OpenAIRE

    El-Metwally, I.M.; Abdelhamid, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, to determine whether management can improve faba bean competitiveness with weeds, thus helping to achieve its yield potential. The experiment included five treatments, composed of organic and mineral fertilizers, alone and mixed at different rates, along with a control and six weed control treatments, including oxadiargyl, prometryn, hand hoeing treatments alone or mixed with the herbicides, and a nonweed...

  19. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion.

  20. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  1. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanapandian, T; Geilfus, C-M; Mühling, K-H; Novák, O; Gloser, V

    2017-02-01

    Changes in pH of the apoplast have recently been discussed as an important factor in adjusting transpiration and water relations under conditions of drought via modulatory effect on abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Using Vicia faba L., we investigated whether changes in the root, shoot and leaf apoplastic pH correlated with (1) a drought-induced reduction in transpiration and with (2) changes in ABA concentration. Transpiration, leaf water potential and ABA in leaves were measured and correlated with root and shoot xylem pH, determined by a pH microelectrode, and pH of leaf apoplast quantified by microscopy-based in vivo ratiometric analysis. Results revealed that a reduction in transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying could not be linked with changes in the apoplastic pH via effects on the stomata-regulating hormone ABA. Moreover, drought-induced increase in pH of xylem or leaf apoplast was not the remote effect of an acropetal transport of alkaline sap from root, because root xylem acidified during progressive soil drying, whereas the shoot apoplast alkalized. We reason that other, yet unknown signalling mechanism was responsible for reduction of transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein quality in cereals and pulses. 2. Influence of polyethyleneglycol on the nutritional availability of methionine in sorghum (Sorghum vulgar Pers.), field beans (Vicia faba L.) and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J E; Hewitt, D

    1979-09-01

    1. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG 4000) was examined for its influence on relative nutritional value (RNV) and available methionine in sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), field beans (Vicia faba L.) and barley, as measured microbiologically with Streptococcus zymogenes. The results were assessed in relation to the content of tannins in the test samples. 2. In grain of hybrid sorghum the RNV averaged 87 (range 79--92) for six low-tannin varieties and 41 (30--53) for eleven high-tannin varieties. The corresponding available methionine values averaged 17.0 (15.7--18.9) and 8.9 (6.7--11.0) g/kg protein. Addition of PEG 4000 to the test samples increased the average RNV of the high-tannin varieties from 41 to 78, and the average available methionine content from 8.9 to 16.2 g/kg protein. 3. With seed of ten coloured flowered varieties of field beans, treatment with PEG gave a small but consistent increase in the available methionine content, which resulted from the inactivation of tannins in the testa. 4. In twenty-three samples of barley grain, treatment with PEG had no effect on the values obtained for available methionine. 5. Treatment of high-tannin sorghum grain with ammonia has been reported to inactivate the tannins and increase the nutritional value for rats and chicks. This finding was confirmed. The present study showed that ammonia and PEG 4000 were equally effective in enhancing the nutritional quality as measured in the microbiological tests.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  4. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean (Vicia faba) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug (Nezara viridula) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H2O2. However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H2O2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H2O2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  5. Bacterially produced Pt-GFP as ratiometric dual-excitation sensor for in planta mapping of leaf apoplastic pH in intact Avena sativa and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Mühling, Karl H; Kaiser, Hartmut; Plieth, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Ratiometric analysis with H(+)-sensitive fluorescent sensors is a suitable approach for monitoring apoplastic pH dynamics. For the acidic range, the acidotropic dual-excitation dye Oregon Green 488 is an excellent pH sensor. Long lasting (hours) recordings of apoplastic pH in the near neutral range, however, are more problematic because suitable pH indicators that combine a good pH responsiveness at a near neutral pH with a high photostability are lacking. The fluorescent pH reporter protein from Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Pt-GFP) comprises both properties. But, as a genetically encoded indicator and expressed by the plant itself, it can be used almost exclusively in readily transformed plants. In this study we present a novel approach and use purified recombinant indicators for measuring ion concentrations in the apoplast of crop plants such as Vicia faba L. and Avena sativa L. Pt-GFP was purified using a bacterial expression system and subsequently loaded through stomata into the leaf apoplast of intact plants. Imaging verified the apoplastic localization of Pt-GFP and excluded its presence in the symplast. The pH-dependent emission signal stood out clearly from the background. PtGFP is highly photostable, allowing ratiometric measurements over hours. By using this approach, a chloride-induced alkalinizations of the apoplast was demonstrated for the first in oat. Pt-GFP appears to be an excellent sensor for the quantification of leaf apoplastic pH in the neutral range. The presented approach encourages to also use other genetically encoded biosensors for spatiotemporal mapping of apoplastic ion dynamics.

  6. IMPROVING THE TOLERANCE OF Vicia faba AGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY RESULTED FROM THE IRRIGATION WITH SEA WATER BY USING KNO3 AND (NH42SO4 AS CHEMICAL OSMOREGULATORS Mejoramiento de la tolerancia de Vicia faba a salinidad ocasionada por irrigación con agua de mar usando KNO3 AND (NH42SO4 como osmoreguladores químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMEL MOHAMED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The familiar solutes, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO4(3-, SO4(2-, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids and soluble proteins, which play a role in osmotic adjustment were estimated to investigate the role of potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate as osmoregulators and their effects on the solutes composition. Vicia faba L. was cultivated and irrigated with 5, 10, 15 and 20 % (v:v sea water. The plants were divided to three groups. The first was irrigated with sea water only. The second was treated with 5 mM KNO3 while the third was treated with 5mM (NH42SO4. The plants were left to grow until flowering stage. The results indicated that the non treated group increased the soluble carbohydrates in the roots to avoid the influx of sodium. The treatment with KNO3 decreased the sodicity (SAR while (NH42SO4 treatment decreased the SK:Na value in the shoots at higher salinity. The availability of nitrogen as nitrate or ammonium ions enhances the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates in shoots. The plants of all groups were depended on Ca2+, as compatible solute more than Na+, and K+.Los solutos Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO4(3-, SO4(2-, carbohidratos y proteínas solubles, así como amino ácidos son importantes en ajuste osmótico y fueron estimados para determinar el papel de nitrato de potasio y sulfato de amonio como osmoreguladores y su efecto en la composición de solutos. Vicia faba L. fue cultivada e irrigada con 5, 10, 15 y 20 % (v:v de agua de mar permitiendo crecimiento hasta el estado de floración. Las plantas fueron divididas en tres grupos. El primero fue irrigado con agua de mar solamente. El segundo fue tratado con 5 mM KNO3, mientras que el tercer grupo fue expuesto a 5mM (NH42SO4. Los resultados indican que las plantas del primer grupo (no tratado incrementan carbohidratos solubles en sus raíces para evitar influjo de sodio. El tratamiento con KNO3 disminuye riqueza de sodio (SAR mientras que la exposición a (NH42SO4 diminuye la de SK

  7. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  8. Analyse de la tolérance des populations locales de fève (Vicia faba L. à la sécheresse au stade juvénile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora AQTBOUZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most important abiotic stress responsible of the production instability and lower levels of yields of faba bean (Vicia faba L.. The cropping of tolerant varieties can be an opportunity to stabilize production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability and to study the drought tolerance in the juvenile plant stage in a collection of local Moroccan faba bean populations from the province of Taounate. A number of 60 local populations were studied under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Different morphological and physiological traits were studied before and under water stress and during the recovery phase. The difference between recovery and water stress phases estimates the capacity of local populations to recover from drought. The local populations contain a wide diversity for different studied traits. The gain in dry matter has a negative and highly significant correlation with dry matter yield under water stress (r = -0.64 **. The populations 16, 47, 1 and 9 have proven to be the most drought tolerant at juvenile stage.

  9. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  10. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Alsaadawi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was even better than herbicide used alone. Integration of recommended dose of Treflan with sunflower residue at 1,400 g m-² produced maximum (987.5 g m-2 aboveground biomass of broad bean, which was 74 and 36% higher than control and recommended herbicide dose applied alone, respectively. Combination of herbicide and sunflower residue appeared to better enhance pod number and yield per unit area than herbicide alone. Application of 50% dose of Treflan in plots amended with sunflower residue resulted in similar yield advantage as was noticed with 100% herbicide dose. Chromatographic analysis of residue-infested field soil indicated the presence of several phytotoxic compounds of phenolic nature. Periodic data revealed that maximum suppression in weed density and dry weight synchronized with peak values of phytotoxins observed 4 weeks after incorporation of sunflower residues. Integration of sunflower residues with lower herbicide rates can produce effective weed suppression without compromising yield as a feasible and environmentally sound approach in broad bean fields.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar resíduos agrícolas com potencial alelopático para reduzir o uso de herbicidas sintéticos em fava (Vicia faba. Resíduos de girassol (600 e 1,400 g m-2 e Treflan (50, 75 e 100% da dose recomendada foram incorporados ao solo isoladamente ou em combinação uns com os outros. Parcelas não tratadas foram mantidas como controle. A aplicação de

  11. Management of faba bean gall in faba bean producing area of Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogale Nigir Hailemariam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean new disease (faba bean gall (Olpidium viciae (Kusano is the most destructive disease of faba bean ((Vicia faba L. in Ethiopia, particularly in Amhara, Tigray and some part of Oromia region. This problem needs immediate sound management strategy to maximize faba bean productivity. A field study was carried out in Geregera and Jama during the 2013 and 2014 main crop season and Maybar watershed in 2014 to verify the fungicide to faba bean gall. The objective of this study was evaluating effective fungicides for the management of faba bean new disease. The treatments were baylaton in the form of seed dressing and foliar spray; mancozeb, redomil, chlorotalonin and cruzet in the form of foliar spray and apron star and theram used as a foliar spray and also untreated check used as a comparison. The result showed that significantly differ between treatments (p

  12. Effects of faba bean and faba bean hulls on expression of selected genes in the small intestine of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Baal, van J.; Meulen, van der J.; Smits, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In a small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) study in pigs, effects were studied of intestinal perfusion of ground faba beans (Vicia faba), faba bean hulls, or saline on intestinal net fluid absorption in intestinal segments either challenged or not with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

  13. (Vicia faba) IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... iron, zinc, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C [4]. Although Ethiopia has a fairly large livestock population, availability of meat and milk for local human consumption is limited, especially in rural areas where wealth index values are in the lower quintiles, according to the most recent Demographic ...

  14. (Vicia faba) IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... in 22.5, 4.7, and 8.3% of study children, respectively. Questionnaires ..... this study, however, requires preparation of the raw ingredients. .... Survey 2009/10 Report for the National Nutrition Program of Ethiopia. Ethiopian ...

  15. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  16. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, α-glucosidase and lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits.

  17. Pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Masoero; Carla Cerioli; Samantha Sigolo; Mauro Morlacchini; Aldo Prandini

    2011-01-01

    The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg) were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM) as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment). The RP...

  18. The use of whole faba beans in emulsion gel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an economical protein source used in food and feed worldwide. It has high protein content and well-balanced amino acid composition. Since the starch fraction of faba beans causes problems in protein gelation, it hinders the use of whole faba beans for tofu production. Due to economical, ecological and nutritional reasons, it is worthwhile to develop a new way for producing whole faba bean tofu without discarding any part of faba beans. The aim of this thesis w...

  19. Protective role of α-tocopherol on two Vicia faba cultivars against seawater-induced lipid peroxidation by enhancing capacity of anti-oxidative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa A. Orabi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of seawater stress on growth, yield, physiological and antioxidant responses of faba bean plant and whether the exogenous application with vitamin E could mitigate the adverse effect of salinity stress or not, a pot experiment was carried out during 2011/12 winter season under green house of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Two faba bean cultivars (Giza 3 and Giza 843 irrigated with diluted seawater (Tap water, 3.13 or 6.25 dS m−1 and α-tocopherol (0, 50 or 100 mg L−1 were used. At 75 days after sowing, growth sample was taken for vegetative growth measurement, proline, carotenoids, antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, POX and PAL, lipid peroxidation, and inorganic ions as well as seed yield and yield attributes were determined. The results revealed that seawater triggered significant inhibitory effects on faba bean growth and yield especially for Giza 3 cultivar with obvious increments in MDA and Na+ ion contents. Foliar application with α-tocopherol at rate of 100 mg L−1 followed by 50 mg L−1 on faba bean plants exerted certain alleviative effects on these indices in particular on Giza 843. α-Tocopherol could play an important role in alleviation of injury of faba bean irrigated with diluted seawater through the enhancement of the protective parameters such as antioxidant enzymes, proline, carotenoids, and inorganic ions (K+ and Ca2+ to be effective in decreasing MDA content, lessening the harmful effect of salinity, and improving faba bean growth, seed yield and seed yield quality.

  20. Phosphorylation of H2AX histones in response to double-strand breaks and induction of premature chromatin condensation in hydroxyurea-treated root meristem cells of Raphanus sativus, Vicia faba, and Allium porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Maszewski, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Histone H2A variant H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation and hydroxyurea-mediated replication arrest, resulting in the formation of gamma-H2AX foci along megabase chromatin domains nearby the sites of incurred DNA damage. In an attempt to establish a relationship between species-specific nuclear architecture and H2AX phosphorylation in S/G(2) phase-arrested root meristem cells, immunocytochemical comparisons using an antibody raised against human gamma-H2AX were made among three plants differing with respect to DNA contents: Allium porrum, representing a reticulate type of DNA package, Vicia faba, having semireticulate cell nuclei, and Raphanus sativus, characterised by a chromocentric type of chromatin. Another approach was aimed at determining possible correlations between the extent of hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of H2AX histones and the quantities of root meristem cells induced by caffeine to enter aberrant mitotic division (premature chromosome condensation). It was concluded that the higher-order structure of chromatin may contribute to the accessibility of molecular factors engaged in the recognition and repair of genetic lesions. Consequently, in contrast to A. porrum and V. faba, a diffuse chromatin in chromocentric cell nuclei of R. sativus may become more vulnerable both to generate DNA double-strand breaks and to recruit molecular elements needed to arrange the cell cycle checkpoint functions, and thus, more resistant to factors which allow the cells to enter premature chromosome condensation spontaneously. On the other hand, however, caffeine-mediated overriding of the S-M checkpoint control system resulted in the typical appearance of premature chromosome condensation, irrespective of the genomic content of DNA.

  1. Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. XXVII. Can ascorbic acid modify the adverse effects of NaCl and mannitol on amino acids, nucleic acids and protein patterns in Vicia faba seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, M E; Hasaneen, M N A; Kazamel, A M S

    2009-03-01

    The adverse effects of either NaCl or mannitol on amino acids, protein patterns and nucleic acids in Vicia faba seeds were investigated. The exogenous addition of 4 mM ascorbic acid to the stressing media in which the broad bean seeds were germinated in combination with either the ionic (NaCl) or osmotic (mannitol) stressor induced significant protective changes in the total amount and in the relative composition of amino acids in general and in proline, glycine, glutamic, aspartic, alanine and serine in particular. It also induced changes in nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) content. These changes occurred throughout the entire period of the experiments (12 days). Separate administration of NaCl or mannitol enhanced the occurrence of particular novel proteins that were not detected in control bean seeds (water medium). Protein banding patterns of broad bean seedlings treated with NaCl or mannitol in combination with 4 mM ascorbic acid showed different de novo protein bands, with different molecular weights, at different stages of seedlings growth, with lower levels or a nearly complete absence of the major stress proteins. The pattern of changes for amino acids and nucleic acids and the range of protein bands extracted from the variously treated broad bean seedlings indicate a positive role of ascorbic acid in the alleviation of the damage effects induced by NaCl and mannitol. The importance of this role in the stress tolerance of broad beans is discussed.

  2. Progress report on enhancing faba bean germplasm for improved winter-hardiness at Pullman, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been cultivated from early Neolithic times. Numerous varieties have been selected for adaptation to a wide range of environments worldwide and for different end-uses such as dry grain, vegetable, feed, forage and green manure. The USDA faba bean germplasm collection con...

  3. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Masoero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment. The RP and RF diets did not negatively affect the carcass characteristics both of the pigs slaughtered at the conventional weight (127.5 kg and heavy pigs (158.5 kg. The pigs fed the RP and RF diets ate similarly to the pigs fed the CTR overall the trial but RF pigs grew better than CTR animals. The subcutaneous fat of the fresh hams destined for Parma ham production and obtained from pigs fed RP diet had a higher omega 3 fatty acid percentage. Moreover, the RP and RF diets resulted in fat with better omega 3/omega 6 ratio compared with CTR. All the fat samples had iodine numbers within the limit value (70 reported by the Production Disciplinary of Parma ham. No treatment effect was found on the analytical and sensorial characteristics of the Parma hams, except for the aged taste which was more intense in the hams obtained from pigs fed the RF diet. These results indicate that pea and faba bean may be used as an alternative to imported SBM.

  4. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Intercropping of Faba bean (Vicia fabae) and field pea (Pisum sativum) is an important cropping system in the. Horro highlands of Ethiopia, but seed proportions balance is important to intercrop productivity. An experiment was conducted to determine the optimum seed rates on component crop yield and land equivalent ...

  5. Oxidative Damage and Mutagenic Potency of Fast Neutron and UV-B Radiation in Pollen Mother Cells and Seed Yield of Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram Abdel Haliem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by exposure of crop plant cells to physical radiations. Henceforth, the current study was planned to compare oxidative stress and mutagenic potential of different irradiation doses of fast neutron (FN and UV-B on meiotic-pollen mother cells (PMCs, pollen grains (PGs and seeds yielded from irradiated faba beans seedlings. On the cytogenetic level, each irradiation type had special interference with DNA of PMC and exhibited wide range of mutagenic action on the frequency and type of chromosomal anomalies, fertility of PGs and seed yield productivity based on the irradiation exposure dose and radiation sensitivity of faba bean plants compared with un-irradiated ones. On the molecular level, SDS-PAGE and RPAD-PCR analyses of seeds yielded from irradiated seedlings exhibited distinctive polymorphisms based on size, intensity, appearance, and disappearance of polypeptides bands compared with un-irradiated ones. The total values of protein and DNA polymorphisms reached 88% and 90.80% respectively. The neutron fluency (2.3 × 106 n/cm2 and UV-B dose for 1 hr were recorded as bio-positive effects. The present study proved that genetic variations revealed by cytogenetic test could be supported by gene expression (alterations in RAPD and protein profiles.

  6. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A.A.; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Suda...

  7. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  8. IMPROVING THE TOLERANCE OF Vicia fabaAGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY RESULTED FROM THE IRRIGATION WITH SEA WATER BY USING K2 SO4 AND (NH42SO4 AS CHEMICAL OSMOREGULATORS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L. was cultivated with irrigation with 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v:v sea water. The plants were divided to three groups. The first was irrigated without treatments while the second was treated with 5 mM KNO3 and the third was treated with 5mM (NH42 SO4. The plants were left to grow until flowering stage. The famous solutes Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO43-, SO42-, soluble carbohydrates, amino acids and soluble proteins were estimated to investigate the role of potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphates as osmoregulators. The results indicated that the non-treated group increased the soluble carbohydrates in the roots to avoid the influx of sodium. The treatment with KNO3 decreased the sodicity (SAR in the shoots. The availability of nitrogen as nitrate or ammonium ions enhances the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates in shoots. KNO3 treatment decreased SAR strongly while (NH42 SO4 treatment the SK:Na value in the shoots at higher salinity. The plants of all groups were depended on Ca2+ as compatible solute

  9. Association of Faba Bean Rust ( Uromyces viciae-fabae ) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stage and field management practices. The mean incidence of the disease varied from 44.6% in Bedeno to 98% in Tullo, while severity of the disease varied from 12.7% in Bedeno to 65% in Gorogutu and Kurfachale districts. Logistic regression analysis for the association of rust incidence and severity with environmental ...

  10. Faba beans in diets for growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of using the new faba bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar Kontu as a domestic protein source for growing-finishing pigs.In Experiment 1,120 pigs were used with a body weight (BWof 25–110 kg to study the effects of replacing 0, 25, 50, 75,and 100%of rapeseed meal with faba beans in barley +rapeseed meal based diets. Restrictedly fed grower and finisher diets contained 137–317 and 114–260 g kg–1 faba beans, respectively. A barley +soya bean meal based diet was included as a control. The replacement of rapeseed meal with faba beans exerted a quadratic effect on daily weight gain and on the feed conversion ratio of pigs in the growing period and during total fattening (P

  11. Effect of condensed tannins in hulls of faba beans (Vivia faba L.) on the activities of trypsin (EC 2.4.21.4) and chymotrypsin (EC 2.4.21.1) in digesta collected from the small intestine of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Enting, H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huisman, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of condensed tannins in hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) on the activities of trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) and chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) in digesta obtained from the small intestine of pigs were studied. Using four castrated male pigs (mean body weight 83 kg) fitted with both a simple

  12. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Meulen, van der J.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Wikselaar, van P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to

  13. Early insights into the genome sequence of Uromyces fabae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eLink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted proteins and effectors. Here, we present results from a genome survey of U. fabae. Paired end Illumina sequencing provided 53 Gb of data. An assembly gave 59,735 scaffolds with a total length of 216 Mb. K-mer analysis estimated the genome size to be 329 Mb. Of a representative set of 23,153 predicted proteins we could annotate 10,209, and predict 599 secreted proteins. Clustering of the protein set indicates families of highly likely effectors. We also found new homologs of RTP1p, a prototype rust effector. The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Uromyces with respect to other rust fungi already sequenced, namely Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, Melampsora lini, and Melampsora larici-populina.

  14. An evaluation of fababean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No significant differences in CP degra- dability between fababean and lupin seed were observed, while. DM degradability was significantly (P •••0.05) higher for lupin seed at the low outflow rate, but significantly (P •••0.05) lower for lupin seed at the high outflow rate. Several other researchers (Cronje, 1983; Freer & Dove, ...

  15. An evaluation of fababean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemiese samestelling van fababoon- en lupiensaad en stoppel is bepaal. Skape op beide stoppellande het toegeneem in liggaams- massa (P ~ 0.01) oor die eerste 35 dae van beweiding, waama skape op beide weidings se gemiddelde liggaamsmassa afgeneem het. Die gemiddelde liggaamsmassa van die hamels het ...

  16. An evaluation of fababean ( Vicia faba ) and lupin ( Lupinus albus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die eksperiment is uitgevoer om fababoon- en soetlupien-oesreste as somerweiding vir jong Merinohamels te vergelyk. Die droë materiaal (DM)- en ruproteïen (RP)-degradeelbaarheid sowel as die chemiese samestelling van fababoon- en lupiensaad en stoppel is bepaal. Skape op beide stoppellande het toegeneem in ...

  17. Intercropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and bean (Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... Details of field and soil characteristics and meteoro- logical data of experimental site are given in Tables 1 and 2. Experimental design. The treatments were compared in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Five treatments were included in the experiment as showed in Table 3.

  18. Intercropping of wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and bean ( Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with four replications. The results show that intercropping systems had a significant effect on environmental resources consumption, where intercropping systems had more light interception and water, and nutrient uptake compared to sole crops, ...

  19. Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour

    OpenAIRE

    Imma Turco; Tiziana Bacchetti; Cecilia Bender; Ganiyu Oboh; Benno Zimmermann; Gianna Ferretti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Legumes contain elevated levels of health functional components. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the nutritional properties and the post-prandial glycaemic responses of pasta obtained using 35% Vicia Faba (VF) bean flour, which is an important source of fiber and phytochemical compounds. Results: Protein and fiber content were higher in VF pasta compared with durum wheat semolina (DWS) pasta. The total phenol content in VF pasta was about two...

  20. Faba bean forisomes can function in defence against generalist aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J; Walker, Gregory P

    2015-06-01

    Phloem sieve elements have shut-off mechanisms that prevent loss of nutrient-rich phloem sap when the phloem is damaged. Some phloem proteins such as the proteins that form forisomes in legume sieve elements are one such mechanism and in response to damage, they instantly form occlusions that stop the flow of sap. It has long been hypothesized that one function of phloem proteins is defence against phloem sap-feeding insects such as aphids. This study provides the first experimental evidence that aphid feeding can induce phloem protein occlusion and that the aphid-induced occlusions inhibit phloem sap ingestion. The great majority of phloem penetrations in Vicia faba by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae triggered forisome occlusion and the aphids eventually withdrew their stylets without ingesting phloem sap. This contrasts starkly with a previous study on the legume-specialist aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, where penetration of faba bean sieve elements did not trigger forisome occlusion and the aphids readily ingested phloem sap. Next, forisome occlusion was demonstrated to be the cause of failed phloem ingestion attempts by M. persicae: when occlusion was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker lanthanum, M. persicae readily ingested faba bean phloem sap. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of faba beans ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l l threed ietsw eree valuatedin a growth trial using l0 pigs( flveb oarsa ndf lve gilts)o vert heg rowthi nterval3 0-90 kg. The experimentadle signw asa 3 (diets)x 2 (sex)f 'actorialC. arcassc haracteristicwse red etermineda t thee ndo f theg rowtht rial.P igsi n the metabolisrna ndN balance trial consurned5 % less( P < 0.01)o ...

  2. Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    predicted that traditional sources of protein for livestock will become increasingly scarce because of the need to feed a progressively larger human population that will compete with an expanding intensive livestock industry that is being forced to exclude animal protein sources in animal feeds. As a result, a considerable.

  3. Nutritional evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) nutrient requirements of weaner pigs. Diluting full-fat soya with ..... Of interest was whether a significant trend in performance would be evident as a result of the .... supplement for swine. Can. J. Anim.

  4. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas.

  5. Influence of Growth Stage and Leaf Age on Expression of the Components of Partial Resistance of Faba Bean to Botrytis fabae Sard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bouhassan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In detached leaf tests on faba bean (Vicia faba L., genotypes partially resistant and susceptible to Botrytis fabae were examined. Expression of four components of partial resistance to a virulent isolate of B. fabae differed depending on the plant age and the leaf age of the genotypes. The incubation period of resistant genotypes at the podding stage was longer than that of susceptible genotypes at the same stage. The area under disease progress curve (AUDPC of the lesion size increased from the seedling to the flowering stage but declined at the podding stage in all genotypes. Differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes for lesion size were significant except on old leaves from plants at the podding stage. The latent period decreased, and spore production increased with increasing growth and leaf age but there was significant interaction with the genotype. These last two components of partial resistance were more clearly expressed at all growth stages on FRY167 (highly resistant but were expressed only at the seedling and podding stages on FRY7 (resistant. The resistant line BPL710 was not significantly different from the susceptible genotypes for the latent period at any growth stage, and for spore production at the seedling and flowering stages. Leaf age affected all genotypes, but with a significant interaction between leaf age and growth stage. Components of partial resistance were more strongly expressed on young leaves from plants at the seedling or flowering stage.

  6. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean ( var. minor as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05 of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05 and water-holding capacity (p<0.05 than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05 and cholesterol (p<0.01, and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01. Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity among faba bean genotypes using agro-morphological and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Megahed H; Alghamdi, Salem S; Migdadi, Hussein M; Khan, Muhammad A; El-Harty, Ehab H; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A

    2015-05-01

    Forty faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were evaluated for their agro-morphological performance and molecular diversity under Central Region of Saudi Arabia conditions during 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons. Field performance results showed that faba genotypes exhibited a significant amount of variation for their agro-morphological studied parameters. Giza40 recorded the tallest genotype (139.5 cm), highest number of seeds per plants (100.8), and the highest seed yield per plant (70.8 g). The best performing genotypes were Giza40, FLIP03-014FB, Gazira1 and Goff1. Genetic variability among genotypes was determined using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 183 amplified fragments (alleles) and 1758 polymorphic fragments (bands) in SRAP and 202 alleles and 716 bands in AFLP were obtained using six SRAP and four AFLP primer combinations respectively. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for AFLP and SRAP markers were higher than 0.8, indicating the existence of a considerable amount of genetic diversity among faba tested genotypes. The UPGMA based clustering of faba genotypes was largely based on origin and/or genetic background. Result of cluster analysis based on SRAP showed weak and not significant correlation while, it was highly significant based on AFLP analysis with agro-morphological characters (r = 0.01, p > 0.54 and r = 0.26, p < 0.004 respectively). Combined SRAP and AFLP markers proved to be significantly useful for genetic diversity assessment at molecular level. They exhibited high discrimination power, and were able to distinguish the faba bean genotypes with high efficiency and accuracy levels.

  8. Faba bean drought responsive gene identification and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Megahed H; Khan, Altaf M; Migdadi, Hussein M; Abdelkhalek, Samah M; Alghamdi, Salem S

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to identify drought-responsive genes in a drought tolerant faba bean variety (Hassawi 2) using a suppressive subtraction hybridization approach (SSH). A total of 913 differentially expressed clones were sequenced from a differential cDNA library that resulted in a total of 225 differentially expressed ESTs. The genes of mitochondrial and chloroplast origin were removed, and the remaining 137 EST sequences were submitted to the gene bank EST database (LIBEST_028448). A sequence analysis identified 35 potentially drought stress-related ESTs that regulate ion channels, kinases, and energy production and utilization and transcription factors. Quantitative PCR on Hassawi 2 genotype confirmed that more than 65% of selected drought-responsive genes were drought-related. Among these induced genes, the expression levels of eight highly up-regulated unigenes were further analyzed across 38 selected faba bean genotypes that differ in their drought tolerance levels. These unigenes included ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene, non-LTR retroelement reverse related, probable cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, polyubiquitin, potassium channel, calcium-dependent protein kinase and putative respiratory burst oxidase-like protein C and a novel unigene. The expression patterns of these unigenes were variable across 38 genotypes however, it was found to be very high in tolerant genotype. The up-regulation of these unigenes in majority of tolerant genotypes suggests their possible role in drought tolerance. The identification of possible drought responsive candidate genes in Vicia faba reported here is an important step toward the development of drought-tolerant genotypes that can cope with arid environments.

  9. Faba bean drought responsive gene identification and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed H. Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify drought-responsive genes in a drought tolerant faba bean variety (Hassawi 2 using a suppressive subtraction hybridization approach (SSH. A total of 913 differentially expressed clones were sequenced from a differential cDNA library that resulted in a total of 225 differentially expressed ESTs. The genes of mitochondrial and chloroplast origin were removed, and the remaining 137 EST sequences were submitted to the gene bank EST database (LIBEST_028448. A sequence analysis identified 35 potentially drought stress-related ESTs that regulate ion channels, kinases, and energy production and utilization and transcription factors. Quantitative PCR on Hassawi 2 genotype confirmed that more than 65% of selected drought-responsive genes were drought-related. Among these induced genes, the expression levels of eight highly up-regulated unigenes were further analyzed across 38 selected faba bean genotypes that differ in their drought tolerance levels. These unigenes included ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL gene, non-LTR retroelement reverse related, probable cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, polyubiquitin, potassium channel, calcium-dependent protein kinase and putative respiratory burst oxidase-like protein C and a novel unigene. The expression patterns of these unigenes were variable across 38 genotypes however, it was found to be very high in tolerant genotype. The up-regulation of these unigenes in majority of tolerant genotypes suggests their possible role in drought tolerance. The identification of possible drought responsive candidate genes in Vicia faba reported here is an important step toward the development of drought-tolerant genotypes that can cope with arid environments.

  10. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-05-20

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5-6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity.

  11. Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Turco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legumes contain elevated levels of health functional components. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the nutritional properties and the post-prandial glycaemic responses of pasta obtained using 35% Vicia Faba (VF bean flour, which is an important source of fiber and phytochemical compounds. Results: Protein and fiber content were higher in VF pasta compared with durum wheat semolina (DWS pasta. The total phenol content in VF pasta was about two fold higher compared to that of DWS pasta. A higher total flavonoid content, higher antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay was also observed in VF pasta. The comparison of post-prandial increase of glucose after VF intake or DWS demonstrated significant differences and VF pasta exhibited a lower glycemic index value, a lower glycemic load and higher glycemic profile compared with DWS pasta. Conclusion: The results suggest that enrichment with 35% Vicia faba bean has potential health benefits and that VF flour can be used as an ingredient to prepare added-value products.

  12. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  13. Faba bean in microspore culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hautsalo, Juho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop functional method for producing doupled-haploid plants for faba bean. Microspore culture is an advanced method to produce doubled-haploids and it is based on the totipotent nature of plant cells, since even a microspore, which is an immature pollen cell with haploid genome, can develop into a plant. This plant is either haploid or doupled haploid depending on whether there has been chromosome doubling or not and because the chromosomes either do not ...

  14. Response of different genotypes of faba bean plant to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Khaishany, Mutahhar Y; Al-Qutami, Mohammed A; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Grover, Anil; Ali, Hayssam M; Al-Wahibi, Mona S; Bukhari, Najat A

    2015-05-05

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853) under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i) normal irrigation (ii) mild stress (iii) moderate stress, and (iv) severe stress on plant height (PH) plant-1, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant-1, area leaf-1, leaf relative water content (RWC), proline (Pro) content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes "C5" and "Zafar 1" were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD), and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype "C5" and "Zafar 1" were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes "G853" and "C4" were sensitive to drought stress.

  15. Improvement of Faba Bean Yield Using Rhizobium/Agrobacterium Inoculant in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh H. Youseif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the major limiting factors for crop’s productivity in Egypt and the world in general. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has a great importance as a non-polluting and a cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. Therefore, understanding the impact of rhizobial inoculation and contrasting soil rhizobia on nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean is crucial to optimize the crop yield, particularly under low fertility soil conditions. This study investigated the symbiotic effectiveness of 17 Rhizobium/Agrobacterium strains previously isolated from different Egyptian governorates in improving the nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean cv. Giza 843 under controlled greenhouse conditions. Five strains that had a high nitrogen-fixing capacity under greenhouse conditions were subsequently tested in field trials as faba bean inoculants at Ismaillia Governorate in northeast Egypt in comparison with the chemical N-fertilization treatment (96 kg N·ha−1. A starter N-dose (48 kg N·ha−1 was applied in combination with different Rhizobium inoculants. The field experiments were established at sites without a background of inoculation under low fertility sandy soil conditions over two successive winter growing seasons, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Under greenhouse conditions, inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodules dry weight, plant biomass, and shoot N-uptake than non-inoculated ones. In the first season (2012/2013, inoculation of field-grown faba bean showed significant improvements in seed yield (3.73–4.36 ton·ha−1 and seed N-yield (138–153 Kg N·ha−1, which were higher than the uninoculated control (48 kg N·ha−1 that produced 2.97 Kg·ha−1 and 95 kg N·ha−1, respectively. Similarly, in the second season (2013

  16. Soil genotoxicity assessment--results of an interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay in the context of ISO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelle, Sylvie; Dhyèvre, Adrien; Muller, Serge; Chenon, Pascale; Manier, Nicolas; Pandard, Pascal; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Maritxu; Pinelli, Eric; Giorgetti, Lucia; Barbafieri, Meri; Silva, Valéria C; Engel, Fernanda; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2015-01-01

    The Vicia micronucleus assay was standardized in an international protocol, ISO 29200, "Assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants-Vicia faba micronucleus test," for soil or soil materials (e.g., compost, sludge, sediment, waste, and fertilizing materials). The aim of this interlaboratory study on the Vicia micronucleus assay was to investigate the robustness of this in vivo assay in terms of its applicability in different countries where each participant were asked to use their own seeds and reference soil, in agreement with the ISO 29200 standard. The ISO 29200 standard protocol was adopted for this study, and seven laboratories from three countries (France, Italy, and Brazil) participated in the study. Negative and positive controls were correctly evaluated by 100 % of the participants. In the solid-phase test, the micronucleus frequency (number of micronuclei/1,000 cells) varied from 0.0 to 1.8 for the negative control (i.e., Hoagland's solution) and from 5.8 to 85.7 for the positive control (i.e., maleic hydrazide), while these values varied from 0.0 to 1.7 for the negative control and from 14.3 to 97.7 for the positive control in the case of liquid-phase test. The variability in the data obtained does not adversely affect the robustness of the protocol assessed, on the condition that the methodology described in the standard ISO 29200 is strictly respected. Thus, the Vicia micronucleus test (ISO 29200) is appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests cited in legislation related to risk assessment of genotoxicity potential.

  17. Sporoderm infrastructural and cytochemical modifications in cytoplasmic male sterile broad-bean (Vicia faba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Audran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of mature sporoderms of sterile and fertile pollen grains was performed using electron microscopic techniques. In sterile pollen grains, intine is lacking; ectexine sculpture is reduced and tectum is overlaid by membranous systems. Infratectal texture is compact and a sporopollenin granulous mass is obturing the aperture central region. Endexine reacts with proteins and acidic carbohydrates tests.

  18. ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY STRESS ON Vicia faba L. PLANTS VIA SEED PRIMING WITH MELATONIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Gergis DAWOOD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La melatonina es una molécula ambientalmente amigable con una potente capacidad antioxidante y de trampa de radicales libres. Dos experimentos en materas fueron realizados en dos inviernos consecutivos (2011/2012 y 2012/2013 en instalaciones del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones, Dokki, Cairo, Egipto, para estudiar el potencial de la melatonina (100 mM and 500 mM para disminuir los efectos nocivos del agua de mar diluida a concentraciones relativamente bajas y altas (3,85 dS/m and 7,69 dS/m, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que la irrigación de plantas de haba con agua de mar diluida reduce los parámetros de crecimiento (altura de la planta, número de hojas/planta, peso fresco y seco de la planta, el contenido relativo de agua (RWC, los pigmentos fotosintéticos (clorofilas a, b y carotenoides, el ácido indo lacético, los carbohidratos totales, K+, Ca+2, al igual que las relaciones K+/Na+ y Ca2+/Na+. Esto fue acompañado por un incremento significativo en el contenido de fenoles, solutos compatibles (carbohidratos solubles totales, aminoácidos libres, prolina, Na+ y Cl- en comparación con las plantas control (plantas no tratadas. De otro lado, los tratamientos con melatonina mejoraron los parámetros de crecimiento, RWC, los pigmentos fotosintéticos, carbohidratos totales, contenido fenólico total, ácido indo acético, K+,Ca+2 al igual que las relaciones K+/Na+ y Ca+2/ Na+ , tanto en las plantas irrigadas con agua dulce de la llave como en las irrigadas con agua de mar diluida en comparación con los controles correspondientes. De otro lado, los tratamientos con melatonina redujeron los niveles de solutos compatibles, al igual que los contenidos de Na+ y Cl-, en comparación con los controles. El estrés por salinidad y/o los tratamientos con melatonina indujeron la producción de nuevas bandas de proteínas que no estuvieron presentes en las plantas control. El tratamiento de melatonina 500 mM tuvo un efecto más pronunciado que el tratamiento de 100 mM en disminuir los efectos adversos de los dos niveles de salinidad estudiados sobre el comportamiento de las plantas de haba.

  19. Effect of salt stress on plant growth and metabolism of bean plant Vicia faba (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M.S. Abdul Qados

    2011-01-01

    An increase was observed in the protein content in the two measurement periods due to the impact of salinity stress. A directly proportional relationship was found between protein content and the increase in salt concentrations in the first measurement period, while it was inversely proportional in the second.

  20. Acumulación de arsénico en el cultivo de habas (Vicia Faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Prieto García; Judith Callejas Hernández; Alma D. Román Gutiérrez; Judith Prieto Méndez; Alberto J. Gordillo Martínez; María A. Méndez Marzo

    2007-01-01

    La presencia de arsénico en aguas y suelos de Zimapán, en el estado de Hidalgo, México, causa que los cultivos de haba presenten concentraciones apreciables de dicho elemento. Los suelos evaluados presentaron texturas, conductividad, contenidos de N y de arsénico diferentes, pero resultados similares en pH, potencial redox, y contenido de materia orgánica. La elevada bioacumulación de arsénico en estos suelos fue directamente proporcional al tiempo de exposición. Las concentraciones de arséni...

  1. Asociacion Thysanoptera -Vicia faba en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamar, Maria Ines; Neder de Roman, Lilia Estela

    2012-01-01

    .... Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanopteros antofilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecologicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociacion...

  2. Acumulación de arsénico en el cultivo de habas (Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de arsénico en aguas y suelos de Zimapán, en el estado de Hidalgo, México, causa que los cultivos de haba presenten concentraciones apreciables de dicho elemento. Los suelos evaluados presentaron texturas, conductividad, contenidos de N y de arsénico diferentes, pero resultados similares en pH, potencial redox, y contenido de materia orgánica. La elevada bioacumulación de arsénico en estos suelos fue directamente proporcional al tiempo de exposición. Las concentraciones de arsénico acumuladas más altas se obtuvieron en la raíz, el tallo, y las hojas, respectivamente. Concentraciones de 4 mg l-1, fueron letales para el cultivo; el fenómeno se apreció a partir de la etapa III de desarrollo, con la aparición de daños en las raíces y un fuerte efecto en la floración, que inhibió la formación de vainas.

  3. Inhibition and detection of 15-lipoxygenase-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Humaan 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) is een belangrijke lipoxygenase in zoogdieren, welke een cruciale rol speelt in de biosynthese van inflammatoire signaalmoleculen. 15-LOX-1 wordt hierdoor gezien als een regulerend enzym in verschillende inflammatoire longziekten zoals astma, chronic obstructive

  4. Effects of faba beans with different concentrations of vicine and convicine on egg production, egg quality and red blood cells in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessire, M; Gallo, V; Prato, M; Akide-Ndunge, O; Mandili, G; Marget, P; Arese, P; Duc, G

    2017-08-01

    The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a potential source of proteins for poultry, mainly for laying hens whose protein requirements are lower than those of other birds such as growing broilers and turkeys. However, this feedstuff contains anti-nutritional factors, that is, vicine (V) and convicine (C) that are already known to reduce laying hen performance. The aim of the experiment reported here was to evaluate the effects of a wide range of dietary V and C concentrations in laying hens. Two trials were performed with laying hens fed diets including 20% or 25% of faba bean genotypes highly contrasting in V+C content. In Trial 1, faba beans from two tannin-containing cultivars, but with high or low V+C content were dehulled in order to eliminate the tannin effect. In addition to the contrasting levels of V+C in the two cultivars, two intermediate levels of V+C were obtained by mixing the two cultivars (70/30 and 30/70). In Trial 2, two isogenic zero-tannin faba bean genotypes with high or low V+C content were used. In both trials, a classical corn-soybean diet was also offered to control hens. Each experimental diet was given to 48 laying hens for 140 (Trial 1) or 89 (Trial 2) days. Laying performance and egg quality were measured. The redox sensitivity of red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by measuring hemolysis and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration in these cells. Egg weight was significantly reduced by the diets containing the highest concentrations of V+C (Pbean genotypes with low concentrations of V+C can therefore be used in laying hen diets up to 25% without any detrimental effects on performance levels or egg characteristics, without any risk of hemolysis of RBCs.

  5. Effect of straw mulch residues of previous crop oats on the weed population in direct seeded faba bean in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.

  6. Response of Different Genotypes of Faba Bean Plant to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzer H. Siddiqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that are a threat to crop production worldwide. Drought stress impairs the plants growth and yield. Therefore, the aim of the present experiment was to select the tolerant genotype/s on the basis of moprpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of 10 Vicia faba genotypes (Zafar 1, Zafar 2, Shebam, Makamora, Espan, Giza Blanka, Giza 3, C4, C5 and G853 under drought stress. We studied the effect of different levels of drought stress i.e., (i normal irrigation (ii mild stress (iii moderate stress, and (iv severe stress on plant height (PH plant−1, fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW plant−1, area leaf−1, leaf relative water content (RWC, proline (Pro content, total chlorophyll (Total Chl content, electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and activities of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD of genotypes of faba bean. Drought stress reduced all growth parameters and Total Chl content of all genotypes. However, the deteriorating effect of drought stress on the growth performance of genotypes “C5” and “Zafar 1” were relatively low due to its better antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT, POD and SOD, and accumulation of Pro and Total Chl, and leaf RWC. In the study, genotype “C5” and “Zafar 1” were found to be relatively tolerant to drought stress and genotypes “G853” and “C4” were sensitive to drought stress.

  7. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON FABA BEAN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. Abdelhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A possible survival strategy of plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate salt stress effect. One of these compounds is nicotinamide. The effect of exogenously application of nicotinamide with different concentrations (0, 200 and 400 mg/l on Vicia faba L. plant against different NaCl treatments (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl was investigated at the wire house of the National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. Salinity stress reduced significantly plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot, seed yield, total carbohydrates & total crude protein of the yielded seeds compared with those of the control plants. In contrast, salinity induced marked increases in sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, proline, lipid peroxidation product (MDA and some oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Also, salinity stress increased Na+ contents with the decreases of other macro and micro elements contents (P, K+, Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ of shoots and the yielded seeds of faba bean. Foliar spraying of nicotinamide alleviated the adverse effects of salinity stress through increased plant height, dry weight of shoot, photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total-N contents of shoot and seed yield as well as, sucrose, total soluble sugars, total free amino acids and proline, compared with those of the corresponding salinity levels, while decreased lipid peroxidation product as MDA and the oxidative enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. Nicotinamide inhibited the uptake of Na+ and accelerated the accumulation of P, K+ , Mg+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ contents in the shoots of salt stressed plants and enhanced total carbohydrate and total crude protein percentage and solutes concentrations in seeds of salinity treated plants. 

  8. ( Vicia peregrina ) seed as protein source for mirror carp ( Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 80-day feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation system aquarium operating at 26 ± 0.3 °C, to evaluate the nutritive value of Vicia peregrina seed as a possible protein source in the diet of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Vicia peregrina seed was included in the diets at different levels, viz. 100, 200, 300 g ...

  9. The potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum in alleviation the adverse effects of salinity in faba bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baki, G K; Mostafa, Doaa

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between sodium chloride and Trichoderma harzianum (T24) on growth parameters, ion contents, MDA content, proline, soluble proteins as well as SDS page protein profile were studied in Vicia faba Giza 429. A sharp reduction was found in fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments promoted the growth criteria as compared with corresponding salinized plants. The water content and leaf area exhibited a marked decrease with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments induced a progressive increase in both parameters. Both proline and MDA contents were increased progressively as the salinity rose in the soil. Trichoderma treatments considerably retarded the accumulation of both parameters in shoots and roots. Both Na+ and K+ concentration increased in both organs by enhancing salinity levels. The treatment with Trichoderma harzianum enhanced the accumulation of both ions. Exposure of plants to different concentrations of salinity, or others treated with Trichoderma harzianum produced marked changes in their protein pattern. Three types of alterations were observed: the synthesis of certain proteins declined significantly, specific synthesis of certain other proteins were markedly observed and synthesis of a set specific protein was induced de novo in plant treated with Trichoderma harzianum.

  10. Interaction between faba bean cultivars and the Rhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of eight Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from root nodules of Faba bean plants which were collected from different Governorate in Egypt has been examined. After inoculation of faba bean seeds with each Rhizobium strain individually, we measured the growth promotion, nodule formation and plant ...

  11. Peptides as inhibitors of lipoxygenase and tyrosinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhout-Schurink, M.

    2007-01-01

    Oxidation reactions catalyzed by enzymes such as lipoxygenase (LOX) and tyrosinase (TYR) initiate food quality decay. Besides their physiological role in the human body, LOX and TYR are involved in certain types of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and processes of aging. Most common antioxidants

  12. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  13. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  14. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Milena; Gospodarek, Janina; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg-1 and 18 g kg-1). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils. After six weeks from soil contamination and five weeks from sowing the seeds, observations of the effect of petroleum-derived substances on traits of three successive generations of aphids were conducted. Aphids were inoculated separately on leaves using cylindrical cages hermetically closed on both sides. Contamination of aphid occurred through its host plant. Results showed that all tested substances adversely affected A. fabae life history traits and population dynamics: extension of the prereproductive period, reduction of fecundity and life span, reduction of the population intrinsic growth rate. In broad bean, leaf, roots, and shoot growth was also impaired in most conditions, whereas nutrient and heavy metal content varied according to substances, their concentration, as well as plant part analysed. Results indicate that soil contamination with petroleum-derived substances entails far-reaching changes not only in organisms directly exposed to these pollutants (plants), but also indirectly in herbivores (aphids) and consequently provides information about potential negative effects on further links of the food chain, i.e., for predators and parasitoids.

  15. The 1.85 Å structure of an 8R-Lipoxygenase suggests a general model for lipoxygenase product specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Neau, David B.; Gilbert, Nathaniel C.; Bartlett, Su e G.; Boeglin, William; Brash, Alan R.; Newcomer, Marcia E.

    2009-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOX) play pivotal roles in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and other biologically active eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid. A mechanistic understanding of substrate recognition, when lipoxygenases that recognize the same substrate generate different products, can be used to help guide the design of enzyme-specific inhibitors. We report here the 1.85 Å resolution structure of an 8R-lipoxygenase from Plexaura homomalla, an enzyme with ~40% sequence identity to human 5-LO...

  16. Transcellular lipoxygenase metabolism between monocytes and platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigby, T.D.; Meslier, N. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1989-09-15

    We have examined the effects of co-culture and in vitro co-stimulation on lipoxygenase metabolism in monocytes and platelets. Monocytes were obtained from the peripheral blood of normal volunteers by discontinuous gradient centrifugation and adherence to tissue culture plastic. Platelets were obtained from the platelet-rich plasma of the same donor. When 10(9) platelets and 2.5 x 10(6) monocytes were co-stimulated with 1 microM A23187, these preparations released greater quantities of 12(S)-hydroxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, 5(S),12-(S)dihydroxy-6,10-trans-8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, and leukotriene C4, 5(S)-hydroxy-6(R)-S-glutathionyl-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic (LTC4) when compared with monocytes alone. Release of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE, delta 6-trans-LTB4, and delta 6-trans-12-epi-LTB4 from monocytes was decreased in the presence of platelets. A dose-response curve was constructed and revealed that the above changes became evident when the platelet number exceeded 10(7). Dual radiolabeling experiments with 3H- and 14C-arachidonic acid revealed that monocytes provided arachidonic acid, 5-HETE, and LTA4 for further metabolism by the platelet. Monocytes did not metabolize platelet intermediates detectably. In addition, as much as 1.2 microM 12(S)-hydroxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid and 12(S)-hydroperoxy-10-trans-5,8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid had no effect on monocyte lipoxygenase metabolism. Platelets were capable of converting LTA4 to LTC4, but conversion of LTA4 to LTB4 was not detected. We conclude that the monocyte and platelet lipoxygenase pathways undergo a transcellular lipoxygenase interaction that differs from the interaction of the neutrophil and platelet lipoxygenase pathways. In this interaction monocytes provide intermediate substrates for further metabolic conversion by platelets in an unidirectional manner.

  17. Implication du stress oxydatif dans la toxicité du plomb sur une plante modèle, Vicia faba

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrut, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Le plomb est un des métaux les plus utilisés par l'Homme mais c'est aussi l'un des plus toxiques. Dans les écosystèmes, la teneur en plomb d'origine anthropique n'a cessé d'augmenter depuis plusieurs siècles. Dans plusieurs régions en France, le plomb pose actuellement des problèmes importants en matière de contamination de l'environnement. Les plantes, du fait de leur immobilité, sont particulièrement exposées. De nombreuses études ont déjà évalué la toxicité de ce métal sur les végétaux, ma...

  18. Utilización de harina de haba (vicia faba l.) en la elaboración de pan

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Espinoza, Ma. Del Carmen; Vásquez Arreaga, María N.; Cornejo Zuñiga, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    En nuestro país, se han venido desarrollando investigaciones que permiten reemplazar parcialmente la harina de trigo por harinas no tradicionales, con el fin de reducir costos. En el presente trabajo se pretende conocer la influencia del uso de harinas no tradicionales (harina de haba) en la retro degradación del pan. Se comenzó con una caracterización de los aspectos físicos y químicos más importantes de la materia prima; color, olor, estado de madurez, humedad, pH, acidez y actividad de ...

  19. Preparación y determinación de propiedades funcionales de Concentrados proteicos de haba (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Modercay

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Con cl propósito de obtener concentrados proteicos de haba, que eventualmente puedan ser empleados en la elaboración de alimentos para consumo humano, se establecieron a nivel de laboratorio, las condiciones para la extracción de las proteínas a partir de harina de haba baja en tegumento. Los resultados muestran que se obtiene un concentrado con más de 60% de proteína bruta en base seca, al suspender la harina de haba en agua en unarclaci'on I:6apH 8 manteniendo el sistema con agitación constante durante 0.5 hora a 40 °C y posteriormente acidificando el sobrenadante con HCl IN hasta pH 5.5. El método más aconsejable para el proceso de secado, es cl de rodillos de acuerdo con las características químicas, físicas y funcionales del producto.

  20. PREPARACIÓN DE PELÍCULAS PARA ALIMENTOS A PARTIR DE CONCENTRADOS PROTEICOS DE HABA (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Rozo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se planeó con el objeto de evaluar la factibilidad de utilizar concentrados proteicos de haba en la preparación de películas para recubrir alimentos, utilizando como patrón de comparación películas preparadas con albúmina fresca de huevo.Los resultados muestran que utilizando concentrados proteicos de haba sin deshidratar, en suspensiones que contengan 5 g de proteína por 100 g de agua, y adicionando glicerol como agente plastificante,se pueden obtener películas cuyas características de permeabilidad alvapor de agua, solubilidad y contenido de agua dependen de las condiciones de secado del material.

  1. Occurrence of broad bean (Vicia faba L. diseases in Olsztyn-Elbąg and Bydgoszcz Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sadowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1981-1985, there were conducted studies of the healthiness of broad bean,'Nadwiślański' variety, cultivated in different soil and climate conditions of the two regions: i.e. Bydgoszcz - comparatively warmer and drier, and Olsztyn-Elbląg - colder and moister. It was found that the main reason for a premature broad bean leaves dry in up in the Olsztyn-Elbląg Region was caused by the fungi Cercospora and Botrytis, and in the Bydgoszcz Region - the root rot which occurs here to a greater extent. Root gangrene was greater intensity in drier and lighter soils. Rotting broad bean roots were most frequently occupied by the fungi of the Fusarium family (ca. 70%. The prevailing species were Fusarium oxysporum, next F. solani and more rarely F. culmorum and F. avenaceum. Climate conditions and soil species affected considerably the species composition of the root fungi.

  2. Produção e qualidade proteica da fava (Vicia faba), ervilha (Pisum sativum) e triticale (x Triticosecale)

    OpenAIRE

    Laranjeira, Sara Silva

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica As restrições económicas e ambientais de fertilizantes azotados minerais utilizados na produção de gramíneas conferem um papel de relevo ao cultivo de leguminosas com incorporação dos seus resíduos no solo como fonte de azoto para as culturas principais da rotação. A reduzida investigação em Portugal sobre a utilização de espécies leguminosas em condições mediterrânicas como fonte de azoto, conduziu-nos ao presente estudo realizado no campus...

  3. DNA damage protection and 5-lipoxygenase inhibiting activity of areca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... inhibiting activity on 5-lipoxygenase of areca inflorescence extracts were studied in vitro. The results show that the boiling ... degradation, inhibit the activity of tyrosinase and has protective effect on human serum .... inhibitory activity towards soybean lipoxygenase, 10 µl of different phenolic compounds at ...

  4. Expression of lipoxygenase isoenzymes in developing barley grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, N.F.; Mechelen, J.R. van

    1997-01-01

    Expression of lipoxygenase was studied in whole developing barley grains from 5 days after flowering (DAF) to full maturity. Lipoxygenase showed two distinct peaks of activity. The first peak of activity occurred in the early stages of grain development from 5 until 20 DAF, whereas the second peak

  5. Desinfección de semilla de faba granja asturiana

    OpenAIRE

    González, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluaron diferentes tratamientos desinfectantes sobre semillas de faba granja asturiana tanto en laboratorio como en campo, con el fin de seleccionar los más eficaces. Los resultados nos llevan a proponer el tratamiento con tiram, a la dosis de 1,5 gramos de producto por kilogramo de semilla, como el antifúngico más adecuado. Different disinfection treatments were assessed on Asturian white beans (faba de la granja variety) both in the laboratory and in the field with the aim of select...

  6. In vitro plant regeneration from Turkish Narbon Vetch (Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... containing peat moss and acclimatized in the greenhouse. Acclimatization was done by covering pots with polyethylene bags to maintain initial humidity for 1 .... Vicia L. In Davis PH (Ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. 3: 274-325. Diallo MS, Ndiaye A, ...

  7. In vitro plant regeneration from Narbon Vetch ( Vicia narbonensis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) is an agriculturally important forage plant that widely grows in an area extending from Central Europe to various parts of Asia. The study reports axillary shoot regeneration from cotyledonary node explants obtained from, in vitro raised seeds of 4 - 5 and 14 - 15 days old seedlings on MS ...

  8. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of vetch ( Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of vetch (Vicia sativa) and some browse and grass species from northern Ethiopia were investigated. Vetch (fresh cut) was sampled in September and vetch hay samples were taken in October both during the early dry period. Samples of the browse and grass species were ...

  9. In vitro plant regeneration from Turkish Narbon Vetch ( Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) is an important forage species among vetches of central Europe, Mediterranean, Near East, Ethiopia, central Asia and India. The study reports in vitro micropropagation of narbon vetch using cotyledon node, shoot tip and zygotic embryo explants on MS medium containing 0.25, 0.50, ...

  10. Grain Yield and Economic Benefit of Intercropping Barley and Faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers in the highland areas of southern Ethiopia own less cultivable land. Barley and faba bean are important crops in the southern highlands of Ethiopia. However, rapid population growth in the region, which has led to scarcity of cultivable land, is threatening cultivation of these crops. Therefore, farmers often resort to ...

  11. The action of lipoxygenase-1 on furan derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, R F; Litts, D; Kostishak, J; Wijesundera, R C; Gunstone, F D

    1979-11-01

    Several 2,5-disubstituted furans, which are known to react with peroxyacids, singlet oxygen and other active forms of oxygen were tested as potential inhibitors, co-oxidants, or substrates for soybean lipoxygenase. The furan, 10,13-epoxy-octadeca-10,12-dienoic acid, methyl ester (IV) was converted by lipoxygenase or singlet oxygen or peroxyacid to the acyclic product, methyl 10,13-dioxo-octadec-11-enoate. Apparently furan IV is able to interact with an active site of lipoxygenase (Km = 220 microM). 2,5-Dimethylfuran (I), 2,5-diphenylfuran (II) and 3-(5'-methyl-2'-furyl)propenoic acid (III) were neither substrates nor inhibitors of lipoxygenase activity. Lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of furan (IV), which is inhibited by hydroquinone, is explained by a mechanism involving lipoxygenase-superoxide complex and furan-radical intermediates. Also described is the selective cleavage of furan rings by m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid to yield the 1,4-diketoethylene functional system.

  12. Amylolytic treatment on faba bean for producing emulsions and emulsion gels

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanarayanan, Tilak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to investigate the effect of carbohydrates on solubility, emulsifying, gelling and water holding properties of proteins. Faba bean is a readily available pulse crop with high protein content similar to soy bean and there is a lot of potential for a novel, high protein fermented gel product to be made from a pulse crop like faba bean. This is mainly due to its remarkable nutritional properties, functional properties and low cost, the demand for faba bean protein...

  13. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  14. Kukoamine A analogs with lipoxygenase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Garnelis, Thomas; Athanassopoulos, Constantinos M; Papaioannou, Dionissios

    2009-10-01

    Kukoamine A (KukA) is a spermine (SPM) conjugate with dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), with interesting biological activities. The four possible regioisomers of KukA, as well as a series of KukA analogs incorporating changes in either the SPM or the DHCA structural units, were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and their inhibitory activity on soybean lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation. The reducing properties of the compounds were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and found to be in the range 5-97.5%. KukA significantly inhibits LOX with IC(50) 9.5 microM. All tested analogs inhibited lipid peroxidation in the range of 11-100%. The most potent compounds KukA and its analog 3, in which the DHCA units had been replaced by O,O9-dimethylcaffeic acid units, were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo on rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and found to be of comparable activity to indomethacin. The results of the biological tests are discussed in terms of structural characteristics.

  15. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

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    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  16. Structural organization of the regulatory domain of human 5-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, John B; Brock, Thomas G

    2005-04-01

    The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) initiates the synthesis of leukotrienes. For this reason, 5-LO activity is important for immune defense, whereas improper regulation contributes to pathogenesis, including chronic inflammation, asthma and atherosclerosis. Like all lipoxygenases, the 5-LO protein consists of two domains, a regulatory domain and a catalytic domain. Naturally, the regulatory domain determines catalytic activity and controls leukotriene synthesis. This domain shares features with classical C2 domains in that it has a beta-sandwich structure and binds calcium, nucleotides and phospholipids. However, important structural features place this domain in a distinct family, the PLATs (for Polycystin-1, Lipoxygenase, alpha-Toxin). In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the three dimensional organization of this important component of the 5-LO molecule. In addition, we point to findings from structural analyses of related proteins to suggest further details relating 5-LO structure to function.

  17. Systemic Collyriclum faba (Trematoda: Collyriclidae) Infection in a Wild Common Raven ( Corvus corax ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Aslı; Rogers, Krysta; Houston, Robin

    2017-01-01

    A hatch-year Common Raven ( Corvus corax ) with subcutaneous and internal pseudocysts, filled with fluid, containing a pair of adult trematodes and numerous eggs consistent with Collyriclum faba, died near a riverbank in California, US. While C. faba is incidental in many Passeriformes, this case was a fatal systemic infection.

  18. Myxochelin-Inspired 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieferdecker, Sebastian; König, Stefanie; Pace, Simona; Werz, Oliver; Nett, Markus

    2017-01-05

    A total of 48 analogues of the natural product myxochelin A were prepared and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on human 5-lipoxygenase in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the secondary alcohol function and only chiral center of myxochelin A is not required for biological activity. By expanding the diaminoalkane linker of the two aromatic residues it was possible to generate a myxochelin derivative with superior activity against 5-lipoxygenase in intact cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Observaciones cariológicas en Vicia amphicarpa sensu lato

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    Tardío Pato, F. Javier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytological studies were carried out on twenty four amphicarpic wild populations of Vicia sativa group from different sites (19 from Spain, 4 from Syria and 1 from Turkey. Morphologically, 19 accessions can be attributed to taxon Dorthes and 5 to V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío, comb. nov. In our studies, these two taxa show different chromosome numbers, V. amphicarpa Dorthes, has 14 chromosomes, while V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia has only 12. Furthermore, the form of the chromosomes in the karyotypes of both taxa is quite different. The chromosome number and the morphology of the karyotype found in the first taxon agree with most of previous reports on V. amphicarpa, with a very characteristic short metacentric and six acrocentric chromosomes, one of them satellited. However, the second taxon has a very different karyotype with three large chromosomes, one of them submetacentric and another satellited, plus another three chromosomes which are significantly smaller. Therefore, we can conclude that within the genus Vicia, at least two amphicarpic taxa exist, clearly differentiated, both in morphological and karyotypical characteristics.Se estudian cariológicamente 24 poblaciones anficárpicas silvestres pertenecientes al grupo Vicia sativa, de distinta procedencia (19 españolas, cuatro de Siria y una de Turquía. Se encuentran diferencias en los números cromosomáticos y en los cariótipos. Diecinueve poblaciones presentan 14 cromosomas y cariotipo como el observado por otros autores, constituido por un pequeño cromosoma metacéntrico y seis acrocéntricos, uno de ellos con satélite. Éstas corresponden a V. amphicarpa Dorthes. Las otras cinco, con 2n = 12 y cariotipo con tres cromosomas grandes, uno de ellos submetacéntrico, otro con satélite, y otros tres mucho más pequeños, corresponden a V. angustifolia subsp. pseudoangustifolia (Rouy Tardío. Esta anterior se propone como combinación nueva. Por

  20. [Studies on the chemical constitutens of Vicia amoena Fisch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F; Yan, W M

    1997-10-01

    One new flavonoide was isolated from Vicia amoena Fisch. On the basis of spectral (UV, MS, NMR) and chemical reactions, it was elucidated to be kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-mannoside, named amoenin(A3). Moreover, five known compounds have been isolated and identified as quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3, 7-O-alpha-L-dirhamoside. The total flavonoides showed significant effects on inducing hyperlipidemia and increasing micro-blood vessel elasticity.

  1. Dioxygenation of N-linoleoyl amides by soybean lipoxygenase-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Stelt, M. van der; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Veldink, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Anandamide, a novel neurotransmitter, has been reported to be dioxygenated by brain lipoxygenase (Hampson et al. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1259, 173-179 and Ueda et al. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1254, 127-134). Anandamides constitute a new class of neuroregulatory fatty acid amides. However,

  2. Purification and Some Properties of Rubber Seed Lipoxygenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipoxygenase was extracted from rubber seed and purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G – 25 and ion – exchange chromatographies on DEAE – cellulose columns. The enzyme was purified 78 fold and 38.56% of the enzyme activity was recovered in the purification. The molecular ...

  3. Lipoxygenase activity accelerates programmed spore germination in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory J. Fischer; William Bacon; Jun Yang; Jonathan M. Palmer; Taylor Dagenais; Bruce D. Hammock; Nancy P. Keller

    2017-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS) to germling (GL) and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of...

  4. DNA damage protection and 5-lipoxygenase inhibiting activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA damage caused by free radical is associated with mutation-based health impairment. The protective effect on DNA damage mediated by hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite radical, and the inhibiting activity on 5-lipoxygenase of areca inflorescence extracts were studied in vitro. The results show that the boiling water ...

  5. Influence of fermented faba bean flour on the nutritional, technological and sensory quality of fortified pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo G; Verni, Michela; Koivula, Hanna; Montemurro, Marco; Seppa, Laila; Kemell, Marianna; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-02-22

    Faba bean has gained increasing attention from the food industry and the consumers mainly due to the quality of its protein fraction. Fermentation has been recently recognized as the most efficient tool for improving its nutritional and organoleptic properties. In this study, faba bean flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMAB24W was used to fortify semolina pasta. Pasta samples including different percentages of fermented faba bean flour were produced at the pilot-plant level and characterized using an integrated approach for chemical, nutritional, technological, and sensory features. At a substitution level of 30%, pasta had a more homogeneous texture and lower cooking loss compared to 50% addition. The impact of faba bean flour addition on pasta technological functionality, particularly of the protein fraction, was also assessed by scanning electron microscopy and textural profile analysis. Compared to traditional (semolina) pasta and pasta containing unfermented faba bean flour, the nutritional profile (in vitro protein digestibility and nutritional indexes - chemical score (CS), sequence of limiting essential amino acids, Essential Amino Acid Index (EAAI), Biological Value (BV), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), and Nutritional Index (NI)) and the resistant starch content of pasta containing 30% fermented faba bean flour markedly improved, while the starch hydrolysis rate decreased, without negatively affecting technological and sensory features. The use of fermentation technology appears to be a promising tool to enhance the quality of pasta and to promote the use of faba bean flour.

  6. [Effect of wheat and faba bean intercropping on root exudation of low molecular weight organic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing-Xiu; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiment of wheat and faba bean intercropping was conducted and exudates from wheat and faba bean roots were collected at different growth stages. Low molecular weight organic acids (OA) in root exudates were examined by HPLC. The results showed that wheat and faba bean intercropping significantly increased the total amounts of OA exuded by roots. At tillering (57 d), booting (120 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in wheat root exudates by 155%, 35.6% and 92.6% respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture wheat (MW). At branching (57 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in faba bean root exudates by 87.4% and 38.7%, respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture faba bean (MF). Wheat and faba bean intercropping changed the types of OA exuded by roots. At tillering stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping wheat (IW), but not in that of MW. At jointing stage (98 d), citric acid was identified in root exudates of IW, but not in that of MW, and acetic acid was vice versa. At branching stage, acetic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping faba bean (IF), but not in that of MF, and lactic acid was vice versa. At filling stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of IF, but not in that of MF. Wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the OA exudation rate of wheat. At booting stage, the exudation rates of citric and fumaric acid from IW were 179 and 184-times as that of from MW, respectively. At filling stage, the exudation rate of lactic acid from IW was 2.53-times as that from MW. In conclusion, wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the rate and total amount, and changed the types of OA exuded by roots.

  7. 5-Lipoxygenase is not essential in macrophage-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Jessup, W; Darley-Usmar, V; O'Leary, V; Bedwell, S

    1991-01-01

    The concentration-dependent effects of a series of lipoxygenase inhibitors and antioxidants on the macrophage-mediated oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Their influence on macrophage 5-lipoxygenase pathway activity was also studied over the same concentration range. No correlation between inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and of macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL was observed. The capacity of the compounds to prevent cell-mediated modification of LDL could be...

  8. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY STRESS AND NICOTINAMIDE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FABA BEAN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDI T. ABDELHAMID

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Una posible estrategia de supervivencia para plantas que se desarrollan bajo condiciones de salinidad es emplear algunos compuestos que les permitan disminuir el estrés salino. Uno de estos compuestos es la nicotinamida (vitamina B3/ niacina. Se investigó el efecto de la aplicación exógena de nicotinamida en diferentes concentraciones (0, 200 o 400 mg l-1 sobre plantas de haba (Vicia faba L. creciendo a diferentes niveles de NaCl (0, 50 o 100 mM en los terrenos del National Research Centre, Cairo, Egipto. El estrés por salinidad reduce significativamente los contenidos de pigmentos fotosintéticos, polisacáridos, carbohidratos totales, nitrógeno total, peso de las plantas, número de hojas, pesos fresco y seco de tallos, rendimiento de semillas, y contenido de carbohidratos y proteina cruda total en semillas comparado con plantas control. En contraste, la salinidad induce incrementos marcados en sacarosa, azúcares solubles totales, aminoácidos libres totales, prolina, productos de peroxidación de lípidos como el malondialdehido (MDA y algunas enzimas oxidativas (polifenol oxidasa y peroxidasa. También, el estrés por salinidad incrementa el contenido de Na+ y genera disminución de otros macronutrientes y micronutrientes (P, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ y Cu2+ de los tallos y el rendimiento de semillas en plantas de haba. La aspersión foliar de nicotinamida disminuye los efectos adversos del estrés salino incrementando los pigmentos fotosintéticos, polisacáridos, carbohidratos totales, concentración total de nitrógeno en tallos, peso de las plantas, número de hojas, pesos frescos y secos de tallos, y rendimiento de semillas; así como los niveles de sacarosa, azúcares solubles totales, aminoácidos libres totales y prolina, comparado con aquellos correspondientes al estrés por salinidad, mientras disminuyeron los productos de peroxidación de lípidos (MDA y las enzimas oxidativas (polifenol oxidasas y peroxidasas. La

  9. Oxidation of furan fatty acids by soybean lipoxygenase-1 in the presence of linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batna, A; Spiteller, G

    1994-04-19

    The interaction of furan fatty acids (F-acids) with lipoxygenase was investigated by incubation experiments of a synthetic dialkyl-substituted F-acid with soybean lipoxygenase-1. Originally the oxidation of furan fatty acids was assumed to be directly effected by lipoxygenase. It is now demonstrated that this reaction is a two-step process that requires the presence of lipoxygenase substrates, e.g. linoleic acid. In the first step linoleic acid is converted by the enzyme to the corresponding hydroperoxide. This attacks, probably in a radical reaction, the furan fatty acid to produce a dioxoene compound that can be detected unequivocally by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  10. Lipoxygenase inhibiting and antioxidant iridoids from Buddleja crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Chen, Shilin; Peng, Yong; Chen, Sibao; Xu, Lijia

    2008-02-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the whole plant of Buddleja crispa led to the isolation of the iridoids 1-7. Compound 2 displayed significant inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase in a concentration-dependant fashion with IC(50) value of 39.7 +/- 0.02microM, along with DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC(50) value 0.638 mM.

  11. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Physalis alkekengi Carotenoidic Extract Inhibitor of Soybean Lipoxygenase-1 Activity

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    Veronica Sanda Chedea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the carotenoidic saponified extract of Physalis alkekengi sepals (PA towards the lipoxygenase (LOX oxidation of linoleic acid. Lipoxygenase activity in the presence of carotenoids, standard and from extract, was followed by its kinetic behaviour determining the changes in absorption at 234 nm. The standard carotenoids used were β-carotene (β-car, lutein (Lut, and zeaxanthin (Zea. The calculated enzymatic specific activity (ESA after 600 s of reaction proves that PA carotenoidic extract has inhibitory effect on LOX oxidation of linoleic acid. A longer polyenic chain of carotenoid structure gives a higher ESA during the first reaction seconds. This situation is not available after 600 s of reaction and may be due to a destruction of this structure by cooxidation of carotenoids, besides the classical LOX reaction. The PA carotenoidic extract inhibiting the LOX-1 reaction can be considered a source of lipoxygenase inhibitors.

  13. Climate Change and Phenology: Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Migration and Severity of Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B Baker

    Full Text Available Climate change can benefit individual species, but when pest species are enhanced by warmer temperatures agricultural productivity may be placed at greater risk. We analyzed the effects of temperature anomaly on arrival date and infestation severity of potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, a classic new world long distance migrant, and a significant pest in several agricultural crops. We compiled E. fabae arrival dates and infestation severity data at different states in USA from existing literature reviews and agricultural extension records from 1951-2012, and examined the influence of temperature anomalies at each target state or overwintering range on the date of arrival and severity of infestation. Average E. fabae arrival date at different states reveal a clear trend along the south-north axis, with earliest arrival closest to the overwintering range. E. fabae arrival has advanced by 10 days over the last 62 years. E. fabae arrived earlier in warmer years in relation to each target state level temperature anomaly (3.0 days / °C increase in temperature anomaly. Increased temperature had a significant and positive effect on the severity of infestation, and arrival date had a marginal negative effect on severity. These relationships suggest that continued warming could advance the time of E. fabae colonization and increase their impact on affected crops.

  14. Influence of conservation tillage and zero tillage on arable weeds in organic faba bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung, Rüdiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 on a Gleyic Cambisol near Goettingen, Lower Saxony, Germany. A crop sequence of summer barley, winter cover crops (intercropped oat and sunflower and summer faba bean was examined under organic farming conditions. Emphasis was given to the studying of arable weeds in faba beans. However, enhancing symbiotic nitrogen fixation of summer faba beans by accumulation of soil-nitrogen by winter cover crops was a second objective in these experiments. The faba bean field plots had been cultivated with three different tillage systems: 1. zero tillage, sowing with cross-slottechnique, 2. conservation tillage (wing share cultivator, rotary harrow sowing with cross-slot-technique and 3. conventional tillage with mouldboard plough followed by rotary harrow, sowing with precision monoseeder. In plots with zero tillage preceding cover crops were left as mulch on the soil surface. Cover crops accumulated adequate nitrogen amounts and following faba beans reacted with significant increase (up to 10% in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Maximum of arable weed biomass was observed in zero tillage-plots at the end of May or early in June. The abundance of the predominant weed wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis increased with tillage intensity, whereas the abundance of creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense increased in 2010 with decreasing tillage intensity. Average grain yield of faba beans was low with only 3.0 and 2.4 t ha-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  15. Effect of soaking, germination, autoclaving and cooking on chemical and biological value of guar compared with faba bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M M

    2001-08-01

    Raw, soaked, germinated, autoclaved and cooked both of guar and faba bean were chemically and biologically evaluated. Crude protein, crude fiber and ash contents of guar and faba bean decreased as a result of all treatments with the exception of protein content in both germinated guar and faba bean. A slight decrease in lipid content was noticed during germination, while there were no changes in lipids after soaking, autoclaving and cooking. Protein content of guar was higher than of faba bean, and showed higher values for all amino acids than faba bean protein except for lysine and tryptophan. Germination caused a slight increase in total essential amino acids, while soaking caused a slight decrease in both of guar and faba bean. There was a slight decrease in the mineral contents by the heat processes with the exception of Mg and Mn for guar and Na, Mn for faba bean due to the cooking process. Germinated guar and faba bean showed noticeable decrease in Na, K, Cu, Mn and Mg and a slight increase in Fe and Zn than the raw materials. Germination was more effective in reducing phytic acid than heat treatment, and therefore it improves the nutritional quality of both guar and faba bean. Protein efficiency ratio (PER), true digestibility (DT) and biological value (BV) were estimated in all treatments under study using rat bioassay procedures. Data revealed pronounced improvements of the nutritive value as a result of all processes under study especially germination being the most effective.

  16. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Determinación de las mejores condiciones para la extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Y.; Pérez, G

    2010-01-01

    Para la determinación de las mejores condiciones de extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (LRH), se utilizaron iniciaimente raíces enteras y paredes celulares de raíces. De acuerdo con los resultados, se establecieron las condiciones experimentales para la preparación de paredes celulares por tres métodos. Se encontró que el Método I, en el cual se usó Sarkosyl 0.5%, KH2PO4 0.01 M pH 6.0 para la obtención de paredes celulares y luego se extrajo la lectina con buffer de citrato de sodio 0.1...

  18. Induction de la phytotoxicité du Plomb chez Vicia faba L. : rôles de l'absorption et de la spéciation

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Peu d'études concernent actuellement l'influence de la spéciation du plomb (polluant métallique toxique, persistant et très présent dans les écosystèmes) sur sa phyto-toxicité. Pourtant, l'absorption des métaux, leur translocation et les mécanismes impliqués dans leur phyto-toxicité peuvent être fortement modifiés par ce paramètre. Dans ce contexte, l'objectif de la thèse était d'étudier l'influence de la spéciation chimique du plomb (formation de divers complexes organométalliques) sur sa ph...

  19. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Ivanova, Sonya Georgieva; Staykova, Genoveva Petrova; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2016-10-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221 g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300 g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental field bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p beans increased (p beans reduced the degradability of condensed tannins and increased endogenous mucin losses (p bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry diet formulations by dose response trials with purified tannase preparations.

  20. Feeding value of field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2017-04-01

    Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets. The Control diet contained as major ingredients wheat (400 g/kg) and soybean meal (SBM) (127 g/kg and 221 g crude protein/kg and 12.83 MJ AMEn/kg. To reduce nutrient density, the Control diet also contained washed sand at 119 g/kg. Another three diets containing 300 g/kg of each of three experimental field bean cultivar samples in replacement for SBM and sand were also mixed. Each diet was fed to nine pens with two male Ross 308 broilers. Diets high in tannin had low AMEn, ECR, DMR and NR (p beans increased (p beans with different tannin contents may vary when fed to broilers. The supplementation of the enzyme mixture improved the feeding value of diets for broilers. The beneficial effect of the addition of the enzyme mixture seems to be mediated through reduced ileal digesta viscosity and improved nutrient availability.

  1. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karuppanapandian, T.; Geilfus, C.M.; Muehling, K.H.; Novák, Ondřej; Gloser, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 255, FEB (2017), s. 51-58 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : xylem sap constituents * abscisic-acid * stomatal conductance * leaf apoplast * helianthus-annuus * plant-responses * intact plants * nacl stress * drying soil * guard-cells * Drought stress * Abscisic acid * Soil drying * Xylem sap * Osmolality * Water relations * Leaf water potential Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  2. Evaluación de cinco genotipos de haba (Vicia faba L. con seis niveles de fósforo en Tecámac, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Jesús Morales Rosales

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de una investigación de campo, basada en el diseño de bloques al azar con 30 tratamientos y tres repeticiones con un arreglo factorial, se evaluó: altura a la primera vaina (APV, altura final (AF, número de tallos (NT, número de granos por vaina (NGV, número de vainas por planta (NVP, peso de 100 semillas P(100S y rendimiento de grano (REND. El análisis de varianza reveló efectos significativos e interesantes para los cinco genotipos de haba.

  3. [The feed value in growing pigs of a new cultivar of field beans (Vicia faba L.) supplemented with DL-methionine or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, H j; Burghard, G

    2002-02-01

    A basal control mixture of barley, soy bean meal and soy bean oil was replaced by 25% of the new field bean-cultivar 'Divine' and the resulting two mixtures were supplemented with minerals, trace elements, vitamins and amino acids according to the ideal protein concept. The control diet was adjusted with DL-methionine (DL-Met), the field bean mixture either with DL-Met or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalogue (DL-MHA) assuming biological equivalence on a molar basis for both supplements. The three experimental diets were fed to growing pigs (35-40 kg bwt.). Spontaneous urine samples were analysed separately for determining parameters that characterize the acid-base status of the pigs. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in nutrient digestibilities. The level of bacterially fermentable substances was increased in the diets containing field beans. The field beans contained 14 mg ME/kg DM. There were no significant (p mixtures resulted from a higher electrolyte balance of the diet.

  4. CONTENIDO Y TRASLOCACIÓN DE PLOMO EN AVENA (Avena sativa, L. Y HABA (Vicia faba, L. DE UN SUELO CONTAMINADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth García-Gallegos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento en invernadero se estableció para determinar la concentración de plomo (Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea de haba y avena; se calculó el factor de bioconcentración y traslocación en las dos especies. Se probaron 50, 100 y 150 mg·Pb·kg-1 de suelo, incluyendo un control. Las plantas se colectaron a los 60 días después de la siembra y se midieron altura de planta (AP, volumen radical (VR y biomasa seca total (BST, además del contenido de Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea. La cuantificación de Pb se realizó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. El suelo cultivado con haba presentó un 28.48 % de PbEDTA. Las variables AP, VR y BST no fueron afectadas de manera drástica por las concentraciones de Pb probadas. Las plantas de haba y avena absorbieron un total de 55 mg·kg-1 y 45.3 mg·kg-1, respectivamente, las cuales se consideran tóxicas para plantas cultivadas. Los resultados pueden servir de base para ampliar el conocimiento del contenido de Pb absorbido y traslocado en plantas de haba y avena, ya que la capacidad de tolerar y absorber Pb es específica de la especie, inclusive de la variedad de planta.

  5. Nutritional value of raw and micronised field beans (Vicia fabaL. var.minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for growing chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla, J.M.; Rose, S. P.; Mackenzie, A M; Ivanova, S.G.; Staykova, G.P.; Pirgozliev, V.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment examined the effects of two field bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous muc...

  6. Determinación de las mejores condiciones para la extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. De navarro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Para la determinación de las mejores condiciones de extracción de la lectina de raíz de haba (LRH, se utilizaron iniciaimente raíces enteras y paredes celulares de raíces. De acuerdo con los resultados, se establecieron las condiciones experimentales para la preparación de paredes celulares por tres métodos. Se encontró que el Método I, en el cual se usó Sarkosyl 0.5%, KH2PO4 0.01 M pH 6.0 para la obtención de paredes celulares y luego se extrajo la lectina con buffer de citrato de sodio 0.1 M pH 4.2, es el más adecuado. El fraccionamiento se realizó por filtración por gel usando Sephadex G-25.

  7. The metabolism of ageing seeds: changes in the raffinose family oligosaccharides during storage of field bean (Vicia faba var. minor Harz seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zalewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of field bean cv. Nadwiślański harvested in 1980, 1986 and 1992 were studied. Results of investigations showed that the four analysed sugars (saccharine, verbascose, raffinose and stachyose made up from 60.1 mg of 1 g dry matter of seeds harvested in 1992 to 67 mg of seeds collected in 1986. After three years of storage in laboratory conditions we observed a decline of the amount of these oligosaccharides. The saccharose:raffinose family oligosaccharides ratio grows with the seed age.

  8. Response of bean (Vicia faba L. plants to low sink demand by measuring the gas exchange rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Fang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of photosynthesis in plants under low sink demand is well known. Previous studies focused on the relationship between stomatal conductance (gs and net photosynthetic rate (Pn. These studies investigated the effect of changes in Photosystem II (PSII function on the Pn decline under low sink demand. However, little is known about its effects on different limiting steps of electron transport chain in PSII under this condition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Two-month-old bean plants were processed by removing pods and flowers (low sink demand. On the 1(st day after low sink demand treatment, a decline of Pn was accompanied by a decrease in gs and internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca. From the 3(rd to 9(th day, Pn and gs declined continuously while Ci/Ca ratio remained stable in the treatment. Moreover, these values were lower than that of control. Wk (a parameter reflecting the damage to oxygen evolving complex of the donor side of PSII values in the treatment were significantly higher than their corresponding control values. However, RCQA (a parameter reflecting the number of active RCs per excited cross-section of PSII values in the treatment were significantly lower than control from the 5(th day. From the 11(th to 21(st day, Pn and gs of the treatment continued to decline and were lower than control. This was accompanied by a decrease of RCQA, and an increase of Wk. Furthermore, the quantum yield parameters φPo, φEo and ψEo in the treatment were lower than in control; however, Ci/Ca values in the treatment gradually increased and were significantly higher than control on the 21(st day. CONCLUSIONS: Stomatal limitation during the early stage, whereas a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal limitation during the middle stage might be responsible for the reduction of Pn under low sink demand. Non-stomatal limitation during the late stages after the removal of the sink of roots and pods may also cause Pn reduction. The non-stomatal limitation was associated with the inhibition of PSII electron transport chain. Our data suggests that the donor side of PSII was the most sensitive to low sink demand followed by the reaction center of PSII. The acceptor side of PSII may be the least sensitive.

  9. The fungi communities of the soil environment of Triticum aestivum and its forecrops: Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba ssp. minor and Trifolium pratense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pląskowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The species spectrum and abundance of the fungi communities were affected by the soil environment developed by wheat and its forecrops, and by atmospheric conditions. The fungi of the genus Fusarium were the greatest threat to winter wheat regardless of the forecrop. The field bean was the best forecrop to the wheat whereas spring barley was the worst.

  10. Effect of different Planting Pattern of Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Bean (Vicia faba on Grain Yield, Dry Matter Production and Weed Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in University of London, Kent, UK during the year 2003. The aim of experiment was to investigate the effects of planting pattern on performance of wheat and bean intercrops. A complete randomized block design with four replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included wheat sole crop (W, Bean sole crop (B, within row intercropping (M1, row intercropping (M2 and mix cropping (M3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one wheat replaced by three bean plants. The results showed that total dry matter achieved by intercrops was significantly higher than those achieved by either wheat or bean sole crop. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops, especially bean sole crop. Crops performance in terms dry weight, height and percentage of leaf, stem pod and ear was affected by cropping systems depending on crop species, where wheat showed more changes compared to bean . Grain yield, harvest index and thousand grain weights of wheat were decreased in intercropping while bean had reduction only in grain yield.

  11. Inhibitory effect of polar oregano extracts on aldose reductase and soybean lipoxygenase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoulitsa, Catherine; Zika, Chariklia; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Demopoulos, Vassilis J; Skaltsa, Helen

    2006-07-01

    The effect of methanol and aqueous methanol extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum on aldose reductase and soybean lipoxygenase was investigated. The results revealed a promising potential of oregano for preventing diabetes complications in the long term and an antiinflammatory efficacy by inhibiting soybean lipoxygenase.

  12. 5-Lipoxygenase is not essential in macrophage-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, W; Darley-Usmar, V; O'Leary, V; Bedwell, S

    1991-08-15

    The concentration-dependent effects of a series of lipoxygenase inhibitors and antioxidants on the macrophage-mediated oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Their influence on macrophage 5-lipoxygenase pathway activity was also studied over the same concentration range. No correlation between inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and of macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL was observed. The capacity of the compounds to prevent cell-mediated modification of LDL could be explained in terms of their activity as either aqueous- or lipid-peroxyl radical scavengers. Two potent 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors (MK 886 and Revlon 5901), which had no radical-scavenging properties, were unable to block LDL modification. It is concluded that 5-lipoxygenase is not essential for LDL oxidation by macrophages.

  13. Effect of selected Egyptian cooking methods on faba bean nutritive value and dietary protein utilization 2: ability of faba bean products to support hemoglobin response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A; Bayomy, M F

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the dietary protein utilization and iron deficiency anemia as affected by the faba bean nutrient intake, a bioassay with rats was carried out with different experimental diets containing four faba bean products (stewed beans 'Medammis', deep fried dough 'Falafel', boiled germinated beans 'Nabet Soup' and poured paste 'Bissara') widely consumed in the Middle East. Amino acid composition of all faba bean products was determined and compared to raw beans. Severe heat-processing markedly decreased some essential amino acids, especially phenylalanine, cystine, methionine and tryptophan. Protein scores were 24.6, 19.5, 29.2, 28.2 and 35.6 for raw faba beans, 'Medammis', 'Falafel', 'Nabet Soup' and 'Bissara', respectively. 'Bissara' possessed the highest nutritional value, since it had the lowest GDR value [Grams consumed of product to cover the daily requirements for adult man in protein (63 g) and in energy (2900 kcal)] for the limiting amino acids (L A A). As indicated by P S/150 values [Satisfaction of the daily requirements of the adult man when 150 g (one can content) are consumed of product] for L A A, i.e. methionine+cystine (lowest P S/150 value), the above-mentioned faba bean products cover about 53, 77, 77 and 97% of the daily requirements of adult man in L A A, respectively. Fecal nitrogen excretion increased and true nitrogen digestibility decreased significantly (p < 0.01) with the inclusion of 'Medammis' in the diet. 'Nabet Soup' exhibited the highest true nitrogen digestibility. In contrast, the biological value of nitrogen was apparently unaffected. Highest blood hemoglobin level was found in rats fed diets containing 'Bissara', 'Falafel' and 'Nabet Soup', whereas the addition of 'Medammis' in the diet induced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in blood hemoglobin level of fed rats.

  14. 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein gene polymorphisms, dietary linoleic acid, and risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-10-01

    The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid 5-lipoxygenase pathway has been shown to play a role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study among Latina, African-American, and White women from the San Francisco Bay area to examine the association of the 5-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX5) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein gene (ALOX5AP) with breast cancer risk. Three ALOX5AP polymorphisms [poly(A) microsatellite, -4900 A>G (rs4076128), and -3472 A>G (rs4073259)] and three ALOX5 polymorphisms [Sp1-binding site (-GGGCGG-) variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism, -1279 G>T (rs6593482), and 760 G>A (rs2228065)] were genotyped in 802 cases and 888 controls. We did not find significant main effects of ALOX5 and ALOX5AP genotypes on breast cancer risk that were consistent across race or ethnicity; however, there was a significant interaction between the ALOX5AP -4900 A>G polymorphism and dietary linoleic acid intake (P=0.03). Among women consuming a diet high in linoleic acid (top quartile of intake, >17.4 g/d), carrying the AA genotype was associated with higher breast cancer risk (age- and race-adjusted odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9) compared with carrying genotypes AG or GG. Among women consuming

  15. 5-Lipoxygenase Knockout Aggravated Apical Periodontitis in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Sun, H; Yang, B; Liu, X; Wang, J

    2017-11-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) plays a vital role in the host innate immune response, including bacteria-induced inflammation. Apical periodontitis (AP) is due to immune disorders caused by imbalances between bacterial invasion and subsequent host defense response. In this work, we investigated the role of 5-lipoxygenase in AP by using 5- lo knockout mice (5- lo-/- mice). Results showed that 5- lo-/- mice had greater periapical bone loss and more osteoclasts positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining than did wild-type mice, as determined by micro-computed tomography and histologic staining. The inflammation- and osteoclastogenesis-related factors IL-1β, TNF-α, RANK, and RANKL were also significantly elevated in 5- lo-/- mice, whereas osteoprotegerin was reduced. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from 5- lo-/- mice revealed an obviously impaired ability to phagocytose the AP pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum. In vivo experiments confirmed that 5- lo knockout led to decreased macrophage recruitment and increased F. nucleatum infection around the periapical area due to decreased leukotriene B4 and LXA4 production. All these results showed that 5- lo knockout impaired the host innate immune system to promote the release of bone resorption-related factors. Therefore, 5- lo deficiency aggravated AP in an experimental murine AP model.

  16. Faba bean in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Scipioni; Domenico Pietro Lo Fiego; Luisa Antonella Volpelli; Michele Comellini

    2010-01-01

    Two consecutive trials were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal (SBM) in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows. In both trials a “Control” concentrate (12% dehulled SBM) was compared to a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% dehulled SBM; 10% flaked faba beans). Forages fed to animals included hay (mixed grass and alfalfa) plus green mixed grass in trial 1, hay only in trial 2. Concentrate intake, faecal scores, milk yield and quality wer...

  17. Occurrence of phytoplasma phyllody and witches' broom disease of faba bean in Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil K; Bhatt, B P; Manibhushan

    2013-09-01

    Faba bean (Vicio faba) plants showed symptoms of shoe stringed leaves, phyllody and flower abortion in experimental field. The first symptoms consisted of phyllody mild yellowing, vein clearing and slightly inward folding of newly formed leaves in the apical region of the plant. The disease was characterized by a series of floral abnormalities including virescence, phyllody and proliferation of sprouts together with other abnormalities, such as loss of apical dominance, vivipary and enhanced vegetative growth. Ambient temperature found to be contributing positively on disease development. Under climate change condition there may be every possible chance for speedy spread of this very economic important disease to the earlier not known regions.

  18. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  19. A trichome-specific linoleate lipoxygenase expressed during pyrethrin biosynthesis in pyrethrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Aldana M; Yang, Ting; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2013-01-01

    The lipid precursor alcohols of pyrethrins-jasmolone, pyrethrolone and cinerolone-have been proposed as sharing parts of the oxylipin pathway with jasmonic acid. This implies that one of the first committed steps of pyrethrin biosynthesis is catalyzed by a lipoxygenase, catalyzing the hydroperoxi......The lipid precursor alcohols of pyrethrins-jasmolone, pyrethrolone and cinerolone-have been proposed as sharing parts of the oxylipin pathway with jasmonic acid. This implies that one of the first committed steps of pyrethrin biosynthesis is catalyzed by a lipoxygenase, catalyzing....... In the present study we characterized the expression pattern of 25 lipoxygenase EST contigs, and subsequently carried out the molecular cloning of two pyrethrum lipoxygenases, TcLOX1 and TcLOX2, that have a similar pattern to TcCDS. Only recombinant TcLOX1 catalyzed the peroxidation of the linolenic acid...

  20. The biology of 5-lipoxygenase: function, structure, and regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, E S; Drazen, J M

    1999-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the two-step conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotriene A4 (LTA4). The first step consists of the oxidation of arachidonic acid to the unstable intermediate 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), and the second step is the dehydration of 5-HPETE to form LTA4. These events are the first committed reactions leading to the synthesis of all leukotrienes and play a critical role in controlling leukotriene production. 5-LO has evolved many complex structural features and regulatory mechanisms to allow it to fulfill this highly specialized role. The biology of 5-LO is reviewed here with an emphasis on enzymatic function, protein and gene structure, essential cofactors, and the many regulatory mechanisms controlling its expression.

  1. Lipoxygenase inhibitors from the latex of Calotropis Procera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Mohamed, Nadia H; Liu, Miaomiao; El-Gamal, Ali A; Basudan, Omer A; Ismail, Mady Ahmed; Quinn, Ronald J; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2016-03-09

    A radical-scavenging, guided phytochemical study of the latex of Calotropis Procera afforded five lignans (1-5), including a new one (4). The structural determination was accomplished using 1D- and 2D-NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), and correlation with known compounds. Among the isolated compounds, acylated lignans (3-5) showed stronger antioxidant activity than non-acylated derivatives (1,2). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by determining the inhibitory potential against 5- and 15-lipoxygenase enzymes. The highest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in compound 4, with IC50s values of 7.6 µM and 2.7 µM against 5-LOX and 15-LOX, respectively.

  2. Lipoxygenase Activity Accelerates Programmed Spore Germination in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Fischer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS to germling (GL and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of programmed spore germination. Overexpression of loxB (OE::loxB increases germination with rapid advance to the GL stage. However, deletion of loxB (ΔloxB or its signal peptide only delays progression to the SS stage in the presence of arachidonic acid (AA; no delay is observed in minimal media. This delay is remediated by the addition of the oxygenated AA oxylipin 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE that is a product of human Alox5. We propose that A. fumigatus acquisition of LoxB (found in few fungi enhances germination rates in polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich environments.

  3. Immunolocalization of lipoxygenase in the microspore of Gagea lutea (L. Ker.-Gaw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Localization of lipoxygenase (LOX in the microspore of Gagea lutea (L. Ker.-Gaw. was investigated with the immunogold labelling method. The enzyme was found in the cytoplasm, nucleus and sporoderm. The most intensive reaction was observed in the cytoplasm, where the immunogold particles were sometimes grouped into clusters of several or more and showed the highest density. The smallest amount of particles occured in the sporoderm. The role of lipoxygenase in the microspore is discussed.

  4. Insights using the molecular model of Lipoxygenase from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.))

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Apoorv; Avashthi, Himanshu; Jha, Richa; Srivastava, Ambuj; Kumar Garg, Vijay; Wasudev Ramteke, Pramod; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) protein provides defense against pests and pathogens and its presence have been positively correlated with plant resistance against pathogens. Linoleate is a known substrate of lipoxygenase and it induces necrosis leading to the accumulation of isoflavonoid phytoalexins in plant leaves. Therefore, it is of interest to study the structural features of LOX-1 from Finger millet. However, the structure ofLOX-1 from Finger millet is not yet known. A homology model of LOX-1 f...

  5. Effect of Debudding of Faba bean on the Soluble Nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogenase activity (measured as ARA) of debudded plants was ... Key words: Acetylene reduction activity, faba bean, feedbackcontrol, legume, nitrogenase activity, nitrogen ftxati on, nodules regulate .... Effect of debudding on nitrogenase activity (AR), soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen and ammonium content of nodules ...

  6. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value.

  7. Exploring the Microbiota of Faba Bean: Functional Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Verni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the metabolic traits of 27 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains belonging to different species, previously isolated from faba bean. The activities assayed, related to technological and nutritional improvement of fermented faba bean, included peptidases, β-glucosidase, phytase, as well as exopolysaccharides synthesis and antimicrobial properties. In addition, the bacteria performance as starter cultures during faba bean fermentation on proteolysis, antioxidant potential, and degradation of condensed tannins were assessed. Fermentative profiling showed that only 7 out of 27 strains were able to metabolize D-raffinose, particularly Leuc. mesenteroides I01 and I57. All strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus exerted high PepN activity and exhibited β-glucosidase activity higher than the median value of 0.015 U, while phytase activity was largely distributed among the different strains. All the weissellas, and in lower amount leuconostocs, showed ability to produce EPS from sucrose. None of the strains did not survive the simulated gastrointestinal tract with the exception of P. pentosaceus I56, I76, 147, I214, having a viability of 8–9 log CFU/ml at the end of the treatment. None of the strains showed antimicrobial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus, while eight strains of P. pentosaceus exhibited a strong inhibitory activity toward Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Generally, the doughs fermented with pediococci exhibited high amount of total free amino acids, antioxidant activity, and condensed tannins degradation. These results allowed the identification of LAB biotypes as potential starter cultures for faba bean bioprocessing, aiming at the enhancement of faba bean use in novel food applications.

  8. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated...

  9. Combination of different methods for direct control of Vicia hirsuta in winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Lukashyk, P.; Köpke, U.

    2005-01-01

    Combinations of three different direct methods for controlling Vicia hirsuta (kainite application, flame weeding and harrowing) were investigated in field experiments. They were based on different strategies at early growth stages of V. hirsuta and standardised harrowing at late growth stages. The highest efficacy of kainite application and flame weeding was achieved at the one leaf stage of V. hirsuta. Winter wheat regeneration from damage caused by both kainite and thermal control was satis...

  10. 5-Lipoxygenase in the Prefrontal Cortex of Suicide Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Tolga; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam N.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Conley, Robert R.; Manev, Radmila; Manev, Hari

    2009-01-01

    5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), an enzyme involved in leukotriene synthesis, is expressed in the brain and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Recently, it has been suspected that leukotriene receptor antagonists might be associated with suicide. In this work, we investigated the 5-LOX protein in the brain samples from depressed suicide victims and matching controls. We used Western immunoblotting with an antibody against Ser523-phosphorylated 5-LOX (p5-LOX) to evaluate protein kinase A-mediated 5-LOX phosphorylation, and in addition, an antibody against the total 5-LOX protein. In the total homogenate of the prefrontal cortex samples, 5-LOX content did not differ in the control and suicide groups but p5-LOX was significantly elevated in the suicide samples. The 5-LOX protein content was reduced in the membrane fraction and increased in the cytosol fraction of suicide victims. We propose that further studies of brain 5-LOX are needed to elucidate the functional implications of the protein alterations observed in our present study, and to further explore a putative role of 5-LOX in depression and suicide. PMID:19890443

  11. Inflammation, Cancer and Oxidative Lipoxygenase Activity are Intimately Linked

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisastra, Rosalina; Dekker, Frank J., E-mail: f.j.dekker@rug.nl [Pharmaceutical Gene Modulation, Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-07-17

    Cancer and inflammation are intimately linked due to specific oxidative processes in the tumor microenvironment. Lipoxygenases are a versatile class of oxidative enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism. An increasing number of arachidonic acid metabolites is being discovered and apart from their classically recognized pro-inflammatory effects, anti-inflammatory effects are also being described in recent years. Interestingly, these lipid mediators are involved in activation of pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways such as the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, which illustrates the intimate link between lipid signaling and transcription factor activation. The identification of the role of arachidonic acid metabolites in several inflammatory diseases led to a significant drug discovery effort around arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes. However, to date success in this area has been limited. This might be attributed to the lack of selectivity of the developed inhibitors and to a lack of detailed understanding of the functional roles of arachidonic acid metabolites in inflammatory responses and cancer. This calls for a more detailed investigation of the activity of arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes and development of more selective inhibitors.

  12. Multielemental Fingerprinting as a Tool for Authentication of Organic Wheat, Barley, Faba Bean, and Potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    between organic and conventional crops were found in the content of essential plant nutrients when statistically analyzed individually. However, chemometric analysis of multielemental fingerprints comprising up to 14 elements allowed discrimination. The discrimination power was further enhanced......The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and −mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically...... different field locations, each accommodating one conventional and two organic cropping systems. The conventional system produced the highest harvest yields for all crops except the nitrogen-fixing faba bean, whereas the dry matter content of each crop was similar across systems. No systematic differences...

  13. Potential candidates for biological control of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković, S.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The black bean aphid is widely spread aphid species in the Palaearctic, known to attack over 1150 plant species. Because some of the host plants are of great agricultural interest, Aphis fabae represent a very important pest. We assembled all data concerning the presence of this pest and connected it in tritrophic associations. In the period of 24 years investigation on the territory of Serbia it has been recorded in 107 trophic associations. In total there are 145 findings of A. fabae parasitized by 19 taxa of Aphidiinae (Brackonidae from seven genera. The most suitable biocontrol agents for the black bean aphid are Lysiphlebus fabarum, Binodoxys angelicae, Lipolesis gracilis and the introduced species Lysiphlebus testaceipes.

  14. [Use of the HPLC method for determination of glucopiranosides during ripening of faba bean seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorowicz, J; Pierzynowska-Kornik, G; Zadernowski, R

    1996-01-01

    Uridine (C9H12N2O6) was applied as an internal standard for the determination of glucopiranosides in faba bean seeds by the HPLC method. The relative UV response factors of vaccine or convicine to uridine were determined (1.12 and 0.79, respectively). The changes in the content of vaccine and convicine during ripening of faba bean seeds were followed. It was observed that with the increase in the seed dry matter content from 0.18 kg/kg to 0.78 kg/kg, the dry matter based content of vaccine decreased from 26.225 g/kg to 0.243 g/kg, and that of convicine from 9.051 g/kg to 0.094 g/kg.

  15. Crystal structure of a lipoxygenase in complex with substrate: the arachidonic acid-binding site of 8R-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neau, David B; Bender, Gunes; Boeglin, William E; Bartlett, Sue G; Brash, Alan R; Newcomer, Marcia E

    2014-11-14

    Lipoxygenases (LOX) play critical roles in mammalian biology in the generation of potent lipid mediators of the inflammatory response; consequently, they are targets for the development of isoform-specific inhibitors. The regio- and stereo-specificity of the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by the enzymes is understood in terms of the chemistry, but structural observation of the enzyme-substrate interactions is lacking. Although several LOX crystal structures are available, heretofore the rapid oxygenation of bound substrate has precluded capture of the enzyme-substrate complex, leaving a gap between chemical and structural insights. In this report, we describe the 2.0 Å resolution structure of 8R-LOX in complex with arachidonic acid obtained under anaerobic conditions. Subtle rearrangements, primarily in the side chains of three amino acids, allow binding of arachidonic acid in a catalytically competent conformation. Accompanying experimental work supports a model in which both substrate tethering and cavity depth contribute to positioning the appropriate carbon at the catalytic machinery. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette H.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne-Belinda [Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 C, 15 min, 2 g l{sup -1} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape straw or faba bean straw was significantly affected by pretreatment. Ethanol was produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid material after wet oxidation with yields of 66%, 70% and 52% of theoretical for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively. Methane was produced with yields of 0.36, 0.42 and 0.44 l g{sup -1} volatile solids for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively, without pretreatment of the materials. However, biogas productivity was low and it took over 50 days to reach the final yield. It could be concluded that all three materials are possible raw materials for either biogas or ethanol production; however, improvement of biogas productivity or ethanol yield is necessary before an economical process can be achieved. (author)

  17. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY; Zeinab M. MOBARAK; Zeinab A. SALAMA

    2010-01-01

    Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15%) were sprayed in two different treatmen...

  18. Effect of extrusion, espansion and toasting on the nutritional value of peas, faba beans and lupins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment was made of the effect that different treatments (toasting, expansion, extrusion have on the nutritionalvalue of protein plants (pea, faba bean, lupin. In a randomized block design, feeds were screened for enzymaticdigestibility of starch and protein, N solubility and in vitro protein degradability. Expansion and extrusion cause increasedstarch enzymatic degradability while toasting produced virtually no effects. In peas this value increased from 11.80% inmeal to 39.70% in the extruded product; 85.37% is the percentage for the expanded product, while 10.90% is the starchdigestibility value for toasted peas. In faba beans the extrusion process increased starch digestibility from 11.39% to85.05%, while in extruded lupins a complete starch hydrolysis was obtained, while in the meal the polysaccharide digestionwas 54.48%.The expansion and extrusion processes significantly decreased rumen degradability during the first 8 hours of incubation.Toasted peas had lower degradability if compared with controls but not with the other treatments. The onlypotentially alternative source to soybean is the extruded faba bean. In spite of its lower protein content, this feed ischaracterized by a considerably lower in vitro protein degradability than soybean. This implies that the digestible foodprotein content is comparable (124.90 g/kg DM to that of soybean (109.78 g/kg DM and definitely higher than thatof all other protein plants.

  19. Faba bean in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two consecutive trials were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal (SBM in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows. In both trials a “Control” concentrate (12% dehulled SBM was compared to a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% dehulled SBM; 10% flaked faba beans. Forages fed to animals included hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus green mixed grass in trial 1, hay only in trial 2. Concentrate intake, faecal scores, milk yield and quality were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was lower in the “Faba” group (“Control” vs. “Faba”: 34.6 vs. 32.9mg/dl in trial 1, P<0.1; 27.4 vs. 23.4mg/dl in trial 2, P<0.01. The plasma urea was different only in trial 2 (“Control” vs. “Faba”: 3.9 vs. 3.0mmol/l, P<0.01. The inclusion of faba beans within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of SBM.

  20. Effects of Intercropping (Canola-Faba Bean on Density and Diversity of Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hossain GHARINEH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the biological effect and interference of crop and weed in canola-faba bean intercropping in comparison with mono culture, an experiment was conducted in randomize completely blocks design with three replication at Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources, University. In this experiment treatments were different compositions of canola (Brassica napus L. var. haylo and faba bean (local cultivar. Plant densities (0, 20 and 40 plants per m2 for canola and four levels include (0, 20, 40 and 60 plants per m2 for faba bean in accordance with additive form mixed culture system respectively. Weed dry weight was affected by culture system and different levels of plant densities in mixed culture and there were significant difference 1%. Lowest weed dry weight was obtained in 20-60 and 40-60 plants m-2 canola-bean intercropping. In the intercropping parts only two species was observed while in the sole culture more than three species were exist. Results showed that with increasing in bean diversity, weed dry weight declines. According to our results, it is possible to control weed effectively by using intercropping system, but more studied is required. Diversity of weeds had been clearly affected. Results showed that only Beta and Malva species were existed in intercropping comparing to sole cultures that Brassica, Beta, Rumex and Malva were existed.

  1. The structural basis for specificity in lipoxygenase catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Marcia E; Brash, Alan R

    2015-03-01

    Many intriguing facets of lipoxygenase (LOX) catalysis are open to a detailed structural analysis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids with two to six double bonds are oxygenated precisely on a particular carbon, typically forming a single chiral fatty acid hydroperoxide product. Molecular oxygen is not bound or liganded during catalysis, yet it is directed precisely to one position and one stereo configuration on the reacting fatty acid. The transformations proceed upon exposure of substrate to enzyme in the presence of O2 (RH + O2 → ROOH), so it has proved challenging to capture the precise mode of substrate binding in the LOX active site. Beginning with crystal structures with bound inhibitors or surrogate substrates, and most recently arachidonic acid bound under anaerobic conditions, a picture is consolidating of catalysis in a U-shaped fatty acid binding channel in which individual LOX enzymes use distinct amino acids to control the head-to-tail orientation of the fatty acid and register of the selected pentadiene opposite the non-heme iron, suitably positioned for the initial stereoselective hydrogen abstraction and subsequent reaction with O2 . Drawing on the crystal structures available currently, this review features the roles of the N-terminal β-barrel (C2-like, or PLAT domain) in substrate acquisition and sensitivity to cellular calcium, and the α-helical catalytic domain in fatty acid binding and reactions with O2 that produce hydroperoxide products with regio and stereospecificity. LOX structures combine to explain how similar enzymes with conserved catalytic machinery differ in product, but not substrate, specificities. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  2. Ablation of 5-lipoxygenase mitigates pancreatic lesion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knab, Lawrence M; Schultz, Michelle; Principe, Daniel R; Mascarinas, Windel E; Gounaris, Elias; Munshi, Hidayatullah G; Grippo, Paul J; Bentrem, David J

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which continues to have a dismal prognosis, is associated with a pronounced fibroinflammatory response. Inflammation in vivo can be mediated by 5-lipoxygenase (5LO), an enzyme that converts omega-6 fatty acids (FA) to eicosanoids, including leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We have previously shown that diets rich in omega-6 FA increase pancreatic lesions and mast cell infiltration in EL-Kras mice. In this study, we evaluated the role of 5LO in generating higher levels of LTB4 from human cells and in mediating lesion development and mast cell infiltration in EL-Kras mice. Human pancreatic ductal epithelial and cancer cells were treated with omega-6 FA in vitro. EL-Kras mice lacking 5LO (EL-Kras/5LO(-/-)) mice were generated and fed standard chow or omega-6 FA diets. Pancreatic lesion frequency and mast cell infiltration were compared with EL-Kras/5LO(+/+) mice. Human PDAC tumors were evaluated for 5LO expression and mast cells. Human pancreatic ductal epithelial and pancreatic cancer cells treated with omega-6 FA generated increased LTB4 levels in vitro. EL-Kras/5LO(-/-) mice developed fewer pancreatic lesions and had decreased mast cell infiltration when compared with EL-Kras/5LO(+/+) mice. Human PDAC tumors with increased 5LO expression demonstrate increased mast cell infiltration. Additionally, diets rich in omega-6 FA failed to increase pancreatic lesion development and mast cell infiltration in EL-Kras/5LO(-/-) mice. The expansion of mutant Kras-induced lesions via omega-6 FA is dependent on 5LO, and 5LO functions downstream of mutant Kras to mediate inflammation, suggesting that 5LO may be a potential chemopreventive and therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreases in 15-lipoxygenase metabolites in Olmsted syndrome model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Masato; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Kihara, Akio

    2017-03-01

    Olmsted syndrome (OS) is a congenital dermatosis characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma and periorificial keratotic plaque. TRPV3 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 3) encodes a thermosensitive Ca 2+ channel and is the causative gene of OS. However, the molecular mechanism that causes the pathological development of OS is unclear. We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying OS pathology from the perspective of lipid metabolism. Comprehensive lipidomics and microarray analyses were conducted on tissue samples from a non-lesional skin area of OS model rats (Ht rats) and from wild type (WT) rats as the control. Infiltration of leukocytes such as eosinophils and neutrophils and an increase in the fibrotic region were detected in the unaffected skin area of Ht rats compared with the WT rats. Among about 600 lipid species examined, the levels of 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolites, the precursors of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators, and dihydroceramides decreased by ≥16-fold in Ht rats compared with WT rats. Consistent with the decreases in the 15-LOX metabolites, expression levels of the genes that encode the 15-LOXs, Alox15 and Alox15b, were largely reduced. Conversely, increased expression levels were detected of Il36b, Ccl20, Cxcl1, and Cxcl2, which encode cytokines/chemokines, and S100a8 and S100a9, which encode the Ca 2+ binding proteins that are implicated in epidermal proliferation. The pro-inflammatory state in the unaffected skin of Ht rats caused by decreases in 15-LOX metabolites and increases in cytokines/chemokines may contribute to the pathogenesis of OS. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening Brazilian plant species for in vitro inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F C; Wagner, H; Lombardi, J A; de Oliveira, A B

    2000-01-01

    Plants from the Brazilian flora were evaluated for the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. The species were selected based on their traditional use and on a chemosystematic approach. In total, 19 species belonging to 13 families have been investigated. Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig (Zingiberaceae), Xylopia frutescens Aubl. (Annonaceae) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae) presented a high 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Some hypothesis about the nature of the active compounds are discussed, based on reports of the chemical constitution of these species or other species from the same botanical family.

  5. Drug-mediated intracellular donation of nitric oxide potently inhibits 5-lipoxygenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Jessica; Peters, Marcus; Maucher, Isabelle V

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme of leukotriene biosynthesis and is critically involved in a number of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, gout, bronchial asthma, atherosclerosis and cancer. Because 5-LO contains critical nucleophilic amino acids, which are sensitive to electrop......AIMS: 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme of leukotriene biosynthesis and is critically involved in a number of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, gout, bronchial asthma, atherosclerosis and cancer. Because 5-LO contains critical nucleophilic amino acids, which are sensitive...

  6. Plant sterol-enriched soy milk consumption modulates 5-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, and myeloperoxidase activities in healthy adults - a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Xing Lin; Liu, Jonathan Jia He; Loke, Wai Mun

    2016-12-01

    A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled and crossover study was conducted to simultaneously measure the effects, after 3-h and 4-week daily exposure to plant sterols-enriched food product, on inflammation, oxidative status, 5-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, and myeloperoxidase activities in healthy adults. Eighteen healthy participants (67% female, 35.3 (mean) ± 9.5 (SD) years, mean body mass index 22.8 kg m -2 ) received two soy milk (20g) treatments daily: placebo and one containing 2.0 g free plant sterols equivalent of their palmitates (β-sitosterol, 55%; campesterol, 29%; stigmasterol, 23%). F 2 -isoprostanes, leukotriene B 4 , sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol concentrations were measured in the blood plasma and urine, using stable isotope-labeled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. High-sensitivity c-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor- α , and lipoxin A 4 concentrations in blood serum were measured using commercially available enzyme immunoassays. Myeloperoxidase activity, serum lipid hydroperoxides, plasma and urinary F 2 -isoprostanes, plasma and urinary leukotriene B 4 , and plasma high-sensitivity c-reactive protein concentrations were significantly reduced, while circulating lipoxin A 4 concentrations were significantly elevated after 4-week plant sterols treatment. Plant sterols treatment decreased plasma leukotriene B 4 and increased plasma lipoxin A 4 concentrations acutely. Total plant sterols, β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol concentrations were significantly elevated after 4-week treatments compared with the pre-treatment concentrations. Our results suggest that dietary plant sterols, in the combination used, can alleviate lipid peroxidation and inflammatory events in vivo. These effects are possibly exerted via the modulation of myeloperoxidase, 5-lipoxygenase, and 12-lipoxygenase activities.

  7. Stem anatomy of annual legume intercropping components: white lupin (Lupinus albus L., narbonne (Vicia narbonensis L. and common (Vicia sativa L. vetches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Zoric

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intercropping on stem anatomy of both supporting (Lupinus albus and supported (Vicia narbonnensis and V. sativa annual forage legumes was investigated using stereological method. Intercropped plants showed minimal differences in volume densities (Vv of stem tissues and forage chemical composition compared to sole crops. The proportions of lignin and NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber positively correlated with xylem Vv. The proportions of ADF (Acid Detergent Fiber, cellulose and ash in intercropped plants were increased or decreased mostly by less than 10% compared to those in pure stands. The Anatomical Equivalent Ratio (AER defined as the ratio based on anatomical quality-determining parameters, can assist in the evaluation of the benefits of specific intercropping systems. Intercropping of the legume species studied in this work, especially L. albus with V. sativa, showed encouraging results from anatomical perspective since it would not cause a decline of forage quality.

  8. Evaluation of Agricultural Use of Vicia sativa L. in Mercury Contaminated Soils; Evaluacion del Uso Agricola de Vicia sativa L. en Suelos Contaminados con Mercurio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, A.; Millan, R.; Esteban, E.

    2010-03-08

    This study is framed in the project Recuperation de suelos contaminados por mercurio: recomendaciones de uso de suelos y plantas en la comarca minera de Almaden (REUSA), funded by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. Moreover, this article is the result of the work carried out by Andres Andres for his Bachelors dissertation. Soils from the Almaden mining district are contaminated with high mercury concentrations, due to the extraction activities of that metal through the years. After the end of mining exploitation, which was the main source of wealth in the region, alternative uses of soils are needed in order to promote the socio-economic development of the studied area. The project here intends to evaluate the viability of the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) crop in a substrate under similar conditions to the ones observed in the Almaden soils, by studying the mercury absorption capacity of the above mentioned species. (Author) 20 refs.

  9. A Trichome-Specific Linoleate Lipoxygenase Expressed During Pyrethrin Biosynthesis in Pyrethrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, A.M.; Yang, T.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The lipid precursor alcohols of pyrethrins—jasmolone, pyrethrolone and cinerolone—have been proposed as sharing parts of the oxylipin pathway with jasmonic acid. This implies that one of the first committed steps of pyrethrin biosynthesis is catalyzed by a lipoxygenase, catalyzing the

  10. Primary structure of a lipoxygenase from barley grain as deduced from its cDNA sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Smits, M.; Douma, A.C.; Rouster, J.; Cameron-Mills, V.; Heidekamp, F.; Valk, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    A full length cDNA sequence for a barley grain lipoxygenase was obtained. It includes a 5' untranslated region of 69 nucleotides, an open reading frame of 2586 nucleotides encoding a protein of 862 amino acid residues and a 3' untranslated region of 142 nucleotides. The molecular mass of the encoded

  11. A trichome-specific linoleate lipoxygenase expressed during pyrethrin biosynthesis in pyrethrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Aldana M; Yang, Ting; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2013-01-01

    The lipid precursor alcohols of pyrethrins-jasmolone, pyrethrolone and cinerolone-have been proposed as sharing parts of the oxylipin pathway with jasmonic acid. This implies that one of the first committed steps of pyrethrin biosynthesis is catalyzed by a lipoxygenase, catalyzing the hydroperoxi...

  12. Inactivation of soybean trypsin inhibitors and lipoxygenases by high-pressure processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der C.; Matser, A.M.; Berg, van den R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Trypsin inhibitors (TIA), one of the antinutritional factors of soy milk, are usually inactivated by heat treatment. In the current study, high-pressure processing (HPP) was evaluated as an alternative for the inactivation of TIA in soy milk. Moreover, the effect of HPP on lipoxygenase (LOX) in

  13. In vitro screening of Crataegus succulenta extracts for free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedreag, Catrinel Florentina Giurescu; Trifan, Adriana; Vasincu, Al; Miron, S D; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Miron, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Crataegus succulenta Schrad. ex Link is widely spread in North America. A literature survey revealed no studies on the chemical composition and biological effects of this species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenolic content, free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects of Crataegus succulenta leaf and flower extracts. Total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents were quantified by spectrophotometric methods. Both extracts were evaluated for their ability to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals and to inhibit 15-lipoxygenase activity. There were noticed no striking differences in the total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents between leaf and flower extracts. Both extracts showed similar 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects. Flower extract scavenged more effectively DPPH and superoxide radicals while leave extract was more active against hydroxyl radical. In superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, both extracts were more active than (+)-catechin. In hydroxyl radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibition assays, the extracts were only 4-5 times less active than (+)-catechin. The high antioxidant potential of Crataegus succulenta extracts suggest a possible use as ingredients in functional foods for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  14. THE 5-LIPOXYGENASE PATHWAY IS REQUIRED FOR ACUTE LUNG INJURY FOLLOWING HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, John C.; Moore, Ernest E.; Mauchley, David C.; Johnson, Chris A.; Meng, Xianzhong; Banerjee, Anirban; Wohlauer, Max V.; Zarini, Simona; Gijón, Miguel A.; Murphy, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular and biochemical mechanisms leading to acute lung injury and subsequent multiple organ failure are only partially understood. In order to study the potential role of eicosanoids, particularly leukotrienes, as possible mediators of acute lung injury, we used a murine experimental model of acute lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock after blood removal via cardiac puncture. Neutrophil sequestration as shown by immunofluorescence, and protein leakage into the alveolar space, were measured as markers of injury. We used liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to unequivocally identify several eicosanoids in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of experimental animals. MK886, a specific inhibitor of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, as well as transgenic mice deficient in 5-lipoxygenase, were used to determine the role of this enzymatic pathway in this model. Leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4 were consistently elevated in shock-treated mice compared to sham-treated mice. MK886 attenuated neutrophil infiltration and protein extravasation induced by hemorrhagic shock. 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice showed reduced neutrophil infiltration and protein extravasation after shock treatment, indicating greatly reduced lung injury. These results support the hypothesis that 5-lipoxygenase, most likely through the generation of leukotrienes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock in mice. This pathway could represent a new target for pharmacological intervention to reduce lung damage following severe primary injury. PMID:22392149

  15. Ozone stress modulates amine oxidase and lipoxygenase expression in lentil (Lens culinaris) seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Veldink, G.A.; Finazzi Agrò, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of ozone stress on polyamine metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in lentil seedlings through the amine oxidase and lipoxygenase activity and expression has been investigated. Ozone is shown to control the expression of these enzymes at the transcriptional level, down-regulating the

  16. Purification of a lipoxygenase from ungerminated barley. Characterization and product formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Aarle, P.G.M. van; Barse, M.M.J. de; Veldink, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Lipoxygenase was purified from ungerminated barley (variety ‘Triumph’), yielding an active enzyme with a pl of 5.2 and a molecular mass of approximately 90 kDa. In addition to the 90 kDa band SDS-PAGE showed the presence of two further proteins of 63 kDa. Western blot analysis showed

  17. Antioxidant Activity of Some Plant Extracts Towards Xanthine Oxidase, Lipoxygenase and Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products have the potential to be developed into new drugs for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present study was to screen the antioxidant activities of some common edible fruits, garden plants and medicinal plants indigenous to Taiwan. This was performed by assessing the activities of lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase following incubation with extracts from these plants. A further aim was to use HPLC-DAD and tyrosinase to chromatographically identify the antioxidative constituents obtained from an extract exhibiting strong antioxidative properties. The acetone extracts of 27 cultivated plant species from Taiwan were tested for antioxidant activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase and lipoxygenase using spectrophotometric assays. Koelreuteria henryi, Prunus campanulata, and Rhodiola rosea showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Camellia sinensis, Rhodiola rosea, and Koelreuteria henryi exhibited good tyrosinase inhibitory activities and potent anti-lipoxygenase activities. As Koelreuteria henryi had notable significant inhibitory activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase, and lipoxygenase, it was further tested with tyrosinase and HPLC-DAD. The results from this part of the study revealed that the more powerful the antioxidant capability of the extracted component, the greater the decrease in peak height obtained after reacting with tyrosinase. Additional studies are warranted to further characterize the compounds responsible for the antioxidant properties of the examined extracts.

  18. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krehenbrink Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Results Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP, a twin-arginine translocase (TAT secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. Conclusion None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to

  19. Identification of protein secretion systems and novel secreted proteins in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenbrink, Martin; Downie, J Allan

    2008-01-29

    Proteins secreted by bacteria play an important role in infection of eukaryotic hosts. Rhizobia infect the roots of leguminous plants and establish a mutually beneficial symbiosis. Proteins secreted during the infection process by some rhizobial strains can influence infection and modify the plant defence signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to systematically analyse protein secretion in the recently sequenced strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Similarity searches using defined protein secretion systems from other Gram-negative bacteria as query sequences revealed that R. l. bv. viciae 3841 has ten putative protein secretion systems. These are the general export pathway (GEP), a twin-arginine translocase (TAT) secretion system, four separate Type I systems, one putative Type IV system and three Type V autotransporters. Mutations in genes encoding each of these (except the GEP) were generated, but only mutations affecting the PrsDE (Type I) and TAT systems were observed to affect the growth phenotype and the profile of proteins in the culture supernatant. Bioinformatic analysis and mass fingerprinting of tryptic fragments of culture supernatant proteins identified 14 putative Type I substrates, 12 of which are secreted via the PrsDE, secretion system. The TAT mutant was defective for the symbiosis, forming nodules incapable of nitrogen fixation. None of the R. l. bv. viciae 3841 protein secretion systems putatively involved in the secretion of proteins to the extracellular space (Type I, Type IV, Type V) is required for establishing the symbiosis with legumes. The PrsDE (Type I) system was shown to be the major route of protein secretion in non-symbiotic cells and to secrete proteins of widely varied size and predicted function. This is in contrast to many Type I systems from other bacteria, which typically secrete specific substrates encoded by genes often localised in close proximity to the genes encoding the secretion system itself.

  20. DmeRF system is required for nickel and cobalt resistance in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Sanz, Laura; Prieto Carbajo, Rosa Isabel; Palacios Alberti, Jose Manuel; Brito Lopez, Maria Belen

    2013-01-01

    A member of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) family with high sequence similarity to DmeF (Divalent metal efflux) from Cupridavirus metallidurans was identified in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM1137. The R. leguminosarum dmeF mutant strain was highly sensitive to Co2+ and moderately sensitive to Ni2+, but its tolerance to other metals such as Zn2+, Cu2+ or Mn2+ was unaffected. An open reading frame located upstream of R. leguminosarum dmeF, designated dmeR, encodes a protein hom...

  1. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Martyniuk; Monika Kozieł; Anna Gałązka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv) in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv) i...

  2. Genetic ablation and short-duration inhibition of lipoxygenase results in increased macroautophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Insook; Park, Sujin; Cho, Jin Won [Department of Integrated OMICS for Biomedical Science, WCU Program of Graduate School, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yigitkanli, Kazim; Leyen, Klaus van [Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Roth, Jürgen, E-mail: jurgen.roth@bluewin.ch [Department of Integrated OMICS for Biomedical Science, WCU Program of Graduate School, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is involved in organelle homeostasis by degrading mitochondria in maturing red blood cells and by eliminating excess peroxisomes in liver. Furthermore, 12/15-LOX contributes to diseases by exacerbating oxidative stress-related injury, notably in stroke. Nonetheless, it is unclear what the consequences are of abolishing 12/15-LOX activity. Mice in which the alox15 gene has been ablated do not show an obvious phenotype, and LOX enzyme inhibition is not overtly detrimental. We show here that liver histology is also unremarkable. However, electron microscopy demonstrated that 12/15-LOX knockout surprisingly leads to increased macroautophagy in the liver. Not only macroautophagy but also mitophagy and pexophagy were increased in hepatocytes, which otherwise showed unaltered fine structure and organelle morphology. These findings were substantiated by immunofluorescence showing significantly increased number of LC3 puncta and by Western blotting demonstrating a significant increase for LC3-II protein in both liver and brain homogenates of 12/15-LOX knockout mice. Inhibition of 12/15-LOX activity by treatment with four structurally different inhibitors had similar effects in cultured HepG2 hepatoma cells and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with significantly increased autophagy discernable already after 2 hours. Hence, our study reveals a link between ablation or inhibition of 12/15-LOX and stimulation of macroautophagy. The enhanced macroautophagy may be related to the known tissue-protective effects of LOX ablation or inhibition under various diseased conditions caused by oxidative stress and ischemia. This could provide an important cleaning mechanism of cells and tissues to prevent accumulation of damaged mitochondria and other cellular components. - Highlights: • A relationship between lipoxygenases and autophagy is disclosed. • 12/15-lipoxygenase knockout increases autophagy in mice liver and brain. • Lipoxygenase inhibition boosts

  3. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  4. A novel beta-glucosidase in Uromyces fabae : feast or fight?

    OpenAIRE

    Haerter, Ariane C.; Voegele, Ralf T.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient nutrient mobilization is a key element for biotrophic plant parasites such as the rust fungi. In the course of a cDNA library screen for elements involved in sugar utilization in Uromyces fabae, we identified a sequence with homology to beta-glucosidases. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones of the gene, termed BGL1, were isolated and sequenced. The BGL1 gene comprises 3,372 nucleotides, including nine introns. The open reading frame encompasses 2,532 bases and codes for a polypeptid...

  5. Laboratory invesitgations of variability of Ascochyta fabae Speg. isolates obtained from horse bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Józef Filipowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty five isolates of Ascochyta fabae Speg. were investigated. They were selected from 1650 isolates of this fungus obtained from horse bean seeds in 1974-1976. All the isolates grew and sporulated on Potato Dextrose Agar, Malt Agar and Horse Bean Agar. The rate of their growth amounted to 1-4 mm per 24 hours. The variability of isolates in size of pycnidia and conidia and number of sepia was noticed. A few spores with untypical shapes were observed as well.

  6. Calculations of hydrogen tunnelling and enzyme catalysis: a comparison of liver alcohol dehydrogenase, methylamine dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresadern, Gary; McNamara, Jonathan P.; Mohr, Matthias; Wang, Hong; Burton, Neil A.; Hillier, Ian H.

    2002-06-01

    Although the potential energy barrier for hydrogen transfer is similar for the enzymes liver alcohol dehydrogenase, methylamine dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase, the degree of tunnelling is predicted to differ greatly, and is reflected by their primary kinetic isotope effects.

  7. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling Orobanche foetida Poir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling Orobanche foetida Poir. resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) R Díaz-Ruiz, A Torres, MV Gutierrez, D Rubiales, JI Cubero, M Kharrat, Z Satovic, B Román ...

  8. Efectos combinados del estres por salinidad y la nicotinamida sobre parametros bioquimicos y fisiologicos en plantas de haba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdelhamid, Magdi T; Sadak, Mervat Sh; Schmidhalter, Urs; Saady, Abdel-Kareem M. El

    2013-01-01

    .... One of these compounds is nicotinamide (vitamin B3/niacin). The effect of exogenous application of nicotinamide with different concentrations (0, 200 or 400 mg [l.sup.-1]) on faba bean (Vicia faba L...

  9. The effect of endogenous hydrogen peroxide induced by cold treatment in the improvement of tissue regeneration efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Skrzypek, E.; Dabrowska, G.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose that oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance between generation and scavenging hydrogen peroxide contributes to tissue regeneration efficiency during somatic embryogenesis of hexaploid winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Kamila) and organogenesis of faba bean (Vicia faba ssp. minor

  10. Effects of Rhizobium inoculation, organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and physical properties of faba bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, E A; Elzidany, A A

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of Rhizobium inoculation, sulphur, nitrogen and chicken manure on yield, 100-seed weight, cookability, non-soakers, total defects and hydration coefficient of faba bean. The results showed that sulphur, nitrogen and chicken manure treatments significantly (p manure not only increased plant growth and yield, but also improved seed quality and nutritional value.

  11. Granular formulation of Fusarium oxysporum for biological control of faba bean and tomato Orobanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemat Alla, Mamdouh M; Shabana, Yasser M; Serag, Mamdouh M; Hassan, Nemat M; El-Hawary, Mohamed M

    2008-12-01

    Orobanche spp. represent a serious threat to a wide range of crops. They are difficult targets for herbicides, and biological control could provide a possible solution. This work therefore aimed to formulate mycoherbicides of Fusarium with adequate shelf life and virulence against Orobanche but safe to faba bean and tomato. Only two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. (Foxy I and Foxy II) obtained from diseased Orobanche shoots were found to be pathogenic to Orobanche crenata Forsk. and Orobanche ramosa L. Conidial suspension of both isolates significantly decreased germination, attachments and tubercles of Orobanche. Microconidia and chlamydospores of both isolates were formulated as mycoherbicides encapsulated in a wheat flour-kaolin matrix (four different formulations). All formulations greatly diminished Orobanche emerged shoots, total shoot number, shoot height, attachment of emerged shoots, the germinated seeds that succeeded in emerging above the soil surface and dry weight. Meanwhile, disease incidence and disease severity of emerged shoots were enhanced. The shelf life was adequate, particularly for coarse, freshly prepared, low-temperature-stored, microconidia-rich formulations. The induced growth reduction of Orobanche-infected host plants seemed to be nullified by formulations, particularly at the highest dose. These formulations seemed to destroy Orobanche but appeared harmless to host plants. Hence, they could be efficiently used as mycoherbicides for biological control of Orobanche in faba bean and tomato.

  12. Determination of Lipoxygenase Activity in Cereals Grains Using a Silver Nanoparticles Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raybel Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method based on the use of silver nanoparticles is presented for the determination of lipoxygenase activity in cereal grains. The method involves the synthesis of prism silver nanoparticles with a maximum absorption at 752 nm, followed by the abatement of the signal as a consequence of the oxidation produced by hydroperoxides generated in the enzymatic reaction. The quantification of the hydroperoxides produced by reaction of lipoxygenase with linoleic acid allows the determination of the enzyme activity in cereal grains. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the calibration curve ranges from 1.0 to 5.0 μM, with a limit of detection of 0.34 μM. The method was validated comparing the results with those obtained by ferrous-xylenol orange method. A relative standard deviation < 5.0% was obtained in all cases and no significant differences were observed (p<0.05.

  13. Docking studies: In silico lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of some commercially available flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Madeswaran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the evaluation of the cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of flavonoids using in silico docking studies. In this perspective, flavonoids like morin, naringenin, taxifolin, esculatin, daidzein, genistein, scopoletin, galangin and silbinin were selected. Azelastine, a known lipoxygenase inhibitor was used as the standard. Docking results showed that all the selected flavonoids showed binding energy ranging between -3.93 kcal/mol to -3.36 kcal/mol when compared with that of the standard (-3.70 kcal/mol. Intermolecular energy (-5.72 kcal/mol to -4.56 kcal/mol and inhibition constant (1.31 mM to 3.43 mM of the ligands also coincide with the binding energy. Morin contributed better lipoxygenase inhibitory activity because of its structural parameters.

  14. Biological evaluation of potent antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitor and antibacterial: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three biologically active new Schiff bases, 2-[(3-hydroxybenzylideneamino]phenol 5, 2-[(4-hydroxybenzylideneamino]phenol 6 and 4-[(2-hydroxyphenyliminomethyl]benzene-1,3-diol 7, were synthesized by the reaction of 2-aminophenol 1 with three different hydroxyl-benzaldehydes 2–4. They were characterized by spectroscopic analysis (IR, 1H NMR, EI-MS along with elemental analyses. The products were biological screened out for antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibition, antibacterial and urease inhibition activities. The compounds 5 and 6 showed potent while 7 showed moderate antioxidant activity. Compound 6 showed potent whereas 5 and 7 showed significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity. All the target compounds showed excellent activities against Staphylococcus intermedius, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi bacteria. All the compounds showed non-significant activity against urease enzyme.

  15. 5-Lipoxygenase deficiency impairs innate and adaptive immune responses during fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Secatto

    Full Text Available 5-Lipoxygenase-derived products have been implicated in both the inhibition and promotion of chronic infection. Here, we sought to investigate the roles of endogenous 5-lipoxygenase products and exogenous leukotrienes during Histoplasma capsulatum infection in vivo and in vitro. 5-LO deficiency led to increased lung CFU, decreased nitric oxide production and a deficient primary immune response during active fungal infection. Moreover, H. capsulatum-infected 5-LO(-/- mice showed an intense influx of neutrophils and an impaired ability to generate and recruit effector T cells to the lung. The fungal susceptibility of 5-LO(-/- mice correlated with a lower rate of macrophage ingestion of IgG-H. capsulatum relative to WT macrophages. Conversely, exogenous LTB4 and LTC4 restored macrophage phagocytosis in 5-LO deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that leukotrienes are required to control chronic fungal infection by amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune response during histoplasmosis.

  16. An increase in renal dopamine does not stimulate natriuresis after fava bean ingestion123

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Emily M; Cesar, Tericka S; Lonce, Suzanna; Ferguson, Marcus C; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fava beans (Vicia faba) contain dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and their ingestion may increase dopamine stores. Renal dopamine regulates blood pressure and blood volume via a natriuretic effect.

  17. Influence of faba bean and peas combination on per­for­man­ce parameters of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Kratochvílová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of two varieties of peas and faba bean on performance was observed in grow experiment. Varieties of legumes were different in antinutritive factors levels. ZEKON (peas and MISTRAL (faba bean are low tannin varieties, GOTIK (peas and MERKUR (faba bean are traditional varieties with high level of antinutritive substances. Experiment was finished in 40 days of age. There were used 900 broilers allotted to 9 groups (100 animals in group. Peas and faba bean was dose to feed mixture on level adequate to 30 g of crude protein per kilogram of feed mixture, the rest of crude protein needed in feed mixture was covered by soya bean meal. The best results in final weight achieved group with GOTIK (2476.7 ± 270.8 g, the second was group ZEKON (2456.7 ± 247.2 g, than MISTRAL in combination with peas (2454.7 ± 268.5 g, MERKUR (2416.9 ± 266.1 g, ZEKON in combination with faba bean (2410,7 ± 297.8 g and MISTRAL group achieved 2405.6 ± 336.4 g of final weight. The rest of groups was belong 2400 g of body weight: control group 2370.1 ± 249.2 g, GOTIK in combination with peas 2302.9 ± 253.1 g and the worst result had group MERKUR in combination with peas (2258.8 ± 259.4 g. The differences were significant.

  18. The contribution of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase in tissue macrophages to adipose tissue remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, H-J.; Kim, S-N; Kim, Y-A; Lee, Y-H

    2016-01-01

    Cellular plasticity in adipose tissue involves adipocyte death, its clearance, and de novo adipogenesis, enabling homeostatic turnover and adaptation to metabolic challenges; however, mechanisms regulating these serial events are not fully understood. The present study investigated the roles of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15) in the clearance of dying adipocytes by adipose tissue macrophages. First, upregulation of Alox15 expression and apoptotic adipocyte death in gonadal white adipose...

  19. α-Glucosidase and 15-Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activities of Phytochemicals from Calophyllum symingtonianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminudin, Nurul Iman; Ahmad, Farediah; Taher, Muhammad; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the crude extracts of the bark and leaves of Calophyllum symingtonianum has resulted in the isolation of inophyllum D, inophyllum H, calanone, isocordato-oblongic acid, amentoflavone, carpachromene and lupenone. Their chemical structures were elucidated and confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. All flavonoids and coumarins showed significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, while amentoflavone gave a positive result against 15-lipoxygenase inhibition.

  20. 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitors attenuate TNF-α-induced inflammation in human synovial fibroblasts.

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    Han-Ching Lin

    Full Text Available The lipoxygenase isoform of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX is reported to be overexpressed in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and involved in the progress of inflammatory arthritis. However, the detailed mechanism of how 5-lipoxygenase regulates the inflammatory response in arthritis synovial tissue is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of lipoxygenase pathways in TNF-α-induced production of cytokines and chemokines. Human synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid patients were used in this study. 5-LOX inhibitors and shRNA were used to examine the involvement of 5-LOX in TNF-α-induced cytokines and chemokines expression. The signaling pathways were examined by Western Blotting or immunofluorescence staining. The effect of 5-LOX inhibitor on TNF-α-induced chemokine expression and paw edema was also explored in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with 5-LOX inhibitors significantly decreased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6 and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in human synovial fibroblasts. Knockdown of 5-LOX using shRNA exerted similar inhibitory effects. The abrogation of NF-κB activation was involved in the antagonizing effects of these inhibitors. Furthermore, 5-LOX inhibitor decreased TNF-α-induced up-regulation of serum MCP-1 level and paw edema in mouse model. Our results provide the evidence that the administration of 5-LOX inhibitors is able to ameliorate TNF-α-induced cytokine/chemokine release and paw edema, indicating that 5-LOX inhibitors may be developed for therapeutic treatment of inflammatory arthritis.

  1. 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors Attenuate TNF-α-Induced Inflammation in Human Synovial Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Ching; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Wu, Ming-Yueh; Chiu, Yung-Cheng; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Hour, Mann-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Tu, Huang-Ju; Yang, Rong-Sen; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2014-01-01

    The lipoxygenase isoform of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is reported to be overexpressed in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and involved in the progress of inflammatory arthritis. However, the detailed mechanism of how 5-lipoxygenase regulates the inflammatory response in arthritis synovial tissue is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of lipoxygenase pathways in TNF-α-induced production of cytokines and chemokines. Human synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid patients were used in this study. 5-LOX inhibitors and shRNA were used to examine the involvement of 5-LOX in TNF-α-induced cytokines and chemokines expression. The signaling pathways were examined by Western Blotting or immunofluorescence staining. The effect of 5-LOX inhibitor on TNF-α-induced chemokine expression and paw edema was also explored in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with 5-LOX inhibitors significantly decreased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human synovial fibroblasts. Knockdown of 5-LOX using shRNA exerted similar inhibitory effects. The abrogation of NF-κB activation was involved in the antagonizing effects of these inhibitors. Furthermore, 5-LOX inhibitor decreased TNF-α-induced up-regulation of serum MCP-1 level and paw edema in mouse model. Our results provide the evidence that the administration of 5-LOX inhibitors is able to ameliorate TNF-α-induced cytokine/chemokine release and paw edema, indicating that 5-LOX inhibitors may be developed for therapeutic treatment of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:25229347

  2. Helicobacter pylori urease activates blood platelets through a lipoxygenase-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, German E; Olivera-Severo, Deiber; Uberti, Augusto F; Carlini, Célia R

    2010-07-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcers and gastric cancer in human beings by mechanisms yet not fully understood. H. pylori produces urease which neutralizes the acidic medium permitting its survival in the stomach. We have previously shown that ureases from jackbean, soybean or Bacillus pasteurii induce blood platelet aggregation independently of their enzyme activity by a pathway requiring platelet secretion, activation of calcium channels and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids. We investigated whether H. pylori urease displays platelet-activating properties and defined biochemical pathways involved in this phenomenon. For that the effects of purified recombinant H. pylori urease (HPU) added to rabbit platelets were assessed turbidimetrically. ATP secretion and production of lipoxygenase metabolites by activated platelets were measured. Fluorescein-labelled HPU bound to platelets but not to erythrocytes. HPU induced aggregation of rabbit platelets (ED(50) 0.28 microM) accompanied by ATP secretion. No correlation was found between platelet activation and ureolytic activity of HPU. Platelet aggregation was blocked by esculetin (12-lipoxygenase inhibitor) and enhanced approximately 3-fold by indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor). A metabolite of 12-lipoxygenase was produced by platelets exposed to HPU. Platelet responses to HPU did not involve platelet-activating factor, but required activation of verapamil-inhibitable calcium channels. Our data show that purified H. pylori urease activates blood platelets at submicromolar concentrations. This property seems to be common to ureases regardless of their source (plant or bacteria) or quaternary structure (single, di- or tri-chain proteins). These properties of HPU could play an important role in pathogenesis of gastrointestinal and associated cardiovascular diseases caused by H. pylori.

  3. Genetic determinants of 5-lipoxygenase pathway in a Spanish population and their relationship with cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Mercedes; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Buil, Alfonso; Siguero, Laura; Alcolea, Sonia; López, Sonia; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Souto, Juan-Carlos; Vila, Luis; Soria, José-Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Leukotrienes (LT) play a role in inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Although some studies suggest that there are genes that determine variability of some LT-related phenotypes, the genetic influence on these phenotypes has not been evaluated. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences to the 5-lipoxygenase pathway-related phenotypes (5-Lipoxygenase, five lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), LTA(4)-hydrolase and LTC(4)-synthase expression, and LTB(4)-plasma concentration and LTB(4) production by stimulated whole blood) were assessed in a sample of 934 individuals in 35 extended families. Our design is based on extended families recruited through a probands with idiopathic thrombophilia. This strategy allows us the analysis of the effects of measured covariates (such as sex, age and smoking), genes, and environmental variables shared by members of a household. All of these phenotypes showed significant genetic contributions, with heritabilities ranging from 0.33 to 0.51 for enzyme expression and from 0.25 to 0.50 for LTB(4) production of the residual phenotypic variance. Significant phenotypic and genetic correlation among the LT-related traits was found. More importantly, FLAP and LTA(4)-hydrolase expression exhibit significant genetic correlations with arterial thrombosis, indicating that some of the genes that influence quantitative variation in these phenotypes also influence the risk of thrombosis. This is the first study that quantifies the genetic component of 5-Lipoxygenase pathway phenotypes. The high heritability of these traits and the significant genetic correlations between arterial thrombosis and some of these phenotypes suggest that the exploitation of correlated quantitative phenotypes will aid the search for susceptibility genes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The lipoxygenase pathway in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana): detection of the ketol route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, A N; Mukhtarova, L S; Hamberg, M

    2000-12-01

    The in vitro metabolism of [1-(14)C]linoleate, [1-(14)C]linolenate and their 9(S)-hydroperoxides was studied in cell-free preparations from tulip (Tulipa gesneriana) bulbs, leaves and flowers. Linoleate and its 9-hydroperoxide were converted by bulb and leaf preparations into three ketols: (12Z)-9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12-octadecadienoic acid (alpha-ketol), (11E)-10-oxo-13-hydroxy-11-octadecadienoic acid (gamma-ketol) and a novel compound, (12Z)-10-oxo-11-hydroxy-12-octadecadienoic acid (10,11-ketol), in the approximate molar proportions of 10:3:1. The corresponding 15, 16-dehydro alpha- and gamma-ketols were the main metabolites of [1-(14)C]linolenate and its 9-hydroperoxide. Thus bulbs and leaves possessed 9-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase activities. Incubations with flower preparations gave alpha-ketol hydro(pero)xides as predominant metabolites. Bulb and leaf preparations possessed a novel enzyme activity, gamma-ketol reductase, which reduces gamma-ketol to 10-oxo-13-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (dihydro-gamma-ketol) in the presence of NADH. Exogenous linolenate 13(S)-hydroperoxide was converted mostly into chiral (9S,13S)-12-oxo-10-phytodienoate (99.5% optical purity) by bulb preparations, while [1-(14)C]linolenate was a precursor for ketols only. Thus tulip bulbs possess abundant allene oxide cyclase activity, the substrate for which is linolenate 13(S)-hydroperoxide, even though 13(S)-lipoxygenase products were not detectable in the bulbs. The majority of the cyclase activity was found in the microsomes (10(5) g pellet). Cyclase activity was not found in the other tissues examined, but only in the bulbs. The ketol route of the lipoxygenase pathway, mediated by 9-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase activities, has not been detected previously in the vegetative organs of any plant species.

  5. Locating a lipid at the portal to the lipoxygenase active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Betty J; Bradshaw, Miles D; Frausto, Stephen D; Wu, Fayi; Freed, Jack H; Borbat, Peter

    2012-11-21

    Lipoxygenase enzymes initiate diverse signaling pathways by specifically directing oxygen to different carbons of arachidonate and other polyunsaturated acyl chains, but structural origins of this specificity have remained unclear. We therefore determined the nature of the lipoxygenase interaction with the polar-end of a paramagnetic lipid by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Distances between selected grid points on soybean seed lipoxygenase-1 (SBL1) and a lysolecithin spin-labeled on choline were measured by pulsed (electron) dipolar spectroscopy. The protein grid was designed by structure-based modeling so that five natural side chains were replaced with spin labels. Pairwise distances in 10 doubly spin-labeled mutants were examined by pulsed dipolar spectroscopy, and a fit to the model was optimized. Finally, experimental distances between the lysolecithin spin and each single spin site on SBL1 were also obtained. With these 15 distances, distance geometry localized the polar-end and the spin of the lysolecithin to the region between the two domains in the SBL1 structure, nearest to E236, K260, Q264, and Q544. Mutation of a nearby residue, E256A, relieved the high pH requirement for enzyme activity of SBL1 and allowed lipid binding at pH 7.2. This general approach could be used to locate other flexible molecules in macromolecular complexes. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Affinity labeling of the rabbit 12/15-lipoxygenase using azido derivatives of arachidonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Stepan; Wiesner, Rainer; Myagkova, Galina; Kuhn, Hartmut; Ivanov, Igor

    2006-03-21

    Lipoxygenases are lipid-peroxidizing enzymes, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of important diseases. They consist of a single polypeptide chain, which is folded into a two-domain structure. The large catalytic domain contains the putative substrate-binding pocket and the catalytic non-heme iron. To identify structural elements of the rabbit 12/15-lipoxygenase that are involved in enzyme/substrate and/or enzyme/product interaction, we synthesized a set of radioactively labeled lipoxygenase substrates carrying a photoreactive azido group (17-azido-ETE, 18-azido-ETE, 19-azido-ETE) and used these compounds as affinity probes. After photoaffinity labeling, the enzyme was digested proteolytically and modified tryptic cleavage peptides were identified by a combination of radio-HPLC and mass spectral analysis. Following this strategy, we observed covalent linkage of a cleavage peptide that contained Ile593, which has previously been identified as the sequence determinant for the positional specificity. These data are consistent with the previous suggestion that this peptide lines the substrate-binding pocket. Surprisingly, we also observed strong labeling of cleavage peptides originating from the N-terminal beta-barrel domain, and our mass spectral data suggested covalent linkage of oxidized affinity probes. Taken together, these results confirm the previous conclusion that Ile593 and surrounding amino acids are constituents of the active site, but they also implicate the N-terminal beta-barrel in enzyme/substrate and/or enzyme/product interaction.

  7. Effect of herbal mixture student Rasayana on lipoxygenase activity and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H M; Hanna, A N; Kauffman, E M; Newman, H A

    1995-04-01

    Brain cellular functions are affected by free radicals. Arachidonic acid and its 12-lipoxygenase metabolites have been proposed as important in enhancing long-term potentiation associated with learning. It has been reported that Student Rasayana (SR), an herbal mixture, improves brain functions. In this study we evaluated the antioxidant capacity of SR and its effect on lipoxygenase activity. Both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of SR inhibited enzymatic- and nonenzymatic-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. The agent concentrations (micrograms/mL) that produced 50% inhibition (IC50) of enzymatic- and nonenzymatic-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation, respectively, were 99.1 +/- 3.9 and 1992.0 +/- 122.7 for the aqueous extract, and 17.7 +/- 0.9 and 646.7 +/- 79.7 for the alcoholic extract. The aqueous extract inhibited soyabean lipoxygenase (SLP)-induced LDL oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 515.5 +/- 11.5), whereas the alcoholic extract enhanced SLP-induced LDL oxidation. Simultaneous addition of aqueous and alcoholic extracts inhibited SLP-induced LDL oxidation. The alcoholic extract (but not the aqueous extract) enhanced the ability of SLP to induce oxidation of linoleic acid. Rats fed 2% (w:w) SR showed inhibition of toluene-induced brain microsomal lipid peroxidation. These results suggest SR improves brain functions through scavenging free radicals as well as increasing the second messenger for long-term potentiation.

  8. Synthesis and SAR studies of 3-allyl-4-prenyloxyaniline amides as potent 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Atena; Davoodnejad, Mahdieh; Alimardani, Maliheh; Assadieskandar, Amir; Sadeghian, Ali; Safdari, Hadi; Movaffagh, Jebraeel; Sadeghian, Hamid

    2012-09-15

    15-Lipoxygenases are one of the nonheme iron-containing proteins with ability of unsaturated lipid peroxidation in animals and plants. The critical role of the enzymes in formation of inflammations, sensitivities and some of cancers has been demonstrated in mammalians. Importance of the 15-lipoxygenases leads to development of mechanistic studies, products analysis and synthesis of their inhibitors. In this work new series of the 3-allyl-4-allyoxyaniline amides and 3-allyl-4-prenyloxyaniline amides were designed, synthesized and their inhibitory potency against soybean 15-lipoxygenase were determined. Among the synthetic amides, 3-allyl-4-(farnesyloxy)-adamantanilide showed the most potent inhibitory activity by IC(50) value of 0.69 μM. SAR studies showed that in spite of prenyl length increases, the effects of the amide size and its electronic properties on the inhibitory potency became predominant. The SAR studies was also showed that the orientation of allyl and prenyloxy moieties toward Fe core of the SLO active site pocket is the most suitable location for enzyme inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of soybean lipoxygenase-1 on phosphatidylcholines containing furan fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batna, A; Spiteller, G

    1994-06-01

    Naturally occurring tetraalkylsubstituted furan fatty acids (F-acids) were tested as potential substrates for soybean lipoxygenase-1. For this purpose, F-acid methyl ester and phosphatidylcholines containing F-acids at the sn-2 position of the glycerol residue were incubated with the enzyme. Oxidation of F-acids only occurs in the presence of linoleic acid as co-substrate. Linoleic acid is converted by lipoxygenase to the corresponding hydroperoxide that oxidizes the F-acid, probably in a radical reaction, to form an unstable dioxoene compound. This intermediate then forms, dependent on pH, unsaturated furanoid acids or isomers with cyclopentenolone structure that can be detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). F-acids located at the sn-2 position of a synthetic phosphatidylcholine (PC), containing linoleic acid in the sn-1 position, are co-oxidized to a greater extent by incubation with soybean lipoxygenase-1 than are F-acids bound to PC with myristic acid in the sn-1 position when subjected to the enzyme in the presence of a great excess of linoleic acid. The results suggest that F-acids may play a strategic role in antioxidative processes in plant cells.

  10. Changes Germination, Growth and Anatomy Vicia ervilia in Response to Light Crude Oil Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Lorestani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thepetroleum concentrations are contaminant important sources in the environment. Hydrocarbon’s contaminants depend on their type and concentration can cause variable toxicity in soils, on the other hand, different kinds of plants also response concentration of contaminant differently, because of the diversity of physiological and morphological characteristics. In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil was investigated on stem length, germination and anatomical of Vicia ervilia. A factorial experiment was used with a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. The results showed that the germination and stem lengths decreased significantly (p≤ 0.05 with increasing concentrations of petroleum. Anatomical studies the changes of parenchyma, vascular bundles, epidermal and increase crack showed.

  11. Purification and properties of lipoxygenase from wheat seedlings infected by Fusarium graminearum and treated by salicylic acid

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    О. О. Моlodchenkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase from wheat seedlings in normal conditions, infected by Fusarium graminearum and treated by salicylic acid was isolated. The isolated enzyme was purified by the methods of salting-out (60% ammonium sulphate, dialysis, gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. Specific activity of the purified enzyme was 8.0-12.5 ΔЕ234/mg of protein, degree of purification – 11.6-15.3 times. The enzyme yield was 18.3-27.9%. Molecular mass of lipoxygenase is 90 kDa, amino acid composition is distinguished by a high content of glutamic acid, proline, valine, isoleucine, leucine and low level of histidine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, cystein. Research of lipoxygenase substrate dependence indicated that the enzyme catalysed with the maximum velocity of the reaction of arachidonic acid oxidation at a substrate concentration of 4.5 mM at pH 7.2, the reaction of linoleic acid oxidation at a substrate concentration of 4.5 mM at pH 7.2 and the reaction of linolenic acid oxidation at a substrate concentration of 9.0 mM at pH 8.0. The change of wheat lipoxygenase activity depending on genotype resistance to Fusarium graminearum and millieu of germination was shown. One of the manifestations of the protective effect of salicylic acid is its ability to induce changes of lipoxygenase activity.

  12. Interaction between Non-Heme Iron of Lipoxygenases and Cumene Hydroperoxide: Basis for Enzyme Activation, Inactivation, and Inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeshir; Brault, Pierre-Alexandre; Shah, Priya; Kim, Yong-Wah; Dunham, William R.; Funk, Jr., Max O. (Toledo)

    2010-11-16

    Lipoxygenase catalysis depends in a critical fashion on the redox properties of a unique mononuclear non-heme iron cofactor. The isolated enzyme contains predominantly, if not exclusively, iron(II), but the catalytically active form of the enzyme has iron(III). The activating oxidation of the iron takes place in a reaction with the hydroperoxide product of the catalyzed reaction. In a second peroxide-dependent process, lipoxygenases are also inactivated. To examine the redox activation/inactivation dichotomy in lipoxygenase chemistry, the interaction between lipoxygenase-1 (and -3) and cumene hydroperoxide was investigated. Cumene hydroperoxide was a reversible inhibitor of the reaction catalyzed by lipoxygenase-1 under standard assay conditions at high substrate concentrations. Reconciliation of the data with the currently held kinetic mechanism requires simultaneous binding of substrate and peroxide. The enzyme also was both oxidized and largely inactivated in a reaction with the peroxide in the absence of substrate. The consequences of this reaction for the enzyme included the hydroxylation at C{beta} of two amino acid side chains in the vicinity of the cofactor, Trp and Leu. The modifications were identified by mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The peroxide-induced oxidation of iron was also accompanied by a subtle rearrangement in the coordination sphere of the non-heme iron atom. Since the enzyme retains catalytic activity, albeit diminished, after treatment with cumene hydroperoxide, the structure of the iron site may reflect the catalytically relevant form of the cofactor.

  13. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

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    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.

  14. Host preference between symbiotic and aposymbiotic Aphis fabae, by the aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui-Xia; Meng, Ling; Mills, Nickolas J; Li, Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Few empirical studies have directly explored the association between Buchnera aphidicola (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), the primary endosymbiont of aphids, and the life history strategies of aphid parasitoids. A series of paired-choice experiments were conducted to explore the preference of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus ambiguus Halliday (Hymenoptera: Aphididae) for symbiotic and aposymbiotic Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the suitability of these hosts for parasitoid development. When given a choice between symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids of the same instar, the parasitoid significantly preferred symbiotic over aposymbiotic aphids only during the later instars (L(4) and adult). The suitability of aposymbiotic aphids for parasitoid development was equal to that of symbiotic aphids in terms of survivorship and sex ratio, but was significantly lower than that of symbiotic aphids for L(4) and adult instars in development rate and/or female adult size. When given a choice between similar-sized symbiotic L(2) and aposymbiotic L(4) aphids, the parasitoid preferred the former. No significant differences in preference or host suitability were demonstrated when the parasitoid was given a choice between different instars of aposymbiotic aphids. While parasitoid lifetime fecundity increased with aphid instar at the time of oviposition, there was no significant influence of previous development from symbiotic versus aposymbiotic aphids. These results suggest that while L. ambiguus can discriminate between symbiotic and aposymbiotic A. fabae during later instars and when the aphids are of a similar size, the primary endosymbiont is not needed for successful parasitoid development; and its absence only compromises parasitoid growth reared from later instar aposymbiotic host.

  15. Efficiency of propolis extract on faba bean plants and its role against nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noweer, E M A; Dawood, Mona G

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous substances collected by honey bees, It cannot be used as a raw material, so it must be purified by extraction with solvent. This work aimed to study the physiological influence of propolis extract as foliar application or soil drench on faba bean plants and its role against nematode infection. Propolis samples were extracted by using three different solvents (distilled water or 70% ethanol or acetone) (750 and 1000 mg/l). Qualitative tests of the propolis extracts proved that these extracts contain sterols, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Moreover, few numbers of phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic, salicylic and benzoic acid) were also detected on TLC plates. All treatments of propolis extract (as foliar application or soil drench) increased total chlorophyll and carotenoid and the magnitude of increase was more pronounced by applying the higher concentration (1000 mg/l). Moreover, alll propolis extracts increased shoot height; root dry weight; number of branches and pods/plant; number of seeds/pod as well as seed index. Acetonic extract was the most effective particularly at higher concentration. Applying propolis extracts as foliar application or soil drench caused an increase in carbohydrate content of the yielded seeds accompanied by a decrease in phytic acid and vicine content. In addition, foliar application of all propolis extracts caused an increasing in protein content and phenolic compounds of the yielded seeds, whereas, soil drench with ethanolic or acetonic extract only at 1000 mg/L increased protein content. The data revealed that the propolis extract as soil drench reduced the juvenile-Meloidogyne sp.-population density per one kg soil and number of root-galls per one gm roots specially at the higher concentration (1000 mg/l). It is worthy to mention that faba bean plants treated with propolis extract either as foliar application or soil drench could overcome the inhibitory influence of nematode infection.

  16. Characterization of an omega-6 linoleate lipoxygenase from Burkholderia thailandensis and its application in the production of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jung-Ung; Kim, Baek-Joong; Hong, Seung-Hye; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-07-01

    A recombinant putative lipoxygenase from Burkholderia thailandensis with a specific activity of 26.4 U mg(-1) was purified using HisTrap affinity chromatography. The native enzyme was a 75-kDa dimer with a molecular mass of 150 kDa. The enzyme activity and catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) were the highest for linoleic acid (k cat of 93.7 s(-1) and K m of 41.5 μM), followed by arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, and γ-linolenic acid. The enzyme was identified as an omega-6 linoleate lipoxygenase (or a linoleate 13S-lipoxygenase) based on genetic and HPLC analyses as well as substrate specificity. The reaction conditions for the enzymatic production of 13-hydroxy-9,11(Z,E)-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) were optimal at pH 7.5, 25 °C, 20 g l(-1) linoleic acid, 2.5 g l(-1) enzyme, 0.1 mM Cu(2+), and 6% (v/v) methanol. Under these conditions, linoleate 13-lipoxygenase from B. thailandensis produced 20.8 g l(-1) 13-HODE (70.2 mM) from 20 g l(-1) linoleic acid (71.3 mM) for 120 min, with a molar conversion yield of 98.5% and productivity of 10.4 g l(-1) h(-1). The molar conversion yield and productivity of 13-HODE obtained using B. thailandensis lipoxygenase were 151 and 158% higher, respectively, than those obtained using commercial soybean lipoxygenase under the optimum conditions for each enzyme at the same concentrations of substrate and enzyme.

  17. The role of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase mediators in oxidant-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, I S; Michael, J R; Peters, S P; Sciuto, A M; Adkinson, N F; Freeland, H S; Paky, A; Spannhake, E W; Summer, W R; Gurtner, G H

    1988-06-01

    Infusion of the oxidant lipid peroxide tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-bu-OOH) causes pulmonary vasoconstriction and increases vascular permeability in isolated perfused rabbit lungs. We have previously shown that t-bu-OOH stimulates arachidonic acid metabolism, increasing the synthesis of the cyclooxygenase products. The current experiments were designed to determine the role that cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-derived mediators play in the lung injury caused by t-bu-OOH. In the present experiments, we found that t-bu-OOH not only increased the synthesis of the cyclooxygenase-derived products thromboxane and prostacyclin but also increased the synthesis of the lipoxygenase-derived products leukotrienes B4, C4, D4, and E4. To determine the role that these arachidonic acid metabolites play in the increase in pressure and vascular permeability caused by t-bu-OOH, we studied the effect that inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism or a leukotriene receptor blocker had on the pulmonary edema. We compared an uninjured control group with 4 groups of lungs given t-bu-OOH: a t-bu-OOH control group; a group pretreated with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (14 microM); a group pretreated with an analogue of arachidonic acid, 5-, 8-, 11-, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) (100 microM), that inhibits both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways; and a group pretreated with the leukotriene receptor antagonist FPL 55712 (38 microM). To produce lung injury, t-bu-OOH (300 microM) was infused throughout the first minute of 4 successive 10-min periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

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    Songxiao Cao

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  19. Purification and characterization of a lipoxygenase enzyme from durum wheat semolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, R; Briante, R; D'Auria, S; Febbraio, F; Vaccaro, C; Del Giudice, L; Borrelli, G M; Di Fonzo, N; Nucci, R

    1999-05-01

    Purification of a lipoxygenase enzyme from the cultivar Tresor of durum wheat semolina (Triticum turgidum var. durum Desf) was reinvestigated furnishing a new procedure. The 895-fold purified homogeneous enzyme showed a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of 95 +/- 5 kDa. Among the substrates tested, linoleic acid showed the highest k(cat)/K(m) value; a beta-carotene bleaching activity was also detected. The enzyme optimal activity was at pH 6. 8 on linoleic acid as substrate and at pH 5.2 for the bleaching activity on beta-carotene, both assayed at 25 degrees C. The dependence of lipoxygenase activity on temperature showed a maximum at 40 degrees C for linoleic acid and at 60 degrees C for bleaching activity on beta-carotene. The amino acid composition showed the presence of only one tryptophan residue per monomer. Far-UV circular dichroism studies carried out at 25 degrees C in acidic, neutral, and basic regions revealed that the protein possesses a secondary structure content with a high percentage of alpha- and beta-structures. Near-UV circular dichroism, at 25 degrees C and at the same pH values, pointed out a strong perturbation of the tertiary structure in the acidic and basic regions compared to the neutral pH condition. Moreover, far-UV CD spectra studying the effects of the temperature on alpha-helix content revealed that the melting point of the alpha-helix is at 60 degrees C at pH 5.0, whereas it was at 50 degrees C at pH 6.8 and 9.0. The NH(2)-terminal sequence allowed a homology comparison with other lipoxygenase sequences from mammalian and vegetable sources.

  20. Using deficit irrigation with treated wastewater to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa

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    Abdelaziz HIRICH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir during two seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on several crops (quinoa, sweet corn, faba bean and chickpeas. During the first season (2010 three crops were tested, quinoa, chickpeas and sweet corn applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments during all crop stages alternating 100% of full irrigation as non-stress condition and 50% of full irrigation as water deficit condition applied during vegetative growth, flowering and grain filling stage. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season (2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of full irrigation during vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity.

  1. Phytochrome-mediated repression of enzyme synthesis (lipoxygenase): a threshold phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze-Karow, H; Schopfer, P; Mohr, H

    1970-01-01

    Synthesis of the enzyme lipoxygenase in the cotyledons of the mustard seedling (Sinapis alba L.) is controlled by phytochrome (P(fr)) through a threshold mechanism. The repression of enzyme synthesis by P(fr) is a very rapid process after the threshold level is surpassed. Similarly, enzyme synthesis starts instantaneously and with full speed as soon as the P(fr) level decreases below the threshold level. Thus P(fr) rapidly inhibits synthesis of an enzyme and functions through an all-or-none control mechanism of high precision.

  2. Phytochrome-Mediated Repression of Enzyme Synthesis (Lipoxygenase): A Threshold Phenomenon*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, H. Oelze-; Schopfer, P.; Mohr, H.

    1970-01-01

    Synthesis of the enzyme lipoxygenase in the cotyledons of the mustard seedling (Sinapis alba L.) is controlled by phytochrome (Pfr) through a threshold mechanism. The repression of enzyme synthesis by Pfr is a very rapid process after the threshold level is surpassed. Similarly, enzyme synthesis starts instantaneously and with full speed as soon as the Pfr level decreases below the threshold level. Thus Pfr rapidly inhibits synthesis of an enzyme and functions through an all-or-none control mechanism of high precision. PMID:5263762

  3. Easy and rapid preparation of benzoylhydrazides and their diazene derivatives as inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapegui, Cristian; Acevedo-Fuentes, Williams; Dahech, Pablo; Torrent, Claudia; Barrias, Pablo; Rojas-Poblete, Macarena; Mascayano, Carolina

    2017-04-15

    Two series of diaza derivatives were prepared by solvent-free condensation of benzoic acid and 4-substituted phenylhydrazines in order to obtain phenylhydrazides (HYD series) and, by oxidation of these compounds, the corresponding benzoyldiazenes (DIA series). Both sets were evaluated as inhibitors of soybean 15-lipoxygenase activity and antioxidant capability in the FRAP and CUPRAC assays. The most potent inhibitors of both series exhibited IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Kinetic studies showed that at least the more active compounds were competitive inhibitors. Docking results indicated that the most potent inhibitor interacts strongly with Ile-839 and iron in the active site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Taxonomic relationships in some Vicia species from Egypt, based on seed morphology and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.19345

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    Kadry Nabeh Abdel Khalik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The seed morphology and seed proteins of 11 Vicia taxa from Egypt were studied. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including seed shape, color, size, hilum shape and seed sculpture were described and analyzed. The secondary sculpture of the cell wall varies from papillose in nearly all Vicia species to lophate in V. hirsuta. Further, the seed proteins of studied taxa were investigated by SDS-PAGE and 39 different bands were scored. The similarity analysis based on the SDS-PAGE profile and seed morphology was found to be a useful characteristic for the discrimination of Vicia species both on the subgeneric and the sectional levels. The present study did not acknowledge V. tetrasperma and V. hirsuta as subgenus Ervum. As a result, division of Vicia into two subgenera i.e. Vicia and Cracca, is supported.

  5. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of crude bark extracts and isolated compounds from Commiphora berryi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Ramesh; Meyyappan, Arumugam; Selvamani, Palanisamy; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Jaisankar, Parasuraman

    2011-10-31

    Commiphora berryi is traditionally used for the treatment of cold and fever as well as for wound healing in the southern parts of India. The present study was designed to investigate in vitro soybean lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Commiphora berryi. The bark of Commiphora berryi was extracted with different organic solvents and subjected to chromatographic separation for isolation of bioactive compounds. Structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The anti-inflammatory activity of bark extracts and bioactive compounds were assessed by in vitro soybean lipoxygenase (SBL) assay. 3β-Hydroxyglutin-5-ene (1), friedelin (2), cycloeucaneol (3) nimbiol (4), sugiol (5), surianol (6), daucosterol (7) and ursolic acid (8) were isolated from crude bark extracts of the Commiphora berryi. The structure of nimbiol (4) was also confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of bark of Commiphora berryi showed SBL inhibitory activity with the IC(50) values of 15.3, 54.2, 71.5 and 87.8 μg/ml respectively. Among all the isolates, friedelin (2) showed significant SBL inhibitory activity with IC(50) 35.8 μM. The overall results provide evidence that the studied plant might be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipoxygenase and urease inhibition of the aerial parts of the Polygonatum verticillatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Gaffar, Rukhsana; Gul, Farah; Raziq, Naila

    2015-08-01

    Over expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and urease has already contributed to the pathology of different human disease. Targeting the inhibition of these enzymes has proved great clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to scrutinised the inhibitory profile of the aerial parts of the Polygonatum verticillatum enzyme against LOX, urease, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) using standard experimental protocols. When checked against lipoxygenase, the extracts revealed significant attenuation. Of the tested extracts, the ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent (half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)): 97 µg/mL) followed by aqueous fraction IC(50): 109 µg/mL). Regarding urease inhibition, n-butanol was the most potent fraction (IC(50): 97 µg/mL). However, the extracts did not show significant inhibition on AChE and BChE. In the preliminary phytochemical tests, the aerial parts of the plant showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and terpenoids. The current findings could be attributed to these groups of compounds. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. The lipoxygenase metabolic pathway in plants: potential for industrial production of natural green leaf volatiles

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    Gigot, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase enzymatic pathway is a widely studied mechanism in the plant kingdom. Combined actions of three enzymes: lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL convert lipidic substrates such as C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids into short chain volatiles. These reactions, triggered by cell membrane disruptions, produce compounds known as Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs which are C6 or C9-aldehydes and alcohols. These GLVs are commonly used as flavors to confer a fresh green odor of vegetable to food products. Therefore, competitive biocatalytic productions have been developed to meet the high demand in these natural flavors. Vegetable oils, chosen for their lipidic acid profile, are converted by soybean LOX and plant HPL into natural GLVs. However this second step of the bioconversion presents low yield due to the HPL instability and the inhibition by its substrate. This paper will shortly describe the different enzymes involved in this bioconversion with regards to their chemical and enzymatic properties. Biotechnological techniques to enhance their production potentialities will be discussed along with their implication in a complete bioprocess, from the lipid substrate to the corresponding aldehydic or alcoholic flavors.

  8. AA/12-lipoxygenase signaling contributes to inhibitory learning in Hermissenda Type B photoreceptors

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    Tony L Walker

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned inhibition (CI is a major category of associative learning that occurs when an organism learns that one stimulus predicts the absence of another. In addition to being important in its own right, CI is interesting because its occurrence implies that the organism has formed an association between stimuli that are non-coincident. In contrast to other categories of associative learning that are dependent upon temporal contiguity (pairings of stimuli, the neurobiology of CI is virtually unexplored. We have previously described a simple form of CI learning in Hermissenda, whereby animals’ phototactic behavior is increased by repeated exposures to explicitly unpaired (EU presentations of light and rotation. EU conditioning also produces characteristic reductions in the excitability and light response, and increases several somatic K+ currents in Type B photoreceptors. Type B photoreceptors are a major site of plasticity for classical conditioning in Hermissenda. Because arachidonic acid (AA and/or its metabolites open diverse K+ channels in many cell types, we examined the potential contribution of AA to CI. Our results indicate that AA contributes to one of the major effects of EU-conditioning on Type B photoreceptors: decreases in light-evoked spike activity. We find that AA increases the transient (IA somatic K+ current in Type B photoreceptors, further mimicking CI training. In addition, our results indicate that metabolism of AA by a 12-lipoxygenase enzyme is critical for these effects of AA, and further that 12-lipoxygenase metabolites are apparently generated during CI training.

  9. Prokaryotic Expression, Purification and Characterization of a Novel Rice Seed Lipoxygenase Gene OsLOX1

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    Ren Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase (LOX, EC1.13.11.12 is a key enzyme during the degradation of lipids in animals and even plants, and also the first key enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of jasmonate. To purify and characterize the OsLOX1 gene from rice seeds, the entire coding region of the OsLOX1 gene was inserted into an expression vector pET30a(+ and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. Expression of the fusion protein was successfully induced by isopropyl-β-D- thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG and the purified recombinant protein was obtained by His·Bind® Kits. Further assay showed that the purified recombinant protein exhibited the LOX activity. The optimum pH was 4.8 (acetate buffer and the optimum temperature was 30°C for the above enzyme. Thus, the recombinant might confer an available usage for the synthesis of jasmonate in vitro, and also provides a possibility for elucidating the inter-relationship between the primary structure of the plant seed lipoxygenase protein and its physiological functions.

  10. Inhibition of 12/15 lipoxygenase by curcumin and an extract from Curcuma longa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezáková, Lýdia; Košťálová, Daniela; Obložinský, Marek; Hoffman, Peter; Pekárová, Mária; Kollárová, Renáta; Holková, Ivana; Mošovská, Silvia; Sturdík, Ernest

    2014-02-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is an orange-yellow secondary metabolic compound from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), a spice often found in curry powder. It is one of the major curcuminoids of turmeric. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparations or as a food colouring agent. A variety of enzymes that are closely associated with inflammation and cancer were found to be modulated by curcumin. This paper summarized the results of the inhibitory effect of curcumin and a Curcuma longa L. ethanolic extract on lipoxygenase from the rat lung cytosolic fraction. The positional specificity determination of arachidonic acid dioxygenation by RP- and SP-HPLC methods showed that in a purified enzyme preparation from the rat lung cytosol the specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX) is present exhibiting 12/15-LOX dual specificity (with predominant 15-LOX activity). The inhibitory activity of curcumin and Curcuma longa extract on LOX from cytosolic fraction of rat lung was expressed in the percentage of inhibition and as IC50. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis has indicated that curcumin is the competitive inhibitor of 12/15 LOX from the rat lung cytosolic fraction.

  11. Specificity of lipoxygenase pathways supports species delineation in the marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

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    Nadia Lamari

    Full Text Available Oxylipins are low-molecular weight secondary metabolites derived from the incorporation of oxygen into the carbon chains of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Oxylipins are produced in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages where they are involved in a broad spectrum of actions spanning from stress and defense responses, regulation of growth and development, signaling, and innate immunity. We explored the diversity in oxylipin patterns in the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. This genus includes several species only distinguishable with the aid of molecular markers. Oxylipin profiles of cultured strains were obtained by reverse phase column on a liquid chromatograph equipped with UV photodiode detector and q-ToF mass spectrometer. Lipoxygenase compounds were mapped on phylogenies of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia inferred from the nuclear encoded hyper-variable region of the LSU rDNA and the plastid encoded rbcL. Results showed that the genus Pseudo-nitzschia exhibits a rich and varied lipoxygenase metabolism of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, with a high level of specificity for oxylipin markers that generally corroborated the genotypic delineation, even among genetically closely related cryptic species. These results suggest that oxylipin profiles constitute additional identification tools for Pseudo-nitzschia species providing a functional support to species delineation obtained with molecular markers and morphological traits. The exploration of the diversity, patterns and plasticity of oxylipin production across diatom species and genera will also provide insights on the ecological functions of these secondary metabolites and on the selective pressures driving their diversification.

  12. Rare allele of HvLox-1 associated with lipoxygenase activity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ganggang; Dondup, Dawa; Yuan, Xingmiao; Gu, Fanghong; Wang, Deliang; Jia, Fengchao; Lin, Zhiping; Baum, Michael; Zhang, Jing

    2014-10-01

    Identification and allele-specific marker development of a functional SNP of HvLox - 1 which associated with barley lipoxygenase activity. Improving the stability of the flavor of beer is one of the main objectives in breeding barley for malting, and lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) is a key enzyme controlling this trait. In this study, a modified LOX activity assay was used for null LOX-1 mutant screening. Four barley landraces with no detected level of LOX-1 activity were screened from 1,083 barley germplasm accessions from China. The genomic sequence diversity of the HvLox-1 gene of the four null LOX-1 Chinese landraces was compared with that of a further 76 accessions. A total of 104 nucleotide polymorphisms were found, which contained 83 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 7 multiple-nucleotide polymorphisms, and 14 insertions and deletions. Most notably, we found a rare C/G mutation (SNP-61) in the second intron which led to null LOX-1 activity through an altered splicing acceptor site. In addition, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction marker was developed for the genotyping of SNP-61, which could be used in breeding programs for barley to be used for malting. The objective was to improve beer quality.

  13. Impact of Wines and Wine Constituents on Cyclooxygenase-1, Cyclooxygenase-2, and 5-Lipoxygenase Catalytic Activity

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    Zsofia Kutil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases are proinflammatory enzymes; the former affects platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation and later the development of atherosclerosis. Red wines from Georgia and central and western Europe inhibited cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 activity in the range of 63–94%, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 activity in the range of 20–44% (tested at a concentration of 5 mL/L, and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX activity in the range of 72–84% (at a concentration of 18.87 mL/L. White wines inhibited 5-LOX in the range of 41–68% at a concentration of 18.87 mL/L and did not inhibit COX-1 and COX-2. Piceatannol (IC50 = 0.76 μM was identified as a strong inhibitor of 5-LOX followed by luteolin (IC50 = 2.25 μM, quercetin (IC50 = 3.29 μM, and myricetin (IC50 = 4.02 μM. trans-Resveratrol was identified as an inhibitor of COX-1 (IC50 = 2.27 μM and COX-2 (IC50 = 3.40 μM. Red wine as a complex mixture is a powerful inhibitor of COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX, the enzymes involved in eicosanoid biosynthetic pathway.

  14. Metabolic responses in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa exposed to the imazamox herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garijo, A; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C; Palma, F

    2014-05-01

    Alterations on growth, amino acids metabolism and some antioxidant enzyme activities as result of imazamox treatment were examined in determinate and indeterminate nodules, formed by Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia sativa, respectively. Young seedlings of both legumes were inoculated with their respective microsymbionts and grown under controlled conditions. At vegetative growth, plants were treated with imazamox (250μM) in the nutrient solution and harvested 7days after. Imazamox was mainly accumulated in V. sativa where concentrations were more than six fold higher than those detected in P. vulgaris. Nodule dry weight and total nitrogen content were reduced by the herbicide treatment: the highest decrease of nodule biomass (50%) and nitrogen content (40%) were registered in V. sativa and P. vulgaris, respectively. The concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) did not change in neither determinate nor indeterminate nodules even though the acetohydroxyacid synthase activity decreased in root and nodules of both symbioses with the herbicide application. Based on this last result and taking into account that total free amino acids increased in roots but not in nodules of common vetch, a possible BCAA translocation from root to nodule could occur. Our results suggest that the maintenance of BCAA balance in nodule become a priority for the plant in such conditions. The involvement of activities glutathione-S-transferase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the response of the symbioses to imazamox are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SYMBIOTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF RHIZOBIUM LEGUMINOSARUM BV. VICIAE WITH PEA PLANTS AS INFLUENCED BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

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    Stefan Martyniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the effects of A. chroococcum on the proliferation of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv in a solid-carrier inoculant and on symbiotic effectiveness of Rlv with pea plants grown under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory experiment it was found that proliferation of both bacterial species, Rlv and A. chroococcum, in the dual-culture inoculants was efficient, and that A. chroococcum had no adverse effects on the development of the rhizobia (Rlv in the solid-carrier inoculant. In a pot experiment the highest number of nodules was detected on roots of pea plants inoculated with the dual-culture inoculant containing Rlv and A. chroococcum, slightly lower numbers on pea roots inoculated with the mono-culture inoculum of Rlv and almost no nodules were found on the roots of pea un-inoculated (control treatment with the bacteria. In the micro-plot experiment conducted in the years 2011–2012 pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds with the mono-culture inoculant of Rlv or with the mixed inoculant of Rlv and A. chroococcum slightly increased nodule numbers/plant, pod numbers/plant and seed numbers/pod, as compared to the un-inoculated control, but these differences were not reflected in pea seed yields/m2, which were similar in all treatments.

  16. Lipoxygenase pathway mediates increases of airway resistance and lung inflation induced by exposure to nanotitanium dioxide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jyu-Feng; Tung, Shu-Ping; Wang, David; Yeh, Diana Yuwung; Fong, Yao; Young, Yu-Chung; Leu, Fur-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Nanotitanium dioxide particle (nTiO2) inhalation has been reported to induce lung parenchymal injury. After inhalation of nTiO2, we monitored changes in 5-lipoxygenase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in rat lung tissue. Lung function parameters include specific airway resistance (SRaw), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), functional residual capacity (FRC), and lung compliance (Cchord); blood white blood cell count (WBC), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH); and lung lavage leukotriene C4, interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrotic factor α (TNFα), hydroxyl radicals, and NO. Leukotriene receptor antagonist MK571 and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor MK886 were used for pharmacologic intervention. Compared to control, nTiO2 exposure induced near 5-fold increase in 5-lipoxygenase mRNA expression in lung tissue. iNOS mRNA increased while eNOS mRNA decreased. Lavage leukotriene C4; IL6; TNFα; NO; hydroxyl radicals; and blood WBC, NO, hydrogen peroxide, and LDH levels rose. Obstructive ventilatory insufficiency was observed. MK571 and MK886 both attenuated the systemic inflammation and lung function changes. We conclude that inhaled nTiO2 induces systemic inflammation, cytokine release, and oxidative and nitrosative stress in the lung. The lipoxygenase pathway products, mediated by oxygen radicals and WBC, play a critical role in the obstructive ventilatory insufficiency induced by nTiO2.

  17. Human Lipoxygenase Pathway Gene Variation and Association with Markers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in the Diabetes Heart Study

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    Kathryn P. Burdon

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions. Polymorphisms within ALOX12, ALOX5, and ALOX5AP are genetically associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and with biomarkers of disease in families with type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that variants in lipoxygenase pathway genes may have pleiotropic effects on multiple components that determine risk of cardiovascular disease.

  18. Thermostable lipoxygenase, a key enzyme in bioconversion of linoleic acid to trihycroxy-octadecenoic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoxygenases, enzymes that contain non-heme iron, catalyze the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with a (1Z,4Z)-pentadiene moiety leading to conjugated (Z,E)-hydroperoxydienoic acids. These enzymes are widely distributed in plants and animals, and a few microorganisms are reported as well. It ...

  19. Lipoxygenase, a key enzyme in bioconversion of linoleic acid into trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoxygenases catalyze the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with a (1Z,4Z)-pentadiene structure leading to the formation of conjugated (Z,E)-hydroperoxydienoic acids, which in turn result in production of hydroxy lipid. These enzymes are widely distributed in plants, animals, and microorganisms...

  20. The untranslated leader sequence of the barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene confers embryo-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouster, J.; Mechelen J. van; Cameron-Mills, V.

    1998-01-01

    The barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene encodes a protein expressed in embryos during grain development and germination and in leaves after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient gene expression assays in germinating barley embryos were used to identify cis-regulatory elements involved in the

  1. Photoactivation provides a mechanistic explanation for pan-assay interference behaviour of 2-aminopyrroles in lipoxygenase inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Hao; Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Rohr-Udilova, Nataliya; Dömling, Alexander; Dekker, Frank J

    2017-01-01

    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h-15-LOX-1) is a promising drug target in inflammation and cancer. In this study substitution-oriented screening (SOS) has been used to identify compounds with a 2-aminopyrrole scaffold as inhibitors for h-15-LOX-1. The observed structure activity relationships (SAR) proved

  2. An iron 13S-lipoxygenase with an α-linolenic acid specific hydroperoxidase activity from Fusarium oxysporum.

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    Florian Brodhun

    Full Text Available Jasmonates constitute a family of lipid-derived signaling molecules that are abundant in higher plants. The biosynthetic pathway leading to plant jasmonates is initiated by 13-lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxygenation of α-linolenic acid into its 13-hydroperoxide derivative. A number of plant pathogenic fungi (e.g. Fusarium oxysporum are also capable of producing jasmonates, however, by a yet unknown biosynthetic pathway. In a search for lipoxygenase in F. oxysporum, a reverse genetic approach was used and one of two from the genome predicted lipoxygenases (FoxLOX was cloned. The enzyme was heterologously expressed in E. coli, purified via affinity chromatography, and its reaction mechanism characterized. FoxLOX was found to be a non-heme iron lipoxygenase, which oxidizes C18-polyunsaturated fatty acids to 13S-hydroperoxy derivatives by an antarafacial reaction mechanism where the bis-allylic hydrogen abstraction is the rate-limiting step. With α-linolenic acid as substrate FoxLOX was found to exhibit a multifunctional activity, because the hydroperoxy derivatives formed are further converted to dihydroxy-, keto-, and epoxy alcohol derivatives.

  3. Design of a novel thiophene inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase-1 with both anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Poelman, Hessel; Leus, Niek G J; Honrath, Birgit; Neochoritis, Constantinos G; Dolga, Amalia; Dömling, Alexander; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) plays a dual role in diseases with an inflammatory component. On one hand 15-LOX-1 plays a role in pro-inflammatory gene expression and on the other hand it has been shown to be involved in central nervous system (CNS) disorders by its ability to mediate

  4. A putative amino acid transporter is specifically expressed in haustoria of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, M; Neef, U; Struck, C; Göttfert, M; Mendgen, K

    1997-05-01

    A cDNA library constructed from haustoria of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae was screened for clones that are differentially expressed in haustoria. One family of cDNAs (in planta-induced gene 2 [PIG2] was isolated and found to encode a protein with high homologies to fungal amino acid transporters. A cDNA clone containing the complete coding region of PIG2 and the corresponding genomic clone were isolated and sequenced, revealing the presence of 17 introns in the PIG2 gene. Expression of PIG2 mRNA appeared to be restricted to haustoria. With antibodies raised against synthetic peptides, the PIG2-encoded protein was found in membranes fractions of isolated haustoria but not of germinated rust spores. With immunofluorescence microscopy, the putative amino acid transporter was localized to plasma membranes of the haustorial bodies, but not detected in the haustorial neck, haustorial mother cells, or intercellular fungal hyphae growing within infected leaf tissue. These data present for the first time molecular evidence that the rust haustorium plays a special role in the uptake of nutrients from an infected host cell.

  5. Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associated with grazing vetch (Vicia spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Claudio S.L.; Rafael A. Fighera; Daniela B. Rozza; Raquel R. Rech; Simone V. Sallis; Langohr, Ingeborg M.

    2001-01-01

    Dois surtos de uma doença associada ao pastoreio de duas espécies de ervilhaca (predominantemente Vicia villosa e, em menor grau, V. sativa) foram observados em agosto-setembro de 2001, em vacas Holandesas adultas de duas propriedades rurais do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram afetadas, em uma das propriedades, quatro de 42 vacas (9,5%) e, na outra, uma de oito vacas (12,5%). Os sinais clínicos incluíam, embora não em todos os casos, febre, prurido, espessamento e enrugamento da pele com placas multi...

  6. Molecular characterization of lipoxygenase genes on chromosome 4BS in Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuyan; Chen, Feng; Wu, Peipei; Zhang, Ning; Cui, Dangqun

    2015-08-01

    This study cloned two novel TaLox genes on chromosome of 4BS and developed a co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, in bread wheat that showed highly significant association with lipoxygenase activity. Lipoxygenase (Lox), a critical enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, significantly influences the color and processing quality of wheat-based products. Two novel Lox genes, designated TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3, were cloned on chromosome 4BS of Chinese bread wheat. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes encoded an 861-aa protein and possessed a lipoxygenase superfamily domain at the 170-838 interval. Two different TaLox-B2 alleles, designated TaLox-B2a and TaLox-B2b, were subsequently discovered. A co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, was developed based on sequences of TaLox-B2a, TaLox-B2b, and TaLox-B3 genes to precisely distinguish these three alleles in Chinese bread cultivars. Among five allelic combinations of Lox genes at Lox-B1, Lox-B2, and Lox-B3 loci, wheat cultivars with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2a/TaLox-B3a combination exhibited the highest Lox activity, whereas those with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2b/TaLox-B3b combination significantly showed the lowest Lox activity. A RIL population was used to evaluate the influence of TaLox-B3a gene on Lox activity. Results showed that TaLox-B3a gene could significantly increase the Lox activity in bread wheat. Physical mapping indicated that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes were located on chromosome 4BS in bread wheat. This study provides useful information to further understand the molecular and genetic bases of Lox activity in bread wheat.

  7. Effect of Egyptian cooking methods of faba beans on its nutritive value, dietary protein utilization and iron deficiency anemia. 1. The role of main technological pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A

    1996-01-01

    In order to study the effects of main technological pretreatments practised for preparing Egyptian faba bean products, i.e. decortication as well as soaking and germination followed by dehulling on the nutritional value, series of experiments were carried out. Such pretreatments had a significant effect on the changes in the chemical composition of faba beans. The proportion of the removed hulls reached generally about 14%. Data revealed also pronounced improvements on the nutritive value as a result of all studied pretreatments, especially germination being the most effective. Chemical scoring of all determined essential amino acids was > 60, except methionine and cystine showed the lowest score (content.

  8. Effects of Wheat and Faba Bean Intercropping on Microorganism Involved in Nitrogen Transformation in the Rhizosphere Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Yan-fen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganism is one of the key factors that affects soil ecological activity. It is an important symbol of soil health, and the soil nitrogen cycle is closely related to the microorganisms. The relationship between nitrogen and microorganisms under the intercropping is im-portant for the farmland ecosystem. In this paper, phospholipid fatty acids(PLFA analysis was used to determine soil microbial communi-ties, e.g., biomasses of anaerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria, bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria. The abundance of nitrifying genes(AOB, AOA and three denitrifying genes (nirK, norB, nosZ were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The enzymes, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were measured using conventional methods. The results showed that along with the growth period, the TPLFAs(total phospholipid fatty acids increased and the bacterias, fungus, actinomyces and aerobic bacterias significantly(P<0.05 dif-fered between intercropping and monoculture. The greater abundance of AOB than AOA and the variation range of 105~106 were observed in all samples. The gene copies of norB and nosZ were pronounced by intercropping in the rhizosphere of faba bean at elongation and heading stages, respectively. The abundance of nirK remarkably(P<0.05differed between intercropping and monoculture. In intercropping rhizo-sphere, the contents of NO3--N were lower than monoculture, while the NH4+-N contents were converse (P<0.05. Conclusively, wheat and fa-ba bean intercropping system could change rhizosphere microenvironment, and then the microbial community structure in the soils, which would facilitate the conservation and supplying of soil nitrogen and reduce the nitrogen loss and pollution under the intercropping conditions to some extent. This might be the nitrogen nutrition mechanism for the overyielding of wheat and faba bean intercropping system.

  9. Purification of a novel lipoxygenase from eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruit chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; López-Nicolás, José Manuel; García Carmona, Francisco

    2001-03-01

    A novel membrane lipoxygenase (LOX; EC 1.13.11.12) from eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Belleza negra) fruit chloroplasts has been purified 20-fold to a specific activity of 207 enzymatic units per mg of protein with a yield of 72%. The purification was carried out by sonicating the chloroplastic membranes in the presence of Triton X-114 followed by phase partitioning and anion exchange chromatography. The purified membrane LOX preparation consisted of a single major band with an apparent molecular mass of 97 kDa after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results obtained using intact chloroplasts indicate that the enzyme is not localized in the stroma. When the enzyme reacts with linoleic acid, it produces a single peak, which comigrates with standard 9-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoic acid. A physiological role for this chloroplastic LOX is proposed.

  10. Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Soldo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity.

  11. The double-edged role of 12/15-lipoxygenase during inflammation and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Jochen A; Hofheinz, Katharina; Zaiss, Mario M; Krönke, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) mediates the enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, thereby contributing to the generation of various bioactive lipid mediators. Although 12/15-LOX has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic inflammatory diseases, its physiologic functions seem to include potent immune modulatory properties that physiologically contribute to the resolution of inflammation and the clearance of inflammation-associated tissue damage. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview about our current knowledge on the role of this enzyme during the regulation of inflammation and immunity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid modification and lipid peroxidation products in innate immunity and inflammation edited by Christoph J. Binder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel five-lipoxygenase activity protein inhibitor labeled with carbon-14 and deuterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latli, Bachir; Hrapchak, Matt; Gao, Joe J; Busacca, Carl A; Senanayake, Chris H

    2015-07-01

    2-[4-(3-{(1R)-1-[4-(2-Aminopyrimidin-5-yl)phenyl]-1-cyclopropylethyl}-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylacetamide (1), is a novel and selective five-lipoxygenase activity protein (FLAP) inhibitor with excellent pharmacokinetics properties. The availability of a key chiral intermediate allowed the synthesis of [(14) C]-(1) in six radiochemical steps and in 47% overall radiochemical yield with a specific activity of 51 mCi/mmol using carbon-14 zinc cyanide. 2-Chloro-N,N-dimethyl-(2)H6-acetamide was prepared and condensed with a penultimate intermediate to give [(2)H6]-(1) in very high yield and in more than 99% isotopic enrichment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A novel role for 12/15-lipoxygenase in regulating autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwena H. Morgan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 12/15-Lipoxygenase (LOX enzymatically generates oxidized phospholipids in monocytes and macrophages. Herein, we show that cells deficient in 12/15-LOX contain defective mitochondria and numerous cytoplasmic vacuoles containing electron dense material, indicating defects in autophagy or membrane processing, However, both LC3 expression and lipidation were normal both basally and on chloroquine treatment. A LOX-derived oxidized phospholipid, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-phosphatidylethanolamine (12-HETE-PE was found to be a preferred substrate for yeast Atg8 lipidation, versus native PE, while both native and oxidized PE were effective substrates for LC3 lipidation. Last, phospholipidomics demonstrated altered levels of several phospholipid classes. Thus, we show that oxidized phospholipids generated by 12/15-LOX can act as substrates for key proteins required for effective autophagy and that cells deficient in this enzyme show evidence of autophagic dysfunction. The data functionally link phospholipid oxidation with autophagy for the first time.

  14. Characterization of a developmentally regulated amino acid transporter (AAT1p) of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Struck, Christine; Ernst, Michael; Hahn, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    In the rust fungus Uromyces fabae, invasion of the host plant and haustorium formation are accompanied by the activation of many genes (PIGs = in planta induced genes). In addition to the previously described AAT2 (PIG2), AAT1 (PIG27) was found to encode a protein with a high similarity to fungal amino acid permeases. AAT1 transcripts are present in germinated hyphae and throughout the mycelium later in the infection process, but occur at the highest levels in haustoria. Expression of AAT1p i...

  15. Chronic hypoxia promotes pulmonary artery endothelial cell proliferation through H2O2-induced 5-lipoxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi M Porter

    Full Text Available Pulmonary Hypertension (PH is a progressive disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction and proliferation. Hypoxia induces PH by increasing vascular remodeling. A potential mediator in hypoxia-induced PH development is arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (ALOX5. While ALOX5 metabolites have been shown to promote pulmonary vasoconstriction and endothelial cell proliferation, the contribution of ALOX5 to hypoxia-induced proliferation remains unknown. We hypothesize that hypoxia exposure stimulates HPAEC proliferation by increasing ALOX5 expression and activity. To test this, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC were cultured under normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions for 24-, 48-, or 72 hours. In a subset of cells, the ALOX5 inhibitor, zileuton, or the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor, MK-886, was administered during hypoxia exposure. ALOX5 expression was measured by qRT-PCR and western blot and HPAEC proliferation was assessed. Our results demonstrate that 24 and 48 hours of hypoxia exposure have no effect on HPAEC proliferation or ALOX5 expression. Seventy two hours of hypoxia significantly increases HPAEC ALOX5 expression, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 release, and HPAEC proliferation. We also demonstrate that targeted ALOX5 gene silencing or inhibition of the ALOX5 pathway by pharmacological blockade attenuates hypoxia-induced HPAEC proliferation. Furthermore, our findings indicate that hypoxia-induced increases in cell proliferation and ALOX5 expression are dependent on H2O2 production, as administration of the antioxidant PEG-catalase blocks these effects and addition of H2O2 to HPAEC promotes proliferation. Overall, these studies indicate that hypoxia exposure induces HPAEC proliferation by activating the ALOX5 pathway via the generation of H2O2.

  16. Assessment of lipoxygenase activity in seed extracts from 35 plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauconnier, M. L.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase activity in 35 seed extracts was determined on the basis of hydroperoxide synthesis using linoleic acid as substrate. The results referring to the extracted protein content show that several species of Vigna (V. unguiculata, V. radiata and V. mungo and one of Trifolium exhibit stronger lipoxygenase activity than soybean enzyme extracts. The pH activity relationship was also established for 4 very active samples. GC-MS analysis revealed equal amounts of 9- and 13- hydroperoxides of linoleic acid in these seed extracts, indicating no enzyme positional specificity.

    Se ha determinado la actividad lipoxigenasa en 35 extractos de semilla en base a la síntesis de hidroperóxido usando ácido linoleico como sustrato. Los resultados referidos al contenido en proteína extraídos mostraron que varias especies de Vigna (V. unguiculata, V. radiata y V. mungo además de una de Trifolium, exhibieron mayor actividad lipoxigenasa que los extractos enzimáticos de soja. La relación entre la actividad-pH se ha establecido para 4 muestras muy activas. El análisis por GC-MS de estos extractos de semillas, mostró cantidades iguales de los hidroperóxidos 9- y 13 del ácido linoleico indicando la no especificidad posicional de la enzima.

  17. Platelet-12 lipoxygenase targeting via a newly synthesized curcumin derivative radiolabeled with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wabli, Reem Ibrahim; Sakr, Tamer Mostafa Mohamed Hafez; Khedr, Mohammed Abdou; Selim, Adly Abdallah; El-Rahman, Mohamed Abd El-Motaleb Abd; Zaghary, Wafaa Abdou

    2016-01-01

    One of the most popular techniques for cancer detection is the nuclear medicine technique. The present research focuses on Platelet-12-lipoxygenase (P-12-LOX) as a promising target for treating and radio-imaging tumor tissues. Curcumin was reported to inhibit this enzyme via binding to its active site. A novel curcumin derivative was successfully synthesized and characterized with yield of 74%. It was radiolabeled with the diagnostic radioisotope technetium-99m with 84% radiochemical yield and in vitro stability up to 6 h. The biodistribution studies in tumor bearing mice confirmed the high affinity predicted by the docking results with a free binding energy value of (ΔG -50.10 kcal/mol) and affinity (13.64 pki) showing high accumulation in solid tumor with target/non-target ratio >6. The newly synthesized curcumin derivative, as a result of a computational study on platelet-12 lipoxygenase, showed its excellent free binding energy (∆G -50.10 kcal/mol) and high affinity (13.64 pKi). It could be an excellent radio-imaging agent that targeting tumor cells via targeting of P-12-LOX.Graphical abstractThis novel curcumin derivative was successfully synthesized and radiolabeled with technetium-99m and biologically evaluated in tumor bearing mice that showed high accumulation in solid tumor with target/non-target ratio >6 confirming the affinity predicted by the docking results. Predicted binding mode of a new curcumin derivative in complex with 12-LOX active site. b Curcumin itself in the 12-LOX active site biological distribution of (99m)Tc-curcumin derivative complex in solid tumor bearing Albino mice.

  18. Down-regulation of lipoxygenase gene reduces degradation of carotenoids of golden rice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Dipak; Ali, Nusrat; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2015-07-01

    Down-regulation of lipoxygenase enzyme activity reduces degradation of carotenoids of bio-fortified rice seeds which would be an effective tool to reduce huge post-harvest and economic losses of bio-fortified rice seeds during storage. Bio-fortified provitamin A-enriched rice line (golden rice) expressing higher amounts of β-carotene in the rice endosperm provides vitamin A for human health. However, it is already reported that degradation of carotenoids during storage is a major problem. The gene responsible for degradation of carotenoids during storage has remained largely unexplored till now. In our previous study, it has been shown that r9-LOX1 gene is responsible for rice seed quality deterioration. In the present study, we attempted to investigate if r9-LOX1 gene has any role in degradation of carotenoids in rice seeds during storage. To establish our hypothesis, the endogenous lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of high-carotenoid golden indica rice seed was silenced by RNAi technology using aleurone layer and embryo-specific Oleosin-18 promoter. To check the storage stability, LOX enzyme down-regulated high-carotenoid T3 transgenic rice seeds were subjected to artificial aging treatment. The results obtained from biochemical assays (MDA, ROS) also indicated that after artificial aging, the deterioration of LOX-RNAi lines was considerably lower compared to β-carotene-enriched transgenic rice which had higher LOX activity in comparison to LOX-RNAi lines. Furthermore, it was also observed by HPLC analysis that down-regulation of LOX gene activity decreases co-oxidation of β-carotene in LOX-RNAi golden rice seeds as compared to the β-carotene-enriched transgenic rice, after artificial aging treatment. Therefore, our study substantially establishes and verifies that LOX is a key enzyme for catalyzing co-oxidation of β-carotene and has a significant role in deterioration of β-carotene levels in the carotenoid-enriched golden rice.

  19. Competitive nodulation blocking of cv. Afghanistan pea is related to high levels of nodulation factors made by some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, B.; Davies, A.E.; Wilson, K.E.; Bisseling, T.; Downie, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivar Afghanistan peas are resistant to nodulation by many strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae but are nodulated by strain TOM, which carries the host specificity gene nodX. Some strains that lack nodX can inhibit nodulation of cv. Afghanistan by strain TOM. We present evidence that

  20. The 9-lipoxygenase Osr9-LOX1 interacts with the 13-lipoxygenase-mediated pathway to regulate resistance to chewing and piercing-sucking herbivores in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoxin; Ren, Nan; Qi, Jingfeng; Lu, Jing; Xiang, Caiyu; Ju, Hongping; Cheng, Jiaan; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-09-01

    Oxylipins produced by the 13-lipoxygenase (LOX) have been reported to play an important role in plant defense responses to herbivores. Yet, the role of oxylipins produced by the 9-LOX pathway in this process remains largely unknown. Here we cloned a gene encoding a chloroplast-localized 9-LOX, Osr9-LOX1, from rice. Transcriptional analysis revealed that herbivore infestation, mechanical wounding and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment either repressed or did not enhance the level of Osr9-LOX1 transcripts at early stages but did at later stages, whereas salicylic acid (SA) treatment quickly increased the transcript level of Osr9-LOX1. Antisense expression of Osr9-lox1 (as-r9lox1) decreased the amount of wound-induced (Z)-3-hexenal but increased levels of striped stem borer (SSB)-induced linolenic acid, JA, SA and trypsin protease inhibitors. These changes were associated with increased resistance in rice to the larvae of the SSB Chilo suppressalis. In contrast, although no significant differences were observed in the duration of the nymph stage or the number of eggs laid by female adults between the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens that fed on as-r9lox1 lines and BPH that fed on wild-type (WT) rice plants, the survival rate of BPH nymphs that fed on as-r9lox1 lines was higher than that of nymphs that fed on WT plants, possibly because of a higher JA level. The results demonstrate that Osr9-LOX1 plays an important role in regulating an herbivore-induced JA burst and cross-talk between JA and SA, and in controlling resistance in rice to chewing and phloem-feeding herbivores. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. potential antagonistic fungal species from ethiopia for biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Chocolate spot disease (Botrytis fabae Sard) is one of most yield limiting constraints of faba bean (Vicia faba). There is promise in using biological control agents to control chocolate spot diseases, nevertheless, this strategy has not been fully exploited. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of different ...

  2. Publications | Page 493 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 4921 - 4930 of 6364 ... Estimation genetic variation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces in Yemen : a thesis (restricted access). The study investigates genetic variations between and within Yemeni faba bean landraces, estimates correlations and coefficients for the most important traits, and characterizes phenotypic ...

  3. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, aphids and ants: are there competition effects between plant and homopteran sugar sources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, V.; Fischer, M.D.; Wäckers, F.L.; Volkl, W.

    2001-01-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba), an annual plant bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFN) at the base of the upper leaves, is regularly infested by two aphid species, Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum. EFN and A. fabae are commonly attended by the ant, Lasius niger, while Ac. pisum usually remains uninfested.

  4. Potential antagonistic fungal species from Ethiopia for biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chocolate spot disease (Botrytis fabae Sard) is one of most yield limiting constraints of faba bean (Vicia faba). There is promise in using biological control agents to control chocolate spot diseas`es, nevertheless, this strategy has not been fully exploited. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of different ...

  5. East African Journal of Sciences - Vol 10, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Extracts to Suppress Growth of Botrytis fabae and Manage Chocolate Spot Severity on Faba Bean (Vicia faba) at Sinana, Bale Zone, Southeastern Ethiopia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Addisu Tegegn, Meseret ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egigu, Meseret Chimdessa. Vol 10, No 2 (2016) - Articles Efficacy of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Extracts to Suppress Growth of Botrytis fabae and Manage Chocolate Spot Severity on Faba Bean (Vicia faba) at Sinana, Bale Zone, Southeastern Ethiopia Abstract. ISSN: 1992-0407. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  7. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  8. Crystal Structure of 12-Lipoxygenase Catalytic-Domain-Inhibitor Complex Identifies a Substrate-Binding Channel for Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shu; Mueser, Timothy C.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Funk, Jr., Max O. (Toledo); (Vanderbilt)

    2014-10-02

    Lipoxygenases are critical enzymes in the biosynthesis of families of bioactive lipids including compounds with important roles in the initiation and resolution of inflammation and in associated diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Crystals diffracting to high resolution (1.9 {angstrom}) were obtained for a complex between the catalytic domain of leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase and the isoform-specific inhibitor, 4-(2-oxapentadeca-4-yne)phenylpropanoic acid (OPP). In the three-dimensional structure of the complex, the inhibitor occupied a new U-shaped channel open at one end to the surface of the protein and extending past the redox-active iron site that is essential for catalysis. In models, the channel accommodated arachidonic acid, defining the binding site for the substrate of the catalyzed reaction. There was a void adjacent to the OPP binding site connecting to the surface of the enzyme and providing a plausible access channel for the other substrate, oxygen.

  9. In vitro evaluation of whole faba bean and its seed coat as a potential source of functional food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkantürk Karataş, Selen; Günay, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2017-09-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the particular nutritional benefits of whole faba bean seed (WFB) and fava bean seed coat (FBSC). Total dietary fiber contents of WFB and FBSC were 27.5% and 82.3%, respectively. FBSC were contained much higher total phenolic substances, condensed tannins, and total antioxidant activity than WFB. Bile acid (BA)-binding capacities of in vitro digested samples and nutritionally important products produced by in vitro fermentation of digestion residues were also studied. The BA-binding capacities of WFB and FBSC were 1.94 and 37.50μmol/100mg, respectively. Total BA bound by FBSC was even higher than the positive standard cholestyramine. Lignin and other constituents of the Klason residue were found to influence BA-binding properties. Moreover, the extent of the in vitro fermentation process showed that, fermentability of FBSC residue was significantly lower than that of WFB residue. Overall, faba bean, especially its seed coat, has great potential as a functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all mixtures, the more wheat bran was included and the longer the mixtures were fermented. The increase in N (FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM) and protein solubility (RSM/SFM/FB > RSM > SFM > FB) was greatest from day 0 to day 3 and thereafter limited, whereas P solubility increased during the whole period (5 days; FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM). In general, FB showed the highest solubility and highest increase in N and P solubility, while RSM showed the highest protein solubility and RSM/SFM/FB the highest increase in protein solubility. Fermentation of RSM, SFM, FB and RSM/SFM/FB without or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. [Effect of the same amount of faba bean fresh straw returning with different ratios of chemi- cal fertilizer on single cropping late rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-hong; Zhang, Xian; Cao, Kai; Hua, Jin-wei

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on paddy soil derived from alluvial materials at Bihu Town, Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, China to explore the effects of combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer on nutrient uptake, nutrient use efficiencies, and yields of single cropping late rice and to determine the optimal rate of chemical fertilizer under the condition of application of faba bean fresh straw at the rate of 15 t · hm(-2) (GM15) in 2012, April to December. The experiments consisted of 7 treatments: CK (no fertilizers) , CF (conventional chemical fertilizer rate) , and combined application of 15 t · hm(-2) of faba bean fresh straw and 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate. The results showed that the highest total uptake amounts of N, P and K by the aboveground part were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60%CF and GM15 + 80% CF, but the highest nutrient agronomy use efficiencies of N, P and K in rice grains were obtained from the treatments of GM15 + 60% CF and GM15 + 40% CF. The agronomy use efficiencies and physiological use efficiencies of N, P, and K were significantly correlated with rice grain yields, thus they could be used for accurate comprehensive evaluation of fertilizer efficiencies of N, P, and K. Compared with no fertilizer treatment, the treatments of 100% CF and combined application of faba bean fresh straw and different-rate chemical fertilizer increased rice gain yields by 25.0% and 6.1%-29.2%, respectively. In the cropping system of faba bean-single cropping late rice, returning of 15 t · hm2 faba bean fresh straw to the paddy field did not result in the runt seedling of rice. From the point of improving fertilizer use efficiency and reducing environmental risk perspective, the optimum rate of chemical fertilizer was 60% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate when 15 t · h(-2) of faba bean fresh straw was applied.

  12. Aryl-acetic and cinnamic acids as lipoxygenase inhibitors with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Pontiki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamic acids have been identified as interesting compounds with cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Lipoxygenase pathway, catalyzing the first two steps of the transformation of arachidonic acid into leukotrienes is implicated in several processes such as cell differentiation, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Development of drugs that interfere with the formation or effects of these metabolites would be important for the treatment of various diseases like asthma, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and blood vessel disorders. Till now, asthma consists of the only pathological case in which improvement has been shown by lipoxygenase LO inhibitors. Thus, the research has been directed towards the development of drugs that interfere with the formation of leukotrienes. In order to explore the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of antioxidant acrylic/cinnamic acids a series of derivatives bearing the appropriate moieties have been synthesized via the Knoevenagel condensation and evaluated for their biological activities. The compounds have shown important antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and very good inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase while some of them were tested for their anticancer activity.

  13. Melatonin promotes Bax sequestration to mitochondria reducing cell susceptibility to apoptosis via the lipoxygenase metabolite 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Radogna, Flavia

    2015-03-01

    Extra-neurological functions of melatonin include control of the immune system and modulation of apoptosis. We previously showed that melatonin inhibits the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in leukocytes via stimulation of high affinity MT1/MT2 receptors, thereby promoting re-localization of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein to mitochondria. Here we show that Bcl-2 sequesters pro-apoptotic Bax into mitochondria in an inactive form after melatonin treatment, thus reducing cell propensity to apoptosis. Bax translocation and the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin are strictly dependent on the presence of Bcl-2, and on the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolite 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), which we have previously shown to be produced as a consequence of melatonin binding to its low affinity target calmodulin. Therefore, the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin requires the simultaneous, independent interaction with high (MT1/MT2) and low (calmodulin) affinity targets, eliciting two independent signal transduction pathways converging into Bax sequestration and inactivation. MT1/MT2 vs. lipoxygenase pathways are activated by 10-9 vs. 10-5M melatonin, respectively; the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin is achieved at 10-5M, but drops to 10-9M upon addition of exogenous 5-HETE, revealing that lipoxygenase activation is the rate-limiting pathway. Therefore, in areas of inflammation with increased 5-HETE levels, physiological nanomolar concentrations of melatonin may suffice to maintain leukocyte viability.

  14. Lipoxygenase mediates invasion of intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and propagates lymph node metastasis of human mammary carcinoma xenografts in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Rudas, Margaretha; Sexl, Veronika; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Wolbank, Susanne; Bartel, Gregor; Krieger, Sigurd; Kalt, Romana; Hantusch, Brigitte; Keller, Thomas; Nagy-Bojarszky, Katalin; Huttary, Nicole; Raab, Ingrid; Lackner, Karin; Krautgasser, Katharina; Schachner, Helga; Kaserer, Klaus; Rezar, Sandra; Madlener, Sybille; Vonach, Caroline; Davidovits, Agnes; Nosaka, Hitonari; Hämmerle, Monika; Viola, Katharina; Dolznig, Helmut; Schreiber, Martin; Nader, Alexander; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Gnant, Michael; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Detmar, Michael; Alitalo, Kari; Nijman, Sebastian; Offner, Felix; Maier, Thorsten J; Steinhilber, Dieter; Krupitza, Georg

    2011-05-01

    In individuals with mammary carcinoma, the most relevant prognostic predictor of distant organ metastasis and clinical outcome is the status of axillary lymph node metastasis. Metastases form initially in axillary sentinel lymph nodes and progress via connecting lymphatic vessels into postsentinel lymph nodes. However, the mechanisms of consecutive lymph node colonization are unknown. Through the analysis of human mammary carcinomas and their matching axillary lymph nodes, we show here that intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and bulk tumor cell invasion into these vessels highly correlate with formation of postsentinel metastasis. In an in vitro model of tumor bulk invasion, human mammary carcinoma cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. These circular defects were highly reminiscent of defects of the lymphovascular walls at sites of tumor invasion in vivo and were primarily generated by the tumor-derived arachidonic acid metabolite 12S-HETE following 15-lipoxygenase-1 (ALOX15) catalysis. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition and shRNA knockdown of ALOX15 each repressed formation of circular defects in vitro. Importantly, ALOX15 knockdown antagonized formation of lymph node metastasis in xenografted tumors. Furthermore, expression of lipoxygenase in human sentinel lymph node metastases correlated inversely with metastasis-free survival. These results provide evidence that lipoxygenase serves as a mediator of tumor cell invasion into lymphatic vessels and formation of lymph node metastasis in ductal mammary carcinomas.

  15. N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-hydroxy-N'-(3-chlorophenyl)urea, a general reducing agent for 5-, 12-, and 15-lipoxygenases and a substrate for their pseudoperoxidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgueyret, J P; Desmarais, S; Roy, P J; Riendeau, D

    1992-01-01

    Lipoxygenases contain a nonheme iron that undergoes oxidation and reduction during the catalytic cycle. The conversion from the Fe3+ enzyme form to the Fe2+ form can be achieved using reducing inhibitors, a reaction that can be reversed with lipid hydroperoxides. The present study describes the properties of N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-hydroxy-N'-(3-chlorophenyl)urea (CPHU), which functions as a reducing agent for various lipoxygenases and stimulates the degradation of lipid hydroperoxide catalyzed by these enzymes (pseudoperoxidase activity). CPHU was a substrate for the pseudoperoxidase reaction of purified soybean lipoxygenase-1 with apparent Km values for CPHU and 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HpODE) of 14 and 15 microM, respectively. CPHU was converted during the pseudoperoxidase reaction to a mixture of products that can be resolved by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. By comparison with the chemical reaction of CPHU and potassium nitrosodisulfonate, the major enzymatic reaction product was tentatively identified as a one-electron oxidation product of CPHU. At low concentrations (50 microM), dithiothreitol completely protected against the degradation of hydroxyurea without inhibiting the pseudoperoxidase reaction. Under these conditions, the rate of the pseudoperoxidase reaction with CPHU as a substrate can be quantitated by the change in absorbance at 234 nm owing to the consumption of 13-HpODE. In addition to soybean lipoxygenase-1, CPHU was found to be a substrate for the pseudoperoxidase activities of purified recombinant human 5-lipoxygenase and porcine leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase. The results are consistent with CPHU reacting with lipoxygenase by a one-electron oxidation to generate the ferrous enzyme form and the nitroxide radical, which could be reduced back to CPHU by DTT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Granulomatous myelitis associated with hemorrhagic syndrome due to consumption of Vicia villosa by cattle Mielite granulomatosa associada à síndrome hemorrágica devido ao consumo de Vicia villosa em um bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sonne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of spontaneous Vicia villosa poisoning affected a 6-year-old Holstein cow. Although the most striking findings included a generalized hemorrhagic condition associated with granulomatous myelitis, histological lesions typically seen with the vetch-associated systemic granulomatous syndrome were also present. Prominent gross findings were bloody nasal and oral discharges, disseminated hemorrhages, and bloody feces. Generalized hemorrhages associated with infiltration of numerous organs by lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, multinucleated giants cells, and eosinophils were the main microscopic findings. Anti-CD68 immunostaining confirmed the presence of moderate histiocytic infiltrate and multinucleated giant cells in the bone marrow. These changes in the bone marrow probably caused the generalized hemorrhagic changes described here.Um bovino Holandês de seis anos naturalmente intoxicado pela Vicia villosa apresentou lesões não comumente encontradas nessa intoxicação. Embora a lesão mais evidente fosse hemorragia generalizada associada à mielite granulomatosa, as lesões granulomatosas típicas da intoxicação pela ervilhaca também estavam presentes histologicamente. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram hemorragias nasal e oral, hemorragias generalizadas e fezes com sangue. Lesões hemorrágicas generalizadas associadas com infiltrado inflamatório de linfócitos, plasmócitos, macrófagos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos foram os principais achados microscópicos encontrados. O teste imuno-histoquímico anti-CD68 confirmou a presença de infiltrado moderado de macrófagos e de células gigantes multinucleadas na medula óssea. As alterações na medula óssea provavelmente constituem a causa da hemorragia generalizada descrita nesse caso.

  17. Ecogeographic variability and genetic diversity associated with seed albumins, globulins and prolamins patterns in Vicia taxa from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechkri, Sakina; Medoukali, Imane; Khelifi, Douadi

    2017-12-01

    Genetic variability was studied in 78 populations of locally collected Vicia L. taxa for seed albumins, globulins and prolamins patterns by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) along with an ecogeographic characterization of sites investigated. 131, 119 and 98 bands were respectively used for albumin, globulin and prolamin cluster analysis. Dendrograms based on the Jaccard index and the UPGMA method were generated and the degree of genetic diversity between and within taxa was evaluated. Five clusters were generated from albumins, six from globulins and four from prolamins patterns. The results reflect the great diversity of storage proteins and a high correlation was obtained between the three studied fractions. Several accessions present specific bands which could be used as a discriminatory marker both on intra and interspecific levels. No clear relationships were seen between the groups according to their geographical origin. Data obtained from ecogeographic investigation can be used for future collecting missions.

  18. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  19. Structural and Functional Analysis of Calcium Ion Mediated Binding of 5-Lipoxygenase to Nanodiscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan B Kumar

    Full Text Available An important step in the production of inflammatory mediators of the leukotriene family is the Ca2+ mediated recruitment of 5 Lipoxygenase (5LO to nuclear membranes. To study this reaction in vitro, the natural membrane mimicking environment of nanodiscs was used. Nanodiscs with 10.5 nm inner diameter were made with the lipid POPC and membrane scaffolding protein MSP1E3D1. Monomeric and dimeric 5LO were investigated. Monomeric 5LO mixed with Ca2+ and nanodiscs are shown to form stable complexes that 1 produce the expected leukotriene products from arachidonic acid and 2 can be, for the first time, visualised by native gel electrophoresis and negative stain transmission electron microscopy and 3 show a highest ratio of two 5LO per nanodisc. We interpret this as one 5LO on each side of the disc. The dimer of 5LO is visualised by negative stain transmission electron microscopy and is shown to not bind to nanodiscs. This study shows the advantages of nanodiscs to obtain basic structural information as well as functional information of a complex between a monotopic membrane protein and the membrane.

  20. Antioxidant and lipoxygenase activities of polyphenol extracts from oat brans treated with polysaccharide degrading enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisita Ratnasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used polysaccharide degrading enzymes and protein precipitation to extract polyphenols from oats and to determine their bioactivity. Duplicate oat brans were treated with viscozyme (Vis, cellulase (Cel or no enzyme (control, CTL then, proteins were removed in one set (Vis1, Cel1, CTL1 and not in the other (Vis2, Cel2, CTL2. HPLC analyses showed that for cellulase treated brans, precipitation of proteins increased phenolic acids and avenanthramides by 14%. Meanwhile, a decreased of 67% and 20% respectively was found for viscozyme and control brans. The effect of protein precipitation on soluble polyphenols is therefore dependent of the carbohydrase, as proteins with different compositions will interact differently with other molecules. Radical scavenging data showed that Cel1 and Vis1 had higher quenching effects on ROO• radicals with activities of 22.1 ± 0.8 and 23.5 ± 1.2 μM Trolox Equivalents/g defatted brans. Meanwhile, CTL2 had the highest HO• radicals inhibition (49.4 ± 2.8% compared to 10.8–32.3% for others. Samples that highly inhibited lipoxygenase (LOX, an enzyme involved in lipid oxidation were Cel1 (23.4 ± 2.3% and CTL1 (18 ± 0.4%.

  1. Inhibition of lipoxygenase by sesamol corroborates its potential anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashaswini, P S; Rao, A G Appu; Singh, Sridevi A

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, the byproducts of oxygenases reaction, when in excess, promote degenerative diseases like cardiovascular, cancer and arthritis. Sesame lignans- sesamin, sesamolin and the phenolic degradation product of sesamolin, sesamol, are empirically known for their health promoting properties like antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiaging and antiinflammatory activities. In the current study, the effect of sesamol on the inflammatory oxygenase - lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated. Enzyme kinetics and spectroscopic techniques were used to understand the inhibition mechanism. Sesamol was a potent inhibitor of soy LOX-1. It inhibited soy LOX-1 in a dose dependent manner with IC50 value of 51.84μM and Ki of 4.9μM. Binding studies using circular dichroism and corroborated by surface plasmon resonance, revealed that sesamol does not bind or change the conformation of LOX. Further, sesamol prevented the conversion of inactive LOX (Fe2+) to active LOX (Fe3+) by arresting the oxidation state of iron and prolonging the lag phase by virtue of its ability to scavenge hydroperoxides. Understanding the mechanism of action of such molecules will help in their application and promotion as nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-dependent relevance of endogenous 5-lipoxygenase derivatives in anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Luciana M; Almeida-Corrêa, Suellen; Canetti, Claudio A; Amaral, Olavo B; Bozza, Fernando A; Pamplona, Fabricio A

    2014-01-01

    When 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is inhibited, roughly half of the CNS effect of the prototypic endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is lost. Therefore, we decided to investigate whether inhibiting this enzyme would influence physiological functions classically described as being under control of the endocannabinoid system. Although 5-LO inhibition by MK-886 reduced lipoxin A4 levels in the brain, no effect was found in the elevated plus maze (EPM), even at the highest possible doses, via i.p. (10 mg/kg,) or i.c.v. (500 pmol/2 µl) routes. Accordingly, no alterations in anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test were observed in 5-LO KO mice. Interestingly, aged mice, which show reduced circulating lipoxin A4 levels, were sensitive to MK-886, displaying an anxiogenic-like state in response to treatment. Moreover, exogenous lipoxin A4 induced an anxiolytic-like profile in the EPM test. Our findings are in line with other reports showing no difference between FLAP KO or 5-LO KO and their control strains in adult mice, but increased anxiety-like behavior in aged mice. We also show for the first time that lipoxin A4 affects mouse behavior. In conclusion, we propose an age-dependent relevancy of endogenous 5-LO derivatives in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior, in addition to a potential for exogenous lipoxin A4 in producing an anxiolytic-like state.

  3. 2-Arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives as potent human lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Li; Dong, Ningning; Wu, Deyan; Yao, Xue; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Chen; Ouyang, Ping; Zhu, Jin; Tang, Yun; Wang, Wei; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Human lipoxygenases (LOXs) have been emerging as effective therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases. In this study, we found that four natural 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus exhibited potent inhibitory activities against human LOXs, including moracin C (1), artoindonesianin B-1 (2), moracin D (3), moracin M (4). In our in vitro experiments, compound 1 was identified as the most potent LOX inhibitor and the moderate subtype selective inhibitor of 12-LOX. Compounds 1 and 2 act as competitive inhibitors of LOXs. Moreover, 1 significantly inhibits LTB4 production and chemotactic capacity of neutrophils, and is capable of protecting vascular barrier from plasma leakage in vivo. In addition, the preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis was performed based on the above four naturally occurring (1-4) and six additional synthetic 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives. Taken together, these 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives, as LOXs inhibitors, could represent valuable leads for the future development of therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases.

  4. Lipoxygenase activity of soybean and protein evaluation of soy milk produced from irradiated grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Erica A., E-mail: ericabarros@fca.unesp.br [UNESP - Fazenda Experimental Lageado, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Broetto, Fernando, E-mail: broetto@ibb.unesp.br [UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Quimica e Bioquimica; Costa, Vladimir E., E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br [UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica

    2011-07-01

    Soybean and its derivative are considered as a functional food because it has high quality protein and are used for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. The irradiation technique is used in soybeans to increase shelf life and avoid problems in plant products consumed raw or processed. However, the controversy in the literature that the irradiation dose up 10 kGy food can alter the functional properties and structures of macronutrients. With the prospect of more information on the use of radiation on soybeans, the objective of this study was to determine the activity of lipoxygenase in soybeans and to evaluate possible changes in the protein content of soymilk processed from grain-BRS 213, BRS 258 and Embrapa 48 subjected to dosages of 2.5 , 5.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. The soybean cultivars were wrapped in plastic bags and subjected to gamma radiation source {sup 60}Co, Gammacell 220 (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.), except the control. The grains irradiated induced reduction of enzyme activity. The results for the protein content of soymilk were similar, appropriate to that required by ANVISA and showed little protein solubility for cultivars BRS-258 and Embrapa48. It was concluded that the technique of irradiation beyond to keep the nutritional value of soy can contribute to the organoleptic quality of soymilk. (author)

  5. Lipid peroxidation in cotton: Xanthomonas interactions and the role of lipoxygenases during the hypersensitive reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloul, A; Montillet, J L; Assigbetsé, K; Agnel, J P; Delannoy, E; Triantaphylidès, C; Daniel, J F; Marmey, P; Geiger, J P; Nicole, M

    2002-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation, often associated with hypersensitive cell death, may be initiated either by active oxygen species (AOS) or lipoxygenases (LOX). Here we report a detailed analysis of this oxidative process in both incompatible and compatible interactions between the cotton cultivar Reba B50 and Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm). The hypersensitive reaction (HR) was characterized by a massive production of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) hydroperoxides together with typical tissue dehydration. Among these, isomers peroxidized on carbon 9, largely predominant, were chiral, showing an excess in the S enantiomer. The HR process was accompanied by an increase in 9S-LOX activity and preceded by transcription of a LOX gene (GhKLox1). These results showed that: (i) AOS produced during the oxidative burst were not involved in PUFA peroxidation during HR; and (ii) as previously described in elicited leaves of tobacco, the massive enzymatic lipid peroxidation was closely associated with hypersensitive cell death. During disease development in this cotton cultivar, the 9-lipoxygenation of PUFAs was late, weak, preceded by a faint accumulation of GhKLox1 transcripts, and associated with chlorosis but not with necrosis. Consequently, the main difference between incompatible and compatible interactions was in the precocity and intensity of the oxidative process, rather than in its nature. These data provide the evidence for a correlation between lipid peroxidation and hypersensitive cell death induced by pathogens.

  6. Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase, Peroxidase and Lipoxygenase from Freshly Cut Lettuce (L. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vural Gökmen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic reactions taking place in minimally processed vegetables are considered as a major problem, because they adversely affect sensorial and nutritional quality. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, peroxidase (POD and lipoxygenase (LOX from lettuce were purified on a column packed with positively charged diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose by applying pH gradient elution from pH=4.0 to 9.0. The main purified fractions (PPO1 and PPO4, POD1 and POD2, LOX1 and LOX2 were characterized for enzyme concentration-reaction rate relationship, thermal stability, pH activity and kinetic parameters. Kinetic properties of each isoform were considerably different. Cysteine was found as the most effective inhibitor of both fractions of PPO. Kinetic parameters of lettuce POD were presented using guaiacol at various H2O2 concentrations. β-carotene directly influences lettuce LOX in the reaction medium available for the catalytic conversion of linoleic acid into hydroperoxides. Ascorbic and oxalic acids appear as effective PPO inhibitors, protecting phenolic compounds against oxidation in lettuce. Understanding the characteristics of deteriorative enzymes becomes important to maintain suitable conditions for fresh-like quality of lettuce. The results can be useful to keep the nutritional quality of minimally processed lettuce during shelf-life.

  7. Lipoxygenase activity in different species of sweet lupin (Lupinus L.) seeds and flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Michael; Bader-Mittermaier, Stephanie; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-05-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalysed degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids is supposed to be a major cause of undesirable off-flavour development in legumes. In the present study, a photometric LOX assay including adequate sample workup was adapted to lupin seeds, kernels and flakes, respectively. Optimum reaction conditions were at pH 7.5 using a phosphate buffer concentration of 150 mmol l(-1) without the addition of sodium chloride. The LOX activities of different lupin species and varieties were compared. Significant variations among the species and varieties ranging from 50 to 1004 units mg(-1) protein were determined, being significantly lower than soybean LOX activity. Hulling and flaking of the seeds resulted in a 15% increase of LOX activity. In contrast to soy and other legumes, LOX from lupin only converted free fatty acids, whereas trilinolein and β-carotene were not oxidised. Consequently, according to the established classification, lupin LOX activity may be assigned to the LOX type-1, which, to the best of our knowledge, was demonstrated for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of cigarette smoking on synthesis of eicosanoids, isoprostanes and lipoxygenase metabolites in apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas; Koegl, Elke; von Duvillard, Serge P; Sinzinger, Helmut; Berent, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized to eicosanoids and isoprostanes (IPs) via different pathways. The presence of granuloma in apical periodontitis (AP) is linked with inflammation and the synthesis of metabolites of AA. We investigated the conversion rate of (14)C labelled arachidonic acid ((14)C-AA), the lipoxygenases (LOX) products and the endogenous synthesis of eicosanoids and IPs in extracted granuloma. Furthermore, we assessed if there are markers for bone destruction and the influence of cigarette smoking. In 46 patients with symptoms and corresponding radiological signs of AP, teeth were extracted including the periapical granuloma. The endogenous synthesis of eicosanoids and IPs, the conversion rate of (14)C-AA and LOX products in extracted granuloma were analyzed. We found that smoking increases significantly the synthesis of IPs and LOX-metabolites in granuloma. Furthermore, smoking may have contributed to significant differences in qualitative and quantitative profile of eicosanoids, IPs and the conversion rate of (14)C-AA independent of the size of the granuloma. Our data demonstrate that in smokers with granuloma due to AP products of lipid peroxidation as 8-iso-PGF(2α) and products of the LOX-pathway are increased at the expense of cyclooxygenase products. The size of granuloma did not influence the amount of synthesized eicosanoids, IPs or LOX-metabolites out of (14)C-AA whereas cigarette smoking was a significantly influencing and modifiable risk factor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasmin is a specific stimulus of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of human peripheral monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weide, I; Tippler, B; Syrovets, T; Simmet, T

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the plasmin-induced stimulation of leukotriene (LT) B4 biosynthesis in human peripheral monocytes (PM). Plasmin up to 175 x 10(-3) CTA U/ml triggers a concentration-dependent release of 5-lipoxygenase-derived LTB4 while release of the cyclooxygenase products thromboxane (TX) B2 and prostaglandin (PG) E2 remained unaffected. The stimulatory effect appeared to be specific in as much as 1) it was found in PM, but not in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), 2) it requires the lysine binding sites of plasmin molecule since it was inhibited by the lysine analogues 6-aminohexanoic acid (6-AHA) and trans-4(aminomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (t-AMCA), 3) the intact catalytic center of plasmin is required since neither plasminogen nor catalytic center-blocked plasmin share the stimulatory effect of active plasmin, 4) other serine proteases such as alpha-chymotrypsin, human neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G did not stimulate release of detectable amounts of LTB4 from PM. In addition, catalytic center-blocked plasmin antagonized the stimulatory effect of active plasmin. Plasmin-mediated monocyte activation apparently proceeds via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. Plasmin did not increase inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate levels, but a time- and concentration-dependent stimulation of cyclic GMP formation was observed. The data show that plasmin is a specific stimulus for human peripheral monocytes. Plasmin may be an important link between the coagulation cascade and inflammatory reactions.

  10. Crystal structure of a lipoxygenase from Cyanothece sp. may reveal novel features for substrate acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newie, Julia; Andreou, Alexandra; Neumann, Piotr; Einsle, Oliver; Feussner, Ivo; Ficner, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    In eukaryotes, oxidized PUFAs, so-called oxylipins, are vital signaling molecules. The first step in their biosynthesis may be catalyzed by a lipoxygenase (LOX), which forms hydroperoxides by introducing dioxygen into PUFAs. Here we characterized CspLOX1, a phylogenetically distant LOX family member from Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 and determined its crystal structure. In addition to the classical two domains found in plant, animal, and coral LOXs, we identified an N-terminal helical extension, reminiscent of the long α-helical insertion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa LOX. In liposome flotation studies, this helical extension, rather than the β-barrel domain, was crucial for a membrane binding function. Additionally, CspLOX1 could oxygenate 1,2-diarachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, suggesting that the enzyme may act directly on membranes and that fatty acids bind to the active site in a tail-first orientation. This binding mode is further supported by the fact that CspLOX1 catalyzed oxygenation at the n-10 position of both linoleic and arachidonic acid, resulting in 9R- and 11R-hydroperoxides, respectively. Together these results reveal unifying structural features of LOXs and their function. While the core of the active site is important for lipoxygenation and thus highly conserved, peripheral domains functioning in membrane and substrate binding are more variable. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is required for chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaoyu; Peng, Cong; Abraham, Sheela A.; Shan, Yi; Guo, Zhiru; Desouza, Ngoc; Cheloni, Giulia; Li, Dongguang; Holyoake, Tessa L.; Li, Shaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of some types of cancer, suggesting that inhibition of these cells may limit disease progression and relapse. Unfortunately, few CSC-specific genes have been identified. Here, we determined that the gene encoding arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15/15-LO) is essential for the survival of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in a murine model of BCR-ABL–induced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the absence of Alox15, BCR-ABL was unable to induce CML in mice. Furthermore, Alox15 deletion impaired LSC function by affecting cell division and apoptosis, leading to an eventual depletion of LSCs. Moreover, chemical inhibition of 15-LO function impaired LSC function and attenuated CML in mice. The defective CML phenotype in Alox15-deficient animals was rescued by depleting the gene encoding P-selectin, which is upregulated in Alox15-deficient animals. Both deletion and overexpression of P-selectin affected the survival of LSCs. In human CML cell lines and CD34+ cells, knockdown of Alox15 or inhibition of 15-LO dramatically reduced survival. Loss of Alox15 altered expression of PTEN, PI3K/AKT, and the transcription factor ICSBP, which are known mediators of cancer pathogenesis. These results suggest that ALOX15 has potential as a therapeutic target for eradicating LSCs in CML. PMID:25105362

  12. 5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LTB4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1 were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.

  13. Systemic disease during Streptococcus pneumoniae acute lung infection requires 12-lipoxygenase-dependent inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Rudra; Maung, Nang; Hurley, Bryan P; Ghanem, Elsa Bou; Gronert, Karsten; McCormick, Beth A; Leong, John M

    2013-11-15

    Acute pulmonary infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by high bacterial numbers in the lung, a robust alveolar influx of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), and a risk of systemic spread of the bacterium. We investigated host mediators of S. pneumoniae-induced PMN migration and the role of inflammation in septicemia following pneumococcal lung infection. Hepoxilin A3 (HXA3) is a PMN chemoattractant and a metabolite of the 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) pathway. We observed that S. pneumoniae infection induced the production of 12-LOX in cultured pulmonary epithelium and in the lungs of infected mice. Inhibition of the 12-LOX pathway prevented pathogen-induced PMN transepithelial migration in vitro and dramatically reduced lung inflammation upon high-dose pulmonary challenge with S. pneumoniae in vivo, thus implicating HXA3 in pneumococcus-induced pulmonary inflammation. PMN basolateral-to-apical transmigration in vitro significantly increased apical-to-basolateral transepithelial migration of bacteria. Mice suppressed in the expression of 12-LOX exhibited little or no bacteremia and survived an otherwise lethal pulmonary challenge. Our data suggest that pneumococcal pulmonary inflammation is required for high-level bacteremia and systemic infection, partly by disrupting lung epithelium through 12-LOX-dependent HXA3 production and subsequent PMN transepithelial migration.

  14. Antioxidant, Anti-Lipoxygenase and Cytotoxic Activity of Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk. Decne Polyphenolic Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nael M. Fawzi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptadenia pyrotechnica Forssk is a traditional medicinal herb used for treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. In this research, the aqueous ethanolic crude extract of Leptadenia pyrotechnica aerial parts, along with its ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water partitioning fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity, polyphenolic content, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the FRAP, DPPH, ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assays.The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest polyphenolic content (252.27 mg gallic acid/g and the best antioxidant activity (1.2, 0.57, 0.45 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g in the FRAP, ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. Furthermore, the same extract showed appreciable anti-inflammatory via lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.41 µg/mL. Moreover, the ethyl acetate fraction also showed the strongest cytotoxic effect (IC50 = 43.16 µg/mL against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. These results suggest that this plant may be considered an interesting source of compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties for therapeutic, nutraceutical and functional food applications.

  15. The 5-Lipoxygenase as a Common Pathway for Pathological Brain and Vascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies indicate age as a strong risk factor for developing cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. During the aging process, changes in the expression of particular genes can influence the susceptibility to these diseases. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO by oxidizing fatty acids forms leukotrienes, potent mediators of oxidative and inflammatory reactions, two key pathogenic events in both clinical settings. This enzyme is widely distributed in the cardiovascular as well as in the central nervous system, where its expression levels increase with age, suggesting that it may be involved in their diseases of aging. The central theme of this article is that during aging, 5-LO acts as biologic link between different stressors and the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesize that the age-dependent upregulation of 5-LO represents a “priming” factor in the vasculature as well as in the brain, where a subsequent exposure to triggering stimuli (i.e., infections leads to an abnormal chronic inflammatory reaction, and ultimately results in increased organ vulnerability and functional deficits.

  16. Derivatives form better lipoxygenase inhibitors than piperine: in vitro and in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomy, Muringayil J; Sharanya, Chelankara S; Dileep, Kalarickal V; Prasanth, Shankar; Sabu, Abudulhameed; Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu; Haridas, Madathilkovilakathu

    2015-06-01

    Piperine is a secondary metabolite of black pepper. Its uses in medicine were already studied. However, its derivatives have not gained considerable attention. In the presented study, the Lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity of piperine and its derivatives, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal have been assessed and compared by enzyme kinetics, ITC and molecular modeling experiments. The presented investigations expressed that all the studied compounds inhibited LOX by binding at its active site. The IC(50) values of these compounds were deduced from the kinetics data and found to be 85.79, 43.065, 45.17, and 50.78 μm for piperine, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal, respectively. The binding free energies obtained from ITC experiments were -7.47, -8.33, -8.09, and -7.86 kcal/mol for piperine, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal, respectively. Similarly, the glide scores obtained for piperine, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal were -7.28, -10.32, -10.72, and -9.57 kcal/mol, respectively. The results of ITC and molecular modeling experiments suggested that piperonylic acid and piperonal exhibit stronger binding at the active site than piperine does. From the presented studies, it could be concluded that derivatives of piperine may be of higher significance than piperine for certain medicinal applications, implicating (Ayurvedic) fermented herbal drugs with piperine in them. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. 5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Protein as a Modulator of Olanzapine-Induced Lipid Accumulation in Adipocyte

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    Svetlana Dzitoyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiated in vitro into adipocytes. Cells were treated with olanzapine and a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX activating protein (FLAP inhibitor MK-886. Lipid content was measured using an Oil Red O assay; 5-LOX and FLAP mRNA content was measured using quantitative real-time PCR; the corresponding protein contents were measured using quantitative Western blot assay. Olanzapine did not affect the cell content of 5-LOX mRNA and protein; it decreased FLAP mRNA and protein content at day five but not 24 hours after olanzapine addition. In the absence of MK-886, low concentrations of olanzapine increased lipid content only slightly, whereas a 56% increase was induced by 50 μM olanzapine. A 5-day cotreatment with 10 μM MK-886 potentiated the lipid increasing action of low concentrations of olanzapine. In contrast, in the presence of 50 μM olanzapine nanomolar and low micromolar concentrations of MK-886 reduced lipid content. These data suggest that FLAP system in adipocytes is affected by olanzapine and that it may modify how these cells respond to the second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGADs. Clinical studies could evaluate whether the FLAP/5-LOX system could play a role in setting a variable individual susceptibility to the metabolic side effects of SGADs.

  18. The Acute Phase of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Attenuated in 5-Lipoxygenase-Deficient Mice

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    Adriana M. C. Canavaci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examine the contribution of 5-lipoxygenase- (5-LO- derived lipid mediators to immune responses during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 5-LO gene knockout (5-LO−/− mice and wild-type (WT mice. Compared with WT mice, the 5-LO−/− mice developed less parasitemia/tissue parasitism, less inflammatory cell infiltrates, and a lower mortality. This resistance of 5-LO−/− mice correlated with several differences in the immune response to infection, including reduced PGE2 synthesis; sustained capacity of splenocytes to produce high levels of interleukin (IL-12 early in the infection; enhanced splenocyte production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ; rapid T-cell polarization to secrete high quantities of IFN-γ and low quantities of IL-10; and greater numbers of CD8+CD44highCD62Llow memory effector T cells at the end of the acute phase of infection. The high mortality in WT mice was associated with increased production of LTB4/LTC4, T cell bias to produce IFN-γ, high levels of serum nitrite, and marked protein extravasation into the peritoneal cavity, although survival was improved by treatment with a cys-LT receptor 1 antagonist. These data also provide evidence that 5-LO-derived mediators negatively affect host survival during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.

  19. Inhibition of 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Attenuates Acute Liver Failure by Inhibiting Macrophage Activation

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    Lu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the role of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO in acute liver failure (ALF and changes in macrophage activation by blocking it. ALF was induced in rats by administration of D-galactosamine (D-GalN/lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with AA-861 (a specific 5-LO inhibitor, 24 hr before D-GalN/LPS administration. After D-GalN/LPS injection, the liver tissue was collected for assessment of histology, macrophage microstructure, macrophage counts, 5-LO mRNA formation, protein expression, and concentration of leukotrienes. Serum was collected for detecting alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, total bilirubin (Tbil, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α. Twenty-four hours after injection, compared with controls, ALF rats were characterized by widespread hepatocyte necrosis and elevated ALT, AST, and Tbil, and 5-LO protein expression reached a peak. Liver leukotriene B4 was also significantly elevated. However, 5-LO mRNA reached a peak 8 hr after D-GalN/LPS injection. Simultaneously, the microstructure of macrophages was changed most significantly and macrophages counts were increased significantly. Moreover, serum TNF-α was also elevated. By contrast, AA-861 pretreatment significantly decreased liver necrosis as well as all of the parameters compared with the rats without pretreatment. Macrophages, via the 5-LO pathway, play a critical role in ALF, and 5-LO inhibitor significantly alleviates ALF, possibly related to macrophage inhibition.

  20. Localization and activity of lipoxygenase in Cd-treated seedlings of Phaseolus coccineus

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    Ewa Skórzyńska-Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase was localized in the primary leaves of Phaseolus coccineus (L., seedlings treated with 25 µM Cd and in control plants using the immunogold method. The enzyme was localized mainly in the peripheral parts of protoplast of control plant cells. It was found in the cell wall, along the ER elements, at plastid lamellae and inside the mitochondria. In Cd-treated seedlings the elements of parenchyma cells showed an atypical inner structure. The immunolabelling of LOX was less intensive in comparison with control. The enzyme was found in the cytoplasm, at the cell wall area, vacuoles and in the plastid stroma as single gold particles. LOX activity optima were determined at pH 7.0 and 8.0 for both linoleic and linolenic acid used as substrates. After 2 days of seedlings exposure to Cd the activity of LOX decreased at pH 7.0 and 8.0 when linoleic acid was used as substrate, and strongly declined at pH 7.0 after 4 days of the metal treatment. When linolenic acid was the substrate LOX activity slightly increased after 2 days of the plants exposure to Cd, but after 4 days it rapidly decreased at pH 7.0. The changes in LOX activity are discussed.

  1. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...... the expression pattern of VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Although the expression of these genes is largely similar to that of the pea counterparts, differences where found for the expression of VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 in Vicia. VsENOD12 is expressed in the whole...

  2. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, Tbk; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  3. Quantification of cyanamide in young seedlings of Vicia species, Lens culinaris, and Robinia pseudo-acacia by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Takemura, Tomoko; Wasano, Naoya; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Hiradate, Syuntaro

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the cyanamide content of young leaves of nine Vicia species, Lens culinaris, and Robinia pseudo-acacia using a modified analytical procedure that made it possible to measure the cyanamide content of a single leaf. Recent molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that cyanamide is present in V. benghalensis, which is placed in a monophyletic group with cyanamide-biosynthesizing plants, V. villosa and V. cracca; this suggestion was verified.

  4. Effect on Some Characteristics of M2 Generation of Three Hungarian Vetch (Vicia pannonica Crantz.) The Application of Different Doses of Gamma Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    BAĞCI, Muhittin; Mutlu, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    This study covers M2 generation of the mutation breeding Project with practice of gamma irradiation on Hungarian vetch (Vicia pannonica Crantz.). The study was counducted, with the purpose of determine and contrast control dose have effects on some properties of vegetational. In the study, M1 plant seeds of three Hungarian vetch cultivars (Tarmbeyazı-98, Anadolupembesi-2002 and Oğuz-2002) were planted. It was examined that morphological, biological and agricultural characteristics obtained M2...

  5. EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AMINOACIDS ON PLANT YIELD AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FABA BEAN PLANTS IRRIGATED WITH SEAWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi T. ABDELHAMID

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity decreases yield in arid and semi-arid areas. With increasing demand for irrigation water, alternative sources are being sought. Seawater salinity was previously considered unusable for irrigation. However, this water can be used successfully to grow crops under certain conditions. Amino acids is well known biostimulant which has positive effects on plant growth and yield, and significantly mitigates the injuries caused by abiotic stresses Therefore, in the present study, the effect of exogenously treatment amino acid on faba bean plant growing under sea water salt stress was investigated. Reduction of salinity damage in faba bean by using a mixture of amino acids to improve morphological and biochemical parameters, and thus raising the level of plant yield was tested. A pot experiment was conducted to alleviate the harmful effects of seawater salinity on faba bean cv. Giza 843 by foliar spraying of an amino acid mixture with different concentrations (0.0, 500, 1000 or 1500 mg L-1. Irrigation of faba bean plants with seawater levels of 3.13 and 6.25 dS m-1 led to significant reductions in plant height, number of leaves plant, fresh and dry weight of shoots, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates, polysaccharides, nucleic acid DNA and RNA contents of faba bean leaves. Seawater salinity induced higher contents of Na+ and Cl- and decreased contents of K+, K+:Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and P3+. Irrigation of faba bean plant with different levels of seawater decreased seed yield and total dry weight per plant compared with those irrigated with tap water. Also, total carbohydrates and total protein contents in seeds were reduced by increased seawater salinity levels. Amino acid application as foliar spray significantly improved all the reduced parameters due to seawater stress. However, the highest level of amino acid of 1500 mg L-1 exerted the strongest effect in alleviating the harmful effect of seawater salinity stress. Efecto de la aplicaci

  6. Design of a novel Thiophene Inhibitor of 15-Lipoxygenase-1 with both Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Poelman, Hessel; Leus, Niek G. J.; Honrath, Birgit; Neochoritis, Constantinos G.; Dolga, Amalia; Dömling, Alexander; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) plays a dual role in diseases with an inflammatory component. On one hand 15-LOX-1 plays a role in pro-inflammatory gene expression and on the other hand it has been shown to be involved in central nervous system (CNS) disorders by its ability to mediate oxidative stress and damage of mitochondrial membranes under hypoxic conditions. In order to further explore applications in the CNS, novel 15-LOX-1 inhibitors with favorable physicochemical properties ...

  7. The contribution of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase in tissue macrophages to adipose tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, H-J; Kim, S-N; Kim, Y-A; Lee, Y-H

    2016-06-30

    Cellular plasticity in adipose tissue involves adipocyte death, its clearance, and de novo adipogenesis, enabling homeostatic turnover and adaptation to metabolic challenges; however, mechanisms regulating these serial events are not fully understood. The present study investigated the roles of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15) in the clearance of dying adipocytes by adipose tissue macrophages. First, upregulation of Alox15 expression and apoptotic adipocyte death in gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) were characterized during adipose tissue remodeling induced by β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Next, an in vitro reconstruction of adipose tissue macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes recapitulated adipocyte clearance by macrophages and demonstrated that macrophages co-cultured with apoptotic adipocytes increased the expression of efferocytosis-related genes. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of Alox15 diminished the levels of adipocyte clearance by macrophages in a co-culture system. Gene expression profiling of macrophages isolated from gWAT of Alox15 knockout (KO) mice demonstrated distinct phenotypes, especially downregulation of genes involved in lipid uptake and metabolism compared to wild-type mice. Finally, in vivo β3-adrenergic stimulation in Alox15 KO mice failed to recruit crown-like structures, a macrophage network clearing dying adipocytes in gWAT. Consequently, in Alox15 KO mice, proliferation/differentiation of adipocyte progenitors and β3-adrenergic remodeling of gWAT were impaired compared to wild-type control mice. Collectively, our data established a pivotal role of Alox15 in the resolution of adipocyte death and in adipose tissue remodeling.

  8. [Spectral analysis of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipoxygenase (LOX) treated by pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Ruo-Bing; Chen, Jie; Wang, Li-Ming; Guan, Zhi-Cheng; Jia, Zhi-Dong

    2009-08-01

    Inactivation effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a laboratory PEF system with a coaxial treatment chamber. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence analysis were used to study the conformation change of the protein. The experimental results show that PPO and LOX can be effectively inactivated by the PEF treatment. Inactivation effect of PPO and LOX increases with the increase in the applied electric strength and the treatment time. Activity of PPO and LOX can be reduced by 60.3% and 21.7% at 20 kV x cm(-1) after being treated for 320 micros respectively. The decrease of the negative peaks (208 and 215 nm in PPO spectra, 208 nm and 218 nm in LOX spectra) in CD spectra of PPO and LOX shows that PEF treatment caused a loss of alpha-helix and increase in beta-sheet content, indicating that conformation changes occur in the secondary structure of PPO and LOX enzyme. This effect was strengthened as the applied electric field increased: alpha-helical content of PPO and LOX was 56% and 29% after being treated at 8 kV x cm(-1), however, when the electric field was increased up to 20 kV x cm(-1), alpha-helical content of PPO and LOX decreased to 21% and 16% respectively. The decrease rate of alpha-helix and increase rate of beta-sheet in PPO are higher than LOX, indicating that the second conformation of PPO is less resistant to PEF treatment than LOX. The fluorescence intensity of LOX increases after PEF treatment. At the same time, increasing the applied pulsed electric field increases the fluorescence intensity emitted. Fluorescence measurements confirm that tertiary conformation changes occur in the local structure of LOX. However the possible mechanism of the conformation change induced by the PEF treatment is beyond the scope of the present investigation.

  9. 5-Lipoxygenase negatively regulates Th1 response during Brucella abortus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahel, Júlia Silveira; de Souza, Mariana Bueno; Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Corsetti, Patricia P; Carvalho, Natalia B; Marinho, Fabio A V; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Caliari, Marcelo V; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-03-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects humans and cattle, causing a chronic inflammatory disease known as brucellosis. A Th1-mediated immune response plays a critical role in host control of this pathogen. Recent findings indicate contrasting roles for lipid mediators in host responses against infections. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is an enzyme required for the production of the lipid mediators leukotrienes and lipoxins. To determine the involvement of 5-LO in host responses to B. abortus infection, we intraperitoneally infected wild-type and 5-LO-deficient mice and evaluated the progression of infection and concomitant expression of immune mediators. Here, we demonstrate that B. abortus induced the upregulation of 5-LO mRNA in wild-type mice. Moreover, this pathogen upregulated the production of the lipid mediators leukotriene B4 and lipoxin A4 in a 5-LO-dependent manner. 5-LO-deficient mice displayed lower bacterial burdens in the spleen and liver and less severe liver pathology, demonstrating an enhanced resistance to infection. Host resistance paralleled an increased expression of the proinflammatory mediators interleukin-12 (IL-12), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) during the course of infection. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5-LO downregulated the expression of IL-12 in macrophages during B. abortus infection. Our results suggest that 5-LO has a major involvement in B. abortus infection, by functioning as a negative regulator of the protective Th1 immune responses against this pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Antioxidant, 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Compounds Isolated from the Ferula lutea Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Znati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of the Ferula lutea (Poir. Maire flowers has led to the isolation of a new compound, (E-5-ethylidenefuran-2(5H-one-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, designated ferunide, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enoic acid (2, reported for the first time as a natural product, together with nine known compounds, verbenone-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4, methyl caffeate (5, methyl 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinate (6, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7, isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside, narcissin (8, (−-marmesin (9, isoimperatorin (10 and 2,3,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (11. Compounds 3–10 were identified for the first time in Ferula genus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (compound 2, as well as by comparison with literature data. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated. Results showed that compound 7 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 18 ± 0.5 µmol/L and 19.7 ± 0.7 µmol/L by DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation, respectively. The compound 6 exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 5.3 ± 0.1 µmol/L against 5-lipoxygenase. In addition, compound 5 was found to be the most cytotoxic, with IC50 values of 22.5 ± 2.4 µmol/L, 17.8 ± 1.1 µmol/L and 25 ± 1.1 µmol/L against the HCT-116, IGROV-1 and OVCAR-3 cell lines, respectively.

  11. Loss of 5‐lipoxygenase activity protects mice against paracetamol‐induced liver toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shiyun; Ren, Lin; Liu, Qinhui; Kuang, Jiangying; Shen, Jing; Cheng, Shihai; Zhang, Yuwei; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Changtao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used over‐the‐counter analgesic and overdosing with paracetamol is the leading cause of hospital admission for acute liver failure. 5‐Lipoxygenase (5‐LO) catalyses arachidonic acid to form LTs, which lead to inflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we examined whether deletion or pharmacological inhibition of 5‐LO could protect mice against paracetamol‐induced hepatic toxicity. Experimental Approach Both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of 5‐LO in C57BL/6J mice were used to study the role of this enzyme in paracetamol induced liver toxicity. Serum and tissue biochemistry, H&E staining, and real‐time PCR were used to assess liver toxicity. Key Results Deletion or pharmacological inhibition of 5‐LO in mice markedly ameliorated paracetamol‐induced hepatic injury, as shown by decreased serum alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and hepatic centrilobular necrosis. The hepatoprotective effect of 5‐LO inhibition was associated with induction of the antitoxic phase II conjugating enzyme, sulfotransferase2a1, suppression of the pro‐toxic phase I CYP3A11 and reduction of the hepatic transporter MRP3. In 5‐LO−/− mice, levels of GSH were increased, and oxidative stress decreased. In addition, PPAR α, a nuclear receptor that confers resistance to paracetamol toxicity, was activated in 5‐LO−/− mice. Conclusions and Implications The activity of 5‐LO may play a critical role in paracetamol‐induced hepatic toxicity by regulating paracetamol metabolism and oxidative stress. PMID:26398229

  12. Biosynthesis of hemiketal eicosanoids by cross-over of the 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Markus; Suzuki, Takashi; Tejera, Noemi; Mont, Stacey; Boeglin, William E.; Pozzi, Ambra; Schneider, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The prostaglandin and leukotriene families of lipid mediators are formed via two distinct biosynthetic pathways that are initiated by the oxygenation of arachidonic acid by either cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), respectively. The 5-LOX product 5S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, however, can also serve as an efficient substrate for COX-2, forming a bicyclic diendoperoxide with structural similarities to the arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandin endoperoxide PGH2 [Schneider C, et al. (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:720–721]. Here we identify two cyclic hemiketal (HK) eicosanoids, HKD2 and HKE2, as the major nonenzymatic rearrangement products of the diendoperoxide using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses as well as UV and NMR spectroscopy. HKD2 and HKE2 are furoketals formed by spontaneous cyclization of their respective 8,9-dioxo-5S,11R,12S,15S-tetrahydroxy- or 11,12-dioxo-5S,8S,9S,15S-tetrahydroxy-eicosadi-6E,13E-enoic acid precursors, resulting from opening of the 9S,11R- and 8S,12S-peroxide rings of the diendoperoxide. Furthermore, the diendoperoxide is an efficient substrate for the hematopoietic type of prostaglandin D synthase resulting in formation of HKD2, equivalent to the enzymatic transformation of PGH2 to PGD2. HKD2 and HKE2 were formed in human blood leukocytes activated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and calcium ionophore A23187, and biosynthesis was blocked by inhibitors of 5-LOX or COX-2. HKD2 and HKE2 stimulated migration and tubulogenesis of microvascular endothelial cells, implicating a proangiogenic role of the hemiketals in inflammatory sites that involve expression of 5-LOX and COX-2. Identification of the highly oxygenated hemiketal eicosanoids provides evidence for a previously unrecognized biosynthetic cross-over of the 5-LOX and COX-2 pathways. PMID:21482803

  13. Simultaneous determination of the lipoxygenase and hydroperxide lyase specificity in olive fruit pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Joaquín J.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive pulp lipoxygenase regiospecificity and hydroperoxide lyase substrate specificity are important parameters in order to justify the volatile composition of olive oil. A new radiolabelling method to determine simultaneously these properties using only thin layer chromatography steps is described in the present work. The method involves incubation of an enzyme preparation from olive pulp with radiolabelled linoleate, followed by the fractionation of the resulting lipid products, previously treated with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine, on thin layer chromatography plates coated with polyethylenglycol 400. The results obtained are in agreement with previous studies carried out by other methods.La regioespecificidad de la lipoxigenasa y la especificidad del sustrato hidroperóxido liasa de pulpa de aceituna son parámetros importantes en la justificación de la composición en volátiles del aceite de oliva. En este trabajo se describe un nuevo método de marcaje radioactivo para determinar simultáneamente estas propiedades, usando solo etapas de cromatografía en capa fina. El método implica la incubación de una preparación enzimática de pulpa de aceituna con linoleato marcado, seguido del fraccionamiento de los productos lipídicos resultantes, previamente tratados con 2,4-dinitrofenil hidrazina, sobre placas de cromatografía en capa fina soportadas con polietilenglicol 400. Los resultados obtenidos están de acuerdo con estudios previos llevados a cabo con otros métodos.

  14. Positive feedback-loop of telomerase reverse transcriptase and 15-lipoxygenase-2 promotes pulmonary hypertension.

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    Tingting Shen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is characterized with pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling mediated by 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO/15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE according to our previous studies. Meanwhile, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT activity is highly correlated with vascular injury and remodeling, suggesting that TERT may be an essential determinant in the development of PH. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution and molecular mechanisms of TERT in the pathogenesis of PH.We measured the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP and ventricular weight, analyzed morphometric change of the pulmonary vessels in the hypoxia or monocrotaline treated rats. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, transwell assay and flow cytometry in pulmonary smooth muscle cells were performed to investigate the roles and relationship of TERT and 15-LO/15-HETE in PH. We revealed that the expression of TERT was increased in pulmonary vasculature of patients with PH and in the monocrotaline or hypoxia rat model of PH. The up-regulation of TERT was associated with experimental elevated RVSP and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments identified TERT as a novel interacting partner of 15-LO-2. TERT and 15-LO-2 augmented protein expression of each other. In addition, the proliferation, migration and cell-cycle transition from G0/G1 phase to S phase induced by hypoxia were inhibited by TERT knockdown, which were rescued by 15-HETE addition.These results demonstrate that TERT regulates pulmonary vascular remodeling. TERT and 15-LO-2 form a positive feedback loop and together promote proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, creating a self-amplifying circuit which propels pulmonary hypertension.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of 15-lipoxygenase expression by histone h3 lysine 4 methylation/demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Xu, Dawei; Han, Hongya; Fan, Yidong; Schain, Frida; Xu, Zhonghua; Claesson, Hans-Erik; Björkholm, Magnus; Sjöberg, Jan

    2012-01-01

    15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) oxidizes polyunsaturated fatty acids to a rich spectrum of biologically active metabolites and is implicated in physiological membrane remodelling, inflammation and apoptosis. Its deregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse cancer and immune diseases. Recent experimental evidence reveals that dynamic histone methylation/demethylation mediated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases plays a critical role in regulation of chromatin remodelling and gene expression. In the present study, we compared the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3-K4) methylation status of the 15-LOX-1 promoter region of the two Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cell lines L1236 and L428 with abundant and undetectable 15-LOX-1 expression, respectively. We identified a potential role of H3-K4 methylation in positive regulation of 15-LOX-1 transcription. Furthermore, we found that histone methyltransferase SMYD3 inhibition reduced 15-LOX-1 expression by decreasing promoter activity in L1236 cells. SMYD3 knock down in these cells abolished di-/trimethylation of H3-K4, attenuated the occupancy by the transactivator STAT6, and led to diminished histone H3 acetylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter. In contrast, inhibition of SMCX, a JmjC-domain-containing H3-K4 tri-demethylase, upregulated 15-LOX-1 expression through induction of H3-K4 trimethylation, histone acetylation and STAT6 recruitment at the 15-LOX-1 promoter in L428 cells. In addition, we observed strong SMYD3 expression in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and its inhibition led to decreased 15-LOX-1 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that regulation of histone methylation/demethylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter is important in 15-LOX-1 expression.

  16. Transcriptional regulation of 15-lipoxygenase expression by histone h3 lysine 4 methylation/demethylation.

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    Cheng Liu

    Full Text Available 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1 oxidizes polyunsaturated fatty acids to a rich spectrum of biologically active metabolites and is implicated in physiological membrane remodelling, inflammation and apoptosis. Its deregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse cancer and immune diseases. Recent experimental evidence reveals that dynamic histone methylation/demethylation mediated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases plays a critical role in regulation of chromatin remodelling and gene expression. In the present study, we compared the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3-K4 methylation status of the 15-LOX-1 promoter region of the two Hodgkin lymphoma (HL cell lines L1236 and L428 with abundant and undetectable 15-LOX-1 expression, respectively. We identified a potential role of H3-K4 methylation in positive regulation of 15-LOX-1 transcription. Furthermore, we found that histone methyltransferase SMYD3 inhibition reduced 15-LOX-1 expression by decreasing promoter activity in L1236 cells. SMYD3 knock down in these cells abolished di-/trimethylation of H3-K4, attenuated the occupancy by the transactivator STAT6, and led to diminished histone H3 acetylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter. In contrast, inhibition of SMCX, a JmjC-domain-containing H3-K4 tri-demethylase, upregulated 15-LOX-1 expression through induction of H3-K4 trimethylation, histone acetylation and STAT6 recruitment at the 15-LOX-1 promoter in L428 cells. In addition, we observed strong SMYD3 expression in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and its inhibition led to decreased 15-LOX-1 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that regulation of histone methylation/demethylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter is important in 15-LOX-1 expression.

  17. Evolution and Expansion of the Prokaryote-Like Lipoxygenase Family in the Brown Alga Saccharina japonica

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    Linhong Teng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase (LOX plays important roles in fatty acid oxidation and lipid mediator biosynthesis. In this study, we give first insights into brown algal LOX evolution. Whole genome searches revealed four, three, and eleven LOXs in Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cladosiphon okamuranus, and Saccharina japonica, respectively. In phylogenetic analyses, LOXs from brown algae form a robust clade with those from prokaryotes, suggesting an ancestral origin and slow evolution. Brown algal LOXs were divided into two clades, C1 and C2 in a phylogenetic tree. Compared to the two species of Ectocarpales, LOX gene expansion occurred in the kelp S. japonica through tandem duplication and segmental duplication. Selection pressure analysis showed that LOX genes in brown algae have undergone strong purifying selection, while the selective constraint in the C2 clade was more relaxed than that in the C1 clade. Furthermore, within each clade, LOXs of S. japonica evolved under more relaxed selection constraints than E. siliculosus and C. okamuranus. Structural modeling showed that unlike LOXs of plants and animals, which contain a β barrel in the N-terminal part of the protein, LOXs in brown algae fold into a single domain. Analysis of previously published transcriptomic data showed that LOXs in E. siliculosus are responsive to hyposaline, hypersaline, oxidative, and copper stresses. Moreover, clear divergence of expression patterns was observed among different life stages, as well as between duplicate gene pairs. In E. siliculosus, all four LOXs are male-biased in immature gametophytes, and mature gametophytes showed significantly higher LOX mRNA levels than immature gametophytes and sporophytes. In S. japonica, however, our RNA-Seq data showed that most LOXs are highly expressed in sporophytes. Even the most recently duplicated gene pairs showed divergent expression patterns, suggesting that functional divergence has likely occurred since LOX genes duplicated, which

  18. Effects of plant based organic fertilizer (faba bean meal) compared to farmyard manure on yield and quality of potatoes and soil organic matter levels

    OpenAIRE

    Raupp, Dr Joachim; Oltmanns, Meike

    2006-01-01

    Whereas the positive effects of farmyard manure on soil biological properties have been shown in several long-term experiments, no comparable information was available for plant based organic fertilizers. Since 1996 such materials were applied with the same amount of total nitrogen as farmyard manure (100 (kg ha-1) on a poor sandy soil. In 2005 it was found that faba bean meal application caused the same potato yield, and tubers with the same phosphorus content, but lower potassium and sligh...

  19. Characterization of the nutritional value of air-classified protein and starch fractions of field pea and zero-tannin faba bean in grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, C K; Zijlstra, R T; Beltranena, E

    2010-02-01

    Most pulse (nonoilseed legume) seed flours can be fractionated rapidly and economically by air classification into protein and starch concentrates. The nutritional value of air-classified field pea and faba bean concentrates requires characterization to assess the feeding opportunity for pigs. Thus, the objectives were to characterize the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, energy, starch, CP, fat, and ash; apparent ileal digestibility of CP and starch; standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA; and the SID AA, DE, and NE content of air-classified zero-tannin faba bean and field pea protein and starch concentrates in grower pigs. Pulse protein and starch concentrates were compared with soy protein concentrate and corn starch, respectively, as corresponding standards. The corn starch diet served as an N-free diet to correct for basal endogenous AA losses. In a Youden square design, 8 ileal-cannulated barrows (24.9 +/- 2.3 kg of BW) were fed 6 diets over 7 periods at 3 times the maintenance DE requirement. Periods encompassed a 5-d diet acclimation, 3-d feces collection, and 3-d ileal digesta collection. The ATTD of GE was 2% greater (P bean than soy and was intermediate for field pea protein (95.6, 93.7, and 94.9%, respectively). The ATTD of GE was 3.6% greater (P bean starch (96.2, 95.1, and 92.3%, respectively). The DE content of faba bean was 5.0% greater (P content of faba bean and field pea was 1.7% greater (P content was 5% greater (P bean than field pea and soy protein (3.08, 2.94, and 2.92 Mcal/kg, respectively). The NE content for field pea starch was 2.0% greater (P bean starch (2.68, 2.63, and 2.61 Mcal/kg, respectively). Protein concentrates had a 14 and 11% greater (P content, respectively, than starch concentrates. The SID of Lys was 6.0% greater (P bean and field pea protein than soy protein (95.5, 92.6, and 88.7%, respectively). The SID of Lys was 6.0% greater (P bean than field pea starch. Nutrient digestibility and digestible

  20. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

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    Veronica Sanda Chedea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS, and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE, were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS or in extract (LE to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects.

  1. Effect of foliar fungicide and plant spacing on the expression of lipoxygenase enzyme and grain rot in maize hybrids

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    Elizandro Ricardo Kluge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of fungicide application on grain rot in commercial maize hybrids and the relation between grain rot and the expression of lipoxygenase enzyme in grain in conventional row spacing of 0.70 m and reduced row spacing of 0.45 m. Treatments were made in a 3 x 8 factorial scheme, using three forms of management with fungicide (Trifloxystrobin + Prothioconazole and eight maize hybrids divided into two groups (tolerant and susceptible with three repetitions, totaling 72 plots in each environment (conventional and reduced spacing in the 2013/2014 crop. The following characteristics were evaluated: grain rot percentage and lipoxygenase enzyme expression (LOX in the grain. The hybrid and the fungicide utilized influenced the grain rot percentage. Grain rot percentage was reduced by the use of the fungicide, and the highest reduction was in susceptible hybrids with two applications, V8 and V8+VT. There was higher expression of LOX enzyme in maize hybrids that belong to the group tolerant of fungi that cause grain rot .The use of the fungicide in two applications, V8 (eight leaves and VT (tasseling, increased the intensity of the LOX enzyme, which was more evident for the reduced spacing.

  2. Thermostable Lipoxygenase, a Key Enzyme in the Conversion of Linoleic Acid into Thrihydroxy-octadecenoic Acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoxygenases (LOX) constitute a family of lipid-peroxidizing enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid with (1Z,4Z)-pentadiene structural unit, leading to formation of the conjugated (Z,E)-hydroperoxydienoic acid. LOXs have been known to be widely distributed in plants and animals...

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of soybean lipoxygenase-1 : Influence of lipid hydroperoxide activation and lyophilization on the structure of the non-heme iron active site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Heijdt, L.M. van der; Feiters, M.C.; Navaratnam, S.; Nolting, H.-F.; Hermes, C.; Veldink, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the Fe K-edge of the non-heme iron site in Fe(II) as well as Fe(III) soybean lipoxygenase-1, in frozen solution or lyophilized, are presented; the latter spectra were obtained by incubation of the Fe(II) enzyme with its product hydroperoxide. An edge shift of about 23 eV

  4. 5 alpha-reductase-catalyzed conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone is increased in prostatic adenocarcinoma cells: suppression by 15-lipoxygenase metabolites of gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung; Ziboh, Vincent A

    2002-11-01

    Although the androgens, testosterone (T) and its highly active metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) play a role in the development and progression of prostate cancer, the mechanism(s) are unclear. Furthermore, 5 alpha-reductase which catalyze the conversion of T to DHT, has been a target of manipulation in the treatment of prostatic cancer, hence synthetic 5 alpha-reductase activity inhibitors have shown therapeutic promise. To demonstrate that nutrients derived from dietary sources can exert similar therapeutic promise, this study was designed using benign hyperplastic cells (BHC) and malignant tumorigenic cells (MTC) derived from Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rat model of prostatic adenocarcinoma to test the effects of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and their 15-lipoxygenase metabolites on cellular 5 alpha-reductase activity. Our data revealed: (i) that incubation of MTC with [3H]-T resulted in marked conversion to [3H]-DHT when compared to similar incubation with BHC; (ii) that DHT-enhanced activity of 5 alpha-reductase was inhibited 80% by 15S-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, the 15-lipoxygenase metabolite of GLA, when compared to 55% by 15S-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, the 15-lipoxygenase metabolite of EPA; and (iii) that their precursor fatty acids, respectively, exerted moderate inhibition. Taken together, the study underscores the biological importance of 15-lipoxygenase metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in androgen metabolism.

  5. Estimation of the effect of radionuclide contamination on Vicia sativa L. induction of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters using "Floratest" optical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Yu.; Illienko, V.; Nesterova, N.; Pareniuk, O.; Shavanova, K.

    2017-12-01

    The presented research was aimed to determine the parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence (IChH) curve induction for Vicia sativa L. that were grown on radionuclide contaminated soils by using "Floratest" fluorometer. Plants were inoculated with 5 species of bacteria that might potentially block radionuclide uptake (Agrobacterium radiobacter IMBB-7246, Azotobacter chroococcum UKMB-6082, A. chroococcum UKMB-6003, Bacillus megaterium UKMB-5724, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae) and grown in sod-podzolic, chernozem and peat-bog soils, contaminated with 137Cs (4000±340 Bq/kg). As a result of research, it was determined that the most stressful factors for vetch plants are combination of soil radionuclide and presence of Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724, as the number of inactive chlorophyll increased. In addition, the vetch plants significantly increased fixed level of fluorescence (Fst) under the influence of radioactive contamination in presence of Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724, indicating inhibition of photosynthetic reactions. Other bacteria showed radioprotective properties in almost all types of soil.

  6. Detection of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) in Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) using unique chemical fingerprint markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Thavarajah, Dil; Premakumara, G A S; Vandenberg, Albert

    2012-12-15

    Detection of adulteration of split red lentil (Lens culinaris L.) seeds with low level addition of split common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is hampered by a lack of reliable detection methods. An analytical method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) based on two unique chemical markers found in common vetch: ß-cyanoalanine (BCA) and γ-glutamyl-ß-cyanoalanine (GCA). These two markers were present in samples of common vetch seed grown in Canada and Serbia. Authentic lentil samples grown in Canada, Australia, USA, Turkey, Syria, and Morocco had no detectable levels of these chemical markers. Commercial lentil samples for export from lentil processing plants in Saskatchewan, Canada, also had no detectable levels of GCA and BCA. The presence of vetch in intentionally adulterated lentil samples could be determined via chemical markers with a detection limit of 5% (w/w). The proposed method is a simple sample extraction and rapid HPLC analysis that could be widely used to detect intentional adulteration of lentils with common vetch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A note on the earliest distribution, cultivation and genetic changes in bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia in ancient Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L. Willd. was a part of the everyday diet of the Eurasian Neanderthal population and the modern human Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in bitter vetch and other ancient grain legumes are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Bitter vetch seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals, pea and lentil, bitter vetch has become definitely associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Bitter vetch entered Europe in its south-east regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. Recently the first success has been obtained in the extraction of ancient DNA from charred bitter vetch seeds. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that most of Eurasian peoples have their own words denoting bitter vetch, meaning that its cultivation preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. 173005

  8. Inhibition of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols breakdown delays germination of winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seeds

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    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beside RFOs, which are commonly present in legume seeds, seeds of some species contain galactosyl pinitols (GPs. These carbohydrates, like RFOs, have been hypothesized to constitute an important energy and carbon skeletal source during germination. To test this hypothesis we have applied a specific α-galactosidase inhibitor (1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, DGJ to germinating winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seeds, containing more galactosyl pinitols than RFOs. The breakdown of RFOs but not that of GPs was completely blocked in both embryonic axes and cotyledons tissues, during the first 18 h of imbibition in DGJ. The inhibitor only decreased the rate of GPs degradation. The inhibitory effect of DGJ on GPs degradation was partially alleviated by addition of sucrose or galactose to DGJ solutions. After three days of germination in water, RFOs and GPs disappeared in axial tissues of seeds imbibed in water, galactose or sucrose. Eighteen-hour imbibition of seeds in DGJ drastically reduced germination, by ca 50%, during the first three days. The inhibitory effect of DGJ decreased during the next seven days of germination. The presence of galactose or sucrose in imbibition solution initially stimulated seed germination, but later this effect was not statistically significant. Our study provides clear evidence that galactosyl pinitols play an important role in early winter vetch seeds germination. Additionally, we suggest that galactosyl pinitols can replace RFOs as reserve material necessary for early germination.

  9. Characterisation of SalRAB a salicylic acid inducible positively regulated efflux system of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841.

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    Adrian J Tett

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule in plant-microbe defence and symbiosis. We analysed the transcriptional responses of the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae 3841 to salicylic acid. Two MFS-type multicomponent efflux systems were induced in response to salicylic acid, rmrAB and the hitherto undescribed system salRAB. Based on sequence similarity salA and salB encode a membrane fusion and inner membrane protein respectively. salAB are positively regulated by the LysR regulator SalR. Disruption of salA significantly increased the sensitivity of the mutant to salicylic acid, while disruption of rmrA did not. A salA/rmrA double mutation did not have increased sensitivity relative to the salA mutant. Pea plants nodulated by salA or rmrA strains did not have altered nodule number or nitrogen fixation rates, consistent with weak expression of salA in the rhizosphere and in nodule bacteria. However, BLAST analysis revealed seventeen putative efflux systems in Rlv3841 and several of these were highly differentially expressed during rhizosphere colonisation, host infection and bacteroid differentiation. This suggests they have an integral role in symbiosis with host plants.

  10. Cd-induced oxidative stress and lignification in the roots of two Vicia sativa L. varieties with different Cd tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Haiyun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Zhenguo; Zhang, Fenqin

    2016-01-15

    We examined the effects of Cd on growth, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and lignin content in the roots of two varieties of Vicia sativa. Treatment with Cd decreased plant growth and increased ROS and lipid peroxidation levels to a greater extent in the Cd-sensitive variety ZM than in the Cd-tolerant variety L3. Most hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2(•-)) were accumulated in the cell walls and extracellular spaces in response to Cd treatments. Chemical assays and experiments using inhibitors showed that larger increases in H2O2 and O2(•-) production in ZM than in L3 were probably attributed to elevated Cd-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-peroxidase (NADH-POD) activity. Cd treatment increased the accumulation of lignin and the guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activities in the apoplast more significantly in ZM root than in L3. Howerver, root laccase activity was higher in L3 than in ZM. Thus Cd toxicity induced significant lignification in the roots of V. sativa, and increases in H2O2 accumulation and apoplastic GPOD activity were likely responsible for this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory, antioxidant, antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of fourteen ethnomedicinally used African spices and culinary herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Kuete, Victor; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2014-10-28

    Culinary herbs and spices are widely used ethnomedically across Africa. They are traditionally employed in the treatment of several ailments including inflammation disorders, pain alleviation and infectious diseases. Pharmacological studies are necessary to provide a scientific basis to substantiate their traditional use and safety. In this study, the 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory, antioxidant, antimycobacterial and the cytotoxic activities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of fourteen edible plants were investigated. The 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated by the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay method. The antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical scavenging assays. The antimycobacterial activity was determined by a broth microdilution method against three species of mycobacteria: Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium fortuitum using tetrazolium violet as growth indicator. The cytotoxicity was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on Vero monkey kidney cells. All the extracts tested had some 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity ranging from 32.9 to 78.64%. Adansonia digitata (fruit) had the highest antioxidant capacity (IC₅₀ values of 8.15 μg/mL and 9.16 μg/mL in the DPPH and ABTS assays respectively; TEAC of 0.75 in the FRAP assay) along with the highest amount of total phenolics (237.68 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoids (16.14 mg E/g). There were good correlations between DPPH and ABTS values (R(2) 0.98) and between total phenolics and total flavonoids (R(2) 0.94). Tamarindus indica had significant antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium aurum (MIC 78 μg/mL). As could be expected with edible plants, all the extracts had a relatively low cytotoxicity with LC₅₀ values higher than 102 μg/mL with the exception of the two Aframomum species (33 and 74 μg/mL). This study provides scientific support for some of the the traditional uses

  12. Characterization of a developmentally regulated amino acid transporter (AAT1p) of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Christine; Ernst, Michael; Hahn, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    summary In the rust fungus Uromyces fabae, invasion of the host plant and haustorium formation are accompanied by the activation of many genes (PIGs =in planta induced genes). In addition to the previously described AAT2 (PIG2), AAT1 (PIG27) was found to encode a protein with a high similarity to fungal amino acid permeases. AAT1 transcripts are present in germinated hyphae and throughout the mycelium later in the infection process, but occur at the highest levels in haustoria. Expression of AAT1p in a histidine uptake-defective yeast mutant revealed energy-dependent transport of (14)C-histidine, with a K(M) value of 25.8 microm. In addition, complementation analysis revealed AAT1-dependent transport for lysine. Using Xenopus oocytes as expression system, AAT1p-dependent symport of protons with a broad spectrum of amino acids was observed, with the highest activities obtained with histidine and lysine. These results confirm that in rust fungi, the expression of amino acid transporters is developmentally regulated and occurs preferentially in the parasitic phase of development.

  13. Lesões de pele em bovinos com doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp. Skin lesions in cattle with systemic granulomatous disease associated to pasturing vetch (Vicia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida Fighera

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se as lesões cutâneas macroscópicas em 10 e histológicas em 8 vacas afetadas por doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp.. Em todos os casos, as lesões cutâneas eram caracterizadas por múltiplas áreas coalescentes de alopecia, liquenificação e descamação. Os locais mais atingidos pela lesão de pele foram: cabeça e pescoço (10/10, tronco (4/10, períneo (3/10 e mama (2/10. Em todos os 8 casos avaliados histologicamente, as lesões se caracterizavam por dermatite perivascular superficial granulomatosa de intensidade variável. Outros achados histológicos incluíram dermatite perivascular profunda (1/8, perifoliculite (2/8, foliculite mural (3/8, hiperqueratose ortoqueratótica compacta (6/8, erosões (1/8, úlceras (2/8, microabscessos de Munro (8/8, crostas serocelulares (1/8, espongiose (4/8, degeneração hidrópica (5/8, acantólise (1/8, corpúsculos de Civatte (2/8, exocitose linfoplasmocitária (6/8, edema superficial (6/8, incontinência pigmentar (2/8, basofilia (6/8 e mineralização distrófica do colágeno (2/8, tumefação do núcleo das células endoteliais (8/8 e ectasia de glândulas sudoríparas (8/8.Gross and histopathological lesions in the skin of respectively 10 and 8 cows affected with systemic granulomatous disease associated with pasturing vetch (Vicia spp. are described. In all cases, the cutaneous lesions were characterized by multiple coalescent areas of alopecia, lichenification and desquamation. More frequently affected sites were the skin covering the head and neck (10/10, trunk (4/10, escutcheon (3/10 and mammary gland (2/10. In all 8 histologically examined cases the lesions were characterized by superficial perivascular granulomatous dermatitis of varying intensity. Other histological findings included deep perivascular dermatitis (1/8, perifoliculitis (2/8, mural foliculitis (3/8, compact orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (6/8, erosions (1/8, ulcers (2

  14. [Effect of post-treatment with dry extract from vicia truncatula on NADPH-GSH dependent system of rat liver during chronic alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkina, E G

    2010-04-01

    Experiments on white female rats showed that chronic ethanol consumption leads to activation of the NADPH - GSH dependent system of the liver, which provides protection against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Post-treatment administration of dry extract from Vicia truncatula Fish ex Bieb. (300 mg/kg body weight) on the background of 40% ethanol increased this adaptive reaction without depletion in the system, in contrast to what was observed in rats treated with carsil. These results suggest a significant hepatoprotective effect of the dry extract during the chronic alcohol-induced injury of the liver.

  15. Verteerbaarheid en voederwaarde van eiwitrijke grondstoffen bij biologische biggen = Digestibility and nutritive value of protein-rich raw materials in organically housed piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    At the Experimental Farm Raalte, the nutrient composition, digestibiltiy and energy value of canola protein concentrate, pea protein concentrate, wheat gluten meal and vicia faba protein concentrate were investigated in organically housed piglets. The results are described in this report.

  16. A comparison of different legume seeds as protein supplement to optimise the use of low quality forages by ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yánez-Ruiz, David R; Martin-Garcia, Antonio I; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    The potential of different legume seeds species, including recently new developed varieties (Vicia faba: a commercial variety and varieties Alameda, Palacio and Baraka; Lupinus angustifolius; Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum: varieties Fardon and Zegr ) as protein supplements to low quality...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uromyces viciae-fabae) with Environmental Factors and Cultural Practices in the Hararghe Highlands, Eastern Ethiopia Abstract. ISSN: 1992-0407. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  18. Effects of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibition on basal- and serotonin-induced ion transport in rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil Elisabeth; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2002-01-01

    . 5-HT and PGE2 both induced a concentration-dependent increase in SCC by activation of multiple receptors. The response to 5-HT was bumetanide-sensitive. Neither the non-selective COX inhibitor piroxicam, nor the selective COX-2 inhibitor SC-'236, altered basal- SCC or 5-HT-induced SCC. Indomethacin......-induced PGE2 release. Histological examination of the specimens demonstrated only minor changes following mounting in chambers. There were no apparent differences in the morphology following treatment with COX or LOX inhibitors. These results suggest that in rat colon only the COX-1 enzyme is expressed under......The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor as compared to non-selective COX and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors in rat colon. Basal- and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-induced electrogenic ion transport (short circuit current, SCC...

  19. Characterization and functional analysis of seven flagellin genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Characterization of R. leguminosarum flagellins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambalo Dinah D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae establishes symbiotic nitrogen fixing partnerships with plant species belonging to the Tribe Vicieae, which includes the genera Vicia, Lathyrus, Pisum and Lens. Motility and chemotaxis are important in the ecology of R. leguminosarum to provide a competitive advantage during the early steps of nodulation, but the mechanisms of motility and flagellar assembly remain poorly studied. This paper addresses the role of the seven flagellin genes in producing a functional flagellum. Results R. leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM have seven flagellin genes (flaA, flaB, flaC, flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG, which are transcribed separately. The predicted flagellins of 3841 are highly similar or identical to the corresponding flagellins in VF39SM. flaA, flaB, flaC, and flaD are in tandem array and are located in the main flagellar gene cluster. flaH and flaG are located outside of the flagellar/motility region while flaE is plasmid-borne. Five flagellin subunits (FlaA, FlaB, FlaC, FlaE, and FlaG are highly similar to each other, whereas FlaD and FlaH are more distantly related. All flagellins exhibit conserved amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminal ends and are variable in the central regions. Strain 3841 has 1-3 plain subpolar flagella while strain VF39SM exhibits 4-7 plain peritrichous flagella. Three flagellins (FlaA/B/C and five flagellins (FlaA/B/C/E/G were detected by mass spectrometry in the flagellar filaments of strains 3841 and VF39SM, respectively. Mutation of flaA resulted in non-motile VF39SM and extremely reduced motility in 3841. Individual mutations of flaB and flaC resulted in shorter flagellar filaments and consequently reduced swimming and swarming motility for both strains. Mutant VF39SM strains carrying individual mutations in flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG were not significantly affected in motility and filament morphology. The flagellar filament and the motility of 3841 strains

  20. Roles of coactosin-like protein (CLP) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) in cellular leukotriene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, Devaraj; Wan, Min; Lukic, Ana; Steinhilber, Dieter; Samuelsson, Bengt; Rådmark, Olof

    2014-08-05

    5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) is a key enzyme in leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis. Two accessory proteins, coactosin-like protein (CLP) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP), can support 5LO activity. To study the roles of CLP and FLAP, we knocked down these proteins in the human monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 (MM6). Expression of CLP increased MM6 cellular 5LO activity for all stimuli tested. CLP is not absolutely crucial, however; some 5LO activity remained in all incubations of CLP knockdown cells. FLAP knockdown had minor effects in the presence of exogenous arachidonic acid, but led to prominent reductions in 5LO product formation from endogenous substrate. Similar effects were observed after CLP and FLAP knockdown in human primary macrophages as well. In addition, FLAP knockdown reduced conversion of leukotriene A4 to leukotriene C4 (LTC4), suggesting a role for the activity of LTC4 synthase. After stimulation of MM6 cells by phorbol myristate acetate and ionophore A23187, a perinuclear ring pattern was observed for 5LO. This redistribution from cytosolic to perinuclear was clearly compromised in both CLP- and FLAP-deficient cells. In addition, association of CLP with the nucleus was almost absent after 5LO knockdown, and was clearly reduced in FLAP knockdown cells. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that 5LO-CLP complex formation in MM6 cells was increased by stimulation with ionophore, and that this complex was formed to the same extent in FLAP knockdown cells. A possible interpretation of our findings is that on cell stimulation, formation of the 5LO-CLP complex augments the translocation from cytosol to nucleus, whereas FLAP stabilizes association of this complex with the perinuclear membrane.

  1. 5-lipoxygenase pathway is essential for the control of granuloma extension induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs in lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoli da Silva, Gabriel; Espíndola, Milena Sobral; Fontanari, Caroline; Rosada, Rogerio Silva; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Frantz, Fabiani Gai

    2016-08-01

    According to WHO, it is estimated that approximately 2 billion people are infected with intestinal helminths worldwide and the number of people who are cured of these diseases is relatively low, resulting in a large percentage of chronically infected individuals. Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases present in developing countries configuring it as a serious public health problem, directly related to poverty and social disadvantage. Once the parasite infection is established, Schistosoma mansoni eggs fall into the bloodstream and are trapped in the liver microcirculation where a strong granulomatous response and fibrosis formation occurs. In the experimental model, granulomas develop in the mouse lung after intravenous injection of purified eggs. Here we aim to understand how leukotrienes are involved in the granuloma formation. Leukotrienes are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid metabolites via 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) enzyme. They are potent proinflammatory agents and induce recruitment, cell activation, regulation of microbicidal activity of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells. In this study, 5LO deficient mice (5LO(-/-)) were inoculated with S. mansoni eggs for evaluation of immunopathological parameters involved in the induction of type 2 granulomas. We showed that in the absence of leukotrienes, the size of granulomas were decreased comparing to the wild type mice and the inflammatory compromised areas had a lower extension. In 5LO(-/-) mice granulomas presented extensive areas of fibrosis, detected by α-SMA expression along the lesions, indicating remodeling in attempt to reestablish the normal tissue. Also, comparing to WT mice we detected decrease of IL-4 and IL-13 and increase of TGF-β in the lung of 5LO(-/-), but these mice failed to produce protective IFN-γ and IL-12. These results evidenced 5-Lipoxygenase as an important pathway during lung injury due to Schistosoma-eggs injection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  2. Evidence that arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 2 is a negative cell cycle regulator in normal prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaohua; Bhatia, Bobby; Maldonado, Carlos J; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A; Liu, Junwei; Chandra, Dhyan; Traag, Jeanine; Klein, Russell D; Fischer, Susan M; Chopra, Dharam; Shen, Jianjun; Zhau, Haiyen E; Chung, Leland W K; Tang, Dean G

    2002-05-03

    15-Lipoxygenase 2 (15-LOX2) is a recently cloned human lipoxygenase that shows tissue-restricted expression in prostate, lung, skin, and cornea. The protein level and enzymatic activity of 15-LOX2 have been shown to be down-regulated in prostate cancers compared with normal and benign prostate tissues. The biological function of 15-LOX2 and the role of loss of 15-LOX2 expression in prostate tumorigenesis, however, remain unknown. We report the cloning and functional characterization of 15-LOX2 and its three splice variants (termed 15-LOX2sv-a, 15-LOX2sv-b, and 15-LOX2sv-c) from primary prostate epithelial cells. Western blotting with multiple primary prostate cell strains and prostate cancer cell lines reveals that the expression of 15-LOX2 is lost in all prostate cancer cell lines, accompanied by decreased enzymatic activity revealed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Further experiments show that the loss of 15-LOX2 expression results from transcriptional repression caused by mechanism(s) other than promoter hypermethylation or histone deacetylation. Subsequent functional studies indicate the following: 1) the 15-LOX2 product, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, inhibits prostate cancer cell cycle progression; 2) 15-LOX2 expression in primary prostate epithelial cells is inversely correlated with cell cycle; and 3) restoration of 15-LOX2 expression in prostate cancer cells partially inhibits cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results suggest that 15-LOX2 could be a suppressor of prostate cancer development, which functions by restricting cell cycle progression.

  3. Quorum-sensing-regulated transcriptional initiation of plasmid transfer and replication genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulla, Craig; Edwards, Anne; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Sawers, R Gary; Downie, J Allan

    2007-07-01

    Transfer of the Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae symbiosis plasmid pRL1JI is regulated by a cascade of gene induction involving three LuxR-type quorum-sensing regulators, TraR, BisR and CinR. TraR induces the plasmid transfer traI-trb operon in a population-density-dependent manner in response to N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) made by TraI. Expression of the traR gene is primarily induced by BisR in response to AHLs made by CinI, and expression of cinI is induced by CinR and repressed by BisR. Analysis of transcription initiation of cinI, traR and traI identified potential regulatory domains recognized by the CinR, BisR and TraR regulators. Deletion and mutation of the cinI promoter identified potential recognition motifs for activation by CinR and repression by BisR. Analysis of the DNA sequence upstream of traI and expression of transcriptional gene fusions revealed a predicted TraR-binding (tra-box) domain. Two transcript initiation sites were identified upstream of the plasmid replication gene repA, which is divergently transcribed from traI; one of these repA transcripts requires the quorum-sensing cascade mediated via BisR and TraR, showing that the pRL1JI plasmid replication genes are co-regulated with the plasmid transfer genes.

  4. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vicia sativa (the common vetch possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  5. The effects of nitrogen form on root morphological and physiological adaptations of maize, white lupin and faba bean under phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Tang, Caixian; Li, Chunjian

    2016-01-01

    Root morphological/physiological modifications are important for phosphorus (P) acquisition of plants under P deficiency, but strategies differ among plant species. Detailed studies on the response of maize roots to P deficiency are limited. Nitrogen (N) form influences root morphology/physiology, and thus may influence root responses to P deficiency. This work investigated adaptive mechanisms of maize roots to low P by comparison with white lupin and faba bean supplied with two N forms. Plants were grown for 7-16 days in hydroponics with sufficient (250 µmol L(-1)) and deficient P supply (1 µmol L(-1)) under supply of NH4NO3 or Ca(NO3)2 Plant growth and P uptake were measured, and release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity in the root were monitored. The results showed that P deficiency significantly decreased shoot growth while increased root growth and total root length of maize and faba bean, but not white lupin. It enhanced the release of protons and organic acid anions, and acid phosphatase activity, from the roots of both legumes but not maize. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, NH4NO3 dramatically increased proton release by roots but did not alter root morphology or physiology of the three species in response to low P. It is concluded that the N form did not fundamentally change root morphological/physiological responses of the three species to P deficiency. Morphological variation in maize and morpho-physiological modifications in white lupin and faba bean were the main adaptive strategies to P deficiency. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  6. The Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase from the Biotrophic Rust Fungus Uromyces fabae : molecular Characterization of the Gene (PMA1) and Functional Expression of the Enzyme in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Struck, Christine; Siebels, Claudia; Rommel, Oliver; Wernitz, Marcus; Hahn, Matthias

    1998-01-01

    To study the molecular basis of biotrophic nutrient uptake by plant parasitic rust fungi, the gene (Uf-PMA1) encoding the plasma membrane H+-ATPase from Uromyces fabae was isolated. Uf-PMA1 exists probably as a single gene. However, two nearly identical sequences were identified; the similarity apparently is due to two Uf-PMA1 alleles in the dikaryotic hyphae. Multiple Uf-PMA1 transcripts were observed during early rust development, and reduced amounts of a single Uf-PMA1 mRNA were observed i...

  7. The development rhythm of the flower-bud in some Papilionaceae species. III. Macrosporogenesis, microsporogenesis and early gametogenesis in several species of the Vicieae tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Each of the examined species of the tribe Vicieae (Vicia faba, V. sativa, V, villosa, Lathyrus silvester, L. pratensis and Pisum sativum has its peculiar characteristic development rhythm of the bud. A similarity has been demonstrated between the development rhythms of flower buds of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum. It was found that mature flowers of autogamous species had long calyces, whereas those of the allogamous species were short as compared with the petals of the corolla.

  8. Bacillus simplex—A Little Known PGPB with Anti-Fungal Activity—Alters Pea Legume Root Architecture and Nodule Morphology When Coinoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Hirsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two strains, 30N-5 and 30VD-1, identified as Bacillus simplex and B. subtilis, were isolated from the rhizospheres of two different plants, a Podocarpus and a palm, respectively, growing in the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden. B. subtilis is a well-known plant-growth promoting bacterial species, but B. simplex is not. B. simplex 30N-5 was initially isolated on a nitrogen-free medium, but no evidence for nitrogen fixation was found. Nevertheless, pea plants inoculated with B. simplex showed a change in root architecture due to the emergence of more lateral roots. When Pisum sativum carrying a DR5::GUSA construct, an indicator for auxin response, was inoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or its symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, GUS expression in the roots was increased over the uninoculated controls. Moreover, when pea roots were coinoculated with either B. simplex 30N-5 or B. subtilis 30VD-1 and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53, the nodules were larger, clustered, and developed more highly branched vascular bundles. Besides producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphate, the two Bacillus spp., especially strain 30VD-1, exhibited anti-fungal activity towards Fusarium. Our data show that combining nodulating, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with growth-promoting bacteria enhances plant development and strongly supports a coinoculation strategy to improve nitrogen fixation, increase biomass, and establish greater resistance to fungal disease.

  9. Analysis of rhizobial endosymbionts of Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium species used to maintain mountain firewalls in Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadas, Pablo J; Lasa, Ana V; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Flores-Félix, José David; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Velázquez, Encarna; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Forest fires lead to the annual disappearance of many natural formations that require the creation of firewall areas. They can be maintained by enriching their pastures with attractive plants for grazing livestock, mainly legumes, which have a high protein content and low dependence on N fertilizers due to their ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. In this study, the rhizobia isolated from the nodules of six legumes from the genera Vicia, Lathyrus and Trifolium were analysed in a firewall zone established in Lanjarón (Granada) close to the Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain). The results showed a high genetic diversity of the isolated strains that had 3, 16, 14 and 13 different types of rrs, recA, atpD and glnII genes, respectively. All strains were phylogenetically close to the species from the Rhizobium leguminosarum group, although they were not identified as any of them. The isolated strains belonged to the symbiovars viciae and trifolii but high phylogenetic diversity was found within both symbiovars, since there were 16 and 14 nodC gene types, respectively. Some of these strains clustered with strains isolated in other countries and continents, but others formed atpD, recA, glnII and nodC clusters and lineages only found to date in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of Aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown Philadelphus coronarius plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafel, Alina, E-mail: akafel@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Nadgorska-Socha, Aleksandra [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Gospodarek, Janina [Agricultural University of Krakow, Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, Mickiewicza 21, PL 31-120, Krakow (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka; Skowronek, Magda [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Kandziora, Marta [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Rozpedek, Katarzyna [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland)

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of Philadelphuscoronarius plants. Moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of Krakow and the reference rural area of Zagaje Stradowskie (southern Poland) was analyzed. The contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein - SH groups, antioxidants, and phosphorous and the levels of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves and shoots either infested or not by the aphid Aphis fabae Scop., were measured. The potential bioavailability of metals (Cd; Cu; Ni; Pb; Zn) in the soil and their concentrations in P. coronarius plants originating from both sites were compared. The antioxidant responses were generally elevated in the plants in the polluted area. Such reactions were additionally changed by aphid infestation. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} extractants of the soils from two layers at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from the polluted area were higher than in those from the reference area. Such differences were found for nickel and lead (in all examined extractants), zinc (in soil extractants from the layer at 20-40 cm) and cadmium (in HNO{sub 3} extractants). Significant positive relationships between the lead concentrations in the soil and in the plants were found. In the parts of plants from the polluted area, higher concentrations of Pb and Zn (leaves and shoots) and Cd (shoots) were recorded. The shoots and leaves of plants infested with aphids had higher concentrations of Zn but lower Pb. Moreover, their leaves had higher contaminations of Cu and Ni. In conclusion, aphids affected not only the antioxidant response of the plants but also their contamination with metals, especially contamination of the leaves.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipoxygenases, trypsin inhibitor, raffinose family oligosaccharides and nutritional factors of different seed coat colored soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Dixit, Amit [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita [National Research Centre for Soybean, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Manjaya, J.G. [Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bhatnagar, Deepak, E-mail: bhatnagarbio@yahoo.co [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Three soybean genotypes Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow seed coat color, respectively, were gamma irradiated at 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and tested for antinutritional and nutritional factors. Gamma irradiation at all doses reduced the level of lipoxygenase isomers, trypsin inhibitor (TI) and ascorbic acid in all the 3 soybean genotypes as compared to the unirradiated control. However, irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy increased the sucrose content of the soybean genotypes. No significant change was observed in oil, protein fatty acids and total tocopherol content of the 3 genotypes at any irradiation dose. It is suggested that inhibition of lipoxygenase, reduction in TI and ascorbic acid may be due to the breakage or oxidation of protein structure by the gamma irradiation. Similarly, gamma irradiation at higher doses may break glycosidic linkages in oligosaccharides to produce more sucrose and decrease the content of flatulence causing oligosaccharides.

  12. In vitro antioxidant, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of fractions from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav., Sida alba L. and Sida acuta Burn f. (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaté, K; Souza, A; Coulibaly, A Y; Meda, N T R; Kiendrebeogo, M; Lamien-Meda, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J; Lamidi, M; Nacoulma, O G

    2010-11-15

    In this study polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, lipoxygenase (LOX) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory effects of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of aqueous acetone extracts from S. alba L., S. acuta Burn f and Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. were investigated. The total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and total tannins were determined by spectrophotometric methods using Folin-ciocalteu, AlCl3 reagents and tannic acid, respectively. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using three methods: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydramzyl (DPPH), ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and Iron (III) to iron (II) reduction activity (FRAP). For enzymatic activity, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities were used. This study shows a relationship between polyphenol contents, antioxidant and enzymatic activities. Present results showed that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions elicit the highest polyphenol content, antioxidant and enzymatic activities.

  13. Mutualisme pucerons – fourmis : étude des bénéfices retirés par les colonies d'Aphis fabae en milieu extérieur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheggen F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphid – ant mutualism: an outdoor study of the benefits for Aphis fabae. Aphid – ant relationships are common examples of mutualism. Aphids are indeed submitted to predation and therefore require protection, while ants are continuously looking for new sugar sources. The present work aimed to study the benefits that a mutualistic relationship with Lasius niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae could bring to the black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Homoptera, Aphididae. Several parameters were observed in the field, on broad bean plants infested with an initial amount of 100 A. fabae and in presence or not of a L. niger colony. More aphids were observed on plants being visited by ants as well as a higher proportion of winged individuals. One explanation is that fewer predators were observed on plants being visited by ants, demonstrating their protective role. However, the number of parasitized aphids was not reduced in presence of L. niger. On the other hand, fewer different aphid species were present on plants foraged by ants, what suggests that they could exert a predation on unattended aphids. Our observations do not allow to conclude on any impact of L. niger on the fitness of the aphid host plant, although fewer exuvia and honeydew spots were observed when they were present. All these results confirm that L. niger increase the fitness of A. fabae colonies mainly by decreasing the number of predators and by reducing competition from aphid species unattended by ants.

  14. Microbial transformation of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid by Cunninghamella elegans and Fusarium lini, and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of transformed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal Choudhary, Muhammad; Ali Siddiqui, Zafar; Ahmed Nawaz, Sarfraz

    2009-01-01

    The microbial transformation of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (1) by Cunninghamella elegans afforded a metabolite, 3beta,7beta-dihydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-en-30-oic acid (2), while fermentation of 1 with Fusarium lini afforded a metabolite, 3,11-dioxo-olean-12-en-30-oic acid (3). Compound 3 exhibited a potent lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic techniques.

  15. Enrichment of pasta with faba bean does not impact glycemic or insulin response but can enhance satiety feeling and digestive comfort when dried at very high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Molinari, Nicolas; Cassan, Denis; Sutra, Thibault; Avignon, Antoine; Micard, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Enrichment of durum wheat pasta with legume flour enhances their protein and essential amino acid content, especially lysine content. However, despite its nutritional potential, the addition of a legume alters the rheological properties of pasta. High temperature drying of pasta reduces this negative effect by strengthening its protein network. The aim of our study was to determine if these changes in the pasta structure alter its in vitro carbohydrate digestibility, in vivo glycemic, insulin and satiety responses. We also investigated if high temperature drying of pasta can reduce the well-known digestive discomfort associated with the consumption of legume grains. Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed three test meals: durum wheat pasta dried at a low temperature (control), and pasta enriched with 35% faba bean dried at a low and at a very high temperature. When enriched with 35% legume flour, pasta maintained its nutritionally valuable low glycemic and insulin index, despite its weaker protein network. Drying 35% faba bean pasta at a high temperature strengthened its protein network, and decreased its in vitro carbohydrate digestion with no further decrease in its in vivo glycemic or insulin index. Drying pasta at a very high temperature reduced digestive discomfort and enhanced self-reported satiety, and was not associated with a modification of energy intake in the following meal.

  16. Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabella, Vincent M; Clark, Virginia L

    2011-10-01

    Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Gonococcal fatty acid profiles confirmed that NGO1024 was involved in UFA synthesis anaerobically, but not aerobically, demonstrating that gonococci contain two distinct pathways for the production of UFAs, with a yet unidentified aerobic mechanism, and an anaerobic mechanism involving NGO1024. Expression of genes involved in classical anaerobic UFA synthesis, fabA, fabM and fabB, was toxic in gonococci and unable to complement a NGO1024 mutation, suggesting that the chemistry involved in gonococcal anaerobic UFA synthesis is distinct from that of the classical pathway. NGO1024 homologues, which we suggest naming UfaA, form a distinct lineage within the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily, and are found in many facultative and obligate anaerobes that produce UFAs but lack fabA, suggesting that UfaA is part of a widespread pathway involved in UFA synthesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. In-vitro evaluation of bioactive compounds, anti-oxidant, lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase inhibitory potential of Citrus karna L. peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Sood, Shailja; Muthuraman, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been studied for their antioxidant and their pharmacological activity. Citrus species were well documented as potential antioxidant based therapy for cancer, inflammation, heart disease. Citrus seeds and peels have been shown to possess high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study to explore the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action of Citrus karna peel extracts were undertaken. Extraction was performed with different solvents of increasing polarity and yield was calculated. Peel extracts were also analyzed for the presence of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, and carotenoids. Then the Citrus karna peel extracts were evaluated for the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action In-Vitro. In further, the quantification of hesperidin and naringin was carried out by HPLC-DAD method. The results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, carotenoids, hesperidin and naringin in Citrus karna peel extracts with maximum yield of (3.91% w/w). Citrus karna peel extracts were also found to have potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action. Therefore, Citrus karna peel extracts could be used for the future therapeutic medicine due to presence of potential bioactive compounds.

  18. Microvirga ossetica sp. nov., a species of rhizobia isolated from root nodules of the legume species Vicia alpestris Steven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, Vera I; Kuznetsova, Irina G; Sazanova, Anna L; Belimov, Andrey A; Andronov, Evgeny E; Chirak, Elizaveta R; Osledkin, Yuri S; Onishchuk, Olga P; Kurchak, Oksana N; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Willems, Anne; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2017-01-01

    Gram-stain-negative strains V5/3MT, V5/5K, V5/5M and V5/13 were isolated from root nodules of Vicia alpestris plants growing in the North Ossetia region (Caucasus). Sequencing of the partial 16S rRNA gene (rrs) and four housekeeping genes (dnaK, gyrB, recA and rpoB) showed that the isolates from V. alpestris were most closely related to the species Microvirga zambiensis (order Rhizobiales, family Methylobacteriaceae) which was described for the single isolate from root nodule of Listia angolensis growing in Zambia. Sequence similarities between the Microvirga-related isolates and M. zambiensis WSM3693T ranged from 98.5 to 98.7 % for rrs and from 79.7 to 95.8 % for housekeeping genes. Cellular fatty acids of the isolates V5/3MT, V5/5K, V5/5M and V5/13 included important amounts of C18 : 1ω7c (54.0-67.2 %), C16 : 0 (6.0-7.8 %), C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c (3.1-10.2 %), summed feature 2 (comprising one or more of iso-C16 : 1 I, C14 : 0 3-OH and unknown ECL 10.938, 5.8-22.5 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 02-OH, 2.9-4.0 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between the isolate V5/3MT and M. zambiensis WSM3693T revealed DNA-DNA relatedness of 35.3 %. Analysis of morphological and physiological features of the novel isolates demonstrated their unique phenotypic profile in comparison with reference strains from closely related species of the genus Microvirga. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic analysis, a novel species named Microvirga ossetica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is V5/3MT (=LMG 29787T=RCAM 02728T). Three additional strains of the species are V5/5K, V5/5M and V5/13.

  19. 8Wambi heritability.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    as a percentage of the mean (GAM) and heritability were estimated using variance components. Phenotypic. Coefficient of Variation ... exhibited moderate GCV values. Broad and narrow sense heritability estimates for GRD disease score ..... in some faba bean genotypes (Vicia faba L.) grown in Northwestern Ethiopia.

  20. Santé et diversité alimentaire au Yémen | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Review report : health and dietary diversity in Yemen; traditional Yemeni rural diets and local food systems: enhancing contributions to health and environment. Studies. Estimation genetic variation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces in Yemen : a thesis. Reports. Health and dietary diversity in Yemen : traditional Yemeni ...

  1. Effect of Environment on Protein, Mineral and Fat Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important high land pulse crops of Ethiopia. It is an excellent source of protein supplement for the majority of the population, used in various popular Ethiopian dishes. It also contains fat and appreciable amount of minerals. Data on the effect of environment on the ...

  2. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 25, No 2 (1995)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of faba beans (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins (Lupizus albus cv. Kiev) as protein sources for growing pigs · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T.S Brand, R.C. Olckers, J.P. van der Merwe, 31-35 ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 106 of 106 ... Vol 27, No 2 (2017), Vermicompost application as affected by Rhizobium inoculation on nodulation and yield of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.) Abstract PDF. Anteneh Argaw, Abere Mnalku. Vol 27, No 2 (2017), Vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate change in the central rift valley of Ethiopia: a ...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunflower genotypes (Helianthus annuus L.) to different concentrations of sodium chloride, Helia,. Vol. 22 (30) ... Ion uptake, osmoregulation and plant-water relations in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) under salt stress, Die ... assimilates by wheat as affected by nitrogen source and salinity, Agronomy Journal, Vol. 85, 1044-1049.

  5. The use of reproductive vigor descriptors in studying genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collection of nine Tunisian faba bean (Vicia faba) populations belonging to three botanical classes (Var. minor, var. equina and var. major) was evaluated using twenty seven agro-morphological traits. Analysis of variance, correlation coefficients and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed based on MVSP ...

  6. Nutritional, eco-physiological and symbiotic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of root nodule bacteria is used for selecting and using them as inoculants to improve legume production. To this end, faba bean (Vicia faba L.) rhizobia were isolated from nodules collected from acidic soils of Central and Southern-Western parts of Ethiopia. A total of hundred rhizobial isolates were ...

  7. The onset of grapevine berry ripening is characterized by ROS accumulation and lipoxygenase-mediated membrane peroxidation in the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The ripening of fleshy fruits is a complex developmental program characterized by extensive transcriptomic and metabolic remodeling in the pericarp tissues (pulp and skin) making unripe green fruits soft, tasteful and colored. The onset of ripening is regulated by a plethora of endogenous signals tuned to external stimuli. In grapevine and tomato, which are classified as non-climacteric and climacteric species respectively, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extensive modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes at the onset of ripening has been reported, suggesting that ROS could participate to the regulatory network of fruit development. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a comprehensive biochemical study of the oxidative events occurring at the beginning of ripening in Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir has been undertaken. Results ROS-specific staining allowed to visualize not only H2O2 but also singlet oxygen (1O2) in berry skin cells just before color change in distinct subcellular locations, i.e. cytosol and plastids. H2O2 peak in sample skins at véraison was confirmed by in vitro quantification and was supported by the concomitant increase of catalase activity. Membrane peroxidation was also observed by HPLC-MS on galactolipid species at véraison. Mono- and digalactosyl diacylglycerols were found peroxidized on one or both α-linolenic fatty acid chains, with a 13(S) absolute configuration implying the action of a specific enzyme. A lipoxygenase (PnLOXA), expressed at véraison and localizing inside the chloroplasts, was indeed able to catalyze membrane galactolipid peroxidation when overexpressed in tobacco leaves. Conclusions The present work demonstrates the controlled, harmless accumulation of specific ROS in distinct cellular compartments, i.e. cytosol and chloroplasts, at a definite developmental stage, the onset of grape berry ripening. These features strongly candidate ROS as cellular signals in fruit

  8. The onset of grapevine berry ripening is characterized by ROS accumulation and lipoxygenase-mediated membrane peroxidation in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Stefania; Brazzale, Daniele; Guella, Graziano; Milli, Alberto; Ruberti, Cristina; Biasioli, Franco; Zottini, Michela; Moser, Claudio

    2014-04-02

    The ripening of fleshy fruits is a complex developmental program characterized by extensive transcriptomic and metabolic remodeling in the pericarp tissues (pulp and skin) making unripe green fruits soft, tasteful and colored. The onset of ripening is regulated by a plethora of endogenous signals tuned to external stimuli. In grapevine and tomato, which are classified as non-climacteric and climacteric species respectively, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extensive modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes at the onset of ripening has been reported, suggesting that ROS could participate to the regulatory network of fruit development. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a comprehensive biochemical study of the oxidative events occurring at the beginning of ripening in Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir has been undertaken. ROS-specific staining allowed to visualize not only H2O2 but also singlet oxygen (1O2) in berry skin cells just before color change in distinct subcellular locations, i.e. cytosol and plastids. H2O2 peak in sample skins at véraison was confirmed by in vitro quantification and was supported by the concomitant increase of catalase activity. Membrane peroxidation was also observed by HPLC-MS on galactolipid species at véraison. Mono- and digalactosyl diacylglycerols were found peroxidized on one or both α-linolenic fatty acid chains, with a 13(S) absolute configuration implying the action of a specific enzyme. A lipoxygenase (PnLOXA), expressed at véraison and localizing inside the chloroplasts, was indeed able to catalyze membrane galactolipid peroxidation when overexpressed in tobacco leaves. The present work demonstrates the controlled, harmless accumulation of specific ROS in distinct cellular compartments, i.e. cytosol and chloroplasts, at a definite developmental stage, the onset of grape berry ripening. These features strongly candidate ROS as cellular signals in fruit ripening and encourage further

  9. evaluation of pathogenic isolates in ethiopia for the control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key Words: Bacillus spp., Biocontrol, Botrytis fabae, Ethiopia. RÉSUMÉ. Le haricot faba (Vicia faba L.) est l'un des premiers domestiqués légumineuses alimentaires en Ethiopie et en est maintenant cultivé sur de grandes superficies dans de nombreux pays. La production de plant est toutefois limitée par des infections de ...

  10. Immobilization and Survival of Root Nodule Bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum Biovar viciae / Gumiņbaktērijas Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae imobilizācija un dzīvotspēja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvagiņa Signe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae ir augsnes baktērija, kas spēj veidot gumiņus uz zirņu, pupu, lēcu un vīķu saknēm un saistīt atmosfēras slāpekli simbiozē ar augiem. Gumiņbaktērijas izmanto lauksaimniecībā kā bioloģiskus mēslošanas līdzekļus augu augšanas veicināšanai. Komerciālos gumiņbaktēriju preparātus var iegādāties sausā, šķidrā vai liofilizētā formā. Parasti izmanto sausos sagatavotos mēslošanas līdzekļus uz kūdras bāzes. Šī pētījuma mērķis bija imobilizēt R. leguminosarum un noteikt tās dzīvotspēju šķidrumā un dažādos nesējmateriālos, lai izstrādātu uzlabotus gumiņbaktēriju preparātus. Imobilizēšanai izmantoja piecus sterilizētus materiālus: kūdru, māla pulveri, divu veidu ovālus šūnainās keramikas agregātus un cilindriskas keramikas granulas, kas izgatavotas no Planču depozīta Devona perioda māla. Imobilizāciju veica 2,5 stundu laikā 20 °C temperatūrā. Vēlāk kūdru, pulveri un granulas noberza un sasmalcināja ūdenī ar sterilu piestiņu, lai atdalītu pielipušās baktērijas. Baktēriju kolonijas veidojošo vienību skaitu noteica, izsējot iegūto suspensiju atšķaidījumus Petri traukos ar agarizētu barotni. Dzīvotspēju noteica arī ar LIVE/DEAD epifluorescences metodi. Iegūtie rezultāti parādīja, ka nesējmateriāls ietekmē imobilizācijas sekmes un ka uzglabāšanas temperatūra ietekmē R. leguminosarum dzīvotspēju. Vislabākos rezultātus ieguva, uzglabājot baktērijas suspensijā vai imobilizējot uz kūdras. Rekomendējam uzglabāt R. leguminosarum produktus −18 °C vai 4 °C temperatūrā.

  11. Zileuton, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, acts as a chemopreventive agent in intestinal polyposis, by modulating polyp and systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gounaris

    Full Text Available Leukotrienes and prostaglandins, products of arachidonic acid metabolism, sustain both systemic and lesion-localized inflammation. Tumor-associated Inflammation can also contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have increased risk of developing colon cancer. The levels of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO, the key enzyme for leukotrienes production, are increased in colon cancer specimens and colonic dysplastic lesions. Here we report that Zileuton, a specific 5-LO inhibitor, can prevent polyp formation by efficiently reducing the tumor-associated and systemic inflammation in APCΔ468 mice.In the current study, we inhibited 5-LO by dietary administration of Zileuton in the APCΔ468 mouse model of polyposis and analyzed the effect of in vivo 5-LO inhibition on tumor-associated and systemic inflammation.Zileuton-fed mice developed fewer polyps and displayed marked reduction in systemic and polyp-associated inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory innate and adaptive immunity cells were reduced both in the lesions and systemically. As part of tumor-associated inflammation Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, product of 5-LO activity, is increased focally in human dysplastic lesions. The 5-LO enzymatic activity was reduced in the serum of Zileuton treated polyposis mice.This study demonstrates that dietary administration of 5-LO specific inhibitor in the polyposis mouse model decreases polyp burden, and suggests that Zileuton may be a potential chemo-preventive agent in patients that are high-risk of developing colon cancer.

  12. Eggplant lipoxygenase (Solanum melongena): product characterization and effect of physicochemical properties of linoleic acid on the enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, J M; Pérez-Gilabert, M; García-Carmona, F

    2001-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) from eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Belleza negra) was partially purified, and the products and kinetics of the enzyme were studied. Linoleic acid (LA) was the best substrate for this enzyme. Product analysis by HPLC and GC/MS revealed that, at its pH optimum (pH 7.0), the enzyme converted LA almost totally into the 9-hydroperoxy isomer, whereas the 13-hydroperoxy isomer was only a minor product. At this pH, the enzyme had K(m) and V(max) values for LA of 1.4 microM and 2.2 micromol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1), respectively, when the monomeric form of LA was used as substrate. The dependence of eggplant LOX activity on the physicochemical properties of LA was also studied. Experiments revealed that LA aggregates were used more efficiently than monomeric LA as substrate. The apparent substrate cooperativity observed may be due to the different activities exhibited toward monomers and aggregates. This result can be interpreted as a substrate-aggregation dependent activity.

  13. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    Full Text Available The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4% was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  14. Hypercholesterolemia Increases the Production of Leukotriene B4 in Neutrophils by Enhancing the Nuclear Localization of 5-Lipoxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Lai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Neutrophils can synthesize leukotriene B4 (LTB4 by activating the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOsignaling pathway. LTB4 is a pro-inflammatory mediator associated with the etiology and progression of atherosclerosis. It can increase function and number of neutrophils in an autocrine manner. Since hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increase in the number and function of neutrophils, we hypothesized that this effect could be mediated through increased production of LTB4 in neutrophils. Methods/Results: Hypercholesterolemia was modeled in Wistar rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet. The induction of hypercholesterolemia caused an increase in the plasma levels of LTB4, following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. This effect was recapitulated in vitro, both in the presence and absence of stimulation with the activator of 5-LO, A23187. Neutrophils in hypercholesterolemia rats expressed similar total levels of 5-LO as control rats, but displayed increased nuclear localization of 5-LO, as well as elevated levels of phosphorylated 5-LO and ERK1/2. In vitro, MβCD/cholesterol complexes enriched cholesterol in neutrophils, resulted in similar changes in 5-LO/LTB4. In addition, these alterations could be inhibited with the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia increases LTB4 production in neutrophils by increasing the nuclear localization of 5-LO, which is the result of its phosphorylation by activated ERK1/2.

  15. Relative Inhibitions of 5-Lipoxygenase and Myeloperoxidase and Free-Radical Scavenging Activities of Daidzein, Dihydrodaidzein, and Equol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Shin Yih; Tan, Xin Yi; Tan, Yin Mei; Yan, Bao Yi; Loke, Wai Mun

    2016-06-01

    The effects of bioavailability and metabolic transformation on the biological activities of daidzein are relatively unknown. The effects of daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, and equol at physiologically relevant concentrations on the production of leukotriene B4 and F2-isoprostanes, and myeloperoxidase enzyme activity in freshly isolated human neutrophils were examined. Equol, at physiological concentrations, inhibited leukotriene B4 production (IC50-200 nmol/L) in human neutrophils significantly more than daidzein and dihydrodaidzein (IC50 values >1000 nmol/L). Daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, and equol did not affect the enzymatic hydrolysis of leukotriene A4 to leukotriene B4, suggesting that they exerted their inhibitory effects on the 5-lipoxygenase activity. Daidzein (IC50 = 600 nmol/L) protected against free radical peroxidation of arachidonic acid significantly more than did equol and dihydrodaidzein (IC50 values >1000 nmol/L). Equol also showed significantly greater inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity (IC50 = 450 nmol/L) when compared to daidzein and dihydrodaidzein. Equol accumulated within the human neutrophils at significantly higher concentrations than daidzein and dihydrodaidzein after incubation with the three compounds at physiologically relevant concentrations. Neutrophils were able to accumulate intracellular daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, and equol up to a concentration of ∼600 nmol/L. Our results provide in vitro evidence that the biological activities of daidzein are profoundly influenced by bioavailability and metabolic transformation.

  16. Synthesis and Docking Studies of 2,4,6-Trihydroxy-3-Geranylacetophenone Analogs as Potential Lipoxygenase Inhibitor

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    Chean Hui Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural product molecule 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl-acetophenone (tHGA isolated from the medicinal plant Melicope ptelefolia was shown to exhibit potent lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitory activity. It is known that LOX plays an important role in inflammatory response as it catalyzes the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid to form hydroperoxides. The search for selective LOX inhibitors may provide new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Herein, we report the synthesis of tHGA analogs using simple Friedel-Craft acylation and alkylation reactions with the aim of obtaining a better insight into the structure-activity relationships of the compounds. All the synthesized analogs showed potent soybean 15-LOX inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.31–27.61 μM where compound 3e was two-fold more active than tHGA. Molecular docking was then applied to reveal the important binding interactions of compound 3e in soybean 15-LOX binding site. The findings suggest that the presence of longer acyl bearing aliphatic chain (5Cs and aromatic groups could significantly affect the enzymatic activity.

  17. Platelet microparticles are internalized in neutrophils via the concerted activity of 12-lipoxygenase and secreted phospholipase A2-IIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchez, Anne-Claire; Boudreau, Luc H; Naika, Gajendra S; Bollinger, James; Belleannée, Clémence; Cloutier, Nathalie; Laffont, Benoit; Mendoza-Villarroel, Raifish E; Lévesque, Tania; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Matthieu; Allaeys, Isabelle; Tremblay, Jacques J; Poubelle, Patrice E; Lambeau, Gérard; Pouliot, Marc; Provost, Patrick; Soulet, Denis; Gelb, Michael H; Boilard, Eric

    2015-07-07

    Platelets are anucleated blood elements highly potent at generating extracellular vesicles (EVs) called microparticles (MPs). Whereas EVs are accepted as an important means of intercellular communication, the mechanisms underlying platelet MP internalization in recipient cells are poorly understood. Our lipidomic analyses identified 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid [12(S)-HETE] as the predominant eicosanoid generated by MPs. Mechanistically, 12(S)-HETE is produced through the concerted activity of secreted phospholipase A2 IIA (sPLA2-IIA), present in inflammatory fluids, and platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO), expressed by platelet MPs. Platelet MPs convey an elaborate set of transcription factors and nucleic acids, and contain mitochondria. We observed that MPs and their cargo are internalized by activated neutrophils in the endomembrane system via 12(S)-HETE. Platelet MPs are found inside neutrophils isolated from the joints of arthritic patients, and are found in neutrophils only in the presence of sPLA2-IIA and 12-LO in an in vivo model of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis. Using a combination of genetically modified mice, we show that the coordinated action of sPLA2-IIA and 12-LO promotes inflammatory arthritis. These findings identify 12(S)-HETE as a trigger of platelet MP internalization by neutrophils, a mechanism highly relevant to inflammatory processes. Because sPLA2-IIA is induced during inflammation, and 12-LO expression is restricted mainly to platelets, these observations demonstrate that platelet MPs promote their internalization in recipient cells through highly regulated mechanisms.

  18. Two New Monoterpene Glycosides from Qing Shan Lu Shui Tea with Inhibitory Effects on Leukocyte-Type 12-Lipoxygenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhi Fang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the inhibitory effect of 12 Chinese teas on leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase (LOX activity. Tea catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate have been known to exhibit leukocyte-type 12-LOX inhibition. Qing Shan Lu Shui, which contains lower catechin levels than the other tested teas, suppressed leukocyte-type 12-LOX activity. To characterize the bioactive components of Qing Shan Lu Shui, leukocyte-type 12-LOX inhibitory activity–guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanol extract of the tea was performed, resulting in the isolation of two new monoterpene glycosides: liguroside A (1 and B (2. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were characterized as (2E,5E-7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octadienyl-O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1″→3′-(4′″-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and (2E,5E-7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octa-dienyl- O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1″→3′-(4′″-O-cis-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively, based on spectral and chemical evidence. Ligurosides A (1 and B (2 showed inhibitory effects on leukocyte-type 12-LOX activity, with IC50 values of 1.7 and 0.7 μM, respectively.

  19. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Zhu, Fugui; Li, Zhenwei; Zhang, Jianfu; Li, Xin; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC) was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4%) was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  20. Systemic resistance and lipoxygenase-related defence response induced in tomato by Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dommes Jacques

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1 to promote induced systemic resistance (ISR in different host plants. Since ISR is long-lasting and not conducive for development of resistance of the targeted pathogen, this phenomenon can take part of disease control strategies. However, in spite of the numerous examples of ISR induced by PGPR in plants, only a few biochemical studies have associated the protective effect with specific host metabolic changes. Results In this study, we showed the protective effect of this bacterium in tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Following treatment by P. putida BTP1, analyses of acid-hydrolyzed leaf extracts showed an accumulation of antifungal material after pathogen infection. The fungitoxic compounds thus mainly accumulate as conjugates from which active aglycones may be liberated through the activity of hydrolytic enzymes. These results suggest that strain BTP1 can elicit systemic phytoalexin accumulation in tomato as one defence mechanism. On another hand, we have shown that key enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway are stimulated in plants treated with the bacteria as compared with control plants. Interestingly, this stimulation is observed only after pathogen challenge in agreement with the priming concept almost invariably associated with the ISR phenomenon. Conclusion Through the demonstration of phytoalexin accumulation and LOX pathway stimulation in tomato, this work provides new insights into the diversity of defence mechanisms that are inducible by non-pathogenic bacteria in the context of ISR.