WorldWideScience

Sample records for vic macroscale hydrology

  1. Macroscale hydrologic modeling of ecologically relevant flow metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth J. Wenger; Charles H. Luce; Alan F. Hamlet; Daniel J. Isaak; Helen M. Neville

    2010-01-01

    Stream hydrology strongly affects the structure of aquatic communities. Changes to air temperature and precipitation driven by increased greenhouse gas concentrations are shifting timing and volume of streamflows potentially affecting these communities. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model has been employed at regional scales to describe...

  2. VIC-CropSyst-v2: A regional-scale modeling platform to simulate the nexus of climate, hydrology, cropping systems, and human decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Keyvan; Stöckle, Claudio; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran; Nelson, Roger; Liu, Mingliang; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Barik, Muhammad; Adam, Jennifer C.

    2017-08-01

    Food supply is affected by a complex nexus of land, atmosphere, and human processes, including short- and long-term stressors (e.g., drought and climate change, respectively). A simulation platform that captures these complex elements can be used to inform policy and best management practices to promote sustainable agriculture. We have developed a tightly coupled framework using the macroscale variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model and the CropSyst agricultural model. A mechanistic irrigation module was also developed for inclusion in this framework. Because VIC-CropSyst combines two widely used and mechanistic models (for crop phenology, growth, management, and macroscale hydrology), it can provide realistic and hydrologically consistent simulations of water availability, crop water requirements for irrigation, and agricultural productivity for both irrigated and dryland systems. This allows VIC-CropSyst to provide managers and decision makers with reliable information on regional water stresses and their impacts on food production. Additionally, VIC-CropSyst is being used in conjunction with socioeconomic models, river system models, and atmospheric models to simulate feedback processes between regional water availability, agricultural water management decisions, and land-atmosphere interactions. The performance of VIC-CropSyst was evaluated on both regional (over the US Pacific Northwest) and point scales. Point-scale evaluation involved using two flux tower sites located in agricultural fields in the US (Nebraska and Illinois). The agreement between recorded and simulated evapotranspiration (ET), applied irrigation water, soil moisture, leaf area index (LAI), and yield indicated that, although the model is intended to work on regional scales, it also captures field-scale processes in agricultural areas.

  3. A user-friendly software package to ease the use of VIC hydrologic model for practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, S.; Ray, P.; Brown, C.

    2016-12-01

    The VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) hydrologic and river routing model simulates the water and energy fluxes that occur near the land surface and provides users with useful information regarding the quantity and timing of available water at points of interest within the basin. However, despite its popularity (proved by numerous applications in the literature), its wider adoption is hampered by the considerable effort required to prepare model inputs; e.g., input files storing spatial information related to watershed topography, soil properties, and land cover. This study presents a user-friendly software package (named VIC Setup Toolkit) developed within the MATLAB (matrix laboratory) framework and accessible through an intuitive graphical user interface. The VIC Setup Toolkit enables users to navigate the model building process confidently through prompts and automation, with an intention to promote the use of the model for both practical and academic purposes. The automated processes include watershed delineation, climate and geographical input set-up, model parameter calibration, graph generation and output evaluation. We demonstrate the package's usefulness in various case studies with the American River, Oklahoma River, Feather River and Zambezi River basins.

  4. Towards improved parameterization of a macroscale hydrologic model in a discontinuous permafrost boreal forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endalamaw, Abraham; Bolton, W. Robert; Young-Robertson, Jessica M.; Morton, Don; Hinzman, Larry; Nijssen, Bart

    2017-09-01

    Modeling hydrological processes in the Alaskan sub-arctic is challenging because of the extreme spatial heterogeneity in soil properties and vegetation communities. Nevertheless, modeling and predicting hydrological processes is critical in this region due to its vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Coarse-spatial-resolution datasets used in land surface modeling pose a new challenge in simulating the spatially distributed and basin-integrated processes since these datasets do not adequately represent the small-scale hydrological, thermal, and ecological heterogeneity. The goal of this study is to improve the prediction capacity of mesoscale to large-scale hydrological models by introducing a small-scale parameterization scheme, which better represents the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and vegetation cover in the Alaskan sub-arctic. The small-scale parameterization schemes are derived from observations and a sub-grid parameterization method in the two contrasting sub-basins of the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed (CPCRW) in Interior Alaska: one nearly permafrost-free (LowP) sub-basin and one permafrost-dominated (HighP) sub-basin. The sub-grid parameterization method used in the small-scale parameterization scheme is derived from the watershed topography. We found that observed soil thermal and hydraulic properties - including the distribution of permafrost and vegetation cover heterogeneity - are better represented in the sub-grid parameterization method than the coarse-resolution datasets. Parameters derived from the coarse-resolution datasets and from the sub-grid parameterization method are implemented into the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) mesoscale hydrological model to simulate runoff, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture in the two sub-basins of the CPCRW. Simulated hydrographs based on the small-scale parameterization capture most of the peak and low flows, with similar accuracy in both sub-basins, compared to

  5. Towards improved parameterization of a macroscale hydrologic model in a discontinuous permafrost boreal forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Endalamaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling hydrological processes in the Alaskan sub-arctic is challenging because of the extreme spatial heterogeneity in soil properties and vegetation communities. Nevertheless, modeling and predicting hydrological processes is critical in this region due to its vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Coarse-spatial-resolution datasets used in land surface modeling pose a new challenge in simulating the spatially distributed and basin-integrated processes since these datasets do not adequately represent the small-scale hydrological, thermal, and ecological heterogeneity. The goal of this study is to improve the prediction capacity of mesoscale to large-scale hydrological models by introducing a small-scale parameterization scheme, which better represents the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and vegetation cover in the Alaskan sub-arctic. The small-scale parameterization schemes are derived from observations and a sub-grid parameterization method in the two contrasting sub-basins of the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed (CPCRW in Interior Alaska: one nearly permafrost-free (LowP sub-basin and one permafrost-dominated (HighP sub-basin. The sub-grid parameterization method used in the small-scale parameterization scheme is derived from the watershed topography. We found that observed soil thermal and hydraulic properties – including the distribution of permafrost and vegetation cover heterogeneity – are better represented in the sub-grid parameterization method than the coarse-resolution datasets. Parameters derived from the coarse-resolution datasets and from the sub-grid parameterization method are implemented into the variable infiltration capacity (VIC mesoscale hydrological model to simulate runoff, evapotranspiration (ET, and soil moisture in the two sub-basins of the CPCRW. Simulated hydrographs based on the small-scale parameterization capture most of the peak and low flows, with similar accuracy in both sub

  6. Hydrological Forecasting in Mexico: Extending the University of Washington West-wide Seasonal Hydrologic Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Arriola, F.; Thomas, G.; Wood, A.; Wagner-Gomez, A.; Lobato-Sanchez, R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrologic forecasting in areas constrained by the availability of hydrometeorological records is a notable challenge in water resource management. Techniques from the University of Washington West-wide Seasonal Hydrologic Forecast system www.hydro.washington.edu/forecast/westwide) for generating daily nowcasts in areas with sparse and time-varying station coverage have been extended from the western U.S. into Mexico. The primary forecasting approaches consist of ensembles based on the NWS ensemble streamflow prediction method (ESP; essentially resampling of climatology) and on NCEP Coupled Forecast System (CFS) outputs. These in turn are used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model to produce streamflow ensembles. The initial hydrologic state utilized in the seasonal forecasting is generated by VIC using daily real-time hydrologic nowcasts, produced using forcings derived via an 'index-station percentile' approach from meteorological station data accessed in real time from Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN). One-year lead time streamflow forecasts at monthly time step are produced at a set of major river locations in Mexico. As a case study, the streamflow forecasts, along with forecasts of reservoir evaporation, are used as input to the Simulation-Optimization (SIMOP) model of the Rio Yaqui system, one of the major agricultural production centers of Mexico. This is the first step in an eventual planned water management implementation over all of Mexico.

  7. Macro-Scale Correction of Precipitation Undercatch in the Midwest/Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C. M.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation gauge undercatch is a serious problem in the context of using observed meteorological data sets for hydrologic modeling studies in regions with cold winters, such as the Midwest. Attention to this matter is urgently needed to support hydroclimatological research efforts in the region. To support hydrologic modeling studies, a new hybrid gridded meteorological dataset at 1/16 degree resolution based on data from CO-OP station records, the U. S. Historical Climatology Network, the Historical Canadian Climate Database, and Precipitation Regression on Independent Slopes Method has been assembled over the Great Lakes and Midwest regions from 1915-2013 at daily time step. Preliminary hydrologic simulations results using the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrology model with this hybrid gridded meteorological dataset showed that precipitation gauge undercatch was a very significant issue throughout the region, especially for winter snowfall and simulated streamflow, which were both grossly underpredicted. Correction of primary CO-OP station data is generally infeasible due to missing station meta data and lack of local-scale wind speed measurements. Instead, macro-scale post processing techniques were developed to adjust the regridded precipitation product from CO-OP station records from 1950-2013 forwards, accounting for undercatch as a function of regridded wind speed simulations obtained from NCAR Reanalysis. Comparisons of simulated and observed streamflow over seven river basins in the Midwest were used to evaluate the datasets constructed using different combinations of meteorological station inputs, with and without undercatch corrections. The comparisons show promise in producing corrected precipitation data sets from 1950-2013 for hydrologic modeling studies, with substantial improvements in streamflow simulation from the uncalibrated VIC model when gauge undercatch corrections are included.

  8. A large-scale, high-resolution hydrological model parameter data set for climate change impact assessment for the conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubeidillah, A. A.; Kao, S.-C.; Ashfaq, M.; Naz, B. S.; Tootle, G.

    2014-01-01

    To extend geographical coverage, refine spatial resolution, and improve modeling efficiency, a computation- and data-intensive effort was conducted to organize a comprehensive hydrologic data set with post-calibrated model parameters for hydro-climate impact assessment. Several key inputs for hydrologic simulation - including meteorologic forcings, soil, land class, vegetation, and elevation - were collected from multiple best-available data sources and organized for 2107 hydrologic subbasins (8-digit hydrologic units, HUC8s) in the conterminous US at refined 1/24° (~4 km) spatial resolution. Using high-performance computing for intensive model calibration, a high-resolution parameter data set was prepared for the macro-scale variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC simulation was driven by Daymet daily meteorological forcing and was calibrated against US Geological Survey (USGS) WaterWatch monthly runoff observations for each HUC8. The results showed that this new parameter data set may help reasonably simulate runoff at most US HUC8 subbasins. Based on this exhaustive calibration effort, it is now possible to accurately estimate the resources required for further model improvement across the entire conterminous US. We anticipate that through this hydrologic parameter data set, the repeated effort of fundamental data processing can be lessened, so that research efforts can emphasize the more challenging task of assessing climate change impacts. The pre-organized model parameter data set will be provided to interested parties to support further hydro-climate impact assessment.

  9. On the sources of global land surface hydrologic predictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shukla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global seasonal hydrologic prediction is crucial to mitigating the impacts of droughts and floods, especially in the developing world. Hydrologic predictability at seasonal lead times (i.e., 1–6 months comes from knowledge of initial hydrologic conditions (IHCs and seasonal climate forecast skill (FS. In this study we quantify the contributions of two primary components of IHCs – soil moisture and snow water content – and FS (of precipitation and temperature to seasonal hydrologic predictability globally on a relative basis throughout the year. We do so by conducting two model-based experiments using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC macroscale hydrology model, one based on ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP and another based on Reverse-ESP (Rev-ESP, both for a 47 yr re-forecast period (1961–2007. We compare cumulative runoff (CR, soil moisture (SM and snow water equivalent (SWE forecasts from each experiment with a VIC model-based reference data set (generated using observed atmospheric forcings and estimate the ratio of root mean square error (RMSE of both experiments for each forecast initialization date and lead time, to determine the relative contribution of IHCs and FS to the seasonal hydrologic predictability. We find that in general, the contributions of IHCs to seasonal hydrologic predictability is highest in the arid and snow-dominated climate (high latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere during forecast periods starting on 1 January and 1 October. In mid-latitude regions, such as the Western US, the influence of IHCs is greatest during the forecast period starting on 1 April. In the arid and warm temperate dry winter regions of the Southern Hemisphere, the IHCs dominate during forecast periods starting on 1 April and 1 July. In equatorial humid and monsoonal climate regions, the contribution of FS is generally higher than IHCs through most of the year. Based on our findings, we argue that despite the limited FS

  10. Real-time Experimental Seasonal Hydrologic Forecasting for the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. W.; Hamlet, A. F.; Babu, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2004-05-01

    We describe an implementation of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model over the western U.S. at 1/8 degree spatial resolution for experimental ensemble hydrologic prediction at lead times of six months to a year. Climate forecast ensembles are presently downscaled from the NCEP Global Spectral Model (GSM), the NASA NSIPP-1 model, and CPC official forecasts. As a benchmark, we also use the VIC model to produce parallel forecasts via the well-known Extended Streamflow Prediction (ESP) method, and the ESP forecasts are further composited to provide ENSO and PDO-conditioned ensembles. The primary forecast products are monthly streamflow distributions (for locations in the Pacific Northwest, California, and the Colorado and upper Rio Grande R. basins) and west-wide spatial maps of monthly ensemble averages, as well as volume runoff statistics similar to those provided by the NWS River Forecast Centers. Initial testing in real-time began with bi-monthly updates for the Pacific Northwest during winter 2002-3, and the domain was expanded to the U.S. west of the Rocky Mountains for winter 2003-4. To improve estimation of initial hydrologic conditions, we developed a simple method for assimilating observed snow water equivalent anomalies at the start of the forecast. We evaluate performance of the forecast system during winter 2003-4, with particular attention to precipitation and forcing data used to simulate the hydrologic initial conditions, to variations of the updating schemes that have been tested, and to methodological issues associated with synthesizing ensembles from the CPC official forecasts.

  11. Hydrologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    Hydro1ogi er den videnskab, der omhand1er jordens vand, dets forekomst, cirku1ation og forde1ing, dets kemiske og fysiske egenskaber samt indvirkning på omgivelserne, herunder dets relation ti1 alt liv på jorden. Således lyder en b1andt mange definitioner på begrebet hydrologi, og som man kan se...

  12. Coupling microscale vegetation–soil water and macroscale vegetation–precipitation feedbacks in semiarid ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.C.; Rietkerk, M.G.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2007-01-01

    At macroscale, land–atmosphere exchange of energy and water in semiarid zones such as the Sahel constitutes a strong positive feedback between vegetation density and precipitation. At microscale, however, additional positive feedbacks between hydrology and vegetation such as increase of

  13. Coupling microscale vegetation-soil water and macroscale vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in semiarid ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.C.; Rietkerk, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2007-01-01

    At macroscale, land¿atmosphere exchange of energy and water in semiarid zones such as the Sahel constitutes a strong positive feedback between vegetation density and precipitation. At microscale, however, additional positive feedbacks between hydrology and vegetation such as increase of infiltration

  14. CLIMATE AND LULC CHANGE SCENARIOS TO STUDY ITS IMPACT ON HYDROLOGICAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Aggarwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, whether as a natural cycle variability and/or due to anthropogenic reasons, is affecting and likely to further affect the water resources, which is a vital necessity for existence of life form. The predicted intensification of hydrological cycle would change all of its constituents both in time and space domain. This is a long term phenomenon and the necessity is to understand the intensity of the effects on various aspects of water resources by way of scientific studies backed by the available field data. Therefore, in the present study, the impact of climate and land use land cover change on entire India under different assumed plausible hypothetical scenarios has been studied. These scenarios were developed by increasing; temperature by 1, 2 and 30C; rainfall by 5, 10 and 15%; and then the combination of both. To carry out this analysis, variable infiltration capacity (VIC semi-distributed macroscale hydrological model has been investigated. It was found that slight change in climate may pose huge difference on hydrological cycle and its component.

  15. VIC (Vector-In-Commander) Input Preprocessor (VIP) Reference Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    ene in this block. 00 Form 1473 Istructions Reverse JUN U6 WA 60M~ OmN .... 1.04.-0."$ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The primary authors of the VIC Input...the data may be recorded. LOGISTC MENU Transfers from network menu for logistics data. Data input in logistic menu goes to the same file as the

  16. Understand the impacts of wetland restoration on peak flow and baseflow by coupling hydrologic and hydrodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Sabo, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands as the earth's kidneys provides various ecosystem services, such as absorbing pollutants, purifying freshwater, providing habitats for diverse ecosystems, sustaining species richness and biodiversity. From hydrologic perspective, wetlands can store storm-flood water in flooding seasons and release it afterwards, which will reduce flood peaks and reshape hydrograph. Therefore, as a green infrastructure and natural capital, wetlands provides a competent alternative to manage water resources in a green way, with potential to replace the widely criticized traditional gray infrastructure (i.e. dams and dikes) in certain cases. However, there are few systematic scientific tools to support our decision-making on site selection and allow us to quantitatively investigate the impacts of restored wetlands on hydrological process, not only in local scale but also in the view of entire catchment. In this study, we employed a topographic index, HAND (the Height Above the Nearest Drainage), to support our decision on potential site selection. Subsequently, a hydrological model (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity) was coupled with a macro-scale hydrodynamic model (CaMa-Flood, Catchment-Based Macro-scale Floodplain) to simulate the impact of wetland restoration on flood peaks and baseflow. The results demonstrated that topographic information is an essential factor to select wetland restoration location. Different reaches, wetlands area and the change of roughness coefficient should be taken into account while evaluating the impacts of wetland restoration. The simulated results also clearly illustrated that wetland restoration will increase the local storage and decrease the downstream peak flow which is beneficial for flood prevention. However, its impact on baseflow is ambiguous. Theoretically, restored wetlands will increase the baseflow due to the slower release of the stored flood water, but the increase of wetlands area may also increase the actual evaporation

  17. Engineering super mycovirus donor strains of chestnut blight fungus by systematic disruption of multilocus vic genes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nuss, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Allorecognition, termed “vegetative incompatibility” (vic), in filamentous fungi limits the efficacy of virulence-attenuating mycoviruses for biological control (hypovirulence). Because mycoviruses lead exclusive intracellular lifestyles, horizontal transmission relies on cytoplasmic exchange during hyphal fusion (anastomosis). Fusion between vic-incompatible strains results in localized cell death restricting mycovirus transmission. We report the systematic disruption of multilocus vic genes...

  18. Macroscale tribological properties of fluorinated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kento; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo; Choi, Junho

    2018-02-01

    Because graphene is carbon material and has excellent mechanical characteristics, its use as ultrathin lubrication protective films for machine elements is greatly expected. The durability of graphene strongly depends on the number of layers and the load scale. For use in ultrathin lubrication protective films for machine elements, it is also necessary to maintain low friction and high durability under macroscale loads in the atmosphere. In this study, we modified the surfaces of both monolayer and multilayer graphene by fluorine plasma treatment and examined the friction properties and durability of the fluorinated graphene under macroscale load. The durability of both monolayer and multilayer graphene improved by the surface fluorination owing to the reduction of adhesion forces between the friction interfaces. This occurs because the carbon film containing fluorine is transferred to the friction-mating material, and thus friction acts between the two carbon films containing fluorine. On the other hand, the friction coefficient decreased from 0.20 to 0.15 by the fluorine plasma treatment in the multilayer graphene, whereas it increased from 0.21 to 0.27 in the monolayer graphene. It is considered that, in the monolayer graphene, the change of the surface structure had a stronger influence on the friction coefficient than in the multilayer graphene, and the friction coefficient increased mainly due to the increase in defects on the graphene surface by the fluorine plasma treatment.

  19. Evaluating uncertainties in modelling the snow hydrology of the Fraser River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Siraj Ul; Déry, Stephen J.

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates predictive uncertainties in the snow hydrology of the Fraser River Basin (FRB) of British Columbia (BC), Canada, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model forced with several high-resolution gridded climate datasets. These datasets include the Canadian Precipitation Analysis and the thin-plate smoothing splines (ANUSPLIN), North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), University of Washington (UW) and Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) gridded products. Uncertainties are evaluated at different stages of the VIC implementation, starting with the driving datasets, optimization of model parameters, and model calibration during cool and warm phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The inter-comparison of the forcing datasets (precipitation and air temperature) and their VIC simulations (snow water equivalent - SWE - and runoff) reveals widespread differences over the FRB, especially in mountainous regions. The ANUSPLIN precipitation shows a considerable dry bias in the Rocky Mountains, whereas the NARR winter air temperature is 2 °C warmer than the other datasets over most of the FRB. In the VIC simulations, the elevation-dependent changes in the maximum SWE (maxSWE) are more prominent at higher elevations of the Rocky Mountains, where the PCIC-VIC simulation accumulates too much SWE and ANUSPLIN-VIC yields an underestimation. Additionally, at each elevation range, the day of maxSWE varies from 10 to 20 days between the VIC simulations. The snow melting season begins early in the NARR-VIC simulation, whereas the PCIC-VIC simulation delays the melting, indicating seasonal uncertainty in SWE simulations. When compared with the observed runoff for the Fraser River main stem at Hope, BC, the ANUSPLIN-VIC simulation shows considerable underestimation of runoff throughout the water year owing to reduced precipitation in the ANUSPLIN forcing dataset. The NARR-VIC simulation yields more winter and spring runoff and earlier decline

  20. NLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002 (NLDAS_VIC0125_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation...

  1. NLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002 (NLDAS_VIC0125_MC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data...

  2. Language-in-Education Policies, Immigration and Social Cohesion in Catalonia: The Case of Vic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Catrin Wyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the language-in-education policies implemented to integrate international immigrants into the Catalan language community in Vic, Catalonia. It focuses on the Catalan Government's "Languages and Social Cohesion Plan" (LIC) plan, Vic city council's local education plans, which were adopted as part of LIC plan, and the…

  3. La Desertificació de la Plana de Vic

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaplana i d'Abadal, Miquel; Busquets, Pere

    1996-01-01

    La Plana de Vic està situada al NE de la península Ibèrica, a 65 km al nord de Barcelona. Té un substrat de margues gris-blavoses i presenta un important grau de desertificació. En aquest treball, s'hi analitzen alguns factors antròpics que, des del neolític, han influït en aquesta situació. Considerant que el poder de la nostra espècie per regenerar es tan gran corn el de destruir, i que la tecnologia de que disposem pot anul·lar o reduir l'acció d'alguns processos geològics desertitzants...

  4. Un copiste inattendu à Vic-sur-Cère (Cantal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Benoit-Cattin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A Vic-sur-Cère, petit bourg du Cantal, l’hôtel du Pont et du Parc abrite au rez-de-chaussée une salle de restaurant dont les quatre murs sont ornés de dix-sept peintures d’un caractère peu ou prou monumental. Leur hauteur est d’environ 1,50 m, leur largeur variant de 0,6 à 3,5 m. Quatorze d’entre elles ont été exécutées par Antoine Cayrol entre 1909 et 1914, les trois dernières par son petit-fils, Roger Cayrol, en 1954.Le grand-père, Antoine, né en 1864, est élevé à Paris. Après son service m...

  5. A spatially comprehensive, hydrologic model-based data set for Mexico, the U.S., and southern Canada, 1950-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A data set of simulated hydrologic fluxes and states from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, gridded to a 1/16 degree (~6km) resolution that spans the...

  6. Reconstructing and analyzing China's fifty-nine year (1951–2009 drought history using hydrological model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Wu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1951–2009 drought history of China is reconstructed using daily soil moisture values generated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC land surface macroscale hydrology model. VIC is applied over a grid of 10 458 points with a spatial resolution of 30 km × 30 km, and is driven by observed daily maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation from 624 long-term meteorological stations. The VIC soil moisture is used to calculate the Soil Moisture Anomaly Percentage Index (SMAPI, which can be used as a measure of the severity of agricultural drought on a global basis. We have developed a SMAPI-based drought identification procedure for practical uses in the identification of both grid point and regional drought events. As a result, a total of 325 regional drought events varying in time and strength are identified from China's nine drought study regions. These drought events can thus be assessed quantitatively at different spatial and temporal scales. The result shows that the severe drought events of 1978, 2000 and 2006 are well reconstructed, which indicates that the SMAPI is capable of identifying the onset of a drought event, its progression, as well as its termination. Spatial and temporal variations of droughts in China's nine drought study regions are studied. Our result shows that on average, up to 30% of the total area of China is prone to drought. Regionally, an upward trend in drought-affected areas has been detected in three regions (Inner Mongolia, Northeast and North from 1951–2009. However, the decadal variability of droughts has been weak in the rest of the five regions (South, Southwest, East, Northwest, and Tibet. Xinjiang has even been showing steadily wetter since the 1950s. Two regional dry centres are discovered in China as the result of a combined analysis on the occurrence of drought events from both grid points and drought study regions. The first centre is located in the area partially covered by the North

  7. Retrospective Analysis of Recent Flood Events With Persistent High Surface Runoff From Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S.; Hakeem, K. Abdul; Raju, P. V.; Rao, V. V.; Yadav, A.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Floods are one of the most common and widespread disasters in India, with an estimated 40Mha of land prone to this natural disaster (National Flood Commission, India). Significant loss of property, infrastructure, livestock, public utilities resulting in large economic losses due to floods are recurrent every year in many parts of India. Flood forecasting and early warning is widely recognized and adopted as non-structural measure to lower the damages caused by the flood events. Estimating the rainfall excess that results into excessive river flow is preliminary effort in riverine flood estimation. Flood forecasting models are in general, are event based and do not fully account for successive and persistent excessive surface runoff conditions. Successive high rainfall events result in saturated soil moisture conditions, favourable for high surface runoff conditions. The present study is to explore the usefulness of hydrological model derived surface runoff, running on continuous times-step, to relate to the occurrence of flood inundation due to persistent and successive high surface runoff conditions. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), a macro-scale hydrological model, was used to simulate daily runoff at systematic grid level incorporating daily meteorological data and land cover data. VIC is a physically based, semi-distributed macroscale hydrological model that represents surface and subsurface hydrologic process on spatially distributed grid cell. It explicitly represents sub-grid heterogeneity in land cover classes, taking their phenological changes into account. In this study, the model was setup for entire India using geo-spatial data available from multiple sources (NRSC, NBSS&LUP, NOAA, and IMD) and was calibrated with river discharge data from CWC at selected river basins. Using the grid-wise surface runoff estimates from the model, an algorithm was developed through a set of thresholds of successive high runoff values in order to identify grids

  8. Parametric Studies of Flat Plate Trajectories Using VIC and Penalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Morency

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying debris is generated in several situations: when a roof is exposed to a storm, when ice accretes on rotating wind turbines, or during inflight aircraft deicing. Four dimensionless parameters play a role in the motion of flying debris. The goal of the present paper is to investigate the relative importance of four dimensionless parameters: the Reynolds number, the Froude number, the Tachikawa number, and the mass moment of inertia parameters. Flying debris trajectories are computed with a fluid-solid interaction model formulated for an incompressible 2D laminar flow. The rigid moving solid effects are modelled in the Navier-Stokes equations using penalization. A VIC scheme is used to solve the flow equations. The aerodynamic forces and moments are used to compute the acceleration and the velocity of the solid. A database of 64 trajectories is built using a two-level full factorial design for the four factors. The dispersion of the plate position at a given horizontal position decreases with the Froude number. Moreover, the Tachikawa number has a significant effect on the median plate position.

  9. Columbia River Basin Daily MACA-VIC Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily downscaled meteorological and hydrological projections for the Columbia Basin in the United States at 1/16-deg resolution utilizing 9...

  10. Engineering super mycovirus donor strains of chestnut blight fungus by systematic disruption of multilocus vic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nuss, Donald L

    2016-02-23

    Transmission of mycoviruses that attenuate virulence (hypovirulence) of pathogenic fungi is restricted by allorecognition systems operating in their fungal hosts. We report the use of systematic molecular gene disruption and classical genetics for engineering fungal hosts with superior virus transmission capabilities. Four of five diallelic virus-restricting allorecognition [vegetative incompatibility (vic)] loci were disrupted in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica using an adapted Cre-loxP recombination system that allowed excision and recycling of selectable marker genes (SMGs). SMG-free, quadruple vic mutant strains representing both allelic backgrounds of the remaining vic locus were then produced through mating. In combination, these super donor strains were able to transmit hypoviruses to strains that were heteroallelic at one or all of the virus-restricting vic loci. These results demonstrate the feasibility of modulating allorecognition to engineer pathogenic fungi for more efficient transmission of virulence-attenuating mycoviruses and enhanced biological control potential.

  11. Hydrologic modelling for climate change impacts analysis of shifts in future hydrologic regimes: implications for stream temperature and salmon habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Werner, A. T.; Schnorbus, M.; Salathé, E. P.; Nelitz, M.

    2009-05-01

    The challenges faced by climate change impact analysts must be solved through interdisciplinary collaboration between research scientists, institutions and stakeholders. In particular, hydrologic modelers, climate scientists, biologists, ecologists, engineers and water resource managers must interact to pool expertise and provide tools to address the complex issues associated with future climate change. The current study examines the results of an application of the VIC macro-scale hydrologic model to predict future changes to soil moisture, snowpack, evapo-transpiration, and streamflow in the Fraser Basin of British Columbia - and then apply these results to stream temperature and fish habitat models to predict future impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The results of this work will be presented to fisheries managers to provide them with the information needed to develop adaptation strategies that will help mitigate the adverse effects of climate change. This presentation will focus on the hydrologic modelling results of a number of downscaled scenarios to examine the projected differences for the 2050s (2041 - 2070) as compared to the historical baseline (1961- 1990). By the 2050s, although the magnitude of change varies by GCM and emissions scenarios, overall precipitation and temperature is projected to increase, particularly in the winter, which leads to increased winter time runoff for many basins. However, this is combined with declines in snow water equivalent (SWE) for many sites, which coupled with lower early season soil moisture, leads to declines in summer runoff and baseflow. SWE increases in some basins under the cgcm3 A1B and echam5 A1B scenarios at high elevations. A similar result was found in this region with the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) 4, driven with run 4 of the CGCM3 under the A2 emissions scenario. Lack of water availability during the summer time periods appears to limit evaporation, causing declines in summer ET across most

  12. Geostatistical enhancement of macro-scale runoff simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Alessio; Persiano, Simone; Castellarin, Attilio; Parajka, Juraj; Arheimer, Berit; Capell, René; Bagli, Stefano; Mazzoli, Paolo; Montanari, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the results of the research experiment Geostatistical Enhancement of European Hydrological Prediction (GEEHP). GEEHP is developed within the EU funded SWITCH-ON project, which proposes to conduct collaborative experiments in a virtual laboratory in order to share water-related information and to tackle changes in the hydrosphere for operational needs (http://www.water-switch-on.eu). The main objective of GEEHP is to develop a simple and easy-to-apply technique for locally enhancing the performance of macro-scale rainfall-runoff models on the basis of observed streamflow data available at nearby streamgauges, without re-running computationally intensive rainfall-runoff simulations. The experiment relies upon the prediction of regional period-of-record flow-duration curves (FDCs) by means of a geostatistical procedure based on Top-kriging, which has been recently shown to be particularly reliable for the regionalization of FDCs. The procedure developed employs two different types of daily streamflow data collected in a limited portion of territories centred in Tyrol (Austria and Italy): large-scale rainfall-runoff model simulation series (EHYPE, http://hypeweb.smhi.se/europehype) and observed series from 46 gauged catchments. The first phase of the experiment required the implementation and cross-validation of the geostatistically-based regional model over the study area, capable of predicting FDCs in ungauged sites. Cross-validation results showed good overall performances of the regional model, with an average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency on log-flows (LNSE) equal to 0.898 over the entire river network in Tyrol. In a second phase, we selected 11 target catchments within the study area, for which both EHYPE simulations and observed data were available over the period 1980-2010. Then, we computed residuals between Top-kriged FDCs and FDCs constructed from simulated streamflow series, and, finally, we used these residuals for enhancing simulated time

  13. A Spotlight on Bridging Microscale and Macroscale Human Brain Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304820466; Yeo, B T Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We place a spotlight on the emerging trend of jointly studying the micro- and macroscale organization of nervous systems. We discuss the pioneering studies of Ding et al. (2016) and Glasser et al. (2016) in the context of growing efforts to combine and integrate multiple features of brain

  14. Comparison of streamflow prediction skills from NOAH-MP/RAPID, VIC/RAPID and SWAT toward an ensemble flood forecasting framework over large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajib, M. A.; Tavakoly, A. A.; Du, L.; Merwade, V.; Lin, P.

    2015-12-01

    Considering the differences in how individual models represent physical processes for runoff generation and streamflow routing, use of ensemble output is desirable in an operational streamflow estimation and flood forecasting framework. To enable the use of ensemble streamflow, comparison of multiple hydrologic models at finer spatial resolution over a large domain is yet to be explored. The objective of this work is to compare streamflow prediction skills from three different land surface/hydrologic modeling frameworks: NOAH-MP/RAPID, VIC/RAPID and SWAT, over the Ohio River Basin with a drainage area of 491,000 km2. For a uniform comparison, all the three modeling frameworks share the same setup with common weather inputs, spatial resolution, and gauge stations being employed in the calibration procedure. The runoff output from NOAH-MP and VIC land surface models is routed through a vector-based river routing model named RAPID, that is set up on the high resolution NHDPlus reaches and catchments. SWAT model is used with its default tightly coupled surface-subsurface hydrology and channel routing components to obtain streamflow for each NHDPlus reach. Model simulations are performed in two modes, including: (i) hindcasting/calibration mode in which the models are calibrated against USGS daily streamflow observations at multiple locations, and (ii) validation mode in which the calibrated models are executed at 3-hourly time interval for historical flood events. In order to have a relative assessment on the model-specific nature of biases during storm events as well as dry periods, time-series of surface runoff and baseflow components at the specific USGS gauging locations are extracted from corresponding observed/simulated streamflow data using a recursive digital filter. The multi-model comparison presented here provides insights toward future model improvements and also serves as the first step in implementing an operational ensemble flood forecasting framework

  15. Mechanistic studies of copper(II)-mediated oxidation of vic-dioxime ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plexes of 1,10-phenanthroline derived furoxans were isolated by oxidation of the corresponding copper(II) ... and nitrogen oxides, manganese dioxide, lead tetraace- ... of complex 3 fur- ther supports the reduction of copper(II) to copper(I) during the oxidative transformation of vic-dioxime to furoxan. 3. Mechanistic studies.

  16. Oxidation of gem-chloronitroso- and vic-chloronitroso-alkanes and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cides,20 fungicides,21 bactericides,22 miticides,23 and her- bicides.21b Vinylic nitroolefins, obtained by the elimi- nation of HCl from vic-chloronitro compounds, have been used as dienophiles in several synthetically useful. Diels–Alder reactions, and undergo Michael addition with a variety of nucleophiles.1d, 24d, 25 In ...

  17. Estudio comparativo entre las estelas discoidales de Vic-Bilh y de Guipúzcoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antxon Aguirre Sorondo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectua un análisis comparativo, tanto en su aspecto físico (dimensiones, dibujos, etc. como en cuanto a sus emplazamientos (caminos, cementerios, etc. de las estelas discoidales de Vic-Bilh (al norte de los Pirineos y las de Guipúzcoa (al sur de los Pirineos.

  18. Applications of VIC for Climate Land Cover Change Imapacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Kel

    2017-01-01

    Study focuses on the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB), the LMB is an economically and ecologically important region: (1) One of the largest exporters of rice and fish products, (2) Within top three most biodiverse river basins in the world. Natural climate variability plays an important role in water supply within the region: (1) Short-term climate variability (ENSO, MJO), (2) Long-term climate variability (climate change). Projections of climate change show there will be a decrease in water availability world wide which has implications for food security and ecology. Additional studies show there may be socioeconomic turmoil due to water wars and food security in developing regions such as the Mekong Basin. Southeast Asia has experienced major changes in land use and land cover from 1980 – 2000. Major economic reforms resulting in shift from subsistence farming to market-based agricultural production. Changes in land cover continue to occur which have an important role within the land surface aspect of hydrology.

  19. Streamers, sprites, leaders, lightning: from micro- to macroscales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Ute [CWI, PO Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sentman, Davis D [Physics Department and Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755920 Fairbanks, AK 99775-5920 (United States)

    2008-12-07

    'Streamers, sprites, leaders, lightning: from micro- to macroscales' was the theme of a workshop in October 2007 in Leiden, The Netherlands; it brought together researchers from plasma physics, electrical engineering and industry, geophysics and space physics, computational science and nonlinear dynamics around the common topic of generation, structure and products of streamer-like electric breakdown. The present cluster issue collects relevant papers within this area; most of them were presented during the workshop. We here briefly discuss the research questions and very shortly review the papers in the cluster issue, and we also refer to a few recent papers in this and other journals. (editorial review)

  20. Assessment of LULC and climate change on the hydrology of Ashti ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The assessment of land use land cover (LULC) and climate change over the hydrology of a catchment has become inevitable and is an essential aspect to understand the water resources-related problems within the catchment. For large catchments, mesoscale models such as variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model are ...

  1. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Western Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_C_WA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  2. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Western Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_WA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  3. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Daily 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Southern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_SA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  4. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Western Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_WA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  5. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Southern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_C_SA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  6. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Eastern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_EA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  7. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Southern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_SA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  8. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Eastern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_EA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  9. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Eastern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_C_EA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  10. The management of waste water treatment plant sludge in Vic (Catalonia, Spain); Tratamiento de fangos de etap: La gestion en Vic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletas Anglada, R.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to set out the steps taken by Aguas de Vic, to solve the problems deriving from the production of sludge as a result of the decanting and filtering of treated water at the Miralter Drinking Water Treatment Plant. This plant treats water from the rivers Ges and Ter to make it potable, after which it is fed into the water supply of the town of Vic and the surrounding district. First the treatment process is briefly described, the production analysed and the sludge generated by the plant characterised. This is followed by a summary of the currently applicable statutory regulations and a detailed description of the solution adopted on the basis of the statistical data obtained from an analysis of the plant's performance. Finally, a breakdown is provided of the investments made in setting up the installations described. The increased cost per cubic metre of treated water is explained as a consequence of this investment and the running costs of operating these installations. (Author)

  11. VICS82: The VISTA-CFHT Stripe 82 Near-infrared Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geach, J. E.; Lin, Y.-T.; Makler, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Ross, N. P.; Wang, W.-H.; Hsieh, B.-C.; Leauthaud, A.; Bundy, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Comparat, J.; Caminha, G. B.; Hudelot, P.; Lin, L.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Pereira, M. E. S.; Mast, D.

    2017-07-01

    We present the VISTA-CFHT Stripe 82 (VICS82) survey: a near-infrared (J+K s ) survey covering 150 square degrees of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) equatorial Stripe 82 to an average depth of J = 21.9 AB mag and K s = 21.4 AB mag (80% completeness limits; 5σ point-source depths are approximately 0.5 mag brighter). VICS82 contributes to the growing legacy of multiwavelength data in the Stripe 82 footprint. The addition of near-infrared photometry to the existing SDSS Stripe 82 coadd ugriz photometry reduces the scatter in stellar mass estimates to δ {log}({M}\\star )≈ 0.3 dex for galaxies with {M}\\star > {10}9 {M}⊙ at z≈ 0.5, and offers improvement compared to optical-only estimates out to z≈ 1, with stellar masses constrained within a factor of approximately 2.5. When combined with other multiwavelength imaging of the Stripe, including moderate-to-deep ultraviolet (GALEX), optical and mid-infrared (Spitzer-IRAC) coverage, as well as tens of thousands of spectroscopic redshifts, VICS82 gives access to approximately 0.5 Gpc3 of comoving volume. Some of the main science drivers of VICS82 include (a) measuring the stellar mass function of {L}\\star galaxies out to z˜ 1; (b) detecting intermediate-redshift quasars at 2≲ z≲ 3.5; (c) measuring the stellar mass function and baryon census of clusters of galaxies, and (d) performing cross-correlation experiments of cosmic microwave background lensing in the optical/near-infrared that link stellar mass to large-scale dark matter structure. Here we define and describe the survey, highlight some early science results, and present the first public data release, which includes an SDSS-matched catalog as well as the calibrated pixel data themselves.

  12. NLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Monthly Climatology 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data...

  13. NLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation...

  14. NLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Hourly 0.125 x 0.125 degree V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC land-surface model (LSM) for Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation...

  15. GLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Monthly 1.0 x 1.0 degree V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System...

  16. GLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 3 Hourly 1.0 x 1.0 degree V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model in the Global Land Data Assimilation System...

  17. Comparing large-scale hydrological model predictions with observed streamflow in the Pacific Northwest: effects of climate and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Safeeq; Guillaume S. Mauger; Gordon E. Grant; Ivan Arismendi; Alan F. Hamlet; Se-Yeun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Assessing uncertainties in hydrologic models can improve accuracy in predicting future streamflow. Here, simulated streamflows using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model at coarse (1/16°) and fine (1/120°) spatial resolutions were evaluated against observed streamflows from 217 watersheds. In...

  18. Hydrologic impacts of climate change on the Nile River basin: Implications of the 2007 IPCC climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Kabat, P.

    2010-01-01

    We assess the potential impacts of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Nile River basin using a macroscale hydrology model. Model inputs are bias corrected and spatially downscaled 21st Century simulations from 11 General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two global emissions

  19. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  20. Modellierung of meso- and macroscale river basins - a workshop held at Lauenburg; Modellierung in meso- bis makroskaligen Flusseinzugsgebieten - Tagungsband zum gleichnamigen Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutmoeller, J.; Raschke, E. (eds.) [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    2001-07-01

    During the past decade measuring and modelling of global and regional processes that exchange energy and water in the climate system of the Earth became a focus in hydrological and meteorological research. Besides climate research many more applications will gain from this effort, e.g. as weather forecasting, water management and agriculture. As large scale weather and climate applications diversify to water related issues such as water resources, reservoir management, and flood and drought forecasting hydrologists and meteorologists are challenged to work interdisciplinary. The workshop 'Modelling of meso- and macroscale river basins' brought together various current aspects of this issue, ranging from coupled atmosphere-hydrology models to integrated river basin management to land use change. Recent results are introduced and summarised in this report. (orig.)

  1. Receptor-linked early events induced by vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) on neuroblastoma and vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, T; Okano, Y; Zhang, W; Ozeki, T; Mitsui, Y; Nozawa, Y

    1990-11-15

    Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) caused a series of biochemical events, including the temporal biphasic accumulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), transient formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and increase in intracellular free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) in neuroblastoma NG108-15 cells. In these cellular responses, VIC was found to be much more potent in NG108-15 cells than in cultured rat vascular smooth-muscle cells. The single cell [Ca2+]i assay revealed that in the presence of nifedipine (1 microM) or EGTA (1 mM), the peak [Ca2+]i declined more rapidly to the resting level in VIC-stimulated NG108-15 cells, indicating that the receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is followed by Ca2+ influx through the nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channel. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin only partially decreased Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation as well as the [Ca2+]i transient induced by VIC, whereas these events induced by endothelin-1 were not affected by the toxin, suggesting involvement of distinct GTP-binding proteins. The VIC-induced transient Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation coincident with the first early peak of DAG formation suggested that PtdIns(4,5)P2 is a principal source of the first DAG increase. Labelling studies with [3H]myristate, [14C]palmitate and [3H]choline indicated that in neuroblastoma cells phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) was hydrolysed by a phospholipase C to cause the second sustained DAG increase. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by prolonged pretreatment with phorbol ester markedly prevented the VIC-induced delayed DAG accumulation. Furthermore, chelation of intracellular CA2+ completely abolished the second sustained phase of DAG production. These findings suggest that PtdCho hydrolysis is responsible for the sustained production of DAG and is dependent on both Ca2+ and PKC.

  2. Receptor-linked early events induced by vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) on neuroblastoma and vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, T; Okano, Y; Zhang, W.; OZEKI, T.; Mitsui, Y; Nozawa, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) caused a series of biochemical events, including the temporal biphasic accumulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), transient formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and increase in intracellular free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) in neuroblastoma NG108-15 cells. In these cellular responses, VIC was found to be much more potent in NG108-15 cells than in cultured rat vascular smooth-muscle cells. The single cell [Ca2+]i assay revealed that in the presence of nifedipine (1 microM) or E...

  3. Advancing Tissue Engineering: A Tale of Nano-, Micro-, and Macroscale Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Zhang, Y.S.; Nasajpour, A.; Dokmeci, M.R.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering has the potential to revolutionize the health care industry. Delivering on this promise requires the generation of efficient, controllable and predictable implants. The integration of nano- and microtechnologies into macroscale regenerative biomaterials plays an essential role in

  4. Assimilating multi-sensor satellite observations for initializing hydrologic and agricultural forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, K.; Stampoulis, D.; Das, N. N.; Granger, S. L.; Ines, A.; Han, E.

    2015-12-01

    The application of data assimilation techniques in hydrologic studies has been gaining traction in the last 10-15 years. Most of these studies have focused on a single water cycle component, while few studies have examined methods of assimilating multiple observations from different sensors and of different hydrologic variables. The latter is challenging since any potential disparities in the observations could lead to suboptimal estimates after assimilation. The optimal estimates of hydrologic states, such as soil moisture, can be used as initial conditions for hydrologic forecasting systems. A multi-sensor and multivariate data assimilation forecast system has been developed at JPL (RHEAS, Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System) with an initial focus on forecasting drought characteristics. The core of RHEAS is the VIC hydrology model, which has been widely used for many water resources applications. Apart from hydrologic forecasts, RHEAS can produce agricultural forecasts by coupling VIC with the DSSAT crop growth model. The modeling system is supported by a spatial database component, which provides access to multiple in-situ and satellite observations and allows data to be delivered to users through web-GIS or mobile application interfaces. The satellite observations, which include soil moisture, water storage, evapotranspiration, and snow cover, are assimilated into the VIC model to update the initial state of seasonal hydrologic and crop growth forecasts. We demonstrate the value of ingesting satellite observations by performing a series of hindcast experiments over both the United States (California and Upper Colorado basins) and Kenya (Nzoia basin). In-situ measurements along with a simulation with the best available datasets are used as the benchmark to evaluate the hindcasts against. The impact of each observation type or sensor is quantified, allowing for evaluating their relative contribution to improving the forecast skill. Particular case

  5. A VicRK Signal Transduction System in Streptococcus mutans Affects gtfBCD, gbpB, and ftf Expression, Biofilm Formation, and Genetic Competence Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadheera, M. Dilani; Guggenheim, Bernard; Spatafora, Grace A.; Huang, Yi-Chen Cathy; Choi, Jison; Hung, David C. I.; Treglown, Jennifer S.; Goodman, Steven D.; Ellen, Richard P.; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria exposed to transient host environments can elicit adaptive responses by triggering the differential expression of genes via two-component signal transduction systems. This study describes the vicRK signal transduction system in Streptococcus mutans. A vicK (putative histidine kinase) deletion mutant (SmuvicK) was isolated. However, a vicR (putative response regulator) null mutation was apparently lethal, since the only transformants isolated after attempted mutagenesis overexpressed all three genes in the vicRKX operon (Smuvic+). Compared with the wild-type UA159 strain, both mutants formed aberrant biofilms. Moreover, the vicK mutant biofilm formed in sucrose-supplemented medium was easily detachable relative to that of the parent. The rate of total dextran formation by this mutant was remarkably reduced compared to the wild type, whereas it was increased in Smuvic+. Based on real-time PCR, Smuvic+ showed increased gtfBCD, gbpB, and ftf expression, while a recombinant VicR fusion protein was shown to bind the promoter regions of the gtfB, gtfC, and ftf genes. Also, transformation efficiency in the presence or absence of the S. mutans competence-stimulating peptide was altered for the vic mutants. In vivo studies conducted using SmuvicK in a specific-pathogen-free rat model resulted in significantly increased smooth-surface dental plaque (Pearson-Filon statistic [PF], <0.001). While the absence of vicK did not alter the incidence of caries, a significant reduction in SmuvicK CFU counts was observed in plaque samples relative to that of the parent (PF, <0.001). Taken together, these findings support involvement of the vicRK signal transduction system in regulating several important physiological processes in S. mutans. PMID:15937169

  6. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  7. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-05-27

    While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) - a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant.Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 - 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors. Although we found an independent

  8. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly) from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut). Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions) as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25) after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio-economic predictors

  9. Multi-objective Optimization Based Calibration of Hydrologic Model and Ensemble Hydrologic Forecast for Java Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanto, M.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Livneh, B.

    2016-12-01

    This study explores the benefits of multi-objective optimization of Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model for five watersheds in Java, the most populous island in Indonesia. Six objective functions: Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), logarithmic function of root mean square error (Log-RMSE), predictive efficiency (Pe), percent errors in peak (PEP) and slope of flow duration curve error (SFDCE) were selected as evaluation metrics. These metrics were optimized by tuning four VIC model parameters: infiltration shape parameter (b), fraction of maximum baseflow where nonlinear baseflow begin (Ds), thickness of soil layer 2 (thick2) and thickness of soil layer 3 (thick3). We employed Borg Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm (Borg MOEA), an automatic simulation-optimization algorithm, to search for non-dominated solutions. We identified the redundancy between NSE and Log-RMSE, Pe, and PEP through visual inspection of their sensitivity to parameters b and Ds of VIC model and to baseflow index (BFI). Accordingly, we proposed NSE, PBIAS and SFDCE as critical objective functions to represent hydrologic processes in tropical region of Java, Indonesia. Using these three objective functions, we culled the objective functions based on at least - NSE > 0.75, PBIAS time window when the seasonal climate forecasts and observed streamflow records overlaps. We measured the skill of this seasonal forecast by computing the rank probability skill score (RPSS) of seasonal total flows and extremes at three different thresholds, for the dry and wet seasons. We showed that the RPSS of seasonal flows and the extremes are very good for both seasons. This study, for the first time, demonstrates the utility of the multiobjective based calibration of hydrologic model in tropical regions and its applications in generating skillful seasonal ensemble hydrologic forecasts which are important for short and long term water resources planning and management.

  10. Combining Remote Sensing Data, Airborne Snow Observations and High Resolution Hydrologic Modeling to Improve SWE Simulation and Validation over Mountainous Terrain in Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaida, C. M.; Andreadis, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Painter, T. H.; Bormann, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    The mountain snowpack is an important component of the hydrologic cycle and an essential resource for communities across the globe. From scientists to water resource managers and politicians, accurate information on snow amount, extent, and melt rate is key in understanding physical processes within the earth system and for planning a sustainable existence. Being able to correctly simulate snow, both historically and projecting into the future, is not only a great necessity, but also a challenge. Combining the power of satellite and airborne observations with numerical model simulations can bring us closer to having a more complete picture of the current and future state of the snowpack. In this study, the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) macroscale hydrologic model is employed over Western United States (WUS) at a horizontal resolution of 0.0175°, or 3 km2, to simulated the snowpack during the recent drought this area has been experiencing (WY 2013-2015). Remote sensing data (PRISM, MERRA) are used as meteorological forcing, as well as in the assimilation process (MODSCAG) for a more optimal estimation of snow water equivalent (SWE). The model is run under two scenarios, with and without assimilation of MODSCAG snow cover, and the two cases are compared against in situ and airborne SWE products (Airborne Snow Observatory, ASO). Several questions are addressed: how does a spatially distributed snow product like ASO improve validation of high-resolution SWE model simulations, compared to validation against sparsely available in-situ measurements, which are often only available at low-mid elevations? ASO provides a unique and comprehensive view of the snowpack in both space and time, and over complex terrain of mountain watersheds, which has not been previously available. Such comparison can also help identify the level of improvement when assimilation of snow cover is used in estimating modeled SWE. These results can help improve the models we use, from which

  11. An application of a large scale conceptual hydrological model over the Elbe region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lobmeyr

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ability of the VIC-2L model coupled to a routing model to reproduce streamflow in the catchment of the lower Elbe River, Germany. The VIC-2L model, a hydrologically-based land surface scheme (LSS which has been tested extensively in the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS, is put up on the rotated grid of 1/6 degree of the atmospheric regional scale model (REMO used in the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX. For a 10 year period, the VIC-2L model is forced in daily time steps with measured daily means of precipitation, air temperature, pressure, wind speed, air humidity and daily sunshine duration. VIC-2L model output of surface runoff and baseflow is used as input for the routing model, which transforms modelled runoff into streamflow, which is compared to measured streamflow at selected gauge stations. The water balance of the basin is investigated and the model results on daily, monthly and annual time scales are discussed. Discrepancies appear in time periods where snow and ice processes are important. Extreme flood events are analyzed in more dital. The influence of calibration with respect to runoff is examined.

  12. Systems and Methods for Implementing Bulk Metallic Glass-Based Macroscale Compliant Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Agnes, Gregory (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement bulk metallic glass-based macroscale compliant mechanisms. In one embodiment, a bulk metallic glass-based macroscale compliant mechanism includes: a flexible member that is strained during the normal operation of the compliant mechanism; where the flexible member has a thickness of 0.5 mm; where the flexible member comprises a bulk metallic glass-based material; and where the bulk metallic glass-based material can survive a fatigue test that includes 1000 cycles under a bending loading mode at an applied stress to ultimate strength ratio of 0.25.

  13. Assessing water resources in China using PRECIS projections and a VIC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is now a major environmental and developmental issue, and one that will increase the challenge of sustainable water resources management. In order to assess the implications of climate change for water resources in China, we calibrated a Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC model with a resolution of 50×50 km2 using data from 125 well-gauged catchments. Based on similarities in climate conditions, soil texture and other variables, model parameters were transferred to other areas not covered by the calibrated catchments. Taking runoff in the period 1961–1990 as a baseline, we studied the impact of climate change on runoff under three emissions scenarios, A2, B2 and A1B. Model findings indicate that annual runoff over China as a whole will probably increase by approximately 3–10% by 2050, but with quite uneven spatial and temporal distribution. The prevailing pattern of "north dry and south wet" in China is likely to be exacerbated under global warming.

  14. Betulin inhibits cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans by targeting vicRK and gtf genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Subramenium, Ganapathy Ashwinkumar; Radhika, Solai; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a multivirulent pathogen is considered the primary etiological agent in dental caries. Development of antibiotic resistance in the pathogen has created a need for novel antagonistic agents which can control the virulence of the organism and reduce resistance development. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-virulence potential of betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol), an abundantly available plant triterpenoid against S. mutans UA159. Betulin exhibited significant dose dependent antibiofilm activity without affecting bacterial viability. At 240 µg/ml (biofilm inhibitory concentration), betulin inhibited biofilm formation and adherence to smooth glass surfaces by 93 and 71 % respectively. It reduced water insoluble glucan synthesis by 89 %, in conjunction with down regulation of gtfBC genes. Microscopic analysis confirmed the disruption in biofilm architecture and decreased exopolysaccharide production. Acidogenicity and aciduricity, key virulence factors responsible for carious lesions, were also notably affected. The induced auto-aggregation of cells upon treatment could be due to the down regulation of vicK. Results of gene expression analysis demonstrated significant down-regulation of virulence genes upon betulin treatment. Furthermore, the nontoxic effect of betulin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells even after 72 h treatment makes it a strong candidate for assessing its suitability to be used as a therapeutic agent.

  15. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  16. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  17. Macro-scale complexity of nano-to micro-scale architecture of olivine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Macro-scale complexity of nano- to micro-scale architecture of olivine crystals through an iodine vapour transport mechanism ... Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Group, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton, BN2 4GJ, United Kingdom; Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, ...

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Macroscale Structural Connectivity in the Macaque and Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulas, A.; Bastiani, M.; Bezgin, G.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Roebroeck, A.; Stiers, P.

    2014-01-01

    The macaque brain serves as a model for the human brain, but its suitability is challenged by unique human features, including connectivity reconfigurations, which emerged during primate evolution. We perform a quantitative comparative analysis of the whole brain macroscale structural connectivity

  19. Cortical chemoarchitecture shapes macroscale effective functional connectivity patterns in macaque cerebral cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turk, Elise; Scholtens, Lianne H.; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.

    The mammalian cortex is a complex system of-at the microscale level-interconnected neurons and-at the macroscale level-interconnected areas, forming the infrastructure for local and global neural processing and information integration. While the effects of regional chemoarchitecture on local

  20. Comparative analysis of the macroscale structural connectivity in the macaque and human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Goulas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The macaque brain serves as a model for the human brain, but its suitability is challenged by unique human features, including connectivity reconfigurations, which emerged during primate evolution. We perform a quantitative comparative analysis of the whole brain macroscale structural connectivity of the two species. Our findings suggest that the human and macaque brain as a whole are similarly wired. A region-wise analysis reveals many interspecies similarities of connectivity patterns, but also lack thereof, primarily involving cingulate regions. We unravel a common structural backbone in both species involving a highly overlapping set of regions. This structural backbone, important for mediating information across the brain, seems to constitute a feature of the primate brain persevering evolution. Our findings illustrate novel evolutionary aspects at the macroscale connectivity level and offer a quantitative translational bridge between macaque and human research.

  1. Groundwater hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The international conference on Advances in Ground-Water Hydrology was held November 16-19, 1988, in Tampa, Fla. More than 320 scientists and engineers attended the conference, which was dedicated to the memory of the late C. V. Theis, formerly with the U.S. Geological Survey, an AGU Fellow, holder of the Robert E. Horton Medal, and member of the AGU Hydrology Section since 1934. The 3-day meeting had presentations by more than 100 speakers from Canada, Europe, and the U.S. The conference was organized to review advances in hydrology in the past 10 years. Discussions were held on the need for research and practical applications in groundwater hydrology for the 1990s. The conference was sponsored by the American Institute of Hydrology, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Universities Council on Water Resources, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, American Geological Institute, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, American Water Resources Association, Geological Society of America, and International Association of Hydrogeologists.

  2. Macroscale production of crystalline interferon alfa-2b in microgravity on STS-52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushan, Tattanahalli L.; Reichert, Paul; Long, Marianna M.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Bugg, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    Macroscale crystallization of zinc interferon alfa-2b was achieved on STS-52 in October 1992 in the Protein Crystallization Facility. Conditions for crystallization were established by adapting a microscale vapor diffusion method to a macroscale temperature induction method. A series of earth based pilot experiments established conditions to reproducibly crystallize zinc interferon alfa-2b in high yield and under cleanroom conditions. As a control for the STS-52 mission, a ground experiment was run simultaneously and in the same configuration as the flight experiment. Greater than 95% of the available protein crystallized in both the ground and flight experiments. Using a battery of physical, biochemical and biological characterization assays, demonstrated that sample processing, polysulfone bottle confinement and the conditions used for crystallization did not have a negative effect on protein integrity. Redissolved crystals from the flight and ground experiments showed full biological activity in a cytopathic effect inhibition assay as compared to an interferon control standard. Morphometric analysis comparing the overall length and width of the derived crystals showed a 2.4 fold increase in the length and width of the space grown crystals as compared to earth grown crystals. Space grown crystals have remained a stable free flowing suspension for over 2 years. Based on these results, further experiments are envisioned to investigate macroscale crystallization of biologically active macromolecules in microgravity.

  3. Evaluation of the TRMM real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis for global hydrologic prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Voisin, N.; Minihane, M.; Huffman, G. J.; Sheffield, J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The applicability of satellite precipitation products like the TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) products has been limited in its applicability to real-time hydrologic prediction (e.g., of floods and droughts) by the need for retrospective gauge-based adjustments to correct for biases. However, recent advances in the TMPA algorithms and data streams now offer encouragement regarding their potential use for real-time hydrologic prediction without gauge adjustment. This potential is of particular interest in regions like Africa where in situ gauge networks are sparse. We evaluate how changes in the TMPA real-time (TMPA-RT) precipitation retrieval algorithms have affected the products in the context of flood and drought prediction, and quantify the uncertainty in streamflow predictions resulting from TMPA real-time errors with respect to the TMPA research (gauge corrected) product (TMPA-RP). We conduct hydrologic simulations using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model over 11 global river basins within the TMPA domain for the period 2003 to 2011. For evaluation purposes, the model is forced by the newly available TMPA-RP Version 7 TMPA-RT, , and a bias corrected TMPA-RT (adjusted in real-time to correct biases relative to TMPA-RP at the University of Washington). Other meteorological forcings for VIC are taken from an independent global data set. The daily VIC model output is routed to the main river outlet for each basin using a one quarter degree routing network. We evaluate the results both in terms of the evolution of the RT algorithms and the uncertainty of hydrologic prediction associated with the latest (V7) algorithm.

  4. In vitro Manganese-Dependent Cross-Talk between Streptococcus mutans VicK and GcrR: Implications for Overlapping Stress Response Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Jennifer S.; Mashburn-Warren, Lauren; Ayala, Eduardo A.; Senadheera, Dilani B.; Hendrickson, Whitney K.; McCall, Lathan W.; Sweet, Julie G.; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.; Spatafora, Grace A.; Goodman, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a major acidogenic component of the dental plaque biofilm, has a key role in caries etiology. Previously, we demonstrated that the VicRK two-component signal transduction system modulates biofilm formation, oxidative stress and acid tolerance responses in S. mutans. Using in vitro phosphorylation assays, here we demonstrate for the first time, that in addition to activating its cognate response regulator protein, the sensor kinase, VicK can transphosphorylate a non-cognate stress regulatory response regulator, GcrR, in the presence of manganese. Manganese is an important micronutrient that has been previously correlated with caries incidence, and which serves as an effector of SloR-mediated metalloregulation in S. mutans. Our findings supporting regulatory effects of manganese on the VicRK, GcrR and SloR, and the cross-regulatory networks formed by these components are more complex than previously appreciated. Using DNaseI footprinting we observed overlapping DNA binding specificities for VicR and GcrR in native promoters, consistent with these proteins being part of the same transcriptional regulon. Our results also support a role for SloR as a positive regulator of the vicRK two component signaling system, since its transcription was drastically reduced in a SloR-deficient mutant. These findings demonstrate the regulatory complexities observed with the S. mutans manganese-dependent response, which involves cross-talk between non-cognate signal transduction systems (VicRK and GcrR) to modulate stress response pathways. PMID:25536343

  5. In vitro manganese-dependent cross-talk between Streptococcus mutans VicK and GcrR: implications for overlapping stress response pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Downey

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, a major acidogenic component of the dental plaque biofilm, has a key role in caries etiology. Previously, we demonstrated that the VicRK two-component signal transduction system modulates biofilm formation, oxidative stress and acid tolerance responses in S. mutans. Using in vitro phosphorylation assays, here we demonstrate for the first time, that in addition to activating its cognate response regulator protein, the sensor kinase, VicK can transphosphorylate a non-cognate stress regulatory response regulator, GcrR, in the presence of manganese. Manganese is an important micronutrient that has been previously correlated with caries incidence, and which serves as an effector of SloR-mediated metalloregulation in S. mutans. Our findings supporting regulatory effects of manganese on the VicRK, GcrR and SloR, and the cross-regulatory networks formed by these components are more complex than previously appreciated. Using DNaseI footprinting we observed overlapping DNA binding specificities for VicR and GcrR in native promoters, consistent with these proteins being part of the same transcriptional regulon. Our results also support a role for SloR as a positive regulator of the vicRK two component signaling system, since its transcription was drastically reduced in a SloR-deficient mutant. These findings demonstrate the regulatory complexities observed with the S. mutans manganese-dependent response, which involves cross-talk between non-cognate signal transduction systems (VicRK and GcrR to modulate stress response pathways.

  6. The all-silicon strip CMS tracker Microtechnology at the macroscale

    CERN Document Server

    Mannelli, M

    2010-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker is the largest device of its kind ever built, and is the first instance of a large collider detector relying exclusively on this all-silicon technology for tracking. With an instrumented surface of over 200 m2, and over nine million readout channels, it is two orders of magnitude larger than the silicon vertex detectors of the LEP experiments, and 30–40 times larger than the silicon inner detectors of the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron. It makes use of microelectronics technology, but deploys it at the macroscale.

  7. Hydrological extremes and their agricultural impacts under a changing climate in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Gao, H.; Huang, M.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    With the changing climate, hydrologic extremes (such as floods, droughts, and heat waves) are becoming more frequent and intensified. Such changes in extreme events are expected to affect agricultural production and food supplies. This study focuses on the State of Texas, which has the largest farm area and the highest value of livestock production in the U.S. The objectives are two-fold: First, to investigate the climatic impact on the occurrence of future hydrologic extreme events; and second, to evaluate the effects of the future extremes on agricultural production. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which is calibrated and validated over Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed for this study. The VIC model is forced by the statistically downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The CMIP5 projections contain four different scenarios in terms of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) (i.e. 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5 w/m2). To carry out the analysis, VIC outputs forced by the CMIP5 model scenarios over three 30-year periods (1970-1999, 2020-2049 and 2070-2099) are first evaluated to identify how the frequency and the extent of the extreme events will be altered in the ten Texas major river basins. The results suggest that a significant increase in the number of extreme events will occur starting in the first half of the 21st century in Texas. Then, the effects of the predicted hydrologic extreme events on the irrigation water demand are investigated. It is found that future changes in water demand vary by crop type and location, with an east-to-west gradient. The results are expected to contribute to future water management and planning in Texas.

  8. Application of a global hydrologic prediction system to the Zambezi River Basin (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Pappenberger, F.; Buizza, R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    We evaluate a 10-day globally applicable flood prediction scheme over the Zambezi River basin for the period 2003-2007. The hydrological core of the scheme is the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, which we forced with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) temperature and wind analyses, and the near real-time Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) precipitation product (3B42RT) up to the day of forecast. During the forecast period, the VIC model was forced with calibrated and downscaled 10-day forecasts from the ECMWF ensemble prediction system (EPS). We also tested a parallel setup where the EPS ensemble forecasts were interpolated to the 0.25 degree spatial resolution of the hydrology model. Each set of forecasts was extended by 5 days using monthly mean climatological variables and zero precipitation in order to account for the effect of initial conditions (the EPS was extended to 15 days only in 2006). The 15-day spatially distributed ensemble runoff forecasts were then routed to several locations in the basin. Surrogates for observed daily runoff and streamflow were provided by the reference run, i.e. the VIC simulations forced with ECMWF analysis fields and TRMM precipitation. Mean forecast errors and skills for the two sets of ensemble forecasts are evaluated with respect to the reference on a seasonal basis, and are compared to previous results from a similarly designed study over the Ohio River Basin. The influence on forecast accuracy of basin drainage area, hydroclimatic diversity within the basin, and storm type on forecast skill scores is evaluated.

  9. Application of a global probabilistic hydrologic forecast scheme to the Ohio River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Nathalie; Pappenberger, Florian; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Buizza, Roberto; Schaake, John

    2010-05-01

    We evaluate a 10-day globally applicable flood prediction scheme over the Ohio River basin for the period 2003-2007. The hydrological core of the scheme is the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, which we forced with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) temperature and wind analyses, and Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) precipitation up to each forecast starting day. In forecast mode, the VIC model was then forced with calibrated and downscaled 10-day forecasts from the ECMWF ensemble prediction system (EPS). We also tested a parallel setup where the EPS ensemble forecasts were interpolated to the spatial scale of the hydrology model. Each set of forecasts was extended by 5 days using monthly mean climatological variables and zero precipitation in order to account for the effect of initial conditions (the EPS was extended to 15 days only in March 2008). The 15-day spatially distributed ensemble runoff forecasts were then routed to four locations in the basin. Surrogates for observed daily runoff and streamflow were provided by the reference run, i.e. the VIC simulations forced with ECMWF analysis fields and TRMM precipitation. Mean forecast errors and skills for the two sets of forecasts were evaluated with respect to the reference. The flood prediction scheme using the calibrated and downscaled ECMWF EPS forecasts was generally more accurate and reliable than interpolated forecasts for both daily distributed runoff forecasts and daily flow forecasts. The streamflow forecasts were dominated by initial conditions for 1 to 5 days depending on forecasted precipitation amounts and drainage area of the sub-basins. The flood prediction scheme generally had useful skill for at least 10 days at all sites. Relative biases and ensemble reliabilities for high and average flow forecasts were similar. Relative RMSEs were lower for high flow forecasts than for average flow forecasts and so was correlation.

  10. Macroscale spatial variation in chronic wound microbiota: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Lance B; Liu, Cindy M; Frankel, Yelena M; Melendez, Johan H; Aziz, Maliha; Buchhagen, Jordan; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Engelthaler, David M; Keim, Paul S; Ravel, Jacques; Lazarus, Gerald S; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    Controlling for sample site is considered to be an important aspect of chronic wound microbiological investigations; yet, macroscale spatial variation in wound microbiota has not been well characterized. A total of 31 curette samples were collected at the leading edge, opposing leading edge, and/or center of 13 chronic wounds. Bacterial community composition was characterized using a combination of 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing; heat map display; hierarchical clustering; nonmetric multidimensional scaling; and permutation multivariate analysis of variance. A total of 58 bacterial families and 91 bacterial genera were characterized among the 13 wounds. While substantial macroscale spatial variation was observed among the wounds, bacterial communities at different sites within individual wounds were significantly more similar than those in different wounds (p=0.001). Our results support the prevalent opinion that controlling for sample site may improve the quality of wound microbiota studies; however, the significant similarity in bacterial communities from different sites within individual wounds indicates that studies failing to control for sampling site should not be disregarded based solely on this criterion. A composite sample from multiple sites across the surface of individual wounds may provide the most robust characterization of wound microbiota. © 2010 by the Wound Healing Society.

  11. Meshing complex macro-scale objects into self-assembling bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacohen, Adar; Hanniel, Iddo; Nikulshin, Yasha; Wolfus, Shuki; Abu-Horowitz, Almogit; Bachelet, Ido

    2015-07-30

    Self-assembly provides an information-economical route to the fabrication of objects at virtually all scales. However, there is no known algorithm to program self-assembly in macro-scale, solid, complex 3D objects. Here such an algorithm is described, which is inspired by the molecular assembly of DNA, and based on bricks designed by tetrahedral meshing of arbitrary objects. Assembly rules are encoded by topographic cues imprinted on brick faces while attraction between bricks is provided by embedded magnets. The bricks can then be mixed in a container and agitated, leading to properly assembled objects at high yields and zero errors. The system and its assembly dynamics were characterized by video and audio analysis, enabling the precise time- and space-resolved characterization of its performance and accuracy. Improved designs inspired by our system could lead to successful implementation of self-assembly at the macro-scale, allowing rapid, on-demand fabrication of objects without the need for assembly lines.

  12. Simplified Process for Manufacturing Macroscale Patterns to Enhance Voltage Generation by a Triboelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple, yet effective and affordable, manufacturing process to enhance the overall efficiency of voltage generation by a triboelectric generator (TEG using 3D printers for energy-harvesting applications. The proposed method can be classified as macroscale surface patterning, in contrast to micro- and nanoscale patterning of TEG proposed in previous studies. Experiments were conducted using a designed test-bed system that allowed the control of external factors, such as the magnitude and frequency of the frictional force and the relative humidity, and an output voltage increase of up to 67% was obtained from a TEG with macroscale patterns that increased the surface area by 14%. The peak voltage generated by the TEG was as high as 18 V, and the addition of a designed analog circuit that uses no external power enabled storage of a DC voltage of 0.4 V. In comparison with previous methods that employ micro- or nanoscale patterns, the proposed patterning method is faster and more suitable for mass production.

  13. Macroscale porous carbonized polydopamine-modified cotton textile for application as electrode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lizhen; Zhao, Shaofei; He, Miao

    2018-02-01

    The anode material is a crucial factor that significantly affects the cost and performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, a novel macroscale porous, biocompatible, highly conductive and low cost electrode, carbonized polydopamine-modified cotton textile (NC@CCT), is fabricated by using normal cheap waste cotton textiles as raw material via a simple in situ polymerization and carbonization treatment as anode of MFCs. The physical and chemical characterizations show that the macroscale porous and biocompatible NC@CCT electrode is coated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles and offers a large specific surface area (888.67 m2 g-1) for bacterial cells growth, accordingly greatly increases the loading amount of bacterial cells and facilitates extracellular electron transfer (EET). As a result, the MFC equipped with the NC@CCT anode achieves a maximum power density of 931 ± 61 mW m-2, which is 80.5% higher than that of commercial carbon felt (516 ± 27 mW m-2) anode. Moreover, making full use of the normal cheap waste cotton textiles can greatly reduce the cost of MFCs and the environmental pollution problem.

  14. Hydrological cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

  15. Nanotechnology and construction: use of nanoindentation measurements to predict macroscale elastic properties of high strength cementitious composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. L. da Silva

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the experimental results involving the use of nanoindentation measurements and prediction of macroscale elastic properties of high performance cementitious composites (HPCC. The elastic properties of HPCC mixture were evaluated at different length scales by nanoindentation (microscale, and elastic moduli and compressive strength tests (macroscale. The nanoindentation results, obtained by grid indentation with subsequent phase deconvolution, were complemented by an independent porosimetry test and inserted into a two-step analytical homogenization scheme to predict the overall macroscale properties. The final results show that the presented method allows a reliable advanced prediction of HPCC elastic properties indicating, thus, that inserting nanotechnology in the concrete industry can be promising, since it would allow the production of a more predictable composite in an easier and less expensive way.

  16. Hydrology team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, R.

    1982-01-01

    General problems faced by hydrologists when using historical records, real time data, statistical analysis, and system simulation in providing quantitative information on the temporal and spatial distribution of water are related to the limitations of these data. Major problem areas requiring multispectral imaging-based research to improve hydrology models involve: evapotranspiration rates and soil moisture dynamics for large areas; the three dimensional characteristics of bodies of water; flooding in wetlands; snow water equivalents; runoff and sediment yield from ungaged watersheds; storm rainfall; fluorescence and polarization of water and its contained substances; discriminating between sediment and chlorophyll in water; role of barrier island dynamics in coastal zone processes; the relationship between remotely measured surface roughness and hydraulic roughness of land surfaces and stream networks; and modeling the runoff process.

  17. Formulation of Macroscale Compaction Dynamics based on Mesoscale Simulations of Uniaxial Waves in Granular Explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2010-10-01

    A macroscale continuum theory for Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in granular explosive is generalized to account for the simultaneous existence of an arbitrary number of condensed phases. The theory assumes phase separation, and allows for flexible partitioning of dissipation between phases in a thermodynamically consistent manner. The constitutive theory is complex and requires descriptions for dissipation partition functions, relaxation rate functions, and phase-specific parameters that are not well-characterized, particularly for dynamic loading. A key focus of this study is to formulate expressions for phase-specific intergranular stresses and compaction potential energies based on mesoscale simulations of uniaxial compaction waves because of their importance to compaction induced heating and combustion. Predictions will be compared to quasi-static compaction data for granular HMX.

  18. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  19. Predator-prey interactions as macro-scale drivers of species diversity in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandom, Christopher James; Sandel, Brody Steven; Dalby, Lars

    mechanistic drivers of mammal species richness at macro-scales for two trophic levels: predators and prey. To disentangle biotic (i.e. functional predator-prey interactions) from abiotic (i.e. environmental) and bottom-up from top-down determinants we considered three hypotheses: 1) environmental factors......-down). We gathered distributional range, mass and diet data for 4,091 terrestrial mammal species, excluding bats. Species richness maps were created for predators and prey and structural equation modelling was used to test the three hypotheses at continental and global scales. We also explored...... the importance of functional trait composition by analyzing richness of large and small mass categories for prey (division at 10 kg) and predators (division at 21.5 kg). Results/Conclusions Mammal species richness increased from the poles to the equator, supporting the classic latitudinal richness gradient...

  20. Bridging nanocontacts to macroscale gecko adhesion by sliding soft lamellar skin supported setal array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wan, Jin; Pesika, Noshir; Zhou, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The study of the mechanism of the controlled adhesion of geckos, which is important for the design and fabrication of bio-inspired dry and reversible adhesive surfaces, is widely discussed below the setal level. In this work, the role of the soft lamellar skin in gecko toe adhesion was experimentally revealed. The lamellar skin acting as a soft spring sustains most of the normal deformation during preloading and maintains a wide range of adhesive state rather than a repulsive state. The sequential engagement and peeling off of setal array are responsible for the reliable gecko adhesion and friction control. This soft spring supported pillar structure should be adopted in future bio-inspired adhesives design. A hybrid three-legged spring/setae clamp was developed to transfer a horizontally placed silicon wafer. It indicates the importance of integration and optimization of nanoscale structures as well as the incorporation of their unique, size-dependent properties into functional macroscale devices.

  1. Creating multithemed ecological regions for macroscale ecology: Testing a flexible, repeatable, and accessible clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Yuan, Shuai; Webster, Katherine E.; Tan, Pang-Ning; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Collins, Sarah M.; Fergus, C. Emi; Scott, Caren E.; Norton Henry, Emily; Soranno, Patricia A.; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Understanding broad-scale ecological patterns and processes often involves accounting for regional-scale heterogeneity. A common way to do so is to include ecological regions in sampling schemes and empirical models. However, most existing ecological regions were developed for specific purposes, using a limited set of geospatial features and irreproducible methods. Our study purpose was to: (1) describe a method that takes advantage of recent computational advances and increased availability of regional and global data sets to create customizable and reproducible ecological regions, (2) make this algorithm available for use and modification by others studying different ecosystems, variables of interest, study extents, and macroscale ecology research questions, and (3) demonstrate the power of this approach for the research question—How well do these regions capture regional-scale variation in lake water quality? To achieve our purpose we: (1) used a spatially constrained spectral clustering algorithm that balances geospatial homogeneity and region contiguity to create ecological regions using multiple terrestrial, climatic, and freshwater geospatial data for 17 northeastern U.S. states (~1,800,000 km2); (2) identified which of the 52 geospatial features were most influential in creating the resulting 100 regions; and (3) tested the ability of these ecological regions to capture regional variation in water nutrients and clarity for ~6,000 lakes. We found that: (1) a combination of terrestrial, climatic, and freshwater geospatial features influenced region creation, suggesting that the oft-ignored freshwater landscape provides novel information on landscape variability not captured by traditionally used climate and terrestrial metrics; and (2) the delineated regions captured macroscale heterogeneity in ecosystem properties not included in region delineation—approximately 40% of the variation in total phosphorus and water clarity among lakes was at the regional

  2. Nondestructive chemical imaging of wood at the micro-scale: advanced technology to complement macro-scale evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Julia Sedlmair; Miriam Unger; Carol Hirschmugl

    2013-01-01

    Chemical images help understanding of wood properties, durability, and cell wall deconstruction for conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels, nanocellulose and other value added chemicals in forest biorefineries. We describe here a new method for nondestructive chemical imaging of wood and wood-based materials at the micro-scale to complement macro-scale methods based...

  3. New Optimality Approach for Photosynthetic Parameterization in Terrestrial Biosphere Models: Development and Testing of VIC-VEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebbeman, J.; Ramirez, J.

    2016-12-01

    Photosynthesis is intricately linked to the carbon, energy, and water cycles of our planet, and yet is commonly estimated in terrestrial biosphere models using grossly simplified descriptions and parameterizations. As our climate changes, vegetation both adapts and acclimates in ways not captured in these traditional modeling schemes. One of the most ubiquitous models of photosynthesis is the Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry model, which considers at a minimum, two systems of so-called light and dark reactions. Critical parameters for each of these systems include the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), and the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), respectively. Although critical, these parameters are commonly either fixed at a reference temperature using estimates from literature, or follow simplified rules independent of climate. Here, we consider a new optimality approach allocating available nitrogen within the leaf such that the expectation of carbon assimilation is maximized. Further, the new approach responds dynamically to the environment, including non-stomatal down-regulation during water shortages. This new approach is discussed along with a case study replicating seasonal variability of photosynthetic capacity. Further, we introduce the VIC-VEO (VEgetal Optimality) model that implements the photosynthetic optimality approach, which is then applied across the Colorado River Basin in a water supply vulnerability case study. Results of this study show significant differences in both assimilation and transpiration between static and dynamic parameterizations of the photosynthetic system, emphasizing the need for more robust photosynthetic parameterization schemes in contemporary terrestrial biosphere models, such as utilizing optimality approaches.

  4. GC23G-1310: Investigation Into the Effects of Climate Variability and Land Cover Change on the Hydrologic System of the Lower Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Kel N.; Griffin, Robert; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; McNider, Richard T.; Anderson, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    The Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) is an economically and ecologically important region that experiences hydrologic hazards such as floods and droughts, which can directly affect human well-being and limit economic growth and development. To effectively develop long-term plans for addressing hydrologic hazards, the regional hydrological response to climate variability and land cover change needs to be evaluated. This research aims to investigate how climate variability, specifically variations in the precipitation regime, and land cover change will affect hydrologic parameters both spatially and temporally within the LMB. The research goal is achieved by (1) modeling land cover change for a baseline land cover change scenario as well as changes in land cover with increases in forest or agriculture and (2) using projected climate variables and modeled land cover data as inputs into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to simulate the changes to the hydrologic system. The VIC model outputs were analyzed against historic values to understand the relative contribution of climate variability and land cover to change, where these changes occur, and to what degree these changes affect the hydrology. This study found that the LMB hydrologic system is more sensitive to climate variability than land cover change. On average, climate variability was found to increase discharge and evapotranspiration (ET) while decreasing water storage. The change in land cover show that increasing forest area will slightly decrease discharge and increase ET while increasing agriculture area increases discharge and decreases ET. These findings will help the LMB by supporting individual country policy to plan for future hydrologic changes as well as policy for the basin as a whole.

  5. Future Visions of the Brahmaputra - Establishing Hydrologic Baseline and Water Resources Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. A.; Yang, Y. E.; Wi, S.; Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Brahmaputra River Basin (China-India-Bhutan-Bangladesh) is on the verge of a transition from a largely free flowing and highly variable river to a basin of rapid investment and infrastructure development. This work demonstrates a knowledge platform for the basin that compiles available data, and develops hydrologic and water resources system models of the basin. A Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model of the Brahmaputra basin supplies hydrologic information of major tributaries to a water resources system model, which routes runoff generated via the VIC model through water infrastructure, and accounts for water withdrawals for agriculture, hydropower generation, municipal demand, return flows and others human activities. The system model also simulates agricultural production and the economic value of water in its various uses, including municipal, agricultural, and hydropower. Furthermore, the modeling framework incorporates plausible climate change scenarios based on the latest projections of changes to contributing glaciers (upstream), as well as changes to monsoon behavior (downstream). Water resources projects proposed in the Brahmaputra basin are evaluated based on their distribution of benefits and costs in the absence of well-defined water entitlements, and relative to a complex regional water-energy-food nexus. Results of this project will provide a basis for water sharing negotiation among the four countries and inform trans-national water-energy policy making.

  6. Regional drought assessment using a distributed hydrological model coupled with Standardized Runoff Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought assessment is essential for coping with frequent droughts nowadays. Owing to the large spatio-temporal variations in hydrometeorology in most regions in China, it is very necessary to use a physically-based hydrological model to produce rational spatial and temporal distributions of hydro-meteorological variables for drought assessment. In this study, the large-scale distributed hydrological model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC was coupled with a modified standardized runoff index (SRI for drought assessment in the Weihe River basin, northwest China. The result indicates that the coupled model is capable of reasonably reproducing the spatial distribution of drought occurrence. It reflected the spatial heterogeneity of regional drought and improved the physical mechanism of SRI. This model also has potential for drought forecasting, early warning and mitigation, given that accurate meteorological forcing data are available.

  7. From micro-scale 3D simulations to macro-scale model of periodic porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevacore, Eleonora; Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Sethi, Rajandrea; Messina, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    In environmental engineering, the transport of colloidal suspensions in porous media is studied to understand the fate of potentially harmful nano-particles and to design new remediation technologies. In this perspective, averaging techniques applied to micro-scale numerical simulations are a powerful tool to extrapolate accurate macro-scale models. Choosing two simplified packing configurations of soil grains and starting from a single elementary cell (module), it is possible to take advantage of the periodicity of the structures to reduce the computation costs of full 3D simulations. Steady-state flow simulations for incompressible fluid in laminar regime are implemented. Transport simulations are based on the pore-scale advection-diffusion equation, that can be enriched introducing also the Stokes velocity (to consider the gravity effect) and the interception mechanism. Simulations are carried on a domain composed of several elementary modules, that serve as control volumes in a finite volume method for the macro-scale method. The periodicity of the medium involves the periodicity of the flow field and this will be of great importance during the up-scaling procedure, allowing relevant simplifications. Micro-scale numerical data are treated in order to compute the mean concentration (volume and area averages) and fluxes on each module. The simulation results are used to compare the micro-scale averaged equation to the integral form of the macroscopic one, making a distinction between those terms that could be computed exactly and those for which a closure in needed. Of particular interest it is the investigation of the origin of macro-scale terms such as the dispersion and tortuosity, trying to describe them with micro-scale known quantities. Traditionally, to study the colloidal transport many simplifications are introduced, such those concerning ultra-simplified geometry that usually account for a single collector. Gradual removal of such hypothesis leads to a

  8. Simulating macro-scale crop yield using an optimized light-use efficiency model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M. T.; Tu, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    Large-area crop yield models (LACMs) characterize plant-climate-soil interactions at the macro-scale to identify management practices that improve crop yield under various carbon emissions scenarios. Here we present a new LACM that computes crop yield from the harvest index and net primary production (NPP). NPP is estimated by summing Gross Primary Production (GPP) over the primary growing season and GPP is estimated on a daily time step from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) weighted by the fraction of PAR absorbed by the canopy (FPAR) derived from remote sensing, quantum conversion efficiency, and meteorological constraints. The model was developed using three synergistic activities: 1) sensitivity analysis to identify the most important eco-physiological constraints and to guide model calibration; 2) model calibration, which included a rigorous assessment of several constraints taken from the remote sensing crop yield and evapotranspiration literature, to account for non-linear relationships; and 3) model validation using eddy covariance flux tower data for major crops across the United. The results were compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer GPP/NPP (MOD17A2) product using root mean square error (RMSE) in g CO2 m-2 d-1, systematic root mean square error (RMSEU), unsystematic root mean square error (RMSES), and revised Willmott's (D). Model performance was highest for rice (D=0.85, RMSE=6.62, RMSEU=1.29, and RMSES=6.49) and lowest for maize (D=0.74, RMSE=17.49, RMSEU=10.20, and RMSES= 14.21), which was consistently better than MOD17A2 (D=0.75, RMSE=9.67, RMSEU=5.54, and RMSES=7.93 for rice and D=0.63, RMSE= 25.89, RMSEU=21.17, and RMSES=14.89 for maize). The model is now being parametrized with daily DAYMET 1 km meteorological and 7-day EROS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer 250 m vegetation data for a county-level crop yield assessment from 2001-2015 for the Contiguous United States. It is expected that the new model

  9. Turbulent velocity and concentration measurements in a macro-scale multi-inlet vortex nanoprecipitation reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenping; Fox, Rodney; Hill, James; Olsen, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) is a technique to produce monodisperse functional nanoparticles. Microscale multi-inlet vortex reactors (MIVR) have been effectively applied to FNP due to their ability to provide rapid mixing and flexibility of inlet flow conditions. A scaled-up MIVR could potentially generate large quantities of functional nanoparticles, giving FNP wider applicability in industry. In the presented research, the turbulent velocity field inside a scaled-up, macroscale MIVR is measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Within the reactor, velocity is measured using both two-dimensional and stereoscopic PIV at two Reynolds numbers (3500 and 8750) based on the flow at each inlet. Data have been collected at numerous locations in the inlet channels, the reaction chamber, and the reactor outlet. Mean velocity and Reynolds stresses have been obtained based on 5000 instantaneous velocity realizations at each measurement location. The turbulent mixing process has also been investigated with passive scalar planar laser-induced fluorescence and simultaneous PIV/PLIF. Velocity and concentration results are compared to results from previous experiments in a microscale MIVR. Scaled profiles of turbulent quantities are similar to those previously found in the microscale MIVR.

  10. Heart valve scaffold fabrication: Bioinspired control of macro-scale morphology, mechanics and micro-structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, Antonio; Luketich, Samuel K; Raffa, Giuseppe M; Olia, Salim; Menallo, Giorgio; Mazzola, Antonino; D'Accardi, Flavio; Grunberg, Tamir; Gu, Xinzhu; Pilato, Michele; Kameneva, Marina V; Badhwar, Vinay; Wagner, William R

    2018-01-01

    Valvular heart disease is currently treated with mechanical valves, which benefit from longevity, but are burdened by chronic anticoagulation therapy, or with bioprosthetic valves, which have reduced thromboembolic risk, but limited durability. Tissue engineered heart valves have been proposed to resolve these issues by implanting a scaffold that is replaced by endogenous growth, leaving autologous, functional leaflets that would putatively eliminate the need for anticoagulation and avoid calcification. Despite the diversity in fabrication strategies and encouraging results in large animal models, control over engineered valve structure-function remains at best partial. This study aimed to overcome these limitations by introducing double component deposition (DCD), an electrodeposition technique that employs multi-phase electrodes to dictate valve macro and microstructure and resultant function. Results in this report demonstrate the capacity of the DCD method to simultaneously control scaffold macro-scale morphology, mechanics and microstructure while producing fully assembled stent-less multi-leaflet valves composed of microscopic fibers. DCD engineered valve characterization included: leaflet thickness, biaxial properties, bending properties, and quantitative structural analysis of multi-photon and scanning electron micrographs. Quasi-static ex-vivo valve coaptation testing and dynamic organ level functional assessment in a pressure pulse duplicating device demonstrated appropriate acute valve functionality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Detecting benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by line-scan macro-scale Raman chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Gonzalez, Maria; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2017-05-01

    Excessive use of benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a bleaching agent) in wheat flour can destroy flour nutrients and cause diseases to consumers. A macro-scale Raman chemical imaging method was developed for direct detection of BPO mixed in the wheat flour. A 785 nm line laser was used in a line-scan Hyperspectral Raman imaging system. Raman images were collected from wheat flour mixed with BPO at eight concentrations (w/w) from 50 to 6,400 ppm. A sample holder (150×100×2 mm3) was used to present a thin layer (2 mm thick) of the powdered sample for image acquisition. A baseline correction method was used to correct the fluctuating fluorescence signals from the wheat flour. To isolate BPO particles from the flour background, a simple thresholding method was applied to the single-band fluorescence-free images at a unique Raman peak wavenumber (i.e., 1001 cm-1) preselected for the BPO detection. Chemical images were created to detect and map the BPO particles. Limit of detection for the BPO was estimated in the order of 50 ppm, which is on the same level with regulatory standards.

  12. Macroscale multimodal imaging reveals ancient painting production technology and the vogue in Greco-Roman Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, John K; Dooley, Kathryn A; Radpour, Roxanne; Kakoulli, Ioanna

    2017-11-14

    Macroscale multimodal chemical imaging combining hyperspectral diffuse reflectance (400-2500 nm), luminescence (400-1000 nm), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF, 2 to 25 keV) data, is uniquely equipped for noninvasive characterization of heterogeneous complex systems such as paintings. Here we present the first application of multimodal chemical imaging to analyze the production technology of an 1,800-year-old painting and one of the oldest surviving encaustic ("burned in") paintings in the world. Co-registration of the data cubes from these three hyperspectral imaging modalities enabled the comparison of reflectance, luminescence, and XRF spectra at each pixel in the image for the entire painting. By comparing the molecular and elemental spectral signatures at each pixel, this fusion of the data allowed for a more thorough identification and mapping of the painting's constituent organic and inorganic materials, revealing key information on the selection of raw materials, production sequence and the fashion aesthetics and chemical arts practiced in Egypt in the second century AD.

  13. Comparison of dielectric materials for the activation of a macro-scale hinge configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, C.; Schmidt, A.; Kovacs, G.; Ermanni, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    While much of the research on dielectric elastomer actuators used to concentrate on VHB 4910 as dielectric material, lately many new, specifically developed materials have come into focus. The acrylic VHB has been thoroughly characterized in a macro-scale agonist-antagonist configuration on an active hinge. This was carried out with the aim of using it on an airship, which was activated, undulating body and a fin and thus propelled in a fish-like manner. The concept was proved in flight, but still lifetime and viscosity of the actuators and the time-costing fabrication due to the necessary large pre-stretches of the dielectric membrane caused severe inconveniences. In order to evaluate the usability of other materials for this specific purpose, two other materials, a corrugated silicone with silver electrodes (by PolyPower) and an acrylic with interpenetrating network (IPN) developed by Pei et al. were characterized under similar conditions. The influence of the material on performance and design of the actuators and the conclusions for the use of the materials on the airship (and on applications with similar performance requirements) are presented.

  14. Multiscale Modeling of Cell Interaction in Angiogenesis: From the Micro- to Macro-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Samara; Maini, Philip; Byrne, Helen

    Solid tumors require a supply of nutrients to grow in size. To this end, tumors induce the growth of new blood vessels from existing vasculature through the process of angiogenesis. In this work, we use a discrete agent-based approach to model the behavior of individual endothelial cells during angiogenesis. We incorporate crowding effects through volume exclusion, motility of cells through biased random walks, and include birth and death processes. We use the transition probabilities associated with the discrete models to determine collective cell behavior, in terms of partial differential equations, using a Markov chain and master equation framework. We find that the cell-level dynamics gives rise to a migrating cell front in the form of a traveling wave on the macro-scale. The behavior of this front depends on the cell interactions that are included and the extent to which volume exclusion is taken into account in the discrete micro-scale model. We also find that well-established continuum models of angiogenesis cannot distinguish between certain types of cell behavior on the micro-scale. This may impact drug development strategies based on these models.

  15. Changes in the characteristics of hydrological droughts over a semi-arid watershed within Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Yuan, Xing; Yang, Dawen

    2017-04-01

    Due to climate change and human interventions, significant decreases in river discharges have been observed in many large river basins over China during the past five decades, especially in the Yellow River basin, the second longest river in China. This suggests an intensified water resources shortage and an increasing hydrological drought risk. In this study, we aimed at analyzing the changes in the characteristics of hydrological droughts over a semi-arid watershed located in the middle reach of Yellow River basin from 1960s to the end of the 21st century. Firstly, historical climate forcing and river discharge data during 1961 2005 were collected from meteorological and hydrological stations, and climate forcing data from 2006 to 2099 were collected from several CMIP5 simulations under different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Secondly, the frequency and severity of historical hydrological droughts were calculated based on the observed streamflow data and simulated streamflow by using the VIC land surface model and a newly developed eco-hydrological model CLM-GBHM. CLM-GBHM introduced detailed description of river network and sub-basin topological relationships into CLM, and performed quite well in streamflow simulations. The responses of hydrological droughts to historical and future climate change are being analyzed, causes of the changes in terms of natural and anthropogenic influences will be investigated, and the uncertainty for future projections will be estimated. This study will facilitate the implementation of adaptation strategies for hydrological drought over the semiarid watershed in a changing environment.

  16. HYDROLOGY, SANDUSKY COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, TALLAHATCHIE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. Hydrology, MECKLENBURG COUNTY, NC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, LAFAYETTE COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, LEE COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, GREENE County, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, CUSTER COUNTY, SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, WARREN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, Lawrence County, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, HOUSTON COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating ALood discharges for a ALood Insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, CITRUS COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, JEFFERSON COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, Cass COUNTY, IN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, CLAY COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, NEWTON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, CHISAGO COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, GLADES COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, Allegheny County, PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, SCOTT COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, Butler COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, MUSKINGUM COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. Hydrology, ANDROSCOGGIN COUNTY, MAINE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGY, SUMNER COUNTY, TN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, HARVEYCOUNTY, KS USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, JACKSON COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, QUITMAN COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, SUNFLOWER COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, STEARNS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, POWESHIEK COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. A macro-scale perspective on within-farm management: how climate and topography alter the effect of farming practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuya; Kusumoto, Yoshinobu; Okamura, Hiroshi; Baba, Yuki G; Hamasaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Koichi; Yamamoto, Shori

    2011-12-01

    Organic farming has the potential to reverse biodiversity loss in farmland and benefit agriculture by enhancing ecosystem services. Although the mixed success of organic farming in enhancing biodiversity has been attributed to differences in taxa and landscape context, no studies have focused on the effect of macro-scale factors such as climate and topography. This study provides the first assessment of the impact of macro-scale factors on the effectiveness of within-farm management on biodiversity, using spiders in Japan as an example. A multilevel modelling approach revealed that reducing pesticide applications increases spider abundance, particularly in areas with high precipitation, which were also associated with high potential spider abundance. Using the model we identified areas throughout Japan that can potentially benefit from organic farming. The alteration of local habitat-abundance relations by macro-scale factors could explain the reported low spatial generality in the effects of organic farming and patterns of habitat association. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Evaluation of a monthly hydrological model for Integrated Assessment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Li, H. Y.; Zhang, X.; Leng, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Integrated Assessment modeling (IAM) community, which generated the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs), is actively moving toward including endogenous representations of water supply and demand in their economic modeling frameworks. Toward integrating the water supply module, we build an efficient object-oriented and open-source hydrologic model (HM) to be embedded in IAMs - Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The main objective for this new HM is to strike a balance between model complexity and computational efficiency; i.e., possessing sufficient fidelity to capture both the annual and the seasonal signals of water fluxes and pools and being highly computationally efficient so that it can be used for large number of simulations or uncertainty quantification analyses. To this end, we build a monthly gridded hydrological model based on the ABCD model with some additional features such as a snow scheme and the effects of land use and land cover change (LULCC) on the hydrological cycle. In this framework, we mainly simulate the pools of soil moisture, snowpack and groundwater storage, and the fluxes of evapotranspiration, recharge to groundwater, direct runoff and groundwater discharge. We assess the performance of the model by comparing the model results against runoff simulation from the model of Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) as well as historical streamflow observations at various gauge stations. We will present results on the model performance, the gains of adding different model components (e.g., snow scheme, effects of LULCC), and the variations of hydrological cycle globally over the historical period of 1901-2010.

  7. Study on Safety Assist Information of Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS) using VICS in Blind Curve Section of Urban Expressway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Tatsuru; Makino, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Hiroyuki; Munehiro, Yuji

    This paper investigates effect of AHS (Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems) service using VICS (Vehicle Information and Communication System) on driver behavior and safety awareness, through experiment with a driving simulator. In this AHS service, when drivers of vehicles behind do not notice an incident such as stopping vehicle or rearmost congestion at blind curve sections of urban expressway, 3-media VICS-enable in-vehicle navigation unit provides them information to avoid collision based on communication between road and vehicle. In this study, such road environment and traffic condition around drivers were generated by using a motion-based driving simulator which had a real car body, seven 150-inch screens covering 330-degree field of view, 3-media VICS-enable in-vehicle navigation unit in the cockpit. Twenty-nine subjects were participated and instructed to perform based on their usual safe driving skill in urban expressway. Three types of visual content of AHS information were examined from the viewpoint of driving maneuver, visual behavior and safety awareness. Subjective evaluation was also conducted in terms of understanding of information, surprise and maneuver. The results of the experiment indicate that AHS service is more effective to decrease possibility of collision than usual driving without AHS service, in terms of timing of releasing accelerator pedal, applying brake pedal and improvement of safety awareness, although it was observed that understanding of AHS information varied among the subjects. Especially, based on the result of this study, simple figure of AHS information is more effective than text message in order to avoid such a collision safely.

  8. Molecular and macro-scale analysis of enzyme-crosslinked silk hydrogels for rational biomaterial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Meghan; Coburn, Jeannine M; Partlow, Benjamin P; Mu, Xuan; Kaplan, David L

    2017-11-01

    Silk fibroin-based hydrogels have exciting applications in tissue engineering and therapeutic molecule delivery; however, their utility is dependent on their diffusive properties. The present study describes a molecular and macro-scale investigation of enzymatically-crosslinked silk fibroin hydrogels, and demonstrates that these systems have tunable crosslink density and diffusivity. We developed a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method to assess the quantity and order of covalent tyrosine crosslinks in the hydrogels. This analysis revealed between 28 and 56% conversion of tyrosine to dityrosine, which was dependent on the silk concentration and reactant concentration. The crosslink density was then correlated with storage modulus, revealing that both crosslinking and protein concentration influenced the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. The diffusive properties of the bulk material were studied by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which revealed a non-linear relationship between silk concentration and diffusivity. As a result of this work, a model for synthesizing hydrogels with known crosslink densities and diffusive properties has been established, enabling the rational design of silk hydrogels for biomedical applications. Hydrogels from naturally-derived silk polymers offer versitile opportunities in the biomedical field, however, their design has largely been an empirical process. We present a fundamental study of the crosslink density, storage modulus, and diffusion behavior of enzymatically-crosslinked silk hydrogels to better inform scaffold design. These studies revealed unexpected non-linear trends in the crosslink density and diffusivity of silk hydrogels with respect to protein concentration and crosslink reagent concentration. This work demonstrates the tunable diffusivity and crosslinking in silk fibroin hydrogels, and enables the rational design of biomaterials. Further, the characterization methods

  9. Differential expression profiles of Streptococcus mutans ftf, gtf and vicR genes in the presence of dietary carbohydrates at early and late exponential growth phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Moshe; Tam, Avshalom; Feldman, Mark; Steinberg, Doron

    2006-09-04

    Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases that affects humans. Streptococcus mutans, the main pathogenic bacterium associated with dental caries, produces a number of extracellular sucrose-metabolizing enzymes, such as glucosyltransferases (GTFB, GTFC and GTFD) and fructosyltransferase (FTF). The cooperative action of these enzymes is essential for sucrose-dependent cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. A global response regulator (vicR) plays important roles in S. mutans ftf and gtf expression in response to a variety of stimuli. A real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction was used to quantify the relative levels of ftf, gtfB, gtfC, gtfD and vicR transcription of S. mutans in the presence of various dietary carbohydrates: sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-glucitol (D-sorbitol), D-mannitol and xylitol. Ftf was highly expressed at late exponential phase in the presence of sorbitol and mannitol. GtfB was highly expressed in the presence of all the above carbohydrates except for xylitol at early exponential growth phase and glucose and fructose at late exponential growth phase. Similar to gtfB, the expression of gtfC was also induced with the presence of all the tested carbohydrates except for xylitol at early growth and glucose and fructose at late exponential phase. In addition, no effect of mannitol on gtfC expression at early exponential phase was observed. GtfD was less influenced compared to the gtfB and gtfC, demonstrating enhanced expression especially in the presence of sorbitol, glucose, mannitol and xylitol at early exponential phase and mannitol at late exponential phase. VicR expression was induced only at the presence of xylitol at late exponential phase, and a decrease in expression was recorded at early exponential phase. Our findings show that dietary carbohydrates have a major influence on the transcription of ftf, gtfB, gtfC and gtfD, but less on vicR. Sorbitol and mannitol, which are considered as noncariogenic

  10. La aplicación del método AICLE en los estudios de comunicación de la Universidad de Vic

    OpenAIRE

    Ginesta Portet, Xavier; Coll Planas, Gerard; San Eugenio Vela, Jordi de

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se elabora un diagnóstico de las asignaturas que siguen el método AICLE (Apredizaje Integrado de Contenidos y Lenguas Extranjeras) en la Facultad de Empresa y Comunicación (FEC) de la Universitat de Vic (UVic). En base a cuatro entrevistas semiestructuradas al profesorado que las imparte y a encuestas a 60 estudiantes de segundo ciclo de los estudios de comunicación, se elabora un diagnóstico de los puntos fuertes y débiles de la aplicación de este método y se rec...

  11. Intra- versus inter-site macroscale variation in biogeochemical properties along a paddy soil chronosequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mueller-Niggemann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the intrinsic heterogeneity of paddy soils, a set of biogeochemical soil parameters was investigated in five field replicates of seven paddy fields (50, 100, 300, 500, 700, 1000, and 2000 yr of wetland rice cultivation, one flooded paddy nursery, one tidal wetland (TW, and one freshwater site (FW from a coastal area at Hangzhou Bay, Zhejiang Province, China. All soils evolved from a marine tidal flat substrate due to land reclamation. The biogeochemical parameters based on their properties were differentiated into (i a group behaving conservatively (TC, TOC, TN, TS, magnetic susceptibility, soil lightness and colour parameters, δ13C, δ15N, lipids and n-alkanes and (ii one encompassing more labile properties or fast cycling components (Nmic, Cmic, nitrate, ammonium, DON and DOC. The macroscale heterogeneity in paddy soils was assessed by evaluating intra- versus inter-site spatial variability of biogeochemical properties using statistical data analysis (descriptive, explorative and non-parametric. Results show that the intrinsic heterogeneity of paddy soil organic and minerogenic components per field is smaller than between study sites. The coefficient of variation (CV values of conservative parameters varied in a low range (10% to 20%, decreasing from younger towards older paddy soils. This indicates a declining variability of soil biogeochemical properties in longer used cropping sites according to progress in soil evolution. A generally higher variation of CV values (>20–40% observed for labile parameters implies a need for substantially higher sampling frequency when investigating these as compared to more conservative parameters. Since the representativeness of the sampling strategy could be sufficiently demonstrated, an investigation of long-term carbon accumulation/sequestration trends in topsoils of the 2000 yr paddy chronosequence under wetland rice cultivation

  12. Precise Nanoscale Surface Modification and Coating of Macroscale Objects: Open-Environment in Loco Atomic Layer Deposition on an Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Moataz Bellah M; Oldham, Christopher J; Parsons, Gregory N

    2015-09-09

    The fundamental chemical reaction conditions that define atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be achieved in an open environment on a macroscale surface too large and complex for typical laboratory reactor-based ALD. We describe the concept of in loco ALD using conventional modulated reactant flow through a surface-mounted "ALD delivery head" to form a precise nanoscale Al2O3 film on the window of a parked automobile. Analysis confirms that the processes eliminated ambient water contamination and met other conditions that define ALD growth. Using this tool, we demonstrate open-ambient patterned deposition, metal corrosion protection, and polymer surface modification.

  13. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Yeun Lee

    Full Text Available Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation. Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916-2010 or later and classify wetland types, and b project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario. These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will

  14. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Ryan, Maureen E; Hamlet, Alan F; Palen, Wendy J; Lawler, Joshua J; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916-2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  15. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Alan F.; Palen, Wendy J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916–2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  16. Implementation and adaptation of a macro-scale methodology to calculate direct economic losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natho, Stephanie; Thieken, Annegret

    2017-04-01

    forestry sector. Furthermore overheads are proposed to include costs of housing content as well as the overall costs of public infrastructure, one of the most important damage sectors. All constants considering sector specific mean sizes or construction costs were adapted. Loss ratios were adapted for each event. Whereas the original UNISDR method over- und underestimates the losses of the tested events, the adapted method is able to calculate losses in good accordance for river floods, hail storms and storms. For example, for the 2013-flood economic losses of EUR 6.3 billion were calculated (UNISDR EUR 0.85 billion, documentation EUR 11 billion). For the hail storms in 2013 the calculated EUR 3.6 billion overestimate the documented losses of EUR 2.7 billion less than the original UNISDR approach with EUR 5.2 billion. Only for flash floods, where public infrastructure can account for more than 90% of total losses, the method is absolutely not applicable. The adapted methodology serves as a good starting point for macro-scale loss estimations by accounting for the most important damage sectors. By implementing this approach into damage and event documentation and reporting standards, a consistent monitoring according to the SFDRR could be achieved.

  17. Steady electrodiffusion in hydrogel-colloid composites: macroscale properties from microscale electrokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reghan J. Hill

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous microscale electrokinetic model for hydrogel-colloid composites is adopted to compute macroscale profiles of electrolyte concentration, electrostatic potential, and hydrostatic pressure across membranes that separate electrolytes with different concentrations. The membranes are uncharged polymeric hydrogels in which charged spherical colloidal particles are immobilized and randomly dispersed with a low solid volume fraction. Bulk membrane characteristics and performance are calculated from a continuum microscale electrokinetic model (Hill 2006b, c. The computations undertaken in this paper quantify the streaming and membrane potentials. For the membrane potential, increasing the volume fraction of negatively charged inclusions decreases the differential electrostatic potential across the membrane under conditions where there is zero convective flow and zero electrical current. With low electrolyte concentration and highly charged nanoparticles, the membrane potential is very sensitive to the particle volume fraction. Accordingly, the membrane potential - and changes brought about by the inclusion size, charge and concentration - could be a useful experimental diagnostic to complement more recent applications of the microscale electrokinetic model for electrical microrheology and electroacoustics (Hill and Ostoja-Starzewski 2008, Wang and Hill 2008.Um modelo eletrocinético rigoroso para compósitos formados por um hidrogel e um colóide é adotado para computar os perfis macroscópicos de concentração eletrolítica, potencial eletrostático e pressão hidrostática através de uma membrana que separa soluções com diferentes concentrações eletrolíticas. A membrana é composta por um hidrogel polimérico sem carga elétrica onde partículas esféricas são imobilizadas e dispersas aleatoriamente com baixa fração de volume do sólido. As características da membrana e a sua performance são calculadas a partir de um modelo

  18. Moneda oficial i diversitat monetària a Catalunya a la primera meitat del segle XIII: El cas de Vic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginebra i Molins, Rafel

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available While medieval coinage is normally studied from a numismatic point of view or as a fiscal instrument or element of income for the public authorities responsible of the coinage, this study, considering the references to different currencies in notarial documentation and especially in the first volume of the Cúria Fumada archive of Vic (3,308 documents covering the period September 1230 to December 1233, analyses the monetary types wich were really in use in the interior of Catalonia during the first half of de XIII century, documenting up to nine simultaneous different currencies. This study analyses the different currencies, their relative importance, their ambit of use and their specialisation and equivalencies. New information is also provided regarding a particular subject as is the episcopal stamping of coins in Vic during the first half of the XIII century.[fr] Si normalement on étudie la monnaie médiévale dès le point de vue numismatique ou comme un instrument ou un élément de fiscalité ou de rente des pouvoirs publics qui la frappent, cette étude, qui part des références à monnaie dans la documentation notariale et très particulièrement dans le premier volume des Arxives de la Cúria Fumada de Vic (3.308 documents de la période de septembre 1230 à décembre 1233, analyse la monnaie qui circule reélement dans la Catalogne intérieure pendant la première moitié du XlIIe. siècle, en documentant jusqu'à neuf numéraires simultanés différents. L'étude analyse les différentes monnaies, leur importance relative, leurs enceintes d'usage, leur spécialisation et leurs équivalences. L'étude apporte aussi de nouvelles données à l'aspect ponctuel des frappes de monnaie episcopale de Vie à la première moitié du XIIe. siècle.

  19. Hydrological modelling in forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of forest hydrology modelling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. Many hundreds of hydrological models have been applied globally across multiple decades to represent and predict forest hydrological p...

  20. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  1. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  2. Hydrologic Services Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    A course to develop an understanding of the scope of water resource activities, of the need for forecasting, of the National Weather Service's role in hydrology, and of the proper procedures to follow in fulfilling this role is presented. The course is one of self-help, guided by correspondence. Nine lessons are included: (1) Hydrology in the…

  3. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  4. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijie; Zhang, Lisha; Wang, Huanli; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing; Xu, Kaibing; Liu, Jianshe

    2014-02-05

    Traditional nanosized photocatalysts usually have high photocatalytic activity but can not be efficiently recycled. Film-shaped photocatalysts on the substrates can be easily recycled, but they have low surface area and/or high production cost. To solve these problems, we report on the design and preparation of efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts with nanostructure by using Ta3N5 as a model semiconductor. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth has been prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation-wet impregnation method, and it is composed of Ta3N5 fibers with diameter of 150-200 nm and hierarchical pores. Furthermore, these fibers are constructed from Ta3N5 nanoparticles with diameter of ~25 nm which are decorated with Pt nanoparticles with diameter of ~2.5 nm. Importantly, Ta3N5-Pt cloth can be used as an efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalyst with wide visible-light response, for the degradation of methylene blue and parachlorophenol, probably resulting in a very promising application as "photocatalyst dam" for the polluted river.

  5. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijie; Zhang, Lisha; Wang, Huanli; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing; Xu, Kaibing; Liu, Jianshe

    2014-01-01

    Traditional nanosized photocatalysts usually have high photocatalytic activity but can not be efficiently recycled. Film-shaped photocatalysts on the substrates can be easily recycled, but they have low surface area and/or high production cost. To solve these problems, we report on the design and preparation of efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts with nanostructure by using Ta3N5 as a model semiconductor. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth has been prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation-wet impregnation method, and it is composed of Ta3N5 fibers with diameter of 150–200 nm and hierarchical pores. Furthermore, these fibers are constructed from Ta3N5 nanoparticles with diameter of ~25 nm which are decorated with Pt nanoparticles with diameter of ~2.5 nm. Importantly, Ta3N5-Pt cloth can be used as an efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalyst with wide visible-light response, for the degradation of methylene blue and parachlorophenol, probably resulting in a very promising application as “photocatalyst dam” for the polluted river. PMID:24496147

  6. Skill Analysis of Seasonal Hydrologic Streamflow Forecasting for the Upper Zambezi, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Pineda, R.; Valdes, J. B.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Wi, S.; Demaria, E. M.; Roberts, J. B.; Robertson, F. R.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal Hydrological Streamflow Forecasting (SHSF) is a powerful tool aimed to provide information to water resources managers. SHSF incorporates information provided by coupled atmosphere-ocean-land general circulation models (CGCMs) into hydrologic models to produce seasonal (up to 180 days) daily streamflow forecasts. In this research the forecasting skills of four distributed hydrologic models: the HyMod model, the HBV model; the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model; and the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) are evaluated for the period 2000-2016 in the Upper Zambezi River Basin (UZRB). Seasonal streamflow forecasts for the UZRB are produced using seasonal forecasts of precipitation and temperature obtained from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME). A stratified sampling of NMME scenarios is used to provide uncertainty levels of the forecasts; and the impact of the initial conditions over the seasonal predictions is also analyzed and discussed. The ensemble of the multi-model satellite based streamflow forecasts will serve as decision support tools for managing water resources in the Zambezi River basin using a website-based platform developed as a collaborative effort between the SERVIR Water Africa-Arizona Team (SWAAT) and the SERVIR Program of NASA and USAID.

  7. Facets of Hydrology II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Frank J.

    The editor states that this book should have a wide appeal to the research hydrologist, to operational hydrologists, and to those who have only a limited knowledge or are beginners in the study of hydrology. I agree with the editor that this publication should appeal to a large cross section of people whose interests lie in the various facets of hydrology.This publication takes a look at the newest interpretational tools available to hydrologists, such as environmental satellites. It considers a diverse menu of topics, such as sediment load of rivers, water resource systems, water quality monitoring, and the physical aspects of lakes. The volume also presents a look at international organizations that are concerned with worldwide water problems. The quality, quantity, and distribution of water over the globe is covered unde the topic headings “Large Scale Water Transfers,” “Technology Transfer in Hydrology,” and “The Organization of Hydrologic Services.”

  8. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  9. Global Hydrology Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GHRC is the data management and user services arm of the Global Hydrology and Climate Center. It encompasses the data and information management, supporting...

  10. Hydrologic Engineering Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), an organization within the Institute for Water Resources, is the designated Center of Expertise for the U.S. Army Corps of...

  11. Hydrological or economical obligation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorucci E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A short comment is made about the obligation of the forest management plan in Italy, that was established as an economical (not hydrological obligation according to the Luzzatti law of 1910.

  12. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  13. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  14. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  15. Density Dependence of the Macroscale Superelastic Behavior of Porous Shape Memory Alloys: A Two-Dimensional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Maîtrejean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs are of particular interest for many industrial applications, as they combine intrinsic SMA (shape memory effect and superelasticity and foam characteristics. The computational cost of direct porous material modeling is however extremely high, and so designing porous SMA structure poses a considerable challenge. In this study, an attempt is made to simulate the superelastic behavior of porous materials via the modeling of fully dense structures with material properties modified using a porous/bulk density ratio scaling relation. Using this approach, direct modeling of the porous microstructure is avoided, and only the macroscale response of the model is considered which contributes to a drastic reduction of the computational cost. Foam structures with a gradient of porosity are also studied, and the prediction made using the fully dense material model is shown to be in agreement with the mesoscale porous material model.

  16. Creating multithemed ecological regions for macroscale ecology: Testing a flexible, repeatable, and accessible clustering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Yuan, Shuai; Webster, Katherine E; Tan, Pang-Ning; Lapierre, Jean-François; Collins, Sarah M; Fergus, C Emi; Scott, Caren E; Henry, Emily Norton; Soranno, Patricia A; Filstrup, Christopher T; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    Understanding broad-scale ecological patterns and processes often involves accounting for regional-scale heterogeneity. A common way to do so is to include ecological regions in sampling schemes and empirical models. However, most existing ecological regions were developed for specific purposes, using a limited set of geospatial features and irreproducible methods. Our study purpose was to: (1) describe a method that takes advantage of recent computational advances and increased availability of regional and global data sets to create customizable and reproducible ecological regions, (2) make this algorithm available for use and modification by others studying different ecosystems, variables of interest, study extents, and macroscale ecology research questions, and (3) demonstrate the power of this approach for the research question-How well do these regions capture regional-scale variation in lake water quality? To achieve our purpose we: (1) used a spatially constrained spectral clustering algorithm that balances geospatial homogeneity and region contiguity to create ecological regions using multiple terrestrial, climatic, and freshwater geospatial data for 17 northeastern U.S. states (~1,800,000 km 2 ); (2) identified which of the 52 geospatial features were most influential in creating the resulting 100 regions; and (3) tested the ability of these ecological regions to capture regional variation in water nutrients and clarity for ~6,000 lakes. We found that: (1) a combination of terrestrial, climatic, and freshwater geospatial features influenced region creation, suggesting that the oft-ignored freshwater landscape provides novel information on landscape variability not captured by traditionally used climate and terrestrial metrics; and (2) the delineated regions captured macroscale heterogeneity in ecosystem properties not included in region delineation-approximately 40% of the variation in total phosphorus and water clarity among lakes was at the regional

  17. Macroscale cobalt-MOFs derived metallic Co nanoparticles embedded in N-doped porous carbon layers as efficient oxygen electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Sheng; Zhang, Haimin; Liu, Rongrong; Zhang, Xian; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong

    2017-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) materials have aroused great research interest in different areas owing to their unique properties, such as high surface area, various composition, well-organized framework and controllable porous structure. Controllable fabrication of MOFs materials at macro-scale may be more promising for their large-scale practical applications. Here we report the synthesis of macro-scale Co-MOFs crystals using 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linker in the presence of Co2+, triethylamine (TEA) and nonanoic acid by a facile solvothermal reaction. Further, the as-fabricated Co-MOFs as precursor was pyrolytically treated at different temperatures in N2 atmosphere to obtain metallic Co nanoparticles embedded in N-doped porous carbon layers (denoted as Co@NPC). The results demonstrate that the Co-MOFs derived sample obtained at 900 °C (Co@NPC-900) shows a porous structure (including micropore and mesopore) with a surface area of 110.8 m2 g-1 and an N doping level of 1.62 at.% resulted from TEA in the pyrolysis process. As electrocatalyst, the Co@NPC-900 exhibits bifunctional electrocatalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media which are key reactions in some renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. The results indicate that the Co@NPC-900 can afford an onset potential of 1.50 V (vs. RHE) and a potential value of 1.61 V (vs. RHE) at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 for ORR and OER with high applicable stability, respectively. The efficient catalytic activity of Co@NPC-900 as bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst can be ascribed to N doping and embedded metallic Co nanoparticles in carbon structure providing catalytic active sites and porous structure favourable for electrocatalysis-related mass transport.

  18. Bridging the Gap between Macroscale Drug Delivery Systems and Nanomedicines: A Nanoparticle-Assembled Thermosensitive Hydrogel for Peritumoral Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pingsheng; Song, Huijuan; Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Jinjian; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Jianfeng; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling

    2016-11-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal delivery of nanomedicines by an injectable, thermosensitive, and nanoparticle-self-aggregated hydrogel for peritumoral chemotherapy. Doxorubicin (Dox) was taken as the model medicine, which was encapsulated into poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT) nanoparticles (PECT/Dox NPs). Macroscale hydrogel was formed by thermosensitive self-aggregation of PECT/Dox NPs in aqueous solution. Drug release from the hydrogel formulation was dominated by sustained shedding of PECT/Dox NPs and the following drug diffusion from these NPs. The hydrogel retention and release pattern of NPs in vivo was further confirmed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. A single treatment with the hydrogel formulation possessed similar cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared to triple administrations of free Dox or PECT/Dox NPs in vitro due to enhanced uptake of PECT/Dox NPs and sustained intracellular drug release. Importantly, single peritumoral injection of drug-encapsulated hydrogel in vivo showed advantages over multiple intravenous administrations of PECT/Dox NPs and free Dox, including preferential and prolonged local drug accumulation and retention in tumors, resulting in superior cancer chemotherapy efficiency. Collectively, such a unique thermosensitive and nanoparticle-shedding hydrogel could effectively combine the advantages of nanomedicines and macroscale drug delivery systems, demonstrating great potential in the local nanodrugs' delivery. It will open a new promising path for cancer chemotherapy with enhanced treatment efficacy and minimized side effects.

  19. Macroscale intraspecific variation and environmental heterogeneity: analysis of cold and warm zone abundance, mortality, and regeneration distributions of four eastern US tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha M. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    I test for macroscale intraspecific variation of abundance, mortality, and regeneration of four eastern US tree species (Tsuga canadensis, Betula lenta, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus prinus) by splitting them into three climatic zones based on plant hardiness zones (PHZs). The primary goals of the analysis are to assess the...

  20. Hydrologic Impacts of Future Climates in the Northeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; Luo, L.; Troy, T. J.; Wood, E. F.

    2006-12-01

    The general consensus of model predictions for the northeast USA is for a warmer and slightly wetter climate. The impact of these changes on the hydrologic cycle at scales relevant to environmental, tourism, and water resources planning is uncertain, especially given the range in magnitude and seasonal variability in climate model predictions and complexity of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle. To address these issues we have carried out contemporary and future climate simulations of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle at high resolution (1/8th degree) over the northeast USA using the VIC land surface model. A retrospective simulation of the past 50 years, driven by gauge-based observations of precipitation and air temperature, provides a validated baseline against which future changes are assessed. For the future climates, statistically downscaled climate model forcing data are developed for two scenarios (higher emissions: A1FI, and lower: B1) and two models (HadCM3 and PCM). These models have been shown to represent 20th century regional climate adequately and are therefore assumed to be the best indicators of future climates. Hydrologic change is assessed in terms of trends over the 21st century and changes between 1961-90 and 2070-99 for annual and seasonal means in the water budget and for multi-scale drought occurrence, snow extent and streamflow. The results are dominated by the predicted temperature increases with modification by small increases in winter precipitation. At annual scales, runoff is expected to increase as is evapotranspiration. Increases in winter runoff, at the expense of spring runoff, are driven by increased winter precipitation and temperature that in turn drive increased rain to snow ratios and snow melt. Streamflow projections indicate that there will be an increase in the number of high flows and decrease in the number of low flows over the year but summer low flows will increase. Increases in soil moisture are expected during the winter

  1. Hydrological extremes and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Kundzewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes − floods and droughts − are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state’s task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  2. Hillslope hydrology and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Landslides are caused by a failure of the mechanical balance within hillslopes. This balance is governed by two coupled physical processes: hydrological or subsurface flow and stress. The stabilizing strength of hillslope materials depends on effective stress, which is diminished by rainfall. This book presents a cutting-edge quantitative approach to understanding hydro-mechanical processes across variably saturated hillslope environments and to the study and prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. Topics covered include historic synthesis of hillslope geomorphology and hydrology, total and effective stress distributions, critical reviews of shear strength of hillslope materials and different bases for stability analysis. Exercises and homework problems are provided for students to engage with the theory in practice. This is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in hydrology, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics and for professionals in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and natural hazard analysis.

  3. Snow and Glacier Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Kaye

    The study of snow and ice is rich in both fundamental science and practical applications. Snow and Glacier Hydrology offers something for everyone, from resource practitioners in regions where water supply depends on seasonal snow pack or glaciers, to research scientists seeking to understand the role of the solid phase in the water cycle and climate. The book is aimed at the advanced undergraduate or graduate-level student. A perusal of online documentation for snow hydrology classes suggests that there is currently no single text or reference book on this topic in general use. Instructors rely on chapters from general hydrology texts or operational manuals, collections of journal papers, or their own notes. This variety reflects the fact that snow and ice regions differ in climate, topography, language, water law, hazards, and resource use (hydropower, irrigation, recreation). Given this diversity, producing a universally applicable book is a challenge.

  4. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  5. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...... hydrological and tested by assimilating synthetic hydraulic head observations in a catchment in Denmark. Assimilation led to a substantial reduction of model prediction error, and better model forecasts. Also, a new assimilation scheme is developed to downscale and bias-correct coarse satellite derived soil...

  6. gis-based hydrological model based hydrological model upstream

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    er river catchments in Nigeria graphical data [2]. A spatial hydrology which simulates the water flow and pecified region of the earth using GIS. In view of this, the use of modeling with GIS provides the platform to processes tailored towards hydrologic dely applied hydrological models for in recent time is the Soil and Water.

  7. HYDROLOGY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, DANE COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, Madison County, Missouri, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, HONOLULU COUNTY, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, MONO COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, TUSCALOOSA COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, MACON COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, WARREN COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, JEFFERSON COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, MADISON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGY, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, DALLAS COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, DEKALB COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, WOODBURY COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, SHELBY COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, MASON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, OUACHITA PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, STORY COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, HAMPDEN COUNTY, MA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for the flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, WOODFORD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, HALE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, HOWELL COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, CRISP COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, GEORGETOWN COUNTY, SC, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, PIKE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, MAGOFFIN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, LIMESTONE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, MITCHELL COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, HURON COUNTY, OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. DCS Hydrology, Sevier County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, CALLOWAY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, BRACKEN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, FLEMING COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, MCCREARY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, Choctaw COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  5. Hydrologic provinces of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division, to describe the statewide hydrologic variations in Michigan's water resources. Twelve hydrologic provinces, which are based on similarities in aquifer lithology, yield, recharge, and ground-water- and surface-water-quality data, are described. The definition of statewide hydrologic characteristics and the delineation of hydrologic provinces improves the understanding of Michigan's water resources and provides a firm basis for realistic water-manangement decisions. The 12 provinces identified areas where bedrock aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (five provinces), where glacial-deposit aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (three provinces), and where problems with water quantity and (or) quality have limited the use of ground water as a water supply (four provinces). Subprovinces are defined on the basis of regional surface-water flow directions toward each of the Great Lakes.

  6. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...

  7. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  8. Curricula and Syllabi in Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This collection of papers is intended to provide a means for the exchange of information on hydrological techniques and for the coordination of research and data collection. The objectives and trends in hydrological education are presented. The International Hydrological Decade (IHD) Working Group on Education recommends a series of topics that…

  9. The Effects of Meteorological Forcings on Hydrologic Model Calibration and Implications for Statistical Downscaling of Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire Elsner, M.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.; Brekke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Spatially distributed historical meteorological forcings (temperature and precipitation) are commonly used as the basis for statistical downscaling (in time and space) of general circulation model (GCM) projections. A number of such forcing datasets, gridded from station observations, have been developed over the Western U.S. and they all use different methodologies with respect to filtering stations and accounting for temporal inhomogeneities. We compare four historical meteorological datasets at 1/8th degree spatial resolution over a common historical time period (1980-1999) using basic statistical comparisons to better understand their spatial differences. We then employ the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model (VIC), which has been implemented in numerous studies to evaluate the impacts of climate variability and change on water resources, to explore the sensitivity of hydrologic model response to these forcing datasets. Specifically, we calibrate the VIC model, by means of the automated multiple objective complex evolution method, to reconstructed natural streamflows using each of the four different datasets and compare calibration parameters and water balance variables (eg. streamflow, evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent). We test the sensitivities of the calibrated models by forcing each one with the remaining three datasets. Because multiple sources of downscaled climate change scenarios are currently available for various parts of the Western US from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) Phase 3 (and many of them use different historical meteorological forcing datasets as their basis) and scenarios from the next CMIP phase (Phase 5) are becoming available, we explore the implications of our findings for statistical downscaling of GCM projections.

  10. A prototype framework for models of socio-hydrology: identification of key feedback loops and parameterisation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafei, Y.; Sivapalan, M.; Tonts, M.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that, in order to sustainably manage global freshwater resources, it is critical that we better understand the nature of human-hydrology interactions at the broader catchment system scale. Yet to date, a generic conceptual framework for building models of catchment systems that include adequate representation of socioeconomic systems - and the dynamic feedbacks between human and natural systems - has remained elusive. In an attempt to work towards such a model, this paper outlines a generic framework for models of socio-hydrology applicable to agricultural catchments, made up of six key components that combine to form the coupled system dynamics: namely, catchment hydrology, population, economics, environment, socioeconomic sensitivity and collective response. The conceptual framework posits two novel constructs: (i) a composite socioeconomic driving variable, termed the Community Sensitivity state variable, which seeks to capture the perceived level of threat to a community's quality of life, and acts as a key link tying together one of the fundamental feedback loops of the coupled system, and (ii) a Behavioural Response variable as the observable feedback mechanism, which reflects land and water management decisions relevant to the hydrological context. The framework makes a further contribution through the introduction of three macro-scale parameters that enable it to normalise for differences in climate, socioeconomic and political gradients across study sites. In this way, the framework provides for both macro-scale contextual parameters, which allow for comparative studies to be undertaken, and catchment-specific conditions, by way of tailored "closure relationships", in order to ensure that site-specific and application-specific contexts of socio-hydrologic problems can be accommodated. To demonstrate how such a framework would be applied, two socio-hydrological case studies, taken from the Australian experience, are presented

  11. Nano- and macroscale structural and mechanical properties of in situ synthesized bacterial cellulose/PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Barud, Hernane S; Domeneguetti, Rafael R; Ribeiro, Sidney J L

    2015-02-25

    Highly transparent biocomposite based on bacterial cellulose (BC) mat modified with poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymer (EPE) were fabricated in situ during biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose in a static culture from Gluconacetobacter xylinum. The effect of the addition to the culture medium of water-soluble EPE block copolymer on structure, morphology, crystallinity, and final properties of the novel biocomposites was investigated at nano- and macroscale. High compatibility between components was confirmed by ATR-FTIR indicating hydrogen bond formation between the OH group of BC and the PEO block of EPE block copolymer. Structural properties of EPE/BC biocomposites showed a strong effect of EPE block copolymer on the morphology of the BC mats. Thus, the increase of the EPE block copolymer content lead to the generation of spherulites of PEO block, clearly visualized using AFM and MO technique, changing crystallinity of the final EPE/BC biocomposites investigated by XRD. Generally, EPE/BC biocomposites maintain thermal stability and mechanical properties of the BC mat being 1 wt % EPE/BC biocomposite material with the best properties. Biosynthesis of EPE/BC composites open new strategy to the utilization of water-soluble block copolymers in the preparation of BC mat based biocomposites with tunable properties.

  12. Development of Macroscale Models of UO2 Fuel Sintering and Densification using Multiscale Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenquist, Ian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Light water reactor fuel pellets are fabricated using sintering to final densities of 95% or greater. During reactor operation, the porosity remaining in the fuel after fabrication decreases further due to irradiation-assisted densification. While empirical models have been developed to describe this densification process, a mechanistic model is needed as part of the ongoing work by the NEAMS program to develop a more predictive fuel performance code. In this work we will develop a phase field model of sintering of UO2 in the MARMOT code, and validate it by comparing to published sintering data. We will then add the capability to capture irradiation effects into the model, and use it to develop a mechanistic model of densification that will go into the BISON code and add another essential piece to the microstructure-based materials models. The final step will be to add the effects of applied fields, to model field-assisted sintering of UO2. The results of the phase field model will be validated by comparing to data from field-assisted sintering. Tasks over three years: 1. Develop a sintering model for UO2 in MARMOT 2. Expand model to account for irradiation effects 3. Develop a mechanistic macroscale model of densification for BISON

  13. Structure and Origins of Trends in Hydrological Measures over the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, T; Hidalgo, H G; Dettinger, M D; Cayan, D R; Pierce, D W; Bonfils, C; Barnett, T P; Bala, G; Mirin, A

    2008-08-22

    This study examines, at 1/8 degree spatial resolution, the geographic structure of observed trends in key hydrologically relevant variables across the western United States (U.S.) over the period 1950-1999, and investigates whether these trends are statistically significantly different from trends associated with natural climate variations. A number of variables were analyzed, including late winter and spring temperature, winter-total snowy days as a fraction of winter-total wet days, 1st April Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) as a fraction of October through March precipitation total (P{sub ONDJFM}), and seasonal (January-February-March; JFM) accumulated runoff as a fraction of water year accumulated runoff. The observed changes were compared to natural internal climate variability simulated by an 850-year control run of the CCSM3-FV climate model, statistically downscaled to a 1/8 degree grid using the method of Constructed Analogues. Both observed and downscaled temperature and precipitation data were then used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model to obtain the hydrological variables analyzed in this study. Large trends (magnitudes found less than 5% of the time in the long control run) are common in the observations, and occupy substantial part of the area (37-42%) over the mountainous western U.S. These trends are strongly related to the large scale warming that appears over 89% of the domain. The strongest changes in the hydrologic variables, unlikely to be associated with natural variability alone, have occurred at medium elevations (750 m to 2500 m for JFM runoff fractions and 500 m-3000 m for SWE/PONDJFM) where warming has pushed temperatures from slightly below to slightly above freezing. Further analysis using the data on selected catchments across the simulation domain indicated that hydroclimatic variables must have changed significantly (at 95% confidence level) over at least 45% of the total catchment area to achieve a

  14. Development and Application of Improved Long-Term Datasets of Surface Hydrology for Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungtae Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater availability and agricultural production are key factors for sustaining the fast growing population and economy in the state of Texas, which is the third largest state in terms of agricultural production in the United States. This paper describes a long-term (1918–2011 grid-based (1/8° surface hydrological dataset for Texas at a daily time step based on simulations from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC hydrological model. The model was calibrated and validated against observed streamflow over 10 Texas river basins. The simulated soil moisture was also evaluated using in situ observations. Results suggest that there is a decreasing trend in precipitation and an increasing trend in temperature in most of the basins. Droughts and floods were reconstructed and analyzed. In particular, the spatially distributed severity and duration of major Texas droughts were compared to identify new characteristics. The modeled flood recurrence interval and the return period were also compared with observations. Results suggest the performance of extreme flood simulations needs further improvement. This dataset is expected to serve as a benchmark which may contribute to water resources management and to mitigating agricultural drought, especially in the context of understanding the effects of climate change on crop yield in Texas.

  15. [Socio-hydrology: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing-yi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Fang, Xue-ning

    2015-04-01

    Socio-hydrology is an interdiscipline of hydrology, nature, society and humanity. It mainly explores the two-way feedbacks of coupled human-water system and its dynamic mechanism of co-evolution, and makes efforts to solve the issues that human faces today such as sustainable utilization of water resources. Starting from the background, formation process, and fundamental concept of socio-hydrology, this paper summarized the features of socio-hydrology. The main research content of socio-hydrology was reduced to three aspects: The tradeoff in coupled human-water system, interests in water resources management and virtual water research in coupled human-water system. And its differences as well as relations with traditional hydrology, eco-hydrology and hydro-sociology were dwelled on. Finally, with hope to promote the development of socio-hydrology researches in China, the paper made prospects for the development of the subject from following aspects: Completing academic content and deepening quantitative research, focusing on scale studies of socio-hydrology, fusing socio-hydrology and eco-hydrology.

  16. Combined use of local and global hydrometeorological data with regional and global hydrological models in the Magdalena - Cauca river basin, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erasmo; Sanchez, Ines; Duque, Nicolas; Lopez, Patricia; Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Arboleda, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The Magdalena Cauca Macrobasin (MCMB) in Colombia, with an area of about 257,000 km2, is the largest and most important water resources system in the country. With almost 80% of the Colombian population (46 million people) settled in the basin, it is the main source of water for demands including human consumption, agriculture, hydropower generation, industrial activities and ecosystems. Despite its importance, the basin has witnessed enormous changes in land-cover and extensive deforestation during the last three decades. To make things more complicated, the MCMB currently lacks a set of tools to support planning and decision making processes at scale of the whole watershed. Considering this, the MCMB has been selected as one of the six different regional case studies in the eartH2Observe research project, in which hydrological and meteorological reanalysis products are being validated for the period 1980-2012. The combined use of the hydrological and meteorological reanalysis data, with local hydrometeorological data (precipitation, temperature and streamflow) provided by the National Hydrometeorological Agency (IDEAM), has given us the opportunity to implement and test three hydrological models (VIC, WFLOW and a Water Balance Model based on the Budyko framework) at the basin scale. Additionally, results from the global models in the eartH2Observe hydrological reanalysis have been used to evaluate their performance against the observed streamflow data. This paper discusses the comparison between streamflow observations and simulations from the global hydrological models forced with the WFDEI data, and regional models forced with a combination of observed and meteorological reanalysis data, in the whole domain of the MCMB. For the three regional models analysed results show good performances for some sub-basins and poor performances for others. This can be due to the smoothing of the precipitation fields, interpolated from point daily rainfall data, the effect of

  17. Evaluation of the GPM IMERG satellite-based precipitation products and the hydrological utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoli; Zhong, Ruida; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Jiachao

    2017-11-01

    Pre-occupation evaluation of latest generation satellite-based precipitation products (SPPs) is an essential step before the massive scale use. Taking the Beijiang River Basin as the case study, we used nine statistical evaluation indices and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) distributed hydrological model to quantitatively evaluate the performance and the hydrological utility of three Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products: the near-real-time ;Early; run and ;Late; run IMERG products (IMERG-E and IMERG-L), and the post-real-time ;Final; run IMERG product (IMERG-F) over south China during 2014-2015, with the last-generation Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B42-V7 product as comparison. The IMERG-F presents satisfactory accuracy with high correlation coefficient (CC = 0.63) and low relative bias (0.92%), while the IMERG-E and IMERG-L performs relatively poorly featuring low correlation (with CC of 0.49 and 0.52 respectively) with the ground observations. All of the three IMERG products present apparently higher probability of detection (POD, 0.64-0.67) but have higher false alarm ratio (FAR, ≧ 0.14) than the 3B42-V7. The hydrological simulation under scenario I (model calibrated by the gauge observations) shows that, the IMERG-F, with a high Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSCE) of 0.742, presents better hydrological performance than the 3B42-V7; the IMERG-E and IMERG-L perform poorly for the whole simulation period with NSCE lower than 0.35 and relative bias higher than 28% while perform satisfactorily during the flood season with apparently higher NSCE of 0.750 and 0.733 respectively. The hydrological simulation under scenario II (model calibrated by the 3B42-V7) shows that the performance of all the IMERG products was significantly improved. Generally, the IMERG-F has high accuracy and good hydrological utility, while the

  18. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  19. Hydrologic effects of land and water management in North America and Asia: 1700–1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Haddeland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrologic effects of land use changes, dams, and irrigation in North America and Asia over the past 300 years are studied using a macroscale hydrologic model. The simulation results indicate that the expansion of croplands over the last three centuries has resulted in 2.5 and 6 percent increases in annual runoff volumes for North America and Asia, respectively, and that these increases in runoff to some extent have been compensated by increased evapotranspiration caused by irrigation practices. Averaged over the year and the continental scale, the accumulated anthropogenic impacts on surface water fluxes are hence relatively minor. However, for some regions within the continents human activities have altered hydrologic regimes profoundly. Reservoir operations and irrigation practices in the western part of USA and Mexico have resulted in a 25 percent decrease in runoff in June, and a 9 percent decrease in annual runoff volumes reaching the Pacific Ocean. In the area in South East Asia draining to the Pacific Ocean, land use changes have caused an increase in runoff volumes throughout the year, and the average annual increase in runoff is 12 percent.

  20. A Hydrological Modeling Framework for Flood Risk Assessment for Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashouri, H.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Chowdhary, H.; Sen Gupta, A.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding has been the most frequent natural disaster that claims lives and imposes significant economic losses to human societies worldwide. Japan, with an annual rainfall of up to approximately 4000 mm is extremely vulnerable to flooding. The focus of this research is to develop a macroscale hydrologic model for simulating flooding toward an improved understanding and assessment of flood risk across Japan. The framework employs a conceptual hydrological model, known as the Probability Distributed Model (PDM), as well as the Muskingum-Cunge flood routing procedure for simulating streamflow. In addition, a Temperature-Index model is incorporated to account for snowmelt and its contribution to streamflow. For an efficient calibration of the model, in terms of computational timing and convergence of the parameters, a set of A Priori parameters is obtained based on the relationships between the model parameters and the physical properties of watersheds. In this regard, we have implemented a particle tracking algorithm and a statistical model which use high resolution Digital Terrain Models to estimate different time related parameters of the model such as time to peak of the unit hydrograph. In addition, global soil moisture and depth data are used to generate A Priori estimation of maximum soil moisture capacity, an important parameter of the PDM model. Once the model is calibrated, its performance is examined during the Typhoon Nabi which struck Japan in September 2005 and caused severe flooding throughout the country. The model is also validated for the extreme precipitation event in 2012 which affected Kyushu. In both cases, quantitative measures show that simulated streamflow depicts good agreement with gauge-based observations. The model is employed to simulate thousands of possible flood events for the entire Japan which makes a basis for a comprehensive flood risk assessment and loss estimation for the flood insurance industry.

  1. Modelling spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic impacts under climate changes over the Nenjiang River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Wanchang

    2017-10-01

    The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model was adopted for investigating spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic impacts of climate change over the Nenjiang River Basin (NRB) based on a set of gridded forcing dataset at 1/12th degree resolution from 1970 to 2013. Basin-scale changes in the input forcing data and the simulated hydrological variables of the NRB, as well as station-scale changes in discharges for three major hydrometric stations were examined, which suggested that the model was performed fairly satisfactory in reproducing the observed discharges, meanwhile, the snow cover and evapotranspiration in temporal and spatial patterns were simulated reasonably corresponded to the remotely sensed ones. Wetland maps produced by multi-sources satellite images covering the entire basin between 1978 and 2008 were also utilized for investigating the responses and feedbacks of hydrological regimes on wetland dynamics. Results revealed that significant decreasing trends appeared in annual, spring and autumn streamflow demonstrated strong affection of precipitation and temperature changes over the study watershed, and the effects of climate change on the runoff reduction varied in the sub-basin area over different time scales. The proportion of evapotranspiration to precipitation characterized several severe fluctuations in droughts and floods took place in the region, which implied the enhanced sensitiveness and vulnerability of hydrologic regimes to changing environment of the region. Furthermore, it was found that the different types of wetlands undergone quite unique variation features with the varied hydro-meteorological conditions over the region, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. This study provided effective scientific basis for water resource managers to develop effective eco-environment management plans and strategies that address the consequences of climate changes.

  2. Earthwatching on a Macroscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian; Sella, Francesco

    1976-01-01

    Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS), the global environmental monitoring system of the United Nations, aims to assess conditions on planet Earth by establishing a global system of data gathering and monitoring. Projects dealing with the oceans, atmosphere, human health, and renewable natural resources are discussed. (BT)

  3. Outdoor learning in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jan

    2015-04-01

    For understanding important concepts in hydrology often the most efficient way of learning are field experiments with student involvement. In this contribution, I look back on my personal experiences as a student, an assistant and a teacher and ask myself, with a long-term perspective, what worked and what didn't. Some of the experiments, which I find most useful, are described in more detail such as the estimation of hydraulic conductivities based on groundwater salt dilution and an experiment to demonstrate the difference between flood-wave velocity and water particle velocity. Furthermore, some general thoughts on challenges to generate a good learning environment out in the field are given.

  4. Value of medium range weather forecasts in the improvement of seasonal hydrologic prediction skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shukla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the contribution of medium range weather forecasts with lead times of up to 14 days to seasonal hydrologic prediction skill over the conterminous United States (CONUS. Three different Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP based experiments were performed for the period 1980–2003 using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC hydrology model to generate forecasts of monthly runoff and soil moisture (SM at lead-1 (first month of the forecast period to lead-3. The first experiment (ESP used a resampling from the retrospective period 1980–2003 and represented full climatological uncertainty for the entire forecast period. In the second and third experiments, the first 14 days of each ESP ensemble member were replaced by either observations (perfect 14-day forecast or by a deterministic 14-day weather forecast. We used Spearman rank correlations of forecasts and observations as the forecast skill score. We estimated the potential and actual improvement in baseline skill as the difference between the skill of experiments 2 and 3 relative to ESP, respectively. We found that useful runoff and SM forecast skill at lead-1 to -3 months can be obtained by exploiting medium range weather forecast skill in conjunction with the skill derived by the knowledge of initial hydrologic conditions. Potential improvement in baseline skill by using medium range weather forecasts for runoff [SM] forecasts generally varies from 0 to 0.8 [0 to 0.5] as measured by differences in correlations, with actual improvement generally from 0 to 0.8 of the potential improvement. With some exceptions, most of the improvement in runoff is for lead-1 forecasts, although some improvement in SM was achieved at lead-2.

  5. Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Estimate Bristol Bay Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on cl...

  6. gis-based hydrological model based hydrological model upstream

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrological. Hydrological modeling tools have been increasingl modeling tools have been increasingl watershed watershed level. The application of these tools hav. The application of these tools hav sensing and G sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) eographical Information System (GIS) based models ...

  7. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  8. Hydrological modeling in forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Golden; G.R. Evenson; S. Tian; Devendra Amatya; Ge Sun

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and quantifying interactions among components of the forest hydrological cycle is complex and usually requires a combination of field monitoring and modelling approaches (Weiler and McDonnell, 2004; National Research Council, 2008). Models are important tools for testing hypotheses, understanding hydrological processes and synthesizing experimental data...

  9. Uncertainty in hydrological change modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seaby, Lauren Paige

    Hydrological change modelling methodologies generally use climate models outputs to force hydrological simulations under changed conditions. There are nested sources of uncertainty throughout this methodology, including choice of climate model and subsequent bias correction methods. This Ph.......D. study evaluates the uncertainty of the impact of climate change in hydrological simulations given multiple climate models and bias correction methods of varying complexity. Three distribution based scaling methods (DBS) were developed and benchmarked against a more simplistic and commonly used delta...... change (DC) approach. These climate model projections were then used to force hydrological simulations under climate change for the island Sjælland in Denmark to analyse the contribution of different climate models and bias correction methods to overall uncertainty in the hydrological change modelling...

  10. Connecticut River Hydrologic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero, T. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Connecticut River basin possesses some characteristics that make it unique for studying hydrologic issues that transcend scale. The watershed was first dramatically altered through natural processes (glaciation) and then heavily impacted by human stresses (dams, deforestation, acid precipitation/deposition), only to exhibit recent decades of return to a more natural state (reforestation, land conservation, stream restoration, pollution abatement, and dam removal). The watershed is sufficiently north to be classified as a cold region. More specifically to hydrology, the watershed exhibits the spectrum of flooding problems: ice dams, convective storms, hurricanes, rain on melting snow, and low pressure systems. The 28,000 square kilometer Connecticut River Watershed covers one third of the states of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The >640-km long rivers' headwaters start on the Canadian border at the Fourth Connecticut Lake, and flows southward to discharge in Long Island sound. The lower 100 km of river are tidally influenced. The Connecticut River is responsible for 70 % of the freshwater inflow to Long Island Sound. The Connecticut River is a sixth order stream that exhibits a dendritic pattern in an elongated scheme. This setting therefore affords many first and second order streams in almost parallel fashion, flowing west or east towards the central Connecticut River spine. There are 38 major tributaries to the mainstem Connecticut River, and 26 of these tributaries drain greater than 250 square kilometers. There is in excess of 30,000 km of perennially flowing stream length in the watershed. For more information, see: http://www.unh.edu/erg/connho/

  11. CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and its role in hydrologic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, D.; Helly, J. J.; Graham, W.; Kruger, A.; Kumar, P.; Lakshmi, V.; Lettenmaier, D.; Zheng, C.; Lall, U.; Piasecki, M.; Duffy, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Hydrologic Information System component of CUAHSI focuses on building a hydrologic information system to support the advancement of hydrologic science. This system is intended to help with rapidly acquiring diverse geospatial and temporal hydrologic datasets, integrating them into a hydrologic data model or framework describing a region, and supporting analysis, modeling and visualization of the movement of water and the transport of constituents through that region. In addition, the system will feature interfaces for advanced technologies like knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) and also provide a comprehensive metadata description including a hydrologic ontology (HOW) for integration with the Semantic Web. The prototype region is the Neuse river basin in North Carolina. A "digital watershed" is to be built for this basin to help formulate and test the hydrologic data model at a range of spatial scales, from the scale of the whole basin down to the scale of individual experimental sites. This data model will be further developed and refined as additional hydrologic observatories are selected by CUAHSI. This will result in a consistent means for the characterization and comparison of processes in different geographic regions of the nation using a common data framework. The HIS will also provide a generalized digital library capability to manage collections of thematically-organized data from primary sources as well as derived analytical results in the form of data publications. The HIS will be designed from the beginning as an open federation of observatory-based collections that are interoperable with other data and digital library systems. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project involves collaboration among several CUAHSI member institutions, with the San Diego Supercomputer Center serving as the technology partner to facilitate the development of a prototype system.

  12. Investigation of Plant Cell Wall Properties: A Study of Contributions from the Nanoscale to the Macroscale Impacting Cell Wall Recalcitrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jacob Dillon

    , alkaline hydrogen peroxide and liquid hot water pretreatments were shown to alter structural properties impacting nanoscale porosity in corn stover. Delignification by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment decreased cell wall rigidity, with subsequent cell wall swelling resulting in increased nanoscale porosity and improved enzymatic hydrolysis compared to limited swelling and increased accessible surface areas observed in liquid hot water pretreated biomass. The volume accessible to a 90 A dextran probe within the cell wall was found to be positively correlated to both enzyme binding and glucose hydrolysis yields, indicating cell wall porosity is a key contributor to effective hydrolysis yields. In the third study, the effect of altered xylan content and structure was investigated in irregular xylem (irx) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants to understand the role xylan plays in secondary cell wall development and organization. Higher xylan extractability and lower cellulose crystallinity observed in irx9 and irx15 irx15-L mutants compared to wild type indicated altered xylan integration into the secondary cell wall. Nanoscale cell wall organization observed using multiple microscopy techniques was impacted to some extent in all irx mutants, with disorganized cellulose microfibril layers in sclerenchyma secondary cell walls likely resulting from irregular xylan structure and content. Irregular secondary cell wall microfibril layers showed heterogeneous nanomechanical properties compared to wild type, which translated to mechanical deficiencies observed in stem tensile tests. These results suggest nanoscale defects in cell wall strength can correspond to macroscale phenotypes.

  13. Evaluation of regional-scale hydrological models using multiple criteria for 12 large river basins on all continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaochun; Krysanova, Valentina; Hattermann, Fred; Vetter, Tobias; Flörke, Martina; Samaniego, Luis; Arheimer, Berit; Yang, Tao; van Griensven, Ann; Su, Buda; Gelfan, Alexander; Breuer, Lutz; Haberlandt, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    A good performance of hydrological impact models under historical climate and land use conditions is a prerequisite for reliable projections under climate change. The evaluation of nine regional-scale hydrological models considering monthly river discharge, long-term average seasonal dynamics and extremes was performed in the framework of the ISI-MIP project for 12 large river basins on all continents. The modelling tools include: ECOMAG, HBV, HYMOD, HYPE, mHM, SWAT, SWIM, VIC and WaterGAP3. These models were evaluated for the following basins: the Rhine and Tagus in Europe, the Niger and Blue Nile in Africa, the Ganges, Lena, Upper Yellow and Upper Yangtze in Asia, the Upper Mississippi, MacKenzie and Upper Amazon in America, and Darling in Australia. The model calibration and validation was done using WATCH climate data for all cases. The model outputs were evaluated using twelve statistical criteria to assess the fidelity of model simulations for monthly discharge, seasonal dynamics, flow duration curves, extreme floods and low flow. The reproduction of monthly discharge and seasonal dynamics was successful in all basins except the Darling, and the high flows and flood characteristics were also captured satisfactory in most cases. However, the criteria for low flow were below the thresholds in many cases. An overview of this collaborative experiment and main results on model evaluation will be presented.

  14. Sensitivity of global terrestrial gross primary production to hydrologic states simulated by the Community Land Model using two runoff parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huimin; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, L. Ruby; Yang, Dawen; Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Hayes, Daniel J.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Wei, Yaxing; Liu, Shishi

    2014-09-01

    Soil moisture plays an important role in the coupled water, energy, and carbon cycles. In addition to surface processes such as evapotranspiration, the boundary fluxes that influence soil moisture are closely related to surface or subsurface runoff. To elucidate how uncertainties in representing surface and subsurface hydrology may influence simulations of the carbon cycle, numerical experiments were performed using version 4 of the Community Land Model with two widely adopted runoff generation parameterizations from the TOPMODEL and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model under the same protocol. The results showed that differences in the runoff generation schemes caused a relative difference of 36% and 34% in global mean total runoff and soil moisture, respectively, with substantial differences in their spatial distribution and seasonal variability. Changes in the simulated gross primary production (GPP) were found to correlate well with changes in soil moisture through its effects on leaf photosynthesis (An) and leaf area index (LAI), which are the two dominant components determining GPP. Soil temperature, which is influenced by soil moisture, also affects LAI and GPP for the seasonal-deciduous and stress-deciduous plant functional types that dominate in cold regions. Consequently, the simulated global mean GPP differs by 20.4% as a result of differences in soil moisture and soil temperature simulated between the two models. Our study highlights the significant interactions among the water, energy, and carbon cycles and the need for reducing uncertainty in the hydrologic parameterization of land surface models to better constrain carbon cycle modeling.

  15. Data assimilation in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, Jean-Philippe

    Data assimilation is an invaluable tool in hydrological modelling as it allows to efficiently combine scarce data with a numerical model to obtain improved model predictions. In addition, data assimilation also provides an uncertainty analysis of the predictions made by the hydrological model...... with model non-linearities and biased errors. A literature review analyzes the most popular techniques and their application in hydrological modelling. Since bias is an important problem in groundwater modelling, two bias aware Kalman filters have been implemented and compared using an artificial test case...

  16. Attribution of hydrologic trends using integrated hydrologic and economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Brugger, D. R.; Silverman, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic change has been detected in many regions of the world in the form of trends in annual streamflows, varying depths to the regional water table, or other alterations of the hydrologic balance. Most models used to investigate these changes implement sophisticated descriptions of the physical system but use simplified descriptions of the socioeconomic system. These simplifications come in the form of prescribed water diversions and land use change scenarios, which provide little insight into coupled natural-human systems and have limited predictive capabilities. We present an integrated model that adds realism to the description of the hydrologic system in agricultural regions by incorporating a component that updates the allocation of land and water to crops in response to hydroclimatic (water available) and economic conditions (prices of commodities and agricultural inputs). This component assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize their net revenues, thus justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of an empirical production function that captures the economic behavior of farmers. Because the model internalizes the feedback between climate, agricultural markets, and farming activity into the hydrologic system, it can be used to understand to what extent human economic activity can exacerbate or buffer the regional hydrologic impacts of climate change in agricultural regions. It can also help in the attribution of causes of hydrologic change. These are important issues because local policy and management cannot solve climate change, but they can address land use and agricultural water use. We demonstrate the model in a case study.

  17. The UP modelling system for large scale hydrology: simulation of the Arkansas-Red River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Kilsby

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The UP (Upscaled Physically-based hydrological modelling system to the Arkansas-Red River basin (USA is designed for macro-scale simulations of land surface processes, and aims for a physical basis and, avoids the use of discharge records in the direct calibration of parameters. This is achieved in a two stage process: in the first stage parametrizations are derived from detailed modelling of selected representative small and then used in a second stage in which a simple distributed model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the whole basin. The first stage of the process is described in a companion paper (Ewen et al., this issue, and the second stage of this process is described here. The model operated at an hourly time-step on 17-km grid squares for a two year simulation period, and represents all the important hydrological processes including regional aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge, infiltration- and saturation-excess runoff, evapotranspiration, snowmelt, overland and channel flow. Outputs from the model are discussed, and include river discharge at gauging stations and space-time fields of evaporation and soil moisture. Whilst the model efficiency assessed by comparison of simulated and observed discharge records is not as good as could be achieved with a model calibrated against discharge, there are considerable advantages in retaining a physical basis in applications to ungauged river basins and assessments of impacts of land use or climate change.

  18. Geospatial technology applications in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Panda; E. Masson; S. Sen; H.W. Kim; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Two separate disciplines, hydrology and forestry, together constitute forest hydrology. It is obvious that forestry and forest hydrology disciplines are spatial entities. Forestry is the science that seeks to understand the nature of forests throygh their life cycle and interactions with the surrounding environment. Forest hydrology includes forest soil water, streams...

  19. Integrated climate and hydrology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl

    global warming and increased frequency of extreme events. The skill in developing projections of both the present and future climate depends essentially on the ability to numerically simulate the processes of atmospheric circulation, hydrology, energy and ecology. Previous modelling efforts of climate...... and hydrology have used each model component in an offline mode where the models are run in sequential steps and one model serves as a boundary condition or data input source to the other. Within recent years a new field of research has emerged where efforts have been made to dynamically couple existing climate....... The modelling tool consists of a fully dynamic two-way coupling of the HIRHAM regional climate model and the MIKE SHE hydrological model. The expected gain is twofold. Firstly, HIRHAM utilizes the land surface component of the combined MIKE SHE/SWET hydrology and land surface model (LSM), which is superior...

  20. Extreme hydrological events and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Kundzewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security – the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.

  1. Hydrologic landscape regions of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions group areas according to their similarity in landscape and climate characteristics. These characteristics represent variables assumed to...

  2. Fall Meeting Hydrology Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Roger

    The AGU 1992 Fall Meeting in San Francisco offered the full range of subjects represented by the Hydrology Section's technical committees. The total number of papers was double the number of just 4 years ago. Sessions were well attended. The following highlights were prepared from material written by session organizers.There were 3 full days of papers on snow, ice, and permafrost. One highlight was the special session on new developments in glacier mass-balance studies, which was organized to compare existing methods and examine new techniques for assessing changes in ice mass of the polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Current methods for assessing mass change of the ice sheets include satellite laser altimetry to detect surface-elevation changes, surface-based control volume methods to determine net ice flux in a region, and ice-shelf melting and iceberg calving to determine mass loss from the ice sheet. Using these techniques, it is difficult to tell whether the ice sheet is gaining or losing mass. Methods that use drainage basin inputs/outputs indicate a net mass increase, whereas methods that emphasize oceanographic estimates of ice-shelf melting suggest a net mass decrease and estimates based on satellite altimetry are equivocal.

  3. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  4. HOBE – a hydrological observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Illangasekare, Tissa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a short introducO on is given to the Danish hydrological observatory—HOBE. We describe characteristics of the catchment, which is subject to experimental and modeling investigations. An overview is given of the research reported in this special section of the journal, which includes...... 11 papers of original research covering precipitation, evapotranspiration, emission of greenhouse gasses, unsaturated flow, groundwater–surface water interaction, and climate change impacts on hydrology....

  5. Future directions in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Williams; Devendra Amatya; L. Bren; C. deJong; J.E. Nettles

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology is a separate and unique branch of hydrology due to the special conditions caused by trees, and the understorey beneath them, comprising a forest. Understanding the forest, with trees that can grow over 100 m tall, may have crowns up to 20-30 m in diameter with roots 5-10 m deep and spread as widely as the crowns, and have lifespans from 50 to 5000...

  6. Hypothesis tests for hydrologic alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Charles N.; Croteau, Kelly E.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrologic systems can be altered by anthropogenic and climatic influences. While there are a number of statistical frameworks for describing and evaluating the extent of hydrologic alteration, here we present a new framework for assessing whether statistically significant hydrologic alteration has occurred, or whether the shift in the hydrologic regime is consistent with the natural variability of the system. Four hypothesis tests based on shifts of flow duration curves (FDCs) are developed and tested using three different experimental designs based on different strategies for resampling of annual FDCs. The four hypothesis tests examined are the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS), Kuiper (K), confidence interval (CI), and ecosurplus and ecodeficit (Eco). Here 117 streamflow sites that have potentially undergone hydrologic alteration due to reservoir construction are examined. 20 years of pre-reservoir record is used to develop the critical value of the test statistic for type I errors of 5% and 10%, while 10 years of post-alteration record is used to examine the power of each test. The best experimental design, based on calculating the mean annual FDC from an exhaustive jackknife resampling regime, provided a larger number of unique values of each test statistic and properly reproduced type I errors. Of the four tests, the CI test consistently had the highest power, while the K test had the second highest power; KS and Eco always had the lowest power. The power of the CI test appeared related to the storage ratio of the reservoir, a rough measure of the hydrologic alteration of the system.

  7. A Spatially Explicit and Seasonally Varying Cholera Prevalence Model With Distributed Macro-Scale Environmental and Hydroclimatic Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Eltahir, E. A.; Islam, S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite major advances in the ecological and microbiological understanding of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the role of underlying large-scale processes in the progression of the cholera disease in space and time is not well understood. Here, we present a spatially explicit and seasonally varying coupled hydroclimatology-epidemiology model for understanding regional scale cholera prevalence in response to large scale hydroclimatic and environmental forcings. Our results show that environmental cholera transmission can be modulated by two spatially and seasonally distinct mechanisms - influenced by dry and wet season hydrologic determinants. The model is applied to the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basin areas in Bangladesh to simulate spatially explicit cholera prevalence rates, and validated with long-term cholera data from Dhaka and shorter-term records from regional surveillance locations. The model reproduces the variability of cholera prevalence at monthly, seasonal, and interannual timescales and highlights the role of asymmetric large scale hydroclimatic processes as the dominant controls. Our findings have important implications for formulating effective cholera intervention strategies, and for understanding the impacts of changing climate patterns on seasonal cholera transmission.

  8. Synthesis of N-Methyl-2-trichloroacetylpyrrole-A Key Building Block in Peptides That Bind DNA: Micro-, Semimicro-, and Macro-Scale Organic Lab Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Michael D.; Verner, Erik J.; Oliver, Bradford J.; Hamlin, Daniel; Vietri, Nicholas; Palmer, Robert B.; Arnold, Tyrone V.; Natale, Nicholas R.

    1996-11-01

    The search for more efficient anticancer and antiviral agents has included the preparation and testing of a wide variety of molecules that bind DNA. Of these, particular attention has been devoted to the synthesis of analogues of DNA minor-groove binders such as netropsin and distamycin. These compounds have been shown to exhibit biological activity through their strong interactions with the DNA minor groove, and a relationship between their structure and biological activity has emerged (1). The repeating pyrrole unit contained in these compounds can be prepared from N-methylpyrrole via a noncatalyzed Friedel-Crafts acylation. The reaction has been adapted for use in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory on three different scales: microscale, semimicroscale, and macroscale.

  9. High-resolution hydrological seasonal forecasting for water resources management over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ming; Wanders, Niko; Wood, Eric; Sheffield, Justin; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohini; Prudhomme, Christel; Houghton-Carr, Helen

    2017-04-01

    To support the decision-making process at the seasonal time scale, hydrological forecasts with a high temporal and spatial resolution are required to provide the level of information needed by water managers. So far high-resolution seasonal forecasts have been unavailable due to 1) lack of availability in meteorological seasonal forecasts, 2) the coarse temporal resolution of meteorological seasonal forecasts, requiring temporal downscaling, and 3) lack of consistency between observations and seasonal forecasts, requiring bias-correction. As part of the EDgE (End-to-end Demonstrator for improved decision making in the water sector in Europe) project, we have created a unique dataset of hydrological seasonal forecasts derived from four atmospheric circulation models (CanCM4, FLOR-B01, ECMF, LFPW) in combination with four global hydrological models (PCR-GLOBWB, VIC, mHM, Noah-MP). The forecasts provide daily values at 5-km spatial resolution and are bias corrected against E-OBS meteorological observations. Consistency in the LSM parameterization ensures synergy in the hydrological forecasts, resulting in 208 forecasts at any given day over Europe. The forecast results are communicated to stakeholders via Sectoral Climate Impact Indicators (SCIIs) that have been co-designed in collaboration with end-users and stakeholders inside the EDgE project. An example of an SCII is the percentage of ensemble realizations above the 10th percentile of monthly river flow or below the 90th percentile, including the persistency in the forecast with increasing lead times. Results show that skillful discharge forecasts can be made throughout Europe 3 months in advance, with predictability up to 6 months for Northern Europe due to the impact of snow. The predictability of soil moisture is limited to the first three months, due to the significant impact of precipitation and the short memory in the initial conditions (only for the first month). The groundwater recharge predictability

  10. An open-source distributed mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Zink, Matthias; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Schäfer, David; Schrön, Martin; Musuuza, Jude; Prykhodko, Vladyslav; Dalmasso, Giovanni; Attinger, Sabine; Spieler, Diana; Rakovec, Oldrich; Craven, John; Langenberg, Ben

    2014-05-01

    The mesoscale hydrological model (mHM) is based on numerical approximations of dominant hydrological processes that have been tested in various hydrological models such as: HBV and VIC. In general, mHM simulates the following processes: canopy interception, snow accumulation and melting, soil moisture dynamics (n-horizons), infiltration and surface runoff, evapotranspiration, subsurface storage and discharge generation, deep percolation and baseflow, and discharge attenuation and flood routing. The main characteristic of mHM is the treatment of the sub-grid variability of input variables and model parameters which clearly distinguishes this model from existing precipitation-runoff models or land surface models. It uses a Multiscale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) to account for the sub-grid variability and to avoid continuous re-calibration. Effective model parameters are location and time dependent (e.g., soil porosity). They are estimated through upscaling operators that link sub-grid morphologic information (e.g., soil texture) with global transfer-function parameters, which, in turn, are found through multi-basin optimization. Global parameters estimated with the MPR technique are quasi-scale invariant and guarantee flux-matching across scales. mHM is an open source code, written in Fortran 2003 (standard), fully modular, with high computational efficiency, and parallelized. It is portable to multiple platforms (Linux, OS X, Windows) and includes a number of algorithms for sensitivity analysis, analysis of parameter uncertainty (MCMC), and optimization (DDS, SA, SCE). All simulated state variables and outputs can be stored as netCDF files for further analysis and visualization. mHM has been evaluated in all major river basins in Germany and over 80 US and 250 European river basins. The model efficiency (NSE) during validation at proxy locations is on average greater than 0.6. During last years, mHM had been used for number of hydrologic applications such as

  11. How the Young Hydrologic Society can rejuvenate hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H.; Berghuijs, W. R.; Smoorenburg, M.; Harrigan, S.; Muller, H.; Dugge, J.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrologic community aims to understand the complex movement, distribution and quality of water around the world. Especially with climate change, suppressed food security and environmental degradation, hydrologists play an important role in sustainable water resources management. To achieve this, worldwide collaboration between researchers is a crucial necessity. For example, IAHS' "Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB)" and "Panta Rei" initiatives have shown that working together leads to fruitful results. However, hydrology struggles to unify, with its different research perspectives, myriad of organizations and diverse array of focus areas. Furthermore, within the active hydrologic community, young scientists are underrepresented and often not well connected. Active involvement of those who will deal with tomorrow's water issues is the key to building bridges between generations and the variety of hydrologic research fields. Therefore, the Young Hydrologic Society (YHS) was founded with the following goal: 'Bringing young scientists from around the world together to contribute to the scientific and organizational unification of the global hydrologic community' To realize this, YHS has set itself 4 main objectives: - Function as the link between existing and future student initiatives within the major organizations (e.g. EGU, AGU, IAHS, etc.), - Connect early career scientists (e.g. MSc, PhD, Post-Doc) at an early stage in their career, - Stimulate bottom-up research initiatives, - Create a voice of the young hydrologists in the global scientific debate. YHS is already supported by some of the world's most prominent hydrologists and organizations. But, to make YHS a real success, we need you to spread the word and get involved in the YHS initiative. Get connected, get inspired and get involved!

  12. Stochastic Modelling of Hydrologic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains an introduct......In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains...... an introduction and an overview of the papers published. Then an introduction to basic concepts in hydrology along with a description of hydrological data is given. Finally an introduction to stochastic modelling is given. The second part contains the research papers. In the research papers the stochastic methods...... are described, as at the time of publication these methods represent new contribution to hydrology. The second part also contains additional description of software used and a brief introduction to stiff systems. The system in one of the papers is stiff....

  13. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  14. Nonstationary Approaches to Hydrologic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard; Hecht, Jory; Read, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a generalized framework for evaluating the risk, reliability and return period of hydrologic events in a nonstationary world. A heteroscedastic regression model is introduced as an elegant and general framework for modeling trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records using ordinary least squares regression methods. A regression approach to modeling trends has numerous advantages over other methods including: (1) ease of application, (2) considers linear or nonlinear trends, (3) graphical display of trends, (4) analytical estimate of the power of the trend test and prediction intervals associated with trend extrapolation. Traditional statements of risk, reliability and return periods which assume that the annual probability of a flood event remains constant throughout the project horizon are revised to include the impacts of trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records. Our analyses reveal that in a nonstationary world, meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events are unlikely to result from knowledge of return periods whereas knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can effectively communicate the likelihood of future hydrologic events of interest.

  15. An Analysis of Land Use Change Dynamics and Its Impacts on Hydrological Processes in the Jialing River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use changes are important aspects of global change and affect regional water cycles, environmental quality, biodiversity and terrestrial ecosystems. To understand the temporal and spatial land use change in the Jialing River Basin and its impacts on the hydrological cycle, land use change models and the variable infiltration capacity (VIC model were applied separately to the Jialing River Basin. Real change and final change were analyzed to determine the consequences of land use changes and their hydrological consequences. Real change is defined as the total variation during a fixed period, including increases and decreases. Thus, real change is the sum of the absolute values of the decrease and the increase. Final change is defined as the difference between the beginning and end of a given period for a specific factor. Overall, the amounts of settlement and shrub land area changed significantly in the entire Jialing River (with final change rates of 20.77% and −16.07%, respectively, and real change rates of 34.2% and 30.1%, respectively, from 1985 to 1995, as well as final and real change rates of 29.37%, 12.40%, 39.9% and 32.8%, respectively, from 1995 to 2000. Compared with the final change, the real change highlighted the rate of change and the change in woodland area. The land use changes in the Lueyang (LY, Shehong (SH and Fengtan (FT subcatchments were more dynamic than in the other subcatchments. The economy, population and macro-policy were the main factors responsible for driving the land use changes. The decrease in woodland area in the LY subcatchment corresponded with an increase in evapotranspiration (ET and with decreases in the other hydrological elements. Overall, the final changes in the hydrological elements in the LY, SH and FT subcatchments were not significant due to the average and compensation effects. The LY subcatchment was mainly affected by the average effect, whereas the SH and FT subcatchments were affected

  16. Regional-scale hydrological modelling using multiple-parameter landscape zones and a quasi-distributed water balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Wooldridge

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional-scale catchments are characterised typically by natural variability in climatic and land-surface features. This paper addresses the important question regarding the appropriate level of spatial disaggregation necessary to guarantee a hydrologically sound consideration of this variability. Using a simple hydrologic model along with physical catchment data, the problem is reconsidered as a model parameter identification problem. With this manner of thinking the subjective nature as to what to include in the disaggregation scheme is removed and the problem reconsidered in terms of what can be supported by the available data. With such an approach the relative merit of different catchment disaggregation schemes is viewed in terms of their ability to provide constrained parameterisations that can be explained in terms of the physical processes deemed active within a catchment. The outlined methodology was tested for a regional-scale catchment, located in eastern Australia, and involved using the quasi-distributed VIC catchment model to recover the characteristic responses resulting from the disaggregation of the catchment into combinations of climate, soil and vegetation characteristics. A land-surface classification based on a combination of soil depth and land cover type was found to provide the most accurate streamflow predictions during a 10-year validation period. Investigation of the uncertainty associated with the predictions due to weakly identified parameters however, revealed that a simpler classification based solely on land cover actually provided a more robust parameterisation of streamflow response. The result alludes to the hydrological importance of distinguishing between forested and non-forested land cover types at the regional-scale, and suggests that given additional information soil-depth / storage considerations may also have proved significant. Improvements to the outlined method are discussed in terms of increasing

  17. USDA-ARS Hydrology Laboratory MISWG Hydrology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Current research being conducted in remote sensing techniques for measuring hydrologic parameters and variables deals with runoff curve numbers (CN), evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture. The CN and ET research utilizes visible and infrared measurements. Soil moisture investigations focus on the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  18. Supporting world hydrology: Activities of International Hydrological Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, John C.

    When George Bernard Shaw, through the exertions of professor Higgins, caused Eliza Doolittle to recite “The rain in Spain stays mainly on the plain,” he was most probably completely unaware of the hydrological consequences of the event. Not so the several agencies that together make up the Spanish hydrological service and are listed in the INFOHYDRO Manual [World Meteorological Organization, 1987]. They and their counterparts in the 159 other member countries of the World Meteorological Organization are intimately involved in routinely observing, recording, analyzing and forecasting the procession of hydrological phenomena that occur within their territories (Figure 1). These phenomena include floods and droughts, soil erosion, pollution incidents, landslides, avalanches, river ice formation and its break up in the spring. These agencies are also involved in water-resource assessment—just how much of the precipitation is available for man to use, primarily from the water draining out of a basin as river flows, and also from the water stored within it. When these responsibilities that link water issues with a variety of environmental matters are added to assessments of water usage in the different sectors, then the wide ranging and important responsibilities of hydrological services become very apparent. Perhaps Shaw was prudent in restricting Eliza's utterances, rather than lacking in perspective—“prolonged precipitation in Peru provokes problems for operational hydrology” would not have exercised her vowels to the same extent.

  19. Land classification based on hydrological landscape units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharari, S.; Fenicia, F.; Hrachowitz, M.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of hydrological landscape classification based on dominant runoff mechanisms. Three landscape classes are distinguished: wetland, hillslope and plateau, corresponding to three dominant hydrological regimes: saturation excess overland flow, storage excess sub-surface

  20. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, CLARK COUNTY,OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. DCS Hydrology Submission for Cortland County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. DCS Hydrology Submission for Monroe County, MI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. DCS Hydrology Submission for Putnam County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. DCS Hydrology Submission for Meigs County OH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. DCS Hydrology Submission for Jackson County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. DCS Hydrology Submission for Yankton County, SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  8. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  9. DCS Hydrology Submission for Duval County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. DCS Hydrology Submission for Albany County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. DCS HYDROLOGY,SULLIVAN COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. DCS Hydrology Submission for Cass County, MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Washita County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. DCS Hydrology Submission for Denton TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, ST. CLAIR COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Harmon County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, CHAMPAIGN COUNTY,OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. DCS Hydrology Submission for Dutchess County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. Hydrological modelling in forested systems | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of forest hydrology modelling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. Many hundreds of hydrological models have been applied globally across multiple decades to represent and predict forest hydrological processes. The focus of this chapter is on process-based models and approaches, specifically 'forest hydrology models'; that is, physically based simulation tools that quantify compartments of the forest hydrological cycle. Physically based models can be considered those that describe the conservation of mass, momentum and/or energy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of forest hydrology modeling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. The focus of this chapter is on process-based models and approaches, specifically “forest hydrology models”, i.e., physically-based simulation tools that quantify compartments of the forest hydrological cycle.

  20. DCS Hydrology, Santa Clara County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, FREMONT COUNTY,IA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. DCS Hydrology Submittal for Socorro County NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. DCS Hydrology Submission for Clay County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. DCS Hydrology Submission for Shelby County OH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. DCS Hydrology Submission for Medina County, Ohio

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. DCS Hydrology Submission for Colfax County, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. DCS Hydrology Submission for Oglethorpe County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. DCS Hydrology Submission for RUSK COUNTY, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. DCS Hydrology Submission for Murray County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. DCS Hydrology Submission for Heard County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, CLARE COUNTY, MI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. DCS Hydrology Submission for Orleans LA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. DCS Hydrology Submission for GRATIOT COUNTY, MI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, BOX ELDER COUNTY, UTAH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. DCS Hydrology Submission for Wyoming County PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  17. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  18. Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, Hidayat; Teuling, Ryan; Vermeulen, Bart; Muh, Taufik; Kastner, Karl; Geertsema, Tjitske J.; Bol, Dinja C.C.; Hoekman, Dirk H.; Sri Haryani, Gadis; Lanen, van Henny A.J.; Delinom, Robert M.; Dijksma, Roel; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Ningsih, Nining S.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Hoitink, Ton

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are important reservoirs of water, carbon and biodiversity. They are typical landscapes of lowland regions that have high potential for water retention. However, the hydrology of these wetlands in tropical regions is often studied in isolation from the processes taking place at the

  19. Hydrological drought types in cold climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Van A.F.; Ploum, S.W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A.K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Lanen, Van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the

  20. Hydrologic processes influencing meadow ecosystems [chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Lord; David G. Jewett; Jerry R. Miller; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    The hydrologic regime exerts primary control on riparian meadow complexes and is strongly influenced by past and present geomorphic processes; biotic processes; and, in some cases, anthropogenic activities. Thus, it is essential to understand not only the hydrologic processes that operate within meadow complexes but also the interactions of meadow hydrology with other...

  1. Hydrology for everyone: Share your knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogulu, Nilay; Dogulu, Canay

    2015-04-01

    Hydrology, the science of water, plays a central role in understanding the function and behaviour of water on the earth. Given the increasingly complex, uncertain, and dynamic nature of this system, the study of hydrology presents challenges in solving water-related problems in societies. While researchers in hydrologic science and engineering embrace these challenges, it is important that we also realize our critical role in promoting the basic understanding of hydrology concepts among the general public. Hydrology is everywhere, yet, the general public often lacks the basic understanding of the hydrologic environment surrounding them. Essentially, we believe that a basic level of knowledge on hydrology is a must for everyone and that this knowledge might facilitate resilience of communities to hydrological extremes. For instance, in case of flood and drought conditions, which are the most frequent and widespread hydrological phenomena that societies live with, a key aspect of facilitating community resilience would be to create awareness on the hydrological, meteorological, and climatological processes behind floods and droughts, and also on their potential implications on water resources management. Such knowledge awareness can lead to an increase in individuals' awareness on their role in water-related problems which in turn can potentially motivate them to adopt preparedness behaviours. For these reasons, embracing an approach that will increase hydrologic literacy of the general public should be a common objective for the hydrologic community. This talk, hopefully, will motivate researchers in hydrologic science and engineering to share their knowledge with the general public. We, as early career hydrologists, should take this responsibility more than anybody else. Start teaching hydrology now and share your knowledge with people around you - friends, family, relatives, neighbours, and others. There is hydrology for everyone!

  2. Monitoring and assessment of soil erosion at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests affected by fire damage in northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Ali; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Naderi-Khorasgani, Mehdi; Kerry, Ruth; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, Ruhollah

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the occurrence of erosion processes at large scales is very difficult without studying them at small scales. In this study, soil erosion parameters were investigated at micro-scale and macro-scale in forests in northern Iran. Surface erosion and some vegetation attributes were measured at the watershed scale in 30 parcels of land which were separated into 15 fire-affected (burned) forests and 15 original (unburned) forests adjacent to the burned sites. The soil erodibility factor and splash erosion were also determined at the micro-plot scale within each burned and unburned site. Furthermore, soil sampling and infiltration studies were carried out at 80 other sites, as well as the 30 burned and unburned sites, (a total of 110 points) to create a map of the soil erodibility factor at the regional scale. Maps of topography, rainfall, and cover-management were also determined for the study area. The maps of erosion risk and erosion risk potential were finally prepared for the study area using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) procedure. Results indicated that destruction of the protective cover of forested areas by fire had significant effects on splash erosion and the soil erodibility factor at the micro-plot scale and also on surface erosion, erosion risk, and erosion risk potential at the watershed scale. Moreover, the results showed that correlation coefficients between different variables at the micro-plot and watershed scales were positive and significant. Finally, assessment and monitoring of the erosion maps at the regional scale showed that the central and western parts of the study area were more susceptible to erosion compared with the western regions due to more intense crop-management, greater soil erodibility, and more rainfall. The relationships between erosion parameters and the most important vegetation attributes were also used to provide models with equations that were specific to the study region. The results of this

  3. Restoration Hydrology: Synthesis of Hydrologic Data for Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Agarwal, D.; van Ingen, C.

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of hydrologic data from various sources into a common cyber-infrastructure is essential for hydrologic synthesis in support of aquatic habitat restoration. With a compilation of all USGS watershed stream gauging records and all NOAA precipitation records for California, long-term as well as short-term watershed data can be made available for habitat restoration plans. This data synthesis would be tedious based on prior technology and thus was not frequently undertaken in the past. A few examples illustrate the essential role of cyber-infrastructure in restoration hydrology. When annual precipitation and runoff are examined for Coastal California watersheds, there is a near constancy in actual annual evapotranspiration that is watershed scale invariant over drainage areas from 1 to 3000 square kilometers. Another example examines stream baseflow recession in multiple streams where agricultural practices have changed over the last 40 years. These analyses are quantifying the magnitude of the human-induced change. Maintaining stream baseflows in summer months in central California coastal streams is essential for migratory fish habitat restoration, and the availability of an appropriate cyber-infrastructure significantly eases that assessment. The final example where data management was essential in habitat assessment was an examination of early spring river flows that had daily fluctuations caused by agricultural needs for frost protection in grape vineyards. Farmers anticipated frost conditions by night-time water extractions which in combination with low river flows negatively impacted the stream habitat for salmonids. These applications of cyber-infrastructure are being handed off to resource agency personnel to have them directly engage in restoration hydrology.

  4. Towards Reproducibility in Computational Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei; Duffy, Chris; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    Reproducibility is a foundational principle in scientific research. The ability to independently re-run an experiment helps to verify the legitimacy of individual findings, and evolve (or reject) hypotheses and models of how environmental systems function, and move them from specific circumstances to more general theory. Yet in computational hydrology (and in environmental science more widely) the code and data that produces published results are not regularly made available, and even if they are made available, there remains a multitude of generally unreported choices that an individual scientist may have made that impact the study result. This situation strongly inhibits the ability of our community to reproduce and verify previous findings, as all the information and boundary conditions required to set up a computational experiment simply cannot be reported in an article's text alone. In Hutton et al 2016 [1], we argue that a cultural change is required in the computational hydrological community, in order to advance and make more robust the process of knowledge creation and hypothesis testing. We need to adopt common standards and infrastructures to: (1) make code readable and re-useable; (2) create well-documented workflows that combine re-useable code together with data to enable published scientific findings to be reproduced; (3) make code and workflows available, easy to find, and easy to interpret, using code and code metadata repositories. To create change we argue for improved graduate training in these areas. In this talk we reflect on our progress in achieving reproducible, open science in computational hydrology, which are relevant to the broader computational geoscience community. In particular, we draw on our experience in the Switch-On (EU funded) virtual water science laboratory (http://www.switch-on-vwsl.eu/participate/), which is an open platform for collaboration in hydrological experiments (e.g. [2]). While we use computational hydrology as

  5. Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products, Services and Application from NASA Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Rodell, matthew; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products simulated by four land surface models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Current data holdings include a set of 1.0 degree resolution data products from the four models, covering 1979 to the present; and a 0.25 degree data product from the Noah model, covering 2000 to the present. The products are in Gridded Binary (GRIB) format and can be accessed through a number of interfaces. Users can search the products through keywords and perform on-the-fly spatial and parameter subsetting and format conversion of selected data. More advanced visualization, access and analysis capabilities will be available in the future. The long term GLDAS data are used to develop climatology of water cycle components and to explore the teleconnections of droughts and pluvial.

  6. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  7. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.H. Liu; C.F. Ahlers

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is in accordance with the AMR Development Plan (DP) for U0090 Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data (CRWMS M and O 1999c). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by compiling and analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Cross Drift of Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB), and/or boreholes; air injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in ESF; in-situ measurements of water potential; and data from laboratory testing of core samples.

  8. Integrated climate and hydrology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl

    To ensure optimal management and sustainable strategies for water resources, infrastructures, food production and ecosystems there is a need for an improved understanding of feedback and interaction mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface. This is especially true in light of expected...... global warming and increased frequency of extreme events. The skill in developing projections of both the present and future climate depends essentially on the ability to numerically simulate the processes of atmospheric circulation, hydrology, energy and ecology. Previous modelling efforts of climate...... and hydrology models to more directly include the interaction between the atmosphere and the land surface. The present PhD study is motivated by an ambition of developing and applying a modelling tool capable of including the interaction and feedback mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface...

  9. A Molecular Dynamics simulation of Hugoniot curves of HMX using ReaxFF and its application in SPH modeling of macroscale terminal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Rong; Wang, Gangyu; Peng, Qing; de, Suvranu

    2015-06-01

    HMX is a widely used high explosive. Hugoniot curve is a valuable tool for analyzing the equations of state, and is of importance for all energetic materials including HMX. The Hugoniot curves serve as one of the key character in continuum modeling of high explosives. It can be obtained from experimental measurements, and recently also from computational studies. In this study, the Hugoniot curve of HMX is calculated using a multi-scale shock technique via Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, where the reactive force field ReaxFF is obtained from Quantum Mechanics calculations and tailored for HMX. It is found that our MD Hugoniot curve of HMX from the optimized ReaxFF potential agree well with experiments. The MD Hugoniot curve of HMX is also incorporated in our in-house Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code for the modeling of the macro-scale explosive behaviors of HMX explosives and HMX cased in a 3D cylinder. The authors would like to acknowledge the generous financial support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Grant HDTRA1-13-1-0025.

  10. Photo-thermal study of a layer of randomly distributed gold nanoparticles: from nano-localization to macro-scale effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Luigia; Palermo, Giovanna; Veltri, Alessandro; Cataldi, Ugo; Bürgi, Thomas; Ritacco, Tiziana; Giocondo, Michele; Umeton, Cesare; De Luca, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    We present an experimental characterization and a comprehensive theoretical modeling of macroscopic plasmonic heat production that takes place in a single layer of small gold nanoparticles (GNPs), randomly distributed on a glass substrate, covered with different host media and acted on by a resonant radiation. We have performed a detailed experimental study of the temperature variations of three different systems, obtained by varying the density of nanoparticles. Due to the macroscopic dimension of the spot size, the used laser irradiates a huge number of nanoparticles, inducing a broad thermo-plasmonic effect that modifies the thermal conductivity of the entire system; starting from the state of art, we have implemented a simple model that enables to evaluate the resulting new thermal conductivity. We have also extended our theoretical approach to the macroscale, including an analysis of the effects predicted for different NP densities and laser spot size values, as well as for different values of the laser intensity, which can be as low as 0.05 W cm-2 . Theoretically predicted temperature variations are in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  11. Terminology gap in hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Water is central to life on Earth. People have been trying to understand how water moves in the hydrosphere throughout the human history. In the 9th century BC, the famous Greek poet Homer described the hydrological cycle in Iliad as "okeanos whose stream bends back in a circle" with a belief that rivers are ocean-fed from subterranean seas. Later, Aristotle (4th century BC) claimed that most of the water came from underground caverns in which air was transformed into water. It was only until 1674, French scientist Perrault developed the correct concept of the water cycle. In modern times, scientists are interested in understanding the individual processes of the hydrological cycle with a keen focus on runoff which supplies water to rivers, lakes, and oceans. Currently, the prevailing concepts on runoff processes include 'infiltration excess runoff' and 'saturation excess runoff'. However, there is no term to describe another major runoff due to the excess beyond the soil water holding capacity (i.e., the field capacity). We argue that a new term should be introduced to fill this gap, and it could be called 'holding excess runoff' which is compatible with the convention. This new term is significant in correcting a half-century misnomer where 'holding excess runoff' has been incorrectly named as 'saturation excess runoff', which was introduced by the Xinanjiang model in China in 1960s. Similar concept has been adopted in many well-known hydrological models such as PDM and HBV in which the saturation refers to the field capacity. The term 'holding excess runoff' resolves such a common confusion in the hydrological community.

  12. Network analysis applications in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katie

    2017-04-01

    Applied network theory has seen pronounced expansion in recent years, in fields such as epidemiology, computer science, and sociology. Concurrent development of analytical methods and frameworks has increased possibilities and tools available to researchers seeking to apply network theory to a variety of problems. While water and nutrient fluxes through stream systems clearly demonstrate a directional network structure, the hydrological applications of network theory remain under­explored. This presentation covers a review of network applications in hydrology, followed by an overview of promising network analytical tools that potentially offer new insights into conceptual modeling of hydrologic systems, identifying behavioral transition zones in stream networks and thresholds of dynamical system response. Network applications were tested along an urbanization gradient in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Peachtree Creek and Proctor Creek. Peachtree Creek contains a nest of five long­term USGS streamflow and water quality gages, allowing network application of long­term flow statistics. The watershed spans a range of suburban and heavily urbanized conditions. Summary flow statistics and water quality metrics were analyzed using a suite of network analysis techniques, to test the conceptual modeling and predictive potential of the methodologies. Storm events and low flow dynamics during Summer 2016 were analyzed using multiple network approaches, with an emphasis on tomogravity methods. Results indicate that network theory approaches offer novel perspectives for understanding long­ term and event­based hydrological data. Key future directions for network applications include 1) optimizing data collection, 2) identifying "hotspots" of contaminant and overland flow influx to stream systems, 3) defining process domains, and 4) analyzing dynamic connectivity of various system components, including groundwater­surface water interactions.

  13. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Brázdil, R.; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, the quantification of flood hydrological characteristics (peak discharge, hydrograph shape, and runoff volume) from documentary evidence has gained scientific recognition as a method to lengthen flood records of rare and extreme events. This paper describes the methodological evolution of quantitative historical hydrology under the influence of developments in hydraulics and statistics. In the 19th century, discharge calculations based on flood marks were the only source of hydrological data for engineering design, but were later left aside in favour of systematic gauge records and conventional hydrological procedures. In the last two decades, there has been growing scientific and public interest in understanding long-term patterns of rare floods, in maintaining the flood heritage and memory of extremes, and developing methods for deterministic and statistical application to different scientific and engineering problems. A compilation of 46 case studies across Europe with reconstructed discharges demonstrates that (1) in most cases present flood magnitudes are not unusual within the context of the last millennium, although recent floods may exceed past floods in some temperate European rivers (e.g. the Vltava and Po rivers); (2) the frequency of extreme floods has decreased since the 1950s, although some rivers (e.g. the Gardon and Ouse rivers) show a reactivation of rare events over the last two decades. There is a great potential for gaining understanding of individual extreme events based on a combined multiproxy approach (palaeoflood and documentary records) providing high-resolution time flood series and their environmental and climatic changes; and for developing non-systematic and non-stationary statistical models based on relations of past floods with external and internal covariates under natural low-frequency climate variability.

  14. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benito, J.; Brázdil, Rudolf; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 8 (2015), s. 3517-3539 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : flood frequency-analysis * ne iberian peninsula * reconstructing peak discharges * extreme floods * climate-change * ardeche river * catastrophic floods * documentary sources * paleoflood record * spanish rivers Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.990, year: 2015

  15. Socio-hydrological flood models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendrecht, Marlies; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Long-term feedbacks between humans and floods may lead to complex phenomena such as coping strategies, levee effects, call effects, adaptation effects, and poverty traps. Such phenomena cannot be represented by traditional flood risk approaches that are based on scenarios. Instead, dynamic models of the coupled human-flood interactions are needed. These types of models should include both social and hydrological variables as well as other relevant variables, such as economic, environmental, political or technical, in order to adequately represent the feedbacks and processes that are of importance in human-flood systems. These socio-hydrological models may play an important role in integrated flood risk management by exploring a wider range of possible futures, including unexpected phenomena, than is possible by creating and studying scenarios. New insights might come to light about the long term effects of certain measures on society and the natural system. Here we discuss a dynamic framework for flood risk and review the models that are presented in literature. We propose a way forward for socio-hydrological modelling of the human-flood system.

  16. Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Mark; Pierson, Fred; Hernandez, Mariano; Al-Hamdan, Osama; Weltz, Mark; Spaeth, Ken; Wei, Haiyan; Stone, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    Soil loss rates on rangelands are considered one of the few quantitative indicators for assessing rangeland health and conservation practice effectiveness. An erosion model to predict soil loss specific for rangeland applications has been needed for many years. Most erosion models were developed from croplands where the hydrologic and erosion processes are different, largely due to much higher levels of heterogeneity in soil and plant properties at the plot scale and the consolidated nature of the soils. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) was designed to fill that need. RHEM is an event-based model that estimates runoff, erosion, and sediment delivery rates and volumes at the spatial scale of the hillslope and the temporal scale of a single rainfall event. It represents erosion processes under normal and fire-impacted rangeland conditions, it adopts a new splash erosion and thin sheet-flow transport equation developed from rangeland data, and it links the model hydrologic and erosion parameters with rangeland plant communities by providing a new system of parameter estimation equations based on 204 plots at 49 rangeland sites distributed across 15 western U.S. states. Recent work on the model is focused on representing intra-storm dynamics, using stream-power as the driver for detachment by flow, and deriving parameters for after-fire conditions.

  17. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  18. SWOT Hydrology in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M. M.; Destaerke, D.; Butler, D. M.; Pavelsky, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission Education Program will participate in the multinational, multiagency program, Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE). GLOBE is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education community of over 24,000 schools in more than 100 countries. Over 1.5 million students have contributed more than 23 million measurements to the GLOBE database for use in inquiry-based science projects. The objectives of the program are to promote the teaching and learning of science; enhance environmental awareness, literacy and stewardship; and contribute to science research and environmental monitoring.SWOT will measure sea surface height and the heights, slopes, and inundated areas of rivers, lakes, and wetlands. This new SWOT-GLOBE partnership will focus on the limnology aspects of SWOT. These measurements will be useful in monitoring the hydrologic cycle, flooding, and climate impacts of a changing environment.GLOBE's cadre of teachers are trained in five core areas of Earth system science, including hydrology. The SWOT Education teams at NASA and CNES are working with the GLOBE Program implementers to develop and promote a new protocol under the Hydrology topic area for students to measure attributes of surface water bodies that will support mission science objectives. This protocol will outline and describe a methodology to measure width and height of rivers and lakes.This new GLOBE protocol will be included in training to provide teachers with expertise and confidence in engaging students in this new scientific investigation. Performing this additional measurement will enhance GLOBE students experience in scientific investigation, and will provide useful measurements to SWOT researchers that can support the SWOT mission research goals.SWOT public engagement will involve communicating the value of its river and lake height measurements, lake water storage, and river

  19. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  20. Comparison of Total Water Storage Anomalies from Global Hydrologic and Land Surface Models and New GRACE Satellite Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, A.; Save, H.; Mueller Schmied, H.; Wada, Y.; Doll, P. M.; Eisner, S.

    2016-12-01

    There is Increasing interest in global hydrology based on modeling and remote sensing, highlighting the need to compare output from modeling and remote sensing approaches. Here we evaluate simulated terrestrial Total Water Storage anomalies (TWSA) from global hydrologic models (GHMs: WGHM and PRC-GLOBWB) and global land surface models (LSMs, such as GLDAS NOAH, MOSAIC, VIC, and CLM) using newly released GRACE mascons solutions from the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research. The comparisons are based on monthly TWS anomalies over 13 years (April 2002 - April 2015) for 176 basins globally. Performance metrics include scatter plots of simulated and GRACE observed TWSA by basin with median slopes for different models indicating bias, correlations (shape and timing of TWS time series), and variability ratio (standard deviation of model TWSA/std. dev. GRACE observed TWSA), with optimal values of 1 indicating perfect agreement. The GRACE data were also disaggregated into long-term trends and seasonal amplitudes. Modeled TWS anomalies are biased low by 20 - 30% relative to GRACE TWSA with similar bias levels for basins in different size classes but greater bias with increasing basin aridity. Discrepancies between models and GRACE TWSA are greatest for long-term trends in TWSA with 60 - 95% underestimation of GRACE TWSA by models. There is good agreement in seasonal amplitudes from models and GRACE ( 0.9 for models with little impact of basin size or climate for most models. These comparisons highlight reliable model performance in terms of seasonal amplitudes in TWSA and underestimation of long-term trends in TWSA and in arid basins.

  1. Communicating uncertainty in hydrological forecasts: mission impossible?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, M. H.; T. Mathevet; J. Thielen; Pappenberger, F.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Cascading uncertainty in meteo-hydrological modelling chains for forecasting and integrated flood risk assessment is an essential step to improve the quality of hydrological forecasts. Although the best methodology to quantify the total predictive uncertainty in hydrology is still debated, there is a common agreement that one must avoid uncertainty misrepresentation and miscommunication, as well as misinterpretation of information by users. Several recent studies point...

  2. Snow cover setting-up dates in the north of Eurasia: relations and feedback to the macro-scale atmospheric circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of snow cover onset data in 1950–2008 based on daily snow depth data collected at first-order meteorological stations of the former USSR compiled at the Russia Institute of Hydrometeorological Information are analyzed in order to reveal climatic norms, relations with macro-scale atmospheric circulation and influence of snow cover anomalies on strengthening/weakening of westerly basing on observational data and results of simulation using model Planet Simulator, as well. Patterns of mean snow cover setting-up data and their correlation with temperature of the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical land presented in Fig. 1 show that the most sensible changes observed in last decade are caused by temperature trend since 1990th. For the most portion of the studied territory variations of snow cover setting-up data may be explained by the circulation indices in the terms of Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Patterns: Scand, EA–WR, WP and NAO (Fig. 2. Role of the Scand and EA–WR (see Fig. 2, а, в, г is recognized as the most significant.Changes of snow cover extent calculated on the base of snow cover onset data over the Russia territory, and its western and eastern parts as well, for the second decade of October (Fig. 3 demonstrate significant difference in variability between eastern and western regions. Eastern part of territory essentially differs by lower both year-to-year and long-term variations in the contrast to the western part, characterized by high variance including long-term tendencies: increase in 1950–70th and decrease in 1970–80 and during last six years. Nevertheless relations between snow cover anomalies and Arctic Oscillation (AO index appear to be significant exceptionally for the eastern part of the territory. In the same time negative linear correlation revealed between snow extent and AO index changes during 1950–2008 from statistically insignificant values (in 1950–70 and 1996–2008 to coefficient

  3. Low flow hydrology: a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smakhtin, VU

    2001-01-10

    Full Text Available seasonal low-flow event does not necessarily constitute a drought, although some researchers refer to a continuous low-flow period in one year as an annual drought (e.g. Zelenhasic and Salvai, 1987; Clausen and Pearson, 1995; Tallaksen et al., 1997...., 1984; Bingham, 1986; Aucott et al., 1987; Rogers and Armbruster, 1990). In some of these studies, V.U. Smakhtin / Journal of Hydrology 240 (2001) 147–186 149 streams flowing through different types of unconsoli- dated sedimentary rocks, were found...

  4. Hydrological Characteristics of Kaligarang Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soewarno Soewarno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a result of research concerning hydrological characteristic in the Garang Catchment Area. At present tha catchment area is often facing the problem of flooding in the dense populated area with cause a lot of loos in Semarang City. This research is aimed at studying hydrological harateristic in the Garang Catchment Area. Hydrological data are obtain from direct measurement at the stream gauging stations in the Garang Catchment Area and collected from Balai Hidrologi Office at Pusat Litbang Teknologi Sumber Daya Air in Bandung and from Hydrological Unit of Central Java Province. From this research were known the rainfall depth, their distribution and their return period; runoff coefficient; streamflow volume; dependable flow; flood discharge characteristi; and minimum discharge. From the some occuring flood indicates of the runoff coefficient is about 0.70. The water volume wasted to the sea is about 195 million m3/year. Yearly average of the dependable flow at stream gaunging stations: Garang – Pajangan  is about 2.28 m3/sec; Garang – Patemon is about 0.92 m3/sec and Kreo – Pancur is about 1.26 m3/sec. Yearly mean of annual flood discharge at Garang – Pajangan is about 435 m3/sec. The maximum capacity of river channel is about 485 m3/sec. The flood discharge characteristic are as follows: time of travel of flood is generally one km/hour approximately, rising time is about 3 hours and time of recession is about 6 – 11 hours. The floods, they are generally occur at the night. Flush flood of 1022 m3/sec occured on January 26, 1990 is estimated on 50 year return period, with 15 year return period of rainfall. The range of minimum discharge is about 0.43 – 3.15 m3/sec. The maximum discharge is about 47.2 – 1118 times of the minimum discharge. Design of the dam in Kreo River at Jatibarang and Kripik River at Mundingan, also increasing of the reforestation area in the upstream catchment are an alternative to reduce the

  5. Femtosecond-laser surface modification and micropatterning of diamond-like nanocomposite films to control friction on the micro and macroscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenov, S. M.; Zavedeev, E. V.; Arutyunyan, N. R.; Zilova, O. S.; Shupegin, M. L.; Jaeggi, B.; Neuenschwander, B.

    2017-10-01

    Laser surface micropatterning (texturing) of hard materials and coatings is an effective technique to improve tribological systems. In the paper, we have investigated the laser-induced surface modifications and micropatterning of diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) films (a-C:H,Si:O) using IR and visible femtosecond (fs) lasers, focusing on the improvement of frictional properties of laser-patterned films on the micro and macroscale. The IR and visible fs-lasers, operating at λ = 1030 nm and λ = 515 nm wavelengths (pulse duration 320 fs and pulse repetition rate 101 kHz), are used to fabricate different patterns for subsequent friction tests. The IR fs-laser is applied to produce hill-like micropatterns under conditions of surface graphitization and incipient ablation, and the visible fs-laser is used for making microgroove patterns in DLN films under ablation conditions. Regimes of irradiation with low-energy IR laser pulses are chosen to produce graphitized micropatterns. For these regimes, results of numerical calculations of the temperature and graphitized layer growth are presented to show good correlation with surface relief modifications, and the features of fs-laser graphitization are discussed based on Raman spectroscopy analysis. Using lateral force microscopy, the role of surface modifications (graphitization, nanostructuring) in the improved microfriction properties is investigated. New data of the influence of capillary forces on friction forces, which strongly changes the microscale friction behaviour, are presented for a wide range of loads (from nN to μN) applied to Si tips. In macroscopic ball-on-disk tests, a pair-dependent friction behaviour of laser-patterned films is observed. The first experimental data of the improved friction properties of laser-micropatterned DLN films under boundary lubricated sliding conditions are presented. The obtained results show the DLN films as an interesting coating material suitable for laser patterning

  6. Strategy to Achieve Highly Porous/Biocompatible Macroscale Cell Blocks, Using a Collagen/Genipin-bioink and an Optimal 3D Printing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Bok; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-11-30

    Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting process for obtaining a cell-laden structure has been widely applied because of its ability to fabricate biomimetic complex structures embedded with and without cells. To successfully obtain a cell-laden porous block, the cell-delivering vehicle, bioink, is one of the significant factors. Until now, various biocompatible hydrogels (synthetic and natural biopolymers) have been utilized in the cell-printing process, but a bioink satisfying both biocompatibility and print-ability requirements to achieve a porous structure with reasonable mechanical strength has not been issued. Here, we propose a printing strategy with optimal conditions including a safe cross-linking procedure for obtaining a 3D porous cell block composed of a biocompatible collagen-bioink and genipin, a cross-linking agent. To obtain the optimal processing conditions, we modified the 3D printing machine and selected an optimal cross-linking condition (∼1 mM and 1 h) of genipin solution. To show the feasibility of the process, 3D pore-interconnected cell-laden constructs were manufactured using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and human adipose stem cells (hASCs). Under these processing conditions, a macroscale 3D collagen-based cell block of 21 × 21 × 12 mm(3) and over 95% cell viability was obtained. In vitro biological testing of the cell-laden 3D porous structure showed that the embedded cells were sufficiently viable, and their proliferation was significantly higher; the cells also exhibited increased osteogenic activities compared to the conventional alginate-based bioink (control). The results indicated the fabrication process using the collagen-bioink would be an innovative platform to design highly biocompatible and mechanically stable cell blocks.

  7. Climate Change Impacts on the Los Angeles Aqueducts Water Sources: 21st Century Hydrologic Projections for Owens Valley and Mono Lake Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Roy, S. B.; Maurer, E. P.; Mills, W. B.; Chen, L.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation from the Eastern Sierra Nevada watersheds of Owens Lake and Mono Lake is one of the main water sources, and the one of highest quality, for Los Angeles' more than 4 million people. Winter snow is stored in the large snowpack reservoir, and meltwater (~0.2-0.5 million acre-feet) is delivered annually to the city in the dry season by the 340-mile long Los Angeles Aqueduct system, operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. We identify plausible scenarios of future climate conditions in the Owens-Mono watersheds over the 21st century based on CMIP3 results for 16 global climate models (GCMs) statistically downscaled to 1/8° and greenhouse gas emission scenarios A2 and B1; and we evaluate the consequent hydrologic impacts using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. Such climate scenarios have large and unquantifiable associated uncertainty and do not represent predictions, but are considered to be plausible under the current state of knowledge. We applied VIC to the Owens-Mono watersheds and calibrated the model using monthly streamflow records provided by LADWP. Of most interest to Los Angeles' water supply are the projections for the snowpack and the dry-season hydrograph that relies on snowmelt. Our results indicate future increases in the fraction of precipitation falling as rain rather than snow, from a historical value of about 20% to 20-30% by mid-century and 28-52% by end of century (depending on the GCM) for scenario A2. As a result, the snowpack's peak snow water equivalent (SWE) is projected to decline by most GCMs. The SWE peak is also projected to shift toward earlier dates (by a few days by mid-century and by a GCM-average of 2 weeks by end of century under emissions scenario A2). The diminished SWE, earlier SWE peak and earlier melt associated with rising temperatures result in earlier hydrograph peaks, a shift in the date marking the passage of half of the year's hydrograph volume (by more than one

  8. Regional frameworks applied to hydrology: can landscape-based frameworks capture the hydrologic variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McManamay; D. Orth; C. Dolloff; E. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Regional frameworks have been used extensively in recent years to aid in broad-scale management. Widely used landscape-based regional frameworks, such as hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) and physiographic provinces, may provide predictive tools of hydrologic variability. However, hydrologic-based regional frameworks, created using only streamflow data, are also...

  9. Hydrologic Forecasting and Hydropower Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmosta, M. S.; Voisin, N.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Coleman, A.; Mishra, V.; Schaner, N. A.

    2011-12-01

    Hydroelectric power production is one of many competing demands for available water along with other priority uses such as irrigation, thermoelectric cooling, municipal, recreation, and environmental performance. Increasingly, hydroelectric generation is being used to offset the intermittent nature of some renewable energy sources such as wind-generated power. An accurate forecast of the magnitude and timing of water supply assists managers in integrated planning and operations to balance competing water uses against current and future supply while protecting against the possibility of water or energy shortages and excesses with real-time actions. We present a medium-range to seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasting system where uncertainty in forecasts is addressed explicitly. The integrated forecast system makes use of remotely-sensed data and automated spatial and temporal data assimilation. Remotely-sensed snow cover, observed snow water equivalent, and observed streamflow data are used to update the hydrologic model state prior to the forecast. In forecast mode, the hydrology model is forced by calibrated ensemble weather/climate forecasts. This system will be fully integrated into a water optimization toolset to inform reservoir and power operations, and guide environmental performance decision making. This flow forecast system development is carried out in agreement with the National Weather Service so that the system can later be incorporated into the NOAA eXperimental Ensemble Forecast Service (XEFS).

  10. Towards a hydrologically motivated soil texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge

    2010-05-01

    Soil texture classification is not designed for hydrological purposes, e.g. for hydrological modelling. Hydrological model applications based on classified soil textures have revealed that different soil texture classes within the same classification system induce different uncertainties with respect to simulated water balances. As a consequence, there is a need to think about required similarity in texture classifications. In different regions of the world, different soil texture classification systems have been developed. These different classification systems divide the soil texture triangle in different numbers of differently shaped soil texture classes. These texture classifications are based on pedological background and practical reasons with respect to soil mapping and analyses. In comparison, a possible soil texture classification motivated by soil hydrology should be based on similarity in hydrological fluxes or in the soil water regime. Therefore, this presentation proposes a procedure how to evaluate the appropriateness of currently used texture classifications and how to derive a new soil texture classification based on a similar behaviour of soils with respect to hydrological processes. Long-term hydrological modelling of water balance terms using the 1-D SVAT scheme SIMULAT serve as the basis of a similarity analysis of 5050 possible realisations of the soil texture triangle (1% grid). Cluster analysis is used for analysing similar hydrological behaviour of theoretical soil columns. Spatial patterns of similar realisations (=clusters) in the soil texture triangle based on annual water balance terms are compared to those based on soil hydraulic parameters and current soil texture classes. The results show that clusters based on soil hydraulic parameterisation are relatively similar to current soil texture classification schemes while hydrological model simulations suggest differing spatial patterns of similar behaviour over the soil texture triangle

  11. Sharing Hydrologic Data with the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T.; Piasecki, M.; Goodall, J. L.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.

    2009-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system to support the sharing of hydrologic data consisting of databases connected using the internet through web services as well as software for data discovery, access and publication. The HIS is founded upon an information model for observations at stationary points that supports its data services. A data model, the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM), provides community defined semantics needed to allow sharing information from diverse data sources. A defined set of CUAHSI HIS web services allows for the development of data services, which scale from centralized data services which support access to National Datasets such as the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and EPA Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), in a standard way; to distributed data services which allow users to establish their own server and publish their data. User data services are registered to a central HIS website, and they become searchable and accessible through the centralized discovery and data access tools. HIS utilizes both an XML and relational database schema for transmission and storage of data respectively. WaterML is the XML schema used for data transmission that underlies the machine to machine communications, while the ODM is implemented as relational database model for persistent data storage. Web services support access to hydrologic data stored in ODM and communicate using WaterML directly from applications software such as Excel, MATLAB and ArcGIS that have Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. A significant value of web services derives from the capability to use them from within a user’s preferred analysis environment, using community defined semantics, rather than requiring a user to learn new software. This allows a user to work with data from national and academic sources, almost as though it was on their local disk. Users wishing to share or publish their data through CUAHSI

  12. Hydrology of Southeast Florida and Associated Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsour, William, Comp.; Moyer, Maureen, Comp.

    This booklet deals with the hydrology of southeastern Florida. It is designed to provide the citizen, teacher, or student with hydrological information, to promote an understanding of water resources, and to initiate conservation practices within Florida communities. The collection of articles within the booklet deal with Florida water resources…

  13. Hydrological processes at the urban residential scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Xiao; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; S.L. Ustin

    2007-01-01

    In the face of increasing urbanization, there is growing interest in application of microscale hydrologic solutions to minimize storm runoff and conserve water at the source. In this study, a physically based numerical model was developed to understand hydrologic processes better at the urban residential scale and the interaction of these processes among different...

  14. Hydrological and geomorphological controls of malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. W.; Macklin, M. G.; Thomas, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria risk is linked inextricably to the hydrological and geomorphological processes that form vector breeding sites. Yet environmental controls of malaria transmission are often represented by temperature and rainfall amounts, ignoring hydrological and geomorphological influences altogether. Continental-scale studies incorporate hydrology implicitly through simple minimum rainfall thresholds, while community-scale coupled hydrological and entomological models do not represent the actual diversity of the mosquito vector breeding sites. The greatest range of malaria transmission responses to environmental factors is observed at the catchment scale where seemingly contradictory associations between rainfall and malaria risk can be explained by hydrological and geomorphological processes that govern surface water body formation and persistence. This paper extends recent efforts to incorporate ecological factors into malaria-risk models, proposing that the same detailed representation be afforded to hydrological and, at longer timescales relevant for predictions of climate change impacts, geomorphological processes. We review existing representations of environmental controls of malaria and identify a range of hydrologically distinct vector breeding sites from existing literature. We illustrate the potential complexity of interactions among hydrology, geomorphology and vector breeding sites by classifying a range of water bodies observed in a catchment in East Africa. Crucially, the mechanisms driving surface water body formation and destruction must be considered explicitly if we are to produce dynamic spatial models of malaria risk at catchment scales.

  15. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology

  16. Steponas Kolupaila's contribution to hydrological science development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiuškevičius, Gintaras

    2017-08-01

    Steponas Kolupaila (1892-1964) was an important figure in 20th century hydrology and one of the pioneers of scientific water gauging in Europe. His research on the reliability of hydrological data and measurement methods was particularly important and contributed to the development of empirical hydrological calculation methods. Kolupaila was one of the first who standardised water-gauging methods internationally. He created several original hydrological and hydraulic calculation methods (his discharge assessment method for winter period was particularly significant). His innate abilities and frequent travel made Kolupaila a universal specialist in various fields and an active public figure. He revealed his multilayered scientific and cultural experiences in his most famous book, Bibliography of Hydrometry. This book introduced the unique European hydrological-measurement and computation methods to the community of world hydrologists at that time and allowed the development and adaptation of these methods across the world.

  17. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrologic modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Abstract Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier...

  18. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  19. Hydrological Aspects of Electromagnetic Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baden G. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting Electromagnetic (EM surveys - Electromagnetic induction techniques have now largely replaced previous descriptive, and largely subjective, techniques used for soil salinity surveys. The question then is a matter of how to interpret the EM data. A very clear linkage exists between Apparent Electrical Conductivity (ECa and the total soluble salts in the upper soil profile. This, in turn, can be interpreted as reflecting the degree of vertical/ lateral leaching of soluble salts, or of salt accumulation in the profile. Topography, depth to groundwater and groundwater salinity also appear to affect ECa, although they are not suited to rapid survey techniques and do not necessarily have a direct relationship with either the total salt content of the upper soil profile or the ECa values. The interpretation of isoconductivity maps in terms of the degree of leaching of the soil profile from point to point provides an added hydrological management perspective to EM soil salinity surveys.

  20. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth’s hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  1. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth's hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  2. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. H. Liu

    2003-04-03

    This Model Report describes the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and documents validation of the active fracture model (AFM). This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Sections 1.10.2, 1.10.3, and 1.10.8). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Cross Drift for Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB), and/or boreholes; air injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in the ESF; and data from laboratory testing of core samples. The AFM is validated on the basis of experimental observations and theoretical developments. This report is a revision of an Analysis Model Report, under the same title, as a scientific analysis with Document Identifier number ANL-NBS-HS-000002 (BSC 2001 [159725]) that did not document activities to validate the AFM. The principal purpose of this work is to provide representative uncalibrated estimates of fracture and matrix properties for use in the model report ''Calibrated Properties Model'' (BSC 2003 [160240]). The present work also provides fracture geometry properties for generating dual permeability grids as documented in the Scientific Analysis Report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2003 [160109]). The resulting calibrated property sets and numerical grids from these reports will be used in the Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model (UZ Model), and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models. The fracture and matrix properties developed in this Model Report include: (1) Fracture properties (frequency, permeability, van Genuchten a and m parameters, aperture, porosity, and interface area) for each UZ Model layer; (2

  3. New Observational Tools and Datasources for Hydrology: Hydrological data Unlocked by Tinkering

    OpenAIRE

    Hut, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in scientific understanding follow a cyclic pattern where new observational techniques lead to novel theoretical insight. From novel theories, in turn, hypotheses are derived that cannot be tested using current observations and thus create a demand for even newer observational techniques. Hydrology has recently experienced a period of great advances in theoretical understanding with hydrological models gaining considerably in complexity. Currently, the state of the hydrological scien...

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Hydrology Education in a Changing World - The Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Brian; Wagener, Thorsten; Marshall, Lucy; McGuire, Kevin; Meixner, Thomas; Weiler, Markus; Gooseff, Michael; Kelleher, Christa; Gregg, Susan

    2010-05-01

    ‘It takes a village to raise a child', but who does it take to educate a hydrologist who can solve today's and tomorrow's problems? Hydrology is inherently an interdisciplinary science, and therefore requires interdisciplinary training. We believe that the demands on current and future hydrologists will continue to increase, while training at undergraduate and graduate levels has not kept pace. How do we, as university faculty, educate hydrologists capable of solving complex problems in an interdisciplinary environment considering that current educators have often been taught in narrow traditional disciplines? We suggest a unified community effort to change the way that hydrologists are educated. The complexity of the task is ever increasing. Analysis techniques and tools required for solving emerging problems have to evolve away from focusing mainly on the analysis of past behavior because baselines are shifting as the world changes. The difficulties of providing an appropriate education are also increasing, especially given the growing demands on faculty time. To support hydrology educators and improve hydrology education, we have started a faculty community of educators (REACH) and implemented the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA, http://www.mocha.psu.edu/). The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty as they educate hydrologists that can solve interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced as students. Our current objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for university hydrology education, based on modern pedagogical standards, freely available to and developed and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and capacity building. In this presentation we discuss the results of a recent survey on current hydrology education (to compare with the state of

  5. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology...... necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall...... estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological...

  6. Estimating real-time predictive hydrological uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Flood early warning systems provide a potentially highly effective flood risk reduction measure. The effectiveness of early warning, however, is affected by forecasting uncertainty: the impossibility of knowing, in advance, the exact future state of hydrological systems. Early warning systems

  7. Hydrologic Data Sites for Iron County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows the USGS (United States Geologic Survey), NWIS (National Water Inventory System) Hydrologic Data Sites for Iron County, Utah. The scope and purpose of...

  8. DCS Hydrology Submission for Lincoln County, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The hydrology dataset for Lincoln County, Oregon includes proposed 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year discharges for Salmon River, Schooner Creek, Drift Creek, Siletz...

  9. Hypothesis testing in hydrology: Theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, James; Pfister, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Well-posed hypothesis tests have spurred major advances in hydrological theory. However, a random sample of recent research papers suggests that in hydrology, as in other fields, hypothesis formulation and testing rarely correspond to the idealized model of the scientific method. Practices such as "p-hacking" or "HARKing" (Hypothesizing After the Results are Known) are major obstacles to more rigorous hypothesis testing in hydrology, along with the well-known problem of confirmation bias - the tendency to value and trust confirmations more than refutations - among both researchers and reviewers. Hypothesis testing is not the only recipe for scientific progress, however: exploratory research, driven by innovations in measurement and observation, has also underlain many key advances. Further improvements in observation and measurement will be vital to both exploratory research and hypothesis testing, and thus to advancing the science of hydrology.

  10. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  11. Hydrologic time and sustainability of shallow aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; ,

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of water and short intervals of time are coeval events that began about 6000 BC in Mesopotamia. Even though time and hydrology have been intimately entwined, with time terms in the denominator of many hydrologic parameters, hydrology's a priori claim to time has not been consummated. Moreover, time takes on a greater importance now than in the past as the focus shifts to small site-scale aquifers whose sustainability can be physically and chemically threatened. One of the challenges for research in hydrogeology is to establish time scales for hydrologic phenomena such as infiltration rates, groundwater flow rates, rates of organic and inorganic reactions, and rates of groundwater withdrawal over the short term, and the long term and to understand the consequences of these various time scales. Credible monitoring programs must consider not only the spatial scale, but also the time scale of the phenomena being monitored.

  12. U.S.V.I. Hydrological Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile comprises the watershed boundaries, or hydrological units and their physical and erosion related characteristics for the U.S. Virgin Islands

  13. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Wetter, O.

    2017-01-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimation...

  14. Genetic Programming for Automatic Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadalawada, Jayashree; Babovic, Vladan

    2017-04-01

    One of the recent challenges for the hydrologic research community is the need for the development of coupled systems that involves the integration of hydrologic, atmospheric and socio-economic relationships. This poses a requirement for novel modelling frameworks that can accurately represent complex systems, given, the limited understanding of underlying processes, increasing volume of data and high levels of uncertainity. Each of the existing hydrological models vary in terms of conceptualization and process representation and is the best suited to capture the environmental dynamics of a particular hydrological system. Data driven approaches can be used in the integration of alternative process hypotheses in order to achieve a unified theory at catchment scale. The key steps in the implementation of integrated modelling framework that is influenced by prior understanding and data, include, choice of the technique for the induction of knowledge from data, identification of alternative structural hypotheses, definition of rules, constraints for meaningful, intelligent combination of model component hypotheses and definition of evaluation metrics. This study aims at defining a Genetic Programming based modelling framework that test different conceptual model constructs based on wide range of objective functions and evolves accurate and parsimonious models that capture dominant hydrological processes at catchment scale. In this paper, GP initializes the evolutionary process using the modelling decisions inspired from the Superflex framework [Fenicia et al., 2011] and automatically combines them into model structures that are scrutinized against observed data using statistical, hydrological and flow duration curve based performance metrics. The collaboration between data driven and physical, conceptual modelling paradigms improves the ability to model and manage hydrologic systems. Fenicia, F., D. Kavetski, and H. H. Savenije (2011), Elements of a flexible approach

  15. HESS Opinions "The art of hydrology"*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. G. Savenije

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological modelling is the same as developing and encoding a hydrological theory. A hydrological model is not a tool but a hypothesis. The whole discussion about the inadequacy of hydrological models we have witnessed of late, is related to the wrong concept of what a model is. Good models don't exist. Instead of looking for the "best" model, we should aim at developing better models. The process of modelling should be top-down, learning from the data while at the same time connection should be established with underlying physical theory (bottom-up. As a result of heterogeneity occurring at all scales in hydrology, there always remains a need for calibration of models. This implies that we need tailor-made and site-specific models. Only flexible models are fit for this modelling process, as opposed to most of the established software or "one-size-fits-all" models. The process of modelling requires imagination, inspiration, creativity, ingenuity, experience and skill. These are qualities that belong to the field of art. Hydrology is an art as much as it is science and engineering.

  16. Hydrology Domain Cyberinfrastructures: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsburgh, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Anticipated changes to climate, human population, land use, and urban form will alter the hydrology and availability of water within the water systems on which the world's population relies. Understanding the effects of these changes will be paramount in sustainably managing water resources, as well as maintaining associated capacity to provide ecosystem services (e.g., regulating flooding, maintaining instream flow during dry periods, cycling nutrients, and maintaining water quality). It will require better information characterizing both natural and human mediated hydrologic systems and enhanced ability to generate, manage, store, analyze, and share growing volumes of observational data. Over the past several years, a number of hydrology domain cyberinfrastructures have emerged or are currently under development that are focused on providing integrated access to and analysis of data for cross-domain synthesis studies. These include the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS), the Critical Zone Observatory Information System (CZOData), HyroShare, the BiG CZ software system, and others. These systems have focused on sharing, integrating, and analyzing hydrologic observations data. This presentation will describe commonalities and differences in the cyberinfrastructure approaches used by these projects and will highlight successes and lessons learned in addressing the challenges of big and complex data. It will also identify new challenges and opportunities for next generation cyberinfrastructure and a next generation of cyber-savvy scientists and engineers as developers and users.

  17. Linking scientific disciplines: Hydrology and social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.

    2017-07-01

    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?

  18. Detection of Hydrological changes of Wujiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L.; Chen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In the century our earth experienced a rapid environment changes due to strong human activities, which impactedthe earth'shydrology and water resources systems negatively, and causedsevere problems to the society, such as increased flood and drought risk, water pollution and ecosystem degradation. Understanding the variations of hydrological characteristics has important meaning to solve the problem of hydrology and water resources and maintain sustainable development of river basin water resources.This paper takesWujiangriveras an example,which is a typical medium watershedaffected by human activities seriously in southern China.Using the methods of Mann-Kendall test and serial cluster analysis, this paper studies the characteristics and laws of historical hydrological process inWujiang river, detectsthe impact of changing environment to watershed hydrological processes, based on the observed hydrological data of 36 years from 1980 to 2015 in three representative hydrological stationsnamedFenshi,Chixi and Pingshi. The results show that the annual runoffandannual precipitation has some kind of changes.

  19. Hydrologic refugia, plants, and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Blair C; Ackerly, David D; Klos, P Zion; Natali, Jennifer; Dawson, Todd E; Thompson, Sally E

    2017-08-01

    Climate, physical landscapes, and biota interact to generate heterogeneous hydrologic conditions in space and over time, which are reflected in spatial patterns of species distributions. As these species distributions respond to rapid climate change, microrefugia may support local species persistence in the face of deteriorating climatic suitability. Recent focus on temperature as a determinant of microrefugia insufficiently accounts for the importance of hydrologic processes and changing water availability with changing climate. Where water scarcity is a major limitation now or under future climates, hydrologic microrefugia are likely to prove essential for species persistence, particularly for sessile species and plants. Zones of high relative water availability - mesic microenvironments - are generated by a wide array of hydrologic processes, and may be loosely coupled to climatic processes and therefore buffered from climate change. Here, we review the mechanisms that generate mesic microenvironments and their likely robustness in the face of climate change. We argue that mesic microenvironments will act as species-specific refugia only if the nature and space/time variability in water availability are compatible with the ecological requirements of a target species. We illustrate this argument with case studies drawn from California oak woodland ecosystems. We posit that identification of hydrologic refugia could form a cornerstone of climate-cognizant conservation strategies, but that this would require improved understanding of climate change effects on key hydrologic processes, including frequently cryptic processes such as groundwater flow. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological applications. The paper also reviews how the focus in urban hydrology research has shifted over the last decade to fields such as climate change impacts, resilience of urban areas to hydrological extremes, and online prediction/warning systems. It is discussed how radar rainfall data can add value to the aforementioned emerging fields in current and future applications, but also to the analysis of integrated water systems.

  1. The Critical Role of the Routing Scheme in Simulating Peak River Discharge in Global Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Frieler, Katja; Schewe, Jacob; Ostberg, Sebastian; Willner, Sven; Schauberger, Bernhard; Gosling, Simon N.; Schmied, Hannes Muller; Portmann, Felix T.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Global hydrological models (GHMs) have been applied to assess global flood hazards, but their capacity to capture the timing and amplitude of peak river discharge which is crucial in flood simulations has traditionally not been the focus of examination. Here we evaluate to what degree the choice of river routing scheme affects simulations of peak discharge and may help to provide better agreement with observations. To this end we use runoff and discharge simulations of nine GHMs forced by observational climate data (1971-2010) within the ISIMIP2a (Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project phase 2a) project. The runoff simulations were used as input for the global river routing model CaMa-Flood (Catchment-based Macro-scale Floodplain). The simulated daily discharge was compared to the discharge generated by each GHM using its native river routing scheme. For each GHM both versions of simulated discharge were compared to monthly and daily discharge observations from 1701 GRDC (Global Runoff Data Centre) stations as a benchmark. CaMa-Flood routing shows a general reduction of peak river discharge and a delay of about two to three weeks in its occurrence, likely induced by the buffering capacity of floodplain reservoirs. For a majority of river basins, discharge produced by CaMa-Flood resulted in a better agreement with observations. In particular, maximum daily discharge was adjusted, with a multi-model averaged reduction in bias over about two-thirds of the analysed basin area. The increase in agreement was obtained in both managed and near-natural basins. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of routing scheme choice in peak discharge simulation, where CaMa-Flood routing accounts for floodplain storage and backwater effects that are not represented in most GHMs. Our study provides important hints that an explicit parameterisation of these processes may be essential in future impact studies.

  2. Data Assimilation in Integrated and Distributed Hydrological Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Donghua

    Integrated hydrological models are frequently used in water-related environmental resource management. With our better understanding of the hydrological processes and the improved computational power, hydrological models are becoming increasingly more complex as they integrate multiple hydrological...... processes and provide simulations in refined temporal and spatial resolutions. Recent developments in measurement and sensor technologies have significantly improved the coverage, quality, frequency and diversity of hydrological observations. Data assimilation provides a great potential in relation...

  3. Remote sensing based evapotranspiration and runoff modeling of agricultural, forest and urban flux sites in Denmark: From field to macro-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, E.; Poulsen, R.N.; Butts, M.

    2009-01-01

    conditions, and the EOS/MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to map (a) the temporal development in leaf area index for agricultural fields, (b) a dynamic “canopy” coefficient (Kc) of forests being scaled between its minimum and maximum values for use in the FAO Penman...... variability in eddy covariance latent heat fluxes. The “effective” spatial resolution needed to adopt local-scale model parameters for spatial-deterministic hydrological modeling was assessed using a high-spatial resolution (30 m) variogram analysis of the NDVI. The use of the NDVI variogram to evaluate land...... surface heterogeneity is based on the assumption that sub-class soil heterogeneity can be indirectly represented by the observed spatial variations in NDVI due to its close affiliation with vegetation growth, soil water uptake and evapotranspiration. Multiple spatial resolution water balance simulations...

  4. Development of A Long Term Hydrologically-Based Dataset of Land Surface Fluxes and States for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    The absence of long-term consistent and comprehensive land surface dataset, which frustrates the analyses of land surface variables changes and interactions, has been one of the most frequently encountered problems for assessing the performance of land-atmosphere parameterizations. While some offline model studies can provide balanced water and energy budgets at land surface, few of them has presented an evaluation of the long-term interaction of the water balance components over China. In the paper, we develop a latest, hydrologically-based, consistent and comprehensive land surface dataset of China using a land surface model (VIC) driven by long-term gridded observation-based meteorological forcings. The newly developed dataset covers China domain and is at 3-hr time step with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The dataset spans the period from 1952 to near-real-time when China Meteorological Administration (CMA) observation is updated. In the dataset, the simulated runoff matches quite well with the observed seasonal hydrographs, inter-annual variation, and long-term trend over large river basins. The simulated soil moisture reasonably reproduces the seasonal variation of the observed soil moisture at 8 stations where long-term observations are available in China. Compared with China Meteorological Forcing Dataset developed by ITPCAS, the downward radiations generally have the relative compatible patterns in spatial on seasonal means over domain though some biases at magnitude are existed. In contrast with the global products of similar nature, the dataset can provide a more accurate and meaningful estimates of land surface variables over China continent. The dataset, which is to be unrestricted accessible via internet, may be useful for climate diagnostic studies in China, especially where precipitation is hard to obtain and generally not well represented in reanalysis products.

  5. Impacts of Land Cover and Land Use Change on the Hydrology of the US-Mexico Border Region, 1992-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The semi-arid US-Mexico border region has been experiencing rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion over the last several decades, due in part to the lifting of trade barriers of the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), placing additional pressures on the region's already strained water resources. Here we examine the effects of changes in land cover/use over the period 1992-2011 on the region's hydrology and water resources, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with an irrigation module to estimate both natural and anthropogenic water fluxes. Land cover has been taken from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) over the US, and from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) database over Mexico, for three snapshots: 1992/3, 2001/2, and 2011. We have performed 3 simulations, one per land cover snapshot, at 6 km resolution, driven by a gridded observed meteorology dataset and a climatology of land surface characteristics derived from remote sensing products. Urban water withdrawal rates were estimated from literature. The primary changes in the region's water budget over the period 1992-2011 consisted of: (1) a shift in agricultural irrigation water withdrawals from the US to Mexico, accompanied by similar shifts in runoff (via agricultural return flow) and evapotranspiration; and (2) a 50% increase in urban water withdrawals, concentrated in the US. Because groundwater supplied most of the additional agricultural withdrawals, and occurred over already over-exploited aquifers, these changes call into question the sustainability of the region's land and water management. By synthesizing the implications of these hydrologic changes, we present a novel view of how NAFTA has altered the US-Mexico border region, possibly in unintended ways.

  6. Scaling biodiversity responses to hydrological regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Robert J; Heino, Jani; Ryder, Darren S; Chessman, Bruce C; Growns, Ivor O; Thompson, Ross M; Gido, Keith B

    2017-11-08

    Of all ecosystems, freshwaters support the most dynamic and highly concentrated biodiversity on Earth. These attributes of freshwater biodiversity along with increasing demand for water mean that these systems serve as significant models to understand drivers of global biodiversity change. Freshwater biodiversity changes are often attributed to hydrological alteration by water-resource development and climate change owing to the role of the hydrological regime of rivers, wetlands and floodplains affecting patterns of biodiversity. However, a major gap remains in conceptualising how the hydrological regime determines patterns in biodiversity's multiple spatial components and facets (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic). We synthesised primary evidence of freshwater biodiversity responses to natural hydrological regimes to determine how distinct ecohydrological mechanisms affect freshwater biodiversity at local, landscape and regional spatial scales. Hydrological connectivity influences local and landscape biodiversity, yet responses vary depending on spatial scale. Biodiversity at local scales is generally positively associated with increasing connectivity whereas landscape-scale biodiversity is greater with increasing fragmentation among locations. The effects of hydrological disturbance on freshwater biodiversity are variable at separate spatial scales and depend on disturbance frequency and history and organism characteristics. The role of hydrology in determining habitat for freshwater biodiversity also depends on spatial scaling. At local scales, persistence, stability and size of habitat each contribute to patterns of freshwater biodiversity yet the responses are variable across the organism groups that constitute overall freshwater biodiversity. We present a conceptual model to unite the effects of different ecohydrological mechanisms on freshwater biodiversity across spatial scales, and develop four principles for applying a multi-scaled understanding of

  7. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Pan

    2004-10-04

    This analysis report describes the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The technical scope, content, and management of this analysis report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 2, 4, and 8). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), the Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB) Cross-Drift, and/or boreholes; air-injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in the ESF; and data from laboratory testing of core samples. In addition, the report ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]) also serves as a source report by providing the geological framework model of the site. This report is a revision of the model report under the same title (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161773]), which in turn superceded the analysis report under the same title. The principal purpose of this work is to provide representative uncalibrated estimates of fracture and matrix properties for use in the model report Calibrated Properties Model. The term ''uncalibrated'' is used to distinguish the properties or parameters estimated in this report from those obtained from the inversion modeling used in ''Calibrated Properties Model''. The present work also provides fracture geometry properties for generating dual-permeability grids as documented in the scientific analyses report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling''.

  8. Hydrology under change: an evaluation protocol to investigate how hydrological models deal with changing catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Thirel; V. Andreassian; C. Perrin; J.-N. Audouy; L. Berthet; Pamela Edwards; N. Folton; C. Furusho; A. Kuentz; J. Lerat; G. Lindstrom; E. Martin; T. Mathevet; R. Merz; J. Parajka; D. Ruelland; J. Vaze

    2015-01-01

    Testing hydrological models under changing conditions is essential to evaluate their ability to cope with changing catchments and their suitability for impact studies. With this perspective in mind, a workshop dedicated to this issue was held at the 2013 General Assembly of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) in Göteborg, Sweden, in July 2013...

  9. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  10. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, N.; Wada, Y.; Lanen, Van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that

  11. Felipe González Vicén, Teoría de la revolución. Sistema e historia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas y Plaza y Valdés, Madrid y México, D. F., 2010, 125 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Peláez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos encontramos ante la reedición de un libro clásico de Felipe González Vicén, catedrático de Derecho Natural y Filosofía del Derecho que lo fue de las Universidades de Sevilla y La Laguna, fallecido en 1991. Su tesis doctoral, que indudablemente está en este libro, fue menospreciada por el tribunal llamado a juzgarla en la Universidad de Madrid, otorgándole la calificación de Aprobado. La figura de González Vicén está acompañada de una leyenda, que conviene ir aclarando poco a poco con el paso del tiempo. Autor de fina pluma y con un gran conocimiento de la doctrina alemana, recoge en el presente libro la evolución de las teorías sobre la revolución, incidiendo en la importancia que tiene el orden jurídico establecido y el derecho de resistencia ante la existencia de poderes injustos. También determina la diferenciación conceptual que puede hacerse entre revolución, golpe de Estado, conquista y reformas de las constituciones vigentes.

  12. Hydrological system analysis and modelling of the Nam Co basin in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, P.; Biskop, S.; Helmschrot, J.; Flügel, W.-A.; Kang, S.; Gao, T.

    2010-08-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and the adjacent high mountain regions of the Himalayas play an important role in the global climate dynamic through its impact on the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is impacting the water resources of this extremely vulnerable region. To provide further knowledge about the changing impact of rainfall patterns, spatial and temporal variability of snow cover contribution, amount of snow and ice melt runoff, evapotranspiration as well as dynamics of wetlands and permafrost water balance studies are required. This is of particular importance in terms of global climate change because of a severe gap in the knowledge of the short, mid and long term implications on the hydrological system. This study concentrates on the macroscale catchment of the lake Nam Co, located at 4718 m a.s.l. at the foot of the Nyainqentanglha Mountains in central Tibet (30° N, 90° E). The water balance of the Nam Co basin is dominated by semi-arid climate, snow and ice melt runoff and high evaporation rates due to the high radiation input and the low air humidity. The observed temperature rise, glacier retreat, permafrost decay and lake level increase indicate significant system changes and the high sensitivity of the Tibetan Plateau on global warming. The development of a suitable water balance model and its preliminary application was the main objective of this study. The development was done with the Jena Adaptable Modelling System JAMS along with existing scientific process components of the J2000 module library which were partly further developed to reflect the specific conditions of the high elevation Nam Co basin. The preliminary modelling exercise based on gridded data from a downscaled ECHAM5 data set provided reasonable estimates about the important hydrological water balance components of the Nam Co basin. With the modelling results the observed lake level rise could be reproduced and it could be shown that the runoff from the glaciered areas seems to be

  13. Covariance Models for Hydrological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios

    2014-05-01

    This methodological contribution aims to present some new covariance models with applications in the stochastic analysis of hydrological processes. More specifically, we present explicit expressions for radially symmetric, non-differentiable, Spartan covariance functions in one, two, and three dimensions. The Spartan covariance parameters include a characteristic length, an amplitude coefficient, and a rigidity coefficient which determines the shape of the covariance function. Different expressions are obtained depending on the value of the rigidity coefficient and the dimensionality. If the value of the rigidity coefficient is much larger than one, the Spartan covariance function exhibits multiscaling. Spartan covariance models are more flexible than the classical geostatatistical models (e.g., spherical, exponential). Their non-differentiability makes them suitable for modelling the properties of geological media. We also present a family of radially symmetric, infinitely differentiable Bessel-Lommel covariance functions which are valid in any dimension. These models involve combinations of Bessel and Lommel functions. They provide a generalization of the J-Bessel covariance function, and they can be used to model smooth processes with an oscillatory decay of correlations. We discuss the dependence of the integral range of the Spartan and Bessel-Lommel covariance functions on the parameters. We point out that the dependence is not uniquely specified by the characteristic length, unlike the classical geostatistical models. Finally, we define and discuss the use of the generalized spectrum for characterizing different correlation length scales; the spectrum is defined in terms of an exponent α. We show that the spectrum values obtained for exponent values less than one can be used to discriminate between mean-square continuous but non-differentiable random fields. References [1] D. T. Hristopulos and S. Elogne, 2007. Analytic properties and covariance functions of

  14. Hydrological sciences and water security: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Young

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the concepts of water security including not only the risks to human wellbeing posed by floods and droughts, but also the threats of inadequate supply of water in both quantity and quality for food production, human health, energy and industrial production, and for the natural ecosystems on which life depends. The overall setting is one of constant change in all aspects of Earth systems. Hydrological systems (processes and regimes are changing, resulting from varying and changing precipitation and energy inputs, changes in surface covers, mining of groundwater resources, and storage and diversions by dams and infrastructures. Changes in social, political and economic conditions include population and demographic shifts, political realignments, changes in financial systems and in trade patterns. There is an urgent need to address hydrological and social changes simultaneously and in combination rather than as separate entities, and thus the need to develop the approach of ‘socio-hydrology’. All aspects of water security, including the responses of both UNESCO and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS to the concepts of socio-hydrology, are examined in detailed papers within the volume titled Hydrological Sciences and Water Security: Past, Present and Future.

  15. Concepts and Challenges in Disturbance Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B. A.; Mirus, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    Landscape disturbances are increasing, often promoted and enhanced by climate shifts and human activities. Insect infestations, wildfires, earthquakes, urban development, forest harvest, mineral and petroleum resource extraction, and hurricanes are common landscape disturbances that can have profound hydrologic consequences. These cause relatively abrupt changes in the landscape, which alter local processes on plots and hillslopes in addition to coarser-scale processes across watersheds through cross-scale interactions. Shifts in soil properties and cover of vegetation and leaf litter change the water storage or buffering capacity as well as the hydrologic functional connectivity across multiple scales. These changes increase the risk of catastrophic flooding, erosion, and mass movements that degrade water resources, ecosystem services, and protection from hydrologically driven natural hazards. Although it is imperative that we understand the hydrologic effects of these disturbances, several major barriers exist. Four challenges are: (i) overlapping disturbances in space and time with unknown recovery trajectories, (ii) a paucity of long-term recovery records (>5 years duration), (iii) inefficacy of traditional modeling and parameterization approaches, and (iv) lack of pre-disturbance characterization. Examples of these challenges will be presented along with proposed opportunities for improved mechanistic understanding of processes and thresholds in disturbance hydrology.

  16. The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. W.; Thielen, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Schaake, J. C.; Hartman, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment was established in March, 2004, at a workshop hosted by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). With support from the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC), the HEPEX goal was to bring the international hydrological and meteorological communities together to advance the understanding and adoption of hydrological ensemble forecasts for decision support in emergency management and water resources sectors. The strategy to meet this goal includes meetings that connect the user, forecast producer and research communities to exchange ideas, data and methods; the coordination of experiments to address specific challenges; and the formation of testbeds to facilitate shared experimentation. HEPEX has organized about a dozen international workshops, as well as sessions at scientific meetings (including AMS, AGU and EGU) and special issues of scientific journals where workshop results have been published. Today, the HEPEX mission is to demonstrate the added value of hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) for emergency management and water resources sectors to make decisions that have important consequences for economy, public health, safety, and the environment. HEPEX is now organised around six major themes that represent core elements of a hydrologic ensemble prediction enterprise: input and pre-processing, ensemble techniques, data assimilation, post-processing, verification, and communication and use in decision making. This poster presents an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, highlighting case studies that exemplify the focus and objectives of HEPEX.

  17. The citation impact of hydrology journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Hanson, R. Brooks

    2017-06-01

    We examine a suite of journal-level productivity and citation statistics for six leading hydrology journals in order to help authors understand the robustness and meaning of journal impact factors. The main results are (1) the probability distribution of citations is remarkably homogenous across hydrology journals; (2) hydrology papers tend to have a long-lasting impact, with a large fraction of papers cited after the 2 year window used to calculate the journal impact factor; and (3) journal impact factors are characterized by substantial year-to-year variability (especially for smaller journals), primarily because a small number of highly cited papers have a large influence on the journal impact factor. Consequently, the ranking of hydrology journals with respect to the journal impact factor in a given year does not have much information content. These results highlight problems in using citation data to evaluate hydrologic science. We hope that this analysis helps authors better understand journal-level citation statistics, and also helps improve research assessments in institutions and funding agencies.

  18. Modeling Hydrological Extremes in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Martinez, Fabian; Kalantari, Zahra; Viglione, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological studies have investigated human impacts on hydrological extremes, i.e. droughts and floods, while social studies have explored human responses and adaptation to them. Yet, there is still little understanding about the dynamics resulting from two-way feedbacks, i.e. both impacts and responses. Traditional risk assessment methods therefore fail to assess future dynamics, and thus risk reduction strategies built on these methods can lead to unintended consequences in the medium-long term. Here we review the dynamics resulting from the reciprocal links between society and hydrological extremes, and describe initial efforts to model floods and droughts in the Anthropocene. In particular, we first discuss the need for a novel approach to explicitly account for human interactions with both hydrological extremes, and then present a stylized model simulating the reciprocal effects between droughts, foods and reservoir operation rules. Unprecedented opportunities offered by the growing availability of global data and worldwide archives to uncover the mutual shaping of hydrological extremes and society across places and scales are also discussed.

  19. Surface Velocities and Hydrology at Engabreen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messerli, Alexandra

    Recent studies have likened the seasonal observations of ice flow at the marginal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to those found on smaller alpine and valley counterparts. These similarities highlight the need for further small scale studies of seasonal evolution in the hydrological...... and dynamic structure of valley glaciers, to aid interpretation of observations from the margins of the GrIS. This thesis aims to collate a large suit of glacio-hydrological data from the outlet glacier Engabreen, Norway, in order to better understand the role the subglacial drainage configuration has...... on surface velocities recorded at the site. The Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory (SSL) under Engabreen, augmented by additional subglacial pressure and hydrological measurements, provides a invaluable observations for detailed process-oriented studies. However, the lack of complementary surface velocity data...

  20. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    Predicting the effects of hydrological alterations on terrestrial stream valley ecosystems requires multidisciplinary approaches involving both engineers and ecologists. Groundwater discharge in stream valleys and other lowland areas support a number of species rich ecosystems, and their protection...... is prioritised worldwide. Protection requires improved knowledge on the functioning of these ecosystems and especially the linkages between vegetation, groundwater discharge and water level conditions are crucial for management applications. Groundwater abstraction affects catchment hydrology and thereby also...... groundwater discharge. Numerical hydrological modelling has been widely used for evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources and effects of abstraction, however, the importance of local scale heterogeneity becomes increasingly important in the assessment of local damage to these groundwater dependent...

  1. Evaluating spatial patterns in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Julian

    is not fully exploited by current modelling frameworks due to the lack of suitable spatial performance metrics. Furthermore, the traditional model evaluation using discharge is found unsuitable to lay confidence on the predicted catchment inherent spatial variability of hydrological processes in a fully...... the contiguous United Sates (10^6 km2). To this end, the thesis at hand applies a set of spatial performance metrics on various hydrological variables, namely land-surface-temperature (LST), evapotranspiration (ET) and soil moisture. The inspiration for the applied metrics is found in related fields...

  2. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  3. Scale effect challenges in urban hydrology highlighted with a distributed hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ichiba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological models are extensively used in urban water management, development and evaluation of future scenarios and research activities. There is a growing interest in the development of fully distributed and grid-based models. However, some complex questions related to scale effects are not yet fully understood and still remain open issues in urban hydrology. In this paper we propose a two-step investigation framework to illustrate the extent of scale effects in urban hydrology. First, fractal tools are used to highlight the scale dependence observed within distributed data input into urban hydrological models. Then an intensive multi-scale modelling work is carried out to understand scale effects on hydrological model performance. Investigations are conducted using a fully distributed and physically based model, Multi-Hydro, developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. The model is implemented at 17 spatial resolutions ranging from 100 to 5 m. Results clearly exhibit scale effect challenges in urban hydrology modelling. The applicability of fractal concepts highlights the scale dependence observed within distributed data. Patterns of geophysical data change when the size of the observation pixel changes. The multi-scale modelling investigation confirms scale effects on hydrological model performance. Results are analysed over three ranges of scales identified in the fractal analysis and confirmed through modelling. This work also discusses some remaining issues in urban hydrology modelling related to the availability of high-quality data at high resolutions, and model numerical instabilities as well as the computation time requirements. The main findings of this paper enable a replacement of traditional methods of model calibration by innovative methods of model resolution alteration based on the spatial data variability and scaling of flows in urban hydrology.

  4. Basin Tendency on Flood and Drought Occurrence for Two Major Rivers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, J.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    River basins play a key role in modulating precipitation variability and manifesting the diversified variability response by runoff or soil moisture. These responses are basin-dependent and frequency dependent controlled by many catchment-related characteristics. The fundamental idea of flood/drought tendency evaluation is to examine the basin response in keeping the high-frequency precipitation variability and memorizing the long-term precipitation variability. This study presents the uses of (1) the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and (2) continuous wavelet transform for the tendency evaluation in the sub-basin basis for two major river basins in China, namely the Yangtze River basin and the Pearl River basin. The terrestrial hydrological processes over the two basins are simulated by using the macro-scale hydrological VIC model over the period of 1951-2000. The variability properties of hydrological variable for different sub-basins in time-frequency domain, ranged from 1/6 - 9 years, are revealed by the wavelet transform. With inspection on the wavelet power ratios of runoff and soil moisture to precipitation across different timescales, the flood or drought tendency is then investigated in associated with the effects of basin geomorphologic factors. The results obtained provide valuable information in devising adaptation and mitigation strategies in humid and semi-humid regions, especially in the context of possible climate change.

  5. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  6. DCS Hydrology Submission for for Charlton Co GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. DCS Hydrology Submission for for Effingham Co GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. DCS Hydrology Submission for for Chatham Co GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    hydrologic (or flow) changes associated with urbanization, baseflow changes associated with urbanization, water withdrawals and interbasin transfers associated with urbanization, biotic responses to hydrologic (or flow) changes associated with urbanization

  10. Scaling, Similarity, and the Fourth Paradigm for Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-01-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm), and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modelling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing, describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses, describe boundary condition, state flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses, and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  11. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. DCS Hydrology Submission for SEBASTIAN COUNTY, AR, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  13. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  14. DCS Hydrology Submission for Baraboo River in Vernon County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. DCS Hydrology submission for ANDERSON COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. DCS Hydrology Submission for Baraboo River in Juneau County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. DCS Hydrology Submission for Unnamed Tributary To English Coulee Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. Scaling, similarity, and the fourth paradigm for hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross

    2017-07-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm) and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing; describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses; describe boundary condition, state, flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses; and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.

  19. Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Brake, te Bram; Huijgevoort, Van Marjolein H.J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration

  20. DCS Hydrology Submission for Fulton Co GA (FY2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. DCS Hydrology Submission for Orangeburg County, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  2. DCS Hydrology Submission for Pine County, MN (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. DCS Hydrology Submittal for Butler County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. Integrated time‐lapse geoelectrical imaging of wetland hydrological processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhlemann, S.S; Sorensen, J. P. R; House, A. R; Wilkinson, P. B; Roberts, C; Gooddy, D. C; Binley, A. M; Chambers, J. E

    2016-01-01

    .... Spatial analysis of 2‐D geoelectrical monitoring data integrated into the interpretation of conventional hydrological data has been implemented to provide a detailed understanding of hydrological processes in a riparian wetland. A two...

  5. DCS HYDROLOGY SUBMISSION for MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. DCS Hydrology, Sweet Grass County, Utah - Yellowstone River

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. DCS Hydrology Submission for Mower County, MN (Countywide DFIRM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, CHESTERFIELD COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. Visualizing complex (hydrological) systems with correlation matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    When trying to understand or visualize the connections of different aspects of a complex system, this often requires deeper understanding to start with, or - in the case of geo data - complicated GIS software. To our knowledge, correlation matrices have rarely been used in hydrology (e.g. Stoll et al., 2011; van Loon and Laaha, 2015), yet they do provide an interesting option for data visualization and analysis. We present a simple, python based way - using a river catchment as an example - to visualize correlations and similarities in an easy and colorful way. We apply existing and easy to use python packages from various disciplines not necessarily linked to the Earth sciences and can thus quickly show how different aquifers work or react, and identify outliers, enabling this system to also be used for quality control of large datasets. Going beyond earlier work, we add a temporal and spatial element, enabling us to visualize how a system reacts to local phenomena such as for example a river, or changes over time, by visualizing the passing of time in an animated movie. References: van Loon, A.F., Laaha, G.: Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics, Journal of Hydrology 526, 3-14, 2015, Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation Stoll, S., Hendricks Franssen, H. J., Barthel, R., Kinzelbach, W.: What can we learn from long-term groundwater data to improve climate change impact studies?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(12), 3861-3875, 2011

  10. Hydrology and heterogeneneous distribution of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the hydrology and heterogeneous distribution of water quality characteristics in the Lagoon of Porto-Novo between July 2014 and June 2015. The water body was stratified into 12 strata for sampling. Data and samples were collected based on season and stations. The results were analyzed in the ...

  11. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES MODELLING USING ADVANCED HYDROINFORMATIC TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEILICCI ERIKA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The water has an essential role in the functioning of ecosystems by integrating the complex physical, chemical, and biological processes that sustain life. Water is a key factor in determining the productivity of ecosystems, biodiversity and species composition. Water is also essential for humanity: water supply systems for population, agriculture, fisheries, industries, and hydroelectric power depend on water supplies. The modelling of hydrological processes is an important activity for water resources management, especially now, when the climate change is one of the major challenges of our century, with strong influence on hydrological processes dynamics. Climate change and needs for more knowledge in water resources require the use of advanced hydroinformatic tools in hydrological processes modelling. The rationale and purpose of advanced hydroinformatic tools is to develop a new relationship between the stakeholders and the users and suppliers of the systems: to offer the basis (systems which supply useable results, the validity of which cannot be put in reasonable doubt by any of the stakeholders involved. For a successful modelling of hydrological processes also need specialists well trained and able to use advanced hydro-informatics tools. Results of modelling can be a useful tool for decision makers to taking efficient measures in social, economical and ecological domain regarding water resources, for an integrated water resources management.

  12. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cumulative droughtconcept is proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwaterproductivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-termannual precipitation in Damascus from 1918–1919 to 2007–2008 (n = 90 years). Generally ...

  13. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  14. The influence of fissures on landslide hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeminska, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Preferential flow occurs in many soils and it is recognized to influence soil moisture distribution and hydrological fluxes at different scales. Preferential flow paths are formed for example by soil fauna, by plant roots or soil erosion. Water plays an important role in mass movement processes:

  15. EFFICIENT HYDROLOGICAL TRACER-TEST DESIGN (EHTD ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to

  16. Seasonal isotope hydrology of Appalachian forest catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. DeWalle; P. J. Edwards; B. R. Swistock; R. J. Drimmie; R. Aravena

    1995-01-01

    Seasonal hydrologic behavior of small forested catchments in the Appalachians was studied using oxygen-18 as a tracer. Oxygen-18 in samples of precipitation and streamflow were used to determine seasonal variations of subsurface water recharge and movement within two 30-40 ha forest catchments (Watershed 3 and 4) at the Fernow Experimental Forest in northcentral West...

  17. Some guidelines for remote sensing in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel G.

    1969-01-01

    Remote sensing in the field of hydrology is beginning to be applied to significant problems, such as thermal pollution, in many programs of the Federal and State Governments as well as in operation of many private organizations. The purpose of this paper is to guide the hydrologist to a better understanding of how he may collect, synthesize, and interpret remote sensing data.

  18. Hydrologic and cryospheric processes observed from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Li, X.; Wang, J.; Vereecken, H.; Li, J.; Mancini, M.; Liu, Q.; Jia, L.; Li, J.; Kuenzer, C.; Huang, S.; Yesou, H.; Wen, J.; Kerr, Y.; Cheng, X.; Gourmelen, N.; Ke, C.; Ludwig, R.; Lin, H.; Eineder, M.; Ma, Y.; Su, Z.B.

    2015-01-01

    Ten Dragon 3 projects deal with hydrologic and cryosphere processes, with a focus on the Himalayas and Qinghai – Tibet Plateau, but not limited to that. At the 1st Dragon 3 Progress Symposium in 2013 a significant potential for a better and deeper integration appeared very clearly and we worked out

  19. Putting hydrological modelling practice to the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, Lieke Anna

    2017-01-01

    Six steps can be distinguished in the process of hydrological modelling: the perceptual model (deciding on the processes), the conceptual model (deciding on the equations), the procedural model (get the code to run on a computer), calibration (identify the parameters), evaluation (confronting output

  20. Constructing temporary sampling platforms for hydrologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel H. Martinez; Sandra E. Ryan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents instructions for constructing platforms that span the width of stream channels to accommodate the measurement of hydrologic parameters over a wide range of discharges. The platforms provide a stable, safe, noninvasive, easily constructed, and relatively inexpensive means for permitting data collection without wading in the flow. We have used the...

  1. On science versus engineering in hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2017-04-01

    It is always stressed that hydrological modelling is very important, to prevent floods, to mitigate droughts, to ensure food production or nature conservation. All very true, but I believe that focussing so much on the application of our knowledge (which I call `the engineering approach'), does not stimulate thorough system understanding (which I call `the scientific approach'). In many studies, science and engineering approaches are mixed, which results in large uncertainty e.g. due to a lack of system understanding. To what extent engineering and science approached are mixed depends on the Philosophy of Science of the researcher; verificationism seems to be closer related to engineering, than falsificationism or Bayesianism. In order to grow our scientific knowledge, which means increasing our understanding of the system, we need to be more critical towards the models that we use, but also recognize all the processes that influence the hydrological cycle. In an era called 'The Anthropocene' the influence of humans on the water system can no longer be neglected, and if we choose a scientific approach we have to account for human-induced processes. Summarizing, I believe that we have to account for human impact on the hydrological system, but we have to resist the temptation to directly quantify the hydrological impact on the human system.

  2. Hydrological Modeling and Repeatability with Brokering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Z. M.; Collick, A.; Srinivasan, R.; Braeckel, A.; Nativi, S.; McAlister, C.; Wright, D. J.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Fuka, D.

    2014-12-01

    Data brokering aims to provide those in the hydrological sciences with access to relevant data to represent physical, biological, and chemical characteristics researchers need to accelerate discovery in their domain. Environmental models are useful tools to understand the behavior of hydrological systems. Unfortunately, parameterization of these models requires many different data sources from different disciplines (e.g., atmospheric, geoscience, ecology). In hydrological modeling, the traditional procedure for model initialization starts with obtaining elevation models, land-use characterizations, soils maps, and weather data. It is often the researcher's past experience with these datasets that determines which datasets will be used in a study, and often newer, more suitable data products exist. An added complexity is that various science communities have differing data formats, storage protocols and manipulation methods, which makes use by a non domain scientist difficult and time consuming. We propose data brokering as a means to address several of these challenges. We present two test case scenarios in which researchers attempt to reproduce hydrological model results using 1) general internet based data gathering techniques, and 2) a scientific data brokering interface. We show that data brokering increases the efficiency with which data are collected, models are initialized, and results are analyzed. As an added benefit, it appears brokering significantly increases the repeatability of a study.

  3. On the Use of Models in Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marsily, G.

    1994-01-01

    This discussion article addresses the nature of models used in hydrology. It proposes a minimalist classification of models into two categories: models built on data from observations of the processes involved, and those for which there are no observation data on any of these processes, at the scale of interest. (LZ)

  4. Hydrology of a natural hardwood forested wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...

  5. The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andy; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2015-04-01

    The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment was established in March, 2004, at a workshop hosted by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), and co-sponsored by the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC). The HEPEX goal was to bring the international hydrological and meteorological communities together to advance the understanding and adoption of hydrological ensemble forecasts for decision support. HEPEX pursues this goal through research efforts and practical implementations involving six core elements of a hydrologic ensemble prediction enterprise: input and pre-processing, ensemble techniques, data assimilation, post-processing, verification, and communication and use in decision making. HEPEX has grown through meetings that connect the user, forecast producer and research communities to exchange ideas, data and methods; the coordination of experiments to address specific challenges; and the formation of testbeds to facilitate shared experimentation. In the last decade, HEPEX has organized over a dozen international workshops, as well as sessions at scientific meetings (including AMS, AGU and EGU) and special issues of scientific journals where workshop results have been published. Through these interactions and an active online blog (www.hepex.org), HEPEX has built a strong and active community of nearly 400 researchers & practitioners around the world. This poster presents an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, highlighting case studies that exemplify the focus and objectives of HEPEX.

  6. assessing climate change impacts on river hydrology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    71

    (1951 to 2005) and future RCP 4.5 scenarios (2006-2060) were used to run the hydrological. 23 model, Soil and ... increasing at 0.100 C per decade for both historical and future scenarios. The impact of .... industrialization, studies on impact of climate change in this region are crucial for sustainable. 10 water resource ...

  7. Terrestrial Hydrological Data from NASA's Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC): Products, Services, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Mocko, David M.; Rodell, Matthew; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial hydrological variables are important in global hydrology, climate, and carbon cycle studies. The North American and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS and GLDAS, respectively) have been generating a series of land surface states (soil moisture, snow, and temperature) and fluxes (evapotranspiration, radiation, and heat flux) variables. These data, hosted at and available from NASA s Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), include the NLDAS hourly 1/8 degree products and the GLDAS 3-hourly 0.25 and 1.0 degree products. HDISC provides easy access and visualization and analysis capabilities for these products, thus reducing the time and resources spent by scientists on data management and facilitating hydrological research. Users can perform spatial and parameter subsetting, data format transformation, and data analysis operations without needing to first download the data. HDISC is continually being developed as a data and services portal that supports weather and climate forecasts, and water and energy cycle research.

  8. Effects of hydrology on red mangrove recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico have been experiencing significant shifts in hydrology and salinity levels over the past century as a result of changes in sea level and freshwater drainage patterns. Local land management in coastal zones has also impacted the hydrologic regimes of salt marshes and mangrove areas. Parks and refuges in south Florida that contain mangrove forests have, in some cases, been ditched or impounded to control mosquito outbreaks and to foster wildlife use. And while mangroves dominate the subtropical coastlines of Florida and thrive in saltwater environments, little is known about how they respond to changes in hydrology under managed or variable tidal conditions. USGS researchers designed a study to evaluate the basic hydrological requirements of mangroves so that their health and survival may be more effectively managed in controlled impoundments and restored wetlands. Mangroves are commonly found in the intertidal zone (between low and high tides) in a rather broad spectrum of hydrologic settings. Because they thrive at the interface of land and sea, mangroves are subject to changes in freshwater flow (flow rate, nutrients, pollutants) and to marine influences (sea-level rise, salinity). Salinity has long been recognized as a controlling factor that determines the health and distribution of mangrove forests. Field and experimental observations indicate that most mangrove species achieve their highest growth potential under brackish conditions (modest salinity) between 10 and 20 parts per thousand (ppt). Yet, if provided with available propagules, successful regeneration, and limited competition from other plants, then mangroves can survive and thrive in freshwater systems as well. Because little is known about the growthand survival patterns of mangrove species relative to changing hydrology, USGS scientists conducted greenhouse and field experiments to determine how flooded or drained patterns of hydrology would influence

  9. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  10. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wetter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers. The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE, the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP, and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss, which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local

  11. The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F.; Ramirez, J. A.; Thurow, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO), located within the Platte River Basin, of the U.S. central Great Plains, affords excellent interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research opportunities for scientists to examine the impacts of scaling, to investigate forcing feedbacks and coupling of various interconnected hydrological, geological, climatological and biological systems, and to test the applicability and limits of prediction in keeping with all five of CUAHSI's priority science criteria; linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, hydrologic extremes, and fate and transport of contaminants. In addition, PRIVHO is uniquely positioned to investigate many human dimension questions such as those related to interstate and intrastate conflicts over water use, evolution of water policy and law in the wake of advancing science, societal and economic changes that are driven by water use, availability and management, and human impacts on climate and land use changes. The Platte River traverses several important environmental gradients, including temperature and precipitation-to-evaporation ratio, is underlain by the High Plains Aquifer under much of its reach, crosses a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and in central Nebraska, serves as a vital link in the Central Flyway, providing habitat for 300 species of migratory birds and many threatened or endangered species. The Platte River flows through metropolitan, urban and agricultural settings and is impacted by both point and non-point pollution. The Platte River is one of the most over-appropriated rivers in the country with 15 major dams, hundreds of small reservoirs, and thousands of irrigation wells. The river provides municipal and industrial water supplies for about 3.5 million people, irrigation water for millions of acres of farmland, and generates millions of dollars of hydroelectric power. PRIVHO will allow researchers to

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROLOGICAL EDUCATION IN UKRAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukalo, V.

    2009-12-01

    In order to protect water from deterioration, improve water-environmental quality require the use of advanced science and technology, sufficient investment and appropriate management. All of these need effective and efficient education in different components of hydrology. The hydrological education is part of the national water - related activities in Ukraine. The needs in the quality of hydrological education will increase with introduction of new ideas and techniques into practices of water resources planners and managers. The environmentally oriented water resources development, the climate change impact on waters have to be tackled worldwide by well trained engineers and scientist relying on modern technology. Ukraine has more than 70 years of experience in the training of hydrologists. At the present hydrologists of B.Sc., M. Sc. and Ph D levels are trained at the Odesa State Environmental University (on the engineering basis) and at the Faculty of Geography of the Kyiv National University (on the geographical basis). The total duration of B.Sc. training is 4 years and M.Sc. - 5 years. The Geographical training of hydrologists at the Kyiv National University provides deeper understanding of natural processes in rivers, lakes and reservoirs, to view them in geographical complex with other physiogeographical phenomena. For this purpose students study geology, geomorphology, biology, meteorology, soil science, physical geography etc. The graduate hydrologists work in the organizations of the State Hydrometeorological Service, the State Committee for Water Management, the Academy of Sciences, others governmental and private organizations. The requirements for hydrologists of all these organizations are different in context and scope. This leads to the conclusion that a level of training of hydrologists should have a wide-scope in education. This is achieved by the university-wide fundamental and general geographic training at the first 2 years and orientation on

  13. Using Scientific Visualization to Represent Soil Hydrology Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliver, H. A. S.; Bell, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between soil, landscape, and hydrology is important for making sustainable land management decisions. In this study, scientific visualization was explored as a means to visually represent the complex spatial and temporal variations in the hydrologic status of soils. Soil hydrology data was collected at seven…

  14. Scaling, similarity, and the fourth paradigm for hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E.C.; Emmerik, Van Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross A.

    2017-01-01

    In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm) and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of

  15. Hydrological science in South Africa: 1995-1998

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, PJ

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent progress in the hydrological sciences in South Africa as reported to the International Association of Hydrological Sciences on a 4-year basis. It covers hydrology in its broadest sense, in terms of water quantity...

  16. Hydrological response of a small catchment burned by experimental fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Vervoort, R.W.; Iwema, J.; Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Fire can considerably change hydrological processes, increasing the risk of extreme flooding and erosion events. Although hydrological processes are largely affected by scale, catchment-scale studies on the hydrological impact of fire in Europe are scarce, and nested approaches are rarely used. We

  17. Combined effects of climate models, hydrological model structures and land use scenarios on hydrological impacts of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ida B.; Sonnenborg, Torben O.; Refsgaard, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    to cause little change in mean hydrological responses and little variation between hydrological models. Differences in hydrological model responses to land use were, however, significant for extremes due to dissimilarities in hydrological model structure and process equations. The climate model choice......Impact studies of the hydrological response of future climate change are important for the water authorities when risk assessment, management and adaptation to a changing climate are carried out. The objective of this study was to model the combined effect of land use and climate changes...... on hydrology for a 486 km2 catchment in Denmark and to evaluate the sensitivity of the results to the choice of hydrological model. Three hydrological models, NAM, SWAT and MIKE SHE, were constructed and calibrated using similar methods. Each model was forced with results from four climate models and four land...

  18. iTree-Hydro: Snow hydrology update for the urban forest hydrology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak

    2011-01-01

    This article presents snow hydrology updates made to iTree-Hydro, previously called the Urban Forest Effects—Hydrology model. iTree-Hydro Version 1 was a warm climate model developed by the USDA Forest Service to provide a process-based planning tool with robust water quantity and quality predictions given data limitations common to most urban areas. Cold climate...

  19. HIS Central and the Hydrologic Metadata Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project maintains a comprehensive workflow for publishing hydrologic observations data and registering them to the common Hydrologic Metadata Catalog. Once the data are loaded into a database instance conformant with the CUAHSI HIS Observations Data Model (ODM), the user configures ODM web service template to point to the new database. After this, the hydrologic data become available via the standard CUAHSI HIS web service interface, that includes both data discovery (GetSites, GetVariables, GetSiteInfo, GetVariableInfo) and data retrieval (GetValues) methods. The observations data then can be further exposed via the global semantics-based search engine called Hydroseek. To register the published observations networks to the global search engine, users can now use the HIS Central application (new in HIS 1.1). With this online application, the WaterML-compliant web services can be submitted to the online catalog of data services, along with network metadata and a desired network symbology. Registering services to the HIS Central application triggers a harvester which uses the services to retrieve additional network metadata from the underlying ODM (information about stations, variables, and periods of record). The next step in HIS Central application is mapping variable names from the newly registered network, to the terms used in the global search ontology. Once these steps are completed, the new observations network is added to the map and becomes available for searching and querying. The number of observations network registered to the Hydrologic Metadata Catalog at SDSC is constantly growing. At the time of submission, the catalog contains 51 registered networks, with estimated 1.7 million stations.

  20. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  1. Scaling Hydrologic Processes in Boreal Forest Stands: New Eco-hydrological Perspectives or Deja vu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, U.; Lieffers, V. J.; Landhausser, S. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Gan, T. Y.

    2006-12-01

    The leaf area of forest canopies is both main attribute of stands controlling water balance through transpiration and interception, and "engine" driving stand growth, stand dynamics, and forest succession. While transpiration and interception dynamics are classic themes in forest hydrology, we present results from our eco-hydrological research on boreal trees to highlight how more recent eco-physiological insights into species specific controls over water use and leaf area such as hydraulic architecture, cavitation, sapwood-leaf area relationships, and root system controls over water uptake are providing new insights into integrated atmospheric-autecological controls over these hydrologic processes. These results are discussed in the context of newer eco-hydrological frameworks which may serve to aid in exploring how forest disturbance and subsequent trajectories of hydrologic recovery are likely to affect both forest growth dynamics and hydrology of forested landscapes in response to forest management, severe forest pest epidemics such as the Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic in Western Canada, and climate change.

  2. Understanding and seasonal forecasting of hydrological drought in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Linying; Zhou, Tian

    2017-11-01

    Hydrological drought is not only caused by natural hydroclimate variability but can also be directly altered by human interventions including reservoir operation, irrigation, groundwater exploitation, etc. Understanding and forecasting of hydrological drought in the Anthropocene are grand challenges due to complicated interactions among climate, hydrology and humans. In this paper, five decades (1961-2010) of naturalized and observed streamflow datasets are used to investigate hydrological drought characteristics in a heavily managed river basin, the Yellow River basin in north China. Human interventions decrease the correlation between hydrological and meteorological droughts, and make the hydrological drought respond to longer timescales of meteorological drought. Due to large water consumptions in the middle and lower reaches, there are 118-262 % increases in the hydrological drought frequency, up to 8-fold increases in the drought severity, 21-99 % increases in the drought duration and the drought onset is earlier. The non-stationarity due to anthropogenic climate change and human water use basically decreases the correlation between meteorological and hydrological droughts and reduces the effect of human interventions on hydrological drought frequency while increasing the effect on drought duration and severity. A set of 29-year (1982-2010) hindcasts from an established seasonal hydrological forecasting system are used to assess the forecast skill of hydrological drought. In the naturalized condition, the climate-model-based approach outperforms the climatology method in predicting the 2001 severe hydrological drought event. Based on the 29-year hindcasts, the former method has a Brier skill score of 11-26 % against the latter for the probabilistic hydrological drought forecasting. In the Anthropocene, the skill for both approaches increases due to the dominant influence of human interventions that have been implicitly incorporated by the hydrological post

  3. Stochastic time series analysis of hydrology data for water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, S.; Khadar Babu, S. K.

    2017-11-01

    The prediction to current publication of stochastic time series analysis in hydrology and seasonal stage. The different statistical tests for predicting the hydrology time series on Thomas-Fiering model. The hydrology time series of flood flow have accept a great deal of consideration worldwide. The concentration of stochastic process areas of time series analysis method are expanding with develop concerns about seasonal periods and global warming. The recent trend by the researchers for testing seasonal periods in the hydrologic flowseries using stochastic process on Thomas-Fiering model. The present article proposed to predict the seasonal periods in hydrology using Thomas-Fiering model.

  4. Communicating uncertainty in hydrological forecasts: mission impossible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria-Helena; Mathevet, Thibault; Thielen, Jutta; Pappenberger, Florian

    2010-05-01

    Cascading uncertainty in meteo-hydrological modelling chains for forecasting and integrated flood risk assessment is an essential step to improve the quality of hydrological forecasts. Although the best methodology to quantify the total predictive uncertainty in hydrology is still debated, there is a common agreement that one must avoid uncertainty misrepresentation and miscommunication, as well as misinterpretation of information by users. Several recent studies point out that uncertainty, when properly explained and defined, is no longer unwelcome among emergence response organizations, users of flood risk information and the general public. However, efficient communication of uncertain hydro-meteorological forecasts is far from being a resolved issue. This study focuses on the interpretation and communication of uncertain hydrological forecasts based on (uncertain) meteorological forecasts and (uncertain) rainfall-runoff modelling approaches to decision-makers such as operational hydrologists and water managers in charge of flood warning and scenario-based reservoir operation. An overview of the typical flow of uncertainties and risk-based decisions in hydrological forecasting systems is presented. The challenges related to the extraction of meaningful information from probabilistic forecasts and the test of its usefulness in assisting operational flood forecasting are illustrated with the help of two case-studies: 1) a study on the use and communication of probabilistic flood forecasting within the European Flood Alert System; 2) a case-study on the use of probabilistic forecasts by operational forecasters from the hydroelectricity company EDF in France. These examples show that attention must be paid to initiatives that promote or reinforce the active participation of expert forecasters in the forecasting chain. The practice of face-to-face forecast briefings, focusing on sharing how forecasters interpret, describe and perceive the model output forecasted

  5. Benchmarking observational uncertainties for hydrology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, H. K.; Krueger, T.; Freer, J. E.; Westerberg, I.

    2013-12-01

    There is a pressing need for authoritative and concise information on the expected error distributions and magnitudes in hydrological data, to understand its information content. Many studies have discussed how to incorporate uncertainty information into model calibration and implementation, and shown how model results can be biased if uncertainty is not appropriately characterised. However, it is not always possible (for example due to financial or time constraints) to make detailed studies of uncertainty for every research study. Instead, we propose that the hydrological community could benefit greatly from sharing information on likely uncertainty characteristics and the main factors that control the resulting magnitude. In this presentation, we review the current knowledge of uncertainty for a number of key hydrological variables: rainfall, flow and water quality (suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus). We collated information on the specifics of the data measurement (data type, temporal and spatial resolution), error characteristics measured (e.g. standard error, confidence bounds) and error magnitude. Our results were primarily split by data type. Rainfall uncertainty was controlled most strongly by spatial scale, flow uncertainty was controlled by flow state (low, high) and gauging method. Water quality presented a more complex picture with many component errors. For all variables, it was easy to find examples where relative error magnitude exceeded 40%. We discuss some of the recent developments in hydrology which increase the need for guidance on typical error magnitudes, in particular when doing comparative/regionalisation and multi-objective analysis. Increased sharing of data, comparisons between multiple catchments, and storage in national/international databases can mean that data-users are far removed from data collection, but require good uncertainty information to reduce bias in comparisons or catchment regionalisation studies. Recently it has

  6. Monthly Water Balance Model Hydrology Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andy; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven; Atkinson, R. Dwight

    2016-01-01

    A monthly water balance model (MWBM) was driven with precipitation and temperature using a station-based dataset for current conditions (1950 to 2010) and selected statistically-downscaled general circulation models (GCMs) for current and future conditions (1950 to 2099) across the conterminous United States (CONUS) using hydrologic response units from the Geospatial Fabric for National Hydrologic Modeling (http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5066/F7542KMD). Six MWBM output variables (actual evapotranspiration (AET), potential evapotranspiration (PET), runoff (RO), streamflow (STRM), soil moisture storage (SOIL), and snow water equivalent (SWE)) and the two MWBM input variables (atmospheric temperature (TAVE) and precipitation (PPT)) were summarized for hydrologic response units and aggregated at points of interest on a stream network. Results were then organized into the Monthly Water Balance Hydrology Futures database, an open-access database using netCDF format (http://cida-eros-mows1.er.usgs.gov/thredds/dodsC/nwb_pub/).  Methods used to calibrate and parameterize the MWBM are detailed in the Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)  paper "Parameter regionalization of a monthly water balance model for the conterminous United States" by Bock and others (2016).  See the discussion paper link in the "Related External Resources" section for access.  Supplemental data files related to the plots and data analysis in Bock and others (2016) can be found in the HESS-2015-325.zip folder in the "Attached Files" section.  Detailed information on the files and data can be found in the ReadMe.txt contained within the zipped folder. Recommended citation of discussion paper:Bock, A.R., Hay, L.E., McCabe, G.J., Markstrom, S.L., and Atkinson, R.D., 2016, Parameter regionalization of a monthly water balance model for the conterminous United States: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, v. 20, 2861-2876, doi:10.5194/hess-20-2861-2016, 2016

  7. Estimation of hydrologic properties of an unsaturated, fractured rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavetter, E.A.; Peters, R.R.

    1986-07-01

    In this document, two distinctly different approaches are used to develop continuum models to evaluate water movement in a fractured rock mass. Both models provide methods for estimating rock-mass hydrologic properties. Comparisons made over a range of different tuff properties show good qualitative and quantitative agreement between estimates of rock-mass hydrologic properties made by the two models. This document presents a general discussion of: (1) the hydrology of Yucca Mountain, and the conceptual hydrological model currently being used for the Yucca Mountain site, (2) the development of two models that may be used to estimate the hydrologic properties of a fractured, porous rock mass, and (3) a comparison of the hydrologic properties estimated by these two models. Although the models were developed in response to hydrologic characterization requirements at Yucca Mountain, they can be applied to water movement in any fractured rock mass that satisfies the given assumptions.

  8. From local hydrological process analysis to regional hydrological model application in Benin: Concept, results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, H.; Faß, T.; Giertz, S.; Junge, B.; Diekkrüger, B.; Reichert, B.; Skowronek, A.

    This paper presents the concept, first results and perspectives of the hydrological sub-project of the IMPETUS-Benin project which is part of the GLOWA program funded by the German ministry of education and research. In addition to the research concept, first results on field hydrology, pedology, hydrogeology and hydrological modelling are presented, focusing on the understanding of the actual hydrological processes. For analysing the processes a 30 km 2 catchment acting as a super test site was chosen which is assumed to be representative for the entire catchment of about 15,000 km 2. First results of the field investigations show that infiltration, runoff generation and soil erosion strongly depend on land cover and land use which again influence the soil properties significantly. A conceptual hydrogeological model has been developed summarising the process knowledge on runoff generation and subsurface hydrological processes. This concept model shows a dominance of fast runoff components (surface runoff and interflow), a groundwater recharge along preferential flow paths, temporary interaction between surface and groundwater and separate groundwater systems on different scales (shallow, temporary groundwater on local scale and permanent, deep groundwater on regional scale). The findings of intensive measurement campaigns on soil hydrology, groundwater dynamics and soil erosion have been integrated into different, scale-dependent hydrological modelling concepts applied at different scales in the target region (upper Ouémé catchment in Benin, about 15,000 km 2). The models have been applied and successfully validated. They will be used for integrated scenario analyses in the forthcoming project phase to assess the impacts of global change on the regional water cycle and on typical problem complexes such as food security in West African countries.

  9. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971–2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs, from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971–2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40–52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%, compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%. The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a

  10. Hydrological research basins and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, V. M.; Warmerdam, P. M. M.

    The role and relative importance of experimental and representative basins in pre-dieting anthropogenic effects on water resources and the environment was the goal of the International Conference on Hydrological Research Basins and the Environment, held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, September 24-28, 1990. About 70 persons, almost exclusively from Europe, attended the meeting, which was organized by the Committee of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins and the National Committee of the Netherlands for the International Hydrological Program of Unesco.During the conference, the 3rd General Meeting of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins was held. This network of basins, covering nine countries in Europe, organizes periodic meetings and tries to enhance the compatibility of observations and methods of analysis, and to implement research projects of common interest.

  11. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...... represent a stochastic state space model. In the grey box model the total noise is divided into a measurement noise and a process noise. The process noise is due to model approximations, undiscovered input and uncertainties in the input series. Estimates of the process noise can be used to highlight...... in the model, or formulation of process noise can be considered so that it meets the physical limits of the hydrological system and give an adequate description of the embedded uncertainty in model structure. The thesis consists of two parts: a summary report and a part which contains six scientific papers...

  12. Variation and correlation of hydrologic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Hydrological properties vary within a given geological formation and even more so among different soil and rock media. The variance of the saturated permeability is shown to be related to the variance of the pore-size distribution index of a given medium by a simple equation. This relationship is deduced by comparison of the data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada (Peters et al., 1984), Las Cruces, New Mexico (Wierenga et al., 1989), and Apache Leap, Arizona (Rasmussen et al., 1990). These and other studies in different soils and rocks also support the Poiseuille-Carmen relationship between the mean value of saturated permeability and the mean value of capillary radius. Correlations of the mean values and variances between permeability and pore-geometry parameters can lead us to better quantification of heterogeneous flow fields and better understanding of the scaling laws of hydrological properties.

  13. Data assimilation in integrated hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørn

    Integrated hydrological models are useful tools for water resource management and research, and advances in computational power and the advent of new observation types has resulted in the models generally becoming more complex and distributed. However, the models are often characterized by a high...... using both synthetic data and real observations. Groundwater head and stream discharge observations are assimilated in an integrated hydrological model, with the aim of updating the groundwater head, stream discharge and water level, and model parameters. When synthetically generated observations......, two bias-aware data assimilation algorithms are tested and were shown to successfully estimate the bias of most observations. The data assimilation framework was applied to real observations and an improvement in stream discharge was obtained compared to a deterministic model without data assimilation...

  14. Modeling the hydrological cycle on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Machtoub

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study provides a detailed analysis of the hydrological cycle on Mars simulated with a newly developed microphysical model, incorporated in a spectral Mars General Circulation Model. The modeled hydrological cycle is compared well with simulations of other global climate models. The simulated seasonal migration ofwater vapor, circulation instability, and the high degree of temporal variability of localized water vapor outbursts are shown closely consistent with recent observations. The microphysical parameterization provides a significant improvement in the modeling of ice clouds evolved over the tropics and major ancient volcanoes on Mars. The most significant difference between the simulations presented here and other GCM results is the level at which the water ice clouds are found. The model findings also support interpretation of observed thermal anomalies in the Martian tropics during northern spring and summer seasons.

  15. Hydrologic database user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champman, J.B.; Gray, K.J.; Thompson, C.B.

    1993-09-01

    The Hydrologic Database is an electronic filing cabinet containing water-related data for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The purpose of the database is to enhance research on hydrologic issues at the NTS by providing efficient access to information gathered by a variety of scientists. Data are often generated for specific projects and are reported to DOE in the context of specific project goals. The originators of the database recognized that much of this information has a general value that transcends project-specific requirements. Allowing researchers access to information generated by a wide variety of projects can prevent needless duplication of data-gathering efforts and can augment new data collection and interpretation. In addition, collecting this information in the database ensures that the results are not lost at the end of discrete projects as long as the database is actively maintained. This document is a guide to using the database.

  16. Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Otero-Casal, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Here, we present a global synthesis of 2,200 root observations of >1,000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients. Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage). In well-drained uplands, rooting depth follows infiltration depth; in waterlogged lowlands, roots stay shallow, avoiding oxygen stress below the water table; in between, high productivity and drought can send roots many meters down to the groundwater capillary fringe. This framework explains the contrasting rooting depths observed under the same climate for the same species but at distinct topographic positions. We assess the global significance of these hydrologic mechanisms by estimating root water-uptake depths using an inverse model, based on observed productivity and atmosphere, at 30″ (˜1-km) global grids to capture the topography critical to soil hydrology. The resulting patterns of plant rooting depth bear a strong topographic and hydrologic signature at landscape to global scales. They underscore a fundamental plant-water feedback pathway that may be critical to understanding plant-mediated global change.

  17. SWOT Oceanography and Hydrology Data Product Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Eva; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Daniel Esteban; Johnson, Michael P.; Blumstein, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would demonstrate a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurements of water elevation at high resolution over ocean and land, addressing the needs of both the hydrology and oceanography science communities. To accurately evaluate the performance of the proposed SWOT mission, we have developed several data product simulators at different levels of fidelity and complexity.

  18. Hydrological consequences of the climatic changes

    OpenAIRE

    Balek, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    The climatic variability and climate changes in the geological history of Earth are correlated with the environmental development. A special attention is paid to the impact of changing climate on the water resources and hydrological cycle. Possible impact of man's activities on the climatic variability is also discussed. Can the regulation of such activities slow down or bring to a stop the forthcoming climate change? A comparison of data from the Holocene period and from modern history indic...

  19. Proving the ecosystem value through hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, W.; Spachinger, K.; Porter, M.; Metzka, R.

    2008-11-01

    Ecosystems provide valuable functions. Also natural floodplains and river structures offer different types of ecosystem functions such as habitat function, recreational area and natural detention. From an economic stand point the loss (or rehabilitation) of these natural systems and their provided natural services can be valued as a damage (or benefit). Consequently these natural goods and services must be economically valued in project assessments e.g. cost-benefit-analysis or cost comparison. Especially in smaller catchments and river systems exists significant evidence that natural flood detention reduces flood risk and contributes to flood protection. Several research projects evaluated the mitigating effect of land use, river training and the loss of natural flood plains on development, peak and volume of floods. The presented project analysis the hypothesis that ignoring natural detention and hydrological ecosystem services could result in economically inefficient solutions for flood protection and mitigation. In test areas, subcatchments of the Danube in Germany, a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models with economic evaluation techniques was applied. Different forms of land use, river structure and flood protection measures were assed and compared from a hydrological and economic point of view. A hydrodynamic model was used to simulate flows to assess the extent of flood affected areas and damages to buildings and infrastructure as well as to investigate the impacts of levees and river structure on a local scale. These model results provided the basis for an economic assessment. Different economic valuation techniques, such as flood damage functions, cost comparison method and substation-approach were used to compare the outcomes of different hydrological scenarios from an economic point of view and value the ecosystem service. The results give significant evidence that natural detention must be evaluated as part of flood mitigation projects

  20. Technical note: Design flood under hydrological uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, Anna; Ganora, Daniele; Claps, Pierluigi; Laio, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Planning and verification of hydraulic infrastructures require a design estimate of hydrologic variables, usually provided by frequency analysis, and neglecting hydrologic uncertainty. However, when hydrologic uncertainty is accounted for, the design flood value for a specific return period is no longer a unique value, but is represented by a distribution of values. As a consequence, the design flood is no longer univocally defined, making the design process undetermined. The Uncertainty Compliant Design Flood Estimation (UNCODE) procedure is a novel approach that, starting from a range of possible design flood estimates obtained in uncertain conditions, converges to a single design value. This is obtained through a cost-benefit criterion with additional constraints that is numerically solved in a simulation framework. This paper contributes to promoting a practical use of the UNCODE procedure without resorting to numerical computation. A modified procedure is proposed by using a correction coefficient that modifies the standard (i.e., uncertainty-free) design value on the basis of sample length and return period only. The procedure is robust and parsimonious, as it does not require additional parameters with respect to the traditional uncertainty-free analysis. Simple equations to compute the correction term are provided for a number of probability distributions commonly used to represent the flood frequency curve. The UNCODE procedure, when coupled with this simple correction factor, provides a robust way to manage the hydrologic uncertainty and to go beyond the use of traditional safety factors. With all the other parameters being equal, an increase in the sample length reduces the correction factor, and thus the construction costs, while still keeping the same safety level.

  1. Dynamic Collaboration Infrastructure for Hydrologic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Castillo, C.; Yi, H.; Jiang, F.; Jones, N.; Goodall, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Data and modeling infrastructure is becoming increasingly accessible to water scientists. HydroShare is a collaborative environment that currently offers water scientists the ability to access modeling and data infrastructure in support of data intensive modeling and analysis. It supports the sharing of and collaboration around "resources" which are social objects defined to include both data and models in a structured standardized format. Users collaborate around these objects via comments, ratings, and groups. HydroShare also supports web services and cloud based computation for the execution of hydrologic models and analysis and visualization of hydrologic data. However, the quantity and variety of data and modeling infrastructure available that can be accessed from environments like HydroShare is increasing. Storage infrastructure can range from one's local PC to campus or organizational storage to storage in the cloud. Modeling or computing infrastructure can range from one's desktop to departmental clusters to national HPC resources to grid and cloud computing resources. How does one orchestrate this vast number of data and computing infrastructure without needing to correspondingly learn each new system? A common limitation across these systems is the lack of efficient integration between data transport mechanisms and the corresponding high-level services to support large distributed data and compute operations. A scientist running a hydrology model from their desktop may require processing a large collection of files across the aforementioned storage and compute resources and various national databases. To address these community challenges a proof-of-concept prototype was created integrating HydroShare with RADII (Resource Aware Data-centric collaboration Infrastructure) to provide software infrastructure to enable the comprehensive and rapid dynamic deployment of what we refer to as "collaborative infrastructure." In this presentation we discuss the

  2. Software Carpentry In The Hydrological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadia, A. J.; Kees, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists are spending an increasing amount of time building and using hydrology software. However, most scientists are never taught how to do this efficiently. As a result, many are unaware of tools and practices that would allow them to write more reliable and maintainable code with less effort. As hydrology models increase in capability and enter use by a growing number of scientists and their communities, it is important that the scientific software development practices scale up to meet the challenges posed by increasing software complexity, lengthening software lifecycles, a growing number of stakeholders and contributers, and a broadened developer base that extends from application domains to high performance computing centers. Many of these challenges in complexity, lifecycles, and developer base have been successfully met by the open source community, and there are many lessons to be learned from their experiences and practices. Additionally, there is much wisdom to be found in the results of research studies conducted on software engineering itself. Software Carpentry aims to bridge the gap between the current state of software development and these known best practices for scientific software development, with a focus on hands-on exercises and practical advice. In 2014, Software Carpentry workshops targeting earth/environmental sciences and hydrological modeling have been organized and run at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System Annual Meeting, and the Earth Science Information Partners Summer Meeting. In this presentation, we will share some of the successes in teaching this material, as well as discuss and present instructional material specific to hydrological modeling.

  3. Multidecadal oscillations in rainfall and hydrological extremes

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have anticipated a worldwide increase in the frequency and intensity of precipitation extremes and floods since the last decade(s). Natural variability by climate oscillations partly determines the observed evolution of precipitation extremes. Based on a technique for the identification and analysis of changes in extreme quantiles, it is shown that hydrological extremes have oscillatory behaviour at multidecadal time scales. Results are based on nearly independent extremes extrac...

  4. Darwinian hydrology: can the methodology Charles Darwin pioneered help hydrologic science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C.; Troch, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion while its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we discuss the methods that Charles Darwin pioneered to understand a variety of complex systems in terms of their historical processes of change. We suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows his lead by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations, seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development, using deduction and modeling to derive consequent hypotheses that follow from a proposed explanation, and critically testing these hypotheses against new observations. It is not sufficient to catalogue the patterns or predict them statistically. Nor is it sufficient for the explanations to amount to a "just-so" story not subject to critical analysis. Darwin's theories linked present-day variation to mechanisms that operated over history, and could be independently test and falsified by comparing new observations to the predictions of corollary hypotheses they generated. With a Darwinian framework in mind it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology - whether deliberately or not. The various heuristic methods that Darwin used to develop explanatory theories - extrapolating mechanisms, space for time substitution, and looking for signatures of history - have direct application in hydrologic science. Some

  5. Water Conservation and Hydrological Transitions in Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, G. M.; Gilligan, J. M.; Hess, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    A 2012 report by the National Research Council, Challenges and Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences, called for the development of "translational hydrologic science." Translational research in this context requires knowledge about the communication of science to decision makers and to the public but also improved understanding of the public by the scientists. This kind of knowledge is inherently interdisciplinary because it requires understanding of the complex sociotechnical dimensions of water, policy, and user relations. It is axiomatic that good governance of water resources and water infrastructure requires information about water resources themselves and about the institutions that govern water use. This "socio-hydrologic" or "hydrosociological" knowledge is often characterized by complex dynamics between and among human and natural systems. Water Resources Research has provided a forum for presentation of interdisciplinary research in coupled natural-human systems since its inception 50 years ago. The evolution of ideas presented in the journal provides a basis for framing new work, an example of which is water conservation in cities. In particular, we explore the complex interactions of political, sociodemographic, economic, and hydroclimatological factors in affecting decisions that either advance or retard the development of water conservation policies.

  6. Hydrological modelling of drained blanket peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, C. E.; McIntyre, N.; Wheater, H. S.; Holden, J.; Wallage, Z. E.

    2011-09-01

    SummaryOpen ditch drainage is a commonly implemented land management practice in upland blanket peatlands, particularly in the UK, where policy decisions between the 1940s and 1970s led to widespread drainage of the uplands. The change in the hydrological regime associated with the drainage of blanket peat is poorly understood, yet has perceived importance for flooding, low flows and water quality. We propose a new simplified physics-based model that allows the associated hydrological processes and flow responses to be explored. The model couples four one-dimensional models to represent a three-dimensional hillslope, allowing for the exploration of flow and water table response throughout the model domain for a range of drainage configurations and peat properties. The model is tested against a data set collected from Oughtershaw Beck, UK, with results showing good model performance for wet periods although less conformity with borehole observations during rewetting periods. A wider exploration of model behaviour indicates that the model is consistent with the hydrological response reported in the literature for a number of drained blanket peat sites, and therefore has potential to provide guidance to decision makers concerning the effects of management practices. Through a global sensitivity analysis, we conclude that further field investigations to assist in the surface and drain roughness parameterisation would help reduce the uncertainty in the model predictions.

  7. Depression Storage Thresholds in Prairie Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, L. W.

    2012-12-01

    An initial and essential step in hydrologic modeling is to decompose a watershed into its constituent channel and catchment segments and to measure the geometric andenvironmental properties of those segments. TOPAZ (Topographic Parameterization) is a widely used software system that processes digital elevation models todelineate channel and catchment segments and to measure their geometric properties. TOPAZ and similar software are now widely used in meso-scale hydrologic modeling. TOPAZ and similar software assume that surface depressions are errors in the digital elevation data and apply various techniques to fill those depressions and direct flow across the resulting surface. However, it is the case in many low-relief areas of the earth's surface that depressions are real features that function as significant storage reservoirs. These depressions are typically strung together by connecting channels and the filling of depressions represents major thresholds in changing the contributing area of streams. This paper examines some recent advances in digital terrain analysis for hydrologic model parameterization that address the role of depression storage thresholds in producing step-wise and major changes in watershed contributing areas.

  8. Developing hydrological monitoring networks with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Vega, Andres; Villacis, Marcos; Moulds, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The open source hardware platform Arduino is very cost-effective and versatile for the development of sensor networks. Here we report on experiments on the use of Arduino-related technologies to develop and implement hydrological monitoring networks. Arduino Uno boards were coupled to a variety of commercially available hydrological sensors and programmed for automatic data collection. Tested sensors include water level, temperature, humidity, radiation, and precipitation. Our experiments show that most of the tested analogue sensors are quite straightforward to couple to Arduino based data loggers, especially if the electronic characteristics of the sensor are available. However, some sensors have internal digital interfaces, which are more challenging to connect. Lastly, tipping bucket rain gauges prove the most challenging because of the very specific methodology, i.e. registration of bucket tips instead of measurements at regular intervals. The typically low data generation rate of hydrological instruments is very compatible with available technologies for wireless data transmission. Mesh networks such as Xbee prove very convenient and robust for dispersed networks, while wifi is also an option for shorter distances and particular topographies. Lastly, the GSM shield of the Arduino can be used to transfer data to centralized databases. In regions where no mobile internet (i.e. 3G) connection is available, data transmission via text messages may be an option, depending on the bandwidth requirements.

  9. Toward seamless hydrologic predictions across spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Samaniego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land surface and hydrologic models (LSMs/HMs are used at diverse spatial resolutions ranging from catchment-scale (1–10 km to global-scale (over 50 km applications. Applying the same model structure at different spatial scales requires that the model estimates similar fluxes independent of the chosen resolution, i.e., fulfills a flux-matching condition across scales. An analysis of state-of-the-art LSMs and HMs reveals that most do not have consistent hydrologic parameter fields. Multiple experiments with the mHM, Noah-MP, PCR-GLOBWB, and WaterGAP models demonstrate the pitfalls of deficient parameterization practices currently used in most operational models, which are insufficient to satisfy the flux-matching condition. These examples demonstrate that J. Dooge's 1982 statement on the unsolved problem of parameterization in these models remains true. Based on a review of existing parameter regionalization techniques, we postulate that the multiscale parameter regionalization (MPR technique offers a practical and robust method that provides consistent (seamless parameter and flux fields across scales. Herein, we develop a general model protocol to describe how MPR can be applied to a particular model and present an example application using the PCR-GLOBWB model. Finally, we discuss potential advantages and limitations of MPR in obtaining the seamless prediction of hydrological fluxes and states across spatial scales.

  10. Grid based calibration of SWAT hydrological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gorgan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The calibration and execution of large hydrological models, such as SWAT (soil and water assessment tool, developed for large areas, high resolution, and huge input data, need not only quite a long execution time but also high computation resources. SWAT hydrological model supports studies and predictions of the impact of land management practices on water, sediment, and agricultural chemical yields in complex watersheds. The paper presents the gSWAT application as a web practical solution for environmental specialists to calibrate extensive hydrological models and to run scenarios, by hiding the complex control of processes and heterogeneous resources across the grid based high computation infrastructure. The paper highlights the basic functionalities of the gSWAT platform, and the features of the graphical user interface. The presentation is concerned with the development of working sessions, interactive control of calibration, direct and basic editing of parameters, process monitoring, and graphical and interactive visualization of the results. The experiments performed on different SWAT models and the obtained results argue the benefits brought by the grid parallel and distributed environment as a solution for the processing platform. All the instances of SWAT models used in the reported experiments have been developed through the enviroGRIDS project, targeting the Black Sea catchment area.

  11. Stream hydrological fragmentation drives bacterioplankton community composition.

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    Stefano Fazi

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean intermittent streams, the hydrological fragmentation in summer and the successive water flow re-convergence in autumn allow exploring how local processes shape the microbial community within the same habitat. The objectives of this study were to determine how bacterial community composition responded to hydrological fragmentation in summer, and to evaluate whether the seasonal shifts in community composition predominate over the effects of episodic habitat fragmentation. The bacterial community was assessed along the intermittent stream Fuirosos (Spain, at different levels of phylogenetic resolution by in situ hybridization, fingerprinting, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The hydrological fragmentation of the stream network strongly altered the biogeochemical conditions with the depletion of oxidized solutes and caused changes in dissolved organic carbon characteristics. In the isolated ponds, beta-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria increased their abundance with a gradual reduction of the alpha-diversity as pond isolation time increased. Moreover, fingerprinting analysis clearly showed a shift in community composition between summer and autumn. In the context of a seasonal shift, the temporary stream fragmentation simultaneously reduced the microbial dispersion and affected local environmental conditions (shift in redox regime and quality of the dissolved organic matter tightly shaping the bacterioplankton community composition.

  12. Editorial for Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies

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    Willems, Patrick; Batelaan, Okke; Hughes, Denis A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological regimes and processes show strong regional differences. While some regions are affected by extreme drought and desertification, others are under threat of increased fluvial and/or pluvial floods. Changes to hydrological systems as a consequence of natural variations and human activities are region-specific. Many of these changes have significant interactions with and implications for human life and ecosystems. Amongst others, population growth, improvements in living standards and other demographic and socio-economic trends, related changes in water and energy demands, change in land use, water abstractions and returns to the hydrological system (UNEP, 2008), introduce temporal and spatial changes to the system and cause contamination of surface and ground waters. Hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are also undergoing spatial and temporal changes. Climate change has been shown to increase temporal and spatial variations of rainfall, increase temperature and cause changes to evapotranspiration and other hydro-meteorological variables (IPCC, 2013). However, these changes are also region specific. In addition to these climate trends, (multi)-decadal oscillatory changes in climatic conditions and large variations in meteorological conditions will continue to occur.

  13. Delineating wetland catchments and modeling hydrologic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In reality, however, many depressions in the DEM are actual wetland landscape features with seasonal to permanent inundation patterning characterized by nested hierarchical structures and dynamic filling–spilling–merging surface-water hydrological processes. Differentiating and appropriately processing such ecohydrologically meaningful features remains a major technical terrain-processing challenge, particularly as high-resolution spatial data are increasingly used to support modeling and geographic analysis needs. The objectives of this study were to delineate hierarchical wetland catchments and model their hydrologic connectivity using high-resolution lidar data and aerial imagery. The graph-theory-based contour tree method was used to delineate the hierarchical wetland catchments and characterize their geometric and topological properties. Potential hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and streams were simulated using the least-cost-path algorithm. The resulting flow network delineated potential flow paths connecting wetland depressions to each other or to the river network on scales finer than those available through the National Hydrography Dataset. The results demonstrated that

  14. OpenDA-WFLOW framework for improving hydrologic predictions using distributed hydrologic models

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    Weerts, Albrecht; Schellekens, Jaap; Kockx, Arno; Hummel, Stef

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation (DA) holds considerable potential for improving hydrologic predictions (Liu et al., 2012) and increase the potential for early warning and/or smart water management. However, advances in hydrologic DA research have not yet been adequately or timely implemented in operational forecast systems to improve the skill of forecasts for better informed real-world decision making. The objective of this work is to highlight the development of a generic linkage of the open source OpenDA package and the open source community hydrologic modeling framework Openstreams/WFLOW and its application in operational hydrological forecasting on various spatial scales. The coupling between OpenDA and Openstreams/wflow framework is based on the emerging standard Basic Model Interface (BMI) as advocated by CSDMS using cross-platform webservices (i.e. Apache Thrift) developed by Hut et al. (2016). The potential application of the OpenDA-WFLOW for operational hydrologic forecasting including its integration with Delft-FEWS (used by more than 40 operational forecast centers around the world (Werner et al., 2013)) is demonstrated by the presented case studies. We will also highlight the possibility to give real-time insight into the working of the DA methods applied for supporting the forecaster as mentioned as one of the burning issues by Liu et al., (2012).

  15. Computer-assisted mesh generation based on hydrological response units for distributed hydrological modeling

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    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.; Gironás, J.

    2013-08-01

    Distributed hydrological models rely on a spatial discretization composed of homogeneous units representing different areas within the catchment. Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) typically form the basis of such a discretization. HRUs are generally obtained by intersecting raster or vector layers of land uses, soil types, geology and sub-catchments. Polylines maps representing ditches and river drainage networks can also be used. However this overlapping may result in a mesh with numerical and topological problems not highly representative of the terrain. Thus, a pre-processing is needed to improve the mesh in order to avoid negative effects on the performance of the hydrological model. This paper proposes computer-assisted mesh generation tools to obtain a more regular and physically meaningful mesh of HRUs suitable for hydrologic modeling. We combined existing tools with newly developed scripts implemented in GRASS GIS. The developed scripts address the following problems: (1) high heterogeneity in Digital Elevation Model derived properties within the HRUs, (2) correction of concave polygons or polygons with holes inside, (3) segmentation of very large polygons, and (4) bad estimations of units' perimeter and distances among them. The improvement process was applied and tested using two small catchments in France. The improvement of the spatial discretization was further assessed by comparing the representation and arrangement of overland flow paths in the original and improved meshes. Overall, a more realistic physical representation was obtained with the improved meshes, which should enhance the computation of surface and sub-surface flows in a hydrologic model.

  16. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K; Harvey, Judson W

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length--a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes--but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of

  17. Optimal combinations of specialized conceptual hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Nagendra; Lal Shrestha, Durga; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    In hydrological modelling it is a usual practice to use a single lumped conceptual model for hydrological simulations at all regimes. However often the simplicity of the modelling paradigm leads to errors in represent all the complexity of the physical processes in the catchment. A solution could be to model various hydrological processes separately by differently parameterized models, and to combine them. Different hydrological models have varying performance in reproducing catchment response. Generally it cannot be represented precisely in different segments of the hydrograph: some models performed well in simulating the peak flows, while others do well in capturing the low flows. Better performance can be achieved if a model being applied to the catchment using different model parameters that are calibrated using criteria favoring high or low flows. In this work we use a modular approach to simulate hydrology of a catchment, wherein multiple models are applied to replicate the catchment responses and each "specialist" model is calibrated according to a specific objective function which is chosen in a way that forces the model to capture certain aspects of the hydrograph, and outputs of models are combined using so-called "fuzzy committee". Such multi-model approach has been already previously implemented in the development of data driven and conceptual models (Fenicia et al., 2007), but its perfomance was considered only during the calibration period. In this study we tested an application to conceptual models in both calibration and verification period. In addition, we tested the sensitivity of the result to the use of different weightings used in the objective functions formulations, and memberbship functions used in the committee. The study was carried out for Bagamati catchment in Nepal and Brue catchment in United Kingdoms with the MATLAB-based implementation of HBV model. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization genetic algorithm (Deb, 2001) was used to

  18. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying hydrologic and ecological connectivity has contributed to understanding transport and dispersal processes and assessing ecosystem degradation or restoration potential. However, there has been little synthesis across disciplines. The growing field of ecohydrology and recent recognition that loss of hydrologic connectivity is leading to a global decline in biodiversity underscore the need for a unified connectivity concept. One outstanding need is a way to quantify directional connectivity that is consistent, robust to variations in sampling, and transferable across scales or environmental settings. Understanding connectivity in a particular direction (e.g., streamwise, along or across gradient, between sources and sinks, along cardinal directions) provides critical information for predicting contaminant transport, planning conservation corridor design, and understanding how landscapes or hydroscapes respond to directional forces like wind or water flow. Here we synthesize progress on quantifying connectivity and develop a new strategy for evaluating directional connectivity that benefits from use of graph theory in ecology and percolation theory in hydrology. The directional connectivity index (DCI) is a graph-theory based, multiscale metric that is generalizable to a range of different structural and functional connectivity applications. It exhibits minimal sensitivity to image rotation or resolution within a given range and responds intuitively to progressive, unidirectional change. Further, it is linearly related to the integral connectivity scale length—a metric common in hydrology that correlates well with actual fluxes—but is less computationally challenging and more readily comparable across different landscapes. Connectivity-orientation curves (i.e., directional connectivity computed over a range of headings) provide a quantitative, information-dense representation of environmental structure that can be used for comparison or detection of

  19. Hydrologic Terrain Processing Using Parallel Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Watson, D. W.; Wallace, R. M.; Schreuders, K.; Tesfa, T. K.

    2009-12-01

    Topography in the form of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), is widely used to derive information for the modeling of hydrologic processes. Hydrologic terrain analysis augments the information content of digital elevation data by removing spurious pits, deriving a structured flow field, and calculating surfaces of hydrologic information derived from the flow field. The increasing availability of high-resolution terrain datasets for large areas poses a challenge for existing algorithms that process terrain data to extract this hydrologic information. This paper will describe parallel algorithms that have been developed to enhance hydrologic terrain pre-processing so that larger datasets can be more efficiently computed. Message Passing Interface (MPI) parallel implementations have been developed for pit removal, flow direction, and generalized flow accumulation methods within the Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models (TauDEM) package. The parallel algorithm works by decomposing the domain into striped or tiled data partitions where each tile is processed by a separate processor. This method also reduces the memory requirements of each processor so that larger size grids can be processed. The parallel pit removal algorithm is adapted from the method of Planchon and Darboux that starts from a high elevation then progressively scans the grid, lowering each grid cell to the maximum of the original elevation or the lowest neighbor. The MPI implementation reconciles elevations along process domain edges after each scan. Generalized flow accumulation extends flow accumulation approaches commonly available in GIS through the integration of multiple inputs and a broad class of algebraic rules into the calculation of flow related quantities. It is based on establishing a flow field through DEM grid cells, that is then used to evaluate any mathematical function that incorporates dependence on values of the quantity being evaluated at upslope (or downslope) grid cells

  20. Gradation of complexity and predictability of hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yan-Fang; Singh, Vijay P.; Wen, Jun; Liu, Changming

    2015-06-01

    Quantification of the complexity and predictability of hydrological systems is important for evaluating the impact of climate change on hydrological processes, and for guiding water activities. In the literature, the focus seems to have been on describing the complexity of spatiotemporal distribution of hydrological variables, but little attention has been paid to the study of complexity gradation, because the degree of absolute complexity of hydrological systems cannot be objectively evaluated. Here we show that complexity and predictability of hydrological processes can be graded into three ranks (low, middle, and high). The gradation is based on the difference in the energy distribution of hydrological series and that of white noise under multitemporal scales. It reflects different energy concentration levels and contents of deterministic components of the hydrological series in the three ranks. Higher energy concentration level reflects lower complexity and higher predictability, but scattered energy distribution being similar to white noise has the highest complexity and is almost unpredictable. We conclude that the three ranks (low, middle, and high) approximately correspond to deterministic, stochastic, and random hydrological systems, respectively. The result of complexity gradation can guide hydrological observations and modeling, and identification of similarity patterns among different hydrological systems.