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Sample records for vibronic coupling effects

  1. Effects of Herzberg-Teller vibronic coupling on coherent excitation energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hou-Dao; Qiao, Qin; Xu, Rui-Xue; Yan, YiJing

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we study the effects of non-Condon vibronic coupling on the quantum coherence of excitation energy transfer, via the exact dissipaton-equation-of-motion evaluations on excitonic model systems. Field-triggered excitation energy transfer dynamics and two dimensional coherent spectroscopy are simulated for both Condon and non-Condon vibronic couplings. Our results clearly demonstrate that the non-Condon vibronic coupling intensifies the dynamical electronic-vibrational energy transfer and enhances the total system-and-bath quantum coherence. Moreover, the hybrid bath dynamics for non-Condon effects enriches the theoretical calculation, and further sheds light on the interpretation of the experimental nonlinear spectroscopy.

  2. Forces in EDO-TTF: Theoretical study of isotope and charge effects on vibronic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Ken

    Isotope and charge effects on vibronic coupling constant (V) and energy gradient (g) of ethylenedioxy-tetrathiafulvalen (EDO-TTF) upon the electron injection into cation and electron removal from neutral molecule are investigated. It is found that normal modes which include C = C stretching motion generally have large V and g. For electron removal, three normal modes (v460, v470, and v480) have large Vi+ and gi+, and deuteration results in decrease of V46+ and increase of V47+. For electron injection, five normal modes (ν+42, ν+44, ν+45, ν+47, and ν+48) have large vi0 and gi0 deuteration results in increase of V045 and V048 and decrease of V047. From the analysis of vibronic coupling constants using vibronic coupling density (VCD), regional vibronic coupling constant (RVCC), and atomic vibronic coupling constant (AVCC), it is revealed that the change in normal mode vectors (d) due to the deuteration and electron removal (or injection) leads to the change in V.

  3. Vibronic coupling in icosahedral systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, R

    2001-01-01

    consideration. In this thesis, an explanation based on the competition between the two tunneling paths on the lowest APES is proposed. It is assumed that tunneling occurs along paths of steepest descent. The reversal in sign of the tunneling splitting, calculated using the WKB method, in the icosahedral H x h Jahn-Teller system is explained in terms of different tunneling paths along which the system moves as the strength of the vibronic coupling K sub h sub sub 1 changes. It is found that this sign reversal occurs when K sub h sub sub 1 /(h/2 pi)w approx 4.1. This result is very near to the original result of K sub h sub sub 1 /(h/2 pi)w approx 3.8 obtained using a totally different method. This reversal can be explained as follows; for weak vibronic coupling, the H symmetry state is dominated by tunneling along the steepest descent path of C sub 1 symmetry which connects two D sub 3 sub d wells via one point on the D sub 3 symmetry saddle trough; for strong coupling, the A symmetry state is dominated by tun...

  4. Geometric phase effects in low-energy dynamics near conical intersections: a study of the multidimensional linear vibronic coupling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2013-12-21

    In molecular systems containing conical intersections (CIs), a nontrivial geometric phase (GP) appears in the nuclear and electronic wave functions in the adiabatic representation. We study GP effects in nuclear dynamics of an N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling (LVC) model. The main impact of GP on low-energy nuclear dynamics is reduction of population transfer between the local minima of the LVC lower energy surface. For the LVC model, we proposed an isometric coordinate transformation that confines non-adiabatic effects within a two-dimensional subsystem interacting with an N - 2 dimensional environment. Since environmental modes do not couple electronic states, all GP effects originate from nuclear dynamics within the subsystem. We explored when the GP affects nuclear dynamics of the isolated subsystem, and how the subsystem-environment interaction can interfere with GP effects. Comparing quantum dynamics with and without GP allowed us to devise simple rules to determine significance of the GP for nuclear dynamics in this model.

  5. Electron-Vibration Coupling in Molecular Materials: Assignment of Vibronic Modes from Photoelectron Momentum Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, M; Grimm, M; Metzger, C; Dauth, M; Tusche, C; Kirschner, J; Kümmel, S; Schöll, A; Reinert, F

    2016-04-08

    Electron-phonon coupling is one of the most fundamental effects in condensed matter physics. We here demonstrate that photoelectron momentum mapping can reveal and visualize the coupling between specific vibrational modes and electronic excitations. When imaging molecular orbitals with high energy resolution, the intensity patterns of photoelectrons of the vibronic sidebands of molecular states show characteristic changes due to the distortion of the molecular frame in the vibronically excited state. By comparison to simulations, an assignment of specific vibronic modes is possible, thus providing unique information on the coupling between electronic and vibronic excitation.

  6. The effects of vibronic coupling on the photophysics of pi-conjugated oligomers and polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Hajime

    A theoretical model describing photophysics of pi-conjugated aggregates, such as molecular crystals and polymer thin films, is developed. A Holstein-like Hamiltonian expressed with a multi-particle basis set is used to evaluate absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. An analysis with line strength ratio proves to be a powerful diagnostic tool to obtain additional spectral signatures with which to distinguish H- vs. J-aggregation. For the H-aggregates absorption peak ratio, A 0-0/A 0-1, diminishes as the excitonic coupling increases. Also the PL peak ratio, I 0-0/I 0-1, is zero at T=0K with no disorder and the value increases as temperature and disorder increase. By contrast the J-aggregates show the opposite trends. Furthermore we will show the PL peak ratio provides a direct measurement of the exciton coherence length for a linear J-aggregate and could be expressed as I0-0/I 0-1 = Ncoh/gamma2. We will also show that it is inversely proportional to square root of temperature (T-1/2). Applying our theory to the herringbone style oligoacene molecular crystals, we show the lowest singlet exciton states are highly influenced by charge transfer (CT) states and the well known energetic gap in two polarized absorption spectra, so called Davydov Splitting (DS), is a product of the interaction. We have successfully reproduced the DS for all three oligoacenes without any free parameters. Inspired by the CT contribution in oligoacene crystals, we further develop Wannier-Mott exciton model and apply to disorder-free polydiacetylene (PDA) quantum wires, which have been shown to be extremely emissive. We will show the quantum wire is a J-aggregate and we once again derive the peak ratio and the coherence size relation, I0-0/I 0-1 = kappaNcoh/gamma 2, where kappa is a prefactor close to unity. Typical photophysical properties of polymer pi-stacks such as those occurring in P3HT films are well explained by the simple linear H-aggregate model. However several groups have

  7. Geometric phase effects in excited state dynamics through a conical intersection in large molecules: N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaru; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2017-08-14

    We investigate geometric phase (GP) effects in nonadiabatic transitions through a conical intersection (CI) in an N-dimensional linear vibronic coupling (ND-LVC) model. This model allows for the coordinate transformation encompassing all nonadiabatic effects within a two-dimensional (2D) subsystem, while the other N - 2 dimensions form a system of uncoupled harmonic oscillators identical for both electronic states and coupled bi-linearly with the subsystem coordinates. The 2D subsystem governs ultra-fast nonadiabatic dynamics through the CI and provides a convenient model for studying GP effects. Parameters of the original ND-LVC model define the Hamiltonian of the transformed 2D subsystem and thus influence GP effects directly. Our analysis reveals what values of ND-LVC parameters can introduce symmetry breaking in the 2D subsystem that diminishes GP effects.

  8. Parallelization strategy for large-scale vibronic coupling calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabidoux, Scott M; Eijkhout, Victor; Stanton, John F

    2014-12-26

    The vibronic coupling model of Köppel, Domcke, and Cederbaum is a powerful means to understand, predict, and analyze electronic spectra of molecules, especially those that exhibit phenomena that involve breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. In this work, we describe a new parallel algorithm for carrying out such calculations. The algorithm is conceptually founded upon a "stencil" representation of the required computational steps, which motivates an efficient strategy for coarse-grained parallelization. The equations involved in the direct-CI type diagonalization of the model Hamiltonian are presented, the parallelization strategy is discussed in detail, and the method is illustrated by calculations involving direct-product basis sets with as many as 17 vibrational modes and 130 billion basis functions.

  9. Manifestations of Vibronic Coupling Effects in Molecular Spectroscopy: from the Quenching of Excitonic Energy Splittings to the Clements Bands of SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Horst

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the excitation of vibrational modes and its impact on the excitonic energy splittings in doubly hydrogen-bonded molecular dimers. The experimental analysis, performed in collaboration by S. Leutwyler and coworkers (Univ. Bern), is based on high-resolution resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. The potential energy surfaces underlying the theoretical investigation are obtained at the RICC2/aug-cc-pVTZ level and are used for the dynamical analysis in the framework of a well-established vibronic coupling approach. The vertical electronic Davydov splitting of the S_1 and S_2 excited states exceeds the observed excitonic splitting by a factor of 10--40. This discrepancy can be understood by considering the quenching of the excitonic splitting by the excitation of vibrational modes in the electronic transition. Two different approaches have been employed and found to reconcile theory and experiment. The analysis of the vibronic structure of the S_2 ← S_0 excitation spectrum focusses on the ortho-cyanophenol dimer as a representative example. Most of the observed spectral features can be reproduced by the calculations, although some deviations remain. In the second part, new results on the UV absorption spectrum of SO_2 will be presented. This is complementary to the excitonic systems in that higher vibrational energies are involved and a conical intersection is accessible to the nuclear motion. Using the concept of regularized diabatic states in combination with high-accuracy MRCI potential energy surfaces, semi-quantitative agreement with the complex experimental (low-resolution) spectrum has been achieved for the first time. P. Ottiger, S. Leutwyler and H. Köppel, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 174308 (2012). S. Kopec, P. Ottiger, S. Leutwyler and H. Köppel, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 184312 (2012). H. Köppel and B. Schubert, Mol. Phys. 104, 1069 (2006). C. Leveque, A. Komainda, R. Taieb and H. Köppel, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 044320 (2013).

  10. Vibronic coupling in the superoxide anion: the vibrational dependence of the photoelectron angular distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzor, Matthew; Mbaiwa, Foster; Wei, Jie; Singh, Tulsi; Mabbs, Richard; Sanov, Andrei; Cavanagh, Steven J; Gibson, Stephen T; Lewis, Brenton R; Gascooke, Jason R

    2010-11-07

    We present a comprehensive photoelectron imaging study of the O(2)(X  (3)Σ(g)(-),v(')=0-6)←O(2)(-)(X  (2)Π(g),v(")=0) and O(2)(a (1)Δ(g),v(')=0-4)←O(2)(-)(X  (2)Π(g),v(")=0) photodetachment bands at wavelengths between 900 and 455 nm, examining the effect of vibronic coupling on the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD). This work extends the v(')=1-4 data for detachment into the ground electronic state, presented in a recent communication [R. Mabbs, F. Mbaiwa, J. Wei, M. Van Duzor, S. T. Gibson, S. J. Cavanagh, and B. R. Lewis, Phys. Rev. A 82, 011401(R) (2010)]. Measured vibronic intensities are compared to Franck-Condon predictions and used as supporting evidence of vibronic coupling. The results are analyzed within the context of the one-electron, zero core contribution (ZCC) model [R. M. Stehman and S. B. Woo, Phys. Rev. A 23, 2866 (1981)]. For both bands, the photoelectron anisotropy parameter variation with electron kinetic energy, β(E), displays the characteristics of photodetachment from a d-like orbital, consistent with the π(g)(∗) 2p highest occupied molecular orbital of O(2)(-). However, differences exist between the β(E) trends for detachment into different vibrational levels of the X  (3)Σ(g)(-) and a (1)Δ(g) electronic states of O(2). The ZCC model invokes vibrational channel specific "detachment orbitals" and attributes this behavior to coupling of the electronic and nuclear motion in the parent anion. The spatial extent of the model detachment orbital is dependent on the final state of O(2): the higher the neutral vibrational excitation, the larger the electron binding energy. Although vibronic coupling is ignored in most theoretical treatments of PADs in the direct photodetachment of molecular anions, the present findings clearly show that it can be important. These results represent a benchmark data set for a relatively simple system, upon which to base rigorous tests of more sophisticated models.

  11. Optical microcavities enhance the exciton coherence length and eliminate vibronic coupling in J-aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spano, F. C. [Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    The properties of polaritons in J-aggregate microcavities are explored using a Hamiltonian which treats exciton-vibrational coupling and exciton-photon coupling on equal footing. When the cavity mode is resonant with the lowest-energy (0-0) transition in the J-aggregate, two polaritons are formed, the lowest-energy polariton (LP) and its higher-energy partner (P{sub 1}), separated by the Rabi splitting. Strong coupling between the material and cavity modes leads to a decoupling of the exciton and vibrational degrees of freedom and an overall reduction of disorder within the LP. Such effects lead to an expanded material coherence length in the LP which leads to enhanced radiative decay rates. Additional spectral signatures include an amplification of the 0-0 peak coincident with a reduction in the 0-1 peak in the photoluminescence spectrum. It is also shown that the same cavity photon responsible for the LP/P{sub 1} splitting causes comparable splittings in the higher vibronic bands due to additional resonances between vibrationally excited states in the electronic ground state manifold and higher energy vibronic excitons.

  12. Towards quantification of vibronic coupling in photosynthetic antenna complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V. P.; Westberg, M.; Wang, C.; Gellen, T.; Engel, G. S., E-mail: gsengel@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute and The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Dahlberg, P. D. [Graduate Program in the Biophysical Sciences, The James Franck Institute and The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Gardiner, A. T.; Cogdell, R. J. [Department of Botany, Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-07

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes harvest sunlight and efficiently transport energy to the reaction center where charge separation powers biochemical energy storage. The discovery of existence of long lived quantum coherence during energy transfer has sparked the discussion on the role of quantum coherence on the energy transfer efficiency. Early works assigned observed coherences to electronic states, and theoretical studies showed that electronic coherences could affect energy transfer efficiency—by either enhancing or suppressing transfer. However, the nature of coherences has been fiercely debated as coherences only report the energy gap between the states that generate coherence signals. Recent works have suggested that either the coherences observed in photosynthetic antenna complexes arise from vibrational wave packets on the ground state or, alternatively, coherences arise from mixed electronic and vibrational states. Understanding origin of coherences is important for designing molecules for efficient light harvesting. Here, we give a direct experimental observation from a mutant of LH2, which does not have B800 chromophores, to distinguish between electronic, vibrational, and vibronic coherence. We also present a minimal theoretical model to characterize the coherences both in the two limiting cases of purely vibrational and purely electronic coherence as well as in the intermediate, vibronic regime.

  13. Towards quantification of vibronic coupling in photosynthetic antenna complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V P; Westberg, M; Wang, C; Dahlberg, P D; Gellen, T; Gardiner, A T; Cogdell, R J; Engel, G S

    2015-06-07

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes harvest sunlight and efficiently transport energy to the reaction center where charge separation powers biochemical energy storage. The discovery of existence of long lived quantum coherence during energy transfer has sparked the discussion on the role of quantum coherence on the energy transfer efficiency. Early works assigned observed coherences to electronic states, and theoretical studies showed that electronic coherences could affect energy transfer efficiency--by either enhancing or suppressing transfer. However, the nature of coherences has been fiercely debated as coherences only report the energy gap between the states that generate coherence signals. Recent works have suggested that either the coherences observed in photosynthetic antenna complexes arise from vibrational wave packets on the ground state or, alternatively, coherences arise from mixed electronic and vibrational states. Understanding origin of coherences is important for designing molecules for efficient light harvesting. Here, we give a direct experimental observation from a mutant of LH2, which does not have B800 chromophores, to distinguish between electronic, vibrational, and vibronic coherence. We also present a minimal theoretical model to characterize the coherences both in the two limiting cases of purely vibrational and purely electronic coherence as well as in the intermediate, vibronic regime.

  14. Vibronic eigenstates and the geometric phase effect in the (2)E″ state of NO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisfeld, Wolfgang; Viel, Alexandra

    2017-01-21

    The (2)E″ state of NO3, a prototype for the Jahn-Teller effect, has been an enigma and a challenge for a long time for both experiment and theory. We present a detailed theoretical study of the vibronic quantum dynamics in this electronic state, uncovering the effects of tunnelling, geometric phase, and symmetry. To this end, 45 vibronic levels of NO3 in the (2)E″ state are determined accurately and analyzed thoroughly. The computation is based on a high quality diabatic potential representation of the two-sheeted surface of the (2)E″ state developed by us [W. Eisfeld et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 224109 (2014)] and on the multi-configuration time dependent Hartree approach. The vibrational eigenstates of the NO3(-) anion are determined and analyzed as well to gain a deeper understanding of the symmetry properties of such D3h symmetric systems. To this end, 61 eigenstates of the NO3(-) anion ground state are computed using the single sheeted potential surface of the (1)A1 state published in the same reference quoted above. The assignments of both the vibrational and vibronic levels are discussed. A simple model is proposed to rationalize the computed NO3 spectrum strongly influenced by the Jahn-Teller couplings, the associated geometric phase effect, and the tunnelling. Comparison with the available spectroscopic data is also presented.

  15. Vibronic effects in the spectroscopy and dynamics of C-phycocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womick, Jordan M.; West, Brantley A.; Scherer, Norbert F.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2012-08-01

    Femtosecond laser spectroscopies are used to investigate the influence of intramolecular nuclear modes on electronic relaxation in the cyanobacterial light harvesting protein, C-phycocyanin (CPC). Of particular interest are sub-ps dynamics localized on pairs of closely spaced phycocyanobilin pigments (i.e. dimers). Experiments conducted under different polarization conditions are used to distinguish isotropic and anisotropic vibrational modes within the dimers. Two isotropic nuclear modes are detected near 185 and 260 cm-1 using two-dimensional photon echo spectroscopy. In addition, a transient absorption anisotropy measurement reveals vibrational resonances associated with (out-of-plane) anisotropic nuclear modes near 640 and 815 cm-1. We investigate two possible origins for the recurrences in the anisotropy. A mechanism involving ground state nuclear coherences in the Condon approximation is ruled out by comparing the potential energy surfaces of the excitons to the direction of wavepacket motion. Electronic structure calculations suggest that non-Condon effects are the most likely explanation for the beats observed in the anisotropy. Such non-Condon effects also hold interesting implications for the vibronic exciton electronic structure of CPC. We calculate non-Condon intermolecular couplings in the dimer as large as 10 cm-1, which suggests that these effects are not negligible and deserve further consideration. Our findings provide additional insights into the sub-100 fs vibronic relaxation channel found in the closely related protein, allophycocyanin, whose pigment dimers possess nearly the same geometry and intermolecular Coulombic interactions as CPC. This study underscores the complex interplay of intramolecular vibronic coupling and site energy tuning in photosynthetic light harvesting.

  16. Symmetry, vibrational energy redistribution and vibronic coupling: The internal conversion processes of cycloketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Sauer, Stephan P.A.; Sølling, Theis I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discern two basic mechanisms of internal conversion processes; one direct, where immediate activation of coupling modes leads to fast population transfer and one indirect, where internal vibrational energy redistribution leads to equidistribution of energy, i.e., ergodicity......, and slower population transfer follows. Using model vibronic coupling Hamiltonians parameterized on the basis of coupled-cluster calculations, we investigate the nature of the Rydberg to valence excited-state internal conversion in two cycloketones, cyclobutanone and cyclopentanone. The two basic mechanisms...... can amply explain the significantly different time scales for this process in the two molecules, a difference which has also been reported in recent experimental findings [T. S. Kuhlman, T. I. Sølling, and K. B. Møller, ChemPhysChem. 13, 820 (2012)]...

  17. Communication: Vibrational and vibronic coherences in the two dimensional spectroscopy of coupled electron-nuclear motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Hildenbrand, Heiko; Engel, Volker [Universität Würzburg, Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Emil-Fischer-Str. 42, Campus Nord, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Gomez, Sandra; Sola, Ignacio R. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-28

    We theoretically investigate the photon-echo spectroscopy of coupled electron-nuclear quantum dynamics. Two situations are treated. In the first case, the Born-Oppenheimer (adiabatic) approximation holds. It is then possible to interpret the two-dimensional (2D) spectra in terms of vibrational motion taking place in different electronic states. In particular, pure vibrational coherences which are related to oscillations in the time-dependent third-order polarization can be identified. This concept fails in the second case, where strong non-adiabatic coupling leads to the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer-approximation. Then, the 2D-spectra reveal a complicated vibronic structure and vibrational coherences cannot be disentangled from the electronic motion.

  18. Vibronic coupling in molecular crystals: A Franck-Condon Herzberg-Teller model of H-aggregate fluorescence based on quantum chemical cluster calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wykes, M., E-mail: mikewykes@gmail.com; Parambil, R.; Gierschner, J. [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies, IMDEA Nanoscience, Calle Faraday 9, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beljonne, D. [Laboratory for Chemistry of Novel Materials, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2015-09-21

    Here, we present a general approach to treating vibronic coupling in molecular crystals based on atomistic simulations of large clusters. Such clusters comprise model aggregates treated at the quantum chemical level embedded within a realistic environment treated at the molecular mechanics level. As we calculate ground and excited state equilibrium geometries and vibrational modes of model aggregates, our approach is able to capture effects arising from coupling to intermolecular degrees of freedom, absent from existing models relying on geometries and normal modes of single molecules. Using the geometries and vibrational modes of clusters, we are able to simulate the fluorescence spectra of aggregates for which the lowest excited state bears negligible oscillator strength (as is the case, e.g., ideal H-aggregates) by including both Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) vibronic transitions. The latter terms allow the adiabatic excited state of the cluster to couple with vibrations in a perturbative fashion via derivatives of the transition dipole moment along nuclear coordinates. While vibronic coupling simulations employing FC and HT terms are well established for single-molecules, to our knowledge this is the first time they are applied to molecular aggregates. Here, we apply this approach to the simulation of the low-temperature fluorescence spectrum of para-distyrylbenzene single-crystal H-aggregates and draw comparisons with coarse-grained Frenkel-Holstein approaches previously extensively applied to such systems.

  19. Vibronic coupling in molecular crystals: A Franck-Condon Herzberg-Teller model of H-aggregate fluorescence based on quantum chemical cluster calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, M.; Parambil, R.; Beljonne, D.; Gierschner, J.

    2015-09-01

    Here, we present a general approach to treating vibronic coupling in molecular crystals based on atomistic simulations of large clusters. Such clusters comprise model aggregates treated at the quantum chemical level embedded within a realistic environment treated at the molecular mechanics level. As we calculate ground and excited state equilibrium geometries and vibrational modes of model aggregates, our approach is able to capture effects arising from coupling to intermolecular degrees of freedom, absent from existing models relying on geometries and normal modes of single molecules. Using the geometries and vibrational modes of clusters, we are able to simulate the fluorescence spectra of aggregates for which the lowest excited state bears negligible oscillator strength (as is the case, e.g., ideal H-aggregates) by including both Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) vibronic transitions. The latter terms allow the adiabatic excited state of the cluster to couple with vibrations in a perturbative fashion via derivatives of the transition dipole moment along nuclear coordinates. While vibronic coupling simulations employing FC and HT terms are well established for single-molecules, to our knowledge this is the first time they are applied to molecular aggregates. Here, we apply this approach to the simulation of the low-temperature fluorescence spectrum of para-distyrylbenzene single-crystal H-aggregates and draw comparisons with coarse-grained Frenkel-Holstein approaches previously extensively applied to such systems.

  20. Vibronic coupling explains the ultrafast carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in natural and artificial light harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Perlík, Václav; Cranston, Laura J; Cogdell, Richard J; Lincoln, Craig N; Savolainen, Janne; Šanda, František; Mančal, Tomáš; Hauer, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The initial energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs between the light-harvesting pigments and on ultrafast timescales. We analyze the carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 Marichromatium purpuratum as well as in an artificial light-harvesting dyad system by using transient grating and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with 10 fs time resolution. We find that F\\"orster-type models reproduce the experimentally observed 60 fs transfer times, but overestimate coupling constants, which leads to a disagreement with both linear absorption and electronic 2D-spectra. We show that a vibronic model, which treats carotenoid vibrations on both electronic ground and excited state as part of the system's Hamiltonian, reproduces all measured quantities. Importantly, the vibronic model presented here can explain the fast energy transfer rates with only moderate coupling constants, which are in agreement with structure based calculations. Counterintuitively, the vibrational levels on the carotenoid el...

  1. Vibronic coupling explains the ultrafast carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in natural and artificial light harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlík, Václav; Seibt, Joachim; Cranston, Laura J.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Lincoln, Craig N.; Savolainen, Janne; Šanda, František; Mančal, Tomáš; Hauer, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The initial energy transfer steps in photosynthesis occur on ultrafast timescales. We analyze the carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 Marichromatium purpuratum as well as in an artificial light-harvesting dyad system by using transient grating and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with 10 fs time resolution. We find that Förster-type models reproduce the experimentally observed 60 fs transfer times, but overestimate coupling constants, which lead to a disagreement with both linear absorption and electronic 2D-spectra. We show that a vibronic model, which treats carotenoid vibrations on both electronic ground and excited states as part of the system's Hamiltonian, reproduces all measured quantities. Importantly, the vibronic model presented here can explain the fast energy transfer rates with only moderate coupling constants, which are in agreement with structure based calculations. Counterintuitively, the vibrational levels on the carotenoid electronic ground state play the central role in the excited state population transfer to bacteriochlorophyll; resonance between the donor-acceptor energy gap and the vibrational ground state energies is the physical basis of the ultrafast energy transfer rates in these systems.

  2. Vibronic coupling explains the ultrafast carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in natural and artificial light harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlík, Václav; Seibt, Joachim; Šanda, František; Mančal, Tomáš [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, Prague 121 16 (Czech Republic); Cranston, Laura J.; Cogdell, Richard J. [Institute of Molecular Cell and System Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Lincoln, Craig N.; Hauer, Jürgen, E-mail: juergen.hauer@tuwien.ac.at [Photonics Institute, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Savolainen, Janne [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-06-07

    The initial energy transfer steps in photosynthesis occur on ultrafast timescales. We analyze the carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 Marichromatium purpuratum as well as in an artificial light-harvesting dyad system by using transient grating and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with 10 fs time resolution. We find that Förster-type models reproduce the experimentally observed 60 fs transfer times, but overestimate coupling constants, which lead to a disagreement with both linear absorption and electronic 2D-spectra. We show that a vibronic model, which treats carotenoid vibrations on both electronic ground and excited states as part of the system’s Hamiltonian, reproduces all measured quantities. Importantly, the vibronic model presented here can explain the fast energy transfer rates with only moderate coupling constants, which are in agreement with structure based calculations. Counterintuitively, the vibrational levels on the carotenoid electronic ground state play the central role in the excited state population transfer to bacteriochlorophyll; resonance between the donor-acceptor energy gap and the vibrational ground state energies is the physical basis of the ultrafast energy transfer rates in these systems.

  3. Vibronic Coupling in the Ground State of Vinylidene ˜{X} ^1A_1 H_2CC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stephen T.; Laws, Benjamin A.; Guo, Hua; Neumark, Daniel; Lineberger, Carl; Field, Robert W.

    2017-06-01

    The nature of the isomeration process that turns vinylidene H_2CC to acetylene HCCH, requiring a 1,2-hydrogen atom shift across the molecule, is a long standing puzzle that has its origin in a 1989 photoelectron measurement of vinylidide (H_2CC^-). In recent years the photoelectron spectrum of vinylidide has been revisited, using improved experimental techniques, including velocity-map imaging for the detection of photoelectrons, low-temperature near-threshold methods (cryo-SEVI), and sophisticated ab inito calculations. The simple normal-mode structure, 1064 nm velocity-map image illustrated, is proving a challenge to decipher. However, the dramatic change in the photoelectron angular distribution of the inner-ring structure is characteristic of vibronic coupling. The lowest electronic state with the correct symmetry, ˜{B} ^{1}B_2, is 4eV higher in energy. K. M. Ervin et al. J. Chem. Phys. 91 5974 (1991) J. A. De Vine et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138 16417 (2016) L. Guo et al. J. Phys. Chem. 119 8488 (2015) A. Weaver et al. J. Chem. Phys. 94 1740 (1991) Research supported by the Australian Research Council Discovery Project Grant DP160102585.

  4. Importance of Vibronic Effects in the UV-Vis Spectrum of the 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane Anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapavicza, Enrico; Furche, Filipp; Sundholm, Dage

    2016-10-11

    We present a computational method for simulating vibronic absorption spectra in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) range and apply it to the 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane anion (TCNQ(-)), which has been used as a ligand in black absorbers. Gaussian broadening of vertical electronic excitation energies of TCNQ(-) from linear-response time-dependent density functional theory produces only one band, which is qualitatively incorrect. Thus, the harmonic vibrational modes of the two lowest doublet states were computed, and the vibronic UV-vis spectrum was simulated using the displaced harmonic oscillator approximation, the frequency-shifted harmonic oscillator approximation, and the full Duschinsky formalism. An efficient real-time generating function method was implemented to avoid the exponential complexity of conventional Franck-Condon approaches to vibronic spectra. The obtained UV-vis spectra for TCNQ(-) agree well with experiment; the Duschinsky rotation is found to have only a minor effect on the spectrum. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations combined with calculations of the electronic excitation energies for a large number of molecular structures were also used for simulating the UV-vis spectrum. The Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations yield a broadening of the energetically lowest peak in the absorption spectrum, but additional vibrational bands present in the experimental and simulated quantum harmonic oscillator spectra are not observed in the molecular dynamics simulations. Our results underline the importance of vibronic effects for the UV-vis spectrum of TCNQ(-), and they establish an efficient method for obtaining vibronic spectra using a combination of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory and a real-time generating function approach.

  5. Vibronic coupling in Frenkel and charge-transfer states of oligothiophene crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stradomska, Anna; Kulig, Waldemar; Petelenz, Piotr

    A novel approach, recently proposed to describe exciton phonon coupling in Frenkel states of an infinite molecular crystal, is generalized to incorporate charge-transfer (CT) excitons. Both types of electronic excitations are treated on the same footing. The corresponding Hamiltonian in the Lang

  6. Effect of molecular weight on the vibronic structure of a diketopyrrolopyrrole polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Sophia C.

    2016-09-27

    Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) is employed in this study to examine the influence of molecular weight on the optical response of a diketopyrrolopyrrole polymer (DPP-TT-T) in solution. The vibronic structure observed for the ground state absorption of this polymer is found to vary with molecular weight and solvent. Resonance Raman Intensity Analysis (RRIA) revealed that the absorption spectra can be described by at least two dipole-allowed transitions and the vibronic structure variation is due to differing contributions from linear and curved segments of the polymer.

  7. Effective Hamiltonian of the nonrigid methanol CH{sub 3}OH molecule in the ground vibronic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burenin, A.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhnii Novgorod, (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    For the nonrigid methanol CH{sub 3}OH molecule in the ground vibronic state, the simplest expression for the effective Hamiltonian and generators of its transformation to a reduced form is considered in an arbitrary order of perturbation theroy as a Taylor series expansion in dynamic variables on the basis of the concept of the configuration spin. Partitioning of the configuration-rotational wave functions is given according to the irreducible representations of the rotational subgroup of the symmetry group for the stationary state problem of the molecule considered in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Mutations to R. sphaeroides Reaction Center Perturb Energy Levels and Vibronic Coupling but Not Observed Energy Transfer Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Moira L; Long, Phillip D; Dahlberg, Peter D; Rolczynski, Brian S; Massey, Sara C; Engel, Gregory S

    2016-03-10

    The bacterial reaction center is capable of both efficiently collecting and quickly transferring energy within the complex; therefore, the reaction center serves as a convenient model for both energy transfer and charge separation. To spectroscopically probe the interactions between the electronic excited states on the chromophores and their intricate relationship with vibrational motions in their environment, we examine coherences between the excited states. Here, we investigate this question by introducing a series of point mutations within 12 Å of the special pair of bacteriochlorophylls in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center. Using two-dimensional spectroscopy, we find that the time scales of energy transfer dynamics remain unperturbed by these mutations. However, within these spectra, we detect changes in the mixed vibrational-electronic coherences in these reaction centers. Our results indicate that resonance between bacteriochlorophyll vibrational modes and excitonic energy gaps promote electronic coherences and support current vibronic models of photosynthetic energy transfer.

  9. Vibronic couplings in the C 1s-Rydberg and valence excitations of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, revealed by angle-resolved photoion yield spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Suomi [Graduate School for Advanced Studies, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Gejo, Tatsuo [University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho 678-1297 (Japan); Hiyama, Miyabi [Graduate School for Advanced Studies, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Kosugi, Nobuhiro [Graduate School for Advanced Studies, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)]. E-mail: kosugi@ims.ac.jp

    2005-06-15

    High resolution angle-resolved ion-yield spectra are reported for the C1s->Rydberg excitations of acetylene. Vibronic coupling features are found in the energy regions of 3s{sigma}{sub g}/3{sigma}{sub u}*, 3p{sigma}{sub u}, and near threshold. By increasing retarding potentials for ion detectors to select more energetic fragmentation channels, the feature observed in the 90{sup o} direction is assigned to the C1s->3{sigma}{sub u}* valence state coupled with the C1s->1{pi}{sub g}* excited state via cis bending ({pi}{sub u}) vibrational mode.

  10. Exploring the effect of vibronic contributions on light harvesting efficiency of NKX-2587 derivatives through vibrationally resolved electronic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Shen, Wei; Li, Ming; He, Rongxing

    2017-01-01

    The vibrationally resolved electronic spectra of five metal-free NKX-2587 derivatives containing heteroatom with different atomic sizes and electronegativity, were simulated within the Franck-Condon approximation including the Herzberg-Teller and Duschinsky effects, aimed at exploring the correlation of vibronic structure associated with the spectrum and efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The parameters of short-circuit current density (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) involving efficiency of DSSCs, such as total dipole moments (μnormal), the light harvesting efficiency (LHE), injection driving force (Δ Ginject), and the number of electrons in the conduction band (nc), were calculated and discussed in detail. Results showed that the heteroatoms in the same period with large size and weak electronegativity and the ones in the same main group with large size and weak electronegativity are beneficial to Voc. The sizes and electronegativity of the heteroatoms have a weak effect on Jsc. The low-frequency modes play important roles in enhancing the intensities of the electronic spectra and structures can affect light harvesting efficiency (LHE). In this sense, our results provided guidance for understanding the sources of spectral intensities of dye molecules, and a valuable help for rational design of new molecules to improve the energy conversion efficiency (η) of DSSCs.

  11. Exciton dynamics in perturbed vibronic molecular aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brüning

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A site specific perturbation of a photo-excited molecular aggregate can lead to a localization of excitonic energy. We investigate this localization dynamics for laser-prepared excited states. Changing the parameters of the electric field significantly influences the exciton localization which offers the possibility for a selective control of this process. This is demonstrated for aggregates possessing a single vibrational degree of freedom per monomer unit. It is shown that the effects identified for the molecular dimer can be generalized to larger aggregates with a high density of vibronic states.

  12. Reassigning the CaH+ 11Σ → 21Σ vibronic transition with CaD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoluci, J.; Janardan, S.; Calvin, A. T.; Rugango, R.; Shu, G.; Sherrill, C. D.; Brown, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    We observe vibronic transitions in CaD+ between the 11Σ and 21Σ electronic states by resonance enhanced multiphoton photodissociation spectroscopy in a Coulomb crystal. The vibronic transitions are compared with previous measurements on CaH+. The result is a revised assignment of the CaH+ vibronic levels and a disagreement with multi-state-complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory theoretical calculations by approximately 700 cm-1. Updated high-level coupled-cluster calculations that include core-valence correlations reduce the disagreement between theory and experiment to 300 cm-1.

  13. Mixed-valence molecular four-dot unit for quantum cellular automata: Vibronic self-trapping and cell-cell response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukerblat, Boris, E-mail: tsuker@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Palii, Andrew, E-mail: tsuker@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular (ICMol), Universidad de Valencia, Paterna (Spain)

    2015-10-07

    Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(II) + 2Ru(III)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between

  14. Mixed-valence molecular four-dot unit for quantum cellular automata: Vibronic self-trapping and cell-cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-10-07

    Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between

  15. Molecular near-field antenna effect in resonance hyper-Raman scattering: Intermolecular vibronic intensity borrowing of solvent from solute through dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Rintaro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o, E-mail: hhama@nctu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-28

    We quantitatively interpret the recently discovered intriguing phenomenon related to resonance Hyper-Raman (HR) scattering. In resonance HR spectra of all-trans-β-carotene (β-carotene) in solution, vibrations of proximate solvent molecules are observed concomitantly with the solute β-carotene HR bands. It has been shown that these solvent bands are subject to marked intensity enhancements by more than 5 orders of magnitude under the presence of β-carotene. We have called this phenomenon the molecular-near field effect. Resonance HR spectra of β-carotene in benzene, deuterated benzene, cyclohexane, and deuterated cyclohexane have been measured precisely for a quantitative analysis of this effect. The assignments of the observed peaks are made by referring to the infrared, Raman, and HR spectra of neat solvents. It has been revealed that infrared active and some Raman active vibrations are active in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed spectra in the form of difference spectra (between benzene/deuterated benzene and cyclohexane/deuterated cyclohexane) are quantitatively analyzed on the basis of the extended vibronic theory of resonance HR scattering. The theory incorporates the coupling of excited electronic states of β-carotene with the vibrations of a proximate solvent molecule through solute–solvent dipole–dipole and dipole–quadrupole interactions. It is shown that the infrared active modes arise from the dipole–dipole interaction, whereas Raman active modes from the dipole–quadrupole interaction. It is also shown that vibrations that give strongly polarized Raman bands are weak in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed solvent HR spectra are simulated with the help of quantum chemical calculations for various orientations and distances of a solvent molecule with respect to the solute. The observed spectra are best simulated with random orientations of the solvent molecule at an intermolecular distance of 10 Å.

  16. Vibronic effects and destruction of exciton coherence in optical spectra of J-aggregates: A variational polaron transformation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloemsma, E.A.; Silvis, M.H.; Stradomska, A.; Knoester, J., E-mail: j.knoester@rug.nl

    2016-12-20

    Using a symmetry adapted polaron transformation of the Holstein Hamiltonian, we study the interplay of electronic excitation-vibration couplings, resonance excitation transfer interactions, and temperature in the linear absorption spectra of molecular J-aggregates. Semi-analytical expressions for the spectra are derived and compared with results obtained from direct numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the two-particle basis set representation. At zero temperature, we show that our polaron transformation reproduces both the collective (exciton) and single-molecule (vibrational) optical response associated with the appropriate standard perturbation limits. Specifically, for the molecular dimer excellent agreement with the spectra from the two-particle approach for the entire range of model parameters is obtained. This is in marked contrast to commonly used polaron transformations. Upon increasing the temperature, the spectra show a transition from the collective to the individual molecular features, which results from the thermal destruction of the exciton coherence.

  17. General Time Dependent Approach to Vibronic Spectroscopy Including Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller, and Duschinsky Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2013-09-10

    An effective time-dependent (TD) approach to compute vibrationally resolved optical spectra from first principles is presented for the computation of one-photon electronic spectra induced by either electric or magnetic transition dipoles or by their mutual interaction, namely absorption, emission, and circular dichroism. Particular care has been devoted to generality, modularity, and numerical stability including all the contributions that play a role at the harmonic level of approximation, namely Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller, and Dushinsky (i.e., mode mixing) effects. The implementation shares the same general framework of our previous time-independent (TI) model, thus allowing an effective integration between both approaches with the consequent enhancement of their respective strengths (e.g., spectrum completeness and straightforward account of temperature effects for the TD route versus band resolution and assignment for the TI route) using a single set of starting data. Implementation of both models in the same general computer program allows comprehensive studies using several levels of electronic structure description together with effective account of environmental effects by atomistic and/or continuum models of different sophistication. A few medium-size molecules (furan, phenyl radical, anthracene, dimethyloxirane, coumarin 339) have been studied in order to fully validate the approach.

  18. Rabi-vibronic resonance with large number of vibrational quanta

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, R.; Raikh, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically the Rabi oscillations of a resonantly driven two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator (vibrational mode) with frequency, \\omega_0. We show that for weak coupling, \\omega_p \\ll \\omega_0, where \\omega_p is the polaronic shift, Rabi oscillations are strongly modified in the vicinity of the Rabi-vibronic resonance \\Omega_R = \\omega_0, where \\Omega_R is the Rabi frequency. The width of the resonance is (\\Omega_R-\\omega_0) \\sim \\omega_p^{2/3} \\omega_0^{1/3} ...

  19. Vibronic Boson Sampling: Generalized Gaussian Boson Sampling for Molecular Vibronic Spectra at Finite Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Joonsuk; Yung, Man-Hong

    2017-08-07

    Molecular vibroic spectroscopy, where the transitions involve non-trivial Bosonic correlation due to the Duschinsky Rotation, is strongly believed to be in a similar complexity class as Boson Sampling. At finite temperature, the problem is represented as a Boson Sampling experiment with correlated Gaussian input states. This molecular problem with temperature effect is intimately related to the various versions of Boson Sampling sharing the similar computational complexity. Here we provide a full description to this relation in the context of Gaussian Boson Sampling. We find a hierarchical structure, which illustrates the relationship among various Boson Sampling schemes. Specifically, we show that every instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling with an initial correlation can be simulated by an instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling without initial correlation, with only a polynomial overhead. Since every Gaussian state is associated with a thermal state, our result implies that every sampling problem in molecular vibronic transitions, at any temperature, can be simulated by Gaussian Boson Sampling associated with a product of vacuum modes. We refer such a generalized Gaussian Boson Sampling motivated by the molecular sampling problem as Vibronic Boson Sampling.

  20. The nature of the low energy band of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex: vibronic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Chin, Alex W; Almeida, Javier; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2012-04-21

    Based entirely upon actual experimental observations on electron-phonon coupling, we develop a theoretical framework to show that the lowest energy band of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex exhibits observable features due to the quantum nature of the vibrational manifolds present in its chromophores. The study of linear spectra provides us with the basis to understand the dynamical features arising from the vibronic structure in nonlinear spectra in a progressive fashion, starting from a microscopic model to finally performing an inhomogeneous average. We show that the discreteness of the vibronic structure can be witnessed by probing the diagonal peaks of the nonlinear spectra by means of a relative phase shift in the waiting time resolved signal. Moreover, we demonstrate that the photon-echo and non-rephasing paths are sensitive to different harmonics in the vibrational manifold when static disorder is taken into account. Supported by analytical and numerical calculations, we show that non-diagonal resonances in the 2D spectra in the waiting time, further capture the discreteness of vibrations through a modulation of the amplitude without any effect in the signal intrinsic frequency. This fact generates a signal that is highly sensitive to correlations in the static disorder of the excitonic energy albeit protected against dephasing due to inhomogeneities of the vibrational ensemble.

  1. Full-dimensional treatment of short-time vibronic dynamics in a molecular high-order-harmonic-generation process in methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchkovskii, Serguei; Schuurman, Michael S.

    2017-11-01

    We present derivation and implementation of the multiconfigurational strong-field approximation with Gaussian nuclear wave packets (MC-SFA-GWP)—a version of the molecular strong-field approximation which treats all electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom, including their correlations, quantum mechanically. The technique allows realistic simulation of high-order-harmonic emission in polyatomic molecules without invoking reduced-dimensionality models for the nuclear motion or the electronic structure. We use MC-SFA-GWP to model isotope effects in high-order-harmonic-generation (HHG) spectroscopy of methane. The HHG emission in this molecule transiently involves the strongly vibronically coupled F22 electronic state of the CH4+ cation. We show that the isotopic HHG ratio in methane contains signatures of (a) field-free vibronic dynamics at the conical intersection (CI); (b) resonant features in the recombination cross sections; (c) laser-driven bound-state dynamics; as well as (d) the well-known short-time Gaussian decay of the emission. We assign the intrinsic vibronic feature (a) to a relatively long-lived (≥4 fs) vibronic wave packet of the singly excited ν4 (t2) and ν2 (e ) vibrational modes, strongly coupled to the components of the F22 electronic state. We demonstrate that these physical effects differ in their dependence on the wavelength, intensity, and duration of the driving pulse, allowing them to be disentangled. We thus show that HHG spectroscopy provides a versatile tool for exploring both conical intersections and resonant features in photorecombination matrix elements in the regime not easily accessible with other techniques.

  2. Construction of Vibronic Diabatic Hamiltonian for Excited-State Electron and Energy Transfer Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jiang, Shengshi; Zheng, Jie; Lan, Zhenggang

    2017-12-21

    Photoinduced excited-state electron and energy transfer processes are crucial in biological photoharvesting systems and organic photovoltaic devices. We discuss the construction of a diabatic vibronic Hamiltonian for the proper treatment of these processes involving the projection approach acting on both electronic wave functions and vibrational modes. In the electronic part, the wave function projection approach is used to construct the diabatic Hamiltonian in which both local excited states and charge-transfer states are included on the same footing. For the vibrational degrees of freedom, the vibronic couplings in the diabatic Hamiltonian are obtained in the basis of the pseudonormal modes localized on each monomer site by applying delocalized-to-localized mode projection. This systematic approach allows us to construct the vibronic diabatic Hamiltonian in molecular aggregates.

  3. Electronic and vibronic cluster models for the T24(G) level of d5 ions in tetrahedral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, R.; Boulanger, D.

    2006-08-01

    Electronic and vibronic cluster models are proposed to elaborate a general model for the T24(G) orbital triplet levels of d5 ions in tetrahedral symmetry. These models involve perturbation schemes and the diagonalization of the molecular electronic structure and vibronic Hamiltonian. First, the electronic fine structure is determined from the first- and second-order molecular spin-orbit (MSO) interaction. Then, Ham’s perturbation model for vibronic interactions is used in conjunction with the molecular model to analyze the vibronic interactions corresponding to a strong coupling to ɛ -vibrational modes. Then, a more general model is considered to account for the energy-level schemes and the strong intensity transfer observed, for example, on the fine structure lines of the T24(G) level of Mn2+ in ZnS and ZnSe. This model involves the diagonalization of the vibronic Hamiltonian for the T24(G) level and a perturbation model to account for vibronic interactions with all other multiplets of the d5 configuration. It is shown that the energy-level schemes as well as the strong intensity transfer of the fine structure lines of the T24(G) level of Mn2+ in ZnS and ZnSe are very well accounted for from the electronic molecular model involving the first- and second-order MSO interaction and from the proposed diagonalization and perturbation models for the coupling to ɛ -vibrational modes.

  4. Vibrational and vibronic coherences in the dynamics of the FMO complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaomeng; Kühn, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kuehn@uni-rostock.de

    2016-12-20

    The coupled exciton–vibrational dynamics of a seven site Frenkel exciton model of the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) complex is investigated using a Quantum Master Equation approach. Thereby, one vibrational mode per monomer is treated explicitly as being part of the relevant system. Emphasis is put on the comparison of this model with that of a purely excitonic relevant system. Further, the effects of two different approximations to the exciton–vibrational basis are investigated, namely the one- and two-particle description. Analysis of the vibronic and vibrational density matrix in the site basis points to the importance of on- and inter-site coherences for the exciton transfer. Here, one- and two-particle approximations give rise to qualitatively different results.

  5. Vibronic origin of long-lived coherence in an artificial molecular light harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, James; Paleček, David; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Lincoln, Craig N; Prior, Javier; von Berlepsch, Hans; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B; Zigmantas, Donatas; Hauer, Jürgen

    2015-07-09

    Natural and artificial light-harvesting processes have recently gained new interest. Signatures of long-lasting coherence in spectroscopic signals of biological systems have been repeatedly observed, albeit their origin is a matter of ongoing debate, as it is unclear how the loss of coherence due to interaction with the noisy environments in such systems is averted. Here we report experimental and theoretical verification of coherent exciton-vibrational (vibronic) coupling as the origin of long-lasting coherence in an artificial light harvester, a molecular J-aggregate. In this macroscopically aligned tubular system, polarization-controlled 2D spectroscopy delivers an uncongested and specific optical response as an ideal foundation for an in-depth theoretical description. We derive analytical expressions that show under which general conditions vibronic coupling leads to prolonged excited-state coherence.

  6. Double vibronic process in the quantum spin ice candidate Tb2Ti2O7 revealed by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, E.; Ballou, R.; Robert, J.; Decorse, C.; Brubach, J.-B.; Roy, P.; Lhotel, E.; Del-Rey, L.; Simonet, V.; Petit, S.; deBrion, S.

    2017-01-01

    The origin of quantum fluctuations responsible for the spin liquid state in Tb2Ti2O7 has remained a long-standing problem. By synchrotron-based terahertz measurements, we show evidence of strong coupling between the magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom that provides a path to the quantum melting process. As revealed by hybrid crystal electric field-phonon excitations that appear at 0.67 THz below 200 K, and around 0.42 THz below 50 K, the double vibronic process is unique for Tb3 + in the titanate family due to adequate energy matching and strong quadrupolar moments. The results suggest that lattice motion can indeed be the driving force behind spin flips within the hybridized ground and first excited states, promoting quantum terms in the effective Hamiltonian that describes Tb2Ti2O7 .

  7. Multimode Jahn-Teller and pseudo-Jahn-Teller coupling effects in the photoelectron spectrum of CH 3F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, S.; Vallet, V.; Woywod, C.; Köppel, H.; Domcke, W.

    2004-09-01

    The multimode Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo-Jahn-Teller (PJT) coupling effects in the photoelectron spectrum of methylfluoride are theoretically investigated with the aid of an ab initio quantum dynamical approach. The theoretical findings are compared with the experimental results of Karlsson et al. [Phys. Scripta 16 (1977) 225]. At the vertical configuration, the ground, first and second excited electronic states of the methylfluoride radical cation belong to the 2E, 2A 1 and 2E symmetry species. The three doubly degenerate vibrational modes cause a splitting of the degeneracy of the E electronic states of the radical cation and exhibit the (E⊗e)-JT effect. The same vibrational modes may also cause a coupling of the degenerate and the non-degenerate electronic states (PJT effect). In our theoretical approach we devise a model diabatic vibronic Hamiltonian within a quadratic vibronic coupling scheme. The parameters of the Hamiltonian are derived by performing extensive ab initio calculations at the CASSCF-MR-AQCC level of theory. The photoelectron bands are calculated by a quantum dynamical approach based on the Lanczos algorithm. A detailed examination of the various static and dynamic aspects of the problem reveals an interesting interplay of JT and PJT coupling effects in the photoelectron-induced dynamics of CH 3F +. The resolved progression in the first photoelectron band corresponding to the ground X˜2E electronic manifold of CH 3F + is found to be mainly caused by the C-F stretching (a 1), C-F bending (e) and CH 3 deformation (e) modes. The JT coupling effects are not particularly strong in this electronic manifold. This also holds for the second photoelectron band attributed to the vibronic structure of the Ã2A1 and B˜2E electronic states of CH 3F +. However, the extremely large Condon activity of the symmetric vibrational modes in the Ã2A1 electronic state contributes much to the broad and highly diffuse nature of this band which is also observed

  8. The response of a (3)He Fermi liquid droplet to vibronic excitation of an embedded glyoxal molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Giorgio; Hizhnyakov, Vladimir; Toennies, J Peter

    2014-08-21

    The zero-phonon line (ZPL) and the sideband in the vibronic spectrum of a single glyoxal molecule inside a (3)He droplet are analyzed within the framework of the Lax formalism. The new theory takes full account of the coupling of the molecule to the single particle-hole (PH) and collective excitations of the doped Fermionic droplet. The effect on the coupling of the wavevector dependence of the effective (3)He mass and the large local density of the first (3)He shell, resulting from the interaction with the chromophore, are also included in the theory. By fitting of a coupling parameter and the phase factor between the PH and collective response functions, the shape and relative intensity of the observed ZPL and its slowly decreasing multiexcitation sideband are well-reproduced. The new theory is consistent with the previous explanation of the surprisingly sharp phonon line superimposed on the sideband in terms of the dense first (3)He shell, which acts as a Helmholtz resonator for the zero sound of the droplet.

  9. Vibronic origin of sulfur mass-independent isotope effect in photoexcitation of SO2 and the implications to the early earth's atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Andrew R; Xie, Changjian; Hu, Xixi; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua; Ono, Shuhei

    2013-10-29

    Signatures of mass-independent isotope fractionation (MIF) are found in the oxygen ((16)O,(17)O,(18)O) and sulfur ((32)S, (33)S, (34)S, (36)S) isotope systems and serve as important tracers of past and present atmospheric processes. These unique isotope signatures signify the breakdown of the traditional theory of isotope fractionation, but the physical chemistry of these isotope effects remains poorly understood. We report the production of large sulfur isotope MIF, with Δ(33)S up to 78‰ and Δ(36)S up to 110‰, from the broadband excitation of SO2 in the 250-350-nm absorption region. Acetylene is used to selectively trap the triplet-state SO2 ( (3)B1), which results from intersystem crossing from the excited singlet ( (1)A2/ (1)B1) states. The observed MIF signature differs considerably from that predicted by isotopologue-specific absorption cross-sections of SO2 and is insensitive to the wavelength region of excitation (above or below 300 nm), suggesting that the MIF originates not from the initial excitation of SO2 to the singlet states but from an isotope selective spin-orbit interaction between the singlet ( (1)A2/ (1)B1) and triplet ( (3)B1) manifolds. Calculations based on high-level potential energy surfaces of the multiple excited states show a considerable lifetime anomaly for (33)SO2 and (36)SO2 for the low vibrational levels of the (1)A2 state. These results demonstrate that the isotope selectivity of accidental near-resonance interactions between states is of critical importance in understanding the origin of MIF in photochemical systems.

  10. Vibronic origin of sulfur mass-independent isotope effect in photoexcitation of SO2 and the implications to the early earth’s atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Andrew R.; Xie, Changjian; Hu, Xixi; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua; Ono, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    Signatures of mass-independent isotope fractionation (MIF) are found in the oxygen (16O,17O,18O) and sulfur (32S, 33S, 34S, 36S) isotope systems and serve as important tracers of past and present atmospheric processes. These unique isotope signatures signify the breakdown of the traditional theory of isotope fractionation, but the physical chemistry of these isotope effects remains poorly understood. We report the production of large sulfur isotope MIF, with Δ33S up to 78‰ and Δ36S up to 110‰, from the broadband excitation of SO2 in the 250–350-nm absorption region. Acetylene is used to selectively trap the triplet-state SO2 (3B1), which results from intersystem crossing from the excited singlet (1A2/1B1) states. The observed MIF signature differs considerably from that predicted by isotopologue-specific absorption cross-sections of SO2 and is insensitive to the wavelength region of excitation (above or below 300 nm), suggesting that the MIF originates not from the initial excitation of SO2 to the singlet states but from an isotope selective spin–orbit interaction between the singlet (1A2/1B1) and triplet (3B1) manifolds. Calculations based on high-level potential energy surfaces of the multiple excited states show a considerable lifetime anomaly for 33SO2 and 36SO2 for the low vibrational levels of the 1A2 state. These results demonstrate that the isotope selectivity of accidental near-resonance interactions between states is of critical importance in understanding the origin of MIF in photochemical systems. PMID:23836655

  11. Acoustic wave coupled magnetoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J.S. [Institute of information Engineering, Suqian College, Suqian 223800 (China); Magnetoelectronic Laboratory, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhang, N., E-mail: zhangning@njnu.edu.cn [Magnetoelectronic Laboratory, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling by acoustic waveguide was developed. Longitudinal and transversal ME effects of larger than 44 and 6 (V cm{sup −1} Oe{sup −1}) were obtained with the waveguide-coupled ME device, respectively. Several resonant points were observed in the range of frequency lower than 47 kHz. Analysis showed that the standing waves in the waveguide were responsible for those resonances. The frequency and size dependence of the ME effects were investigated. A resonant condition about the geometrical size of the waveguide was obtained. Theory and experiments showed the resonant frequencies were closely influenced by the diameter and length of the waveguide. A series of double-peak curves of longitudinal magnetoelectric response were obtained, and their significance was discussed initially. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling by acoustic waveguide was developed. • The frequency and size dependence of the ME effects were investigated. • A resonant condition about the geometrical size of the waveguide was obtained. • A series of double-peak curves of longitudinal magnetoelectric response were obtained, and their significance was discussed initially.

  12. Effect of Group Cognitive Behavioral Couples Therapy on Couple Burnout and Divorce Tendency in Couples

    OpenAIRE

    M Mohammadi; R Sheykh Hadi Siruii; A Garafar; K Zahrakar; M Shakarami; R Davarniya

    2017-01-01

    Background & aim: Couple burnout is one of the phenomena which involve many couples, it is among the main causes of emotional divorce, and without proper management and treatment, and it can lay the ground for formal divorce among couples. Cognitive behavioral couple therapy is one of the existing approaches in the couple therapy field, the efficiency of which has been established for resolving many marital problems. The present study was designed by the aim of investigating the effect of gro...

  13. Vibronic coupling in the excited-states of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Takeshi [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Buckup, Tiago [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Krause, Marie S. [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Southall, June [College of Medical; Veterinary, and Life Science; University of Glasgow; G12 8QQ Glasgow, UK; Cogdell, Richard J. [College of Medical; Veterinary, and Life Science; University of Glasgow; G12 8QQ Glasgow, UK; Motzkus, Marcus [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut; Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast femtochemistry of carotenoids is governed by the interaction between electronic excited states, which has been explained by the relaxation dynamics within a few hundred femtoseconds from the lowest optically allowed excited state S2to the optically dark state S1.

  14. Monte-Carlo Simulations of Spin-Crossover Phenomena Based on a Vibronic Ising-like Model with Realistic Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Hong-zhou; Jiang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Materials with spin-crossover (SCO) properties hold great potentials in information storage and therefore have received a lot of concerns in the recent decades. The hysteresis phenomena accompanying SCO is attributed to the intermolecular cooperativity whose underlying mechanism may have a vibronic origin. In this work, a new vibronic Ising-like model in which the elastic coupling between SCO centers is included by considering harmonic stretching and bending (SAB) interactions is proposed and solved by Monte Carlo simulations. The key parameters in the new model, $k_1$ and $k_2$, corresponding to the elastic constant of the stretching and bending mode, respectively, can be directly related to the macroscopic bulk and shear modulus of the material in study, which can be readily estimated either based on experimental measurements or first-principles calculations. The convergence issue in the MC simulations of the thermal hysteresis has been carefully checked, and it was found that the stable hysteresis loop can...

  15. Effect of Group Cognitive Behavioral Couples Therapy on Couple Burnout and Divorce Tendency in Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Couple burnout is one of the phenomena which involve many couples, it is among the main causes of emotional divorce, and without proper management and treatment, and it can lay the ground for formal divorce among couples. Cognitive behavioral couple therapy is one of the existing approaches in the couple therapy field, the efficiency of which has been established for resolving many marital problems. The present study was designed by the aim of investigating the effect of group cognitive behavioral couple therapy on couple burnout and divorce tendency in couples.   Methods: The present research was of applied research type. The research method was semi-empirical with a pretest-posttest with control group design. The research population included all the couples with marital conflict and problems who, after a recall announcement of the researcher, visited the counseling and psychological services center located in Gorgan city in 2014. By using the available sampling method, 20 couples were selected among the volunteer and qualified couples for the research, and they were assigned into experiment and control groups (10 couples per group by random assignment. In the present research, the Pines burnout questionnaire (1996 and divorce tendency scale of Rouswelt, Johnson, and Mouro (1986 were used for gathering the data. After taking the pretest, the group cognitive behavioral couple therapy based on the couple therapy model of Baucom  and colleagues (2008 was held in 10 2-hour weekly sessions for the experiment group couples, while the control group couples received no intervention. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics method and multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA in SPSS v.20. Results: The multivariate covariance analysis results for couple burnout (F= 28.80 and divorce tendency (F= 51.25 suggested that there was a significant difference between the couples of experiment and control groups (P< 0

  16. Ab initio ro-vibronic spectroscopy of SiCCl (X{sup ~2}Π)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brites, Vincent [Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne, Laboratoire Analyse et Modélisation pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, LAMBE CNRS UMR 8587, Boulevard F. Mitterrand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France); Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Léonard, Céline, E-mail: celine.leonard@u-pem.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Peterson, Kirk A. [Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    The full dimensional potential energy surfaces of the {sup 2}A{sup ′} and {sup 2}A{sup ′′} electronic components of X{sup ~2}Π SiCCl have been computed using the explicitly correlated coupled cluster method, UCCSD(T)-F12b, combined with a composite approach taking into account basis set incompleteness, core-valence correlation, scalar relativity, and higher order excitations. The spin-orbit and dipole moment surfaces have also been computed ab initio. The ro-vibronic energy levels and absorption spectrum at 5 K have been determined from variational calculations. The influence of each correction on the fundamental frequencies is discussed. An assignment is proposed for bands observed in the LIF experiment of Smith et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 6446 (2002)]. The overall agreement between the experimental and calculated ro-vibronic levels is better than 7 cm{sup −1} which is comparable with the 10–20 cm{sup −1} resolution of the emission spectrum.

  17. Inverse Vernier effect in coupled lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li; Türeci, Hakan E.

    2015-07-01

    In this report we study the Vernier effect in coupled laser systems consisting of two cavities. We show that depending on the nature of their coupling, not only can the "supermodes" formed at overlapping resonances of these two cavities have the lowest thresholds as previously found, leading to lasing at these overlapping resonances and a manifestation of the typical Vernier effect, but also they can have increased thresholds and are hence suppressed, which can be viewed as an inverse Vernier effect. The inverse Vernier effect can also lead to an increased free spectrum range and possibly single-mode lasing, which may explain the experimental findings in several previous studies. We illustrate this effect using two coupled micro-ring cavities and a micro-ring cavity coupled to a slab cavity, and we discuss its relation to the existence of exceptional points in coupled lasers.

  18. Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkate, Lucas A.; Zbiri, Mohamed; Johnson, Mark R.; Carter, Elizabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S.; Mulder, Fokko M.; Kearley, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10-2 electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

  19. Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, Lucas A.; Mulder, Fokko M. [Reactor Institute Delft, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands); Zbiri, Mohamed, E-mail: zbiri@ill.fr; Johnson, Mark R. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Carter, Elizabeth [Vibrational Spectroscopy Facility, School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, NSW 2008 (Australia); Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S. [ChemE-NSM, Faculty of Chemistry, Delft University of Technology, 2628BL/136 Delft (Netherlands); Kearley, Gordon J. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-01-07

    Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10{sup −2} electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

  20. Mixed-Valence Molecular Unit for Quantum Cellular Automata: Beyond the Born-Oppenheimer Paradigm through the Symmetry-Assisted Vibronic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Palii, Andrew; Coronado, Eugenio; Tsukerblat, Boris

    2016-08-09

    In this article, we focus on the electron-vibrational problem of the tetrameric mixed-valence (MV) complexes proposed for implementation as four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA).1 Although the adiabatic approximation explored in ref 2 is an appropriate tool for the qualitative analysis of the basic characteristics of mQCA, like vibronic trapping of the electrons encoding binary information and cell-cell response, it loses its accuracy providing moderate vibronic coupling and fails in the description of the discrete pattern of the vibronic levels. Therefore, a precise solution of the quantum-mechanical vibronic problem is of primary importance for the evaluation of the shapes of the electron transfer optical absorption bands and quantitative analysis of the main parameters of tetrameric quantum cells. Here, we go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer paradigm and present a solution of the quantum-mechanical pseudo Jahn-Teller (JT) vibronic problem in bielectronic MV species (exemplified by the tetra-ruthenium complexes) based on the recently developed symmetry-assisted approach.3,4 The mathematical approach to the vibronic eigenproblem takes into consideration the point symmetry basis, and therefore, the total matrix of the JT Hamiltonian is blocked to the maximum extent. The submatrices correspond to the irreducible representations (irreps) of the point group. With this tool, we also extend the theory of the mQCA cell beyond the limit of prevailing Coulomb repulsion in the electronic pair (adopted in ref 2), and therefore, the general pseudo-JT problems for spin-singlet ((1)B1g, 2(1)A1g, (1)B2g, (1)Eu) ⊗ (b1g + eu) and spin-triplet states ((3)A2g, (3)B1g, 2(3)Eu) ⊗ (b1g + eu) in a square-planar bielectronic system are solved. The obtained symmetry-adapted electron-vibrational functions are employed for the calculation of the profiles (shape functions) of the charge transfer absorption bands in the tetrameric MV complexes and for the discussion of the

  1. Real-time observation of multi-mode vibronic coherence in pentafluoropyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, J. A.; Hüter, O.; Temps, F.

    2017-07-01

    The ultrafast dynamics of pentafluoropyridine in the 1 1B2 (ππ*) electronic state excited at λpump = 255 nm is investigated by femtosecond time-resolved time-of-flight mass spectrometry and photoelectron imaging spectroscopy. A pronounced, long-lived, and complex periodic modulation of the transient ion yield signal with contributions by four distinct frequency components, 72 cm-1, 144 cm-1, 251 cm-1, and 281 cm-1, is observed for up to 9 ps. The recorded photoelectron images display a spectral band from the excited 1 1B2 (ππ*) state only in the oscillation maxima; the signal is strongly reduced in the oscillation minima. Supported by electronic structure calculations at the RI-SCS-CC2 and XMCQDPT2 levels of theory, the oscillating components of the signal are identified as frequencies of b1 symmetry coupling modes in a vibronic coherence of the 1 1B2 (ππ*) and 1 1A2 (πσ*) electronic states. The optical excitation initiates regular and periodic wavepacket motion along those out-of-plane modes. In the distorted molecular structure, the initially excited state acquires substantial πσ* character that modulates the transition dipole moment for ionization and results in the observed oscillations.

  2. The Effects of a Couple Communication Program on Passive Conflict Tendency among Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, T. Fikret

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of a 10-session couple communication program developed by the researcher on passive conflict tendencies among married couples. The research was carried out with 28 married couples, 14 participants in the control group, and 14 participants in the experimental group. The design of the research was an…

  3. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  4. Analysis of vibronic interactions in the molecules of cross-conjugated ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kompaneez V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have done quantitative analysis of vibronic parameters of two cross-conjugated δ-dimethylaminoketones. The research shows the influence of С-N and C=O bonds in the rings, and the radicals with nitro compounds on the vibronic parameters of characteristic bands, which describe the state (vibrations, types of deformation under excitation of the phenyl ring and the polyene bridge. Results described impact of the substituent’s nature on the parameters of intra- and intermolecular interactions presents for the studied compounds.

  5. Vibrational predissociation dynamics in the vibronic states of the aniline-neon van der Waals complex: New features revealed by complementary spectroscopic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becucci, M.; Lakin, N. M.; Pietraperzia, G.; Castellucci, E.; Bréchignac, Ph.; Coutant, B.; Hermine, P.

    1999-05-01

    We report two independent sets of experimental spectroscopic data which both contain information about the vibrational dynamics occurring in the aniline-neon van der Waals complex in its S1 electronically excited state. The high resolution excitation spectra of the three vibronic bands, 6a01¯, I02¯, and 101¯, of the S1←S0 transition, exhibit lifetime broadening with respect to transitions to the corresponding states in the aniline monomer. The dispersed emission spectra taken under excitation of the same three vibronic bands give access to both the distribution of aniline monomer states produced by vibrational predissociation of the complex and to the rates at which this dynamics proceeds. The overall results are discussed in a consistent way, with emphasis being given to the role of the coupling between the intramolecular and the intermolecular vibrational states. In the case of I02¯ excitation, it is shown that this coupling is reflected in the shape of the van der Waals wavefunction, as accessed through the analysis of the high resolution spectra [M. Becucci, G. Pietraperzia, N. M. Lakin, E. Castellucci, Ph. Bréchignac, Chem. Phys. Lett. 260, 87 (1996).].

  6. Electron-phonon coupling in W(110)-(1x1)H

    CERN Document Server

    Rotenberg, E

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we reported high resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements that indicated unusually strong coupling between adsorbate vibrations and a surface-localized electron state in the system W(110)-(1x1)H. We have now extended these measurements to probe the electron phonon coupling strength as a function of position on the relevant Fermi contour. We find that the strength of the coupling is strongly dependent on Fermi wave vector, with the electron phonon coupling constant lambda varying between zero and approx 0.8. Qualitatively, the strength of the coupling is related to the position of the surface band in the projected bulk band gap, and therefore to the degree of surface localization of the surface state wave function. Such effects should play an important role in all adsorbate vibronic interactions, since the vibrational modes are generally highly localized to the outermost surface layer. We discuss these results in relation to the surface phonon anomalies observed on this surface.

  7. Inter-dot coupling effects on transport through correlated parallel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of inter-dot tunnelling on transport properties has been explored. Results, in intermediate inter-dot coupling regime show signatures of merger of two dots to form a single composite dot and in strong coupling regime the behaviour of the system resembles the two decoupled dots. Keywords. Coupled quantum dots ...

  8. Vibronic emission transitions of gadolinium(III) in sodium lanthanum sulfate hydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasse, G.

    1987-01-01

    Cooperative vibronic emission transitions are reported for Gd3+ in NaLa(SO4)2H2O. They involve the electronic 6P → 8S transition on the Gd3+ ion and the asymmetric-valence-vibrational transition on the SO42− anion and the H2O molecule which are both coordinated to the Gd3+ ion.

  9. To Be or Not to Be Symmetric: That is the Question for Potentially Active Vibronic Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Sarah F.; Judkins, Eileen C.; Morozov, Dmitry; Borca, Carlos H.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; McMillin, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Electronic spectra often exhibit vibronic structure when vibrational and electronic transitions occur in concert. Theory reveals (1) that orbital symmetry considerations determine specific roles played by the nuclear degrees of freedom and (2) that the vibrational excitation is often highly regiospecific, that is, attributable to an identifiable…

  10. Quantum dissipative effect of one dimension coupled anharmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, A. [Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi, BPPT Bld. II (19thfloor), Jl. M.H. Thamrin 8, Jakarta 10340 (Indonesia); Indonesia Center for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics (ICTMP), Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Zen, Freddy P. [Theoretical Physics Laboratory (THEPI), Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Indonesia Center for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics (ICTMP), Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Quantum dissipative effect of one dimension coupled anharmonic oscillator is investigated. The systems are two coupled harmonic oscillator with the different masses. The dissipative effect is studied based on the quantum state diffusion formalism. The result show that the anharmonic effect increase the amplitude but the lifetime of the oscillation depend on the damping coefficient and do not depend on the temperature.

  11. Optical absorptions and Raman scattering of metalloporphycenes reveal electronic and vibronic properties distinct from those of metalloporphyrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertling, W.A.; Wu, Weishih; Lopez-Garriga, J.J.; Kim, Younkyoo; Chang, Chi, K. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1991-01-02

    The newly synthesized metalloporphycenes represent a class of molecules that are structural isomers of metalloporphyrins. In particular, the Ni{sup II} and Cu{sup II} complexes of 2,7,12,17-tetrapropylporphycene (NiPPC and CuPPC) display UV-visible absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra superficially like those of analogous complexes of octaethylporphyrin (OEP). However, close examination of absorption band positions and spectral shifts caused by metal substitution and ring bromination, as well as relative oscillator strengths, suggest that, unlike those of metalloporphyrins, the {pi} {yields} {pi}* states of NiPPC and CuPPC are adequately defined by one-electron wave functions. Thus, the {pi}-electron configuration interaction that gives rise to Gouterman's Q and B metalloporphyrin excited states is weak in metalloporphycenes. Rather, these novel complexes appear to be a near-perfect example of Platt's long-field molecules. Raman spectra in resonance with the major absorptions of CuPPC show little evidence of Jahn-Teller or Herzber-Teller coupling. Thus, the rich vibronic coupling present in metalloporphyrins giving rise to the celebrated anomalously polarized scattering most likely does not complicate the spectra of metalloporphycenes. Vibrational analyses of RR spectra of specifically deuterated derivatives of NiPPC give some insight into the normal mode compositions.

  12. Disentangling running coupling and conformal effects in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J; Grunberg, G; Rathsman, J

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the relation between a postulated skeleton expansion and the conformal limit of QCD. We begin by developing some consequences of an Abelian-like skeleton expansion, which allows one to disentangle running-coupling effects from the remaining skeleton coefficients. The latter are by construction renormalon free, and hence hopefully better behaved. We consider a simple ansatz for the expansion, where an observable is written as a sum of integrals over the running coupling. We show that in this framework one can set a unique Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) scale-setting procedure as an approximation to the running-coupling integrals, where the BLM coefficients coincide with the skeleton ones. Alternatively, the running-coupling integrals can be approximated using the effective charge method. We discuss the limitations in disentangling running coupling effects in the absence of a diagrammatic construction of the skeleton expansion. Independently of the assumed skeleton structure we show that BLM coef...

  13. The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who underwent Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) on pregnancy outcomes. Method: This study was conducted as a prospective and comparative study with 217 couples. The study data was collected by using a ...

  14. Effects of shear coupling on shear properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Under pure shear loading, an off-axis element of orthotropic material such as pure wood undergoes both shear and normal deformations. The ratio of the shear strain to a normal strain is defined as the shear coupling coefficient associated with the direction of the normal strain. The effects of shear coupling on shear properties of wood as predicted by the orthotropic...

  15. Experimental determination of the effective strong coupling constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre Deur; Volker Burkert; Jian-Ping Chen; Wolfgang Korsch

    2007-07-01

    We extract an effective strong coupling constant from low Q{sup 2} data on the Bjorken sum. Using sum rules, we establish its Q{sup 2}-behavior over the complete Q{sup 2}-range. The result is compared to effective coupling constants extracted from different processes and to calculations based on Schwinger-Dyson equations, hadron spectroscopy or lattice QCD. Although the connection between the experimentally extracted effective coupling constant and the calculations is not clear, the results agree surprisingly well.

  16. Selective two-photon excitation of a vibronic state by correlated photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hisaki

    2011-03-28

    We theoretically investigate the two-photon excitation of a molecular vibronic state by correlated photons with energy anticorrelation. A Morse oscillator having three sets of vibronic states is used, as an example, to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of two-photon excitation. We show that a vibrational mode can be selectively excited with high efficiency by the correlated photons, without phase manipulation or pulse-shaping techniques. This can be achieved by controlling the quantum correlation so that the photon pair concurrently has two pulse widths, namely, a temporally narrow width and a spectrally narrow width. Though this concurrence is seemingly contradictory, we can create such a photon pair by tailoring the quantum correlation between two photons.

  17. Optical vibronic spectra of aggregates in Eu sup 2 sup + -doped KCl and KBr crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, S R; Aceves, R; Rodríguez, R; Barboza, M

    2003-01-01

    The vibronic structure on the optical absorption, emission, and excitation spectra of aggregates in Eu sup 2 sup + -doped KCl and KBr crystals has been obtained. The crystals were annealed at 435 K. During the aggregation process, four groups of narrow bands were found in KCl: Eu sup 2 sup + and two in KBr: Eu sup 2 sup + ,which were considered as the signature of different Eu sup 2 sup + -ion aggregated phases. The vibration frequency for each group is very similar. (Author)

  18. Vibronic relaxation processes of the F{sub A} center in RbCl:Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Norio, E-mail: akiyama@ee.ous.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Shirosaki, Tomoki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Muramatsu, Shinji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Baldacchini, Giuseppe [Home, via G. Quattrucci 246, 00046 Grottaferrata, Rome (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    The vibronic relaxation process of F{sub A} centers in RbCl:Li, which have Type I emission at low temperatures and Type II emission at high temperatures, has been studied at 10 and 77 K by measuring the resonant secondary radiation (RSR) spectrum from optically excited F{sub A} centers with pico-second time-resolved spectroscopy. This study has been prompted by the quest to improve our knowledge on the de-excitation process in the F{sub A} centers. The adiabatic potential energy curves are deduced from a theoretical analysis of the measured RSR spectra and compared with those already known. It is shown that Type II relaxation observed at 77 K occurs after Type I relaxation, supporting in turn a model proposed by Baldacchini et al. based on photoluminescence measurements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The vibronic relaxation process of F{sub A} centers in a laser active material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The explanation of the vibronic relaxation process of F{sub A} centers with the coexistence of Type I and Type II relaxations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of the time-resolved resonant secondary radiation (RSR) measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new model of the de-excitation process in the F{sub A} centers.

  19. Effects of structural coupling on mistuned cascade flutter and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielb, R. E.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of structural coupling on mistuned cascade flutter and response are analytically investigated using an extended typical section model. This model includes both structural and aerodynamic coupling between the blades. The model assumes that the structurally coupled system natural modes were determined and are represented in the form of N bending and N torsional uncoupled modes for each blade, where N is the number of blades and, hence, is only valid for blade dominated motion. The aerodynamic loads are calculated by using two dimensional unsteady cascade theories in the subsonic and supersonic flow regimes. The results show that the addition of structural coupling can affect both the aeroelastic stability and frequency. The stability is significantly affected only when the system is mistuned. The resonant frequencies can be significantly changed by structural coupling in both tuned and mistuned systems, however, the peak response is significantly affected only in the latter.

  20. Mutual Coupling Effects on Pattern Diversity Antennas for MIMO Femtocells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity antennas play an important role in wireless communications. However, mutual coupling between multiple ports of a diversity antenna has significant effects on wireless radio links and channel capacity. In this paper, dual-port pattern diversity antennas for femtocell applications are proposed to cover GSM1800, UMTS, and WLAN frequency bands. The channel capacities of the proposed antennas and two ideal dipoles with different mutual coupling levels are investigated in an indoor environment. The relation between mutual coupling and channel capacity is observed through investigations of these antennas.

  1. Adiabaticity of the proton-coupled electron-transfer step in the reduction of superoxide effected by nickel-containing superoxide dismutase metallopeptide-based mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jason; Schmitt, Jennifer C; Clewett, Heather S

    2015-04-30

    Nickel-containing superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) are bacterial metalloenzymes that catalyze the disproportionation of O2(-). These enzymes take advantage of a redox-active nickel cofactor, which cycles between the Ni(II) and Ni(III) oxidation states, to catalytically disprotorptionate O2(-). The Ni(II) center is ligated in a square planar N2S2 coordination environment, which, upon oxidation to Ni(III), becomes five-coordinate following the ligation of an axial imidazole ligand. Previous studies have suggested that metallopeptide-based mimics of NiSOD reduce O2(-) through a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction with the electron derived from a reduced Ni(II) center and the proton from a protonated, coordinated Ni(II)-S(H(+))-Cys moiety. The current work focuses on the O2(-) reduction half-reaction of the catalytic cycle. In this study we calculate the vibronic coupling between the reactant and product diabatic surfaces using a semiclassical formalism to determine if the PCET reaction is proceeding through an adiabatic or nonadiabatic proton tunneling process. These results were then used to calculate H/D kinetic isotope effects for the PCET process. We find that as the axial imidazole ligand becomes more strongly associated with the Ni(II) center during the PCET reaction, the reaction becomes more nonadiabatic. This is reflected in the calculated H/D KIEs, which moderately increase as the reaction becomes more nonadiabatic. Furthermore, the results suggest that as the axial ligand becomes less Lewis basic the observed reaction rate constants for O2(-) reduction should become faster because the reaction becomes more adiabatic. These conclusions are in-line with experimental observations. The results thus indicate that variations in the axial donor's ability to coordinate to the nickel center of NiSOD metallopeptide-based mimics will strongly influence the fundamental nature of the O2(-) reduction process.

  2. Electron-phonon coupling of light-actinides. Effect of spin-orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Castelazo, Paola; Pena-Seaman, Omar de la [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Institute of Physics (IFUAP) (Mexico); Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (IFP) (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The physics of actinide metals is quite complex and rich due to the behavior of 5f electrons in the valence region: it goes from itinerant on the early stages of the actinide series to highly localized for the elements with a higher number of 5f electrons involved. In addition, in this systems should be mandatory the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). However, only in few cases on electronic and lattice dynamical properties the SOC has been taking into account, while for the electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling such analysis has not been performed so far. Thus, as a first approach we have systematically studied the SOC influence on the full-phonon dispersion and the e-ph coupling for the simplest light-actinide metals: Ac and Th. These elements have been studied within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method. The full-phonon dispersion as well as the Eliashberg spectral function and the electron-phonon coupling parameter have been calculated with and without SOC. The observed effects of SOC in the full-phonon dispersion and Eliashberg function are discussed in detail, together with an analysis of the differences on the electronic properties due to the SOC inclusion in the calculations.

  3. Effects of relationship education on couple communication and satisfaction: A randomized controlled trial with low-income couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Hannah C; Altman, Noemi; Hsueh, JoAnn; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2016-02-01

    Although preventive educational interventions for couples have been examined in more than 100 experimental studies, the value of this work is limited by reliance on economically advantaged populations and by an absence of data on proposed mediators and moderators. Data from the Supporting Healthy Marriage Project-a randomized, controlled trial of relationship education for couples living with low incomes-were therefore analyzed to test whether intervention effects on relationship satisfaction would be mediated by observational assessments of relationship communication and whether any such effects would be moderated by couples' pretreatment risk. Within the larger sample of Supporting Healthy Marriage Project couples randomized to a relationship education or no-treatment control condition, the present analyses focus on the 1,034 couples who provided (a) data on sociodemographic risk at baseline, (b) observational data on couple communication 12 months after randomization, and (c) reports of relationship satisfaction 30 months after randomization. Intervention couples reported higher satisfaction at 30 months than control couples, regardless of their level of pretreatment risk. Among higher risk couples, the intervention improved observed communication as well. Contrary to prediction, treatment effects on satisfaction were not mediated by improvements in communication, and improvements in communication did not translate into greater satisfaction. Relationship education programs produce small improvements in relationship satisfaction and communication, particularly for couples at elevated sociodemographic risk. The absence of behavioral effects on satisfaction indicates, however, that the mechanisms by which couples may benefit from relationship education are not yet well understood. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. P.; Kwon, H. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Shim, J. H.; Won, C. [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-28

    We numerically investigated the effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures, such as a helical/cycloidal spin structure and magnetic skyrmion crystal (SkX), which are produced in a magnetic system involving the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We report the existence of a phase transition where the length scale of magnetic structure discontinuously changes, and that there can be a novel magnetic structure around the phase boundary that exhibits double-ordering lengths of magnetic structure. Therefore, the system has multiple ground phases determined by the ratio of interlayer exchange coupling strength and DMI strength. Furthermore, we investigated the critical condition of the external perpendicular field required for the SkX. The critical field is significantly reduced under the effect of interlayer exchange coupling, which can stabilize the SkX without the external field.

  5. Flavour Geometry and Effective Yukawa Couplings in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Lee, Jae Sik; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2010-01-01

    We present a new geometric approach to the flavour decomposition of an arbitrary soft supersymmetry-breaking sector in the MSSM. Our approach is based on the geometry that results from the quark and lepton Yukawa couplings, and enables us to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for a linearly-independent basis of matrices related to the completeness of the internal [SU(3) x U(1)]^5 flavour space. In a second step, we calculate the effective Yukawa couplings that are enhanced at large values of tan(beta) for general soft supersymmetry-breaking mass parameters. We highlight the contributions due to non-universal terms in the flavour decompositions of the sfermion mass matrices. We present numerical examples illustrating how such terms are induced by renormalization-group evolution starting from universal input boundary conditions, and demonstrate their importance for the flavour-violating effective Yukawa couplings of quarks.

  6. The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who underwent assisted reproductive techniques on the pregnancy outcomes. Fusun Terzioglu1, Rukiye Turk2, Cigdem Yucel1, Serdar Dilbaz3, Ozgur Cinar4, Bensu Karahalil5. 1. Hacettepe University, Faculty of Nursing, Ankara, Turkey. 2. Kafkas University, Faculty of ...

  7. The Casual Effects of Emotion on Couples' Cognition and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Ty; Frazier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 translational studies that assessed the causal effects of emotion on maladaptive cognitions and behaviors in couples. Specifically, the authors examined whether negative emotions increased and positive emotions decreased partner attributions and demand-withdraw behaviors. Study 1 (N=164) used video clips to assess the…

  8. Coupling liquids acoustic velocity effects on elastic metallic bioglass properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metiri, W.; Hadjoub, F.; Doghmane, A.; Hadjoub, Z.

    2009-11-01

    The effect of surface acoustic wave, SAW, velocities of coupling liquids on acoustical properties of several bulk metallic glasses, BMG, has been investigated using simulation program based on acoustic microscopy. Thus, we determined variations of critical angles at which the excitation of longitudinal mode, θL and Rayleigh mode, θR occurs as a function of wave velocities in different coupling liquids, Vliq. Linear relations of the form θi =ai0 +βiVliq were deduced. The importance of such formula, used with Snell's law, lies in the direct determination of SAW velocities and consequently mechanical properties of BMGs.

  9. Magnetic and electric coupling effects of dielectric metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Kang, Lei; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji; Lippens, Didier

    2012-03-01

    The coupling effects of subwavelength high-permittivity (ɛr > 100) arrayed ceramics which exhibit magnetic and electric Mie resonances are investigated by electromagnetic full-wave analysis. Special attention was paid to the symmetry properties of both magnetic- and electric-induced dipoles by varying independently the array periodicity. In agreement with the interactions between electric and magnetic dipoles, it is shown that resonance frequency shifts toward lower (higher) frequencies can be obtained, which depends on the longitudinal (transverse) dipole coupling strengths. Moreover, the emergence of quasi-bound states between tightly coupled basic cells is pointed out for the electric Mie resonances, which shows an unexpected frequency shift with a reverse variation.

  10. Effect of coupled semiconductor system treating aqueous 4-nitrophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chao-Yin; Lin, Han-Yu

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a method for treating aqueous 4-nitrophenol by mixing with TiO2-SnO2 coupled particles. The reactivity of single photocatalysis (TiO2 and SnO2 all as 1.2 g/L) is compared with that of mixing TiO2-SnO2 (0.6 g/L + 0.6 g/L) coupled particles. Aqueous 4-nitrophenol was treated by single photocatalysis or coupled semiconducting particles in a double-layer glass batch reactor using a 15W UV fluorescent tube at 25 degrees C and 300 rpm for mixing. The results demonstrated that pH and the concentration of TiO2 were the factors that most influenced the degradation characteristics, and that the system of TiO2-SnO2 coupled particles improved the efficiency of removal of refractory organic pollutants by 15%, by the inter-particle electron transfer (IPET) effect. The results showed that the degradation of aqueous 4-nitrophenol was 75% when coupled particles were used--better than the 60% obtained using single photocatalysis--with a reaction time of 120min.

  11. LAMBDA LAMBDA-XI N coupling effects in light hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Swe-Myint, K; Akaishi, Y

    2003-01-01

    The significance of LAMBDA LAMBDA-XI N coupling in double-LAMBDA hypernuclei has been studied. The Pauli suppression effect due to this coupling in sup 6 subLAMBDA subLAMBDA He has been found to be 0.43MeV for the coupling strength of the NSC97e potential. This indicates that the free-space LAMBDA LAMBDA interaction is stronger by an about 5 phase shift than that deduced from the empirical data of sup 6 subLAMBDA subLAMBDA He without including the Pauli suppression effect. In sup 5 subLAMBDA subLAMBDA He and sup 5 subLAMBDA subLAMBDA H, an attractive term arising from the LAMBDA LAMBDA-XI N conversion is enhanced by the formation of an alpha-particle in the intermediate XI states. According to this enhancement, we have found that the LAMBDA LAMBDA binding energy (DELTA B subLAMBDA subLAMBDA) of sup 5 subLAMBDA subLAMBDA He is about 0.27MeV larger than that of sup 6 subLAMBDA subLAMBDA He for the NSC97e coupling strength. This finding deviates from the general picture that the heavier is the core nucleus, the ...

  12. The effect of vasectomy on the sexual life of couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Al-Ali, Badereddin; Shamloul, Rany; Ramsauer, Josef; Bella, Anthony J; Scrinzi, Ulfrit; Treu, Thomas; Jungwirth, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    There are several contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy, reversible as well as nonreversible ones. The sexual satisfaction of couples is affected by many types of contraceptives used. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the effect of vasectomy on the sexual life and satisfaction of couples. Seventy-six couples took part in this evaluation and filled out respective questionnaires before and after vasectomy. All the questionnaires were evaluated statistically for differences in the respective sexual domain scores. Standardized questionnaires were used. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) as well as postoperative pain score were completed by men. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was completed by the female partner. For statistical analysis, the T-Square Test was used. The average age of couples, who chose the vasectomy procedure, was 37 years for women and 39 years for men. The contraception method most frequently used prior to the vasectomy was the birth control pill. For the male partner, the IIEF showed no significant change in the respective domains. Out of the 76 couples, 93% of the males and 96% of their female partners would recommend and do vasectomy again. The postoperative pain score was 3.5 on 0-10 scale, and there were no postoperative complications reported. The best improvement of the sexual function was noticed for the female partners. The FSFI showed a significant improvement in the domains desire (P sexual satisfaction of couples. Vasectomy is a safe operation with minimal complication rates. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric nanobeams due to the flexoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. D.; Yang, C. P.; Su, Y. X.; Huang, R.; Lin, X. L.

    2017-09-01

    The flexoelectric effect is a coupling of polarization and strain gradient, which exists in a wide variety of materials and may lead to strong size-dependent properties at the nanoscale. Based on an extension to the classical beam model, this paper investigates the electromechanical coupling response of piezoelectric nanobeams with different electrical boundary conditions including the effect of flexoelectricity. The electric Gibbs free energy and the variational principle are used to derive the governing equations with three types of electrical boundary conditions. Closed-form solutions are obtained for static bending of cantilever beams. The results show that the normalized effective stiffness increases with decreasing beam thickness in the open circuit electrical boundary conditions with or without surface electrodes. The induced electric potential due to the flexoelectric effect is obtained under the open circuit conditions, which may be important for sensing or energy harvesting applications. An intrinsic thickness depending on the material properties is identified for the maximum induced electric potential. The present results also show that flexoelectricity has a more significant effect on the electroelastic responses than piezoelectricity at the nanoscale. Our analysis in the present study can be useful for understanding of the electromechanical coupling in nanobeams with flexoelectricity.

  14. Effective squark/chargino/neutralino couplings: MadGraph implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahantes, Arian [Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza (Spain); Guasch, Jaume [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Penaranda, Siannah [Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza (Spain); Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Sanchez-Florit, Rauel [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    We have included the effective description of squark interactions with charginos/neutralinos in the MadGraph MSSM model. This effective description includes the effective Yukawa couplings, and another logarithmic term which encodes the supersymmetry-breaking. We have performed an extensive test of our implementation analyzing the results of the partial decay widths of squarks into charginos and neutralinos obtained by using FeynArts/FormCalc programs and the new model file in MadGraph. We present results for the cross-section of top-squark production decaying into charginos and neutralinos. (orig.)

  15. Spin Orbit coupling and Anomalous Josephson effect in Nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Campagnano, G.; Lucignano, P.; Giuliano, D.; Tagliacozzo, A.

    2014-01-01

    A superconductor-semiconducting nanowire-superconductor heterostructure in the presence of spin orbit coupling and magnetic field can support a supercurrent even in the absence of phase difference between the superconducting electrodes. We investigate this phenomenon, the anomalous Josephson effect, employing a model capable of describing many bands in the normal region. We discuss geometrical and symmetry conditions required to have finite anomalous supercurrent and in particular we show tha...

  16. Resolving molecular vibronic structure using high-sensitivity two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizimana, Laurie A.; Brazard, Johanna; Carbery, William P.; Gellen, Tobias; Turner, Daniel B., E-mail: dturner@nyu.edu [Department of Chemistry, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, New York 10003 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy is an emerging technique for resolving structure and ultrafast dynamics of molecules, proteins, semiconductors, and other materials. A current challenge is the quality of kinetics that are examined as a function of waiting time. Inspired by noise-suppression methods of transient absorption, here we incorporate shot-by-shot acquisitions and balanced detection into coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy. We demonstrate that implementing noise-suppression methods in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy not only improves the quality of features in individual spectra but also increases the sensitivity to ultrafast time-dependent changes in the spectral features. Measurements on cresyl violet perchlorate are consistent with the vibronic pattern predicted by theoretical models of a highly displaced harmonic oscillator. The noise-suppression methods should benefit research into coherent electronic dynamics, and they can be adapted to multidimensional spectroscopies across the infrared and ultraviolet frequency ranges.

  17. Resolving molecular vibronic structure using high-sensitivity two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizimana, Laurie A; Brazard, Johanna; Carbery, William P; Gellen, Tobias; Turner, Daniel B

    2015-10-28

    Coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy is an emerging technique for resolving structure and ultrafast dynamics of molecules, proteins, semiconductors, and other materials. A current challenge is the quality of kinetics that are examined as a function of waiting time. Inspired by noise-suppression methods of transient absorption, here we incorporate shot-by-shot acquisitions and balanced detection into coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy. We demonstrate that implementing noise-suppression methods in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy not only improves the quality of features in individual spectra but also increases the sensitivity to ultrafast time-dependent changes in the spectral features. Measurements on cresyl violet perchlorate are consistent with the vibronic pattern predicted by theoretical models of a highly displaced harmonic oscillator. The noise-suppression methods should benefit research into coherent electronic dynamics, and they can be adapted to multidimensional spectroscopies across the infrared and ultraviolet frequency ranges.

  18. Vibronic excitation of single molecules: a new technique for studying low-temperature dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, Alper; Ehrl, Moritz; Hellriegel, Christian; Bräuchle, Christoph; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Herein, we present vibronic excitation and detection of purely electronic zero-phonon lines (ZPL) of single molecules as a new tool for investigating dynamics at cryogenic temperatures. Applications of this technique to study crystalline and amorphous matrix materials are presented. In the crystalline environment, spectrally stable ZPLs are observed at moderate excitation powers. By contrast, investigations at higher excitation intensities reveal the opening of local degrees of freedom and spectral jumps, which we interpret as the observation of elementary steps in the melting of a crystal. We compare these results to spectral single-molecule trajectories recorded in a polymer. The way in which much more complicated spectral features can be analysed is shown. Surprisingly, pronounced spectral shifts on a previously not accessible large energy scale are observed, which are hard to reconcile with the standard two-level model system used to describe low-temperature dynamics in disordered systems.

  19. Desired change in couples: gender differences and effects on communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Richard E; Hunt-Martorano, Ashley N; Malik, Jill; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2009-08-01

    Using a sample (N = 453) drawn from a representative sampling frame of couples who are married or living together and have a 3 to 7 year-old child, this study investigates (a) the amount and specific areas of change desired by men and women, (b) the relation between relationship adjustment and desired change; and (c) the ways in which partners negotiate change. On the Areas of Change Questionnaire, women compared with men, wanted greater increases in their partners' emotional and companionate behaviors, instrumental support, and parenting involvement; men wanted greater increases in sex. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny, 1996), both men's and women's relationship adjustment predicted desired change (i.e., actor effects), over and above the effects of their partners' adjustment (i.e., partner effects); partner effects were not significant. Each couple was also observed discussing the man's and the woman's top desired change area. Both men and women behaved more positively during the partner-initiated conversations than during their own-initiated conversations. Women, compared with men, were more negative in their own and in their partners' conversations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Symmetry-broken effects on electron momentum spectroscopy caused by adiabatic vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinghao; Ma, Xiaoguang; Lou, Wenhua; Wang, Meishan; Yang, Chuanlu

    2017-11-01

    The vibronic coupling effect is usually studied by invoking the breakdown of Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The present study shows that the symmetry-broken effect induced by nuclei vibrations can also lead strong impact on the electronic states under the framework of Born-Oppenheimer approximation. This adiabatic-invoking vibrational effect on electron momentum spectroscopy of ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6) and methanol (CH3OH) was studied with quantum mechanical method. The results show that electron momentum spectroscopy of localized electrons, especially core electrons in axial symmetric geometry molecules can be affected unusually and strongly by several asymmetric vibrational modes.

  1. The Long-Term Effects of the Couple Communication Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanning, Harvey

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the immediate and long-term impact of the Couple Communication Program. Married couples (N=17) were assigned to training groups. Change was assessed using self-report measures of marital adjustment and communication quality along with behavioral ratings of couple verbal interaction. Couples increased significantly on all measures at…

  2. A Study On the Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy and Integrated Systemic Couple Therapy on reducing Intimacy Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    هاجر فلاح زاده

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of emotionally focused couple therapy (EFT and integrated systemic couple therapy (IST on resolving intimacy anxiety. For this purpose, 30 couples were randomly selected and based on their pretests were assigned into two experimental and one control groups. Research instruments were Fear of Intimacy Scale (FIS (Descutner & Thelen, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS (Spanier, 1976. A Nine-session of EFT was conducted for one experiment group and eight sessions of IST for the other. The control group did not receive any treatment. These three groups completed post test at the end of the experiment, and follow-up test 3 months later. Results indicated that EFT and IST significantly decreased intimacy anxiety in couples, and the treatment effect was consistent after 3 months follow-up.

  3. On the vibron dressing in the one-dimensional macromolecular chains caused by the interaction with acoustic phonon modes

    CERN Document Server

    Cevizovic, Dalibor; Galovic, Slobodanka; Ivic, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the physical properties of the vibrational excitation in the one-dimensional macromolecular chains, caused by the interaction with acoustical phonon modes. The influence of the temperature and the basic system parameters on the vibron dressing has been analyzed by employing the simple mean--field approach based on the variational extension of the Lang--Firsov unitary transformation. Applied approach predicts a region in system parameter space where it is possible of the coexistence of the partially dressed (light and mobile) and fully dressed (immobile) vibron states. We found that the boundary of this region depends on system temperature and type of bond among structure elements in macromolecular chain.

  4. Exchange bias training effect in coupled all ferromagnetic bilayer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Ch; Polisetty, S; He, Xi; Berger, A

    2006-02-17

    Exchange coupled bilayers of soft and hard ferromagnetic thin films show remarkable analogies to conventional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic exchange bias heterostructures. Not only do all these ferromagnetic bilayers exhibit a tunable exchange bias effect, they also show a distinct training behavior upon cycling the soft layer through consecutive hysteresis loops. In contrast with conventional exchange bias systems, such all ferromagnetic bilayer structures allow the observation of training induced changes in the bias-setting hardmagnetic layer by means of simple magnetometry. Our experiments show unambiguously that the exchange bias training effect is driven by deviations from equilibrium in the pinning layer. A comparison of our experimental data with predictions from a theory based upon triggered relaxation phenomena shows excellent agreement.

  5. Jet-cooled vibronic spectroscopy of potential intermediates along the pathway to PAH: phenylcyclopenta-1,3-diene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Josh J; Liu, Ching-Ping; Müller, Christian W; Zwier, Timothy S

    2009-10-01

    The vibronic excitation spectrum of phenylcyclopenta-1,3-diene (PCP3D) has been recorded in a supersonic expansion using resonant-two-photon ionization (R2PI) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques. The spectrum is dominated by the S(0)-S(1) origin transition (31,739 cm(-1)), with several low-frequency vibronic bands in the first 400 cm(-1), followed by a sharp cut-off in intensity due to turn-on of a non-radiative process. Single vibronic level fluorescence (SVLF) spectra were recorded for the S(1) origin and several vibronic bands of PCP3D. The excitation and emission spectra show that the molecule is planar with C(s) symmetry in both the ground and excited states. Torsional potentials were simulated from the observed torsional structure in the excitation and emission spectra. The S(0) potential (V(2) = 1237 cm(-1), V(4) = -256 cm(-1)) is associated with a flat-bottomed potential supporting large inter-ring angular changes with little cost in energy (+/-36 degrees at 200 cm(-1)), with a barrier of 1237 cm(-1) at the perpendicular geometry. The S(1) potential is much stiffer about the planar geometry, with a calculated barrier five times larger than in S(0) (V(2) = 6732 cm(-1), V(4) = -477 cm(-1)). Based on the torsional assignments, weak bands in the same frequency region assigned earlier to the structural isomer phenylcyclopenta-1,4-diene [J. J. Newby, J. A. Stearns, C. P. Liu and T. S. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 10914-10927] have been re-assigned as hot bands arising from v'' = 1 in the inter-ring torsion, nu(57).

  6. The effect of coupling on bubble fragmentation acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerski, Helen; Deane, Grant B

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of bubble populations is important in a wide range of situations, including industrial processes, medical applications, and ocean science. Passive acoustical techniques can be used to track changes in the population, since each bubble formation or fragmentation event is likely to produce sound. This sound potentially contains a wealth of information about the fragmentation process and the products, but to fully exploit these data it is necessary to understand the physical processes that determine its characteristics. The focus of this paper is binary fragmentation, when turbulence causes one bubble to split into two. Specifically, the effect that bubble-bubble coupling has on the sound produced is examined. A numerical simulation of the acoustical excitation of fragmenting bubbles is used to generate model acoustic signals, which are compared with experimental data. A frequency range with a suppressed acoustic output which is observed in the experimental data can be explained when coupling is taken into account. In addition, although the driving mechanism of neck collapse is always consistent with the data for the larger bubble of the newly formed pair, a different mechanism must be driving the smaller bubble in some situations.

  7. Vibronic intensities for Er{sup 3+} in Cs{sub 2} NaErCl{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, R.; Navarro, G. [Departamento de Quimica Basica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 850, Casilla 2777, Santiago (Chile); Meruane, T. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias y Educacion, Av. Jose Pedro Alessandri 774, Casilla 147-C Santiago (Chile)

    2001-07-01

    In this current study, we have undertaken vibronic intensity calculations for the absorptions (({sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) {gamma}{sub k}) {yields} (({sup 4}I{sub 13/2}) {gamma}{sub l}) of the Er{sup 3+} in the Cs{sub 2}NaErCl{sub 6} elpasolite type system. This system is extremely complicated to handle from both a theoretical and an experimental viewpoints. This theoretical work shows that over an energy range of about 400 cm{sup -1}, a substantial amount of transitions are likely to take place (about 100 transitions; twenty five of them are magnetic dipole allowed and seventy five are vibronically allowed). It is then a formidable task to identify and assign all of these transitions in a non-ambiguous way. Also the experimental evidence available for these absorptions is related to a total of about twenty lines in the luminescence spectrum of this system. The spectrum itself is very challenging and the superposition of spectral features is most likely to occur. A careful analysis of the calculated vibronic intensities and overall oscillator strengths for the various transitions indicates that the current model used is both flexible and appropriate to deal with this kind of systems. In a forthcoming paper, we will examine the rather unusual high intensity associated with the (({sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) {gamma}{sub k}) {yields} (({sup 4}S{sub 3/2}) {gamma}{sub l}) excitations. (Author)

  8. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoshan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-07-07

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the "Fassel" TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids.

  9. Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories

    CERN Document Server

    De Felice, Antonio; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li

    2016-01-01

    We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to non-trivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling $G_{\\rm eff}$ with matter density perturbations under a quasi-static approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility ...

  10. P -wave coupled channel effects in electron-positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meng-Lin; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    P -wave coupled channel effects arising from the D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , and D*D¯* thresholds in e+e- annihilations are systematically studied. We provide an exploratory study by solving the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with short-ranged contact potentials obtained in the heavy quark limit. These contact potentials can be extracted from the P -wave interactions in the e+e- annihilations, and then be employed to investigate possible isosinglet P -wave hadronic molecules. In particular, such an investigation may provide information about exotic candidates with quantum numbers JPC=1-+ . In the mass region of the D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , and D*D¯* thresholds, there are two quark model bare states, i.e. the ψ (3770 ) and ψ (4040 ), which are assigned as (13D1) and (31S1) states, respectively. By an overall fit of the cross sections of e+e-→D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , D*D¯*, we determine the physical coupling constants to each channel and extract the pole positions of the ψ (3770 ) and ψ (4040 ). The deviation of the ratios from that in the heavy quark spin symmetry (HQSS) limit reflects the HQSS breaking effect due to the mass splitting between the D and the D*. Besides the two poles, we also find a pole a few MeV above the D D¯ *+c .c . threshold which can be related to the so-called G (3900 ) observed earlier by BABAR and Belle. This scenario can be further scrutinized by measuring the angular distribution in the D*D¯* channel with high luminosity experiments.

  11. The effectiveness of collaborative couple Therapy on communication patterns and intimacy of couples referring to counseling centers of Behbahan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of collaborative couple Therapy on communication patterns and intimacy of couples referring to counseling centers of Behbahan city Mansour sodani[1]*, Mansour shogaeyan1, Rerza khojastamhr2, Khadija shiralinia2 1Ph.D student, Faculty of educational Science and Psychology,  University of shahid Chamran, Ahvaz 2 Counselling group.Faculty of educational Science and Psychology,   University of shahid Chamran, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract Background and Objectives:Intimacy is a main and basic feature in marital relations and was numerated manifest characteristics in successful marriage also communication patterns can determine marital satisfaction.  The aim of this research was to determined effectiveness of collaborative couple therapy on communication patterns and intimacy of couples referring to counseling centers of  Behbahan city Methods: In this research was used from Single-case experimental design that entitled Single subject experiment and include of clinical testing.This design has different kinds(AB.ABAB, multiple baseline and changing criterion designs. In the research used nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. Unlike group comparison with a lot measure, this design concentrate on individual levels not mean differences in pre andpost test.The other advantage of this design need more less subjects.The couples complicated communication patterns and intimacy Questionnaire in baseline, treatment and follow-up stages. The method of sampling was purposive-volunteer. Statistical universes were all chaotic couples who referring to clinics in Behbahan. Three couples were selected according to include and exclude criteria. . The data analyzed with visual analysis, Clinically meaningful (reliable change index and normative comparison and percent improvement formula, Results: The result showed the couples have experienced improvement in intimacy (30.95% and communication pattern of  mutual constructive (%47/05 and decrease

  12. Tuning the effective spin-orbit coupling in molecular semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Sam

    2017-05-11

    The control of spins and spin to charge conversion in organics requires understanding the molecular spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and a means to tune its strength. However, quantifying SOC strengths indirectly through spin relaxation effects has proven difficult due to competing relaxation mechanisms. Here we present a systematic study of the g-tensor shift in molecular semiconductors and link it directly to the SOC strength in a series of high-mobility molecular semiconductors with strong potential for future devices. The results demonstrate a rich variability of the molecular g-shifts with the effective SOC, depending on subtle aspects of molecular composition and structure. We correlate the above g-shifts to spin-lattice relaxation times over four orders of magnitude, from 200 to 0.15 μs, for isolated molecules in solution and relate our findings for isolated molecules in solution to the spin relaxation mechanisms that are likely to be relevant in solid state systems.

  13. Effects Of Emotional Intelligence On Marital Adjustment Of Couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Couples should be helped to develop emotion management skills. Couples should be taught emotional sensitivity skills. Our educational systems should not only develop learners' Intelligence (IQ) but their Emotional intelligence (EQI) competencies too. Emotional intelligence should form part of the criteria for marital choice ...

  14. The bending vibrational levels of the acetylene cation: a case study of the Renner-Teller effect in a molecule with two degenerate bending vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sheunn-Jiun; Chou, Yung-Ching; Lin, Jim Jr-Min; Hsu, Yen-Chu

    2006-10-07

    Forty three vibronic levels of C2H2+, X 2Pi u, with upsilon4 = 0-6, upsilon5 = 0-3, and K = 0-4, lying at energies of 0-3520 cm(-1) above the zero-point level, have been recorded at rotational resolution. These levels were observed by double resonance, using 1+1' two-color pulsed-field ionization zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectroscopy. The intermediate states were single rovibrational levels chosen from the A1Au, 4nu3 (K = 1-2), 5nu3 (K = 1), nu2+4nu3 (K = 0), and 47,206 cm(-1) (K = 1) levels of C2H2. Seven of the trans-bending levels of C2H2+ (upsilon4 = 0-3, K = 0-2) had been reported previously by Pratt et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6233 (1993)]; our results for these levels agree well with theirs. A full analysis has been carried out, including the Renner-Teller effect and the vibrational anharmonicity for both the trans- and cis-bending vibrations. The rotational structure of the lowest 16 vibronic levels (consisting of the complete set of levels with upsilon4 + upsilon5 < or = 2, except for the unobserved upper (2Pi u component of the 2nu4 overtone) could be fitted by least squares using 16 parameters to give an rms deviation of 0.21 cm(-1). The vibronic coupling parameter epsilon5 (about whose magnitude there has been controversy) was determined to be -0.0273(7). For the higher vibronic levels, an additional parameter, r45, was needed to allow for the Darling-Dennison resonance between the two bending manifolds. Almost all the observed levels of the upsilon4 + upsilon5 = 3 and 4 polyads (about half of the predicted number) could then be assigned. In a final fit to 39 vibronic levels with upsilon4 + upsilon5 < or = 5, an rms deviation of 0.34 cm(-1) was obtained using 20 parameters. An interesting finding is that Hund's spin-coupling cases (a) and (b) both occur in the Sigmau components of the nu4 + 2nu5 combination level. The ionization potential of C2H2 (from the lowest rotational level of the ground state to the lowest rotational level of the cation

  15. Bubbling effect in the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator coupled network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Miao, Suoxia

    2017-03-01

    Synchronization in the optical systems coupled network always suffers from bubbling events. In this paper, we numerically investigate the statistical properties of the synchronization characteristics and bubbling effects in the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator coupled network with different coupling strength, delay time and gain coefficient. Furthermore, we compare our results with the synchronization properties of semiconductor laser (SL) coupled network, which indicates that the electro-optic delayed feedback oscillator can be better to suppress the bubbling effects in the synchronization of coupled network under the same conditions.

  16. Channel Coupling Effects in Photo-Induced ρ - N Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usov, A.; Scholten, O.

    2006-01-01

    We present an extension of our coupled channels calculation to include photo-induced ρ - N production. We show that indirect contributions are large and can account for some of the typical discrepancies seen in a tree-level calculations.

  17. An investigation of the effects of pitch-roll (de)-coupling on helicopter handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockier, C. J.; Pausder, H. J.; Blanken, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of pitch-roll coupling on helicopter handling qualities was performed by the US Army and DLR, using a NASA ground-based and a DLR inflight simulator. Over 90 different coupling configurations were evaluated using a roll-axis tracking task. The results show that although the current ADS-33C coupling criterion discriminates against those types of coupling typical of conventionally controlled helicopters, it not always suited for the prediction of handling qualities of helicopters with modern control systems. Based on the observation that high frequency inputs during tracking are used to alleviate coupling, a frequency domain pitch-roll coupling criterion that uses the average coupling ratio between the bandwidth and neutral stability frequency is formulated. This criterion provides a more comprehensive coverage with respect to the different types of coupling and shows excellent consistency.

  18. Direct couplings of mimetic dark matter and their cosmological effects

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liuyuan; Mou, Yicen; Zheng, Yunlong; Li, Mingzhe

    2017-01-01

    The original mimetic model was proposed to take the role of dark matter. In this paper we consider possible direct interactions of the mimetic dark matter with other matter in the universe, especially the standard model particles such as baryons and photons. By imposing shift symmetry, the mimetic dark matter field can only have derivative couplings. We discuss the possibilities of generating baryon number asymmetry and cosmic birefringence in the universe based on the derivative couplings of...

  19. Constituent quark-light vector mesons effective couplings in a weak background magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2018-01-01

    Effective couplings between light SU(2) vector and axial mesons and constituent quarks are calculated in the presence of a background electromagnetic field by considering a one dressed gluon exchange quark-quark interaction. The effective coupling constants, obtained from a large quark mass expansion, are expressed in terms of the Lagrangian parameters of the initial model and of components of the quark and nonperturbative gluon propagators. In spite of many possible couplings, only a few coupling constants emerge. As a second step, constituent quark-vector and axial mesons effective coupling constants are redefined to show explicit dependence on a weak background magnetic field. Ratios between the effective coupling constants are found in the limit of large quark effective mass and numerical estimates are presented.

  20. Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic Couple Stresses on Dynamic Characteristics of Exponential Slider Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Naduvinamani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of couple stresses on static and dynamic characteristics of exponential slider bearing in the presence of magnetic field considering squeeze action is theoretically analyzed in this paper. The modified magnetohydrodynamic couple stress Reynolds type equation is derived on the basis of Stokes couple stress model and closed form expressions are obtained for static and dynamic character coefficients. Comparing with bearing lubricated with non-conducting Newtonian lubricants, the magnetohydrodynamic couple stress lubrication provides the higher steady load carrying capacity, dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient. The exponential bearing shows higher efficiency for small film thickness at higher value of couple stress parameter and Hartmann number.

  1. Finite coupling effects in double quantum dots near equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiansong; Thingna, Juzar; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    A weak coupling quantum master equation provides reliable steady-state results only in the van Hove limit, i.e., when the system-lead coupling approaches zero. Recently, J. Thingna et al. [Phys. Rev. E 88, 052127 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.052127] proposed an alternative approach, based on an analytic continuation of the Redfield solution, to evaluate the steady-state reduced density matrix up to second order in the system-bath coupling. The approach provides accurate results for harmonic oscillator and spin-bosonic systems. We apply this approach to study steady-state fermionic systems and the calculation on an exactly solvable double quantum dot system shows that the method is rigorously valid up to second order in system-lead coupling only near equilibrium, i.e., linear response regime. We further compare to the Redfield and the secular Redfield (Lindblad-type) master equations that are inaccurate in all parameter regimes. Lastly, we consider the nontrivial problem of strong Coulomb interaction and illustrate the interplay between system-lead coupling, interdot tunneling, and Coulomb strength that can be captured only via the analytic continuation method.

  2. Direct couplings of mimetic dark matter and their cosmological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liuyuan; Mou, Yicen; Zheng, Yunlong; Li, Mingzhe

    2018-01-01

    The original mimetic model was proposed to take the role of dark matter. In this paper we consider possible direct interactions of mimetic dark matter with other matter in the universe, especially standard model particles such as baryons and photons. By imposing shift symmetry, the mimetic dark matter field can only have derivative couplings. We discuss the possibilities of generating baryon number asymmetry and cosmic birefringence in the universe based on the derivative couplings of mimetic dark matter to baryons and photons. Supported by NSFC (11422543, 11653002)

  3. Study on the Vehicle Dynamic Load Considering the Vehicle-Pavement Coupled Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. L.; He, L.; An, D.

    2017-11-01

    The vibration of vehicle-pavement interaction system is sophisticated random vibration process and the vehicle-pavement coupled effect was not considered in the previous study. A new linear elastic model of the vehicle-pavement coupled system was established in the paper. The new model was verified with field measurement which could reflect the real vibration between vehicle and pavement. Using the new model, the study on the vehicle dynamic load considering the vehicle-pavement coupled effect showed that random forces (centralization) between vehicle and pavement were influenced largely by vehicle-pavement coupled effect. Numerical calculation indicated that the maximum of random forces in coupled model was 2.4 times than that in uncoupled model. Inquiring the reason, it was found that the main vibration frequency of the vehicle non-suspension system was similar with that of the vehicle suspension system in the coupled model and the resonance vibration lead to vehicle dynamic load increase significantly.

  4. The effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on sexual satisfaction of couples in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Saremi Nezhad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on sexual satisfaction of couples in Shiraz. Methods: A pre-test, post-test methodology with one control group and one experimental group is used to examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on sexual satisfaction of couples. 40 couples were chosen purposefully from the statistical population of all hurt couples who referred to psychological clinics in Shiraz. The sample size of 40 couples was put in to two groups consisting of a control group and experimental group. The required data was gathered through Larson Sexual satisfaction questionnaire and an acceptance and commitment therapeutic protocol of 12 therapy sessions. The data and hypothesis were analyzed via SPSS-22, using multivariable analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of the study show that acceptance and commitment therapy has a meaningful effect on increasing sexual satisfaction of couples

  5. Comparison of the cable coupling effects under two kinds of HEMP environment

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Bei Yun; Xie Yan Zhao

    2002-01-01

    There are various kinds of HEMP environment definitions. The coupling effects of electronic system are more different under different HEMP environment. The responds of cable of different length are investigated under 1976 HEMP and 1996 HEMP environment. The results indicate that the cable coupling effects under 1976 HEMP environment are more serious than those under 1996 HEMP environment

  6. Effect of the isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of the nuclear binding energy is studied using the relativistic density-dependent Thomas–Fermi approach. The dependency of this effect on the number of neutrons and protons is also studied. The isovector coupling channel leads to increased nuclear binding ...

  7. The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) on pregnancy outcomes. Method: This study was conducted as a prospective and comparative study with 217 couples. The study data was collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Turkish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression.

  8. Inter-dot coupling effects on transport through correlated parallel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport through symmetric parallel coupled quantum dot system has been studied, using non-equilibrium Green function formalism. The inter-dot tunnelling with on-dot and inter-dot Coulomb repulsion is included. The transmission coefficient and Landaur–Buttiker like current formula are shown in terms of internal states ...

  9. Strong coupling and degeneracy effects in inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S X; Militzer, B; Goncharov, V N; Skupsky, S

    2010-06-11

    Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of ρ=0.002-1596  g/cm3 and T=1.35  eV-5.5  keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density (ρR), and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.

  10. Stabilization effect of fission source in coupled Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Borge; Dufek, Jan [Div. of Nuclear Reactor Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-08-15

    A fission source can act as a stabilization element in coupled Monte Carlo simulations. We have observed this while studying numerical instabilities in nonlinear steady-state simulations performed by a Monte Carlo criticality solver that is coupled to a xenon feedback solver via fixed-point iteration. While fixed-point iteration is known to be numerically unstable for some problems, resulting in large spatial oscillations of the neutron flux distribution, we show that it is possible to stabilize it by reducing the number of Monte Carlo criticality cycles simulated within each iteration step. While global convergence is ensured, development of any possible numerical instability is prevented by not allowing the fission source to converge fully within a single iteration step, which is achieved by setting a small number of criticality cycles per iteration step. Moreover, under these conditions, the fission source may converge even faster than in criticality calculations with no feedback, as we demonstrate in our numerical test simulations.

  11. THE EFFECT OF INBOUND, OUTBOUND AND COUPLED INNOVATION ON PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    ERICA MAZZOLA; MANFREDI BRUCCOLERI; GIOVANNI PERRONE

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on exploring linkages among Open Innovation practices and firm performance. While, in the last ten years, a certain amount of papers facing such issue has been published, most of them treat inbound, outbound, and coupled innovation practice processes separately respect to different dimensions of innovation and financial performance. We argue that the concurrent influence of specific Open Innovation practices on both innovation and economic-financial firms' performan...

  12. Wrist kinematic coupling and performance during functional tasks: effects of constrained motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rohit; Kraszewski, Andrew P; Stoecklein, Holbrook H; Syrkin, Grisha; Hillstrom, Howard J; Backus, Sherry; Lenhoff, Mark L; Wolff, Aviva L; Crisco, Joseph J; Wolfe, Scott W

    2014-04-01

    To quantify the coupled motion of the wrist during selected functional tasks and to determine the effects of constraining this coupled motion using a radial-ulnar deviation blocking splint on performance of these tasks. Ten healthy, right-handed men performed 15 trials during selected functional tasks with and without a splint, blocking radial and ulnar deviation. The following tasks were performed: dart throwing, hammering, basketball free-throw, overhand baseball and football throwing, clubbing, and pouring. Kinematic coupling parameters (coupling, kinematic path length, flexion-extension range of motion, radial-ulnar deviation range of motion, flexion-extension offset, and radial-ulnar deviation offset) and performance were determined for each functional task. A generalized estimation equation model was used to determine whether each kinematic coupling parameter was significantly different across tasks. A repeated-measures generalized estimation equation model was used to test for differences in performance and kinematic coupling parameters between the free and splinted conditions. Wrist motion exhibited linear coupling between flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation, demonstrated by R(2) values from 0.70 to 0.99. Average wrist coupling and kinematic path lengths were significantly different among tasks. Coupling means and kinematic path lengths were different between free and splinted conditions across all tasks other than pouring. Performance was different between wrist conditions for dart throwing, hammering, basketball shooting, and pouring. Wrist kinematic coupling parameters are task specific in healthy individuals. Functional performance is decreased when wrist coupling is constrained by an external splint. Surgical procedures that restrict wrist coupling may have a detrimental effect on functional performance as defined in the study. Patients may benefit from surgical reconstructive procedures and wrist rehabilitation protocols designed to restore

  13. Vibronic resonances sustain excited state coherence in light harvesting proteins at room temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Novelli, Fabio; Roozbeh, Ashkan; Wilk, Krystyna E; Curmi, Paul M G; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Until recently it was believed that photosynthesis, a fundamental process for life on earth, could be fully understood with semi-classical models. However, puzzling quantum phenomena have been observed in several photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, prompting questions regarding the nature and role of these effects. Recent attention has focused on discrete vibrational modes that are resonant or quasi-resonant with excitonic energy splittings and strongly coupled to these excitonic states. Here we report a series of experiments that unambiguously identify excited state coherent superpositions that dephase on the timescale of the excited state lifetime. Low energy (56 cm-1) oscillations on the signal intensity provide direct experimental evidence for the role of vibrational modes resonant with excitonic splittings in sustaining coherences involving different excited excitonic states at physiological temperature.

  14. Coupling effects of nonlocal and modified couple stress theories incorporating surface energy on analytical transverse vibration of a weakened nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourki, R.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    An analytical solution to the flexural vibration of a weakened nanobeam on the basis of the nonlocal modified couple stress theory including surface effects is under consideration. In this investigation nanobeams are studied within the framework of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The nanobeam is weakened by a crack modeled as a rotational spring at the crack position. This assumption divides the beam into two sections, invoking additional conditions on the beam. The governing equations and boundary conditions for the beam are obtained by applying the Hamilton principle. The natural frequencies for the cracked nanobeam are determined to investigate the effects of crack severity, crack position, nonlocal parameter, material length scale parameter and surface effect parameters. It has been found that the mentioned parameters have considerable effects on stiffness and have a significant impact the dynamic behavior of the nanobeam.

  15. Dynamics of dissipative coupled spins: decoherence, relaxation and effects of a spin-boson bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegele, P; Campagnano, G; Weiss, U [II Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: naegele@theo2.physik.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: campagnano@theo2.physik.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: weiss@theo2.physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2008-11-15

    We study the reduced dynamics of interacting spins, each coupled to its own bath of bosons. We derive the solution in analytic form in the white-noise limit and analyze the rich behaviors in diverse limits ranging from weak coupling and/or low temperature to strong coupling and/or high temperature. We also view the single spin as being coupled to a spin-boson environment and consider the regimes in which it is effectively nonlinear and in which it can be regarded as a resonant bosonic environment.

  16. Medium effect on the characteristics of the coupled seismic and electromagnetic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Ren, Hengxin; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Y John

    2015-01-01

    Recently developed numerical simulation technique can simulate the coupled seismic and electromagnetic signals for a double couple point source or a finite fault planar source. Besides the source effect, the simulation results showed that both medium structure and medium property could affect the coupled seismic and electromagnetic signals. The waveform of coupled signals for a layered structure is more complicated than that for a simple uniform structure. Different from the seismic signals, the electromagnetic signals are sensitive to the medium properties such as fluid salinity and fluid viscosity. Therefore, the co-seismic electromagnetic signals may be more informative than seismic signals.

  17. Effects of Coping-Oriented Couples Therapy on Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Plancherel, Bernard; Beach, Steven R. H.; Widmer, Kathrin; Gabriel, Barbara; Meuwly, Nathalie; Charvoz, Linda; Hautzinger, Martin; Schramm, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of treating depression with coping-oriented couples therapy (COCT) as compared with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; A. T. Beck, C. Ward, & M. Mendelson, 1961) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT; M. M. Weissman, J. C. Markowitz, & G. L. Klerman, 2000). Sixty couples, including 1…

  18. Effects of quantum coupling on the performance of metal-oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on the analysis of the three-dimensional Schrödinger equation, the effects of quantum coupling between the transverse and the longitudinal components of channel electron motion on the performance of ballistic MOSFETs have been theoretically investigated by self-consistently solving the coupled ...

  19. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, G Allen [Corrales, NM

    2008-02-26

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  20. Short- and Long-Term Effectiveness of Two Communication Training Modalities with Distressed Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Ludwig; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of communication training in treating marital discord for conjoint and conjoint group modalities. Results showed that conjoint couples (N=16) improved on five of seven outcome variables, while conjoint group couples (N=13) improved on two. One-year follow-up showed substantial reduction in treatment gains. (WAS)

  1. Spin-orbit coupling and anomalous Josephson effect in nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnano, G; Lucignano, P; Giuliano, D; Tagliacozzo, A

    2015-05-27

    A superconductor-semiconducting nanowire-superconductor heterostructure in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field can support a supercurrent even in the absence of phase difference between the superconducting electrodes. We investigate this phenomenon—the anomalous Josephson effect—employing a model capable of describing many bands in the normal region. We discuss the geometrical and symmetry conditions required to have a finite anomalous supercurrent, and in particular we show that this phenomenon is enhanced when the Fermi level is located close to a band opening in the normal region.

  2. Non-perturbative effects on seven-brane Yukawa couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesano, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    We analyze non-perturbative corrections to the superpotential of seven-brane gauge theories on type IIB and F-theory warped Calabi-Yau compactifications. We show in particular that such corrections modify the holomorphic Yukawa couplings by an exponentially suppressed contribution, generically solving the Yukawa rank-one problem present in F-theory local models. We provide explicit expressions for the non-perturbative correction to the seven-brane superpotential, and check that it is related to a non-commutative deformation to the tree-level superpotential via the Seiberg-Witten map.

  3. Coupled aggregation and sedimentation processes: the sticking probability effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odriozola, G; Leone, R; Schmitt, A; Moncho-Jordá, A; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R

    2003-03-01

    The influence of the sticking probability P and the drift velocity on kinetics and structure formation arising in coupled aggregation and sedimentation processes was studied by means of simulations. For this purpose, a large prism with no periodical conditions for the sedimentation direction was considered allowing for sediment formation at the prism base. The time evolution of the cluster size distribution (CSD) and weight-average cluster size (n(w)) were determined in three different regions of the prism. The cluster morphology and the sediment structure were also analyzed. We found that the coupled aggregation and sedimentation processes in the bulk are governed by P for short times, and controlled by the Péclet number Pe for long times. In the lower part of the reaction volume, where the sediment grows, the local n(w) grows at sufficiently large times analytically with an exponent of four. This behavior seems to be independent of Pe and P. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data reported by C. Allain, M. Cloitre, and M. Wafra [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1478 (1995)] and support the idea of a possible internal cluster rearrangement for the experiments. Finally, we discuss how the scale dependent fractal character of the sediment is related to the different stages of the aggregation process.

  4. Stabilization effect of fission source in coupled Monte Carlo simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börge Olsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A fission source can act as a stabilization element in coupled Monte Carlo simulations. We have observed this while studying numerical instabilities in nonlinear steady-state simulations performed by a Monte Carlo criticality solver that is coupled to a xenon feedback solver via fixed-point iteration. While fixed-point iteration is known to be numerically unstable for some problems, resulting in large spatial oscillations of the neutron flux distribution, we show that it is possible to stabilize it by reducing the number of Monte Carlo criticality cycles simulated within each iteration step. While global convergence is ensured, development of any possible numerical instability is prevented by not allowing the fission source to converge fully within a single iteration step, which is achieved by setting a small number of criticality cycles per iteration step. Moreover, under these conditions, the fission source may converge even faster than in criticality calculations with no feedback, as we demonstrate in our numerical test simulations.

  5. Coupling effects in bilayer thick metal films perforated with rectangular nanohole arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling effects in bilayer thick metal (silver films perforated with rectangular nanohole arrays are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain technique. Many interesting light phenomena are observed as the distance between the metal rectangular nanohole arrays varies. Coupling effects are found to play very important roles on the optical and electronic properties of bilayer metal rectangular nanohole arrays: antisymmetric coupling between surface plasmon polaritons near the top and bottom film plane, and antisymmetric coupling between localized surface plasmon resonances near the two long sides of the rectangular hole, are probably excited in each layer of bilayer metal rectangular nanohole arrays; antisymmetric and symmetric magnetic coupling probably occur between the metal rectangular nanohole arrays.

  6. Communication: Strong excitonic and vibronic effects determine the optical properties of Li₂O₂

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; Bass, J. D.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    gives rise to a narrow absorption peak around 1.2 eV below the calculated bandgap of 4.8 eV. In the excited state, the internal O2 −2 bond is significantly weakened due to the population of the σ* orbital. As a consequence, the bond is elongated by almost 0.5 Å leading to an extreme Stokes shift of 2...

  7. Gamma radiation effect on sisal / polyurethane composites without coupling agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cardoso Vasco

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural fibers and polyurethane based composites may present chemical bonding between the components of the polymer and the lignin of the fiber. The incidence of radiation can cause degradation of the polymeric material and alter its mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to obtain and characterize cold pressed composites from polyurethane derived from castor oil and sisal fibers, without coupling agents, through thermogravimetric and mechanical tests, before and after the incidence of 25 kGy dose of gamma radiation. Woven composites that were not irradiated had maximum values of 4.40 GPa for flexural elastic modulus on three point flexural test and dispersed fiber composite that were not irradiated had maximum values of 2.25 GPa. These materials are adequate for use in non-structural applications in radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic rooms.

  8. Gamma radiation effect on sisal / polyurethane composites without coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, Marina Cardoso; Claro Neto, Salvador; Nascimento, Eduardo Mauro; Azevedo, Elaine, E-mail: marina.mcv@gmail.com [University of Patras (Greece); Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP) Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    Natural fibers and polyurethane based composites may present chemical bonding between the components of the polymer and the lignin of the fiber. The incidence of radiation can cause degradation of the polymeric material and alter its mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to obtain and characterize cold pressed composites from polyurethane derived from castor oil and sisal fibers, without coupling agents, through thermogravimetric and mechanical tests, before and after the incidence of 25 kGy dose of gamma radiation. Woven composites that were not irradiated had maximum values of 4.40 GPa for flexural elastic modulus on three point flexural test and dispersed fiber composite that were not irradiated had maximum values of 2.25 GPa. These materials are adequate for use in non-structural applications in radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic rooms. (author)

  9. [Effects of a Taegyo program on parent-fetal attachment and parenthood in first pregnancy couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Soon-Lae

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a Taegyo program on parents-fetal attachment and parenthood in first pregnancy couples (mothers and spouses). The research design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest experiment. Study participants were 52 first pregnancy couples visiting two medium-scale obstetrics and gynecology clinics located in Gwangju. A total of 52 couples were assigned to the experimental group (25 couples) and the control group (27 couples). The experimental couples were provided with a Taegyo program for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by chi square test, t-test, and ANCOVA using the SPSS program. Post-treatment maternal-fetal attachment, paternal-fetal attachment and motherhood significantly increased in the experimental group as compared to the control group, but post-treatment fatherhood, anxiety, blood pressure and pulse of participants in the experimental group showed no significant difference from those in the control group. From these results, it is suggested that the Taegyo program has beneficial effects in enhancing parent-fetal attachment and motherhood in first pregnancy couples. Therefore, a Taegyo program can be recommended as a nursing intervention program for first pregnancy couples.

  10. Vibronic Dynamics of the Ultrafast all-trans to 13-cis Photoisomerization of Retinal in Channelrhodopsin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedermann, Christoph; Muders, Vera; Ehrenberg, David; Schlesinger, Ramona; Kukura, Philipp; Heberle, Joachim

    2016-04-13

    Channelrhodopsins are light-gated ion channels with extensive applications in optogenetics. Channelrhodopsin-1 from Chlamydomonas augustae (CaChR1) exhibits a red-shifted absorption spectrum as compared to Channelrhodopsin-2, which is highly beneficial for optogenetic application. The primary event in the photocycle of CaChR1 involves an isomerization of the protein-bound retinal chromophore. Here, we apply highly time-resolved vibronic spectroscopy to reveal the electronic and structural dynamics associated with the first step of the photocycle of CaChR1. We observe vibrationally coherent formation of the P1 intermediate exhibiting a twisted 13-cis retinal with a 110 ± 7 fs time constant. Comparison with low-temperature resonance Raman spectroscopy of the corresponding trapped photoproduct demonstrates that this rapidly formed P1 intermediate is stable for several hundreds of nanoseconds.

  11. Defining the coupled effects of cryogenic, space-radiation, and hypervelocity impact damamge on COPV's Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the research proposed herein is to define the coupled (combined) effect of critical environments on the structural performance of composite overwrap...

  12. Experimental Effects of Student Evaluations Coupled with Collaborative Consultation on College Professors' Instructional Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, M.H.; in 't Veld, R.; Vorst, H.C.M.; van Driel, J.H.; Mellenbergh, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study concerned the effects of repeated students’ evaluations of teaching coupled with collaborative consultation on professors’ instructional skills. Twenty-five psychology professors from a Dutch university were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental

  13. Process intensification by coupling the Joule effect with pervaporation and sweeping gas membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, S.; Méricq, J. P.; Belleville, M.P.; Hengl, N.; Benes, N. E.; Vankelecom, I.; Sanchez Marcano, Jose

    2018-01-01

    This work concerns the intensification of membrane processes by coupling the Joule effect with two membrane processes: pervaporation and sweeping gas membrane distillation. For this purpose, conducting metallic hollow fibers impregnated or coated with polydimethyl siloxane were simultaneously used

  14. Short and long-term effectiveness of couple counselling: a study protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schofield, Margot J; Mumford, Nicholas; Jurkovic, Dubravko; Jurkovic, Ivancica; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    .... Two types of relationship services (couple counselling and relationship education) have demonstrated efficacy in many controlled studies but evidence of the effectiveness of community-based relationship services has lagged behind...

  15. Asymptotics of QCD traveling waves with fluctuations and running coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuf, Guillaume

    2008-09-01

    Extending the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation independently to running coupling or to fluctuation effects due to pomeron loops is known to lead in both cases to qualitative changes of the traveling-wave asymptotic solutions. In this paper we study the extension of the forward BK equation, including both running coupling and fluctuations effects, extending the method developed for the fixed coupling case [E. Brunet, B. Derrida, A.H. Mueller, S. Munier, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 056126, cond-mat/0512021]. We derive the exact asymptotic behavior in rapidity of the probabilistic distribution of the saturation scale.

  16. EFFECT OF UPER-STORY LINTEL BEAM HEIGHT ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF COUPLED SHEAR WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan KAPLAN

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In multi-story buildings, shear walls are used against the horizontal loads because their stiffness are greater than those of columns. The lateral deflections of tall building structures due to earthquake or wind is important role on the damage of buildings during the earthquake. The effectiveness of coupled shear walls in resisting horizontal loading depends on strongly on the rigidty of the coupling beams. In this study, In this study, using by finite element the shear walls with coupled lintel beams are investigated. The effects of uperstory lintel beam rigidity on strength and deformation were determined.

  17. Pseudo Jahn-Teller effect in oxepin, azepin, and their halogen substituted derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkhani, Ali Reza

    2017-09-01

    Oxepin and azepin are heterocyclic compounds with a seven-membered ring, which are present in the main skeleton of many anti-depressive drugs. Planar configuration instability due to the pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE) in oxepin, azepin and six their halogen substituted derivatives were investigated as an original PJTE study. Optimization and the following frequency calculations in these two series illuminated that all of these eight compounds were unstable in high-symmetry planar (with C 2 v symmetry) configuration and their structures were puckered to lower C s symmetry stable geometry. Moreover, the vibronic coupling interaction between 1 A 1 ground and the first 1 B 1 excited states via (1 A 1 + 1 A 1 ' + 1 B 1) ⊗ b 1 and (1 A 1 + 1 B 1 + 1 A 1 ' ) ⊗ b 1 PJTE problems were the reasons for the symmetry breaking phenomenon and non-planarity of the seven-member ring in those series. Finally, numerical fitting of the adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) cross-sections along the b 1 puckering coordination was employed to estimate the vibronic coupling constants of PJTE problems for all the considered compounds.

  18. The effects of partnered exercise on physical intimacy in couples coping with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Karen S; Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Bennett, Jill A; Beer, Tomasz M

    2016-05-01

    The study examined whether couples coping with prostate cancer participating in a partnered exercise program-Exercising Together (ET)-experienced higher levels of physical intimacy (i.e., affectionate and sexual behavior) than couples in a usual care (UC) control group. Men and their wives (n = 64 couples) were randomly assigned to either the ET or UC group. Couples in the ET group engaged in partnered strength-training twice weekly for 6 months. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of ET on husband and wife engagement in both affectionate and sexual behaviors over time. Controlling for relationship quality, wives in ET showed significant increases in engagement in affectionate behaviors compared to wives in UC. No intervention effects were found for husbands. Couple-based approaches to physical intimacy, after a cancer diagnosis, that facilitate collaborative engagement in nonsexual physical activities for the couple have potential to be effective for wives. More research is needed in this area to determine couples most amenable to such exercise strategies, optimal timing in the cancer trajectory, and the benefits of combining partnered exercise with more traditional relationship-focused strategies. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The effect of unexpected bereavement on mortality in older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sunil M; Carey, Iain M; Harris, Tess; Dewilde, Stephen; Victor, Christina R; Cook, Derek G

    2013-06-01

    We sought to determine whether unexpected bereavement has a greater impact on mortality in the surviving partner than death of a partner with preexisting chronic disease or disability. In a UK primary care database (The Health Improvement Network), we identified 171,720 couples aged 60 years and older. We compared the rise in mortality in the first year after bereavement in those whose partner died without recorded chronic disease (unexpected bereavement) to those whose deceased partner had a diagnosis of chronic disease (known morbidity). For unexpected bereavement (13.4% of all bereavements), the adjusted hazard ratio for death in the first year after bereavement was 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 1.86) compared with 1.21 (95% CI = 1.14, 1.30) where the partner had known morbidity. Differences between bereaved groups were significant (P = .001) and present for both men and women. Unexpected bereavement has a greater relative mortality impact than bereavement preceded by chronic disease. Our findings highlight the potential value of preparing individuals for the death of a spouse with known morbidity and providing extra support after bereavement for those experiencing sudden unexpected bereavement.

  20. An investigation of the effects of pitch-roll (de)coupling on helicopter handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, C. L.; Pausder, H. J.; Ockier, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    An extensive investigation of the effects of pitch-roll coupling on helicopter handling qualities was performed by the U.S. Army and Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), using a NASA ground-based and a DLR in-flight simulator. Over 90 different coupling configurations were evaluated using a high gain roll-axis tracking task. The results show that although the current ADS-33C coupling criterion discriminates against those types of coupling typical of conventionally controlled helicopters, it is not always suited for the prediction of handling qualities of helicopters with modern control systems. Based on the observation that high frequency inputs during tracking are used to alleviate coupling, a frequency domain pitch-roll coupling criterion that uses the average coupling ratio between the bandwidth and neutral stability frequency is formulated. This criterion provides a more comprehensive coverage with respect to the different types of coupling, shows excellent consistency, and has the additional benefit that compliance testing data are obtained from the bandwidth/phase delay tests, so that no additional flight testing is needed.

  1. Effects of coupled dark energy on the Milky Way and its satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzo, Camilla; Macciò, Andrea V.; Baldi, Marco; Casarini, Luciano; Oñorbe, Jose; Dutton, Aaron A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first numerical simulations in coupled dark energy cosmologies with high enough resolution to investigate the effects of the coupling on galactic and subgalactic scales. We choose two constant couplings and a time-varying coupling function and we run simulations of three Milky Way-sized haloes (˜1012 M⊙), a lower mass halo (6 × 1011 M⊙) and a dwarf galaxy halo (5 × 109 M⊙). We resolve each halo with several million dark matter particles. On all scales, the coupling causes lower halo concentrations and a reduced number of substructures with respect to Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM). We show that the reduced concentrations are not due to different formation times. We ascribe them to the extra terms that appear in the equations describing the gravitational dynamics. On the scale of the Milky Way satellites, we show that the lower concentrations can help in reconciling observed and simulated rotation curves, but the coupling values necessary to have a significant difference from ΛCDM are outside the current observational constraints. On the other hand, if other modifications to the standard model allowing a higher coupling (e.g. massive neutrinos) are considered, coupled dark energy can become an interesting scenario to alleviate the small-scale issues of the ΛCDM model.

  2. The Relativistic Effects on the Carbon-Carbon Coupling Constants Mediated by a Heavy Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodyński, Artur; Malkina, Olga L; Pecul, Magdalena

    2016-07-21

    The (2)JCC, (3)JCC, and (4)JCC spin-spin coupling constants in the systems with a heavy atom (Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po) in the coupling path have been calculated by means of density functional theory. The main goal was to estimate the relativistic effects on spin-spin coupling constants and to explore the factors which may influence them, including the nature of the heavy atom and carbon hybridization. The methods applied range, in order of reduced complexity, from the Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) method (density functional theory with four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian), through DFT with two- and one-component zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonians, to scalar effective core potentials (ECPs) with the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. The use of DKS and ZORA methods leads to very similar results, and small-core ECPs of the MDF and MWB variety reproduce correctly the scalar relativistic effects. Scalar relativistic effects usually are larger than the spin-orbit coupling effects. The latter tend to influence the most the coupling constants of the sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms and in compounds of the p-block heavy atoms. Large spin-orbit coupling contributions for the Po compounds are probably connected with the inverse of the lowest triplet excitation energy.

  3. The Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse Coupling Effect Inside the Shielding Enclosure With Penetrating Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xue; Yang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    To study the lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) coupling and protection problems of shielding enclosure with penetrating wire, we adopt the model with proper size which is close to the practical engineering and the two-step finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used for calculation in this paper. It is shown that the coupling voltage on the circuit lead inside the enclosure increases about 34 dB, when add 1.0 m long penetrating wire at the aperture, comparing with the case without penetrating wire. Meanwhile, the waveform, has the same wave outline as the lightning current source, shows that the penetrating wire brings a large number of low frequency component into the enclosure. The coupling effect in the enclosure will reduce greatly when penetrating wire has electrical connection with the enclosure at the aperture and the coupling voltage increase only about 12 dB than the case without penetrating wire. Moreover, the results show that though the waveguide pipe can reduce the coupling effect brought by the penetrating wire, the exposing part of penetrating wire can increase the coupling when the penetrating wire outside the enclosure is longer than the waveguide pipe and the longer the exposing part is, the stronger the coupling is.

  4. On the coupling effects of piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity in piezoelectric nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liwen; Lou, Jia; Zhang, Aibing; Wu, Huaping; Du, Jianke; Wang, Ji

    2017-10-01

    Flexoelectricity is a novel kind of electromechanical coupling phenomenon that is prevalent in all solid dielectrics and usually of vital importance in nanostructures and soft materials. Although the fundamental theory of flexoelectric solids and related beam or plate theories were extensively studied in recent years, the coupling effect of flexoelectricity and piezoelectricity in piezoelectric nanostructures has not been completely clarified yet. In the present work, a geometrically nonlinear piezoelectric plate model is established with a focus on the coupling effect. The constitutive equations for piezoelectric plates are derived under both the electrically short-circuit and open-circuit conditions. It is found that due to the coupling between flexoelectricity and piezoelectricity, stretching-bending coupling stiffness arises in the homogeneous plate and its specific value relies on the applied electrical boundary conditions. The effects of the flexoelectric-piezoelectric coupling on the effective mechanical behavior and the electromechanical behavior of nanobeams and nanoplates are also discussed. The developed model and presented results are expected to benefit the design and analysis of piezoelectric and flexoelectric devices and systems.

  5. Baryon non-invariant couplings in Higgs effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, Luca; Saa, Sara; Sacristan-Barbero, Mario [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fsica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    The basis of leading operators which are not invariant under baryon number is constructed within the Higgs effective field theory. This list contains 12 dimension six operators, which preserve the combination B - L, to be compared to only 6 operators for the standard model effective field theory. The discussion of the independent flavour contractions is presented in detail for a generic number of fermion families adopting the Hilbert series technique. (orig.)

  6. A Family of Cost-Effective Magnetically-Coupled Impedance Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kerui; Yang, Yongheng; Qin, Zian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a family of cost-effective magnetically-coupled impedance source inverters for renewable energy systems. The inverters are derived from magnetically-coupled impedance source networks, featuring low cost and no ground leakage current when used in PV system. The numbers of requi......This paper presents a family of cost-effective magnetically-coupled impedance source inverters for renewable energy systems. The inverters are derived from magnetically-coupled impedance source networks, featuring low cost and no ground leakage current when used in PV system. The numbers...... of required semiconductor switches is reduced. More important, the elimination of leakage currents makes it particularly suitable for high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) applications. A comparison among prior-art PV inverters is then performed. The Performances of the inverters are evaluated analytically...

  7. Effects of network structure on the synchronizability of nonlinearly coupled Hindmarsh–Rose neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chun-Hsien, E-mail: chli@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw [Department of Mathematics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 82444, Taiwan (China); Yang, Suh-Yuh, E-mail: syyang@math.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Mathematics, National Central University, Jhongli District, Taoyuan City 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-23

    This work is devoted to investigate the effects of network structure on the synchronizability of nonlinearly coupled dynamical network of Hindmarsh–Rose neurons with a sigmoidal coupling function. We mainly focus on the networks that exhibit the small-world character or scale-free property. By checking the first nonzero eigenvalue of the outer-coupling matrix, which is closely related to the synchronization threshold, the synchronizabilities of three specific network ensembles with prescribed network structures are compared. Interestingly, we find that networks with more connections will not necessarily result in better synchronizability. - Highlights: • We investigate the effects of network structure on the synchronizability of nonlinearly coupled Hindmarsh–Rose neurons. • We mainly consider the networks that exhibit the small-world character or scale-free property. • The synchronizability of three specific network ensembles with prescribed network structures are compared. • Networks with more connections will not necessarily result in better synchronizability.

  8. Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities in Composite Media and Structures via Local Fields and Electromagnetic Coupling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.

    2002-01-01

    This talk will review the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles and dielectric microparticles, with an emphasis on local field effects, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs), as well as the conjunction of these two effects for enhanced Raman. In particular, enhanced optical properties that result from electromagnetic coupling effects will be discussed in the context of Mie scattering from concentric spheres and bispheres. Predictions of mode splitting and photonic bandgaps in micro-spheres will be presented and will be shown to be analogous to effects that occur in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW). Slow and fast light in SCISSOR / CROW configurations will also be discussed.

  9. Effectiveness and stability of silane coupling agent incorporated in 'universal' adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihara, Kumiko; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Sonoda, Akinari; Maruo, Yukinori; Makita, Yoji; Okihara, Takumi; Irie, Masao; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: For bonding indirect restorations, some 'universal' adhesives incorporate a silane coupling agent to chemically bond to glass-rich ceramics so that a separate ceramic primer is claimed to be no longer needed. With this work, we investigated the effectiveness/stability of the silane coupling function of the silanecontaining experimentally prepared adhesives and Scotchbond Universal (3MESPE). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Experimental adhesives consisted of Scotchbond Universa...

  10. Effects of radiation on charge-coupled devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, J. E.; Cope, A. D.; Rockett, L. R.; Schlesier, K. M.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of 1 MeV electron irradiation upon the performance of two phase, polysilicon aluminum gate CCDs are reported. Both n- and p-surface channel and n-buried channel devices are investigated using 64- and 128-stage line arrays. Characteristics measured as a function of radiation dose include: Transfer inefficiency, threshold voltage, field effect mobility, interface state density, full well signal level and dark current. Surface channel devices are found to degrade considerably at less than 10 to the 5th power rads (Si) due to the large increase in fast interface state density caused by radiation. Buried channel devices maintain efficient operation to the highest dose levels used.

  11. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...

  12. Survey the Effect of Pre-marriage Counseling on Knowledge and Attitudes Couple in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ss Mazloomi mahmodabad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Holding true premarital counseling courses helps to couples to acquire the necessary knowledge in the field of reproductive health issues. The aim of this study was determination of effect of pre-marriage counseling on knowledge and attitudes couple in Yazd. Methods: This was an semi experimental and pre and post study In which 200 couples participating in premarital counseling courses were selected randomly. Finally, the data were analysed by SPSS18 software and t-test and ANOVA statistical tests. Results: The data showen that  couples before attending in counseling courses have acquired respectively 37.6%  and 48.1%  and after training respectively 65.1% and 57.6% from knowledge and attitude scores. Also mean score of knowledge and attitude according to sex, education level and occupation were statistically significant (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Considering to small change of attitude couples, it is suggested after counseling classes are given the opportunity into couple that express your questions privately. Also to achieve a relatively stable behavior in young couples and promoting their health levels, must besides holding training courses before marriage, pay more attention to the quality of these courses. 

  13. Plasma effect in silicon charge coupled devices (CCDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, J., E-mail: estrada@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Molina, J., E-mail: jmolina@ing.una.py [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, Laboratorio de Mecanica y Energia, Campus de la UNA, San Lorenzo 2160 (Paraguay); Blostein, J.J., E-mail: jeronimo@cab.cnea.gov.ar [CONICET (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina); Fernandez, G., E-mail: fmoroni.guillermo@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-02-11

    Plasma effect is observed in CCDs exposed to heavy ionizing {alpha}-particles with energies in the range 0.5-5.5 MeV. The results obtained for the size of the charge clusters reconstructed on the CCD pixels agree with previous measurements in the high energy region ({>=}3.5 MeV). The measurements were extended to lower energies using {alpha}-particles produced by (n,{alpha}) reactions of neutrons in a {sup 10}B target. The effective linear charge density for the plasma column is measured as a function of energy. The results demonstrate the potential for high position resolution in the reconstruction of {alpha} particles, which opens an interesting possibility for using these detectors in neutron imaging applications.

  14. Magnetic dipolar coupling and collective effects for binary information codification in cost-effective logic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.chiolerio@iit.it [Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Torino (Italy); Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, IT-10129 Torino (Italy); Allia, Paolo [Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Torino (Italy); Graziano, Mariagrazia [Electronic and Telecommunication Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Physical limitations foreshadow the eventual end to traditional Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) scaling. Therefore, interest has turned to various materials and technologies aimed to succeed to traditional CMOS. Magnetic Quantum dot Cellular Automata (MQCA) are one of these technologies. Working MQCA arrays require very complex techniques and an excellent control on the geometry of the nanomagnets and on the quality of the magnetic thin film, thus limiting the possibility for MQCA of representing a definite solution to cost-effective, high density and low power consumption device demand. Counter-intuitively, moving towards bigger sizes and lighter technologies it is still possible to develop multi-state logic devices, as we demonstrated, whose main advantage is cost-effectiveness. Applications may be seen in low cost logic devices where integration and computational power are not the main issue, eventually using flexible substrates and taking advantage of the intrinsic mechanical toughness of systems where long range interactions do not need wirings. We realized cobalt micrometric MQCA arrays by means of Electron Beam Lithography, exploiting cost-effective processes such as lift-off and RF sputtering that usually are avoided due to their low control on array geometry and film roughness. Information relative to the magnetic configuration of MQCA elements including their eventual magnetic interactions was obtained from Magnetic Force Microscope (MFM) images, enhanced by means of a numerical procedure and presented in differential maps. We report the existence of bi-stable magnetic patterns, as detected by MFM while sampling the z-component of magnetic induction field, arising from dipolar inter-element magnetostatic coupling, able to store and propagate binary information. This is achieved despite the array quality and element magnetic state, which are low and multi-domain, respectively. We discuss in detail shape, inter-element spacing and dot profile

  15. The effect of noise and coupling on beta cell excitation dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    system, but with a quantitative description of the effect of noise. This approach supports previous investigations of the channel sharing hypothesis. For beta cells coupled via gap junctions we briefly discuss the effects of the ATP driven potassium ion gate on reaction diffusion type waves. It is shown......Bursting electrical behavior is commonly observed in a variety of nerve and endocrine cells, including that in electrically coupled β-cells located in intact pancreatic islets. However, individual β-cells usually display either spiking or very fast bursting behavior, and the difference between...... isolated and coupled cells has been suggested to be due to stochastic fluctuations of the plasma membrane ion channels, which are supposed to have a stronger effect on single cells than on cells situated in clusters (the channel sharing hypothesis). This effect of noise has previously been studied using...

  16. The Numerical Simulation of Coupling Behavior of Soil with Chemical Pollutant Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. J.; Li, X. K.; Tang, L. Q.

    2010-05-01

    The coupling behavior of clay plays a role in the integrity of clay barriers used in landfills. The clay barriers are subjected to mechanical and thermal effects coupled with hydraulic behavior, also, if the leachates become in contact with the clay liner, chemical effects may lead to some drastic changes in the properties of the clay. A numerical method to simulate the coupling behavior of soil with chemical pollutant effects is presented. Within the framework of Gens-Alonso model describing the constitutive behavior of unsaturated clay presented in reference[1], basing on the work of Wu[2] and Hueckel[3], a constitutive model describing the chemo-thermo-hydro-mechanical(CTHM) coupling behavior of clays in contact with a single organic contaminant is presented. The thermical softening and chemical softening is considered in the presented model. The strain arising in the material due to chemical and thermical effects can be decomposed into two parts: elastic expansion and plastic compaction. The chemical effects are described in terms of the mass concentration of the contaminant. The increases in temperature and contaminant concentration cause decreases of the pre-consolidation pressure and the cohesion. The mechanisms are called thermical softening and chemical softening. The presented coupled CTHM constitutive model has been integrated into the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical mathematical model including contaminant transport in porous media. To solve the equilibrium equations, the grogram of finite element methods is developed with a stagger algorithm. The mechanisms taking place due to the coupling behaviour of the clay with a single contaminant solute are analysed with the presented numerical method.

  17. The effects of music therapy on engagement in family caregiver and care receiver couples with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Alicia Ann

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of caregiver-implemented music applications on engagement with their care receivers. Eight couples participated individually in a series of sessions, where a music therapist trained and cued the caregivers to implement a music application of choice. Changes in engagement frequency over a series of five sessions was highly statistically significant. The authors conclude that music therapy applications are effective in increasing mutual engagement in caregiving and care receiving couples with dementia, and that caregivers can effectively facilitate the engagement using music. Furthermore, once the engagement is established, it carries over into visitation without music.

  18. Frequency enhancement in coupled noisy excitable elements: effects of network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wei-Yin; Lai, Pik-Yin; Chan, Chi-Keung

    2013-07-01

    Coupled excitable elements in the presence of noise can exhibit oscillatory behavior with non-trivial frequency dependence as the coupling strength of the system increases. The phenomenon of frequency enhancement (FE) occurs in some coupling regime, in which the elements can oscillate with a frequency higher than their uncoupled frequencies. In this paper, details of the FE are investigated by simulations of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model with different network topologies. It is found that the characteristics of FE, such as the maximal enhancement coupling, enhancement level etc, are functions of the network topology and spatial dimensions. The effect of excitability and the spatio-temporal patterns during FE are investigated to provide an intuitive picture for the enhancement mechanism. Interestingly, some of these characteristics of FE can be described by scaling laws; suggesting the existence of universality in the FE phenomenon. The relevance of these results to biological rhythms are also discussed.

  19. Velocity selective optical pumping effects on 85 Rb atoms from various coupling beam polarization configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-11-01

    We have investigated velocity selective spectral profile variations of probe beam transmittance at Fg = 3 →Fe = 2 , 3, and 4 hyperfine manifolds of 85 Rb atoms along with coherence effects at the Fg = 3 →Fe = 4 transition with various coupling laser polarization configurations and a fixed probe polarization (σ+). Laser linewidth, atomic velocity distributions, frequency mixing of the coupling and probe laser beams between degenerate magnetic sublevels, and polarization variations of the coupling beam with the probe beam fixed at the Fg = 3 →Fe = 4 transition were used to simulate the line profiles. The calculated transmittance signals are in good agreement with observed signals for each coupling laser polarization configuration.

  20. The Effect of Provision of Information Regarding Infertility Treatment Strategies on Anxiety Level of Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hamdieh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility may have many emotional and psychological implications on infertilecouples. So far, different methods for reducing anxiety in infertile couples have been evaluated. Thegoal of this study is to evaluate the effect of provision of information regarding infertility treatmentto infertile couples on their anxiety levels.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a before and after clinical trial. Forty-twoindividuals were considered as cases and 40 as controls. In order to evaluate anxiety and depressionin participants, the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire was used. Theintervention group received information about infertility treatment through a two hour face-to-facemeeting and was provided with a brochure. Anxiety level was assessed at the time of admission,immediately after the session and two weeks later. Assessment was performed twice for the controlgroup; once at the time of admission and secondly, two weeks later.Results: Our results show that receiving information about infertility treatment significantlydecreases anxiety among infertile couples two weeks post-training. This decline does not have asignificant correlation with age, sex, education level of the couple, and neither with the durationnor the cause of infertility. Providing information does not have any significant effect on the rate ofdepression among couples.Conclusion: It is recommended that provision of information regarding infertility treatmentmethods should be considered as a means of decreasing anxiety among infertile couples who referto infertility treatment centers.

  1. Effect of the isovector coupling channel on the macroscopic part of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    United States of America, the SPIRAL2 at GANIL/France, and the GSI Facility FAIR in. Germany, which produce new data for neutron-rich nuclei. In this work, the effect of isovector coupling channel of the nucleon–nucleon inter- action on the macroscopic part of the binding energy is studied, and the dependency of this effect ...

  2. The Effectiveness of the Minnesota Couple Communication Program: A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Karen Smith

    1982-01-01

    Reviews 19 research studies on the Minnesota Couple Communication Program (CCP) which indicates an immediate positive effect on communication behavior and relationship satisfaction. Found CCP does not alter reported levels of self-disclosure or self-esteem. Positive changes persisted in some studies, but evidence of the durability of effects is…

  3. Effect of practical application of intimate relationship skills program in marital commitment of couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Chitsazzadeh Alaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the increasing rate of divorce and betrayals, the marital commitment has been concerned in marriage and family studies. The research aimed to evaluate the effect of Practical Application of Intimate Relationship Skills (PAIRS program in marital commitment of couples. The method was quasi-experimental and the design was pretest-posttest with a control group. The convenience sampling method was employed to choose 16 couples whose marital commitment score was below the mean in Isfahan, Iran. These couples were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups (N=8 in each group. Data gathering was carried out using Adams and Jones dimensions of commitment inventory (DCI that was filled out by the members of both groups in the pretest stage. Then, the experimental group received the PAIRS training program in thirteen 90-minute sessions. 35 percent of the total variance belongs to the group membership due to the effectiveness of this educational program. This educational program attempts to make couples aware of themselves and their spouses, enhance, intimacy and empathy and develop effective relationship skills and problem-solving skills. The results demonstrated that the PAIRS program showed a positive effect on marital commitment. Hence, the PAIRS program can be employed to prevent divorce by increasing marital commitment in couples.

  4. Enhanced coupling effects in vertical double-gate FinFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-Jae; Bawedin, Maryline; Guo, Yufeng; Liu, Fanyu; Akarvardar, Kerem; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Hee; Ionica, Irina; Cristoloveanu, Sorin

    2014-07-01

    Vertical double-gate (DG) FinFETs fabricated on SOI wafers show good gate control, reasonable threshold voltage and high carrier mobility despite the absence of the top-gate. The 3D coupling effect between the two lateral-gates and the back-gate is investigated based on experimental and simulation results. We compare DG and triple-gate FinFETs with various fin widths. Front-channel characteristics are easily tuned by applied bias at the back-gate if the fin is not too narrow. We highlight that vertical DG FinFET is more appropriate device for dynamic threshold voltage adjustment than triple-gate FinFET. An analytical model is proposed to quantify the coupling effect in DG FinFET by solving 2D Poisson equation. The body potential profile and coupling effect are modeled. A very good agreement is obtained between experiments, 3D simulations and the proposed model.

  5. Improvements in closeness, communication, and psychological distress mediate effects of couple therapy for veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Brian D; Mitchell, Alexandra; Georgia, Emily J; Biesen, Judith N; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson

    2015-04-01

    Empirically based couple therapy results in significant improvements in relationship satisfaction for the average couple; however, further research is needed to identify mediators that lead to change and to ensure that improvements in mediators predict subsequent-not just concurrent-relationship satisfaction. In addition, given that much of the current literature on couple therapy examines outcomes in a research environment, it is important to examine mediators in a treatment-as-usual setting. To address these questions, 161 heterosexual couples (322 individuals) received treatment-as-usual couple therapy at one of two Veteran Administration Medical Centers (M = 5.0 and 13.0 sessions at the two sites) and were assessed before every session. The majority of couples were married (85%) and had been together for a median of 7.8 years (SD = 13). Participants were primarily White, non-Hispanic (69%), African American (21%), and White, Hispanic/Latino (8%). Individuals' own self-reported improvements in communication, emotional closeness, and psychological distress (but not frequency of behaviors targeted in treatment) mediated the effect of treatment on their subsequent relationship satisfaction. When all significant mediators were examined simultaneously, improvements in men's and women's emotional closeness and men's psychological distress independently mediated subsequent relationship satisfaction. In contrast, improvements in earlier relationship satisfaction mediated the effect of treatment only on subsequent psychological distress. This study identifies unique mediators of treatment effects and shows that gains in mechanisms predict subsequent relationship satisfaction. Future investigations should focus on the role of emotional closeness and psychological distress-constructs that have often been neglected-in couple therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Effect of IVF failure on quality of life and emotional status in infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Nilay; Karabulut, Aysun; Ozkan, Sevgi; Aktun, Hale; Orengul, Fatma; Yilmaz, Rabiye; Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effect of a previous IVF failure on the quality of life and emotional distress, in couples undergoing IVF treatment. Experiencing IVF failure might cause differences on the anxiety-depression and quality of life scores of the couples, compared to the ones who were undergoing IVF treatment for the first time. This study included 64 couples who had previously experienced at least one IVF failure (Group 1) and 56 couples without history of IVF failure (Group 2) in a private Assisted Reproductive Center, Istanbul, Turkey. A sociodemographic data form, the FertiQoL International and Hospital Anxiety (HAD-A) and Depression scale (HAD-D) for evaluating the status of distress, were administered for the study. FertiQoL scores were compared between the groups, the environment scale of the quality of life in treatment section was found to be significantly higher in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (p=0.009). The HAD-A and HAD-D scores did not differ significantly between the groups. Group-variables were investigated using multilevel analysis, the infertility duration and income level were found to have an effect on the subscales of quality of life (p=0.009 and p=0.001 respectively) in Group 2. Depression scores were higher in couples with infertility duration of below five years in Group 1 and Group 2 compared to couples with infertility duration of five years or above (MANOVA analysis). The level of education was found to affect the scores of HAD-D in Group 2, but not in Group 1 (p=0.011). The score of HAD-D was significantly affected by the family type only in Group 2 (p=0.009); the depression score of the couples living with a nuclear family was found to be higher compared with the couples living in a traditional family (p=0.021). Fertility-specific quality of life scores reveals better results regarding the orientation to the treatment environment in the couples with a previous IVF failure, compared to first IVF cycle couples. Treatment failure does not

  7. Effect Of Rotation On Thermal Instability In Couple-Stress Elastico-Viscous Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lal, Roshan; Sharma, Poonam

    2004-08-01

    The thermal instability of a layer of a couple-stress fluid acted on by a uniform rotation is considered. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis, the dispersion relation is obtained. For stationary convection it is found that rotation has a stabilizing effect, whereas the couple-stress has both stabilizing and destabilizing effects. It is found that the presence of rotation introduces oscillatory modes in the system. A sufficient condition for the non-existence of overstability is also obtained.

  8. Coupling effects on photoluminescence of exciton states in asymmetric quantum dot molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Nelson R; Camacho, Angela S; Ramírez, Hanz Y

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of photoluminescence from exciton states in InAs/GaAs asymmetric dot pairs, where interdot coupling is reached via magnetic field in the Faraday configuration. Electronic structure is obtained by finite element calculations, and Coulomb effects are included using a perturbative approach. According to our simulated spectra, bright excited states may become optically accessible at low temperatures in hybridization regimes where intermixing with the ground state is achieved. Our results show effective magnetic control on the energy, polarization and intensity of emitted light, and suggest these coupled nanostructures as relevant candidates for implementation of quantum optoelectronic devices.

  9. Evolution of nanoscale interstitial dislocation loops under coupling effect of stress and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ning; Shen, Tielong; Kurtz, Richard; Wang, Zhiguang; Gao, Fei

    2017-07-01

    The properties of nano-scale interstitial dislocation loops under the coupling effect of stress and temperature are studied using atomistic simulation methods and experiments. The decomposition of a loop by the emission of smaller loops is identified as one of the major mechanisms to release the localized stress induced by the coupling effect, which is validated by the TEM observations. The classical conservation law of Burgers vector cannot be applied during such decomposition process. The dislocation network is formed from the decomposed loops, which may initiate the irradiation creep much earlier than expected through the mechanism of climb-controlled glide of dislocations.

  10. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, P; Sen, A; Kaw, P K

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and $MnO_2$ dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of $\\partial\\omega/\\partial k < 0$ are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.

  11. Inversed Vernier effect based single-mode laser emission in coupled microdisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Kaiyang; Li, Jiankai; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2015-09-01

    Recently, on-chip single-mode laser emissions in coupled microdisks have attracted considerable research attention due to their wide applications. While most of single-mode lasers in coupled microdisks or microrings have been qualitatively explained by either Vernier effect or inversed Vernier effect, none of them have been experimentally confirmed. Here, we studied the mechanism of single-mode laser operation in coupled microdisks. We found that the mode numbers had been significantly reduced to nearly single-mode within a large pumping power range from threshold to gain saturation. The detail laser spectra showed that the largest gain and the first lasing peak were mainly generated by one disk and the laser intensity was proportional to the wavelength detuning of two set of modes. The corresponding theoretical analysis showed that the experimental observations were dominated by internal coupling within one cavity, which was similar to the recently explored inversed Vernier effect in two coupled microrings. We believe our finding will be important for understanding the previous experimental findings and the development of on-chip single-mode laser.

  12. A dyadic analysis of relationships and health: does couple-level context condition partner effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L

    2014-08-01

    Adding to the growing literature explicating the links between romantic relationships and health, this study examined how both couple-level characteristics, particularly union type (e.g., dating, cohabiting, or marriage) and interracial pairing, and interpersonal characteristics (e.g., partner strain and support), predicted young adults' physical and mental health. Using dyadic data from a sample of 249 young, primarily Black couples, we hypothesized and found support for the importance of couple-level context, partner behavior, and their interaction in predicting health. Interracial couples (all Black/non-Black pairings) reported worse health than monoracial Black couples. Union type, however, did not directly predict health but was a significant moderator of partner strain. That is, the negative association between partner strain and self-reported health was stronger for cohabiting and married couples versus their dating counterparts, suggesting that coresidence, more so than marital status, may be important for understanding partner effects on physical health. For psychological distress, however, partner support proved equally beneficial across union types.

  13. The effects of marriage education for army couples with a history of infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Loew, Benjamin; Markman, Howard J

    2012-02-01

    While existing literature has begun to explore risk factors which may predict differential response to marriage education, a history of couple infidelity has not been examined to determine whether infidelity moderates the impacts of marriage education. The current study evaluated self-report marital satisfaction and communication skills in a sample of 662 married Army couples randomly assigned to marriage education (i.e., PREP) or a no-treatment control group and assessed prior to intervention, post intervention, and at 1 year after intervention. Of these, 23.4% couples reported a history of infidelity in their marriage. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that having a history of infidelity significantly moderated the impact of PREP for marital satisfaction, with a trend for a similar effect on communication skills. However, couples with a history of infidelity assigned to PREP did not reach the same levels of marital satisfaction after intervention seen in the group of couples without infidelity assigned to PREP, although they did show comparable scores on communication skills after intervention. Implications of these findings for relationship education with couples with a history of infidelity are discussed.

  14. Study of the effect of loop inductance on the RF transmission line to cavity coupling coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shankar; Pant, K. K.

    2016-08-01

    Coupling of RF power is an important aspect in the design and development of RF accelerating structures. RF power coupling employing coupler loops has the advantage of tunability of β, the transmission line to cavity coupling coefficient. Analytical expressions available in literature for determination of size of the coupler loop using Faraday's law of induction show reasonably good agreement with experimentally measured values of β below critical coupling (β ≤ 1) but show large deviation with experimentally measured values and predictions by simulations for higher values of β. In actual accelerator application, many RF cavities need to be over-coupled with β > 1 for reasons of beam loading compensation, reduction of cavity filling time, etc. This paper discusses a modified analytical formulation by including the effect of loop inductance in the determination of loop size for any desired coupling coefficient. The analytical formulation shows good agreement with 3D simulations and with experimentally measured values. It has been successfully qualified by the design and development of power coupler loops for two 476 MHz pre-buncher RF cavities, which have successfully been conditioned at rated power levels using these coupler loops.

  15. The effects of relationship enrichment program on compatibility and marital satisfaction of infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Miri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Infertility as a crisis in couples' life, not only creates psychological problems, but also, it can act as a powerful impact on the relationships between couples. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of relationship enrichment on compatibility and marital satisfaction of infertile couples. Methods: This is a semi experimental study with pre-test and post-test on control group. Statistical population of this study was an infertile couple in Birjand. The couples were randomly divided to control groups (17 couples and experimental groups (15 couples. The research instrument was marital adjustment questionnaire. That completed before, immediately and 3 months after intervention. The intervention consisted of 6 training session. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16. Results: Before the intervention, mean scores were matched the two groups. After the intervention, the experimental group increased average compatibility from 101.5±22/4 to 129.33±10.6 , marital satisfaction from 33/8±8 to 44±4.8 , marital solidarity from12±3.8 to 16.1±2.2 , couples agreement from 44.6±10.5 to 54.8±6.1 , expression of love from 11±3.7 to 14.2± 1.(p<0.05 Conclusion: Relationship enrichment increased the marital compatibility and marital satisfaction. Therefore recommended using relationship enrichment program to increase compatibility and marital satisfaction. Paper Type: Research Article.

  16. Effects of a Randomized Couple-Based Intervention on Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients and Their Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Karen; Feldman, Barry N.; Borstelmann, Nancy A.; Daniels, Ann A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a couple-based intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of early-stage breast cancer patients and their partners. A randomized controlled design was used to assign couples to either the hospital standard social work services (SSWS) or a couple-based intervention, the Partners in…

  17. Migration of Couples with Non-Employed and Employed Wives in the Netherlands: the Changing Effects of Partner's Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.J.M.; Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2004-01-01

    Data for 1977 and 1995/96 are used to study (changes in) the effects of the partners’ resources on long-distance migration of couples in the Netherlands. The analyses were performed separately for couples with employed and with non-employed women. In 1977, couples with non-employed women showed

  18. Short and long-term effectiveness of couple counselling: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Margot J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy couple relationships are fundamental to a healthy society, whereas relationship breakdown and discord are linked to a wide range of negative health and wellbeing outcomes. Two types of relationship services (couple counselling and relationship education have demonstrated efficacy in many controlled studies but evidence of the effectiveness of community-based relationship services has lagged behind. This study protocol describes an effectiveness evaluation of the two types of community-based relationship services. The aims of the Evaluation of Couple Counselling study are to: map the profiles of clients seeking agency-based couple counselling and relationship enhancement programs in terms of socio-demographic, relationship, health, and health service use indicators; to determine 3 and 12-month outcomes for relationship satisfaction, commitment, and depression; and determine relative contributions of client and therapy factors to outcomes. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental pre-post-post evaluation design is used to assess outcomes for couples presenting for the two types of community-based relationship services. The longitudinal design involves a pre-treatment survey and two follow-up surveys at 3- and 12-months post-intervention. The study is set in eight Relationships Australia Victoria centres, across metropolitan, outer suburbs, and regional/rural sites. Relationships Australia, a non-government organisation, is the largest provider of couple counselling and relationship services in Australia. The key outcomes are couple satisfaction, relationship commitment, and depression measured by the CESD-10. Multi-level modelling will be used to account for the dyadic nature of couple data. Discussion The study protocol describes the first large scale investigation of the effectiveness of two types of relationship services to be conducted in Australia. Its significance lies in providing more detailed profiles of couples who

  19. Impact of the coupling effect and the configuration on a compact rectenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, J.; Douyere, A.; Luk, J. D. Lan Sun

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes an experimental study of the coupling effect of a rectenna array. The rectifying antenna consists of a compact and efficient rectifying circuit in a series topology, coupled with a small metamaterial-inspired antenna. The measurements are investigated in the X plane on the rectenna array's behavior, with series and parallel DC- combining configuration of two and three spaced rectennas from 3 cm to 10 cm. This study shows that the maximum efficiency is reached for the series configuration, with a resistive load of 10 kQ. The optimal distance is not significant for series or parallel configuration. Then, a comparison between a rectenna array with non-optimal mutual coupling and a more traditional patch rectenna is performed. Finally, a practical application is tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of such small rectenna array.

  20. Modeling of Interfilament Coupling Currents and Their Effect on Magnet Quench Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Chlachidze, G; Maciejewski, M; Sabbi, G; Stoynev, S E; Verweij, A

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the transport current of a superconducting magnet cause several types of transitory losses. Due to its relatively short time constant, usually of the order of a few tens of milliseconds, interfilament coupling loss can have a significant effect on the coil protection against overheating after a quench. This loss is deposited in the strands and can facilitate a more homogeneous transition to the normal state of the coil turns. Furthermore, the presence of local interfilament coupling currents reduces the magnet's differential inductance, which in turn provokes a faster discharge of the transport current. The lumped-element dynamic electrothermal model of a superconducting magnet has been developed to reproduce these effects. Simulations are compared to experimental electrical transients and found in good agreement. After its validation, the model can be used for predicting the performance of quench protection systems based on energy extraction, quench heaters, the newly developed coupling-loss-in...

  1. The effect of psycho-educational strategies on marital conflict among dual-career couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghamari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of psycho--educational strategies on decreasing the components of marital conflict among dual-career couples. The method of research was experimental design. 11 couples were selected using random sampling and then were assigned into the groups of experimental and control. The experimental group participated in psycho-educational sessions. Data were collected using Barati and Sanai’s marital conflict questionnaire and analyzed using repeated measure test. Results showed that psycho-educational strategies are effective in decreasing all components of marital conflict among dual-career couples (p<0/01 except for two components of seeking child support and separating financial events.

  2. Local Residents Trained As ‘Influence Agents’ Most Effective In Persuading African Couples On HIV Counseling and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    LAMBDIN, Barrot; Kanweka, William; Inambao, Mubiana; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; Shah, Heena; Linton, Sabriya; Wong, Frank,; Luisi, Nicole; Tichacek, Amanda; Kalowa, James; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Couples in sub-Saharan Africa are the largest group in the world at risk for HIV infection. Couples counseling and testing programs have been shown to reduce HIV transmission, but such programs remain rare in Africa. Before couples counseling and testing can become the norm, it is essential to increase demand for the services. We evaluated the effectiveness of several promotional strategies during a two -year program in Kitwe and Ndola, Zambia. The program attracted more than 7,600 couples th...

  3. DVR3DUV: a Suite for High Accuracy Calculations of Ro-Vibronic Spectra of Triatomic MOLECUlES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Emil J.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We present a computer code (DVR3DUV) for calculations of high-accuracy ro-vibronic spectra of triatomic molecules. The current implementation is an extension to the DVR3D suite [1], which operates with the exact kinetic energy operator, a single potential energy surface and a single dipole moment surface (ro-vibrational transitions only). The main function of the new code is calculation of transition intensities between different electronic states in the rotational-vibrational resolution. As a case study, two electronic states of SO_2 molecule are considered. Ro-vibrational wavefunctions and energy levels for the ground ˜{X}^1A_1 state of SO_2 are calculated using Ames PES [2], while energy levels and wavefunctions of the ˜{C}^1B_2 state are calculated using ab initio PES (MRCI-F12-AVTZ). Transition intensities are computed using a) Franck-Condon approximation; b) ab initio dipole moment surface between the two electronic states. Results are compared to the latest theoretical and experimental works. Future applications of the DVR3DUV code will focus on highly accurate electronic spectra for atmospherically important species, such as ozone molecule. {1} J. Tennyson, M A. Kostin, P. Barletta, G. J. Harris, O L. Polyansky, J. Ramanlal, N. F. Zobov, Computer Physics Communications 163 (2004) 85-116. {2} X. Huang, D. W. Schwenke, T. J. Lee, J Chem Phys. 2014 ;140(11):11431

  4. Challenges in inflationary magnetogenesis: Constraints from strong coupling, backreaction, and the Schwinger effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramkishor; Jagannathan, Sandhya; Seshadri, T. R.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2017-10-01

    Models of inflationary magnetogenesis with a coupling to the electromagnetic action of the form f2Fμ νFμ ν , are known to suffer from several problems. These include the strong coupling problem, the backreaction problem and also strong constraints due to the Schwinger effect. We propose a model which resolves all these issues. In our model, the coupling function, f , grows during inflation and transits to a decaying phase post-inflation. This evolutionary behavior is chosen so as to avoid the problem of strong coupling. By assuming a suitable power-law form of the coupling function, we can also neglect backreaction effects during inflation. To avoid backreaction post-inflation, we find that the reheating temperature is restricted to be below ≈1.7 ×104 GeV . The magnetic energy spectrum is predicted to be nonhelical and generically blue. The estimated present day magnetic field strength and the corresponding coherence length taking reheating at the QCD epoch (150 MeV) are 1.4 ×10-12 G and 6.1 ×10-4 Mpc , respectively. This is obtained after taking account of nonlinear processing over and above the flux-freezing evolution after reheating. If we consider also the possibility of a nonhelical inverse transfer, as indicated in direct numerical simulations, the coherence length and the magnetic field strength are even larger. In all cases mentioned above, the magnetic fields generated in our models satisfy the γ -ray bound below a certain reheating temperature.

  5. Cooperative effect of random and time-periodic coupling strength on synchronization transitions in one-way coupled neural system: mean field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiancheng, Shi; Min, Luo; Chusheng, Huang

    2017-08-01

    The cooperative effect of random coupling strength and time-periodic coupling strengh on synchronization transitions in one-way coupled neural system has been investigated by mean field approach. Results show that cooperative coupling strength (CCS) plays an active role for the enhancement of synchronization transitions. There exist an optimal frequency of CCS which makes the system display the best CCS-induced synchronization transitions, a critical frequency of CCS which can not further affect the CCS-induced synchronization transitions, and a critical amplitude of CCS which can not occur the CCS-induced synchronization transitions. Meanwhile, noise intensity plays a negative role for the CCS-induced synchronization transitions. Furthermore, it is found that the novel CCS amplitude-induced synchronization transitions and CCS frequency-induced synchronization transitions are found.

  6. Why Do Mixed Quantum-Classical Methods Describe Short-Time Dynamics through Conical Intersections So Well? Analysis of Geometric Phase Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherib, Rami; Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2015-04-14

    Adequate simulation of nonadiabatic dynamics through conical intersection requires accounting for a nontrivial geometric phase (GP) emerging in electronic and nuclear wave functions in the adiabatic representation. Popular mixed quantum-classical (MQC) methods, surface hopping and Ehrenfest, do not carry a nuclear wave function to be able to incorporate the GP into nuclear dynamics. Surprisingly, the MQC methods reproduce ultrafast interstate crossing dynamics generated with the exact quantum propagation so well as if they contained information about the GP. Using two-dimensional linear vibronic coupling models we unravel how the MQC methods can effectively mimic the most significant dynamical GP effects: (1) compensation for repulsive diagonal second-order nonadiabatic couplings and (2) transfer enhancement for a fully cylindrically symmetric component of a nuclear distribution.

  7. Why do mixed quantum-classical methods describe short-time dynamics through conical intersections so well? Analysis of geometric phase effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gherib, Rami; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2015-01-01

    Adequate simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics through conical intersection requires account for a non-trivial geometric phase (GP) emerging in electronic and nuclear wave-functions in the adiabatic representation. Popular mixed quantum-classical (MQC) methods, surface hopping and Ehrenfest, do not carry a nuclear wave-function to be able to incorporate the GP into nuclear dynamics. Surprisingly, the MQC methods reproduce ultra-fast interstate crossing dynamics generated with the exact quantum propagation so well as if they contained information about the GP. Using two-dimensional linear vibronic coupling models we unravel how the MQC methods can effectively mimic the most significant dynamical GP effects: 1) compensation for repulsive diagonal second order non-adiabatic couplings and 2) transfer enhancement for a fully cylindrically symmetric component of a nuclear distribution.

  8. The Effect of Uncertainty Reducing Strategies on Young Couples' Relational Repair and Intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmers, Tara M.; Canary, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines, relying on uncertainty reduction theory, the effect of communication strategies on assessments of relational repair and intimacy. Finds that 100 heterosexual romantically involved couples nominated unfaithfulness, third-party competition, and geographic distance as most negatively affecting their relationships. Finds that perceptions of…

  9. A novel effective approach for systems of coupled Schrödinger ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 1. A novel effective ... Keywords. Partial differential equation; systems of coupled Schrödinger equation; new homotopy perturbation method. Abstract. Schrödinger equations arise in modelling various physical and engineering problems. In this paper, we ...

  10. Effective relational dynamics of the closed FRW model universe minimally coupled to a massive scalar field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höhn, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330827952; Kubalová, E.; Tsobanjan, A.

    2011-01-01

    We apply the effective approach to evaluating semiclassical relational dynamics to the closed Friedman–Robertson–Walker cosmological model filled with a minimally coupled massive scalar field. This model is interesting for studying relational dynamics in a more general setting because (i) it

  11. Couple-based Intervention for Depression: An Effectiveness Study in the National Health Service in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Donald H; Fischer, Melanie S; Worrell, Michael; Corrie, Sarah; Belus, Jennifer M; Molyva, Efthymia; Boeding, Sara E

    2017-12-04

    This study represents an effectiveness study and service evaluation of a cognitive behavioral, couple-based treatment for depression (BCT-D) provided in London services that are part of the "Improving Access to Psychological Therapies" (IAPT) program in England. Twenty-three therapists in community clinics were trained in BCT-D during a 5-day workshop, followed by monthly group supervision for 1 year. The BCT-D treatment outcome findings are based on 63 couples in which at least one partner was depressed and elected to receive BCT-D. Eighty-five percent of couples also demonstrated relationship distress, and 49% of the nonclient partners also met caseness for depression or anxiety. Findings demonstrated a recovery rate of 57% with BCT-D, compared to 41% for all IAPT treatments for depression in London. Nonclient partners who met caseness demonstrated a 48% recovery rate with BCT-D, although they were not the focus of treatment. BCT-D was equally effective for clients regardless of the clinical status of the nonclient partner, suggesting its effectiveness in assisting both members of the couple simultaneously. Likewise, treatment was equally effective whether or not both partners reported relationship distress. The findings are promising regarding the successful application of BCT-D in routine clinical settings. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  12. The Effects of the Cognitive-Behavioral Marriage Enrichment Program on the Dysfunctional Attitudes of Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Melek; Ersanli, Ercumend

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral marriage enrichment program to decrease the level of the dysfunctional attitudes of the couples. Forty participants with dysfunctional attitudes determined by The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale were randomly chosen as experimental and control groups. The results of the…

  13. Numerically exploring habitat fragmentation effects on populations using cell-based coupled map lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Bevers; Curtis H. Flather

    1999-01-01

    We examine habitat size, shape, and arrangement effects on populations using a discrete reaction-diffusion model. Diffusion is modeled passively and applied to a cellular grid of territories forming a coupled map lattice. Dispersal mortality is proportional to the amount of nonhabitat and fully occupied habitat surrounding a given cell, with distance decay. After...

  14. The Effect of the Family Training Program on Married Women's Couple-Burnout Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Hatice Deveci; Deniz, M. Engin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of Modules 2 and 3 of the Family Communication Section of the Family Training Program as prepared by the Ministry of Family and Social Policies on married women's couple-burnout levels. The study group consists of 40 married women in total: 20 constituting the experimental group and the remaining 20…

  15. The effects of interfacial exchange coupling in Fe/ErFeO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Ke, Y. J.; He, W.; Zhang, X. Q.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, W.; Li, Y.; Ahmad, S. S.; Cheng, Z. H.

    2017-05-01

    Exploring exchange bias in ferromagnetic (FM)/antiferromagnetic (AFM) heterostructures is vital for both fundamental magnetism and practical application. However, in the case of conventional FM/AFM systems, the essential field cooling process above the Néel temperature of AFM materials hinders their application if the Néel temperature is far higher than room-temperature. Here, we report the effects of interfacial exchange coupling in Fe/ErFeO3 heterostructures. The magnetic-field-induced switchable exchange bias, originating from the AFM exchange coupling between Fe film and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-interaction-induced net moment of ErFeO3 along c axis, is successfully achieved without field cooling or in-field growth process of AFM. Different from the most previous pinning layer using a hard FM or traditional AFM, ErFeO3 pinning layer has the advantages of both the magnetic field sensitivity (~780 Oe) and ultrahigh dynamic frequency. In addition, although Fe film is polycrystalline, it exhibits a strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy resulted from the so-called ‘spin-flop-coupling effect’, i.e. the magnetic coupling between Fe film and the compensated G-type AFM spins of EFO along a axis. Interestingly, the exchange bias field and asymmetric switching field offer entirely different information about the asymmetry of magnetization reversal near hard axis. The asymmetric switching field is further proved to be an effective measure to determine the weak unidirectional magnetic anisotropy for film with nearly 180° domain wall displacement. Our experimental results provide a practical method to establish room-temperature exchange bias in FM/G-type AFM without field cooling. Furthermore, the magnetic-field-induced switchable exchange-bias, the spin-flop coupling effect and the angular dependent asymmetry of magnetization reversal in the vicinity of hard axis in Fe/ErFeO3 heterostructures may provide new insights on the interfacial exchange coupling in FM/AFM systems.

  16. The effect of daily challenges in children with autism on parents' couple problem-solving interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L; Papp, Lauren M; Blumenstock, Shari M; Floyd, Frank; Goetz, Greta L

    2016-09-01

    The vulnerability-stress-adaptation model guided this examination of the impact of daily fluctuations in the symptoms and co-occurring behavior problems of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on parents' couple problem-solving interactions in natural settings and as these interactions spontaneously occur. A 14-day daily diary was completed by mothers and fathers in 176 families who had a child with ASD. On each day of the diary, parents separately reported on the child with ASD's daily level of symptoms and co-occurring behavior problems and the topic and level of negative affect in their most meaningful or important daily couple problem-solving interaction. Multilevel modeling was used to account for the within-person, within-couple nested structure of the data. Results indicated that many parents are resilient to experiencing a day with a high level of child ASD symptoms and co-occurring behavior problems and do not report more negative couple problem-solving interactions. However, household income, level of parental broader autism phenotype, and presence of multiple children with special care needs served as vulnerability factors in that they were related to a higher overall rating of negative affect in couple interactions and moderated the impact of reporting a day with a high level of child ASD symptoms and co-occurring behavior problems on next-day ratings of negative couple problem-solving interactions. The magnitude of these effects was small. Understanding mechanisms that support adaptive couple interactions in parents of children with ASD is critical for promoting best outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. FEA study of non-linear effect of coupling media to Sonic infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuyang; Han, Xiaoyan

    2015-03-01

    Sonic Infrared (IR) imaging technique is a promising NDE technology to find cracks through thermography analysis of vibration-induced crack heating. In Sonic IR, coupling materials are usually engaged between an ultrasound transducer and a sample. It was discovered by the authors that coupling materials actually has strong nonlinear effect to the vibration and the temperature increase in cracks in the target. In this paper, we will present our research results using a 3-D finite element analysis. The predicted results are used for validation of the experimental results as well. The site to site comparison between experiment and FEA analysis is laid out in this paper.

  18. DOA Estimation under Unknown Mutual Coupling and Multipath with Improved Effective Array Aperture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexian; Trinkle, Matthew; Ng, Brian W-H

    2015-12-08

    Subspace-based high-resolution direction of arrival (DOA) estimation significantly deteriorates under array manifold perturbation and rank deficiency of the covariance matrix due to mutual coupling and multipath propagation, respectively. In this correspondence, the unknown mutual coupling can be circumvented by the proposed method without any passive or active calibration process, and the DOA of the coherent signals can be accurately estimated accordingly. With a newly constructed matrix, the deficient rank can be restored, and the effective array aperture can be extended compared with conventional spatial smoothing. The proposed method achieves a good robustness and DOA estimation accuracy with unknown mutual coupling. The simulation results demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. Study of turning takeoff maneuver in free-flying dragonflies: effect of dynamic coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Zeyghami, Samane

    2015-01-01

    Turning takeoff flights of several dragonflies were recorded during which a dragonfly takes off while changing the flight direction at the same time. Center of mass was elevated about 1-2 body lengths. Five of these maneuvers were selected for 3D body surface reconstruction and the body orientation measurement. In oppose to conventional banked turn model, which neglects interactions between the rotational motions, in this study we investigated the strength of the dynamic coupling by dividing pitch, roll and yaw angular accelerations into two contributions: one from aerodynamic torque and one from dynamic coupling effect. The latter term is referred to as Dynamic Coupling Acceleration (DCA). The DCA term can be measured directly from instantaneous rotational velocities of the insect. We found a strong correlation between pitch and yaw velocities at the end of each wingbeat and the time integral of the corresponding DCA term. Generation of pitch, roll and yaw torques requires different aerodynamic mechanisms an...

  20. The effective U(1)-Higgs theory at strong coupling on optical lattices?

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, Alexei; Tsai, Shan-Wen; Meurice, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the U(1)-Higgs model in two dimensions in the strongly coupled regime. If we neglect the plaquette interactions, we generate an effective theory where link variables are integrated out, producing 4-field operators. Plaquette interactions can be restored order by order as in recent calculations with staggered fermions. In the case of a SU(2) gauge theory with fermions, this strong coupling expansion can be related to the strong coupling expansion of Fermi-Hubbard models possibly implementable on optical lattice. We would like to provide a similar construction relating the U(1)-Higgs model to some Bose-Hubbard model. As a first step in this direction, we discuss a recent proposal to implement the O(2) model on optical lattices using a 87Rb and 41K Bose-Bose mixture of cold atoms.

  1. Mutual Coupling Effects for Radar Cross Section (RCS of a Series-Fed Dipole Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Sneha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of RCS of a phased array depends on various parameters, namely, array geometry, operational frequency, feed network, mutual coupling between the antenna elements and so fourth. This paper presents the estimation of RCS of linear dipole array with series-feed network by tracing the signal path from the antenna aperture into the feed network. The effect of mutual coupling exhibited by the dipole antenna is considered for three configurations namely, side by side, collinear, and parallel in echelon. It is shown that the mutual coupling affects the antenna pattern (and hence RCS significantly for larger scan angles. Further it is inferred that the RCS of phased array can be optimized by (i reducing the length of the dipole, (ii termination of the isolation port of the coupler with a suitable load, and (iii using suitable amplitude distribution.

  2. On the heterotic effective action at one-loop, gauge couplings and the gravitational sector

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E.; Petropoulos, P.M.; Rizos, J.

    1996-01-01

    We present in detail the procedure for calculating the heterotic one-loop effective action. We focus on gravitational and gauge couplings. We show that the two-derivative couplings of the gravitational sector are not renormalized at one loop when the ground state is supersymmetric. Arguments are presented that this non-renormalization theorem persists to all orders in perturbation theory. Arguments are presented that this non-renormalization theorem persists to all orders in perturbation theory. We also derive the full one-loop correction to the gauge coupling. For a class of N=2 ground states, namely those that are obtained by toroidal compactification to four dimensions of generic six-dimensional N=1 models, we give an explicit formula for the gauge-group independent thresholds, and show that these are equal within the whole family.

  3. Ionic Hamiltonians for transition metal atoms: effective exchange coupling and Kondo temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F.; Goldberg, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    An ionic Hamiltonian for describing the interaction between a metal and a d-shell transition metal atom having an orbital singlet state is introduced and its properties analyzed using the Schrieffer-Wolf transformation (exchange coupling) and the poor man’s scaling method (Kondo temperature). We find that the effective exchange coupling between the metal and the atom has an antiferromagnetic or a ferromagnetic interaction depending on the kind of atomic fluctuations, either S\\to S-1/2 or S\\to S+1/2 , associated with the metal-atom coupling. We present a general scheme for all those processes and calculate, for the antiferromagnetic interaction, the corresponding Kondo-temperature.

  4. Photovoltaic concepts inspired by coherence effects in photosynthetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédas, Jean-Luc; Sargent, Edward H.; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of how coherent and vibronic phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems aid in the efficient transport of energy from light-harvesting antennas to photosynthetic reaction centres. Such coherence effects suggest strategies to increase transport lengths even in the presence of structural disorder. Here we explore how these principles could be exploited in making improved solar cells. We investigate in depth the case of organic materials, systems in which energy and charge transport stand to be improved by overcoming challenges that arise from the effects of static and dynamic disorder -- structural and energetic -- and from inherently strong electron-vibration couplings. We discuss how solar-cell device architectures can evolve to use coherence-exploiting materials, and we speculate as to the prospects for a coherent energy conversion system. We conclude with a survey of the impacts of coherence and bioinspiration on diverse solar-energy harvesting solutions, including artificial photosynthetic systems.

  5. Thermoelastic damping in torsion microresonators with coupling effect between torsion and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yongpeng; Li, Pu; Fang, Yuming

    2014-02-01

    Predicting thermoelastic damping (TED) is crucial in the design of high Q MEMS resonators. In the past, there have been few works on analytical modeling of thermoelastic damping in torsion microresonators. This could be related to the assumption of pure torsional mode for the supporting beams in the torsion devices. The pure torsional modes of rectangular supporting beams involve no local volume change, and therefore, they do not suffer any thermoelastic loss. However, the coupled motion of torsion and bending usually exists in the torsion microresonator when it is not excited by pure torque. The bending component of the coupled motion causes flexural vibrations of supporting beams which may result in significant thermoelastic damping for the microresonator. This paper presents an analytical model for thermoelastic damping in torsion microresonators with the coupling effect between torsion and bending. The theory derives a dynamic model for torsion microresonators considering the coupling effect, and approximates the thermoelastic damping by assuming the energy loss to occur only in supporting beams of flexural vibrations. The thermoelastic damping obtained by the present model is compared to the measured internal friction of single paddle oscillators. It is found that thermoelastic damping contributes significantly to internal friction for the case of the higher modes at room temperature. The present model is validated by comparing its results with the finite-element method (FEM) solutions. The effects of structural dimensions and other parameters on thermoelastic damping are investigated for the representative case of torsion microresonators.

  6. Structural-Acoustic Coupling Effects on the Non-Vacuum Packaging Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Wu, Yulie; Zhang, Yongmeng; Tao, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Xiao, Dingbang

    2013-01-01

    The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm. PMID:24351631

  7. Effect of multimodal coupling in imaging micro-endoscopic fiber bundle on optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Ho; Kang, Jin U

    2012-01-14

    The effect of higher order modes in fiber bundle imager-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been theoretically modeled using coupled fiber mode analysis ignoring the polarization and core size variation in order to visualize the pure effect of multimodal coupling of the imaging bundle. In this model, the optical imaging fiber couples several higher order modes in addition to the fundamental one due to its high numerical aperture for achieving light confinement to the single core pixel. Those modes become evident in a distance domain using A-mode (depth) OCT based on a mirror sample experiment where multiple peaks are generated by the spatial convolution and coherence function of the light source. The distance between the peaks corresponding to each mode can be estimated by considering the effective indices of coupled (guided) modes obtained from numerically solving the fiber mode characteristics equations and the fiber length. The results have been compared for various types (fiber dimensions and wavelengths) and lengths of fibers, which have mode separation of 715 μm (1404 μm) and 764 μm (1527 μm) for the measurement and analysis, respectively in a 152.5 mm (305 mm)-long imaging fiber.

  8. Coupling marine monitoring and risk assessment by integrating exposure, bioaccumulation and effect studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, J.

    and ecotoxicological effects in Danish and Greenlandic waters. The amount of field data (from own, national and regional studies and surveys) presented in this thesis has provided an opportunity to integrate actual measured concentrations of contaminants with biological effect studies in a case study that couples...... marine monitoring and risk assessment for the organotin compounds. Thereby the thesis may also be seen as model for integrated risk assessment of other hazardous substances....

  9. Effects of Reentry Plasma Sheath on Mutual-Coupling Property of Array Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasma sheath enveloping a reentry vehicle would cause the failure of on-board antennas, which is an important effect that contributes to the “blackout” problem. The method of replacing the on-board single antenna with the array antennas and using beamforming technology has been proposed to mitigate “blackout” problem by many other researchers. Because the plasma sheath is a reflective medium, plasma will alter the mutual coupling between array elements and degrade the beamforming performance of array antenna. In this paper, the effects of the plasma sheath on the mutual coupling properties between adjacent array elements are studied utilizing the algorithm of finite integration technique. Results show that mutual coupling coefficients of array elements are deteriorating more seriously with the decrease of collision frequency. Moreover, when electron density and collision frequency are both large, plasma sheath improves the mutual coupling property of array elements; this conclusion suggests that replacing the on-board single antenna with the array antennas and using beamforming technology can be adopted to mitigate the blackout problem in this condition.

  10. Simulating Chiral Magnetic and Separation Effects with Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-02-01

    The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects—quantum-anomaly-induced electric current and chiral current along an external magnetic field in parity-odd quark-gluon plasma—have received intense studies in the community of heavy-ion collision physics. We show that analogous effects occur in rotating trapped Fermi gases with Weyl-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling where the rotation plays the role of an external magnetic field. These effects can induce a mass quadrupole in the atomic cloud along the rotation axis which may be tested in future experiments. Our results suggest that the spin-orbit coupled atomic gases are potential simulators of the chiral magnetic and separation effects.

  11. Analysis of Coupling Effectiveness on Concealed Signal Cable Slot with Different Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jiang Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to study the shielding effectiveness to reduce the electromagnetic interference and to protect electronic components. Taking the concealed signal cable which is set in shielding shell as the research object. The influence of different slot shapes on shielding effectiveness was analyzed by applying the mixed methods (Quadric FE-BEM. The results show that the coupling capacitance of a trapezoidal slot is the biggest, the one of rectangular slot is medium, and the one of a taper slot is the smallest for shielding pair cable, but their change trend are almost the same. In addition, with the various slot shapes width increasing, shielding pair cable coupling capacitance is little changed. The study is instructive for more effective to defense EMI and will improve the agricultural concealed shielding cable electromagnetic compatibility.

  12. Novel metamaterial based on the coupling effect of a dielectric trimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiahui; Chen, Wan, E-mail: dhtyyobdc@126.com; Lv, Bo; Wang, Zhefei

    2017-01-23

    Highlights: • Novel metamaterial based on the coupling effect of a dielectric trimer is proposed. • The phenomenon of vanishing mode is explained by the zero-sum effect. • Due to the vanishing mode, the bandwidth of the dielectric trimer has been expanded to 37%. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel periodic 2D all-dielectric metamaterial based on dielectric trimer is proposed. The electromagnetic responses are explained by the corrected equations of motion using coupled mode theory (CMT). An abnormal vanishment mode phenomenon is also discovered and explained using the zero-sum effect of magnetic dipole, by which the relative bandwidth of the metamaterial has been improved significantly compared with other structures. The presented design is easy for fabrication and can be applied in microwave region by scaling the dimensions of the cubes.

  13. Thermal Impedance Model of High Power IGBT Modules Considering Heat Coupling Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Thermal loading of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important for the reliability performance of power electronic systems, thus the thermal information of critical points inside module like junction temperature must be accurately modeled and predicted. Usually in the existing...... thermal models, only the self-heating effects of the chips are taken into account, while the thermal coupling effects among chips are less considered. This could result in inaccurate temperature estimation, especially in the high power IGBT modules where the chips are allocated closely to each other...... with large amount of heat generated. In this paper, both the self-heating and heat-coupling effects in the of IGBT module are investigated based on Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation, a new thermal impedance model is thereby proposed to better describe the temperature distribution inside IGBT modules...

  14. Couple disagreement about short-term fertility desires in Austria: Effects on intentions and contraceptive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Testa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Because of the dyadic nature of reproduction, the couple is the most suitable context forstudying reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE I investigate the effects of couple disagreement about short-term childbearing desires on the formulation and implementation of fertility intentions. Do men and women incorporate the perception of a disagreement with the partner about wanting a(nother child now in their reports on short-term fertility intentions and contraceptive behaviour? Are there relevant differences by type of disagreement, parity, gender and gender equality within the couple? METHODS Using individual-level data from the Austrian Generation and Gender Survey conductedin 2008, I regress respondent's short-term fertility intentions (ordinal regression modelsand non-use of contraception (logistic regression model on couple's short-term childbearing desires and a set of background variables. RESULTS The findings show that disagreement is shifted toward a pregnancy intentionpregnancy-seeking behaviour at parity zero and toward avoiding pregnancy and maintainingcontraceptive use at higher parities. Childless women are less responsive to the perceptionof their partner's desires than childless men when they express their short-termchildbearing intentions. Neither women nor men are likely to stop contraception if they perceive a disagreement with their partner about wanting a(nother child. Moreover, if theman is actively involved in childcare duties the chance to resolve the couple conflict in favour of childbearing increases. CONCLUSIONS This paper calls for the collection of data from both members of each couple so that theanalysis of the partner's actual desires can complement the analysis of the partner's perceived desires.

  15. The Effect of Teaching Communicative Patterns of Pluralistic Family on Couples Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Molavi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the basic elements declared in positive psychology is the concept of happiness. Researches have shown that without concerning how achieved, happiness can enhance our health. People who are happy feel more secure, decide easier, and are more satisfied of the people who live with. The aim of the present study was to measure the efficiency of teaching communicative pattern of pluralistic family on the happiness of couples. Materials & Method:This experimental study was designed to have a pre-test and post test and also a control group. Subjects of this study were comprised of consultation centers clients in Shiraz and was based on random sampling. Forty couples were selected according to the revised version of family communication patterns of Koerner and Fitzpatrick. Two dimensions, namely laisseze fair and protective family patterns, were taken into account through the process of selection . Oxford Happiness Invintory was administered to 40 couples and they were randomly divided into a control and an experimental group. Ten training sessions, 90- minute each, were held for experimental group exposed to pluralistic communication patterns. Three Couples declined and finally 34 couples were analyzed.The test was run for both groups and data was analyzed with covariance analysis method using SPSSI5. Results:The results of the present study revealed that with regard to happiness, there is a meaningful difference in both groups (p<0.005. The difference also existed between the pretest and post test scores of happiness test in both groups (p<0.0001. However, communication patterns and interaction between both groups did not reach a meaningful level. Conclusion: Based on the finding, it can be concluded that listening to and speaking with each other play a key role in happiness, therefore pluralistic communication methods based on high levels of listing speaking interactions can be effective happiness of couples.

  16. Coupling and corona effects research plan for transmission lines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, J E; Formanek, V C

    1976-06-01

    Concern has arisen over the possible effects of electric and magnetic fields produced by EHV-UHV transmission lines. Past and ongoing research concerning the electric and magnetic field effects from EHV-UHV transmission lines was reviewed as it pertains to the following areas: (1) electromagnetic interference, (2) acoustic noise, (3) generation of gaseous effluents, and (4) safety considerations of induced voltages and currents. The intent of this review was to identify the short and long range research projects required to address these areas. The research plan identifies and gives priority to twenty programs in corona and coupling effects. In the case of the corona effects, a number of programs were recommended for acoustic noise and electromagnetic interference to delineate improved power line design criteria in terms of social, meteorological, geographical and cost constraints. Only one project is recommended in the case of ozone generation, because the results of comprehensive analyses, laboratory studies and field measurements have demonstrated that power lines do not contribute significant quantities of ozone. In the case of the coupling effects, a number of programs are recommended for HVAC transmission lines to improve the theoretically developed design guidelines by considering practical constraints. For HVDC transmission lines, programs are suggested to engender a better theoretical understanding and practical measurements capability for the coupling mechanisms of the dc electric and magnetic field with nearby objects. The interrelationship of the programs and their role in a long-term research plan is also discussed.

  17. Resonant exciton-phonon coupling in ZnO nanorods at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumee Chakraborty

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibronic and optoelectronic properties, along with detailed studies of exciton-phonon coupling at room temperature (RT for random and aligned ZnO nanorods are reported. Excitation energy dependent Raman studies are performed for detailed analysis of multi-phonon processes in the nanorods. We report here the origin of coupling between free exciton and its associated phonon replicas, including its higher order modes, in the photoluminescence spectra at RT. Resonance of excitonic electron and resonating first order zone center LO phonon, invoked strongly by Frolich interaction, are made responsible for the observed phenomenon.

  18. Coupled effects of solution chemistry and hydrodynamics on the mobility and transport of quantum dot nanomaterials in the Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the coupled effects of solution chemistry and vadose zone processes on the mobility of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles, laboratory scale transport experiments were performed. The complex coupled effects of ionic strength, size of QD aggregates, surface tension, contact angle, infiltrat...

  19. Tuning the effective coupling of an AFM lever to a thermal bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, G [Institut Neel CNRS Grenoble BP 166 38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Torricelli, G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chevrier, J [Institut Neel CNRS Grenoble BP 166 38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Comin, F [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2007-11-28

    Fabrication of high quality nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) is nowadays extremely efficient. These NEMS will be used as sensors and actuators in integrated systems. Their use, however, raises questions about their interface (actuation, detection, read out) with external detection and control systems. Their operation implies many fundamental questions related to single particle effects such as Coulomb blockade, light matter interactions such as radiation pressure, thermal effects, Casimir forces and the coupling of nanosystems to the external world (thermal fluctuations, back action effect). Here we specifically present how the damping of an oscillating cantilever can be tuned in two radically different ways: (i) through an electromechanical coupling in the presence of a strong Johnson noise, (ii) through an external feedback control of thermal fluctuations which is the cold damping closely related to Maxwell's demon. This shows how the interplay between external control of micro-EMS (MEMS) or NEMS and their coupling to a thermal bath can lead to a wealth of effects that are nowadays extensively studied in different areas.

  20. Effects of oxytocin on cortisol reactivity and conflict resolution behaviors among couples with substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Julianne C; Fischer, Melanie S; Nietert, Paul J; Back, Sudie E; Maria, Megan Moran-Santa; Snead, Alexandra; Brady, Kathleen T

    2017-12-06

    Social stress, particularly in the form of dyadic conflict, is a well-established correlate of substance use disorders (SUD). The neuropeptide oxytocin can enhance prosocial behavior and mitigate addictive behaviors. These effects may be, in part, a result of oxytocin's ability to attenuate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. However, only one study to date has examined the effects of oxytocin on neuroendocrine reactivity or conflict resolution behavior among couples. Participants (N = 33 couples or 66 total participants) were heterosexual couples in which one or both partners endorsed substance misuse. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures design and an evidence-based behavioral coding system, we compared the impact of oxytocin (40 IU) vs. placebo on cortisol reactivity and conflict resolution behaviors. Among women, oxytocin attenuated cortisol response following the task. Oxytocin was also associated with increased Distress Maintaining Attributions and decreased Relationship Enhancing Attributions. Among men, oxytocin was associated with decreased Distress Maintaining Attributions, and both oxytocin and placebo yielded declines in Relationship Enhancing Attributions. The findings support emerging hypotheses that oxytocin may have differential effects in men and women, and indicate the need for future efforts to translate oxytocin's positive neurobiological effects into therapeutic behavioral changes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Coupling Effects of Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Magnetic Dipole Resonances in Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Tang, Chaojun; Chen, Jing; Yan, Zhendong; Zhu, Mingwei; Sui, Yongxing; Tang, Huang

    2017-11-01

    We numerically investigate the coupling effects of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and magnetic dipole (MD) resonances in metamaterials, which are composed of an Ag nanodisk array and a SiO2 spacer on an Ag substrate. The periodicity of the Ag nanodisk array leads to the excitation of SPPs at the surface of the Ag substrate. The near-field plasmon interactions between individual Ag nanodisks and the Ag substrate form MD resonances. When the excitation wavelengths of SPPs are tuned to approach the position of MD resonances by changing the array period of Ag nanodisks, SPPs and MD resonances are coupled together into two hybridized modes, whose positions can be well predicted by a coupling model of two oscillators. In the strong coupling regime of SPPs and MD resonances, the hybridized modes exhibit an obvious anti-crossing, resulting into an interesting phenomenon of Rabi splitting. Moreover, the magnetic fields under the Ag nanodisks are greatly enhanced, which may find some potential applications, such as magnetic nonlinearity.

  2. Complicated Fermi-type vibronic resonance: Untangling of the single-site quasi-line fluorescence excitation spectra of a methylated dibenzoporphin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabei, S. M.; Kuzmitsky, V. A.; Solovyov, K. N.

    2008-09-01

    The quasi-line low-temperature (4.2 K) fluorescence excitation spectra of 2,3,12,13-tetramethyldibenzo[ g,q]porphin introduced into an n-octane matrix have been measured in the range of the S 2 ← S 0 electronic transition at selective fluorescence monitoring for the two main types of impurity centers (sites). A characteristic feature of these spectra is that a conglomerate of quasi-lines - a structured complex band - is observed instead of one 0-0 quasi-line of the S 2 ← S 0 transition. In this band, the intensity distributions for the two main sites considerably differ from each other. The occurrence of such conglomerates is interpreted as a result of nonadiabatic vibrational-electronic interaction between the vibronic S 2 and S 1 states (the complex vibronic analogue of the Fermi resonance). The frequencies and intensities of individual transitions determined from the deconvolution of complex conglomerates are used as the initial data for solving the inverse spectroscopic problem: the determination of the unperturbed electronic and vibrational levels of states involved in the resonance and the vibronic-interaction matrix elements between them. This problem is solved with a method developed previously. The experimental results and their analysis are compared to the analogous data obtained earlier for meso-tetraazaporphin and meso-tetrapropylporphin. The energy intervals between the S 2 and S 1 electronic levels (ΔES) of the two main types of impurity centers formed by molecules of a given porphyrin in the crystal matrix are found to significantly differ from each other, the values of this difference (δΔES) being considerably greater for tetramethyldibenzoporphin, δΔES=228cm, than for the two other porphyrins. At the same time, the energies of the unperturbed vibrational states of the S 1 electronic level participating in the resonance are very close to each other for these two sites.

  3. Field effects on the vortex states in spin–orbit coupled Bose–Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liang-Liang; Liu, Yong-Kai; Feng, Shiping; Yang, Shi-Jie, E-mail: yangshijie@tsinghua.org.cn

    2016-06-17

    Multi-quantum vortices can be created in the ground state of rotating Bose–Einstein condensates with spin–orbit couplings. We investigate the effects of external fields, either a longitudinal field or a transverse field, on the vortex states. We reveal that both fields can effectively reduce the number of vortices. In the latter case we further find that the condensate density packets are pushed away in the horizontal direction and the vortices finally disappear to form a plane wave phase. - Highlights: • Vortex states of rotational spin–orbit coupled BEC have been studied. • Both longitudinal field and transverse field reduce vortices. • The transverse field pushes condensates to one direction.

  4. Modeling the coupling effect of jitter and attitude control on TDICCD camera imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulun; Yang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaoshan; Ni, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The vibration has an important influence on space-borne TDICCD imaging quality. It is generally aroused by an interaction between satellite jitter and attitude control. Previous modeling for this coupling relation is mainly concentrating on accurate modal analysis, transfer path and damping design, etc. Nevertheless, when controlling attitude, the coupling terms among three body axes are usually ignored. This is what we try to study in this manuscript. Firstly, a simplified formulation dedicated to this problem is established. Secondly, we use Dymola 2016 to execute the simulation model profiting Modelica synchronous feature, which has been proposed in recent years. The results demonstrate that the studied effect can introduce additional oscillatory modes and lead the attitude stabilization process slower. In addition, when fully stabilized, there seems time-statistically no difference but it still intensifies the motion-blur by a tiny amount. We state that this effect might be worth considering in image restoration.

  5. Strong coupling effects in near-barrier heavy-ion elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock (Poland); Kemper, K.W. [The Florida State University, Department of Physics, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Rusek, K. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Accurate elastic scattering angular distribution data measured at bombarding energies just above the Coulomb barrier have shapes that can markedly differ from or be the same as the expected classical Fresnel scattering pattern depending on the structure of the projectile, the target or both. Examples are given such as {sup 18}O + {sup 184}W and {sup 16}O + {sup 148,} {sup 152}Sm, where the expected rise above Rutherford scattering due to Coulomb-nuclear interference is damped by coupling to the target excited states, and the extreme case of {sup 11}Li scattering, where coupling to the {sup 9}Li + n + n continuum leads to an elastic scattering shape that cannot be reproduced by any standard optical model parameter set. An early indication that the projectile structure can modify the elastic scattering angular distribution was the large vector analyzing powers observed in polarised {sup 6}Li scattering. The recent availability of high-quality {sup 6}He, {sup 11}Li and {sup 11}Be data provides further examples of the influence that coupling effects can have on elastic scattering. Conditions for strong projectile-target coupling effects are presented with special emphasis on the importance of the beam-target charge combination being large enough to bring about the strong coupling effects. Several measurements are proposed that can lead to further understanding of strong coupling effects by both inelastic excitation and nucleon transfer on near-barrier elastic scattering. A final note on the anomalous nature of {sup 8}B elastic scattering is presented as it possesses a more or less normal Fresnel scattering shape whereas one would a priori not expect this due to the very low breakup threshold of {sup 8}B. The special nature of {sup 11}Li is presented as it is predicted that no matter how far above the Coulomb barrier the elastic scattering is measured, its shape will not appear as Fresnel like whereas the elastic scattering of all other loosely bound nuclei studied to

  6. Comparing the level of bystander effect in a couple of tumor and normal cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni, Mohammad T. Toossi

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect refers to radiation responses which occur in non-irradiated cells. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of bystander effect in a couple of tumor and normal cell lines (QU-DB and MRC5). To induce bystander effect, cells were irradiated with 0.5, 2, and 4 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and their media were transferred to non-irradiated (bystander) cells of the same type. Cells containing micronuclei were counted in bystander subgroups, non-irradiated, and...

  7. Effects of transverse coupling on transverse beam size, simulation and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halling, A.M.

    1993-05-01

    The equations of motion for particles in an accelerator lattice show that a larger physical aperture is required to hold a beam of constant invariant emittance if there is transverse coupling of the tunes. The results of a tracking simulation of particle motion in the Fermilab accumulator ring are discussed, and results are shown from beam tests carried out in the accumulator to demonstrate this effect.

  8. On the importance of nonlocal effects on the description of emitter-plasmon coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2017-01-01

    light to subwavelength regions, and largely modify the local density of states, on which their interaction with an emitter mainly depends, thus paving new routes for exploring light-matter interactions. Advances in nanotechnology and nanofabrication have recently led to the minimisation of relative...... become relevant [1, 2]. Here we explore the influence of the latter, larger-scale effect, on the coupling of various emitters with canonical plasmonic nanostructures....

  9. The Effectiveness of Couple and Individual Relationship Education: Distress as a Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ryan G; Rappleyea, Damon L; Daire, Andrew P; Harris, Steven M; Liu, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Current literature yields mixed results about the effectiveness of relationship education (RE) with low-income participants and those who experience a high level of individual or relational distress. Scholars have called for research that examines whether initial levels of distress act as a moderator of RE outcomes. To test whether initial levels of relationship and/or individual distress moderate the effectiveness of RE, this study used two samples, one of couples who received couple-oriented relationship education with their partner (n = 192 couples) and one of individuals in a relationship who received individual-oriented RE by themselves (n = 60 individuals). We delivered RE in a community-based setting serving primarily low-income participants. For those attending with a partner, there was a significant interaction between gender, initial distress, and time. Findings indicate that women who were relationally distressed before RE reported the largest pre-postgains. Those who attended an individual-oriented RE program reported significant decreases in individual distress from pre to post, but no significant relationship gains. Findings also suggest that initial levels of distress did not moderate the effectiveness of individual-oriented RE. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  10. Ro-vibronic transition intensities for triatomic molecules from the exact kinetic energy operator; electronic spectrum for the C̃ 1B2 ← X̃ 1A1transition in SO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Emil J; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-09-07

    A procedure for calculating ro-vibronic transition intensities for triatomic molecules within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is reported. Ro-vibrational energy levels and wavefunctions are obtained with the DVR3D suite, which solves the nuclear motion problem with an exact kinetic energy operator. Absolute transition intensities are calculated both with the Franck-Condon approximation and with a full transition dipole moment surface. The theoretical scheme is tested on C̃  1 B 2  ← X̃  1 A 1 ro-vibronic transitions of SO 2 . Ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces are generated for this purpose. The calculated ro-vibronic transition intensities and cross sections are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  11. Effectiveness of psychiatric and counseling interventions On fertility rate in infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezanzadeh F.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the psycho-social model of diseases, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychiatric intervention on the pregnancy rate of infertile couples.Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 638 infertile patients referred to a university infertility clinic were evaluated. Among them, 140 couples with different levels of depression in at least one of the spouses were included in this substudy. These couples were divided randomly into two groups. The patients in the case group received 6-8 sessions of psychotherapy before starting infertility treatment and were given fluoxetine 20-60 mg per day during the same period. The control group did not receive any intervention. Three questionnaires including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Holmes-Rahe stress scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire were applied for all patients. The clinical pregnancy rates of the two groups, based on sonographic detection of the gestational sac six weeks after LMP, were compared. The data were analyzed by paired-T test, T-test, χ2 and the logistic regression method. Results: The pregnancy rate was 47.1% in the case group and 7.1% in the control group. The pregnancy rate was significantly related to the duration and cause of infertility and the level of stress in both groups (p< 0.001. The pregnancy rate was shown to be higher in couples in which the male has a secondary level of education (p< 0.001.Conclusions: Psychiatric interventions greatly improve pregnancy rates, and it is therefore crucial to mandate psychiatric counseling in all fertility centers in order to diagnose and treat infertile patients with psychiatric disorders and help couples deal with stress.

  12. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    a labor market position for (female) spouses with limited alternative opportunities. This decision has positive effects: the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the fe-male, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. This also......We study motivations for and outcomes of couples starting up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010, while comparing them to a set of comparable firms and couples. The main motivation for joint entrepreneurship is to create...

  13. The effects of salinity on coupled nitrification and aerobic denitrification in an estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengfan; Xue, Dongmei; Meng, Fanqiao; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Salinity has significant effects on nitrification and denitrification processes, particularly in estuarine systems. A dissolved oxygen-enriched river and its estuary in northern China were selected to investigate the impact of salinity gradients (0.6, 4, 7.6, 11.4 and 14.7‰) obtained from the mixing of river samples and estuarine samples with different proportions on coupled nitrification and aerobic denitrification via incubation experiments (35 and 10 °C). Results indicated that: (a) nitrification and coupled nitrification-aerobic denitrification occurred for all treatments, which resulted in NO3- being either accumulated or removed at the end of the incubation; (b) a suitable range of salinity is 4.0-11.4‰ for nitrification and 4.0-7.6‰ for coupled nitrification-aerobic denitrification; and (c) the relatively higher temperature (35 °C) can effectively stimulate N transformation processes compared to the lover temperature (10 °C) in the incubation experiment.

  14. Synchronous bladder tumors in a married couple: Effect of treatment options on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Aydemir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder carcinoma is frequently seen in the geriatric age group. Environmental factors and life style are risk fac - tors in the development of bladder carcinoma. Smoking is one of the most important risk factor and passive smok - ing should be taken into consideration in married couples. Additionally quality of life is now a well-recognized and important outcome measure that should be considered when deciding the treatment option for bladder cancer. In this case presentation, risk factors and environmental fac tors in the development of synchronous bladder tumors in a couple married for 43 years are evaluated. We would also like to emphasize the effects of treatments for blad der tumors with and without muscle invasion on the qual ity of life of the geriatric population in need of home care.

  15. Strong coupling effects between a meta-atom and MIM nanocavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the strong coupling effects between a meta-atom and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM nanocavity. By changing the meta-atom sizes, we achieve the meta-atomic electric dipole, quadrupole or multipole interaction with the plasmonic nanocavity, in which characteristic anticrossing behaviors demonstrate the occurrence of the strong coupling. The various interactions present obviously different splitting values and behaviors of dependence on the meta-atomic position. The largest Rabi-type splittings, about 360.0 meV and 306.1 meV, have been obtained for electric dipole and quadrupole interaction, respectively. We attribute the large splitting to the highly-confined cavity mode and the large transition dipole of the meta-atom. Also the Rabi-type oscillation in time domain is given.

  16. Spin-orbit coupling effects, interactions and superconducting transport in nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Andreas

    2010-05-15

    In the present thesis we study the electronic properties of several low dimensional nanoscale systems. In the first part, we focus on the combined effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOI) and Coulomb interaction in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as well as quantum wires. We derive low energy theories for both systems, using the bosonization technique and obtain analytic expressions for the correlation functions that allow us to compute basically all observables of interest. We first focus on CNTs and show that a four channel Luttinger liquid theory can still be applied when SOI effects are taken into account. Compared to previous formulations, the low-energy Hamiltonian is characterized by different Luttinger parameters and plasmon velocities. Notably, the charge and spin modes are coupled. Our theory allows us to compute an asymptotically exact expression for the spectral function of a metallic carbon nanotube. We find modifications to the previously predicted structure of the spectral function that can in principle be tested by photoemission spectroscopy experiments. We develop a very similar low energy description for an interacting quantum wire subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). We derive a two component Luttinger liquid Hamiltonian in the presence of RSOC, taking into account all e-e interaction processes allowed by the conservation of total momentum. The effective low energy Hamiltonian includes an additional perturbation due to intraband backscattering processes with band flip. Within a one-loop RG scheme, this perturbation is marginally irrelevant. The fixed point model is then still a two channel Luttinger liquid, albeit with a non standard form due to SOI. Again, the charge and spin mode are coupled. Using our low energy theory, we address the problem of the RKKY interaction in an interacting Rashba wire. The coupling of spin and charge modes due to SO effects implies several modifications, e.g. the explicit dependence of the power-law decay exponent of

  17. Testing crossover effects in an actor-partner interdependence model among Chinese dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huimin; Cheung, Fanny M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the crossover effects from one partner's work-family interface (work-family conflict [WFC] and work-family enrichment [WFE]) to the other partner's four outcomes (psychological strain, life satisfaction, marital satisfaction and job satisfaction) in a sample of Chinese dual-earner couples. Married couples (N = 361) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the work-family interface scale, the psychological strain scale, the life, marital, as well as job satisfaction scale. Results from the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) analyses showed that wives' WFE was negatively associated with husbands' psychological strain, and positively associated with husbands' life, marital and job satisfaction. Furthermore, husbands' WFC was negatively related to wives' marital satisfaction, whereas husbands' WFE was positively related to wives' marital satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, and future research directions were provided. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. The Effect of Mutual Coupling on a High Altitude Platform Diversity System Using Compact Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Hult

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the destructive effects of mutual coupling and spatial correlation between the separate antenna elements on a combined diversity system consisting of multiple HAPs (High-Altitude Platforms employing various compact MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output antenna array configurations, in order to enhance the mutual information in HAP communication links. In addition, we assess the influence of the separation angle between HAPs on system performance, and determine the optimal separation angles that maximize the total mutual information of the system for various compact MIMO antennas. Simulation results show that although the mutual information is degraded by mutual coupling and spatial correlation, the proposed HAP diversity system still provides better performance compared to a nondiversity system for all tested scenarios.

  19. Tempting today, troubling tomorrow: the roots of the precarious couple effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, William B; Sellers, Jennifer Guinn; McClarty, Katie Larsen

    2006-01-01

    The precarious couple effect occurs when men pair with women who are both critical and more verbally disinhibited than them. Evidence that dissatisfaction runs high in such relationships makes one ask why people enter them in the first place. In Study 1, respondents recalled that past partners who were verbally disinhibited were relatively active in initiating the relationship. In Study 2, verbally inhibited men evidenced ambivalence in that they disliked disinhibited women more than inhibited ones but these feelings of disliking did not translate into expectations of feeling tense during the interaction. Study 3 revealed that initial interactions between inhibited men and disinhibited women go smoothly unless (a) the women are critical and (b) the pair discusses a stressful topic. The authors suggest that members of precarious couples are drawn to one another because, in initial encounters, their communication styles are relatively symbiotic. Alas, this initial chemistry does not always endure.

  20. Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines: Some Aspects of the Effect of Coupling Modeling and Blade Material Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Moyroud

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods are generally used for the aeroelastic analysis of bladed-disc assemblies. The first, often referred to as the energy method, assumes that the fluid does not modify invacuum structural dynamic behavior. On the other hand, the second, based on an eigenvalue approach, considers the feedback effect of the fluid on the structure. In this paper, these methods are compared using different test cases, in order to highlight the limitations of the energy method. Within this comparison, the effect of material modifications on the coupled behavior of the assembly is examined.

  1. Cost of Motherhood |Effects of childbirth on Women's and Couple's earnings (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiko Takeuchi; Yoshiko Otani

    2007-01-01

    The number of full-time women fs worker is increased in high income family for one decade from 1992 when child care leave policy began in Japan. We focus on this fact, and analysis the effect of children and career interruptions on the family gap and income gap is based on Japanese panel data. The results show that, the negative effect of children on mothers f and couple fs earnings is very small subsequently, when they take formal childcare leaves; apart from this, there is stronger negative...

  2. The effect of electrode contact resistance and capacitive coupling on Complex Resistivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The effect of electrode contact resistance and capacitive coupling on complex resistivity (CR) measurements is studied in this paper. An equivalent circuit model for the receiver is developed to describe the effects. The model shows that CR measurements are severely affected even at relatively low...... contact resistances. The model suggests proportionality between the error in the phase measurements and the product of the wire-to-ground capacitance, the contact resistance, the dipole size and the frequency of the measurement. The model behavior is illustrated and confirmed by field data collected...

  3. The buffering effect of relationship satisfaction on emotional distress in couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Marital distress and depression frequently co-occur, and partnership quality is associated with depressive symptoms and mental disorders in both men and women. One aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of a set of risk factors for emotional distress among men and women in couples, with a special focus on satisfaction with partner relationship. The most important aim was to investigate the extent to which high relationship satisfaction in couples acts as a buffer against stressful events. Methods Pregnant women and their husbands (n = 62,956 couples) enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study completed a questionnaire with questions about emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Twelve potential risk factors were included in the analyses, including relationship satisfaction, demographic characteristics, and somatic diseases in men and women. Associations between the predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Cross-spousal effects, in which data reported by one of the spouses predicted emotional distress in the other, were also investigated. Possible interaction effects between certain risk factors and self-reported and partner's relationship satisfaction were tested and further explored with regression analyses in subsamples stratified by relationship satisfaction scores. Results The unique effects of relationship satisfaction were of similar sizes for both men and women: substantial for self-reported (β = -0.23 and β = -0.28, respectively) and weak for partner-reported satisfaction (β = -0.04 and β = -0.02, respectively). Other relatively strong risk factors were somatic disease, first-time motherhood, and unemployment. Self-reported as well as partner-reported relationship satisfaction appeared to strongly buffer the effects of a number of stressors. Conclusions Partner relationship dissatisfaction is strongly associated with emotional

  4. The buffering effect of relationship satisfaction on emotional distress in couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Røsand Gun-Mette B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marital distress and depression frequently co-occur, and partnership quality is associated with depressive symptoms and mental disorders in both men and women. One aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of a set of risk factors for emotional distress among men and women in couples, with a special focus on satisfaction with partner relationship. The most important aim was to investigate the extent to which high relationship satisfaction in couples acts as a buffer against stressful events. Methods Pregnant women and their husbands (n = 62,956 couples enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study completed a questionnaire with questions about emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Twelve potential risk factors were included in the analyses, including relationship satisfaction, demographic characteristics, and somatic diseases in men and women. Associations between the predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Cross-spousal effects, in which data reported by one of the spouses predicted emotional distress in the other, were also investigated. Possible interaction effects between certain risk factors and self-reported and partner's relationship satisfaction were tested and further explored with regression analyses in subsamples stratified by relationship satisfaction scores. Results The unique effects of relationship satisfaction were of similar sizes for both men and women: substantial for self-reported (β = -0.23 and β = -0.28, respectively and weak for partner-reported satisfaction (β = -0.04 and β = -0.02, respectively. Other relatively strong risk factors were somatic disease, first-time motherhood, and unemployment. Self-reported as well as partner-reported relationship satisfaction appeared to strongly buffer the effects of a number of stressors. Conclusions Partner relationship dissatisfaction is strongly

  5. Effective electron-phonon coupling in the Hubbard-Holstein model in presence of strong correlations and density fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citro, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno and CNISM, Unita di ricerca di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)], E-mail: citro@sa.infn.it; Cojocaru, S.; Marinaro, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno and CNISM, Unita di ricerca di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)

    2007-09-01

    We study the Hubbard-Holstein model in the strong coupling regime and discuss the role of electron-electron correlations, doping and phonon frequency (isotope substitution) on the effective electron-phonon coupling. A comparison with recent dynamical mean field (DMF) studies and connection with recent experimental findings in cuprate superconductors is also discussed.

  6. Enhanced magneto-plasmonic effect in Au/Co/Au multilayers caused by exciton–plasmon strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, S.M., E-mail: m_hamidi@sbu.ac.ir; Ghaebi, O.

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, we have investigated magneto optical Kerr rotation using the strong coupling of exciton–plasmon. For this purpose, we have demonstrated strong coupling phenomenon using reflectometry measurements. These measurements revealed the formation of two split polaritonic extrema in reflectometry as a function of wavelength. Then we have shown exciton–plasmon coupling in dispersion diagram which presented an anti-crossing between the polaritonic branches. To assure the readers of strong coupling, we have shown an enhanced magneto-optical Kerr rotation by comparing the reflectometry results of strong coupling of surface Plasmon polariton of Au/Co/Au multilayer and R6G excitons with surface Plasmon polariton magneto-optical kerr effect experimental setup. - Highlights: • The magneto optical Kerr rotation has been investigated by using the strong coupling of exciton–plasmon. • We have shown exciton–plasmon coupling in dispersion diagram which presented an anti-crossing between the polaritonic branches. • Strong coupling of surface plasmon polariton and exciton have been yielded to the enhanced magneto-optical Kerr effect. • Plasmons in Au/Co/Au multilayer and exciton in R6G have been coupled to enhance magneto-optical activity.

  7. Strong coupling electrostatics for randomly charged surfaces: antifragility and effective interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-05-07

    We study the effective interaction mediated by strongly coupled Coulomb fluids between dielectric surfaces carrying quenched, random monopolar charges with equal mean and variance, both when the Coulomb fluid consists only of mobile multivalent counterions and when it consists of an asymmetric ionic mixture containing multivalent and monovalent (salt) ions in equilibrium with an aqueous bulk reservoir. We analyze the consequences that follow from the interplay between surface charge disorder, dielectric and salt image effects, and the strong electrostatic coupling that results from multivalent counterions on the distribution of these ions and the effective interaction pressure they mediate between the surfaces. In a dielectrically homogeneous system, we show that the multivalent counterions are attracted towards the surfaces with a singular, disorder-induced potential that diverges logarithmically on approach to the surfaces, creating a singular but integrable counterion density profile that exhibits an algebraic divergence at the surfaces with an exponent that depends on the surface charge (disorder) variance. This effect drives the system towards a state of lower thermal 'disorder', one that can be described by a renormalized temperature, exhibiting thus a remarkable antifragility. In the presence of an interfacial dielectric discontinuity, the singular behavior of counterion density at the surfaces is removed but multivalent counterions are still accumulated much more strongly close to randomly charged surfaces as compared with uniformly charged ones. The interaction pressure acting on the surfaces displays in general a highly non-monotonic behavior as a function of the inter-surface separation with a prominent regime of attraction at small to intermediate separations. This attraction is caused directly by the combined effects from charge disorder and strong coupling electrostatics of multivalent counterions, which dominate the surface-surface repulsion due to

  8. S1←S0 vibronic spectra and structure of cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde molecule in the S1 lowest excited singlet electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godunov, I. A.; Yakovlev, N. N.; Terentiev, R. V.; Maslov, D. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Abramenkov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The S1←S0 vibronic spectra of gas-phase absorption at room temperature and fluorescence excitation of jet-cooled cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde (CPCA, c-C3H5CHO)were obtained and analyzed. In addition, the quantum chemical calculation (CASPT2/cc-pVTZ)was carried out for CPCA in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) electronic states. As a result, it was proved that the S1←S0 electronic excitation of the CPCA conformers (syn and anti) causes (after geometrical relaxation) significant structural changes, namely, the carbonyl fragments become non-planar and the cyclopropyl groups rotate around the central C-C bond. As a consequence, the potential energy surface of CPCA in the S1 state has six minima, 1ab, 2ab, and 3ab, corresponding to three pairs of mirror symmetry conformers: a and b. It was shown that vibronic bands of experimental spectra can be assigned to the 2(S1)←syn(S0) electronic transition with the origin at 30,481 cm-1. A number of fundamental vibrational frequencies for the 2 conformer of CPCA were assigned. In addition, several inversional energy levels for the 2 conformer were found and the 2a↔2b potential function of inversion was determined. The experimental barrier to inversion and the equilibrium angle between the CH bond and the CCO plane were calculated as 570 cm-1 and 28°, respectively.

  9. Experimental investigation on the coupled effect of effective stress and gas slippage on the permeability of shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Diansen; Wang, Wei; Chen, Weizhong; Wang, Shugang; Wang, Xiaoqiong

    2017-03-17

    Permeability is one of the most important parameters to evaluate gas production in shale reservoirs. Because shale permeability is extremely low, gas is often used in the laboratory to measure permeability. However, the measured apparent gas permeability is higher than the intrinsic permeability due to the gas slippage effect, which could be even more dominant for materials with nanopores. Increasing gas pressure during tests reduces gas slippage effect, but it also decreases the effective stress which in turn influences the permeability. The coupled effect of gas slippage and effective stress on shale permeability remains unclear. Here we perform laboratory experiments on Longmaxi shale specimens to explore the coupled effect. We use the pressure transient method to measure permeability under different stress and pressure conditions. Our results reveal that the apparent measured permeability is controlled by these two competing effects. With increasing gas pressure, there exists a pressure threshold at which the dominant effect on permeability switches from gas slippage to effective stress. Based on the Klinkenberg model, we propose a new conceptual model that incorporates both competing effects. Combining microstructure analysis, we further discuss the roles of stress, gas pressure and water contents on gas permeability of shale.

  10. Investigating the effects of marriage and relationship education on couples' communication skills: a meta-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Victoria L; Hawkins, Alan J; Baldwin, Scott A; Fawcett, Elizabeth B

    2009-04-01

    This meta-analysis probes into previous research substantiating the positive effects of marriage and relationship education (MRE) on couples' communication skills. We reviewed 97 MRE research reports that yielded 143 distinct evaluation studies. We found modest evidence that MRE functions both as a universal prevention and as a selective or indicated prevention. That is, MRE demonstrates program effects at longer term follow-ups for well-functioning couples and at postassessment and shorter term follow-ups for more distressed couples. In addition, we found that observational assessments produced larger effects than self-report assessments, although interpreting the meaning of this difference is difficult.

  11. Refractive index modulation based on excitonic effects in GaInAs-InP coupled asymmetric quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Carsten

    1995-01-01

    The effect of excitons in GaInAs-InP coupled asymmetric quantum wells on the refractive index modulation, is analyzed numerically using a model based on the effective mass approximation. It is shown that two coupled quantum wells brought in resonance by an applied electric field will, due...... to the reduction in the exciton oscillator strengths, have a modulation of the refractive index which is more than one order of magnitude larger than in a similar quantum well structure based on the quantum confined Stark effect, but with no coupling between the quantum wells. Calculations show that combining...

  12. Circuit mismatch and current coupling effect influence on paralleling SiC MOSFETs in multichip power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This paper reveals that there are circuit mismatches and a current coupling effect in the direct bonded copper (DBC) layout of a silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET multichip power module. According to the modelling and the mathematic analysis of the DBC layout, the mismatch of the common source stray...... inductance in the DBC layout can lead to transient current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in the multichip power module while the current coupling effect aggravates the current imbalance. Two models of the power module DBC layout, with and without the current coupling effect, are compared...

  13. Nonadiabatic dynamics of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer: comparison of explicit and implicit solvent simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Benjamin; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2012-07-05

    Theoretical approaches for simulating the ultrafast dynamics of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions in solution are developed and applied to a series of model systems. These processes are simulated by propagating nonadiabatic surface hopping trajectories on electron-proton vibronic surfaces that depend on the solute and solvent nuclear coordinates. The PCET system is represented by a four-state empirical valence bond model, and the solvent is treated either as explicit solvent molecules or as a dielectric continuum, in which case the solvent dynamics is described in terms of two collective solvent coordinates corresponding to the energy gaps associated with electron and proton transfer. The explicit solvent simulations reveal two distinct solvent relaxation time scales, where the faster time scale relaxation corresponds to librational motions of solvent molecules in the first solvation shell, and the slower time scale relaxation corresponds to the bulk solvent dielectric response. The charge transfer dynamics is strongly coupled to both the fast and slow time scale solvent dynamics. The dynamical multistate continuum theory is extended to include the effects of two solvent relaxation time scales, and the resulting coupled generalized Langevin equations depend on parameters that can be extracted from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The implicit and explicit solvent approaches lead to qualitatively similar charge transfer and solvent dynamics for model PCET systems, suggesting that the implicit solvent treatment captures the essential elements of the nonequilibrium solvent dynamics for many systems. A combination of implicit and explicit solvent approaches will enable the investigation of photoinduced PCET processes in a variety of condensed phase systems.

  14. 3D simulations of gas puff effects on edge plasma and ICRF coupling in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Jacquet, P.; Lerche, E.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Coster, D.; Feng, Y.; Guillemaut, C.; Goniche, M.; Harting, D.; Lunt, T.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Szepesi, G.; Van Eester, D.; JET Contributors, the

    2017-05-01

    Recent JET (ITER-Like Wall) experiments have shown that the fueling gas puffed from different locations of the vessel can result in different scrape-off layer (SOL) density profiles and therefore different radio frequency (RF) coupling. To reproduce the experimental observations, to understand the associated physics and to optimize the gas puff methods, we have carried out three-dimensional (3D) simulations with the EMC3-EIRENE code in JET-ILW including a realistic description of the vessel geometry and the gas injection modules (GIMs) configuration. Various gas puffing methods have been investigated, in which the location of gas fueling is the only variable parameter. The simulation results are in quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements. They confirm that compared to divertor gas fueling, mid-plane gas puffing increases the SOL density most significantly but locally, while top gas puffing increases it uniformly in toroidal direction but to a lower degree. Moreover, the present analysis corroborates the experimental findings that combined gas puff scenarios—based on distributed main chamber gas puffing—can be effective in increasing the RF coupling for multiple antennas simultaneously. The results indicate that the spreading of the gas, the local ionization and the transport of the ionized gas along the magnetic field lines connecting the local gas cloud in front of the GIMs to the antennas are responsible for the enhanced SOL density and thus the larger RF coupling.

  15. Coupling effects in heterostructures of pentacene and perfluorinated pentacene studied by optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broch, Katharina; Heinemeyer, Ute; Hinderhofer, Alexander; Gerlach, Alexander; Schreiber, Frank [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Tuebingen (Germany); Anger, Falk [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Tuebingen (Germany); MATGAS 2000 AIE, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra (Spain); Osso, Oriol [MATGAS 2000 AIE, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra (Spain); Scholz, Reinhard [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Heterostructures of organic semiconductors gain increasing interest in the last years because of their potential applications in organic electronics. To optimize those devices the understanding of the intermolecular coupling is crucial. Therefore, we investigate the optical absorption spectra of heterostructures and possible differences to the spectra of their single components. The combination of pentacene (PEN) with perfluorinated pentacene (PFP) is promising due to their similar geometric structure which can give rise to coevaporated films with a significant level of intermixing and accordingly an efficient intermolecular coupling. Indeed, performing in-situ-measurements with differential reflectance spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry we find features in the absorption spectra of mixed films that cannot be explained by a linear combination of the single film spectra. In the energy range between 1.4 eV and 2.4 eV spectra of PFP and PEN single and coevaporated films with different mixing ratios are compared and possible theoretical scenarios for coupling effects are discussed.

  16. Analysis of the actuating effects of triple-layer piezoelectric cantilevers considering electromechanical coupling correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li Jiao; Pan, Cheng Liang; Pan, Qiao Sheng

    2017-02-01

    A dynamic analytical model is developed to predict the performance of a triple-layer piezoelectric cantilever as actuators in relation to materials with large piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling (EMC) coefficients under axial stress and plane strain conditions. The dynamic electromechanical behavior of a symmetrical triple-layer piezoelectric cantilever (STLPC) actuator is investigated. The analytical model of STLPC based on electromechanical coupling correction coefficient (EMCC) is established in one-dimensional (1D) form and applied to 1D and 2D deformations. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis of the EMCC model is critically evaluated and compared with the simulations using a finite element method (FEM). Results show that the EMCC model can be accurately applied to analyze the actuation performance of STLPC. Analyzed results show that the proposed model is accurately applied to large and small piezoelectric coupling conditions. The piezoelectric cantilever with large piezoelectric and EMC coefficients can be accurately analyzed by the proposed model accounted for small EMC condition in a traditional model. Design optimization based on actuators is also discussed. Optimal thickness ratios between elastic and piezoelectric layers are effectively calculated and obtained.

  17. Sex-specific effects of intranasal oxytocin on autonomic nervous system and emotional responses to couple conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzen, Beate; Nater, Urs M; Schaer, Marcel; La Marca, Roberto; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Unhappy couple relationships are associated with impaired individual health, an effect thought to be mediated through ongoing couple conflicts. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms regulating psychobiological stress, and particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, during negative couple interaction. In this study, we tested the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin on ANS reactivity during couple conflict in a standardized laboratory paradigm. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally prior to instructed couple conflict. Participants' behavior was videotaped and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic activity, and emotional arousal were repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly reduced sAA during couple conflict in women, whereas men showed increases in sAA levels (sex × group interaction: B = -49.36, t = -2.68, P = 0.009). In men, these increases were related to augmented emotional arousal (r = 0.286, P = 0.028) and more positive behavior (r = 0.291, P = 0.026), whereas there was no such association in women. Our results imply sex-specific effects of oxytocin on sympathetic activity, to negative couple interaction, with the neuropeptide reducing sAA responses and emotional arousal in women while increasing them in men.

  18. Effects of a psychological intervention on Quality of life in infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Abedinia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine factors affecting depression in infertile couples and effect of psychological intervention on pregnancy rate of infertile couples.Materials and Methods: In this study, 638 infertile patients referring to a university infertility clinic were evaluated. Among them, 140 couples with different levels of depression in at least one of the spouses were found and the study was continued by dividing them randomly into two groups, entering a randomized clinical trial. Patients in the case group received 6-8 sessions of psychotherapy before infertility treatment and were given daily Fluoxetin 20- 60 mg at the same period, and the control group did not receive any intervention. Three questionnaires including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Stress Scale (Holmes-Rahe and a sociodemographic questionnaire were applied for all patients. Pregnancy rate was compared between two groups.Results: Depression was initially found in 48% of women and 23.8% of men. The mean±SD Beck scores fell from 18.7±9.7 to 10.7±5.8 in the group psychologically treated before receiving infertility treatment (P<0.001. Pregnancy rate was 47.1% in case group and 7.1% in control group. Pregnancy rate showed a significant relation with duration and cause of infertility and the level of stress in both groups (P< 0.001. Pregnancy rate was shown to be higher in couples with a second level of education in men (P< 0.001.Conclusion: The psychological intervention was found useful in alleviating depression and promoting pregnancy rate, it is crucial to mandate psychology counseling in all fertility centers.

  19. Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Mehliyar; Tai, Amos P. K.; Lombardozzi, Danica; Martin, Maria Val

    2017-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most hazardous air pollutants as it harms both human health and plant productivity. Foliage uptake of ozone via dry deposition damages photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. These foliage changes could lead to a cascade of biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects that not only modulate the carbon cycle, regional hydrometeorology and climate, but also cause feedbacks onto surface ozone concentration itself. In this study, we implement a semi-empirical parameterization of ozone damage on vegetation in the Community Earth System Model to enable online ozone-vegetation coupling, so that for the first time ecosystem structure and ozone concentration can coevolve in fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations. With ozone-vegetation coupling, present-day surface ozone is simulated to be higher by up to 4-6 ppbv over Europe, North America and China. Reduced dry deposition velocity following ozone damage contributes to ˜ 40-100 % of those increases, constituting a significant positive biogeochemical feedback on ozone air quality. Enhanced biogenic isoprene emission is found to contribute to most of the remaining increases, and is driven mainly by higher vegetation temperature that results from lower transpiration rate. This isoprene-driven pathway represents an indirect, positive meteorological feedback. The reduction in both dry deposition and transpiration is mostly associated with reduced stomatal conductance following ozone damage, whereas the modification of photosynthesis and further changes in ecosystem productivity are found to play a smaller role in contributing to the ozone-vegetation feedbacks. Our results highlight the need to consider two-way ozone-vegetation coupling in Earth system models to derive a more complete understanding and yield more reliable future predictions of ozone air quality.

  20. Regional effects of atmospheric aerosols on temperature: an evaluation of an ensemble of online coupled models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, Rocío; Palacios-Peña, Laura; Baklanov, Alexander; Balzarini, Alessandra; Brunner, Dominik; Forkel, Renate; Hirtl, Marcus; Honzak, Luka; Pérez, Juan Luis; Pirovano, Guido; San José, Roberto; Schröder, Wolfram; Werhahn, Johannes; Wolke, Ralf; Žabkar, Rahela; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    The climate effect of atmospheric aerosols is associated with their influence on the radiative budget of the Earth due to the direct aerosol-radiation interactions (ARIs) and indirect effects, resulting from aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions (ACIs). Online coupled meteorology-chemistry models permit the description of these effects on the basis of simulated atmospheric aerosol concentrations, although there is still some uncertainty associated with the use of these models. Thus, the objective of this work is to assess whether the inclusion of atmospheric aerosol radiative feedbacks of an ensemble of online coupled models improves the simulation results for maximum, mean and minimum temperature at 2 m over Europe. The evaluated models outputs originate from EuMetChem COST Action ES1004 simulations for Europe, differing in the inclusion (or omission) of ARI and ACI in the various models. The cases studies cover two important atmospheric aerosol episodes over Europe in the year 2010: (i) a heat wave event and a forest fire episode (July-August 2010) and (ii) a more humid episode including a Saharan desert dust outbreak in October 2010. The simulation results are evaluated against observational data from the E-OBS gridded database. The results indicate that, although there is only a slight improvement in the bias of the simulation results when including the radiative feedbacks, the spatiotemporal variability and correlation coefficients are improved for the cases under study when atmospheric aerosol radiative effects are included.

  1. Enhanced wettability performance of ultrathin ZnO nanotubes by coupling morphology and size effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peihua; Wang, Kun; Liang, Zhiwen; Mai, Wenjie; Wang, Cheng-xin; Xie, Weiguang; Liu, Pengyi; Zhang, Long; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui

    2012-09-21

    In this work, we report on the detailed characterization and mechanism analysis of the improved wettability performance of a new type of ZnO nanostructure, the ultrathin ZnO nanotube, whose growth is induced by screw-dislocation. The newly discovered enhanced wettability properties are suggested to be caused by coupling the morphology and size effects of the nanostructured surface. These ultrathin nanotubes with low density and small dimension form a wet-hair-like hierarchical morphology, which shows a further improved superhydrophobic property with an 8.6 ± 1.6° larger contact angle than that of ZnO nanorods due to the morphology effect. In addition, owing to the large surface to volume ratio and increased effective UV-irradiated area of the ultrathin tubular structure, the ZnO nanotubes exhibit ∼5 times faster superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity conversion speed than nanorods under 254 nm UV illumination. Furthermore, UV light with a wavelength of 254 nm exhibits ∼40 times faster wettability conversion speed for nanotubes than that of 365 nm, which is suggested to be a result of the band gap shift at the nanoscale. The combined advantages of enhanced superhydrophobicity, improved sensitivity, and faster conversion speed by coupling morphology and size effects of these ZnO nanotubes should give them broad applications in self-cleaning surfaces and wettability switches.

  2. Regional effects of atmospheric aerosols on temperature: an evaluation of an ensemble of online coupled models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baró

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The climate effect of atmospheric aerosols is associated with their influence on the radiative budget of the Earth due to the direct aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs and indirect effects, resulting from aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions (ACIs. Online coupled meteorology–chemistry models permit the description of these effects on the basis of simulated atmospheric aerosol concentrations, although there is still some uncertainty associated with the use of these models. Thus, the objective of this work is to assess whether the inclusion of atmospheric aerosol radiative feedbacks of an ensemble of online coupled models improves the simulation results for maximum, mean and minimum temperature at 2 m over Europe. The evaluated models outputs originate from EuMetChem COST Action ES1004 simulations for Europe, differing in the inclusion (or omission of ARI and ACI in the various models. The cases studies cover two important atmospheric aerosol episodes over Europe in the year 2010: (i a heat wave event and a forest fire episode (July–August 2010 and (ii a more humid episode including a Saharan desert dust outbreak in October 2010. The simulation results are evaluated against observational data from the E-OBS gridded database. The results indicate that, although there is only a slight improvement in the bias of the simulation results when including the radiative feedbacks, the spatiotemporal variability and correlation coefficients are improved for the cases under study when atmospheric aerosol radiative effects are included.

  3. Actor-Partner Effects of Male Couples Substance Use with Sex and Engagement in Condomless Anal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Pan, Yue; Feaster, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have examined actor-partner effects about male couples' substance use with sex. Dyadic data from 361 male couples were used to examine these effects regarding engagement in condomless anal sex (CAS) by type of partner and substance. Couples with one or both partners reported using marijuana, amyl nitrates, party drugs, and/or stimulants with sex in their relationship was positively associated with them having had CAS. Actor-partner effects for stimulant use with sex with the main partner were associated with CAS with a casual MSM partner. Only an actor effect for stimulant use with sex with a casual MSM partner was associated with CAS with that partner type, and an actor effect for marijuana use with sex for both partner types was associated with CAS with both partner types. These findings illuminate the need for further inquiry about male couples' substance use with sex for HIV prevention.

  4. Effectiveness and stability of silane coupling agent incorporated in 'universal' adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kumiko; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Sonoda, Akinari; Maruo, Yukinori; Makita, Yoji; Okihara, Takumi; Irie, Masao; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2016-10-01

    For bonding indirect restorations, some 'universal' adhesives incorporate a silane coupling agent to chemically bond to glass-rich ceramics so that a separate ceramic primer is claimed to be no longer needed. With this work, we investigated the effectiveness/stability of the silane coupling function of the silanecontaining experimentally prepared adhesives and Scotchbond Universal (3MESPE). Experimental adhesives consisted of Scotchbond Universal and the silane-free Clearfil S3 ND Quick (Kuraray Noritake) mixed with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (Kuraray Noritake) and the two adhesives to which γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) was added. Shear bond strength was measured onto silica-glass plates; the adhesive formulations were analyzed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, shear bond strength onto CAD-CAM composite blocks was measured without and after thermo-cycling ageing. A significantly higher bond strength was recorded when Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator was freshly mixed with the adhesive. Likewise, the experimental adhesives, to which γ-MPTS was added, revealed a significantly higher bond strength, but only when the adhesive was applied immediately after mixing; delayed application resulted in a significantly lower bond strength. FTIR and (13)C NMR revealed hydrolysis and dehydration condensation to progress with the time after γ-MPTS was mixed with the two adhesives. After thermo-cycling, the bond strength onto CAD-CAM composite blocks remained stable only for the two adhesives with which Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator was mixed. Only the silane coupling effect of freshly prepared silanecontaining adhesives was effective. Clinically, the use of a separate silane primer or silane freshly mixed with the adhesive remains recommended to bond glass-rich ceramics. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Parasitic Dielectric Resonators on CPW/Aperture-Coupled Dielectric Resonator Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R. N.; Lee, R. Q.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of parasitic dielectric resonators on the HE (sub 11 sigma) and HE (High Efficiency) (sub 13 sigma) modes of a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) have been studied. The DRA was excited electromagnetically with a grounded coplanar waveguide through an aperture in the common ground plane. Strong couplings were observed for the HE (sub 11 sigma) mode with the parasitic element superimposed on the driven DRA, and for the HE (sub 13 sigma) mode with parasitic elements placed on both sides of the driven DRA. Results indicate significant enhancement in bandwidth for both modes, and good radiation patterns for the HE (sub 11 sigma) mode.

  6. Inverse spin Hall effect in ferromagnetic metal with Rashba spin orbit coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-J. Xing

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an intrinsic form of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE in ferromagnetic (FM metal with Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC, which is driven by a normal charge current. Unlike the conventional form, the ISHE can be induced without the need for spin current injection from an external source. Our theoretical results show that Hall voltage is generated when the FM moment is perpendicular to the ferromagnetic layer. The polarity of the Hall voltage is reversed upon switching the FM moment to the opposite direction, thus promising a useful reading mechanism for memory or logic applications.

  7. Technical Note for 8D Likelihood Effective Higgs Couplings Extraction Framework in the Golden Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi [Caltech; Di Marco, Emanuele [Caltech; Lykken, Joe [Fermilab; Spiropulu, Maria [Caltech; Vega-Morales, Roberto [Northwestern U.; Xie, Si [Caltech

    2014-10-17

    In this technical note we present technical details on various aspects of the framework introduced in arXiv:1401.2077 aimed at extracting effective Higgs couplings in the $h\\to 4\\ell$ `golden channel'. Since it is the primary feature of the framework, we focus in particular on the convolution integral which takes us from `truth' level to `detector' level and the numerical and analytic techniques used to obtain it. We also briefly discuss other aspects of the framework.

  8. The Effect of Cooling Rate on the Apparent Bond Strength of Porcelain-Metal Couples,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-06

    IADR Program and Abstracts 53:742, 1974. 10. Dykema, R. W., Johnston, J. F., and Cunningham, D. M.: The veneered gold crown. The Dental Clinics of...AD-A097 492 ARMY INST OF DENTAL RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC F/G 11/2 THE EFFECT OF COOLING RATE ON THE APPARENT BOND STRENGTH OF POR-’ETC(U) MAR 81 J...porcelain- metal couples John W. Guinn, III, B.S., D.D.S. William H. Griswold, B.S., D.D.S. Stanley G. Vermilyea, B.S.,D.M.D., M.S. U.S. Army Dental

  9. Effectiveness of Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention on marital satisfaction and partner abuse (Non-physical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Heshmati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the aim of this research was to investigate effectiveness self-regulation couple therapy intervention on marital and partner abuse. in a semi-experimental with experimental and control group design, 24 couples were selected by convenient sampling method from Family Counseling Center of Ardabil city and were divided into two experimental (12 couples and control groups (12 couples through random assignment. Before the treatment, participants completed the Index of Marital Satisfaction (IMS and Partner Abuse Scale (Non-physical (PASNP. Then, Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention protocol was implemented for the experimental group in 7 sessions of 90 minutes, and again the questionnaires were completed by both groups after eight weeks. The results showed that Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention had a significant increase in marital satisfaction scores and significant reduction in non-physical partner abuse scores in experimental group compared with control group. These results suggest that Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention is an effective way to improve marital conflicts and marital satisfaction. Key words: Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention, marital satisfaction, partner abuse

  10. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of electrokinetic coupling : effects of rugosity and local conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Eve-Agnès; Toussaint, Renaud; Jouniaux, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    Streaming-potentials are produced by electrokinetic effects in relation to fluid flow, and are used for geophysical prospecting. The electrokinetic coupling is induced by the coupling between the fluid flow and the electrical flow, which results from the presence of an electrical double layer at the rock/pore water interface. When fluid flows through a porous medium, it gives rise to an electric streaming current, counterbalanced by a conduction current, leading to a resulting measurable electrical voltage. Streaming current generation is well understood in water-saturated porous media, but the streaming potential coefficient at very-low and very-high salinities can show a non-linear behaviour. The aim of this study is to model the streaming potential coefficient using Lattice Boltzmann simulations and to quantify the effect of parameters such as fluid conductivity and rugosity. The lattice Boltzmann method is computational fluid dynamics technique that allows to solve advection and diffusion phenomena. We implement a coupled lattice Boltzmann algorithm that solves both the flow in a rock channel and the electrical diffusion to calculate the streaming potential coefficient (ratio between the created potential difference and the applied pressure gradient) in various situations. In this study, we aim at quantifying the change that is brought by taking into account the dependence of the local fluid conductivity on the local concentration. We also observe the influence of a rough surface on the behaviour of this coefficient with the fluid salinity. We try to generate non-linearities regarding the theoretical prediction of the streaming potential coefficient with a view to explaining existing experimental measurements.

  11. Electrochemical Behaviour and Galvanic Effects of Titanium Implants Coupled to Metallic Suprastructures in Artificial Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mellado-Valero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze the electrochemical behavior of five different dental alloys: two cobalt-chromium alloys (CoCr and CoCr-c, one nickel-chromium-titanium alloy (NiCrTi, one gold-palladium alloy (Au, and one titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V, and the galvanic effect when they are coupled to titanium implants (TiG2. It was carried out by electrochemical techniques (open circuit measurements, potentiodynamic curves and Zero-Resistance Ammetry in artificial saliva (AS, with and without fluorides in different acidic conditions. The studied alloys are spontaneously passivated, but NiCrTi alloy has a very narrow passive domain and losses its passivity in presence of fluorides, so is not considered as a good option for implant superstructures. Variations of pH from 6.5 to 3 in artificial saliva do not change the electrochemical behavior of Ti, Ti6Al4V, and CoCr alloys, and couples, but when the pH of the artificial saliva is below 3.5 and the fluoride content is 1000 ppm Ti and Ti6Al4V starts actively dissolving, and CoCr-c superstructures coupled to Ti show acceleration of corrosion due to galvanic effects. Thus, NiCrTi is not recommended for implant superstructures because of risk of Ni ion release to the body, and fluorides should be avoided in acidic media because Ti, Ti6Al4V, and CoCr-c superstructures show galvanic corrosion. The best combinations are Ti/Ti6Al4V and Ti/CoCr as alternative of noble gold alloys.

  12. Fracturing and Damage to Sandstone Under Coupling Effects of Chemical Corrosion and Freeze-Thaw Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tielin; Shi, Junping; Cao, Xiaoshan

    2016-11-01

    Rapid freeze-thaw (FT) cycles were adopted to explore the damage deterioration mechanism and mechanical properties of sandstone specimens under the coupling effects of different chemical solutions and FT cycles. The variation regularities of the FT cycles and physical and mechanical properties of sandstone specimens immersed in different chemical solutions were analyzed by using sandstone sampled from a Chinese riverbank slope. The damage variable based on porosity variation was used in the quantitative analysis of the damage to the sandstone under the coupling effects of chemical corrosion and FT cycles. Experimental results showed that the sandstone specimens weakened substantially under those effects. Their fracture toughness K IC, splitting tensile strength, and compressive strength showed a similar deteriorating trend with various numbers of FT cycles. However, a difference exists in the deterioration degree of their mechanical parameters, i.e., the deterioration degree of their fracture toughness K IC is the greatest followed by that of splitting tensile strength, and that of compressive strength is relatively small. Strong acid solutions may aggravate the deterioration of FT damage in sandstones, but at the early stage of the experiment, strong alkaline solutions inhibited sandstone damage deterioration. However, the inhibiting effect disappeared when the number of FT cycles exceeded 25. The different chemical solutions had a different effect on the FT damage degree of the sandstone specimens; for example, SO4 2- ions had a greater effect on FT damage than did HCO3 - ions. Water-chemical solutions and FT cycles promote each other in deteriorating rocks and simultaneously affect the damage deterioration degree of sandstones.

  13. Interhemispheric coupling induced by the Holton-Tan effect and its sensitivity to the solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Vivien; Becker, Erich

    2016-04-01

    The modulation of the northern winter polar vortex due to the Holton-Tan (HT) effect results in changes of the gravity wave (GW) drag in the mesosphere/ lower thermosphere (MLT). According to the interhemispheric coupling mechanism, one expects an associated modulation of the entire residual circulation from the summer to the winter pole, including a corresponding variability of the southern summer mesopause temperature. In a preceding study we studied this possible vertical and global extension of the HT effect on the basis of the CMAM30 (Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model) data. We found that a clear effect shows up only when sorting the data according to the phases of the 11-year solar cycle. In particular, the strongest interhemispheric coupling induced by the HT effect in January is visible during solar maximum, while the effect is much weaker during solar minimum and even reversed during the transition phases. In the present study we analyze sensitivity experiments with a new version of the KMCM (Kühlungsborn Mechanistic general Circulation Model; T42,L115) that includes self-generated QBO. Different phases of the solar cycle are mimicked by absorption of solar insolation by ozone around the stratopause. The model runs reproduce the behavior as detected from the CMAM30 data, confirming that the primary cause for the solar-cycle-induced variations of the HT effect are due to the solar heating around the stratopause. In order to explain the simulated sensitivity of the MLT to the solar cycle, we will analyze the differences among the model runs with respect to the dynamics of Rossby waves and GWs and their wave-wave and wave-mean flow interactions. For example, the stratospheric planetary wave drag is weaker during solar transition than during both solar minimum and maximum.

  14. Image analysis of single event transient effects on charge coupled devices irradiated by protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Xue, Yuanyuan [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Liu, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China); He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Ma, Wuying [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-10, Xi’an (China)

    2016-10-21

    The experiments of single event transient (SET) effects on charge coupled devices (CCDs) irradiated by protons are presented. The radiation experiments have been carried out at the accelerator protons with the energy of 200 MeV and 60 MeV.The incident angles of the protons are at 30°and 90° to the plane of the CCDs to obtain the images induced by the perpendicularity and incline incident angles. The experimental results show that the typical characteristics of the SET effects on a CCD induced by protons are the generation of a large number of dark signal spikes (hot pixels) which are randomly distributed in the “pepper” images. The characteristics of SET effects are investigated by observing the same imaging area at different time during proton radiation to verify the transient effects. The experiment results also show that the number of dark signal spikes increases with increasing integration time during proton radiation. The CCDs were tested at on-line and off-line to distinguish the radiation damage induced by the SET effects or DD effects. The mechanisms of the dark signal spike generation induced by the SET effects and the DD effects are demonstrated respectively.

  15. Surface-effect enhanced magneto-electric coupling in FePt/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. T.; Li, J.; Peng, X. L.; Hong, B.; Wang, X. Q.; Ge, H. L.; Wang, D. H.; Du, Y. W.

    2017-05-01

    A series of FePt films with different film thickness are deposited on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates. A standard symmetric `Butterfly' shaped Δ M /M -Ed c loops is obtained in 8 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostrucuture via strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling. For the 3 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostructure, the loop-like in-plane magnetization (M) -E curve shares a similar shape with the electric polarization of PMN-PT as a function of electric field. The value of MS shows a dramatic change of 30.9% with Edc changing from 0 to 8 kV/cm, this giant magnetoelectric effect in 3 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostructure results from the remnant polarization induced charge on FePt/PMN-PT interface via the screening charge effect. The enhanced magnetoelectric coupling in thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures opens a promising avenue for the design of ultralow power magnetoelectric devices and information storage devices.

  16. In vitro evaluation of genotoxic effects under magnetic resonant coupling wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kohei; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2015-04-07

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using the resonant coupling phenomenon has been widely studied, but there are very few studies concerning the possible relationship between WPT exposure and human health. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT has genotoxic effects on WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells. WPT exposure was performed using a helical coil-based exposure system designed to transfer power with 85.4% efficiency at a 12.5-MHz resonant frequency. The magnetic field at the positions of the cell culture dishes is approximately twice the reference level for occupational exposure as stated in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The specific absorption rate at the positions of the cell culture dishes matches the respective reference levels stated in the ICNIRP guidelines. For assessment of genotoxicity, we studied cell growth, cell cycle distribution, DNA strand breaks using the comet assay, micronucleus formation, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene mutation, and did not detect any significant effects between the WPT-exposed cells and control cells. Our results suggest that WPT exposure under the conditions of the ICNIRP guidelines does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity.

  17. Multiple-effect diffusion solar still coupled with a vacuum-tube collector and heat pipe

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Tze-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The present study develops a multiple-effect diffusion solar still (MEDS) with a bended-plate design in multiple-effect diffusion unit (MDU) to solve the peel-off problem of wick material. The MDU is coupled with a vacuum-tube solar collector to produce a high temperature gradient for high productivity. A heat pipe is used to transfer the solar heat to the MDU. A prototype MEDS-1L was built and tested outdoors. Four performance indexes are proposed for the performance evaluation of MEDS, including daily pure water production per unit area of glass cover, solar absorber, and evaporating surface (Mcov, Msol, Mevp, respectively), and solar distillation efficiency Rcov. The outdoor test results of MEDS-1L show that the solar collector supply temperature Th reaches 100°C at solar radiation 800Wm-2. The highest Mcov is 23.9kgm-2d-1 which is about 29% higher than the basin-type MEDS [11]. The highest value is 25.9kgm-2d-1 for Msol and 2.79kgm-2d-1 for Mevp. The measured Rcov is 1.5-2.44, higher than the basin-type MEDS (1.45-1.88). The Mcov, Msol, Mevp and Rcov of MEDS-1L are all higher than the theoretical calculation of a MEDS with a flat-plate solar collector coupled with a heat pipe (MEDS-FHP) [17].© 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Surface-effect enhanced magneto-electric coupling in FePt/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. T. Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of FePt films with different film thickness are deposited on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–PbTiO3 (PMN-PT substrates. A standard symmetric ‘Butterfly’ shaped ΔM/M-Edc loops is obtained in 8 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostrucuture via strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling. For the 3 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostructure, the loop-like in-plane magnetization (M -E curve shares a similar shape with the electric polarization of PMN-PT as a function of electric field. The value of MS shows a dramatic change of 30.9% with Edc changing from 0 to 8 kV/cm, this giant magnetoelectric effect in 3 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostructure results from the remnant polarization induced charge on FePt/PMN-PT interface via the screening charge effect. The enhanced magnetoelectric coupling in thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures opens a promising avenue for the design of ultralow power magnetoelectric devices and information storage devices.

  19. Quantum Transfer Energy and Nonlocal Correlation in a Dimer with Time-Dependent Coupling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; Berrada, K.; C. Haddon, Robert; Al-Hadeethi, Yas F.; H. Al-Heniti, Saleh.; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.

    2017-05-01

    The presence of coherence phenomenon due to the interference of probability amplitude terms, is one of the most important features of quantum mechanics theory. Recent experiments show the presence of quantum processes whose coherence provided over suddenly large interval-time. In particular, photosynthetic mechanisms in light-harvesting complexes provide oscillatory behaviors in quantum mechanics due to quantum coherence. In this work, we investigate the coherent quantum transfer energy for a single-excitation and nonlocal correlation in a dimer system modelled by a two-level atom system with and without time-dependent coupling effect. We analyze and explore the required conditions that are feasible with real experimental realization for optimal transfer of quantum energy and generation of nonlocal quantum correlation. We show that the enhancement of the probability for a single-excitation transfer energy is greatly benefits from the combination of the energy detuning and time-dependent coupling effect. We investigate the presence of quantum correlations in the dimer using the entanglement of formation. We also find that the entanglement between the donor and acceptor is very sensitive to the physical parameters and it can be generated during the coherent energy transfer. On the other hand, we study the dynamical behavior of the quantum variance when performing a measurement on an observable of the density matrix operator. Finally, an interesting relationship between the transfer probability, entanglement and quantum variance is explored during the time evolution in terms of the physical parameters.

  20. Effective lattice model for the collective modes in a Fermi liquid with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maslov, Dmitrii L.

    2017-04-01

    A Fermi liquid (FL) with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) supports a special type of collective modes—chiral spin waves—which are oscillations of magnetization that occur even in the absence of the external magnetic field. We study the chiral spin waves of a two-dimensional FL in the presence of both the Rashba and Dresselhaus types of SOC and also subject to the in-plane magnetic field. We map the system of coupled kinetic equations for the angular harmonics of the occupation number onto an effective one-dimensional tight-binding model, in which the lattice sites correspond to angular-momentum channels. Linear-in-momentum SOC ensures that the effective tight-binding model has only nearest-neighbor hopping on a bipartite lattice. In this language, the continuum of spin-flip particle-hole excitations becomes a conduction band of the lattice model, whereas electron-electron interaction, parametrized by harmonics of the Landau function, is mapped onto lattice defects of both on-site and bond type. The collective modes correspond to bound states formed by such defects. All the features of the collective-mode spectrum receive natural explanation in the lattice picture as resulting from the competition between on-site and bond defects.

  1. Quantum dynamical study of low-energy photoelectron bands of 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gated theoretically, paying particular attention to the vibrational structure and to possible nonadiabatic coupling effects. A substantial vibronic interaction ... Vibronic interactions, i.e., the coupling of different electronic states through the .... direct product basis of harmonic oscillator basis func- tions pertinent to the operator TN ...

  2. The effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who underwent assisted reproductive techniques on the pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fusun; Turk, Rukiye; Yucel, Cigdem; Dilbaz, Serdar; Cinar, Ozgur; Karahalil, Bensu

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anxiety and depression scores of couples who underwent Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) on pregnancy outcomes. This study was conducted as a prospective and comparative study with 217 couples. The study data was collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Turkish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The questionnaire, STAI and BDI were applied to couples who initiated ART treatment. Couples' state anxiety scores were re-evaluated after embryo transfer (ET). A significant relationship was found between the depression score of women and pregnancy outcome (p 0.05) and lower depression scores (p <0.05) than spouses of women with a positive pregnancy outcome. Study results indicated that the anxiety and depression scores of couples who had achieved a positive pregnancy result were lower than for couples with a negative result. The results of this study will contribute to the health professionals especially to the nurses who spend the most time with couples in providing consulting services and supporting psychological status of couples during ART process in Turkey.

  3. Biospheric feedback effects in a synchronously coupled model of human and Earth systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Peter E.; Calvin, Katherine; Jones, Andrew D.; Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Chini, Louise; Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, Jae; Thomson, Allison; Truesdale, John; Craig, Anthony; Branstetter, Marcia L.; Hurtt, George

    2017-06-12

    Fossil fuel combustion and land-use change are the first and second largest contributors to industrial-era increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which is itself the largest driver of present-day climate change1. Projections of fossil fuel consumption and land-use change are thus fundamental inputs for coupled Earth system models (ESM) used to estimate the physical and biological consequences of future climate system forcing2,3. While empirical datasets are available to inform historical analyses4,5, assessments of future climate change have relied on projections of energy and land use based on energy economic models, constrained using historical and present-day data and forced with assumptions about future policy, land-use patterns, and socio-economic development trajectories6. Here we show that the influence of biospheric change – the integrated effect of climatic, ecological, and geochemical processes – on land ecosystems has a significant impact on energy, agriculture, and land-use projections for the 21st century. Such feedbacks have been ignored in previous ESM studies of future climate. We find that synchronous exposure of land ecosystem productivity in the economic system to biospheric change as it develops in an ESM results in a 10% reduction of land area used for crop cultivation; increased managed forest area and land carbon; a 15-20% decrease in global crop price; and a 17% reduction in fossil fuel emissions for a low-mid range forcing scenario7. These simulation results demonstrate that biospheric change can significantly alter primary human system forcings to the climate system. This synchronous two-way coupling approach removes inconsistencies in description of climate change between human and biosphere components of the coupled model, mitigating a major source of uncertainty identified in assessments of future climate projections8-10.

  4. Effect of temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the predictive steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Philippe Rybarczyk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the direction of a driver’s gaze while taking a bend show that the individual looks towards the tangent-point of the inside curve. Mathematically, the direction of this point in relation to the car enables the driver to predict the curvature of the road. In the same way, when a person walking in the street makes a turn at the corner, his/her gaze anticipates the rotation of the body. A current explanation for the visuo-motor anticipation over the locomotion would be that the brain, involved in a steering behaviour, executes an internal model of the trajectory that anticipates the path completion, and not the contrary. This paper proposes to test this hypothesis by studying the effect of an artificial manipulation of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the trajectory prediction. In this experiment, subjects remotely control a mobile robot with a pan-tilt camera. This experimental paradigm is chosen to easily and precisely manipulate the temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling. Results show that only the visuo-locomotor coupling organized from the visual sensor to the locomotor organs enables i a significant smoothness of the trajectory and ii a velocity-curvature relationship that follows the 2/3 Power Law. These findings are consistent with the theory of an anticipatory construction of an internal model of the trajectory. This mental representation used by the brain as a forward prediction of the path formation seems conditioned by the motor program. The overall results are discussed in terms of the sensorimotor scheme bases of the predictive coding.

  5. Split resonance modes of a AuBRC plasmonic nanosystem caused by the coupling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yuan; Kan, Caixia; Xu, Haiying; Wang, Changshun

    2016-12-01

    A plasmonic nanosystem can give rise to particular optical responses due to a coupling effect. In this work, we investigate the optical properties and field distributions of a novel ‘matrioska’ nanocavity structure composed of a Au nanorod (AuNR) within a nanobox (AuNB) via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. This nanocavity can be fabricated by a two-step wet-chemical method. The multiple SPR modes of optical spectrum for nanocavity are caused by the strong interaction between the AuNR-core and AuNB-shell when the incident light is perpendicular or parallel to the long axis of the Au box/rod nanocavity (AuBRC). The SPR modes are known as the dipole-dipole bonding resonance mode in the lower-energy region and the antibonding resonance mode in the higher-energy region. It is proposed that AuBRC can escape the orientation confinement of AuNR because the multiple modes occur and provide a potential application for the enhancement of the photoluminescence signal. Additionally, the SPR modes red-shift with increasing the offset of the AuNR-core, whereas the SPR mode dramatically blue-shifts when the conductive coupling is formed. The intense ‘hot-spot’ could be induced within a small interaction region in the conductive coupled system. The SPR line-shape of high quality would also be promoted. The SPR is highly sensitive to the medium, which is promising in the sensing and detecting devices.

  6. The effect of finite response–time in coupled dynamical systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper investigates synchronization in unidirectionally coupled dynamical systems wherein the influence of drive on response is cumulative: coupling signals are integrated over a time interval τ. A major consequence of integrative coupling is that the onset of the generalized and phase synchronization occurs ...

  7. Effect of orbital and ionic dynamics coupling in barrier crossing rates for Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanam, L. N.; Ong, S. W.; Tok, E. S.; Kang, H. C.

    2015-02-01

    Even though the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) method provides excellent sampling for thermal equilibrium, coupling between ionic motion and the fictitious orbital dynamics leads to an underestimation of ionic vibration frequencies In this letter we examine how this coupling affects calculated rates of energy-barrier crossing. Simulating double-well potentials in 'toy' models based on H3O2- and H5O2+ complexes, we demonstrate that barrier crossing rates can be dramatically affected depending upon how orbitals evolve at the top of the reaction barrier. Thus, it is important that calculated dynamical quantities such as chemical reaction rates be assessed for this coupling effect.

  8. Effects of bisphenol A on male and couple reproductive health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Hauser, Russ; Gaskins, Audrey J

    2016-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant with endocrine-disrupting properties and is suspected to affect human reproduction. The objective of this review was to summarize the potential effects of male exposure to BPA on markers of testicular function and couple reproductive outcomes. Five epidemiologic studies on BPA and reproductive hormones all found significant associations with at least one reproductive hormone; however, no consistent relationships were observed across studies. Six epidemiologic studies evaluated the relation between BPA and semen parameters, and although the majority reported negative associations with various parameters, there were few consistent trends across studies. Finally, three epidemiologic studies examined BPA and couple reproductive outcomes, and only one found an association. Overall, the evidence supporting an association between BPA exposure and adverse male reproductive health outcomes in humans remains limited and inconclusive. Reasons for the discrepancies in results could include, but are not limited to, differences in study populations (e.g., fertile vs. subfertile men), BPA urinary concentrations (occupationally vs. nonoccupationally exposed), misclassification of BPA exposure (e.g., using one urine sample to characterize exposure vs. multiple samples), sample sizes, study design (e.g., cross-sectional vs. prospective), and residual confounding (e.g., due to diet and lifestyle factors). It is also possible that some of the statistically significant findings were due to chance alone. Clearly, further studies are needed to further clarify the role of this ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical on male reproductive health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effect of coupling currents on the dynamic inductance during fast transient in superconducting magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marinozzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present electromagnetic models aiming to calculate the variation of the inductance in a magnet due to dynamic effects such as the variation of magnetization or the coupling with eddy currents. The models are studied with special regard to the calculation of the inductance in superconducting magnets which are affected by interfilament coupling currents. The developed models have been compared with experimental data coming from tests of prototype Nb_{3}Sn magnets designed for the new generation of accelerators. This work is relevant for the quench protection study of superconducting magnets: quench is an unwanted event, when part of the magnet becomes resistive; in these cases, the current should be discharged as fast as possible, in order to maintain the resistive zone temperature under a safe limit. The magnet inductance is therefore a relevant term for the description of the current discharge, especially for the high-field new generation superconducting magnets for accelerators, and this work shows how to calculate the correct value during rapid current changes, providing a mean for simulations of the reached temperature.

  10. Optimization of coupled plasmonic effects for viable phosphorescence of metal-free purely organic phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Jung, Jaehun; Chung, Kyungwha; Lim, Ju Won; You, Youngmin; Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Dong Ha

    2017-10-01

    Metal-free purely organic phosphorescent molecules are attractive alternatives to organometallic and inorganic counterparts because of their low cost and readily tunable optical properties through a wide chemical design window. However, their weak phosphorescent intensity due to inefficient spin-orbit coupling and, consequently, prevailing non-radiative decay processes limit their practical applicability. Here, we systematically studied phosphorescence emission enhancement of a purely organic phosphor system via plasmon resonance energy transfer. By precisely tuning the distance between purely organic phosphor crystals and plasmonic nanostructures using layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte multilayers as a dielectric spacer, maximum 2.8 and 2.5 times enhancement in photoluminescence intensity was observed when the phosphor crystals were coupled with ˜55 nm AuNPs and ˜7 nm AgNPs, respectively, at the distance of 9.6 nm. When the distance is within the range of 3 nm, a dramatic decrease in phosphorescence intensity was observed, while at a larger distance, the plasmonic effect diminished rapidly. The distance-dependent plasmon-induced phosphorescence enhancement mechanism was further investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Our results reveal the correlation between the amplification efficiency and plasmonic band, spatial factor, and spectral characteristics of the purely organic phosphor, which may provide an insightful picture to extend the utility of organic phosphors by using surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement scheme.

  11. Electronic and optical properties of warm dense lithium: strong coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiayu; Gao, Cheng; Sun, Huayang; Kang, Dongdong

    2017-09-01

    The optical properties of atoms in a hot and dense environment are of critical importance and a great challenge. In a warm dense matter, strong coupling effects between ions induce new physics which is difficult to be included in statistical isolated atom models such as the average atom model or the detailed level accounting model. Here we study the optical properties of warm dense Li from ab initio molecular dynamics with Kubo-Greenwood relations. We compare the absorption coefficients with those from detailed level accounting methods, which can show a significant difference. The analyses of ionic structures and charge density distribution show that the strongly coupled ions induce local ordered structures and redistributions of the electrons away from the homogeneous electron gases. Also, we study the electronic structures of warm dense Li within the same theoretical framework, and we discover how the local environment of different atoms affects the density of states of the system, which will directly alter the optical properties of warm dense matter.

  12. Friendship and Depression Among Couples in Later Life: The Moderating Effects of Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sae Hwang; Kim, Kyungmin; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-26

    The aims of the study were to examine within-person associations between social interactions with friends (one's own and partner's) and depressive symptoms over time among couples in later life and to investigate whether marital quality moderated the associations. We used longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (2004-2012) to examine a sample of coupled individuals (dyad N = 6,833). Dyadic growth curve models were employed to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that more frequent social interactions with friends were associated with fewer depressive symptoms of individuals and there were cross-spousal effects for this association. Further, marital quality moderated the within-person association between social interaction with friends and depressive symptoms such that the association was stronger for individuals experiencing poor marital quality compared to those with better marital quality. Friendship is an important contributor to individuals' mental health in later life, with its benefits having far-reaching consequences for one's significant other. The implications of friendship interactions for other health domains also require investigation within the marital context.

  13. Monopoly money: the effect of payment coupling and form on spending behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghubir, Priya; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2008-09-01

    This article examines consumer spending as a function of payment mode both when the modes differ in terms of payment coupling (association between purchase decision and actual parting of money) and physical form as well as when the modes differ only in terms of form. Study 1 demonstrates that consumers are willing to spend more when a credit card logo is present versus absent. Study 2 shows that the credit card effect can be attenuated when people estimate their expenses using a decomposition strategy (vs. a holistic one). Noting that credit card and cash payments differ in terms of payment coupling and form, Studies 3 and 4 examine consumer spending when the payment mode differs only in physical form. Study 3 demonstrates that consumers spend more when they are spending scrip (a form of stored value certificate) versus cash of the same face value. Study 4 shows that the difference in spending across payment modes (cash and gift certificates) is attenuated by altering the salience of parting with money through contextual manipulations of the differences between cash and gift certificates. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Effective Yukawa couplings and flavor-changing Higgs boson decays at linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Emidio

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the advantages of a linear-collider program for testing a recent theoretical proposal where the Higgs-boson Yukawa couplings are radiatively generated, keeping unchanged the standard-model mechanism for electroweak-gauge-symmetry breaking. Fermion masses arise at a large energy scale through an unknown mechanism, and the standard model at the electroweak scale is regarded as an effective field theory. In this scenario, Higgs boson decays into photons and electroweak gauge-boson pairs are considerably enhanced for a light Higgs boson, which makes a signal observation at the LHC straightforward. On the other hand, the clean environment of a linear collider is required to directly probe the radiative fermionic sector of the Higgs boson couplings. Also, we show that the flavor-changing Higgs-boson decays are dramatically enhanced with respect to the standard model. In particular, we find a measurable branching ratio in the range (10^{-4}-10^{-3}) for the decay H\\to bs for a Higgs boson lighter than 140...

  15. Propagation of SH waves in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate: Effects of interfacial imperfection couplings and the related physical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hong-Xing [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Yong-Dong, E-mail: LYDbeijing@163.com [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Xiong, Tao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Guan, Yong [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2016-09-07

    The problem of dispersive SH wave in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate that contains an imperfect interface is considered in the present work. An imperfection coupling model is adopted to describe the magnetic, electric and mechanical imperfections on the interface. A transcendental dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved to get the phase velocity. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified in a degenerated case. The effects of the coupled interfacial imperfections on the dispersion behavior of SH waves are discussed in detail and the related underlying physical mechanisms are explained. - Highlights: • SH-wave is investigated in a multiferroic plate with coupled interfacial imperfections. • SH-wave is affected by both interfacial imperfections and their inter-couplings. • Physical mechanisms of the effects are explained via energy transformations.

  16. Multiple inhibitory effects of genistein on stimulus-secretion coupling in rat pancreatic acini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, R D; Wagner, A C; Yule, D I; Williams, J A

    1994-02-01

    Genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibited cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced maximal amylase release from rat pancreatic acini by 18, 31, and 46% at concentrations of 100, 300, and 750 microM, respectively, after 30 min preincubation. Genistein similarly decreased amylase release stimulated by bombesin but not that stimulated by secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. The steps of stimulus-secretion coupling affected by genistein were further evaluated. We found genistein dose dependently suppressed CCK-as well as NaF-induced polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 380 and 400 microM, respectively, but only slightly suppressed the increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration in response to either low or high concentrations of CCK. Genistein at 300 microM also decreased incorporation of [3H]inositol into phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Most strikingly, 300 microM genistein inhibited Ca(2+)-stimulated amylase release by 85% in streptolysin O-permeabilized acini and thapsigargin-stimulated amylase release by 69% in intact acini. Daidzein, the inactive analogue of genistein, had no effect on any of the above parameters. Genistein, up to 750 microM, did not affect amylase release in response to phorbol ester. To relate these inhibitory effects of genistein to its inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation, Western blotting was performed with an anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody. Genistein at 100 microM partly and at 300 microM completely inhibited CCK-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. In conclusion, genistein inhibits amylase release at multiple stages of stimulus-secretion coupling. These effects most likely involve both tyrosine kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

  17. Effect of Time Dependent Coupling on the Dynamical Properties of the Nonlocal Correlation Between Two Three-Level Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, S.; A. Halawani, S. H.; Obada, A.-S. F.

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we present the analytical solution for the pair of entangled two three-level atoms in the cascade configuration with and without the atomic motion effect. The effects of time dependent coupling and photon multiplicity on the evolution of the nonlocal correlation between the two atoms are examined. It is shown that the amount of atom-atom entanglement increases for one photon transition when the atomic motion effect is considered. Also, the entanglement between the two atoms decreases by increasing the photons multiplicity when the time dependent coupling effect is ignored. Finally, the results explored very important phenomena such as entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth.

  18. The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Yu, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the effects of smoking on assisted conception. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and whether cotinine positivity was associated with infertility treatment outcomes. Methods A qualitative urinary cotinine test was administered to 127 couples who underwent in vitro fertiliza...

  19. Effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems in preventing functional decline among the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Florent Lachal; Achille Edem Tchalla; Noëlle Cardinaud; Isabelle Saulnier; Hichem Nessighaoui; Cécile Laubarie-Mouret; Thierry Dantoine

    2016-01-01

    International audience; INTRODUCTION:The elderly population is at high risk of functional decline, which will induce significant costs due to long-term care. Dependency could be delayed by preventing one of its major determinants: falls. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems could prevent the functional decline through fall prevention.METHODS:This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems on the functional ...

  20. Comparing the level of bystander effect in a couple of tumor and normal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni, Mohammad T Toossi

    2012-04-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect refers to radiation responses which occur in non-irradiated cells. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of bystander effect in a couple of tumor and normal cell lines (QU-DB and MRC5). To induce bystander effect, cells were irradiated with 0.5, 2, and 4 Gy of (60)Co gamma rays and their media were transferred to non-irradiated (bystander) cells of the same type. Cells containing micronuclei were counted in bystander subgroups, non-irradiated, and 0.5 Gy irradiated cells. Frequencies of cells containing micronuclei in QU-DB bystander subgroups were higher than in bystander subgroups of MRC5 cells (P MRC5 cells (P MRC5 bystander cells was constant. It is concluded that QU-DB cells are more susceptible than MRC5 cells to be affected by bystander effect, and in the two cell lines there is a positive correlation between DNA damages induced directly and those induced due to bystander effect.

  1. Hydromagnetic effect on inclined peristaltic flow of a couple stress fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Shit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the effect of channel inclination on the peristaltic transport of a couple stress fluid in the presence of externally applied magnetic field. The slip velocity at the channel wall has been taken into account. Under the long wave length and low-Reynolds number assumptions, the analytical solutions for axial velocity, stream function, pressure gradient and pressure rise are obtained. The computed results are presented graphically by taking valid numerical data for non-dimensional physical parameters available in the existing scientific literatures. The results revealed that the trapping fluid can be eliminated and the central line axial velocity can be reduced with a considerable extent by the application of magnetic field. The flow phenomena for the pumping characteristics, trapping and reflux are furthermore investigated. The study shows that the slip parameter and Froude number play an important role in controlling axial pressure gradient.

  2. Design and coupled-effect simulations of CMOS micro gas sensors built on SOI thin membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Udrea, Florin; Gardner, Julian W.; Setiadi, D.; Dogaru, T.; Tsai, T. H.; Covington, James A.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes coupled-effect simulations of smart micro gas-sensors based on standard BiCMOS technology. The smart sensor features very low power consumption, high sensitivity and potential low fabrication cost achieved through full CMOS integration. For the first time the micro heaters are made of active CMOS elements (i.e. MOSFET transistors) and embedded in a thin SOI membrane consisting of Si and SiO2 thin layers. Micro gas-sensors such as chemoresistive, microcalorimeteric and Pd/polymer gate FET sensors can be made using this technology. Full numerical analyses including 3D electro- thermo-mechanical simulations, in particular stress and deflection studies on the SOI membranes are presented. The transducer circuit design and the post-CMOS fabrication process, which includes single sided back-etching, are also reported.

  3. Direct solar energy conversion and storage through coupling between photoelectrochemical and ferroelectric effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wei Lo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and storing solar energy has become more and more important. Current solid-state photovoltaic cells and conventional photoelectrochemical cells are not capable of directly storing the converted energy, which has to be facilitated by connecting to external storing devices. We demonstrate a device architecture that can convert and store solar energy in the electrical form within an intrinsically single structure. Mobile charge is internally stored, based on the coupling between photoelectrochemical and ferroelectric effects. The tested device architecture can be photo-charged under 1000 W/m2 of white light to an open-circuit voltage of 0.47V with a capacity of 37.62 mC/cm2. After removal of the light source, the mobile charge stored lasts more than 8 hours, and the open-circuit output voltage lasts more than 24 hours.

  4. Addiction to Coupling of the Warburg Effect with Glutamine Catabolism in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic reprogramming is critical to oncogenesis, but the emergence and function of this profound reorganization remain poorly understood. Here we find that cooperating oncogenic mutations drive large-scale metabolic reprogramming, which is both intrinsic to cancer cells and obligatory for the transition to malignancy. This involves synergistic regulation of several genes encoding metabolic enzymes, including the lactate dehydrogenases LDHA and LDHB and mitochondrial glutamic pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2. Notably, GPT2 engages activated glycolysis to drive the utilization of glutamine as a carbon source for TCA cycle anaplerosis in colon cancer cells. Our data indicate that the Warburg effect supports oncogenesis via GPT2-mediated coupling of pyruvate production to glutamine catabolism. Although critical to the cancer phenotype, GPT2 activity is dispensable in cells that are not fully transformed, thus pinpointing a metabolic vulnerability specifically associated with cancer cell progression to malignancy.

  5. Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan

    2012-05-01

    Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non-linearity in the polariton emission characteristics is observed at room temperature with a low threshold of 1.63 ?J/cm2, which corresponds to a polariton density an order of magnitude smaller than that for the Mott transition. The momentum distribution of the lower polaritons shows evidence of dynamic condensation and the absence of a relaxation bottleneck. The polariton relaxation dynamics were investigated by timeresolved measurements, which showed a progressive decrease in the polariton relaxation time with increase in polariton density. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  6. Numerical Simulation of CO2 Flooding of Coalbed Methane Considering the Fluid-Solid Coupling Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    Full Text Available CO2 flooding of coalbed methane (CO2-ECBM not only stores CO2 underground and reduces greenhouse gas emissions but also enhances the gas production ratio. This coupled process involves multi-phase fluid flow and coal-rock deformation, as well as processes such as competitive gas adsorption and diffusion from the coal matrix into fractures. A dual-porosity medium that consists of a matrix and fractures was built to simulate the flooding process, and a mathematical model was used to consider the competitive adsorption, diffusion and seepage processes and the interaction between flow and deformation. Due to the effects of the initial pressure and the differences in pressure variation during the production process, permeability changes caused by matrix shrinkage were spatially variable in the reservoir. The maximum value of permeability appeared near the production well, and the degree of rebound decreased with increasing distance from the production well.

  7. Cascade-coupled racetrack resonators based on the Vernier effect in the mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Benedetto; Khokhar, Ali Z; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Penades, Jordi Soler; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Mashanovich, Goran Z

    2014-10-06

    In this paper we report the experimental demonstration of racetrack resonators in silicon-on-insulator technology platform operating in the mid-infrared wavelength range of 3.7-3.8 μm. Insertion loss lower than 1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB were measured for single resonators. The experimental characterization of directional couplers and bending losses in silicon rib waveguides are also reported. Furthermore, we present the design and fabrication of cascade-coupled racetrack resonators based on the Vernier effect. Experimental spectra of Vernier architectures were demonstrated for the first time in the mid-infrared with insertion loss lower than 1 dB and maximum interstitial peak suppression of 10 dB.

  8. Tailoring Multicomponent Writing Interventions: Effects of Coupling Self-Regulation and Transcription Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpo, Teresa; Alves, Rui A

    2017-05-01

    Writing proficiency is heavily based on acquisition and development of self-regulation and transcription skills. The present study examined the effects of combining transcription training with a self-regulation intervention (self-regulated strategy development [SRSD]) in Grade 2 (ages 7-8). Forty-three students receiving self-regulation plus transcription (SRSD+TR) intervention were compared with 37 students receiving a self-regulation only (SRSD only) intervention and 39 students receiving the standard language arts curriculum. Compared with control instruction, SRSD instruction-with or without transcription training-resulted in more complex plans; longer, better, and more complete stories; and the effects transferred to story written recall. Transcription training produced an incremental effect on students' composing skills. In particular, the SRSD+TR intervention increased handwriting fluency, spelling accuracy for inconsistent words, planning and story completeness, writing fluency, clause length, and burst length. Compared with the SRSD-only intervention, the SRSD+TR intervention was particularly effective in raising the writing quality of poorer writers. This pattern of findings suggests that students benefit from writing instruction coupling self-regulation and transcription training from very early on. This seems to be a promising instructional approach not only to ameliorate all students' writing ability and prevent future writing problems but also to minimize struggling writers' difficulties and support them in mastering writing.

  9. Finite-size effects in a nanowire strongly coupled to a thin superconducting shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Christopher; Loss, Daniel; Klinovaja, Jelena

    2017-09-01

    We study the proximity effect in a one-dimensional nanowire strongly coupled to a finite superconductor with a characteristic size which is much shorter than its coherence length. Such geometries have become increasingly relevant in recent years in the experimental search for Majorana fermions with the development of thin epitaxial Al shells which form a very strong contact with either InAs or InSb nanowires. So far, however, no theoretical treatment of the proximity effect in these systems has accounted for the finite size of the superconducting film. We show that the finite-size effects become very detrimental when the level spacing of the superconductor greatly exceeds its energy gap. Without any fine tuning of the size of the superconductor (on the scale of the Fermi wavelength), the tunneling energy scale must be larger than the level spacing in order to reach the "hard gap" regime which is seen ubiquitously in the experiments. However, in this regime, the large tunneling energy scale induces a large shift in the effective chemical potential of the nanowire and pushes the topological phase transition to magnetic field strengths which exceed the critical field of Al.

  10. Coupled effects of salt and pressure on catalytic ability of Rhizopus chinensis lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Lu; Miao, Ming; Jia, Chengsheng; Feng, Biao

    2017-12-01

    Both high pressure and environmental factors could influence the catalytic abilities of enzymes. This work investigated coupled effects of pressure and salts on Rhizopus chinensis lipase (RCL) to provide significant information for its further applications. The maximum activity of RCL was observed under 200 MPa at 40 °C. The highest activity was achieved at concentrations of 0.06-0.1 mol L -1 for tested salts. The effect of monovalent cations on RCL activity followed the Hofmeister series (K + > Na + > Li + ) at 0.1 MPa but the order of Na + and K + was changed under 200 MPa. Meanwhile, the effects of anions did not follow the Hofmeister series. KCl slightly improved the thermostability of RCL at moderate concentration. At 60 °C, LiCl only stabilised RCL at 0.1 mol L -1 . The pre-transition unfolding point was shifted from 4.5 to 3.5 mol L -1 with pressure increasing from 0.1 to 600 MPa. In addition, KCl could not change the lipase's extrinsic fluorescence evolution versus pressure. Pressure and salts could improve catalytic ability and stability of RCL under appropriate conditions. The effect of high pressure on RCL was influenced by salts. Meanwhile salts cannot prevent high pressure-induced damage to RCL. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Diabatic Definition of Geometric Phase Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmaylov, Artur F; Li, Jiaru; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc

    2016-11-08

    Electronic wave functions in the adiabatic representation acquire nontrivial geometric phases (GPs) when corresponding potential energy surfaces undergo conical intersection (CI). These GPs have profound effects on the nuclear quantum dynamics and cannot be eliminated in the adiabatic representation without changing the physics of the system. To define dynamical effects arising from the GP presence, the nuclear quantum dynamics of the CI containing system is compared with that of the system with artificially removed GP. We explore a new construction of the system with removed GP via a modification of the diabatic representation for the original CI containing system. Using an absolute value function of diabatic couplings, we remove the GP while preserving adiabatic potential energy surfaces and CI. We assess GP effects in dynamics of a two-dimensional linear vibronic coupling model both for ground and excited state dynamics. Results are compared with those obtained with a conventional removal of the GP by ignoring double-valued boundary conditions of the real electronic wave functions. Interestingly, GP effects appear similar in two approaches only for the low energy dynamics. In contrast with the conventional approach, the new approach does not have substantial GP effects in the ultrafast excited state dynamics.

  12. The effects of virtual reality game training on trunk to pelvis coupling in a child with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Foster, Richard J; Holmes, Gill; Butler, Penny B

    2013-02-07

    Good control of trunk and pelvic movements is necessary for well controlled leg movements required to perform activities of daily living. The nature of movement coupling between the trunk and pelvis varies and depends on the type of activity. Children with cerebral palsy often have reduced ability to modulate coupling between the trunk and pelvis but movement patterns of the pelvis can be improved by training. The aim of this study was to examine how pelvis to trunk coupling changed while playing a computer game driven by pelvic rotations. One boy with cerebral palsy diplegia played the Goblin Post Office game on the CAREN virtual rehabilitation system for six weeks. He navigated a flying dragon in a virtual cave towards randomly appearing targets by rotating the pelvis around a vertical axis. Motion of the pelvis and trunk was captured in real-time by a Vicon 612 optoelectronic system tracking two clusters of three markers attached to the sacrum and thoracic spine. Convex hull areas calculated from angle-angle plots of pelvic and trunk rotations showed that coupling increased over game training (F1,11 = 7.482, p = 0.019). Reaching to targets far from the midline required tighter coupling than reaching near targets (F1,12 = 10.619, p = 0.007). Increasing coupling appears to be an initial compensation mechanism using the better controlled trunk to drive rotation of the pelvis. Co-contractions causing increased coupling are expected to reduce over longer exposure to training. The control scheme of the training game can be set to facilitate de-coupling of pelvic movements from the trunk. Using large ranges of pelvic rotation required more coupling suggesting that training of selective pelvic movements is likely to be more effective close to a neutral pelvic posture.

  13. Effect of Registered Partnership on Labor Earnings and Fertility for Same-Sex Couples: Evidence From Swedish Register Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldén, Lina; Edlund, Lena; Hammarstedt, Mats; Mueller-Smith, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of legal rights to same-sex couples is a foot in a number of Western countries. The effects of this rollout are not only important in their own right but can also provide a window on the institution of marriage and the rights bundled therein. In this article, using Swedish longitudinal register data covering 1994-2007, we study the impact of the extension of rights to same-sex couples on labor earnings and fertility. In 1994, registered partnership for same-sex couples was introduced, which conferred almost all rights and obligations of marriage--a notable exception being joint legal parenting, by default or election. The latter was added in the 2002 adoption act. We find registered partnership to be important to both gays and lesbians but for different reasons. For gays, resource pooling emerges as the main function of registered partnerships. For lesbians, registered partnership appears to be an important vehicle for family formation, especially after the 2002 adoption act. In contrast to heterosexual couples (included for comparison), we find no evidence of household specialization among lesbians. The lack of specialization is noteworthy given similar fertility effects of registered partnership (after 2002) and the fact that lesbian couples were less assortatively matched (on education) than heterosexual couples--children and unequal earnings power being two factors commonly believed to promote specialization.

  14. Offsets in fiber-coupled diode laser hygrometers caused by parasitic absorption effects and their prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B.; Ebert, V.

    2014-07-01

    Large systematic errors in absorption spectrometers (AS) can be caused by ‘parasitic’ optical absorption (parA) outside the measurement region. In particular, calibration-free direct tunable diode laser AS (dTDLAS) can take advantage of an effective parA-compensation to provide correct absolute values. However, parA also negatively affects calibrated AS in calibration frequency and stability. A common strategy to suppress parA in TDLAS systems is to fiber-couple the light source and even the detector. However, this can be a critical approach if the TDL spectrometer is validated/calibrated under laboratory conditions in ambient humidity and used afterwards in much drier and variable conditions, for example in aircrafts. This paper shows that, e.g., ‘hermetically sealed’ butterfly packages, despite fiber coupling, can possess fixed as well as variable parA sections. Two new methods for absolute parA-quantification in dTDLAS were developed, including a novel, fiber-coupled, parA-free I0-detector for permanent parA-monitoring. Their dependences on ambient humidity/pressure and temporal behavior were studied. For the example of a 1.4 µm dTDLAS hygrometer SEALDH-II with a commercial DFB-laser module and an extractive 1.5 m path cell, we quantified the parA-induced signal offsets and their dependence on cell pressure. The conversion of parA-uncertainty into H2O signal uncertainty was studied and an updated uncertainty budget including parA-uncertainty was derived. The studies showed that parA in commercial laser modules can cause substantial, systematic concentration offsets of ≈25 ppmv fixed and ≈100 ppmv variable offsets for one meter absorption path. Applying our parA-quantification techniques these offsets could be compensated by a factor of 20 to an overall offset uncertainty of 4.5 ppmv m-1. Finally, we developed an innovative, integrated, µ-pumped closed-loop air drying unit for the parA minimization and temporal stabilization in airborne laser

  15. Dynamics of coupled electron-nuclei-systems in laser fields; Dynamik gekoppelter Elektronen-Kern-Systeme in Laserfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falge, Mirjam

    2012-07-01

    -resolved photoelectron spectra and the influence of non-adiabatic effects in this asymmetry were investigated. In the last part of this work, the dynamics and optical control in spin-coupled vibronic states were analysed.

  16. Potential Effects of Relocation Decisions on Retention of Air Force Dual-Officer Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Hall and Hall, 1978, p.58; Newgren, Kellogg and Gardner, 1987, p.4; Maynard and Zawacki , 1979, p.4 7 0). In suimmary, the number of dual-career couples... Zawacki , 1979, p. 469). Those dual-career couples who manage to avoid the traditional solution (in which the wife makes career sacrifices) do so...employers with alternative solutions (Maynard and Zawacki , 1979, p.470). Another increasingly 22 popular option is for the couple to maintain

  17. Proximity effect in ballistic superconductor-ferromagnet structures with spin-orbit coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Simensen, Haakon Thømt

    2017-01-01

    The Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations have been solved numerically for a number of two-dimensional ballistic proximity structures comprised of superconductors, normal metals and ferromagnets, with both interfacial and in-plane spin-orbit coupling. These results have been compared to results obtained for similar structures in the absence of spin-orbit coupling. The results show that spin-orbit coupling in general enhances superconductivity in ferromagnet-superconductor-structures, and causes the ...

  18. Photovoltaic-Pyroelectric Coupled Effect Induced Electricity for Self-Powered Photodetector System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Zhang, Kewei; Yang, Ya

    2017-12-01

    Ferroelectric materials have demonstrated novel photovoltaic effect to scavenge solar energy. However, most of the ferroelectric materials with wide bandgaps (2.7-4 eV) suffer from low power conversion efficiency of less than 0.5% due to absorbing only 8-20% of solar spectrum. Instead of harvesting solar energy, these ferroelectric materials can be well suited for photodetector applications, especially for sensing near-UV irradiations. Here, a ferroelectric BaTiO 3 film-based photodetector is demonstrated that can be operated without using any external power source and a fast sensing of 405 nm light illumination is enabled. As compared with photovoltaic effect, both the responsivity and the specific detectivity of the photodetector can be dramatically enhanced by larger than 260% due to the light-induced photovoltaic-pyroelectric coupled effect. A self-powered photodetector array system can be utilized to achieve spatially resolved light intensity detection by recording the output voltage signals as a mapping figure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Investigations of interhydrogen bond dynamical coupling effects in the polarized IR spectra of acetanilide crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakus, Henryk T; Michta, Anna

    2010-02-04

    This Article presents the investigation results of the polarized IR spectra of the hydrogen bond in acetanilide (ACN) crystals measured in the frequency range of the proton and deuteron stretching vibration bands, nu(N-H) and nu(N-D). The basic spectral properties of the crystals were interpreted quantitatively in terms of the "strong-coupling" theory. The model of the centrosymmetric dimer of hydrogen bonds postulated by us facilitated the explanation of the well-developed, two-branch structure of the nu(N-H) and nu(N-D) bands as well as the isotopic dilution effects in the spectra. On the basis of the linear dichroic and temperature effects in the polarized IR spectra of ACN crystals, the H/D isotopic "self-organization" effects were revealed. A nonrandom distribution of hydrogen isotope atoms (H or D) in the lattice was deduced from the spectra of isotopically diluted ACN crystals. It was also determined that identical hydrogen isotope atoms occupy both hydrogen bonds in the dimeric systems, where each hydrogen bond belongs to a different chain. A more complex fine structure pattern of nu(N-H) and nu(N-D) bands in ACN spectra in comparison with the spectra of other secondary amides (e.g., N-methylacetamide) can be explained in terms of the "relaxation" theory of the IR spectra of hydrogen-bonded systems.

  20. Coupled effects of the temperature and the relative humidity on gecko adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhilong; Yang, Yazheng; Chen, Shaohua

    2017-08-01

    To explain the inconsistent results of experiments on temperature-dependent gecko adhesion, a theoretical peeling model is established wherein a nano-thin film is adopted to simulate a gecko spatula. The model considers not only the respective effects of temperature and environmental humidity on the peel-off force but also the coupled effect of both factors. Increasing temperature is found to lead to a decreasing peel-off force if the environmental humidity is uncontrolled. However, if the environmental humidity is constant, the peel-off force is insensitive to the temperature and remains almost constant. The synthetic theoretical analysis demonstrates that the seemingly contradictory results of temperature-dependent gecko adhesion experiments are actually consistent under their respective experimental conditions. This inconsistency is mainly due to the environmental humidity, which varies with the changing temperature if it is not artificially controlled. The results cannot only reasonably explain the different experimental results for the effect of temperature on gecko adhesion but can also facilitate the design of temperature-controlled or humidity-controlled adhesion sensors by tuning the environmental humidity or temperature.

  1. The dyadic effects of coping and resilience on psychological distress for cancer survivor couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Won; Shon, En-Jung; Paek, Minso; Daly, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the actor and partner effects of coping and resilience characteristics on psychological distress in cancer survivors and their spouses and to examine the mediating role of resilience characteristics in the relationship between coping and psychological distress. A total of 91 breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivor-spouse dyads were recruited from the University Hospital Registry in Cleveland, Ohio. Standardized questionnaires that assessed psychological distress, reframing and acquiring social support coping, and resilience characteristics were used. The actor-partner interdependence mediation model demonstrated that the resilience of the survivors and spouses was a strong predictor of their personal psychological distress. Survivors' and spouses' own resilience mediated the association between their reframing coping and psychological distress. However, only the survivor model confirmed the mediating effect of resilience characteristics in the relationship between social support coping and psychological distress. In addition, spouse psychological distress was influenced by survivor resilience, indicating a spouse-partner effect in the relationship between resilience characteristics and psychological distress. Our findings provide insight into the relationships between coping, resilience characteristics, and psychological distress at the individual and dyadic levels. Enhancing cancer survivors' and their spouses' positive thoughts and available external resources can improve resilience and, in turn, reduce their psychological distress of couples coping with cancer.

  2. Effects of membrane cholesterol manipulation on excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle of the toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    2001-07-01

    1. Single mechanically skinned fibres and intact bundles of fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the effects of membrane cholesterol manipulation on excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. The cholesterol content of membranes was manipulated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD). 2. In mechanically skinned fibres, depletion of membrane cholesterol with MbetaCD caused a dose- and time-dependent decrease in transverse tubular (t)-system depolarization-induced force responses (TSDIFRs). TSDIFRs were completely abolished within 2 min in the presence of 10 mM MbetaCD but were not affected after 2 min in the presence of a 10 mM MbetaCD-1 mM cholesterol complex. There was a very steep dependence between the change in TSDIFRs and the MbetaCD : cholesterol ratio at 10 mM MbetaCD, indicating that the inhibitory effect of MbetaCD was due to membrane cholesterol depletion and not to a pharmacological effect of the agent. Tetanic responses in bundles of intact fibres were abolished after 3-4 h in the presence of 10 mM MbetaCD. 3. The duration of TSDIFRs increased markedly soon (laser scanning microscopy revealed that the integrity of the t-system was not compromised by either intra- or extracellular application of 10 mM MbetaCD and that a large [Ca(2+)] gradient was maintained across the t-system. 5. Membrane cholesterol depletion caused rapid depolarization of the polarized t-system as shown independently by spontaneous TSDIFRs induced by MbetaCD and by changes in the fluorescence intensity of an anionic potentiometric dye (DiBAC(4)(3)) in the presence of MbetaCD. This rapid depolarization of the t-system by cholesterol depletion was not prevented by blocking the Na(+) channels with TTX (10 microM) or the L-type Ca(2+) channels with Co(2+) (5 mM). 6. The results demonstrate that cholesterol is important for maintaining the functional integrity of the t-system and sarcoplasmic reticulum, probably by having specific

  3. Size-dependent blinking of molecular aggregate total emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V. V.; Zimin, A. A.; Ignatova, N. Yu; Kimberg, V.; Gel’mukhanov, F.; Polyutov, S. P.

    2017-11-01

    Molecular aggregates are well known for their customizable optical properties. Vibronic coupling in monomers forming such aggregates offers rich opportunities for property tuning. We study generic molecular aggregate models of growing complexity (from a dimer up to a decamer) and report how vibronic coupling affects aggregate fluorescence intensity. The total aggregate fluorescence intensity is a measure sensitive to both vibronic coupling and Coulomb coupling between monomer transition densities. Using an exact diagonalization approach in the two-particle basis set, we show how the interplay between Coulomb and vibronic coupling affects aggregate fluorescence. Moreover, for H-aggregates we predict a periodic variation of the fluorescence intensity with aggregate size and show that vibronic interaction decreases the effect.

  4. Modelling the Effects of Electrical Coupling between Unmyelinated Axons of Brainstem Neurons Controlling Rhythmic Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hull

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions between fine unmyelinated axons can electrically couple groups of brain neurons to synchronise firing and contribute to rhythmic activity. To explore the distribution and significance of electrical coupling, we modelled a well analysed, small population of brainstem neurons which drive swimming in young frog tadpoles. A passive network of 30 multicompartmental neurons with unmyelinated axons was used to infer that: axon-axon gap junctions close to the soma gave the best match to experimentally measured coupling coefficients; axon diameter had a strong influence on coupling; most neurons were coupled indirectly via the axons of other neurons. When active channels were added, gap junctions could make action potential propagation along the thin axons unreliable. Increased sodium and decreased potassium channel densities in the initial axon segment improved action potential propagation. Modelling suggested that the single spike firing to step current injection observed in whole-cell recordings is not a cellular property but a dynamic consequence of shunting resulting from electrical coupling. Without electrical coupling, firing of the population during depolarising current was unsynchronised; with coupling, the population showed synchronous recruitment and rhythmic firing. When activated instead by increasing levels of modelled sensory pathway input, the population without electrical coupling was recruited incrementally to unpatterned activity. However, when coupled, the population was recruited all-or-none at threshold into a rhythmic swimming pattern: the tadpole "decided" to swim. Modelling emphasises uncertainties about fine unmyelinated axon physiology but, when informed by biological data, makes general predictions about gap junctions: locations close to the soma; relatively small numbers; many indirect connections between neurons; cause of action potential propagation failure in fine axons; misleading alteration of intrinsic

  5. Actor-partner effects of demographic and relationship factors associated with HIV risk within gay male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Champeau, Donna; Harvey, S Marie

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has investigated the association of relationship factors and dynamics with sexual behaviors and HIV risk among gay male couples. However, few studies with gay male couples have used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model framework to examine whether factors influence an individual and his partner's sexual risk behaviors. None of these studies analyzed whether relationship factors had influenced the sexual risk behaviors of both partners within the couple. Our cross-sectional study used dyadic data from 142 gay male couples to assess actor-partner effects of relationship commitment, trust, and investment in one's sexual agreement for HIV risk. Multilevel modeling was used to examine which actor-partner effects of these factors were predictive of individuals and their partners having had UAI within and outside the relationship. Results indicated that participants' likelihood of having had UAI within and outside of the relationship significantly decreased with: (1) actor effects of value in and commitment to a sexual agreement, and quality of alternatives to the relationship and (2) partner effects of participant's age, dependability of trust, quality of alternatives to the relationship, and investment of relationship commitment. No significant actor-partner effects were detected for having had UAI within the relationship. Our findings suggest that future HIV prevention strategies should take into account how relationship factors influence an individual and his main partners' sexual risk behaviors and in turn, the couple's risk for HIV. However, more research is needed to examine how actor-partner effects of relationship factors influence a variety of sexual risk behaviors within gay male couples.

  6. Does air-sea coupling influence model projections of the effects of the Paris Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Nicholas; Suckling, Emma; Sutton, Rowan; Dong, Buwen

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement includes the long-term goal to hold global-mean temperature to "well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels", with the further stated aim of limiting the global-mean warming to 1.5°C, in the belief that this would "significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change". However, it is not clear which risks and impacts would be avoided, or reduced, by achieving a 1.5°C warming instead of a 2.0°C warming. Initial efforts to quantify changes in risk have focused on analysis of existing CMIP5 simulations at levels of global-mean warming close to 1.5°C or 2.0°C, by taking averages over ≈20 year periods. This framework suffers from several drawbacks, however, including the effect of model internal multi-decadal variability, the influence of coupled-model systematic errors on regional circulation patterns, and the presence of a warming trend across the averaging period (i.e., the model is not in steady state). To address these issues, the "Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts" (HAPPI) project is performing large ensembles of atmosphere-only experiments with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) for present-day and 1.5°C and 2.0°C scenarios. While these experiments reduce the complications from a limited dataset and coupled-model systematic errors, the use of atmosphere-only models neglects feedbacks between the atmosphere and ocean, which may have substantial effects on the representation of local and regional extremes, and hence on the response of these extremes to global-mean warming. We introduce a set of atmosphere-ocean coupled simulations that incorporate much of the HAPPI experiment design, yet retain a representation of air-sea feedbacks. We use the Met Office Unified Model Global Ocean Mixed Layer (MetUM-GOML) model, which comprises the MetUM atmospheric model coupled to many columns of the one-dimensional K Profile Parameterization mixed-layer ocean. Critically, the MetUM-GOML ocean mean

  7. Investigation of radiation effects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using a general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates coupling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.; Slater, C.O.

    1990-05-01

    A general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates radiation transport coupling procedure has been created to study effects of the radiation environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to the bombing of these two cities. The forward two-dimensional free-field air-over-ground flux is coupled with an adjoint Monte Carlo calculation. The size, orientation, or translation of the Monte Carlo geometry is unrestricted. The radiation effects calculated are the dose in the interior of a large concrete building in Nagasaki and the activation production of Co-60 and P-32 in Hiroshima. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Kerr-effect analysis in a three-level negative index material under magneto cross-coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutabba, N.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the feasibility of the Kerr effect in negative refractive index materials under magneto cross-coupling and reservoir interaction. The considered medium is a typical three-level atomic system where we derive both the refractive and the gain spectrum. The profiles are analyzed for a weak probe field, and for varying strengths of the strong control field. The considered scheme shows an enhancement of the Kerr nonlinearity which we attribute to the contribution of the electromagnetic components of the fields. For more realistic experimental conditions, we discuss the dependence of the Kerr effect on different thermal bath coupling constants.

  9. Broadband Noise of Fans - With Unsteady Coupling Theory to Account for Rotor and Stator Reflection/Transmission Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the effects on broadband noise generation of unsteady coupling between a rotor and stator in the fan stage of a turbofan engine. Whereas previous acoustic analyses treated the blade rows as isolated cascades, the present work accounts for reflection and transmission effects at both blade rows by tracking the mode and frequency scattering of pressure and vortical waves. The fan stage is modeled in rectilinear geometry to take advantage of a previously existing unsteady cascade theory for 3D perturbation waves and thereby use a realistic 3D turbulence spectrum. In the analysis, it was found that the set of participating modes divides itself naturally into "independent mode subsets" that couple only among themselves and not to the other such subsets. This principle is the basis for the analysis and considerably reduces computational effort. It also provides a simple, accurate scheme for modal averaging for further efficiency. Computed results for a coupled fan stage are compared with calculations for isolated blade rows. It is found that coupling increases downstream noise by 2 to 4 dB. Upstream noise is lower for isolated cascades and is further reduced by including coupling effects. In comparison with test data, the increase in the upstream/downstream differential indicates that broadband noise from turbulent inflow at the stator dominates downstream noise but is not a significant contributor to upstream noise.

  10. Spiral multiple-effect diffusion solar still coupled with vacuum-tube collector and heat pipe

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-04-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. A novel solar still with spiral-shape multiple-effect diffusion unit is developed in the present study. The test results of a 14-effect unit coupled with vacuum-tube solar collector (absorber area 1.08m2) show that the highest daily pure water production is 40.6kgd-1. The measured highest productivity based on the area of glass cover, solar absorber, and evaporating surface is 34.7, 40.6, and 7.96kgm-2d-1, respectively, which are much higher than the published results. The measured solar distillation efficiency is 2.0-3.5. The performance enhancement results mainly from the lateral diffusion process in the spiraled still cell. The vapor flow generated by heat input can flow freely and laterally through the spiral channel down to the end when solar heat input is high. Besides, the larger evaporating and condensing area at the outer cell may increase heat and mass transfer at the outer cell.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of a coupled hydrodynamic-vegetation model using the effectively subsampled quadratures method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Seshadri, Pranay; Ganju, Neil K.; Beudin, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Coastal hydrodynamics can be greatly affected by the presence of submerged aquatic vegetation. The effect of vegetation has been incorporated into the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System. The vegetation implementation includes the plant-induced three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and the production of turbulent kinetic energy by the presence of vegetation. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of the flow and wave dynamics to vegetation parameters using Sobol' indices and a least squares polynomial approach referred to as Effective Quadratures method. This method reduces the number of simulations needed for evaluating Sobol' indices and provides a robust, practical, and efficient approach for the parameter sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of Sobol' indices shows that kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and water level changes are affected by plant density, height, and to a certain degree, diameter. Wave dissipation is mostly dependent on the variation in plant density. Performing sensitivity analyses for the vegetation module in COAWST provides guidance for future observational and modeling work to optimize efforts and reduce exploration of parameter space.

  12. Toolbox approach to the search for effective ligands for catalytic asymmetric Cr-mediated coupling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haibing; Dong, Cheng-Guo; Kim, Dae-Shik; Urabe, Daisuke; Wang, Jiashi; Kim, Joseph T; Liu, Xiang; Sasaki, Takeo; Kishi, Yoshito

    2009-10-28

    Chromium catalysts derived from chiral sulfonamides represented by A effect the couplings of aldehydes with vinyl, allyl, or alkyl halides. With three distinct sites for structural modification, A affords access to a structurally diverse pool of chiral sulfonamides. The Cr catalysts derived from these sulfonamides exhibit a broad range of catalyst-substrate matching profiles. A strategy is presented to search for a satisfactory chiral sulfonamide for a given substrate. In order to demonstrate the generality and effectiveness of this approach, five diverse C-C bond-forming cases have been selected from the halichondrin synthesis. For each of the cases, two ligands have been deliberately searched for, to induce the formation of (R)- and (S)-alcohols, respectively, at the arbitrarily chosen efficiency level of ">or=80% yield with >or=20:1 stereoselectivity in the presence of

  13. Effect of a single large impact on the coupled atmosphere-interior evolution of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmann, Cédric; Golabek, Gregor J.; Tackley, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the effect of a single large impact either during the Late Veneer or Late Heavy Bombardment on the evolution of the mantle and atmosphere of Venus. We use a coupled interior/exterior numerical code based on StagYY developed in Gillmann and Tackley (Gillmann, C., Tackley, P.J. [2014]. J. Geophys. Res. 119, 1189-1217). Single vertical impacts are simulated as instantaneous events affecting both the atmosphere and mantle of the planet by (i) eroding the atmosphere, causing atmospheric escape and (ii) depositing energy in the crust and mantle of the planet. The main impactor parameters include timing, size/mass, velocity and efficiency of energy deposition. We observe that impact erosion of the atmosphere is a minor effect compared to melting and degassing triggered by energy deposition in the mantle and crust. We are able to produce viable pathways that are consistent with present-day Venus, especially considering large Late Veneer Impacts. Small collisions (focused at the impact location and near the antipode. Depending on the timing of the impact, it can also have major consequences for the long-term evolution of the planet and its surface conditions by either (i) efficiently depleting the upper mantle of the planet, leading to the early loss of its water or (ii) imposing a volatile-rich and hot atmosphere for billions of years.

  14. Spin—orbit coupling effects on the in-plane optical anisotropy of semiconductor quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Ling; Chen, Yong-Hai; Lai, Yun-Feng; Cheng, Shu-Ying

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically study the influence of the spin—orbit coupling (SOC) on the in-plane optical anisotropy (IPOA) induced by in-plane uniaxial strain and interface asymmetry in (001) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) with different well width. It is found that the SOC has more significant impact on the IPOA for the transition of the first valence subband of heavy hole to the first conduction band (1H1E) than that of 1L1E. The reason has been discussed. The IPOA of (001) InGaAs/InP QWs has been measured by reflectance difference spectroscopy, whose amplitude is about one order larger than that of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs. The anisotropic interface potential parameters of InGaAs/InP QWs are also determined. The influence of the SOC effect on the IPOA of InGaAs/InP QWs when the QWs are under tensile, compressive or zero biaxial strain are also investigated in theory. Our results demonstrate that the SOC has significant effect on the IPOA especially for semiconductor QWs with small well width, and therefore cannot be ignored.

  15. Surface Wave Effects in the NEMO Ocean Model: Forced and Coupled Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Janssen, Peter A E M

    2015-01-01

    The NEMO general circulation ocean model is extended to incorporate three physical processes related to ocean surface waves, namely the surface stress (modified by growth and dissipation of the oceanic wave field), the turbulent kinetic energy flux from breaking waves, and the Stokes-Coriolis force. Experiments are done with NEMO in ocean-only (forced) mode and coupled to the ECMWF atmospheric and wave models. Ocean-only integrations are forced with fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. All three effects are noticeable in the extra-tropics, but the sea-state dependent turbulent kinetic energy flux yields by far the largest difference. This is partly because the control run has too vigorous deep mixing due to an empirical mixing term in NEMO. We investigate the relation between this ad hoc mixing and Langmuir turbulence and find that it is much more effective than the Langmuir parameterization used in NEMO. The biases in sea surface temperature as well as subsurface temperature are reduced, and the total oce...

  16. Visual information underpinning skilled anticipation: The effect of blur on a coupled and uncoupled in situ anticipatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David L; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2010-07-01

    Coupled interceptive actions are understood to be the result of neural processing-and visual information-which is distinct from that used for uncoupled perceptual responses. To examine the visual information used for action and perception, skilled cricket batters anticipated the direction of balls bowled toward them using a coupled movement (an interceptive action that preserved the natural coupling between perception and action) or an uncoupled (verbal) response, in each of four different visual blur conditions (plano, +1.00, +2.00, +3.00). Coupled responses were found to be better than uncoupled ones, with the blurring of vision found to result in different effects for the coupled and uncoupled response conditions. Low levels of visual blur did not affect coupled anticipation, a finding consistent with the comparatively poorer visual information on which online interceptive actions are proposed to rely. In contrast, some evidence was found to suggest that low levels of blur may enhance the uncoupled verbal perception of movement.

  17. The electron–phonon coupling of fundamental, overtone, and combination modes and its effects on the resonance Raman spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Zhanlong; Wang, Shenghan; Gao, Shuqin [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun, Chenglin, E-mail: chenglin@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Zuowei [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The Huang–Rhys factors and electron–phonon coupling constants are calculated. • The changes of overtone mode are larger than those of fundamental mode. • The variation pattern of electron–phonon coupling well interprets the changes of spectra. - Abstract: External field plays a very important role in the interaction between the π-electron transition and atomic vibration of polyenes. It has significant effects on both the Huang–Rhys factor and the electron–phonon coupling. In this paper, the visible absorption and resonance Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene are measured in the 345–295 K temperature range and it is found that the changes of the 0–1 and 0–2 vibration bands of the absorption spectra with the temperature lead to the different electron–phonon coupling of fundamental, overtone, and combination modes. The electron-phonon coupling constants of all the modes are calculated and analyzed under different temperatures. The variation law of the electron–phonon coupling with the temperature well interprets the changes of the resonance Raman spectra, such as the shift, intensity and line width of the overtone and combination modes, which are all greater than those of the fundamental modes.

  18. Effectiveness of a psychosocial counselling intervention for first-time IVF couples : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, C; Hunfeld, JAM; Duivenvoorden, HJ; den Outer, MA; Fauser, BCJM; Passchier, J; Macklon, NS

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate a psychosocial counselling intervention for first-time IVF couples. In this article the results on women's distress are presented. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-five couples admitted to an IVF treatment programme at the Erasmus MC were asked to

  19. Effect of antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling on spin-wave resonance frequency of multi-layer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Rong-ke, E-mail: rkqiu@163.com; Cai, Wei

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • A quantum approach is developed to study the SWR of a bicomponent multi-layer films. • The comparison of the SWR in films with FM and AFM interfacial coupling has been made. • The present results show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of films. - Abstract: We investigate the spin-wave resonance (SWR) frequency in a bicomponent bilayer and triple-layer films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as function of interfacial coupling, surface anisotropy, interface anisotropy, thickness and external magnetic field, using the linear spin-wave approximation and Green’s function technique. The microwave properties for multi-layer magnetic film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling is different from those for multi-layer magnetic film with ferromagnetic interfacial coupling. For the bilayer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as the lower (upper) surface anisotropy increases, only the SWR frequencies of the odd (even) number modes increase. The lower (upper) surface anisotropy does not affect the SWR frequencies of the even (odd) number modes{sub .} For the multi-layer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling, the SWR frequency of modes m = 1, 3 and 4 decreases while that of mode m = 2 increases with increasing thickness of the film within a proper parameter region. The present results could be useful in enhancing our fundamental understanding and show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of bicomponent multi-layer magnetic films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial coupling.

  20. Divorce and subsequent increase in uptake of antidepressant medication: a Finnish registry-based study on couple versus individual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan W S; Metsä-Simola, Niina; Saarioja, Saska; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-02-19

    There is an average negative mental health effect for individuals who experience divorce. Little is known whether the pattern of such divorce effects varies within couples. We study whether the husband and wife experience similar harmful effects of divorce, whether they experience opposite effects, or whether divorce effects are purely individual. We use Finnish registry data to compare changes over a period of 5 years in antidepressant use of husbands and wives from 4,558 divorcing couples to 108,637 continuously married pairs aged 40-64, all of whom were healthy at baseline. In the period three years before and after divorce antidepressant use increases substantially. However, the likelihood of uptake of antidepressant medication during this process of divorce by one partner appears to be independent of medication uptake in the other partner. In contrast, among continuously married couples there is a clear pattern of convergence: If one partner starts to use antidepressants this increases the likelihood of uptake of antidepressant medication in the other partner. Our findings suggest that divorce effects on antidepressant use are individual and show no pattern of either convergence or divergence at the level of the couple. The increased incidence of antidepressant use associated with divorce occurs in individuals independent of what happens to their ex-partner.

  1. Alcohol affects brain functional connectivity and its coupling with behavior: greater effects in male heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri-Kojori, E; Tomasi, D; Wiers, C E; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2017-08-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD, N=16, 16 males) and normal controls (NM, N=24, 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default mode network regions and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed that alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced 'neurocognitive coupling', the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared with NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain FCD and individual differences in behavioral performance.

  2. The Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Couple Therapy on Marital Satisfaction Among Married Prisoners and Their Wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Farzad; Hashemi, SeyedehFatemeh; Kimiaei, SeyedAli; Hasani, Alireza; Jalali, Manijeh

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Solution-Focused Brief Couple Therapy (SFBCT) on marital satisfaction among married prisoners and their wives. The study design was semiexperimental with a pretest, a posttest, and a control group. Fifty couples (100 people) were selected by convenience sampling. They were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group received the SFBCT, while the control group did not. The research measurement instrument comprised the ENRICHES Couple Scale (ECS). Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) models were used to test the study hypothesis. The results showed that marital satisfaction increased among prisoners and their wives. So the principles and techniques of SFBCT did have an effect on marital satisfaction of this particular group.

  3. Effects of Couple Interactions and Relationship Quality on Plasma Oxytocin and Cardiovascular Reactivity: Empirical Findings and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Uchino, Bert N.; MacKenzie, Justin; Hicks, Angela; Campo, Rebecca A.; Reblin, Maija; Grewen, Karen; Amico, Janet A.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular reactivity is a potential mechanism underlying associations of close relationship quality with cardiovascular disease. Two models describe oxytocin as another mechanism. The “calm and connect” model posits an association between positive relationship experiences and oxytocin levels and responses, whereas the “tend and befriend” model emphasizes the effects of negative relationship experiences in evoking oxytocin release. In this study of 180 younger couples, relationship quality had a small, marginally significant inverse association with plasma oxytocin levels, and neither positive nor negative couple interactions evoked change in plasma oxytocin. Negative couple interactions evoked significant cardiovascular reactivity, especially among women. Hence, in the largest study of these issues to date, there was little support for key tenets of the “calm and connect” model, and only very modest support for the ”tend and befriend” model. However, findings were consistent with the view that CVR contributes to the effects of relationship difficulties on health. PMID:22543270

  4. Cannabis agonist injection effect on the coupling architecture in cortex of WAG/Rij rats during absence seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Marina V.; Kuznetsova, Galina D.; van Rijn, Clementina M.; Sysoev, Ilya V.

    2016-04-01

    WAG/Rij rats are well known genetic model of absence epilepsy, which is traditionally considered as a nonconvulsive generalised epilepsy of unknown aetiology. In current study the effect of (R)-(+)-WIN 55,212-2 (cannabis agonist) injection on the coupling between different parts of cortex was studied on 27 male 8 month old rats using local field potentials. Recently developed non-linear adapted Granger causality approach was used as a primary method. It was shown that first 2 hours after the injection the coupling between most channel pairs rises in comparison with the spontaneous activity, whilst long after the injection (2-6 hours) it drops down. The coupling increase corresponds to the mentioned before treatment effect, when the number and the longitude of seizures significantly decreases. However the subsequent decrease of the coupling in the cortex is accompanied by the dramatic increase of the longitude and the number of seizures. This assumes the hypothesis that a relatively higher coupling in the cortical network can prevent the seizure propagation and generalisation.

  5. Hydrogen Bonding in the Active Site of Ketosteroid Isomerase: Electronic Inductive Effects and Hydrogen Bond Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoian, Philip; Sigala, Paul A.; Herschlag, Daniel; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Computational studies are performed to analyze the physical properties of hydrogen bonds donated by Tyr16 and Asp103 to a series of substituted phenolate inhibitors bound in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase (KSI). As the solution pKa of the phenolate increases, these hydrogen bond distances decrease, the associated NMR chemical shifts increase, and the fraction of protonated inhibitor increases, in agreement with prior experiments. The quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations provide insight into the electronic inductive effects along the hydrogen-bonding network that includes Tyr16, Tyr57, and Tyr32, as well as insight into hydrogen bond coupling in the active site. The calculations predict that the most-downfield NMR chemical shift observed experimentally corresponds to the Tyr16-phenolate hydrogen bond and that Tyr16 is the proton donor when a bound naphtholate inhibitor is observed to be protonated in electronic absorption experiments. According to these calculations, the electronic inductive effects along the hydrogen-bonding network of tyrosines cause the Tyr16 hydroxyl to be more acidic than the Asp103 carboxylic acid moiety, which is immersed in a relatively nonpolar environment. When one of the distal tyrosine residues in the network is mutated to phenylalanine, thereby diminishing this inductive effect, the Tyr16-phenolate hydrogen bond lengthens, and the Asp103-phenolate hydrogen bond shortens, as observed in NMR experiments. Furthermore, the calculations suggest that the differences in the experimental NMR data and electronic absorption spectra for pKSI and tKSI, two homologous bacterial forms of the enzyme, are due predominantly to the third tyrosine that is present in the hydrogen-bonding network of pKSI but not tKSI. These studies also provide experimentally testable predictions about the impact of mutating the distal tyrosine residues in this hydrogen-bonding network on the NMR chemical shifts and electronic absorption spectra

  6. Bradycardic effects mediated by activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in rat nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Oprea, Tudor I; Chitravanshi, Vineet C; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2013-03-01

    The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been identified in several brain regions, including cholinergic neurons of the nucleus ambiguus, which are critical for parasympathetic cardiac regulation. Using calcium imaging and electrophysiological techniques, microinjection into the nucleus ambiguus and blood pressure measurement, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of GPER activation in nucleus ambiguus neurons. A GPER selective agonist, G-1, produced a sustained increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in a concentration-dependent manner in retrogradely labelled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus. The increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) produced by G-1 was abolished by pretreatment with G36, a GPER antagonist. G-1 depolarized cultured cardiac vagal neurons of the nucleus ambiguus. The excitatory effect of G-1 was also identified by whole-cell visual patch-clamp recordings in nucleus ambiguus neurons, in medullary slices. To validate the physiological relevance of our in vitro studies, we carried out in vivo experiments. Microinjection of G-1 into the nucleus ambiguus elicited a decrease in heart rate; the effect was blocked by prior microinjection of G36. Systemic injection of G-1, in addition to a previously reported decrease in blood pressure, also reduced the heart rate. The G-1-induced bradycardia was prevented by systemic injection of atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, or by bilateral microinjection of G36 into the nucleus ambiguus. Our results indicate that GPER-mediated bradycardia occurs via activation of cardiac parasympathetic neurons of the nucleus ambiguus and support the involvement of the GPER in the modulation of cardiac vagal tone.

  7. Enrollment, Childbearing Motivations, and Intentions of Couples in the Creighton Model Effectiveness, Intentions, and Behaviors Assessment (CEIBA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B. Stanford

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ContextThe Creighton Model FertilityCareTM System (CrM is a standardized approach for educating women about the biomarkers of their fertility. Couples can use this information for timing intercourse during “fertile” or “infertile” days in order to try to conceive or to avoid pregnancy.ObjectivesThe study of Creighton Model Effectiveness, Intentions, and Behaviors Assessment (CEIBA was conducted to assess fertility motivations, intentions, fertility-related sexual behaviors, and their impact on effectiveness to avoid and to conceive among new users of the CrM. This paper reports enrollment baseline characteristics.Settings and designWe conducted this prospective cohort study at 17 CrM FertilityCareTM Centers; 16 in the USA and one in Toronto, Canada.Materials and methodsCouples who were new or returning users of the CrM were eligible. Couples who were initially trying to conceive or had a history of subfertility were excluded. Couples were enrolled and followed prospectively by their CrM instructors and also by CEIBA study staff. They completed baseline questionnaires.Results1,132 new couples were assessed; 1,090 (96% couples were screened; 429 (39% couples were eligible; 305 women (71% and 290 (95% male partners were enrolled. The majority of women was engaged (39% or married (51%, college graduates (77%, Caucasian non-Hispanic (80%, and Roman Catholic (80%. The most common reasons for learning CrM (women were to use a natural method for family planning (91%, for moral/ethical/religious reasons (70%, the lack of side effects (71%, or insight into the menstrual cycle and fertility (62%. Women and men intended to have a mean of three and two additional children, respectively. Of women, 21% intended to have a child within a year and 60% between 1 and 3 years. The mean positive childbearing motivation score was 3.3 for both women and men (range 1–4, with 4 being most positive.ConclusionCouples beginning use of the CrM to avoid pregnancy

  8. Three-body couplings in RMF and its effects on hyperonic star equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubakihara, K., E-mail: tsubaki@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University (Japan); Ohnishi, A. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    We develop a relativistic mean field (RMF) model with explicit three-body couplings and apply it to hyperonic systems and neutron star matter. Three-baryon repulsion is a promising ingredient to answer the massive neutron star puzzle; when strange hadrons such as hyperons are taken into account, the equation of state (EOS) becomes too soft to support the observed two-solar-mass neutron star. We demonstrate that it is possible to consistently explain the massive neutron star and hypernuclear data when we include three-body couplings and modify the hyperon–vector meson couplings from the flavor SU(3) value.

  9. The effect of time-dependent coupling on non-equilibrium steady states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin

    Consider (for simplicity) two one-dimensional semi-infinite leads coupled to a quantum well via time dependent point interactions. In the remote past the system is decoupled, and each of its components is at thermal equilibrium. In the remote future the system is fully coupled. We define...... and compute the non equilibrium steady state (NESS) generated by this evolution. We show that when restricted to the subspace of absolute continuity of the fully coupled system, the state does not depend at all on the switching. Moreover, we show that the stationary charge current has the same invariant...

  10. The effect of time-dependent coupling on non-equilibrium steady states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin A.

    2009-01-01

    Consider (for simplicity) two one-dimensional semi-infinite leads coupled to a quantum well via time dependent point interactions. In the remote past the system is decoupled, and each of its components is at thermal equilibrium. In the remote future the system is fully coupled. We define...... and compute the non equilibrium steady state (NESS) generated by this evolution. We show that when restricted to the subspace of absolute continuity of the fully coupled system, the state does not depend at all on the switching. Moreover, we show that the stationary charge current has the same invariant...

  11. E{sub 6} Yukawa couplings in F-theory as D-brane instanton effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinucci, Andrés [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes,Université Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); García-Etxebarria, Iñaki [Max Planck Institute for Physics,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-29

    At weak coupling the neighborhood of a E{sub 6} Yukawa point in SU(5) GUT F-theory models is described by a non-resolvable orientifold of the conifold. We explicitly show, first directly in IIB and then via a mirror symmetry argument, that in this limit the E{sub 6} Yukawa coupling is better described as coming from the non-perturbative contribution of a euclidean D1-brane wrapping the non-resolvable cycle. We also discuss how the M-theory description interpolates between the weak and strong coupling viewpoints.

  12. Effective light coupling in reflective fiber optic distance sensors using a double-clad fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werzinger, Stefan; Härteis, Lisa; Köhler, Aaron; Engelbrecht, Rainer; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Many fiber optic distance sensors use a reflective configuration, where a light beam is launched from an optical fiber, reflected from a target and coupled back into the fiber. While singlemode fibers (SMF) provide low-loss, high-performance components and a well-defined output beam, the coupling of the reflected light into the SMF is very sensitive to mechanical misalignments and scattering at the reflecting target. In this paper we use a double-clad fiber (DCF) and a DCF coupler to obtain an enhanced multimodal coupling of reflected light into the fiber. Increased power levels and robustness are achieved compared to a pure SMF configuration.

  13. On Entropy Generation and the Effect of Heat and Mass Transfer Coupling in a Distillation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Madrigal, Paulina; Mendoza, Diego F.; López de Haro, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    The entropy production rates as obtained from the exergy analysis, entropy balance and the nonequilibrium thermodynamics approach are compared for two distillation columns. The first case is a depropanizer column involving a mixture of ethane, propane, n-butane and n-pentane. The other is a weighed sample of Mexican crude oil distilled with a pilot scale fractionating column. The composition, temperature and flow profiles, for a given duty and operating conditions in each column, are obtained with the Aspen Plus V8.4 software by using the RateFrac model with a rate-based nonequilibrium column. For the depropanizer column the highest entropy production rate is found in the central trays where most of the mass transfer occurs, while in the second column the highest values correspond to the first three stages (where the vapor mixture is in contact with the cold liquid reflux), and to the last three stages (where the highest temperatures take place). The importance of the explicit inclusion of thermal diffusion in these processes is evaluated. In the depropanizer column, the effect of the coupling between heat and mass transfer is found to be negligible, while for the fractionating column it becomes appreciable.

  14. Cardioventilatory coupling in preterm and term infants: effect of position and sleep state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Dawn E; Larsen, Peter D; Galletly, Duncan C; Campbell, Angela J

    2010-11-30

    This study documented the effect of position on cardioventilatory coupling (CVC), the triggering of inspiratory onset by a preceding heartbeat, in infants. Cardiorespiratory signals and corresponding oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) were downloaded from Quiet Sleep (QS) and Active Sleep (AS) in prone and supine from preterm (PT) and term (T) infants. Inspiratory onsets (I) and timing of the corresponding ECG R wave were determined and R-R and R-I intervals calculated. The RI(-1) interval (time between inspiration and the preceding R wave) dispersion was measured using proportional Shannon Entropy of the RI(-1) interval (SH(α)), to provide a quantitative measure of CVC. CVC was more frequently seen in QS in PT (p=0.002) and T (p=0.02) infants but not influenced by position (p=0.71, p=0.46). CVC correlated with SpO(2) in PT (r=-0.230, p=0.03) but not T infants (r=0.085, p=0.34). These data imply an augmentation of cardiac influence on ventilatory rhythm in infants in QS. In preterm infants CVC may have a role in supporting oxygenation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective coupled optoelectrical design method for fully infiltrated semiconductor nanowires based hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Xiaohong; Wang, Kai; Li, Xianqiang

    2016-10-31

    We present a novel coupled design method that both optimizes light absorption and predicts electrical performance of fully infiltrated inorganic semiconductor nanowires (NWs) based hybrid solar cells (HSC). This method provides a thorough insight of hybrid photovoltaic process as a function of geometrical parameters of NWs. An active layer consisting of GaAs NWs as acceptor and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as donor were used as a design example. Absorption spectra features were studied by the evolution of the leaky modes and Fabry-Perot resonance with wavelength focusing firstly on the GaAs/air layer before extending to GaAs/P3HT hybrid active layer. The highest absorption efficiency reached 39% for the hybrid active layer of 2 μm thickness under AM 1.5G illumination. Combined with the optical absorption analysis, our method further codesigns the energy harvesting to predict electrical performance of HSC considering exciton dissociation efficiencies within both inorganic NWs and a polymeric shell of 20 nm thickness. The validity of the simulation model was also proved by the well agreement of the simulation results with the published experimental work indicating an effective guidance for future high performance HSC design.

  16. Spectral-Kinetic Coupling and Effect of Microfield Rotation on Stark Broadening in Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Demura

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with two conceptual problems in the theory of Stark broadening by plasmas. One problem is the assumption of the density matrix diagonality in the calculation of spectral line profiles. This assumption is closely related to the definition of zero wave functions basis within which the density matrix is assumed to be diagonal, and obviously violated under the basis change. A consistent use of density matrix in the theoretical scheme inevitably leads to interdependence of atomic kinetics, describing the population of atomic states with the Stark profiles of spectral lines, i.e., to spectral-kinetic coupling. The other problem is connected with the study of the influence of microfield fluctuations on Stark profiles. Here the main results of the perturbative approach to ion dynamics, called the theory of thermal corrections (TTC, are presented, within which the main contribution to effects of ion dynamics is due to microfield fluctuations caused by rotations. In the present study the qualitative behavior of the Stark profiles in the line center within predictions of TTC is confirmed, using non-perturbative computer simulations.

  17. Effects of laser parameters on the geometrical characteristics of peg-shaped bionic coupling unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoyu; Zhang, Zhihui; Liang, Yunhong; Yan, Qiongqiong; Ren, Luquan

    2014-12-01

    Peg-shaped bionic coupling unit (PBCU) processed by pulse laser is effective in anti-adhesion, anti-drag, anti-wear and anti-fatigue application. To obtain desired structural and morphological characteristics of the PBCU for industrial manufacturing, selection of proper processing parameters gradually becomes a growing important problem. Traditionally, the procedure of parameter selecting is often cost-plus and time-consuming. In this work, a statistical analysis of fabricating PBCU on the surface of medium carbon steel was conducted. The laser processing parameters utilized in the experiment and analysis are peak power 4-8 kW, pulse duration 6-16 ms and defocusing amount 6-10 mm. A series of mathematical models regarding the relationship between geometrical characteristics of PBCU and laser processing parameters were developed and checked. The results indicate that the developed models can be adequately used to control the structural and morphological characteristics of PBCU within the scope of analysis. Based on the models, the formation mechanism of the structural and morphological characteristics under different laser parameters were analyzed and discussed.

  18. Magnetization switching behavior of exchange-coupled bilayer nanodots characterized by magneto-optical Kerr effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Seki, T.; Takanashi, K.

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the magnetization switching behavior of exchange-coupled bilayer nanodots consisting of a soft magnetic Ni81Fe19 (permalloy; Py) layer and a perpendicularly magnetized L10-FePt layer by measuring the polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). A MOKE system having a 2-μm-diameter laser spot was used, which detected the signal from around 20 nanodots of 200 nm in diameter. The measured polar MOKE loops exhibited a two-step behavior attributable to each magnetization reversal process of the Py and L10-FePt layers, allowing us to evaluate the switching field ( Hsw ) of L10-FePt from the MOKE loop. Under the application of both a static magnetic field and an rf magnetic field ( hrf ), the nanodots showed a clear Hsw reduction with characteristic hrf frequency dependence. This Hsw reduction is well interpreted as a behavior of spin wave-assisted magnetization switching. We also discuss the influence of the Py layer thickness on spin wave-assisted Hsw reduction.

  19. Calculation of coupled bunch effects in the synchrotron light source BESSY VSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruprecht, Martin

    2016-02-22

    In the scope of this thesis, the strength of coupled bunch instabilities (CBIs) driven by longitudinal monopole higher order modes (HOMs) and transverse dipole and quadrupole HOMs is evaluated for the upgrade project BESSY Variable Pulse Length Storage Ring (BESSY VSR) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), based on analytic calculations and tracking simulations, and compared to the performance of an active bunch-by-bunch feedback (BBFB). Algorithms for tracking codes are derived, and a semi-empirical formula for the estimation of transverse quadrupole CBIs is presented. CBI studies are an integral part of the benchmarking of the cavity models for BESSY VSR and have been accompanying and influencing their entire design process. Based on the BESSY VSR cavity model with highly advanced HOM damping, beam stability is likely to be reached with a BBFB system, independent of the bunch fill pattern. Additionally, measurements of CBIs have been performed at BESSY II and the Metrology Light Source of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (MLS), where the longitudinal long range impedance was characterized. Transient beam loading is evaluated by means of analytic formulas and new experimentally verified tracking codes. For the baseline bunch fill pattern of BESSY VSR, it is shown that the particular setup of cavity frequencies amplifies the transient effect on the long bunch, limiting its elongation and potentially resulting in increased Touschek losses.

  20. Effect of field-aligned potential drop in a global magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, J. R.; Cao, F.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of field-aligned potential drops on the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in a steady state are studied on a global ionospheric scale. It is shown that a constant-current generator can support a larger field-aligned potential drop than a constant voltage generator under similar conditions. The magnetospheric convection pattern is distorted more in the constant current generator case than in the constant voltage generator case. The main difference between a constant current generator and a constant voltage generator is found to lie in their ability to adjust the vorticity of the magnetospheric convection. The results show that a constant current generator allows the vorticity of the magnetospheric convection to adjust so that the field-aligned current can be kept constant under the loading influence of the field-aligned potential. On the other hand, a constant voltage generator by definition cannot adjust the vorticity of the magnetospheric convection to maintain the field-aligned current under the loading influence of the field-aligned potential.

  1. Effects of a chirped bias voltage on ion energy distributions in inductively coupled plasma reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Steven J.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2017-08-01

    The metrics for controlling reactive fluxes to wafers for microelectronics processing are becoming more stringent as feature sizes continue to shrink. Recent strategies for controlling ion energy distributions to the wafer involve using several different frequencies and/or pulsed powers. Although effective, these strategies are often costly or present challenges in impedance matching. With the advent of matching schemes for wide band amplifiers, other strategies to customize ion energy distributions become available. In this paper, we discuss results from a computational investigation of biasing substrates using chirped frequencies in high density, electronegative inductively coupled plasmas. Depending on the frequency range and chirp duration, the resulting ion energy distributions exhibit components sampled from the entire frequency range. However, the chirping process also produces transient shifts in the self-generated dc bias due to the reapportionment of displacement and conduction with frequency to balance the current in the system. The dynamics of the dc bias can also be leveraged towards customizing ion energy distributions.

  2. The effects of electron beam rotation upon electron beam welded copper-304 couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysk, Kevin Tacy

    The United States Air Force, Arnold Engineering Development Center, has been using copper to 304 stainless steel couples made using the electron beam welding process during the fabrication of intrusive gas-path diagnostic probes for over five years. Only a limited physical analysis of the resulting welds had been done. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects that varying the rotation frequency of the electron beam had upon the mechanical characteristics of the copper to 304 stainless steel couples. All controllable weld process parameters were held constant with the exception of the electron beam rotation frequency; the rotation frequency was varied from 20 Hz to 180 Hz in steps of 20 Hz. Samples welded without electron beam rotation provided a baseline for comparison. Microhardness distributions showed that weld region homogeneity as evidenced by microhardness maps and optical microscopy was a function of the electron beam rotation frequency. There was no correlation between electron beam rotation frequency and weld tensile strength since each test coupon failed in the Cu base material outside of the weld region. The welds made at all electron beam rotation frequencies used for this study contained cracks within the weld region, heat affected zone (HAZ), or both. The relative number, length, and location of the individual cracks changed with electron beam rotation frequency. Cracking in the HAZ due to liquid metal embrittlement (LME) was not evident in those samples welded with the electron beam rotation frequencies below 100 Hz, Cracking due to LME outside of the weld region in the HAZ was observed to increase with the electron beam rotation frequency above 80 Hz. The relationship between weld region cracking and residual stress within the weld region was shown to be dependent on the electron beam rotation frequency. Cracking in the weld region was not observed in samples welded with the electron beam rotation frequency above 80 Hz

  3. Mechanobiology of low-density lipoprotein transport within an arterial wall--impact of hyperthermia and coupling effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen; Vafai, Kambiz

    2014-01-03

    The effects of hyperthermia, coupling attributes and property variations on Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport within a multi-layered wall while accounting for the fluid structure interaction (FSI) is analyzed in this work. To understand the potential impact of the hyperthermia process, thermo-induced attributes are incorporated, accounting for the plasma flow, mass transfer, as well as the elastic wall structure. The coupling effect of osmotic pressure, Soret and Dufour diffusion is discussed and their influence on LDL transport is examined, demonstrating that only the Soret effect needs to be accounted for. The effect of thermal expansion on changing the behavior of flow, mass transport, and elastic structure is illustrated and analyzed while incorporating the variations in the effective LDL diffusivity and consumption rate, as well as other dominating parameters. It is shown that hyperthermia results in an enhancement in LDL transport by increasing the concentration levels within the arterial wall. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Localized molecular orbital analysis of the effect of electron correlation on the anomalous isotope effect in the NMR spin-spin coupling constant in methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Provasi, Patricio F.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the effect of electron correlation on the unexpected differential sensitivity (UDS) in the 1J(C-H) coupling constant of CH4 using a decomposition into contributions from localized molecular orbitals and compare with the 1J(N-H) coupling constant in NH3. In particular we discuss the well...... on the contribution to the coupling from the localized bonding orbital between these atoms. This disturbs the subtle balance between the molecular orbital contributions, which lead to the UDS in methane....

  5. Role of solvent dynamics in ultrafast photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Anirban; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2010-09-30

    A theoretical formulation for modeling photoinduced nonequilibrium proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions in solution is presented. In this formulation, the PCET system is described by donor and acceptor electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces that depend on a single collective solvent coordinate. Dielectric continuum theory is used to obtain a generalized Langevin equation of motion for this collective solvent coordinate. The terms in this equation depend on the solvent properties, such as the dielectric constants, relaxation time, and molecular moment of inertia, as well as the solute properties characterizing the vibronic surfaces. The ultrafast dynamics following photoexcitation is simulated using a surface hopping method in conjunction with the Langevin equation of motion. This methodology is used to examine a series of model photoinduced PCET systems, where the initial nonequilibrium state is prepared by vertical photoexcitation from the ground electronic state to the donor electronic state. Analysis of the dynamical trajectories provides insight into the interplay between the solvent dynamics and the electron-proton transfer for these types of processes. In addition, these model studies illustrate how the coupling between the electron-proton transfer and the solvent dynamics can be tuned by altering the solute and solvent properties.

  6. Coupled effects of hydrodynamic and solution chemistry conditions on long-term nanoparticle transport and deposition in saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims to systematically explore the coupled effects of hydrodynamic and solution chemistry conditions on the long-term transport and deposition kinetics of nanoparticles (NPs) in saturated porous media. Column transport experiments were carried out at various solution ionic strengths (IS),...

  7. Effect of drugs on lipid methylation, receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling and cyclic AMP secretion in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waarde, Aren; Van Haastert, P.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Intercellular communication in Dictyostelium discoldeum takes place by means of cyclic AMP-induced cyclic AMP-synthesis and secretion. Since phospholipid methylation has been suggested to play a role in receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling, we examined the effects of transmethylation inhibitors on

  8. United We Stand? The Effects of a Couple-Coping Intervention on Adjustment to Early Stage Breast or Gynecological Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer L.; Halford, W. Kim; Ward, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis affects the psychological well-being of both patients and their partners, and effective coping has been suggested to be a conjoint process of mutual support. Ninety-four married women with early stage cancer and their partners were randomly assigned to couples-based coping training (CanCOPE), individual coping training for the…

  9. Signatures of Herzberg-Teller coupling in three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizimana, Laurie A.; Carbery, William P.; Gellen, Tobias A.; Turner, Daniel B.

    2017-02-01

    The coupling between electronic and nuclear variables is a key consideration in molecular dynamics and spectroscopy. However, simulations that include detailed vibronic coupling terms are challenging to perform, and thus a variety of approximations can be used to model and interpret experimental results. Recent work shows that these simplified models can be inadequate. It is therefore important to understand spectroscopic signals that can identify failures of those approximations. Here we use an extended response-function method to simulate coherent three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (3D ES) and study the sensitivity of this method to the breakdown of the Franck-Condon approximation. The simulations include a coordinate-dependent transition dipole operator that produces nodes, phase shifts, and peak patterns in 3D ES that can be used to identify Herzberg-Teller coupling. Guided by the simulation results, we interpret measurements on a molecular aggregate.

  10. Signatures of Herzberg-Teller coupling in three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizimana, Laurie A; Carbery, William P; Gellen, Tobias A; Turner, Daniel B

    2017-02-28

    The coupling between electronic and nuclear variables is a key consideration in molecular dynamics and spectroscopy. However, simulations that include detailed vibronic coupling terms are challenging to perform, and thus a variety of approximations can be used to model and interpret experimental results. Recent work shows that these simplified models can be inadequate. It is therefore important to understand spectroscopic signals that can identify failures of those approximations. Here we use an extended response-function method to simulate coherent three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (3D ES) and study the sensitivity of this method to the breakdown of the Franck-Condon approximation. The simulations include a coordinate-dependent transition dipole operator that produces nodes, phase shifts, and peak patterns in 3D ES that can be used to identify Herzberg-Teller coupling. Guided by the simulation results, we interpret measurements on a molecular aggregate.

  11. Effects of aspect ratio on the mode couplings of thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian; Qian, Zhenghua; Yang, Jiashi

    2017-05-01

    We studied mode couplings in thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators of a piezoelectric film on a dielectric layer operating with the fundamental thickness-extensional mode. A system of plate equations derived in our previous paper was used which includes the couplings to the unwanted in-plane extension, flexure, fundamental and second-order thickness shear modes. It was shown that the couplings depend strongly on the plate length/thickness ratio. For a relatively clean operating mode with weak couplings to unwanted modes, a series of discrete values of the plate length/thickness ratio should be avoided and these values were determined in the present paper. The results can be of great significance to the design and optimization of film bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  12. The buffering effect of relationship satisfaction on emotional distress in couples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Røsand, Gun-Mette B; Slinning, Kari; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    .... One aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of a set of risk factors for emotional distress among men and women in couples, with a special focus on satisfaction with partner relationship...

  13. Effect of surface hybridization on RKKY coupling in ferromagnet/topological insulator/ferromagnet trilayer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cong Son; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the RKKY exchange coupling between two ferromagnets (FM) separated by a thin topological insulator film (TI). We find an unusual dependence of the RKKY exchange coupling Φex on the TI thickness (tTI). First, when tTI decreases, the coupling amplitude increases at first and reaches its maximum value at some critical thickness, below which the amplitude turns to diminish. This trend is attributed to the hybridization between surfaces of the TI film, which opens a gap below critical thickness and thus turns the surfaces into insulating state from semi-metal state. In insulating phase, diamagnetism induced by the gap-opening compensates paramagnetism of Dirac state, resulting in a diminishing magnetic susceptibility and RKKY coupling. For typical parameters, the critical thickness in Bi2Se3 thin film is estimated to be in the range of 3-5 nm.

  14. Effect of state feedback coupling on the transient performance of voltage source inverters with LC filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    State feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current deteriorates notably the performance during transients of voltage and current regulators in stand-alone systems based on voltage source inverters. A decoupling technique is proposed, considering the limitations introduced...

  15. The Effects of Mechanical Coupling on the Electrical Impedance of MEMS Resonators for UHF Filter Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hohreiter, Luke

    2004-01-01

    .... These Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations are performed using the ANSYS software and demonstrate the significance of mechanical coupling between MEMS longitudinal-mode bar (L-Bar) resonators...

  16. Effect of surface hybridization on RKKY coupling in ferromagnet/topological insulator/ferromagnet trilayer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Son Ho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate the RKKY exchange coupling between two ferromagnets (FM separated by a thin topological insulator film (TI. We find an unusual dependence of the RKKY exchange coupling Φex on the TI thickness (tTI. First, when tTI decreases, the coupling amplitude increases at first and reaches its maximum value at some critical thickness, below which the amplitude turns to diminish. This trend is attributed to the hybridization between surfaces of the TI film, which opens a gap below critical thickness and thus turns the surfaces into insulating state from semi-metal state. In insulating phase, diamagnetism induced by the gap-opening compensates paramagnetism of Dirac state, resulting in a diminishing magnetic susceptibility and RKKY coupling. For typical parameters, the critical thickness in Bi2Se3 thin film is estimated to be in the range of 3-5 nm.

  17. Spin Seebeck effect in quantum dot side-coupled to topological superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Ireneusz

    2017-03-08

    The spin-resolved thermoelectric transport properties of a quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic leads and side-coupled to a topological superconductor wire hosting Majorana zero-energy modes are studied theoretically. The calculations are performed in the linear response regime by using the numerical renormalization group method. It is shown that transport characteristics are determined by the interplay of Kondo correlations, exchange field due to the presence of ferromagnets and the strength of coupling to Majorana wire. These different energy scales are revealed in the behavior of the Seebeck and spin Seebeck coefficients, which exhibit an enhancement for temperatures of the order of the coupling strength to topological wire. Moreover, it is demonstrated that additional sign changes of the thermopower can occur due to the presence of Majorana zero-energy modes. These findings may provide additional fingerprints of the presence of Majorana fermions.

  18. Coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer: Novel configuration scheme and the effects of a noise-contaminated external signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Antonio [San Diego State University, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego, CA 92182-7720 (United States)]. E-mail: palacios@euler.sdsu.edu; Aven, John [San Diego State University, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego, CA 92182-7720 (United States); In, Visarath [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)]. E-mail: visarath@spawar.navy.mil; Longhini, Patrick [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Kho, Andy [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Neff, Joseph D. [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Bulsara, Adi [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)]. E-mail: bulsara@spawar.navy.mil

    2007-07-16

    Recent theoretical and experimental work has shown that unidirectional coupling can induce oscillations in overdamped and undriven nonlinear dynamical systems that are non-oscillatory when uncoupled; in turn, this has been shown to lead to new mechanisms for weak (compared to the energy barrier height) signal detection and amplification. The potential applications include fluxgate magnetometers, electric field sensors, and arrays of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) rings. In the particular case of the fluxgate magnetometer, we have developed a ''coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer'' (CCFM); this device has been realized in the laboratory and its dynamics used to quantify many properties that are generic to this class of systems and coupling. The CCFM operation is underpinned by the emergent oscillatory behavior in a unidirectionally coupled ring of wound ferromagnetic cores, each of which can be treated as an overdamped bistable dynamic system when uncoupled. In particular, one can determine the regimes of existence and stability of the (coupling-induced) oscillations, and the scaling behavior of the oscillation frequency. More recently, we studied the effects of a (Gaussian) magnetic noise floor on a CCFM system realized with N=3 coupled ferromagnetic cores. In this Letter, we first introduce a variation on the basic CCFM configuration that affords a path to enhanced device sensitivity, particularly for N>=3 coupled elements. We then analyze the response of the basic CCFM configuration as well as the new setup to a dc target signal that has a small noisy component (or ''contamination'')

  19. Report from LHC MD 1399: Effect of linear coupling on nonlinear observables in the LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Simulation work during Run 1 established that linear coupling had a large impact on nonlinear observables such as detuning with amplitude and dynamic aperture. Linear coupling is generally taken to be the largest single source of uncertainty in the modelling of the LHC’s nonlinear single particle dynamics. ThisMD sought to verify that such behaviour, to this point only observed in simulation, translated into the real machine.

  20. A Dyadic Analysis of Relationships and Health: Does Couple-Level Context Condition Partner Effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Adding to the growing literature explicating the links between romantic relationships and health, this study examined how both couple-level characteristics, particularly union type (e.g. dating, cohabiting, or marriage) and interracial pairing, and interpersonal characteristics (e.g. partner strain and support) predicted young adults’ physical and mental health. Using dyadic data from a sample of 249 young, primarily African American couples, we hypothesized and found support for the importan...

  1. Soret and dufour effects on free convection flow of a couple stress fluid in a vertical channel with chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasacharya D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soret and Dufour effects in the presence of chemical reaction on natural convection heat and mass transfer of a couple stress fluid in a vertical channel formed by two vertical parallel plates is presented. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting equations are then solved using Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM. Profiles of dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration are shown graphically for various values of Dufour number, Soret number, Couple stress parameter and chemical reaction parameter.

  2. Effects of system-bath coupling on a photosynthetic heat engine: A polaron master-equation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M.; Shen, H. Z.; Zhao, X. L.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-07-01

    Stimulated by suggestions of quantum effects in energy transport in photosynthesis, the fundamental principles responsible for the near-unit efficiency of the conversion of solar to chemical energy became active again in recent years. Under natural conditions, the formation of stable charge-separation states in bacteria and plant reaction centers is strongly affected by the coupling of electronic degrees of freedom to a wide range of vibrational motions. These inspire and motivate us to explore the effects of the environment on the operation of such complexes. In this paper, we apply the polaron master equation, which offers the possibilities to interpolate between weak and strong system-bath coupling, to study how system-bath couplings affect the exciton-transfer processes in the Photosystem II reaction center described by a quantum heat engine (QHE) model over a wide parameter range. The effects of bath correlation and temperature, together with the combined effects of these factors are also discussed in detail. We interpret these results in terms of noise-assisted transport effect and dynamical localization, which correspond to two mechanisms underpinning the transfer process in photosynthetic complexes: One is resonance energy transfer and the other is the dynamical localization effect captured by the polaron master equation. The effects of system-bath coupling and bath correlation are incorporated in the effective system-bath coupling strength determining whether noise-assisted transport effect or dynamical localization dominates the dynamics and temperature modulates the balance of the two mechanisms. Furthermore, these two mechanisms can be attributed to one physical origin: bath-induced fluctuations. The two mechanisms are manifestations of the dual role played by bath-induced fluctuations depending on the range of parameters. The origin and role of coherence are also discussed. It is the constructive interplay between noise and coherent dynamics, rather

  3. Effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions with semiconductor interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lian; Zhu, Lin; Zhou, Xun; Li, Ling; Xie, Zheng-Wei

    2010-05-01

    Based on a mode match transfer matrix method and the quantum coherent transport theory of Mireles and Kirczenow, we investigate the coherent electron tunneling in FM/S1/I/S2/FM (FM represents the ferromagnetic metal layer, S1 and S2 represents the different semiconductor layer, respectively, I represents the insulator layer.) system. The effects of the thickness of the semiconductor layers and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin-dependent tunneling transmission coefficient and the properties of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) are studied. It is found that the variations of tunneling transmission coefficients and the tunnel magnetoresistance TMR with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the thickness of semiconductor layer, show typical resonant properties and the TMR can be enhanced and its sign can switch from positive to negative by increasing the ratio of Rashba spin-orbit coupling strength between two semiconductor layers.

  4. Understanding the relationship between religiosity and marriage: an investigation of the immediate and longitudinal effects of religiosity on newlywed couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K T

    2001-12-01

    The association between religiosity and marital outcome has been repeatedly demonstrated, but a complete understanding of this relationship is hindered by limitations of theory and method. The purpose of the current study was to test 3 explanatory models by assessing 2 samples of newlywed couples. Findings indicated that religiosity was associated with attitudes toward divorce, commitment, and help seeking cross-sectionally. Longitudinal effects, however, were most consistent with a moderating model, wherein religiosity had a positive impact on husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction for couples with less neurotic husbands and a negative impact for couples with more neurotic husbands. Overall, the impact of religiosity was weak over the first 4 years of marriage. Theoretical propositions are offered to guide future research in delineating the types of marriages that may be most affected by religiosity.

  5. Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevremont, A.-C., E-mail: anne-celine.chevremont@imbe.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Farnet, A.-M. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J.-L. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-06-01

    Wastewater reuse for irrigation is an interesting alternative for many Mediterranean countries suffering from water shortages. The development of new technologies for water recycling is a priority for these countries. In this study we test the efficiency of UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet-Light-Emitting Diodes) emitting UV-A or UV-C radiations, used alone or coupled, on bacterial and chemical indicators. We monitored the survival of fecal bioindicators found in urban wastewaters and the oxidation of creatinine and phenol which represent either conventional organic matter or the aromatic part of pollution respectively. It appears that coupling UV-A/UV-C i) achieves microbial reduction in wastewater more efficiently than when a UV-LED is used alone, and ii) oxidizes up to 37% of creatinine and phenol, a result comparable to that commonly obtained with photoreactants such as TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We test UV-LEDs as an urban wastewater tertiary treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-A and UV-C are coupled, combining germicidal and oxidative properties of UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled wavelengths have the most efficient bactericidal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling UV-A and UV-C leads to photooxidation of creatinine and phenol.

  6. Effects of Explicit Convection on Land-Atmosphere Coupling in GLACE-Type Experiments Using the SuperParameterized CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Pritchard, M. S.; Parishani, H.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding and realistically simulating the coupling between land and atmosphere in global climate models (GCMs) is an ongoing research frontier. We explore the hypothesis that past attempts to investigate these physics using GCM mechanism denial experiments may have suffered systematic limitations stemming from an overly strong sensitivity of deep convection parameterizations to surface conditions. Taking the philosophy of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE), we therefore compare the effects of breaking the soil-atmosphere feedback mechanism in the Super-Parameterized Community Atmosphere Model version 3.5 (SPCAM3.5) - which uses O(10k) embedded cloud resolving models to explicitly resolve moist convection - against the conventionally parameterized CAM3.5. This helps isolate the influence of explicit convection on land-atmosphere coupling. We find that soil moisture - precipitation coupling strength is reduced over northern Africa, northern South America and Arabian Peninsula due to superparameterization. Several geographically distinct coupling "hotspots" emerge in SPCAM3.5 located upstream of major topographic features in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes.

  7. Coupling Mars' Dust and Water Cycles: Effects on Dust Lifting Vigor, Spatial Extent and Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.

    2012-01-01

    , thereby modifying the thermal structure of the atmosphere and its circulation. Results presented in other papers at this workshop show that including the radiative effects of water ice clouds greatly influence the water cycle and the vigor of weather systems in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Our goal is to investigate the effects of fully coupling the dust and water cycles on the dust cycle. We show that including water ice clouds and their radiative effects greatly affect the magnitude, spatial extent and seasonality of dust lifting and the season of maximum atmospheric dust loading.

  8. Tunable plasmon-induced absorption effects in a graphene-based waveguide coupled with graphene ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-Nian; Xia, Sheng-Xuan; Fu, Guang-Lai; Liang, Mei-Zhen; Qin, Meng; Zhai, Xiang; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a structure composed of two graphene waveguides and dual coupled graphene ring resonators (GRRs) to achieve a plasmon-induced absorption (PIA) effect. A three-level plasmonic system and a temporal coupled mode theory (CMT) are utilized to verify the simulation results. Moreover, a double-window-PIA effect can be conveniently attained by introducing another GRR with proper parameters to meet more specific acquirement in optical modulation process. The pronounced PIA resonances can be tuned in a number of ways, such as by adjusting the coupling distance between the GRRs and the couplings between the GRR and the waveguide, and tuning the radius and the Fermi energy of the GRRs. Besides, the produced PIA effect shows a high group delay up to - 1 . 87 ps, exhibiting a particularly prominent fast-light feature. Our results have potential applications in the realization of THz-integrated spectral control and graphene plasmonic devices such as sensors, filters, ultra-fast optical switches and so on.

  9. Cloud radiative effects and changes simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ok-Yeon; Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In

    2017-07-01

    Using 32 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) models, this study examines the veracity in the simulation of cloud amount and their radiative effects (CREs) in the historical run driven by observed external radiative forcing for 1850-2005, and their future changes in the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 scenario runs for 2006-2100. Validation metrics for the historical run are designed to examine the accuracy in the representation of spatial patterns for climatological mean, and annual and interannual variations of clouds and CREs. The models show large spread in the simulation of cloud amounts, specifically in the low cloud amount. The observed relationship between cloud amount and the controlling large-scale environment are also reproduced diversely by various models. Based on the validation metrics, four models—ACCESS1.0, ACCESS1.3, HadGEM2-CC, and HadGEM2-ES—are selected as best models, and the average of the four models performs more skillfully than the multimodel ensemble average. All models project global-mean SST warming at the increase of the greenhouse gases, but the magnitude varies across the simulations between 1 and 2 K, which is largely attributable to the difference in the change of cloud amount and distribution. The models that simulate more SST warming show a greater increase in the net CRE due to reduced low cloud and increased incoming shortwave radiation, particularly over the regions of marine boundary layer in the subtropics. Selected best-performing models project a significant reduction in global-mean cloud amount of about -0.99% K-1 and net radiative warming of 0.46 W m-2 K-1, suggesting a role of positive feedback to global warming.

  10. Dual and mixed nonsymmetric stress-based variational formulations for coupled thermoelastodynamics with second sound effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Balázs

    2017-11-01

    Some new dual and mixed variational formulations based on a priori nonsymmetric stresses will be developed for linearly coupled irreversible thermoelastodynamic problems associated with second sound effect according to the Lord-Shulman theory. Having introduced the entropy flux vector instead of the entropy field and defining the dissipation and the relaxation potential as the function of the entropy flux, a seven-field dual and mixed variational formulation will be derived from the complementary Biot-Hamilton-type variational principle, using the Lagrange multiplier method. The momentum-, the displacement- and the infinitesimal rotation vector, and the a priori nonsymmetric stress tensor, the temperature change, the entropy field and its flux vector are considered as the independent field variables of this formulation. In order to handle appropriately the six different groups of temporal prescriptions in the relaxed- and/or the strong form, two variational integrals will be incorporated into the seven-field functional. Then, eliminating the entropy from this formulation through the strong fulfillment of the constitutive relation for the temperature change with the use of the Legendre transformation between the enthalpy and Gibbs potential, a six-field dual and mixed action functional is obtained. As a further development, the elimination of the momentum- and the velocity vector from the six-field principle through the a priori satisfaction of the kinematic equation and the constitutive relation for the momentum vector leads to a five-field variational formulation. These principles are suitable for the transient analyses of the structures exposed to a thermal shock of short temporal domain or a large heat flux.

  11. Nonoptical Detection of Allergic Response with a Cell-Coupled Gate Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoyue; Honda, Masatoshi; Saito, Akiko; Kajisa, Taira; Yanase, Yuhki; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-12-05

    In this study, we report the label-free and reliable detection of allergic response using a cell-coupled gate field-effect transistor (cell-based FET). Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells were cultured as a signal transduction interface to induce allergic reaction on the gate oxide surface of the FET, because IgE antibodies, which bind to Fcε receptors at the RBL-2H3 cell membrane, are specifically cross-linked by allergens, resulting in the allergic response of RBL-2H3 cells. In fact, the surface potential at the FET gate decreased owing to secretions such as histamine from the IgE-bound RBL-2H3 cells, which reacted with the allergen. This is because histamine, as one of the candidate secretions, shows basicity, resulting in a change in pH around the cell/gate interface. That is, the RBL-2H3-cell-based FET used in this study was originally from an ion-sensitive FET (ISFET), whose oxide surface (Ta2O5) with hydroxyl groups is fully responsive to pH on the basis of the equilibrium reaction. The allergic response of RBL-2H3 cells on the gate was also confirmed by estimating the amount of β-hexosaminidase released together with histamine and was analyzed using the electrical properties based on an inflammatory response of secreted histamine with the vascular endothelial cell-based FET. Thus, the allergic responses were monitored in a nonoptical and real-time manner using the cell-based FETs with the cellular layers on the gate, which reproduced the in vivo system and were useful for the reliable detection of the allergic reaction.

  12. Effects of coupling configuration on resonance excitation in a slotted photonic crystal nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Francis; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2017-08-01

    High Q/V (quality factor/mode volume) platforms enable simultaneous localization of light in space and time and have enabled enhanced performance metrics in applications such as optical signal processing, photovoltaics, optical sensing and optical trapping. Slotted photonic crystal nanobeams (SPCNs) are one type of high Q/V structure that support mechanical modes in addition to high Q optical modes, opening the door to favorable optomechanical properties. In this work, in-plane excitation of fundamental resonance modes in SPCNs with high optical quality factor and high values of optomechanical coupling strength is investigated towards the realization of a monolithic configuration that is compatible with photonic integrated chips. In-line and side- coupled excitation configurations are studied. Simulations suggest that the number of optical modes supported in the SPCNs and the transmission intensity of light in these modes depend strongly on coupling configuration. For high Q SPCNs, in-line coupling suppresses the fundamental optical mode. Side-coupling supports excitation of the fundamental optical mode, but suppresses even order modes in the cavity.

  13. Communication: Localized molecular orbital analysis of the effect of electron correlation on the anomalous isotope effect in the NMR spin-spin coupling constant in methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C., E-mail: mnzarycz@gmail.com; Provasi, Patricio F., E-mail: patricio@unne.edu.ar [Department of Physics, University of Northeastern - CONICET, Av. Libertad 5500, Corrientes W3404AAS (Argentina); Sauer, Stephan P. A., E-mail: sauer@kiku.dk [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2014-10-21

    We discuss the effect of electron correlation on the unexpected differential sensitivity (UDS) in the {sup 1}J(C–H) coupling constant of CH{sub 4} using a decomposition into contributions from localized molecular orbitals and compare with the {sup 1}J(N–H) coupling constant in NH{sub 3}. In particular, we discuss the well known fact that uncorrelated coupled Hartree-Fock (CHF) calculations are not able to reproduce the UDS in methane. For this purpose we have implemented for the first time a localized molecular orbital analysis for the second order polarization propagator approximation with coupled cluster singles and doubles amplitudes—SOPPA(CCSD) in the DALTON program. Comparing the changes in the localized orbital contributions at the correlated SOPPA and SOPPA(CCSD) levels and at the uncorrelated CHF level, we find that the latter overestimates the effect of stretching the bond between the coupled atoms on the contribution to the coupling from the localized bonding orbital between these atoms. This disturbs the subtle balance between the molecular orbital contributions, which lead to the UDS in methane.

  14. Research on Effective Electric-Mechanical Coupling Coefficient of Sandwich Type Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducer Using Bending Vibration Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model on electromechanical coupling coefficient and the length optimization of a bending piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer are proposed. The piezoelectric transducer consists of 8 PZT elements sandwiched between four thin electrodes, and the PZT elements are clamped by a screwed connection between fore beam and back beam. Firstly, bending vibration model of the piezoelectric transducer is built based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Secondly, the analytical model of effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is built based on the bending vibration model. Energy method and electromechanical equivalent circuit method are involved in the modelling process. To validate the analytical model, sandwich type piezoelectric transducer example in second order bending vibration mode is analysed. Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of the transducer is optimized with simplex reflection technique, and the optimized ratio of length of the transducers is obtained. Finally, experimental prototypes of the sandwich type piezoelectric transducers are fabricated. Bending vibration mode and impedance of the experimental prototypes are tested, and electromechanical coupling coefficient is obtained according to the testing results. Results show that the analytical model is in good agreement with the experimental model.

  15. Behavioral Couples Treatment for Substance Use Disorder: Secondary Effects on the Reduction of Risk for Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Braitman, Abby L; Lawless, Adrienne K; Lawrence, Hannah R

    2016-03-01

    Risk for child abuse was examined prior to and after behavioral couples treatment (BCT) among 61 couples in which one or both parents were diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD). All couples were residing with one or more school-age children. Mothers and fathers completed pretreatment, post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention follow-up assessments. Results of piecewise latent growth models tested whether the number of BCT sessions attended and number of days abstinent from drugs and alcohol influenced relationship satisfaction and its growth over time, and in turn if relationship satisfaction and change in relationship satisfaction influenced risk for child abuse. For both mothers and fathers, attending more BCT sessions lead to a direct increase in relationship satisfaction, which in turn led to stronger reductions in risk for child abuse. This effect was maintained from the post-intervention through the 6-month post-intervention follow-up. For fathers, number of days abstinent significantly influenced reduction in child abuse potential at post-intervention via relationship satisfaction. This indirect effect was not present for mothers. The overall benefits of BCT on mothers' and fathers' risk for child abuse suggest that BCT may have promise in reducing risk for child abuse among couples in which one or both parents have SUD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of spin-orbit coupling on zero-energy bound states localized at magnetic impurities in multiband superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kangjun; Sau, Jay D.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the in-gap bound states localized at magnetic impurities in multiband superconductors with unconventional (sign-changed) and conventional (sign-unchanged) s -wave pairing symmetry, which may be relevant to iron-based superconductors. Without spin-orbit coupling, for spin-singlet superconductors it is known that such bound states cross zero energy at a critical value of the impurity scattering strength and acquire a finite spin polarization. Moreover, the degenerate, spin-polarized, zero-energy bound states are unstable to applied Zeeman fields as well as a deviation of the impurity scattering strength away from criticality. Using a T -matrix formalism as well as analytical arguments, we show that, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling, the zero-energy bound states localized at magnetic impurities in unconventional, sign-changed, s -wave superconductors acquire surprising robustness to applied Zeeman fields and variation in the impurity scattering strength, an effect which is absent in the conventional, sign-unchanged, s -wave superconductors. Given that the iron-based multiband superconductors may possess a substantial spin-orbit coupling as seen in recent experiments, our results may provide one possible explanation to the recent observation of surprisingly robust zero bias scanning tunneling microscope peaks localized at magnetic impurities in iron-based superconductors provided the order parameter symmetry is sign changing s+--wave.

  17. Coupling of electrons to intermolecular phonons in molecular charge transfer dimers: A resonance Raman study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedron, D.; Speghini, A.; Mulloni, V.; Bozio, R.

    1995-08-01

    We report resonance Raman scattering (RRS) spectra and Raman excitation profiles (REP) of a system containing π dimers of identical molecular radical ions measured with laser excitation in resonance with the charge transfer (CT) transition. A Peierls-Hubbard (PH) Hamiltonian has been used to model the investigated system and to calculate its optical and RRS properties. Results are reported for two polyoxometallate salts of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), namely (TTF)2(W6O19) and (TTF)2(Mo6O19) whose structures contain almost isolated (TTF+)2 dimers. The RRS spectra of (TTF)2(W6O19), measured in resonance with the CT absorption band centered at 832 nm, show three phonon modes located at 55, 90, and 116 cm-1 which are strongly resonance enhanced. These modes have been associated to the out-of-phase combinations of the translational motions of the two molecules composing the dimer. Such modes are effective in modulating the intradimer transfer integral, thus providing an efficient mechanism for coupling with the electronic system and for enhancement of the scattering intensity at resonance with the CT transition. The REP for the three strongly coupled modes of (TTF)2(W6O19) have been measured with laser excitation wavelengths ranging from 740 to 930 nm. Quantitative analysis of the REP data has been performed based on a perturbative solution of the PH model to second order in the electron-molecular-vibration (EMV) and electron-intermolecular-phonon (EIP) interactions. The CT absorption profile and the REP's have been calculated using a time correlator technique and the model parameters have been optimized in order to fit the experimental REP data. Infrared vibronic absorptions of (TTF)2(W6O19), originated by the EMV coupling, have been measured and independent information on the electronic parameters of the PH model have been derived. This has made the choice of the fitting parameters used for the REP calculations rather unambiguous and has allowed us to obtain, for the

  18. Explicit solutions for effective four- and five-loop QCD running coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetič, Gorazd; Kondrashuk, Igor

    2011-12-01

    We start with the explicit solution, in terms of the Lambert W function, of the renormalization group equation (RGE) for the gauge coupling in the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory described by the well-known NSVZ β-function. We then construct a class of β-functions for which the RGE can be solved in terms of the Lambert W function. These β-functions are expressed in terms of a function which is a truncated Laurent series in the inverse u of the gauge coupling a ≡ α/π. The parameters in the Laurent series can be adjusted so that the first coefficients of the Taylor expansion of the β-function in the gauge coupling a reproduce the four-loop or five-loop QCD (or SQCD) β-function.

  19. A social work study for the effects of different factors on compatible and discordant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Esalat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation to examine the impact different factors on compatible and discordant couples. The survey is performed in one of western regions of Iran near the city of Esfahan. In our study, we choose two groups of people from the population with no family dispute and from the people who have requested divorce. They are asked to fill in a questionnaire and the results are analyzed. We used Chi-square tests to verify any meaningful difference between compatible and discordant couples on different issues. The survey concludes that compatible and discordant couples were different in their motivation, marital satisfaction, continued incentive generation, finding better position among relatives and accomplishing their religious duties to get married.

  20. Effect of couple stresses on the pulsatile flow through a constricted annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasacharya, D.; Srikanth, D.

    2008-11-01

    In this Note, the pulsatile flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid through an annulus with mild constriction at the outer wall is considered. This configuration is intended as a simple model for studying blood flow in a stenosed artery when a catheter is inserted into it. An analytical expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first and second kind is obtained for the velocity component. The impedance (resistance to the flow) and wall shear stress are calculated and their variation with respect to the couple stress fluid parameter, height of the constriction and size of the catheter on the impedance and wall shear stress is studied graphically. It is observed that increase in the catheter size increases the resistance to the flow as well as the wall shear stress while the trend is reversed in case of couple stress fluid parameter. To cite this article: D. Srinivasacharya, D. Srikanth, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  1. Coupled effect of stimulated Raman scattering and random lasing of dyes in multiple scattering medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Vasil P.

    2015-07-01

    Random lasing (RL) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of dye in multiple scattering media (MSM) appears simultaneously and each couple with other. This coupling has considerable influence on the SRS regularities of dye in MSM. The main feature of this impact is that RL radiation promotes the Raman lines revealing in the RL spectrum range as part of total radiation. SRS initiation occurs owing to the CARS-like mechanism provided by the two component pump: incident monochromatic radiation (laser pump) and RL radiation arising inside the MSM. It leads to important consequences: the RL spectrum must overlap with the spectral region of the possible Stokes lines of the dye; only those Stokes lines appear which are in a range of the RL spectrum; all conditions which promote RL assist SRS also. It is shown MSM promotes the best conditions for SRS and RL coupling due to optimal matching of RL localization regions and pump radiation.

  2. Effect of Static-Dynamic Coupling Loading on Fracture Toughness and Failure Characteristics in Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Yin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fracture experiments in a notched semi-circular bend configuration were conducted to test the dynamic fracture toughness of a marble under static-dynamic coupling load using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar. The fracture process of the specimen was monitored using a high speed (HS camera. Based on digital image correlation (DIC and strain gauges, the full-field strain fields and time-to-fracture of the marble were measured under static-dynamic coupling load. Experimental results show that dynamic fracture toughness was well determined, and the HS-DIC technique provides reliable full-field strain fields in the specimens under static-dynamic coupling loads. The failure characteristics of the marble under external impact were affected obviously by pre-compression stress. Increase of axial pre-compression stress was helpful to improve the crack propagation velocity, and dynamic crack initiation toughness was decreased.

  3. Transmit/Receive Spatial Smoothing with Improved Effective Array Aperture for Angle and Mutual Coupling Estimation in Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haomiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a transmit/receive spatial smoothing with improved effective aperture approach for angle and mutual coupling estimation in bistatic MIMO radar. Firstly, the noise in each channel is restrained, by exploiting its independency, in both the spatial domain and temporal domain. Then the augmented transmit and receive spatial smoothing matrices with improved effective aperture are obtained, by exploiting the Vandermonde structure of steering vector with uniform linear array. The DOD and DOA can be estimated by utilizing the unitary ESPRIT algorithm. Finally, the mutual coupling coefficients of both the transmitter and the receiver can be figured out with the estimated angles of DOD and DOA. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Polypropylene/Short Glass Fibers Composites: Effects of Coupling Agents on Mechanical Properties, Thermal Behaviors, and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Horng Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the melt compounding method to produce polypropylene (PP/short glass fibers (SGF composites. PP serves as matrix while SGF serves as reinforcement. Two coupling agents, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene, (PP-g-MA and maleic anhydride grafted styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS-g-MA are incorporated in the PP/SGF composites during the compounding process, in order to improve the interfacial adhesion and create diverse desired properties of the composites. According to the mechanical property evaluations, increasing PP-g-MA as a coupling agent provides the composites with higher tensile, flexural, and impact properties. In contrast, increasing SEBS-g-MA as a coupling agent provides the composites with decreasing tensile and flexural strengths, but also increasing impact strength. The DSC results indicate that using either PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA as the coupling agent increases the crystallization temperature. However, the melting temperature of PP barely changes. The spherulitic morphology results show that PP has a smaller spherulite size when it is processed with PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA as the coupling agent. The SEM results indicate that SGF is evenly distributed in PP matrices, but there are distinct voids between these two materials, indicating a poor interfacial adhesion. After PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA is incorporated, SGF can be encapsulated by PP, and the voids between them are fewer and indistinctive. This indicates that the coupling agents can effectively improve the interfacial compatibility between PP and SGF, and as a result improves the diverse properties of PP/SGF composites.

  5. Explicit solutions for effective four- and five-loop QCD running coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetič, Gorazd; Kondrashuk, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We start with the explicit solution, in terms of the Lambert W function, of the renormalization group equation (RGE) for the gauge coupling in the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory described by the well-known beta function of Novikov et al.(NSVZ). We then construct a class of beta functions for which the RGE can be solved in terms of the Lambert W function. These beta functions are expressed in terms of a function which is a truncated Laurent series in the inverse of the gauge coupling. The pa...

  6. Effects of Leakage Inductances on Magnetically Coupled Y-Source Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Coupled inductors have been used with impedance-source networks, extended from the earlier Z-source network, to keep their shoot-through times short, while providing high-voltage gains. A commonly stated requirement for these networks is that their magnetic couplings must be strong or their leakage......, showing in particular that voltage spikes will appear across its switching devices in some, but not all, cases. Experimental results verifying the findings have been obtained and presented at the end of this letter....

  7. Barrier distribution from 28Si+154Sm quasielastic scattering: Coupling effects in the fusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrier distribution for the 28Si+154Sm system has been extracted from large angle quasielastic scattering measurement to investigate the role of various channel couplings on fusion dynamics. The coupled channel calculations, including the collective excitation of the target and projectile, are observed to reproduce the experimental BD rather well. It seems that the role of neutron transfer, relative to collective excitation, is in fact weak in the 28Si+154Sm system even though it has positive Q-value for neutron transfer channels.

  8. Origin of long-lived oscillations in 2D-spectra of a quantum vibronic model: Electronic versus vibrational coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plenio, M. B.; Almeida, J.; Huelga, S. F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, University Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2013-12-21

    We demonstrate that the coupling of excitonic and vibrational motion in biological complexes can provide mechanisms to explain the long-lived oscillations that have been obtained in nonlinear spectroscopic signals of different photosynthetic pigment protein complexes and we discuss the contributions of excitonic versus purely vibrational components to these oscillatory features. Considering a dimer model coupled to a structured spectral density we exemplify the fundamental aspects of the electron-phonon dynamics, and by analyzing separately the different contributions to the nonlinear signal, we show that for realistic parameter regimes purely electronic coherence is of the same order as purely vibrational coherence in the electronic ground state. Moreover, we demonstrate how the latter relies upon the excitonic interaction to manifest. These results link recently proposed microscopic, non-equilibrium mechanisms to support long lived coherence at ambient temperatures with actual experimental observations of oscillatory behaviour using 2D photon echo techniques to corroborate the fundamental importance of the interplay of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in the dynamics of light harvesting aggregates.

  9. Origin of long-lived oscillations in 2D-spectra of a quantum vibronic model: electronic versus vibrational coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenio, M B; Almeida, J; Huelga, S F

    2013-12-21

    We demonstrate that the coupling of excitonic and vibrational motion in biological complexes can provide mechanisms to explain the long-lived oscillations that have been obtained in nonlinear spectroscopic signals of different photosynthetic pigment protein complexes and we discuss the contributions of excitonic versus purely vibrational components to these oscillatory features. Considering a dimer model coupled to a structured spectral density we exemplify the fundamental aspects of the electron-phonon dynamics, and by analyzing separately the different contributions to the nonlinear signal, we show that for realistic parameter regimes purely electronic coherence is of the same order as purely vibrational coherence in the electronic ground state. Moreover, we demonstrate how the latter relies upon the excitonic interaction to manifest. These results link recently proposed microscopic, non-equilibrium mechanisms to support long lived coherence at ambient temperatures with actual experimental observations of oscillatory behaviour using 2D photon echo techniques to corroborate the fundamental importance of the interplay of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in the dynamics of light harvesting aggregates.

  10. The Mediating Effects of Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness During Couple Leisure on the Relationship Between Total Couple Leisure Satisfaction and Marital Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miriam Puerta Amato; Neil Lundberg; Peter J Ward; Bruce G Schaalje; Ramon Zabriskie

    2016-01-01

    .... The three psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness-fundamental components of Self-Determination Theory-were measured through the Fulfillment of Psychological Needs during Couple Leisure (FPNL...

  11. Electromagnetic dynamic response of HL-2M vacuum vessel under plasma disruption considering the electromagneto-mechanical coupling effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Hongwei; Yuan, Zhensheng; Li, Weixin; Pei, Cuixiang; Xie, Shejuan [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for NDT and Structural Integrity Evaluation, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Chen, Zhenmao, E-mail: chenzm@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for NDT and Structural Integrity Evaluation, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Pan, Yudong; Cai, Lijun; Li, Jiaxian [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A 1/5 numerical model is established and validated for HL-2M vacuum vessel. • The Lagrangian approach used for treating the EM-mechanical coupling problem is introduced. • The EM field and structural dynamic response of HL-2M VV during plasma disruptions are simulated by using the Lagrangian strategy. • The dynamic responses of the VV of HL-2M are compared to clarify the effect of the EM-mechanical coupling under the MD and VED conditions. • The results present a basis for the safe operation of the HL-2M VV device. - Abstract: During plasma disruptions (PDs), transient eddy currents are induced in the HL-2M vacuum vessel (VV) which is a D-shaped, double thin-wall structure. Under the circumstance of high magnetic field, the resulting electromagnetic (EM) forces during PDs are large and the dynamic response of related structures may be violent. In this complicated EM circumstance, the EM-mechanical coupling effect may also have a great influence on the dynamic response of VV structure. In this paper, the EM field and structural dynamic response of HL-2M VV during PDs are simulated by adopting a numerical code of the Lagrangian approach. The Lagrangian approach is on the basis of the Maxwell equations in the Lagrangian description, which treats the coupling behavior of magnetic damping effect without explicitly using the velocity term. This approach can be easily applied to actual structures by updating FEM meshes and reforming coefficient matrices before calculating EM field at each time step. In this work, the disruption plasma currents of operating conditions are simulated by using the DINA code and then the dynamic responses of displacements and stresses of the VV of HL-2M are obtained for both cases with and without considering the coupling effect. The numerical results show that stresses under the disruptions (MD and VDE) are not significant and the coupling effect does not significantly affect the peak dynamic response for the HL-2M

  12. Effects of physical and mental health on relationship satisfaction: a dyadic, longitudinal examination of couples facing prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kaile M; Ranby, Krista W; Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Robertson, Cary; Lipkus, Isaac M

    2016-08-01

    Prostate cancer may affect quality of life in men diagnosed as well as their spouses. Changes in health may disrupt the couple's relationship functioning which disrupts recovery. This study examined how mental and physical health relates to relationship satisfaction for couples at diagnosis through the year following treatment. Patients with stage I-II prostate cancer and their spouses (N = 159 couples) were recruited from a urology clinic and completed questionnaires at diagnosis, 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months post prostatectomy on demographics, mental and physical health quality of life, and relationship satisfaction. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was employed to examine effects of each partners' mental and physical health on their own and their partner's relationship satisfaction. Patients and spouses had declined mental and physical health at 1 month post-surgery. Health improved at 6 and 12 months but did not fully return to pre-surgery levels. Actor effects showed that patient's physical health consistently predicted own relationship satisfaction. Both patient's and spouse's mental health consistently related to their own relationship satisfaction. Partner effects showed that patient's and spouse's physical health had an effect on each other's relationship satisfaction at 1 month. Spouse's mental health predicted patient's relationship satisfaction throughout the year following treatment. The effects of patient and spouse mental and physical health quality of life on their own as well as their partner's relationship satisfaction differed across time which will inform psychosocial interventions for couples with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of couple stresses on hydromagnetic flow of blood through a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The function of the coronary network is to supply blood to the heart; however, in cases of Coronary Artery Disease, the geometry has great influence on the nature of the blood flow and the overall performance of the heart. In this paper, the unsteady non-Newtonian flow of blood under couple stresses and a uniform external ...

  14. Covariant Lyapunov Vectors in a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model - Multiscale Effects and Geometric Degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Vannitsem, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    We study a simplified coupled atmosphere-ocean model using the formalism of covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs), which link physically-based directions of perturbations to growth/decay rates. The model is obtained via a severe truncation of quasi-geostrophic equations for the two fluids, and includes a simple yet physically meaningful representation of their dynamical/thermodynamical coupling. The model has 36 degrees of freedom, and the parameters are chosen so that a chaotic behaviour is observed. One finds two positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs), sixteen negative LEs, and eighteen near-zero LEs. The presence of many near-zero LEs results from the vast time-scale separation between the characteristic time scales of the two fluids, and leads to nontrivial error growth properties in the tangent space spanned by the corresponding CLVs, which are geometrically very degenerate. Such CLVs correspond to two different classes of ocean/atmosphere coupled modes. The tangent space spanned by the CLVs corresponding to the positive and negative LEs has, instead, a non-pathological behaviour, and one can construct robust large deviations laws for the finite time LEs, thus providing a universal model for assessing predictability on long to ultra-long scales along such directions. Finally, it is somewhat surprising to find that the tangent space of the unstable manifold has strong projection on both atmospheric and oceanic components, thus giving evidence that coupled modes are responsible for the instability of the flow.

  15. Correlation Effects on the Coupled Plasmon Modes of a Double Quantum Well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, N. P. R.; Nicholls, J. T.; Linfield, E. H.

    1997-01-01

    At temperatures comparable to the Fermi temperature, we have measured a plasmon enhanced Coulomb drag in a GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well electron system. This measurement provides a probe of the many-body corrections to the coupled plasmon modes, and we present a detailed comparison between exp...

  16. Solvent and temperature effects on the platinum-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 1-naphthols

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maphoru, MV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using H(sub2)O(sub2) as the oxidant, 1-naphthols with electron-donating groups at the 2- and 4-positions couple oxidatively over a carbon-supported platinum catalyst to 3,3'-substituted 1,1'-binaphthalenylidene-4,4'-diones and 4,4'-substituted 2...

  17. Will Marriage Matter? Effects of Marriage Anticipated by Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…

  18. Gaming in the Game of Love: Effects of Video Games on Conflict in Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Busby, Dean; Bushman, Brad J.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Ridge, Robert; Stockdale, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The current study assessed how playing video games can influence conflict and aggression in relationships. A sample of 1,333 heterosexual couples reported their video game playing habits, conflict regarding the media, and physical and relational aggression (both self and partner directed). Results showed that for men (but not women), time spent…

  19. Gaming in the game of love: Effects of video games on conflict in couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyne, S.M.; Busby, D.; Bushman, B.J.; Gentile, D.A.; Ridge, R.; Stockdale, L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study assessed how playing video games can influence conflict and aggression in relationships. A sample of 1,333 heterosexual couples reported their video game playing habits, conflict regarding the media, and physical and relational aggression (both self and partner directed). Results

  20. Effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems in preventing functional decline among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachal, Florent; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Cardinaud, Noëlle; Saulnier, Isabelle; Nessighaoui, Hichem; Laubarie-Mouret, Cécile; Dantoine, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population is at high risk of functional decline, which will induce significant costs due to long-term care. Dependency could be delayed by preventing one of its major determinants: falls. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems could prevent the functional decline through fall prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems on the functional decline in an elderly population living at home. It is a secondary analysis on data from a previous cohort. In all, 190 older adults (aged 65 years or more) living at home participated. Participants in the exposed group were equipped with home-based technologies: light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems. The participants' functional status was assessed using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System scale at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T12-month). Baseline characteristics were evaluated by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. After 1 year, 43% of the unexposed group had functional decline versus 16% of the exposed group. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems were significantly associated with a decrease in the functional decline (Δ Functional Autonomy Measurement System ⩾ 5) at home (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (0.11-0.54), p = 0.002). This study suggests that light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems prevent the functional decline over 12 months. This result may encourage the prescription and use of home-based technologies to postpone dependency and institutionalization, but they need a larger cost-effectiveness study to demonstrate the efficiency of these technologies.

  1. Effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems in preventing functional decline among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Lachal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The elderly population is at high risk of functional decline, which will induce significant costs due to long-term care. Dependency could be delayed by preventing one of its major determinants: falls. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems could prevent the functional decline through fall prevention. Methods: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems on the functional decline in an elderly population living at home. It is a secondary analysis on data from a previous cohort. In all, 190 older adults (aged 65 years or more living at home participated. Participants in the exposed group were equipped with home-based technologies: light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems. The participants’ functional status was assessed using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System scale at baseline (T0 and at the end of the study (T12-month. Baseline characteristics were evaluated by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Results: After 1 year, 43% of the unexposed group had functional decline versus 16% of the exposed group. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems were significantly associated with a decrease in the functional decline (Δ Functional Autonomy Measurement System ⩾ 5 at home (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (0.11–0.54, p = 0.002. Discussion: This study suggests that light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems prevent the functional decline over 12 months. This result may encourage the prescription and use of home-based technologies to postpone dependency and institutionalization, but they need a larger cost-effectiveness study to demonstrate the efficiency of these technologies.

  2. Aerosols in the Convective Boundary Layer: Radiation Effects on the Coupled Land-Atmosphere System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, E.; Vila-Guerau Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Schroter, J.; Donovan, D. P.; Krol, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the responses of the surface energy budget and the convective boundary-layer (CBL) dynamics to the presence of aerosols using a combination of observations and numerical simulations. A detailed observational dataset containing (thermo)dynamic variables observed at CESAR (Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research) and aerosol information from the European Integrated Project on Aerosol, Cloud, Climate, and Air Quality Interactions (IMPACT/EUCAARI) campaign is employed to design numerical experiments reproducing two prototype clear-sky days characterized by: (i) a well-mixed residual layer above a ground inversion and (ii) a continuously growing CBL. A large-eddy simulation (LES) model and a mixed-layer (MXL) model, both coupled to a broadband radiative transfer code and a land-surface model, are used to study the impacts of aerosol scattering and absorption of shortwave radiation on the land-atmosphere system. We successfully validate our model results using the measurements of (thermo)dynamic variables and aerosol properties for the two different CBL prototypes studied here. Our findings indicate that in order to reproduce the observed surface energy budget and CBL dynamics, information of the vertical structure and temporal evolution of the aerosols is necessary. Given the good agreement between the LES and the MXL model results, we use the MXL model to explore the aerosol effect on the land-atmosphere system for a wide range of optical depths and single scattering albedos. Our results show that higher loads of aerosols decrease irradiance, imposing an energy restriction at the surface. Over the studied well-watered grassland, aerosols reduce the sensible heat flux more than the latent heat flux. As a result, aerosols increase the evaporative fraction. Moreover, aerosols also delay the CBL morning onset and anticipate its afternoon collapse. If also present above the CBL during the morning transition, aerosols maintain a persistent near

  3. Observing pure effects of counter-rotating terms without ultrastrong coupling: A single photon can simultaneously excite two qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Hong-Rong; Nori, Franco

    2017-12-01

    The coherent process that a single photon simultaneously excites two qubits has recently been theoretically predicted by Garziano et al. [L. Garziano, V. Macrì, R. Stassi, O. Di Stefano, F. Nori, and S. Savasta, One Photon Can Simultaneously Excite two or More Atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601]. We propose a different approach to observe a similar dynamical process based on a superconducting quantum circuit, where two coupled flux qubits longitudinally interact with the same resonator. We show that this simultaneous excitation of two qubits (assuming that the sum of their transition frequencies is close to the cavity frequency) is related to the counter-rotating terms in the dipole-dipole coupling between two qubits, and the standard rotating-wave approximation is not valid here. By numerically simulating the adiabatic Landau-Zener transition and Rabi-oscillation effects, we clearly verify that the energy of a single photon can excite two qubits via higher-order transitions induced by the longitudinal couplings and the counter-rotating terms. Compared with previous studies, the coherent dynamics in our system only involves one intermediate state and, thus, exhibits a much faster rate. We also find transition paths which can interfere. Finally, by discussing how to control the two longitudinal-coupling strengths, we find a method to observe both constructive and destructive interference phenomena in our system.

  4. The coupling effect of gas-phase chemistry and surface reactions on oxygen permeation and fuel conversion in ITM reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The effect of the coupling between heterogeneous catalytic reactions supported by an ion transport membrane (ITM) and gas-phase chemistry on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation in ITM reactors is examined. In ITM reactors, thermochemical reactions take place in the gas-phase and on the membrane surface, both of which interact with oxygen permeation. However, this coupling between gas-phase and surface chemistry has not been examined in detail. In this study, a parametric analysis using numerical simulations is conducted to investigate this coupling and its impact on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation rates. A thermochemical model that incorporates heterogeneous chemistry on the membrane surface and detailed chemical kinetics in the gas-phase is used. Results show that fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are strongly influenced by the simultaneous action of both chemistries. It is shown that the coupling somewhat suppresses the gas-phase kinetics and reduces fuel conversion, both attributed to extensive thermal energy transfer towards the membrane which conducts it to the air side and radiates to the reactor walls. The reaction pathway and products, in the form of syngas and C2 hydrocarbons, are also affected. In addition, the operating regimes of ITM reactors in which heterogeneous- or/and homogeneous-phase reactions predominantly contribute to fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are elucidated.

  5. A theory of magnetoelectric coupling with interface effects and aspect-ratio dependence in piezoelectric-piezomagnetic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Su, Yu; Li, Jackie; Weng, George J.

    2015-04-01

    In a piezoelectric-piezomagnetic composite, one of the most intriguing features of its characteristics is the presence of magnetoelectric coupling coefficient even though neither phase possesses such a property. This quantity is often considered to be the figure of merits, but its magnitude depends on the phase properties, connectivity, volume concentration, inclusion shape, and interfacial conditions. In this article, we develop a composite model with aligned spheroidal inclusions in the matrix to account for all these microstructural features. With a focus on the BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 (BTO-CFO) system, we demonstrate how its coupling coefficients, α 33 and α 11 , and voltage coefficients, α E 33 and α E 11 , depend on these factors. In particular, we show that a weak interface could significantly lower the coupling effect, 1-3 composites tend to deliver a stronger α 33 while 2-2 composites a stronger α 11 , and that CFO-in-BTO composites provide stronger coupling than BTO-in-CFO. We conclude by demonstrating that consideration of a weak interface is often essential to model a real system, and that experimentally measured α E 33 for CFO-in-BTO falls below the ideal value of perfect interface but can be predicted by a weak interface model. For ready applications, explicit expressions of α 33 and α 11 of fibrous composites and multilayers are also given for both perfect and imperfect interface conditions.

  6. [Effect of amount of silane coupling agent on flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with aluminium borate whisker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming-yi; Zhang, Xiu-yin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of amount of silane coupling agent on flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with aluminium borate whisker (ABW). ABW was surface-treated with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% silan coupling agent (γ-MPS), and mixed with resin matrix to synthesize 5 groups of composite resins. After heat-cured at 120 degrees centigrade for 1 h, specimens were tested in three-point flexure to measure strength according to ISO-4049. One specimen was selected randomly from each group and observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data was analyzed with SAS 9.2 software package. The flexural strength (117.93±11.9 Mpa) of the group treated with 2% silane coupling agent was the highest, and significantly different from that of the other 4 groups (α=0.01). The amount of silane coupling agent has impact on the flexural strength of dental composite resins reinforced with whiskers; The flexual strength will be reduced whenever the amount is higher or lower than the threshold. Supported by Research Fund of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (08DZ2271100).

  7. Spin Seebeck effect and thermoelectric phenomena in superconducting hybrids with magnetic textures or spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathen, Marianne Etzelmüller; Linder, Jacob

    2017-01-31

    We theoretically consider the spin Seebeck effect, the charge Seebeck coefficient, and the thermoelectric figure of merit in superconducting hybrid structures including either magnetic textures or intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. We demonstrate that large magnitudes for all these quantities are obtainable in Josephson-based systems with either zero or a small externally applied magnetic field. This provides an alternative to the thermoelectric effects generated in high-field (~1 T) superconducting hybrid systems, which were recently experimentally demonstrated. The systems studied contain either conical ferromagnets, spin-active interfaces, or spin-orbit coupling. We present a framework for calculating the linear thermoelectric response for both spin and charge of a system upon applying temperature and voltage gradients based on quasiclassical theory which allows for arbitrary spin-dependent textures and fields to be conveniently incorporated.

  8. First Analysis of the Space Charge Effects on a Third Order Coupled Resonance Proc. HB2016 Malmo, Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Franchetti, Giuliano; Huschauer, Alexander; Schmidt, Frank; Wasef, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The effect of space charge on bunches stored for long term in a nonlinear lattice can be severe for beam survival. This may be the case in projects as SIS100 at GSI or LIU at CERN. In 2012, for the first time, the effect of space charge on a normal third order coupled resonance was investigated at the CERN-PS. The experimental results have highlighted an unprecedented asymmetric beam response: in the vertical plane the beam exhibits a thick halo, while the horizontal profile has only core growth. The quest for explaining these results requires a journey through the 4 dimensional dynamics of the coupled resonance investigating the fixed-lines, and requires a detailed code-experiment benchmarking also including beam profile benchmarking. This proceeding gives a short summary of the experimental results of the 2012 PS measurements, and address an interpretation based on the dynamics the fixed-lines.

  9. Soret and dufour effects on free convection flow of a couple stress fluid in a vertical channel with chemical reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasacharya D.; Kaladhar K.

    2013-01-01

    The Soret and Dufour effects in the presence of chemical reaction on natural convection heat and mass transfer of a couple stress fluid in a vertical channel formed by two vertical parallel plates is presented. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting equations are then solved using Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). Profiles of dimensionless velocity, temperature...

  10. Effects of hormonal contraceptive use on HIV acquisition and transmission among HIV-discordant couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutalo, Tom; Musoke, Richard; Kong, Xiangrong; Makumbi, Fred; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred; Kigozi, Godfrey; Sewankambo, Nelson; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    The risk of HIV associated with hormonal contraceptives is controversial. We assessed hormonal contraceptive use and HIV incidence in HIV-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda. HIV-discordant couples were retrospectively identified from a cohort between 1999 and 2009. Hormonal contraception included oral contraception, depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and implants (Norplant). Poisson regression estimated adjusted incidence rate ratios (adjIRRs) associated with hormonal contraceptive methods. A case-control subanalysis estimated odds ratios (ORs) of HIV associated with hormonal contraceptive, adjusted for viral load and age. We identified 190 male HIV-positive/female HIV-negative (M+F-) and 159 male HIV- negative/female HIV-positive (M-F+) couples not using antiretroviral therapy or condoms. Female HIV incidence was 5.8/100 person-years (py) among nonhormonal contraceptive users, 12.0/100 py among oral contraceptive users [adjIRR 2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-8.60], 4.5 among Norplant users (adjIRR: 0.89, 95% CI 0.11-7.10), and 7.5/100 py among DMPA users (adjIRR 1.42, 95% CI 0.60-3.36). Male HIV incidence was 7.4/100 py during nonhormonal contraceptive use, 16.5/100 py during female oral contraceptive use (adjIRR 2.52, 95% CI 0.49-12.95), and 4.9/100 py with DMPA use (adjIRR 0.57, 95% CI 0.19-1.70). The number of female seroconverters was three among oral contraceptive users, one among Norplant users, and seven among DMPA users. Male seroconverters were two during female oral contraceptive use, none with Norplant use, and three with DMPA use. In a nested case-control analysis after adjustment for HIV viral load, the adjOR associated with oral contraceptive use was 1.59 (95% CI 0.32-97.85) for M+F- and 2.11 (95% CI 0.18-25.26) for M-F+ couples. For DMPA use, the adjOR was 1.44 (95% CI 0.46-4.51) for M+F- and 1.40 (95% CI 0.30-6.49) for M-F+ couples. We did not observe significant risk of HIV acquisition or transmission with oral contraceptives or DMPA

  11. Enhanced Electron-Phonon Coupling at Metal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, Ward E.

    2010-08-04

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) decouples electronic from nuclear motion, providing a focal point for most quantum mechanics textbooks. However, a multitude of important chemical, physical and biological phenomena are driven by violations of this approximation. Vibronic interactions are a necessary ingredient in any process that makes or breaks a covalent bond, for example, conventional catalysis or enzymatically delivered biological reactions. Metastable phenomena associated with defects and dopants in semiconductors, oxides, and glasses entail violation of the BOA. Charge exchange in inorganic polymers, organic slats and biological systems involves charge- induced distortions of the local structure. A classic example is conventional superconductivity, which is driven by the electron-lattice interaction. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments are yielding new insight into the microscopic origin of electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in anisotropic two-dimensional systems. Our recent surface phonon measurement on the surface of a high-Tc material clearly indicates an important momentum dependent EPC in these materials. In the last few years we have shifted our research focus from solely looking at electron phonon coupling to examining the structure/functionality relationship at the surface of complex transition metal compounds. The investigation on electron phonon coupling has allowed us to move to systems where there is coupling between the lattice, the electrons and the spin.

  12. Effect of Stress Urinary Incontinence on the Sexual Function of Couples and the Quality of Life of Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Renly; Liong, Men Long; Leong, Wing Seng; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the effects of stress urinary incontinence on the sexual function of couples are scarce. We prospectively evaluated couple sexual function and the relationship between sexual function and quality of life. We also compared quality of life in females with vs without stress urinary incontinence. Sexually active females at least 21 years old with or without stress urinary incontinence and their partners were recruited for study. To assess sexual function the couples completed GRISS (Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction) and a 1-item question on overall sexual experience, "Over the past 4 weeks, how satisfied have you been with your overall sexual life?" Additionally, females completed ICIQ-LUTSqol (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life) to assess quality of life. For sexual function assessment 66 of 134 couples with (49.3%) and 95 of 176 without (54.0%) stress urinary incontinence were recruited. Females with stress urinary incontinence had lower overall sexual function, lower frequency of sexual intercourse, less satisfaction (each p sexual intercourse (p = 0.001) but no difference in overall GRISS score (p = 0.093). Couples with stress urinary incontinence had poorer overall sexual experience (p quality of life than those without stress urinary incontinence (120 of 134, response rate 89.6% vs 145 of 176, response rate 82.4%, p Sexual function and quality of life did not significantly correlate (r = 0.001, p = 0.997). Stress urinary incontinence in females is negatively associated not only with female quality of life and sexual function but also with partner sexual function. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Strong-Coupling Effects and Shear Viscosity in an Ultracold Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagamihara, D.; Ohashi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the shear viscosity η , as well as the entropy density s, in the normal state of an ultracold Fermi gas. Including pairing fluctuations within the framework of a T-matrix approximation, we calculate these quantities in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover region. We also evaluate η / s, to compare it with the lower bound of this ratio, conjectured by Kovtun, Son, and Starinets (KSS bound). In the weak-coupling BCS side, we show that the shear viscosity η is remarkably suppressed near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc, due to the so-called pseudogap phenomenon. In the strong-coupling BEC side, we find that, within the neglect of the vertex corrections, one cannot correctly describe η . We also show that η / s decreases with increasing the interaction strength, to become very close to the KSS bound, \\hbar /4π kB, on the BEC side.

  14. The effect of male occupational exposure in infertile couples in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens, A; Krüger, K; Ulstein, M

    1999-12-01

    The objective of the study was to assess whether reduced semen quality in infertile couples is associated with occupational exposures known to be hazardous to fertility. Results of the first semen analysis were linked to occupational exposure data from a self-administered questionnaire. Reduced semen quality was found in men exposed to electromagnetic fields (odds ratio, 3.22; confidence interval, 1.46 to 7.09). A tendency toward reduced semen quality was seen in commuters (OR, 1.52; CI, 0.89 to 2.59), shift workers (OR, 1.46; CI, 0.89 to 2.40), and men exposed to heavy metals (OR, 1.47; CI, 0.76 to 2.87). In general, the impact of occupational exposure on semen quality in infertile couples in Norway seemed to be minor. However, occupational exposure mapping is still important in individual infertility investigations.

  15. Using internal coupling activities to enhance the effectiveness of open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    of outbound open innovation is positively related to innovation profitability. Furthermore, the paper finds that the use of internal coupling activities mediates the relationship between openness and innovation profitability. The main result is that the benefits of open innovation are fully captured only when...... of both inbound and outbound open innovation practices? The paper identifies a set of internal management mechanisms that allows the firm to couple the outside-in and inside-out knowledge flows in support of integrating external knowledge and internal competencies. The empirical basis of the study...... is a survey carried out in 321 Danish SMEs in manufacturing industries. The paper cannot substantiate the thus far, seemingly positive evidence of openness on innovation performance. Rather, the paper finds that inbound open innovation is related to the introduction of new products, whereas the adoption...

  16. Viscoelastic relaxations of high alcohols and alkanes: Effects of heterogeneous structure and translation-orientation coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    The frequency-dependent shear viscosity of high alcohols and linear alkanes, including 1-butanol, 1-octanol, 1-dodecanol, n-hexane, n-decane, and n-tetradecane, was calculated using molecular dynamics simulation. The relaxation of all the liquids was bimodal. The correlation functions of the collective orientation were also evaluated. The analysis of these functions showed that the slower relaxation mode of alkanes is assigned to the translation-orientation coupling, while that of high alcohols is not. The X-ray structure factors of all the alcohols showed prepeaks, as have been reported in the literature, and the intermediate scattering functions were calculated at the prepeak. Comparing the intermediate scattering function with the frequency-dependent shear viscosity based on the mode-coupling theory, it was demonstrated that the slower viscoelastic relaxation of the alcohols is assigned to the relaxation of the heterogeneous structure described by the prepeak.

  17. Contralateral cochlear effects of ipsilateral damage: no evidence for interaural coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Erik; Liberman, M. Charles

    2009-01-01

    Lesion studies of the olivocochlear efferents have suggested that feedback via this neuronal pathway normally maintains an appropriate binaural balance in excitability of the two cochlear nerves (Darrow et al., 2006). If true, a decrease in cochlear nerve output from one ear, due to conductive or sensorineural hearing loss, should change cochlear nerve response in the opposite ear via modulation in olivocochlear feedback. To investigate this putative efferent-mediated interaural coupling, we ...

  18. Inter-Layer Coupling Effects on Vertical Electron Transport in Multilayer Graphene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, F.; Mori, N.

    2017-10-01

    We have performed nonequilibrium Green function simulations on the vertical transport characteristics in multilayer graphene nanoribbons sandwiched between two graphene contact layers with varying the inter-layer coupling strength β. We find that the integrated transmission function thorough the top (or bottom) layer is hardly affected by β when the incident energy is close to the Dirac point. The β-insensitive energy window becomes narrower as the channel length increases.

  19. The Effect of Teaching Communicative Patterns of Pluralistic Family on Couples Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    H Molavi; S Khosravi; HT Neshat Doost; M Kalantary

    2010-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: One of the basic elements declared in positive psychology is the concept of happiness. Researches have shown that without concerning how achieved, happiness can enhance our health. People who are happy feel more secure, decide easier, and are more satisfied of the people who live with. The aim of the present study was to measure the efficiency of teaching communicative pattern of pluralistic family on the happiness of couples. Materials & Method:This experimen...

  20. Large-Scale Brain Network Coupling Predicts Total Sleep Deprivation Effects on Cognitive Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    Full Text Available Interactions between large-scale brain networks have received most attention in the study of cognitive dysfunction of human brain. In this paper, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the coupling strength of large-scale brain networks will reflect the pressure for sleep and will predict cognitive performance, referred to as sleep pressure index (SPI. Fourteen healthy subjects underwent this within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study during rested wakefulness (RW and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Self-reported scores of sleepiness were higher for TSD than for RW. A subsequent working memory (WM task showed that WM performance was lower after 36 h of TSD. Moreover, SPI was developed based on the coupling strength of salience network (SN and default mode network (DMN. Significant increase of SPI was observed after 36 h of TSD, suggesting stronger pressure for sleep. In addition, SPI was significantly correlated with both the visual analogue scale score of sleepiness and the WM performance. These results showed that alterations in SN-DMN coupling might be critical in cognitive alterations that underlie the lapse after TSD. Further studies may validate the SPI as a potential clinical biomarker to assess the impact of sleep deprivation.

  1. A Cost-Effective Relative Humidity Sensor Based on Side Coupling Induction Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingzi; Hou, Yulong; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Zhidong; Guo, Jing; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Qiu-Lin

    2017-04-25

    A intensity-modulated optical fiber relative humidity (RH) sensor based on the side coupling induction technology (SCIT) is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The agarose gel and the twisted macro-bend coupling structure are first combined for RH sensing applications. The refractive index (RI) of the agarose gel increases with the increase of the RH and is in linear proportion from 20 to 80%RH. The side coupling power, which changes directly with the RI of the agarose gel, can strip the source noise from the sensor signal and improve the signal to noise ratio substantially. The experiment results show that the sensitivity of the proposed sensor increases while the bend radius decreases. When the bend radius is 8 mm, the sensor has a linear response from 40% to 80% RH with the sensitivity of 4.23 nW/% and the limit of detection of 0.70%. A higher sensitivity of 12.49 nW/% is achieved when RH raises from 80% to 90% and the limit of detection decreases to 0.55%. Furthermore, the proposed sensor is a low-cost solution, offering advantages of good reversibility, fast response time, and compensable temperature dependence.

  2. Vibronically coherent ultrafast triplet-pair formation and subsequent thermally activated dissociation control efficient endothermic singlet fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Hannah L.; Cheminal, Alexandre; Yost, Shane R.; Broch, Katharina; Bayliss, Sam L.; Chen, Kai; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Thorley, Karl; Greenham, Neil; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Anthony, John; Head-Gordon, Martin; Musser, Andrew J.; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H.

    2017-12-01

    Singlet exciton fission (SF), the conversion of one spin-singlet exciton (S1) into two spin-triplet excitons (T1), could provide a means to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit in photovoltaics. SF as measured by the decay of S1 has been shown to occur efficiently and independently of temperature, even when the energy of S1 is as much as 200 meV less than that of 2T1. Here we study films of triisopropylsilyltetracene using transient optical spectroscopy and show that the triplet pair state (TT), which has been proposed to mediate singlet fission, forms on ultrafast timescales (in 300 fs) and that its formation is mediated by the strong coupling of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. This is followed by a slower loss of singlet character as the excitation evolves to become only TT. We observe the TT to be thermally dissociated on 10-100 ns timescales to form free triplets. This provides a model for 'temperature-independent' efficient TT formation and thermally activated TT separation.

  3. Hard-hard coupling assisted anomalous magnetoresistance effect in amine-ended single-molecule magnetic junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.-H.; Lin, C.-J.; Chiang, K.-R.

    2017-06-01

    We proposed a single-molecule magnetic junction (SMMJ), composed of a dissociated amine-ended benzene sandwiched between two Co tip-like nanowires. To better simulate the break junction technique for real SMMJs, the first-principles calculation associated with the hard-hard coupling between a amine-linker and Co tip-atom is carried out for SMMJs with mechanical strain and under an external bias. We predict an anomalous magnetoresistance (MR) effect, including strain-induced sign reversal and bias-induced enhancement of the MR value, which is in sharp contrast to the normal MR effect in conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The underlying mechanism is the interplay between four spin-polarized currents in parallel and anti-parallel magnetic configurations, originated from the pronounced spin-up transmission feature in the parallel case and spiky transmission peaks in other three spin-polarized channels. These intriguing findings may open a new arena in which magnetotransport and hard-hard coupling are closely coupled in SMMJs and can be dually controlled either via mechanical strain or by an external bias.

  4. The groundwater-land-surface-atmosphere connection: soil moisture effects on the atmospheric boundary layer in fully-coupled simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R M; Chow, F K; Kollet, S J

    2007-02-02

    This study combines a variably-saturated groundwater flow model and a mesoscale atmospheric model to examine the effects of soil moisture heterogeneity on atmospheric boundary layer processes. This parallel, integrated model can represent spatial variations in land-surface forcing driven by three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric and subsurface components. The development of atmospheric flow is studied in a series of idealized test cases with different initial soil moisture distributions generated by an offline spin-up procedure or interpolated from a coarse-resolution dataset. These test cases are performed with both the fully-coupled model (which includes 3D groundwater flow and surface water routing) and the uncoupled atmospheric model. The effects of the different soil moisture initializations and lateral subsurface and surface water flow are seen in the differences in atmospheric evolution over a 36-hour period. The fully-coupled model maintains a realistic topographically-driven soil moisture distribution, while the uncoupled atmospheric model does not. Furthermore, the coupled model shows spatial and temporal correlations between surface and lower atmospheric variables and water table depth. These correlations are particularly strong during times when the land surface temperatures trigger shifts in wind behavior, such as during early morning surface heating.

  5. The Effectiveness of the Within Our Reach Relationship Education Program for Couples: Findings from a Federal Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena K

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a couple-based relationship education program, Within Our Reach. Secondary data (n = 3,609) were analyzed from the federal Supporting Healthy Marriage project. Couples were randomly assigned to receive Within Our Reach and associated services or to a no-treatment (treatment-as-usual) control group. Those assigned to Within Our Reach reported better couple and individual outcomes on 8 of 12 outcomes measured (M ES = .15) at the 12-month follow-up and 6 of 10 outcomes measured at the 30-month follow-up (M ES = .14), including higher relationship happiness, more warmth and support, more positive communication, less negative behavior and emotion, less psychological abuse, less physical assault (for men), lower psychological distress (for women), and less infidelity. They were also less likely to report that their marriage was in trouble. These effects were generally small in size and many were replicated across the two follow-ups. There were no significant differences between those assigned to Within Our Reach versus control on cooperative parenting, severe psychological assault, or percent married. Implications for future research, programming, and policy are discussed. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  6. The nitrogen isotope effect of benthic remineralization-nitrification-denitrification coupling in an estuarine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alkhatib

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen (N stable isotopic composition of pore water nitrate and total dissolved N (TDN was measured in sediments of the St. Lawrence Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The study area is characterized by gradients in organic matter reactivity, bottom water oxygen concentrations, as well as benthic respiration rates. N isotope effects on the water column associated with the benthic exchange of nitrate (εapp and TDN (εsed during benthic nitrification-denitrification coupling were investigated. The sediments were a major sink for nitrate and a source of reduced dissolved N (RDN = DON + NH4+. We observed that both the pore water nitrate and RDN pools were enriched in 15N relative to the water column, with increasing δ15N downcore in the sediments. As in other marine environments, the biological nitrate isotope fractionation of net fixed N loss was barely expressed at the scale of sediment-water exchange, with ϵapp values <3‰. The strongest under-expression (i.e. lowest εapp of the biological N isotope fractionation was observed at the most oxygenated sites with the least reactive organic matter, indicating that, through their control on the depth of the denitrification zone, bottom water oxygen concentrations and the organic matter reactivity can modulate εapp. For the first time, actual measurements of δ15N of pore water RDN were included in the calculations of εsed. We argue that large fractions of the sea-floor-derived DON are reactive and, hence, involved in the development of the δ15N of dissolved inorganic N (DIN in the water column. In the St. Lawrence sediments, the combined benthic N transformations yield a flux of 15N-enriched RDN that can significantly elevate εsed above εapp. Calculated εsed values were within the range of 4.6 ± 2

  7. Coupled effects of dehydration reaction, dilatant strengthening and shear heating on dynamic fault slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T.

    2012-12-01

    It is believed that dynamic fault slip is affected by thermal pressurization. However, dilatant strengthening and dehydration reaction may significantly affect the degree of thermal pressurization. In addition, it is not clear how such effects influence the fault slip as a whole. We theoretically study how dilatant strengthening, frictional heating and dehydration reaction are coupled and how they affect dynamic slip assuming a fault in a thermoporoelastic medium saturated with fluid. After mathematical analysis is carried out for 1D model, the behavior of 2D fault model is studied numerically. The porosity is assumed to increase with increasing fault slip following Suzuki and Yamashita (2008). Our mathematical formulation of dehydration reaction is based on Brantut et al.(2010); the dehydration reaction is assumed to be endothermic. In addition, starting from the temperature Ts, all the frictional energy is assumed to be absorbed by the dehydration reaction rather than converted into heat. Although Brantut et al.(2010) assumed a constant slip velocity, we consider the temporal evolution of slip assuming the Coulomb law of friction on the fault. We first make the analysis assuming adiabatic and undrained conditions for the 1D model. We find that three nondimensional parameters Su, P0 and G0 determine the system behavior if the initial temperature T0 and dehydration starting temperature Ts are given, where Su (>0) is a parameter proportional to the pore creation rate, P0 (>0) is the initial nondimensional frictional stress and G0 (>0) is a parameter proportional to the mass fraction of fluid released per unit of total rock mass divided by the energy change per unit volume of the slip zone. The nondimensional frictional stress P is defined by the Coulomb frictional stress divided by the initial shear stress, which suggests the relation 0Ts, where Te is the temperature. We find for Te>Ts that the evolution of P is described by the equation dP/dT=(1-P)(Su-G0*P), where

  8. Effect of Couple Stresses on the Stress Intensity Factors for Two Parallel Cracks in an Infinite Elastic Medium under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouetsu Itou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stresses around two parallel cracks of equal length in an infinite elastic medium are evaluated based on the linearized couple-stress theory under uniform tension normal to the cracks. Fourier transformations are used to reduce the boundary conditions with respect to the upper crack to dual integral equations. In order to solve these equations, the differences in the displacements and in the rotation at the upper crack are expanded through a series of functions that are zero valued outside the crack. The unknown coefficients in each series are solved in order to satisfy the boundary conditions inside the crack using the Schmidt method. The stresses are expressed in terms of infinite integrals, and the stress intensity factors can be determined using the characteristics of the integrands for an infinite value of the variable of integration. Numerical calculations are carried out for selected crack configurations, and the effect of the couple stresses on the stress intensity factors is revealed.

  9. Effect of conditional cash transfer on choice and utilization of contraceptives among newly married couples in Satara district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha K Pratinidhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Satara district of western Maharashtra is in late expanding phase of demographic cycle. Postponement of first pregnancy with the use of reversible contraceptives is the need of the hour. Since 2007, Satara district is implementing a conditional cash transfer scheme second honeymoon package (SHP. Objectives: The objectives of this study are: (1 To find out the effect of conditional cash transfer on choice and utilization of contraceptives among participants of SHP. (2 To identify various barriers to the use of contraceptives. Materials and Methods: This was an evaluation study of a community based interventional program. Cases were the participants of SHP program while the controls were the couples residing in the same village as that of participants and married in the same year. Enquiries were made about their knowledge of contraceptives, reasons of postponement, choice of contraceptives, problems faced while using them, perceived benefits of participation, reasons for non-participation and non-use of contraceptives, etc. Results: This study has found out that 24.8% controls and 57.6% participant couples were having knowledge of contraception before their marriage. Amongst the participants of the scheme and controls, male condom was the most popular method used by 80.8% participants, followed by oral pills by 9.22% couples. Contraception prevalence rate among control couples was 17.6%, while that in participants was 91.8%. Resistance from family members, side-effects and failure of contraceptives were some of the barriers to their use. Conclusions: Conditional cash transfer has encouraged the use of contraceptives in acceptors of SHP. By participating in SHP and postponing first pregnancy 15.8% could complete their education, job/career betterment achieved by 16.4% and 19.3% adored marital pleasure.

  10. Quantum size effects in Pb layers with absorbed Kondo adatoms: Determination of the exchange coupling constant

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-07-01

    We consider the magnetic interaction of manganese phtalocyanine (MnPc) absorbed on Pb layers that were grown on a Si substrate. We perform an ab initio calculation of the density of states and Kondo temperature as a function of the number of Pb monolayers. Comparison to experimental data [Y.-S. Fu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 256601 (2007)] then allows us to determine the exchange coupling constant J between the spins of the adsorbed molecules and those of the Pb host. This approach gives rise to a general and reliable method for obtaining J by combining experimental and numerical results.

  11. Effect of intermonolayer coupling on the phase behavior of lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Zuckermann, Martin J.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1992-01-01

    involving standard Monte Carlo simulation, as well as the extrapolation method of Ferrenberg and Swendsen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2635 (1988)] and the Lee-Kosterlitz technique [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 137 (1990); Phys. Rev. B 43, 3265 (1991)]. It is found that the absence of a phase transition in a set....... The coupling between the two monolayers is modeled both indirectly by hydrophobic acyl-chain mismatch interactions that ensure compatibility between the two monolayers, and by a direct intermonolayer attractive dispersion force. The nature of the phase transition is studied by computer-simulation methods...

  12. Effect of Turbulence on Power for Bend-Twist Coupled Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    that it might be related to the dynamic response of bend-twist coupled blades in turbulent flow. This paper contains estimations of the power curve from nonlinear time simulations, a linear frequency domain based method and a normal distribution weighted average method. It is shown that the frequency domain...... based estimation is highly dependant on the validity of the linearized model, thus estimations are poor for operational points close to rated wind speed. The weighted average method gives good results if an appropriate standard deviation is known a priori. The nonlinear time simulations show...

  13. Single-Molecule X-Ray Interferometry: Controlling Coupled Electron-Nuclear Quantum Dynamics and Imaging Molecular Potentials by Ultrahigh-Resolution Resonant Photoemission and Ab Initio Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kimberg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an advanced study of the excited ionic states of the gas-phase nitrogen molecule in the binding-energy region of 22–34 eV, combining ultrahigh-resolution resonant photoemission (RPE and ab initio configuration-interaction calculations. The RPE spectra are recorded for nine photon energies within the N 1s→π^{*} absorption resonance of N_{2} by using a photon bandwidth that is considerably smaller than lifetime broadening, and the dependence on excitation energy of the decay spectra is analyzed and used for the first assignment of 12 highly overlapped molecular states. The effect on the RPE profile of avoided curve crossings between the final N_{2}^{+} ionic states is discussed, based on theoretical simulations that account for vibronic coupling, and compared with the experimental data. By use of synchrotron radiation with high spectral brightness, it is possible to selectively promote the molecule to highly excited vibrational sublevels of a core-excited electronic state, thereby controlling the spatial distribution of the vibrational wave packets, and to accurately image the ionic molecular potentials. In addition, the mapping of the vibrational wave functions of the core-excited states using the bound final states with far-from-equilibrium bond lengths has been achieved experimentally for the first time. Theoretical analysis has revealed the rich femtosecond nuclear dynamics underlying the mapping phenomenon.

  14. Dyadic effects of attachment on mental health: Couples in a postdisaster context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, H Colin; Lusher, Dean; Gibbs, Lisa; Pattison, Philippa; Forbes, David; Block, Karen; Harms, Louise; MacDougall, Colin; Kellett, Connie; Ireton, Greg; Bryant, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Research on mental health following disasters has led to the identification of many individual protective and risk factors for postdisaster mental health. However, there is little understanding of the exact influence that disasters have on the functioning of intimate relationships. Especially relevant are attachment styles, which are likely to play an important role in the provision and perception of social support between partners, and subsequent mental health outcomes. Heterosexual couples (N = 127) affected by the 2009 Victorian "Black Saturday" Bushfires in southeastern Australia were surveyed for disaster experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and attachment style between May 2012 and January 2013, approximately 3 years after the disaster. Using actor-partner interdependence models (APIM), we examined both intrapersonal and interpersonal associations of attachment anxiety and avoidance with depression and PTSD, in combination with shared disaster exposure. Male partners' attachment avoidance was associated with depression and PTSD in both partners. By contrast, a female partner's attachment avoidance was associated with greater depression and PTSD in herself, but fewer PTSD symptoms in a male partner. Amid the chronic stressors of a postdisaster setting, the attachment avoidance of the male partner may play a particularly negative role, with his tendency toward isolation and denial becoming especially maladaptive for the couple as a whole. The female partner's attachment avoidance is likewise an important factor, but its associations with negative social support and relationship breakup must be clarified to understand its impact on partnership functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Fully Coupled Simulation of the Plasma Liquid Interface and Interfacial Coefficient Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lindsay, Alexander; Shannon, Steven

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of coupled plasma-liquid systems because of their applications to biomedicine, biological and chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other areas. Without an understanding of the near-surface gas dynamics, modellers are left to make assumptions about the interfacial conditions. For instance it is commonly assumed that the surface loss or sticking coefficient of gas-phase electrons at the interface is equal to 1. In this work we explore the consequences of this assumption and introduce a couple of ways to think about the electron interfacial condition. In one set of simulations we impose a kinetic condition with varying surface loss coefficient on the gas phase interfacial electrons. In a second set of simulations we introduce a Henry's law like condition at the interface in which the gas-phase electron concentration is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with the liquid-phase electron concentration. It is shown that for a range of electron Henry coefficients spa...

  16. Biospheric feedback effects in a synchronously coupled model of human and Earth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Peter E.; Calvin, Katherine; Jones, Andrew D.; di Vittorio, Alan V.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Chini, Louise; Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, Jae; Thomson, Allison; Truesdale, John; Craig, Anthony; Branstetter, Marcia L.; Hurtt, George

    2017-07-01

    Fossil fuel combustion and land-use change are the two largest contributors to industrial-era increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Projections of these are thus fundamental inputs for coupled Earth system models (ESMs) used to estimate the physical and biological consequences of future climate system forcing. While historical data sets are available to inform past and current climate analyses, assessments of future climate change have relied on projections of energy and land use from energy-economic models, constrained by assumptions about future policy, land-use patterns and socio-economic development trajectories. Here we show that the climatic impacts on land ecosystems drive significant feedbacks in energy, agriculture, land use and carbon cycle projections for the twenty-first century. We find that exposure of human-appropriated land ecosystem productivity to biospheric change results in reductions of land area used for crops; increases in managed forest area and carbon stocks; decreases in global crop prices; and reduction in fossil fuel emissions for a low-mid-range forcing scenario. The feedbacks between climate-induced biospheric change and human system forcings to the climate system--demonstrated here--are handled inconsistently, or excluded altogether, in the one-way asynchronous coupling of energy-economic models to ESMs used to date.

  17. Effect of non-adrenergic vasopressors on macro- and microvascular coupling in distributive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, M; Kampmeier, T G; Rehberg, S

    2016-12-01

    The present review initially describes the rationale for the use of non-adrenergic vasopressors in the treatment of distributive shock and then provides an overview of the individual vasopressin-receptor agonists, namely arginine vasopressin, terlipressin, and selepressin. Following a brief summary of their current use in clinical practice, the present review focuses on the influence of vasopressin-receptor agonists on macro- and microvascular coupling, also referred to as hemodynamic coherence. On the basis of the current evidence from experimental and clinical studies, vasopressin-receptor agonists do not negatively influence macro- and microvascular coupling as compared to the standard therapy with norepinephrine, when used in established treatment regimes. A higher selectivity for the V1a-receptor seems to be beneficial; however, future clinical trials are warranted to verify this assumption. Notably, the optimal treatment regime for non-adrenergic vasopressors with respect to compound, dose, and timing still needs to be defined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of spatially correlated noise on stochastic synchronization in globally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yange Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of stochastic synchronization in globally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neuron system subjected to spatially correlated Gaussian noise is investigated based on dynamical mean-field approximation (DMA and direct simulation (DS. Results from DMA are in good quantitative or qualitative agreement with those from DS for weak noise intensity and larger system size. Whether the consisting single FHN neuron is staying at the resting state, subthreshold oscillatory regime, or the spiking state, our investigation shows that the synchronization ratio of the globally coupled system becomes higher as the noise correlation coefficient increases, and thus we conclude that spatial correlation has an active effect on stochastic synchronization, and the neurons can achieve complete synchronization in the sense of statistics when the noise correlation coefficient tends to one. Our investigation also discloses that the noise spatial correlation plays the same beneficial role as the global coupling strength in enhancing stochastic synchronization in the ensemble. The result might be useful in understanding the information coding mechanism in neural systems.

  19. Electrochemical Field-Effect Transistor Utilization to Study the Coupling Success Rate of Photosynthetic Protein Complexes to Cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshi, Arash; Yaghoubi, Houman; Wang, Jing; Jun, Daniel; Beatty, J Thomas

    2017-03-30

    Due to the high internal quantum efficiency, reaction center (RC) proteins from photosynthetic organisms have been studied in various bio-photoelectrochemical devices for solar energy harvesting. In vivo, RC and cytochrome c (cyt c ; a component of the biological electron transport chain) can form a cocomplex via interprotein docking. This mechanism can be used in vitro for efficient electron transfer from an electrode to the RC in a bio-photoelectrochemical device. Hence, the success rate in coupling RCs to cyt c is of great importance for practical applications in the future. In this work, we use an electrochemical transistor to study the binding of the RC to cytochrome. The shift in the transistor threshold voltage was measured in the dark and under illumination to estimate the density of cytochrome and coupled RCs on the gate of the transistor. The results show that ~33% of the cyt c s on the transistor gate were able to effectively couple with RCs. Due to the high sensitivity of the transistor, the approach can be used to make photosensors for detecting low light intensities.

  20. Study of the effect of distance and misalignment between magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon-Nava, Adrian E; Díaz-Méndez, J Alejandro; Nino-de-Rivera, Luis; Calleja-Arriaga, Wilfrido; Gil-Carrasco, Felix; Díaz-Alonso, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them.

  1. The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Yu, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the effects of smoking on assisted conception. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and whether cotinine positivity was associated with infertility treatment outcomes. A qualitative urinary cotinine test was administered to 127 couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF, n=92) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n=35). The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was 43.3% (55/127) in the male partners and 10.2% (13/127) in the female partners with similar prevalence rates in both genders in the IUI and IVF groups. Semen characteristics, serum markers of ovarian reserve, and number of retrieved oocytes were comparable among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative men or women (with the exception of sperm count, which was higher among cotinine-positive men). The results of urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples were not associated with IVF and IUI outcomes. The presence of cotinine in the system, as indicated by a positive urinary cotinine test, was not associated with poorer outcomes of infertility treatment.

  2. Study of the Effect of Distance and Misalignment between Magnetically Coupled Coils for Wireless Power Transfer in Intraocular Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian E. Rendon-Nava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them.

  3. Effects of modal truncation and condensation methods on the Frequency Response Function of a stage reducer connected by rigid coupling to a planetary gear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslema, Marwa; Frikha, Ahmed; Abdennadhar, Moez; Fakhfakh, Tahar; Nasri, Rachid; Haddar, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    The present paper is aimed at the application of a substructure methodology, based on the Frequency Response Function (FRF) simulation technique, to analyze the vibration of a stage reducer connected by a rigid coupling to a planetary gear system. The computation of the vibration response was achieved using the FRF-based substructuring method. First of all, the two subsystems were analyzed separately and their FRF were obtained. Then the coupled model was analyzed indirectly using the substructuring technique. A comparison between the full system response and the coupled model response using the FRF substructuring was investigated to validate the coupling method. Furthermore, a parametric study of the effect of the shaft coupling stiffness on the FRF was discussed and the effects of modal truncation and condensation methods on the FRF of subsystems were analyzed.

  4. Fully coupled simulation of the plasma liquid interface and interfacial coefficient effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Alexander D.; Graves, David B.; Shannon, Steven C.

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of coupled plasma-liquid systems because of their applications to biomedicine, biological and chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other areas. Optimizing these applications requires a fundamental understanding of the coupling between phases. Though much progress has been made in this regard, there is still more to be done. One area that requires more research is the transport of electrons across the plasma-liquid interface. Some pioneering works (Rumbach et al 2015 Nat. Commun. 6, Rumbach et al 2015 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48 424001) have begun revealing the near-surface liquid characteristics of electrons. However, there has been little work to determine the near-surface gas phase electron characteristics. Without an understanding of the near-surface gas dynamics, modellers are left to make assumptions about the interfacial conditions. For instance it is commonly assumed that the surface loss or sticking coefficient of gas-phase electrons at the interface is equal to 1. In this work we explore the consequences of this assumption and introduce a couple of ways to think about the electron interfacial condition. In one set of simulations we impose a kinetic condition with varying surface loss coefficient on the gas phase interfacial electrons. In a second set of simulations we introduce a Henry’s law like condition at the interface in which the gas-phase electron concentration is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with the liquid-phase electron concentration. It is shown that for a range of electron Henry coefficients spanning a range of known hydrophilic specie Henry coefficients, the gas phase electron density in the anode can vary by orders of magnitude. Varying reflection of electrons by the interface also has consequences for the electron energy profile; increasing reflection may lead to increasing thermalization of electrons depending on choices about the electron energy boundary condition. This variation

  5. Effects of doping in 25-atom bimetallic nanocluster catalysts for carbon–carbon coupling reaction of iodoanisole and phenylacetylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We here report the catalytic effects of foreign atoms (Cu, Ag, and Pt doped into well-defined 25-gold-atom nanoclusters. Using the carbon-carbon coupling reaction of p-iodoanisole and phenylacetylene as a model reaction, the gold-based bimetallic MxAu25−x(SR18 (–SR=–SCH2CH2Ph nanoclusters (supported on titania were found to exhibit distinct effects on the conversion of p-iodoanisole as well as the selectivity for the Sonogashira cross-coupling product, 1-methoxy-4-(2-phenylethynylbenzene. Compared to Au25(SR18, the centrally doped Pt1Au24(SR18 causes a drop in catalytic activity but with the selectivity retained, while the AgxAu25−x(SR18 nanoclusters gave an overall performance comparable to Au25(SR18. Interestingly, CuxAu25−x(SR18 nanoclusters prefer the Ullmann homo-coupling pathway and give rise to product 4,4′-dimethoxy-1,1′-biphenyl, which is in opposite to the other three nanocluster catalysts. Our overall conclusion is that the conversion of p-iodoanisole is largely affected by the electronic effect in the bimetallic nanoclusters’ 13-atom core (i.e., Pt1Au12, CuxAu13−x, and Au13, with the exception of Ag doping, and that the selectivity is primarily determined by the type of atoms on the MxAu12−x shell (M=Ag, Cu, and Au in the nanocluster catalysts.

  6. Investigating the effects of a summer storm on the North Sea stratification using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronholz, Alexandra; Gräwe, Ulf; Paul, André; Schulz, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The influence of a summer storm event in 2007 on the North Sea and its effects on the ocean stratification are investigated using a regional coupled ocean (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS)-atmosphere (Weather Research & Forecasting model, WRF) modeling system. An analysis of potential energy anomaly (PEA, Φ) and its temporal development reveals that the loss of stratification due to the storm event is dominated by vertical mixing in almost the entire North Sea. For specific regions, however, a considerable contribution of depth-mean straining is observed. Vertical mixing is highly correlated with wind induced surface stresses. However, peak mixing values are observed in combination with incoming flood currents. Depending on the phase between winds and tides, the loss of stratification differs strongly over the North Sea. To study the effects of interactive ocean-atmosphere exchange, a fully coupled simulation is compared with two uncoupled ones for the same vertical mixing parameters to identify the impact of spatial resolution as well as of SST feedback. While the resulting new mixed layer depth after the storm event in the uncoupled simulation with lower spatial and temporal resolution of the surface forcing data can still be located in the euphotic zone, the coupled simulation is capable to mix the entire water column and the vertical mixing in the uncoupled simulation with higher resolution of the surface forcing data is strongly amplified. These differences might have notable implications for ecosystem modeling since it could determine the development of new phytoplankton blooms after the storm and for sediment modeling in terms of sediment mobilization. An investigation of restratification after the extreme event illustrates the persistent effect of this summer storm.

  7. Effect of Convection on the Isothermal Coupled Peritectic Solidification in the Single Crystal Superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jiho; Sung, Changhoon; Lee, Jehyun [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jongho [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co. Ltd, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Seongmoon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The γ/γ´ two-phase growth commonly observed at γ interdendritic regions in Ni-base superalloys is known to be the eutectic microstructure. However, it is still unclear whether this is due to a eutectic or peritectic reaction. Directional solidification experiments of the Ni-base superalloy CMSX-10 were performed at low solidification rates in order to induce the coupled growth of γ/γ´ phases and to investigate their growth behavior. The γ and γ´ phases were found to grow simultaneously, maintaining an isothermal interface. Directional solidification experiments in a thin tube (0.8 mm ID) suggest that convection enhances the formation of two phase peritectic growth with a planar interface and the γ/γ´ might be the couped peritectic.

  8. Effect of water electrolysis temperature of hydrogen production system using direct coupling photovoltaic and water electrolyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuhiko Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose control methods of a photovoltaic (PV-water electrolyzer (ELY system that generates hydrogen by controlling the number of ELY cells. The advantage of this direct coupling between PV and ELY is that the power loss of DC/DC converter is avoided. In this study, a total of 15 ELY cells are used. In the previous researches, the electrolyzer temperature was constantly controlled with a thermostat. Actually, the electrolyzer temperature is decided by the balance of the electrolysis loss and the heat loss to the outside. Here, the method to control the number of ELY cells was investigated. Maximum Power Point Tracking efficiency of more than 96% was achieved without ELY temperature control. Furthermore we construct a numerical model taking into account of ELY temperature. Using this model, we performed a numerical simulation of 1-year. Experimental data and the simulation results shows the validity of the proposed control method.

  9. Nanosize effect: Enhanced compensation temperature and existence of magnetodielectric coupling in SmFe O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Smita; Shyam, Priyank; Bag, Rabindranath; Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Kumar, Jitender; Kaur, Harleen; Singh, Surjeet; Awasthi, A. M.; Kulkarni, Sulabha

    2017-07-01

    In transition metal oxides, quantum confinement arising from a large surface to volume ratio often gives rise to novel physicochemical properties at nanoscale. Their size-dependent properties have potential applications in diverse areas, including therapeutics, imaging, electronic devices, communication systems, sensors, and catalysis. We have analyzed the structural, magnetic, dielectric, and thermal properties of weakly ferromagnetic SmFe O3 nanoparticles of sizes of about 55 and 500 nm. The nanometer-size particles exhibit several distinct features that are neither observed in their larger-size variants nor reported previously for the single crystals. In particular, for the 55-nm particle, we observe a sixfold enhancement of compensation temperature, an unusual rise in susceptibility in the temperature range 550 to 630 K due to spin pinning, and a coupled antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric transition, directly observed in the dielectric constant.

  10. Estimation of the effective intercellular diffusion coefficient in cell monolayers coupled by gap junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Hofgaard, Johannes P; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A recently developed dye-based assay to study gap junction permeability is analysed. The assay is based on electroporation of dye into a large number of connexin 43 expressing cells, grown to confluency on electrically conductive slides. The subsequent intercellular spread of dye to non-electropo......A recently developed dye-based assay to study gap junction permeability is analysed. The assay is based on electroporation of dye into a large number of connexin 43 expressing cells, grown to confluency on electrically conductive slides. The subsequent intercellular spread of dye to non......-electroporated parts of the monolayer enables estimation of the intercellular coupling. So far, the extent of dye spread has been analyzed in qualitative terms only and not in a manner based directly on the physics of the underlying diffusion process....

  11. The effects of corn zein protein coupling agent on mechanical properties of flax fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Ryan John

    In the field of renewable materials, natural fiber composites demonstrate the capacity to be a viable structural material. When normalized by density, flax fiber mechanical properties are competitive with E-glass fibers. However, the hydrophilic nature of flax fibers reduces the interfacial bond strength with polymer thermosets, limiting composite mechanical properties. Corn zein protein was selected as a natural bio-based coupling agent because of its combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. Zein was deposited on the surface of flax, which was then processed into unidirectional composite. The mechanical properties of zein treated samples where measured and compared against commonly utilized synthetic treatments sodium hydroxide and silane which incorporate harsh chemicals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were also used to determine analyze zein treatments. Results demonstrate the environmentally friendly zein treatment successfully increased tensile strength 8%, flexural strength 17%, and shear strength 30% compared to untreated samples.

  12. Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: edumartinez@usal.es [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caídos s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alejos, Óscar [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-14

    The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.

  13. Assessing the Vulnerability of Large Critical Infrastructure Using Fully-Coupled Blast Effects Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G

    2009-03-26

    Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.

  14. Chasing boundaries and cascade effects in a coupled barrier-marsh-lagoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Mariotti, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    The long-term dynamic evolution of an idealized barrier-marsh-lagoon system experiencing sea-level rise is studied by coupling two existing numerical models. The barrier model accounts for the interaction between shoreface dynamics and overwash flux, which allows the occurrence of barrier drowning. The marsh-lagoon model includes both a backbarrier marsh and an interior marsh, and accounts for the modification of the wave regime associated with changes in lagoon width and depth. Overwash, the key process that connects the barrier shoreface with the marsh-lagoon ecosystems, is formulated to account for the role of the backbarrier marsh. Model results show that a number of factors that are not typically associated with the dynamics of coastal barriers can enhance the rate of overwash-driven landward migration by increasing backbarrier accommodation space. For instance, lagoon deepening could be triggered by marsh edge retreat and consequent export of fine sediment via tidal dispersion, as well as by an expansion of inland marshes and consequent increase in accommodation space to be filled in with sediment. A deeper lagoon results in a larger fraction of sediment overwash being subaqueous, which coupled with a slow shoreface response sending sediment onshore can trigger barrier drowning. We therefore conclude that the supply of fine sediments to the back-barrier and the dynamics of both the interior and backbarrier marsh can be essential for maintaining the barrier system under elevated rates of sea-level rise. Our results highlight the importance of considering barriers and their associated backbarriers as part of an integrated system in which sediment is exchanged.

  15. Benthic-pelagic coupling: effects on nematode communities along southern European continental margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Pape

    Full Text Available Along a west-to-east axis spanning the Galicia Bank region (Iberian margin and the Mediterranean basin, a reduction in surface primary productivity and in seafloor flux of particulate organic carbon was mirrored in the in situ organic matter quantity and quality within the underlying deep-sea sediments at different water depths (1200, 1900 and 3000 m. Nematode standing stock (abundance and biomass and genus and trophic composition were investigated to evaluate downward benthic-pelagic coupling. The longitudinal decline in seafloor particulate organic carbon flux was reflected by a reduction in benthic phytopigment concentrations and nematode standing stock. An exception was the station sampled at the Galicia Bank seamount, where despite the maximal particulate organic carbon flux estimate, we observed reduced pigment levels and nematode standing stock. The strong hydrodynamic forcing at this station was believed to be the main cause of the local decoupling between pelagic and benthic processes. Besides a longitudinal cline in nematode standing stock, we noticed a west-to-east gradient in nematode genus and feeding type composition (owing to an increasing importance of predatory/scavenging nematodes with longitude governed by potential proxies for food availability (percentage of nitrogen, organic carbon, and total organic matter. Within-station variability in generic composition was elevated in sediments with lower phytopigment concentrations. Standing stock appeared to be regulated by sedimentation rates and benthic environmental variables, whereas genus composition covaried only with benthic environmental variables. The coupling between deep-sea nematode assemblages and surface water processes evidenced in the present study suggests that it is likely that climate change will affect the composition and function of deep-sea nematodes.

  16. Dehydration effects from contrails in a coupled contrail–climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of water by contrails in ice-supersaturated air and the release of water after ice particle advection and sedimentation dehydrates the atmosphere at flight levels and redistributes humidity mainly to lower levels. The dehydration is investigated by coupling a plume-scale contrail model with a global aerosol–climate model. The contrail model simulates all the individual contrails forming from global air traffic for meteorological conditions as defined by the climate model. The computed contrail cirrus properties compare reasonably with theoretical concepts and observations. The mass of water in aged contrails may exceed 106 times the mass of water emitted from aircraft. Many of the ice particles sediment and release water in the troposphere, on average 700 m below the mean flight levels. Simulations with and without coupling are compared. The drying at contrail levels causes thinner and longer-lived contrails with about 15 % reduced contrail radiative forcing (RF. The reduced RF from contrails is on the order of 0.06 W m−2, slightly larger than estimated earlier because of higher soot emissions. For normal traffic, the RF from dehydration is small compared to interannual variability. A case with emissions increased by 100 times is used to overcome statistical uncertainty. The contrails impact the entire hydrological cycle in the atmosphere by reducing the total water column and the cover by high- and low-level clouds. For normal traffic, the dehydration changes contrail RF by positive shortwave and negative longwave contributions on the order of 0.04 W m−2, with a small negative net RF. The total net RF from contrails and dehydration remains within the range of previous estimates.

  17. Coupling stress and reactive transport in fractures: Effects on contacting asperities, permeability and stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, K.; Peters, C. A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Morris, J.; Fitts, J. P.; Deng, H.

    2015-12-01

    The permeability and geomechanical stability of fractured rock can be altered by reactive flow that induces mineral dissolution and/or precipitation. Understanding the coupling of geochemical and geomechanical processes is critical for predicting and identifying leakage pathways for environmentally-relevant fluids in the subsurface. This study couples a two-dimensional reactive transport model with a mechanical deformation model to simulate reaction, flow and deformation in a fractured carbonate rock under subsurface confining pressures. The fracture is represented as a homogenous calcite material subjected to high-pressure reactive CO2-acidified brine, and the dissolution reaction is modeled to be kinetically-limited by carbonic acid. Initial conditions for the simulations were based on fractured Indiana Limestone geometries obtained from xCT data. Simulation of reactive flow results in the enlargement of apertures and reduction in contact area along preferential flow paths, while apertures outside these channelized flow paths remain relatively unchanged. At high confining pressures, contact area occurred mainly in regions where channelization did not occur, resulting in a two- to three-fold reduction in the fracture specific stiffness. Moreover, at high confining stresses, channelized regions were preserved, enabling permeability to remain relatively unchanged compared to non-channelized regions, which in contrast showed an order of magnitude decrease in permeability when stressed. These simulations suggest that differences in dissolution patterns can lead to significant variations in fracture permeability and stiffness when subject to subsurface confining stresses. This work has important applications for geologic carbon sequestration, natural gas storage, hydraulic fracturing, geothermal energy and deep well injection of hazardous waste.

  18. Nonequilibrium thermal effects on exciton time correlations in coupled semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, J. C.; Rodríguez, F. J.; Quiroga, L. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, AA 4976, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2013-12-04

    Theoretical guides to test 'macroscopic realism' in solid-state systems under quantum control are highly desirable. Here, we report on the evolution of a Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI), a combination of two-time correlations, in an out-of-equilibrium set up consisting of two interacting excitons confined in separate semiconductor quantum dots which are coupled to independent baths at different temperatures (T{sub 1} ≠ T{sub 2}). In a Markovian steady-state situation we found a rich variety of dynamical behaviors in different sectors of the average temperature (T{sub M} = (T{sub 1}+T{sub 2})/2) vs. coupling strength to the reservoirs (Γ) space parameter. For high T{sub M} and Γ values the LGI is not violated, as expected. However, by decreasing T{sub M} or Γ a sector of parameters appears where the LGI is violated at thermal equilibrium (T{sub 1} = T{sub 2}) and the violation starts decreasing when the system is moved out of the equilibrium. Surprisingly, at even lower T{sub M} values, for any Γ, there is an enhancement of the LGI violation by exposing the system to a temperature gradient, i.e. quantum correlations increase in a nonequilibrium thermal situation. Results on LGI violations in a steady-state regime are compared with other non-locality-dominated quantum correlation measurements, such as concurrence and quantum discord, between the two excitons under similar temperature gradients.

  19. Effect of the Initial Vortex Size on Intensity Change in the WRF-ROMS Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the tropical cyclone (TC) induced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling strongly depends on the preexisting oceanic condition and TC characteristics. However, very few focused on the correlation of SST cooling and the subsequent intensity with TC size. Therefore, a series of idealized numerical experiments are conducted using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) model to understand how the vortex size is related to SST cooling and subsequent intensity changes of a stationary TC-like vortex. In the uncoupled experiments, the radius of maximum wind (RMW) and size (radius of gale-force wind (R17)) both depend on the initial size within the 72 h simulation. The initially small vortex is smaller than the medium and large vortices throughout its life cycle and is the weakest. In other words, thermodynamic processes do not contribute as much to the R17 change as the dynamic processes proposed (e.g., angular momentum transport) in previous studies. In the coupled experiments, the area-averaged SST cooling induced by medium and large TCs within the inner-core region is comparable due to the similar surface winds and thus mixing in the ocean. Although a stronger SST cooling averaged within a larger region outside the inner-core is induced by the larger TC, the intensity of the larger TC is more intense. This is because that the enthalpy flux in the inner-core region is higher in the larger TC than that in the medium and small TCs.

  20. Phonon coupling effects in magnetic moments of magic and semimagic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, E. E.; Achakovskiy, O. I.; Kamerdzhiev, S. P.; Krewald, S.; Speth, J.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2014-08-01

    Phonon coupling (PC) corrections to magnetic moments of odd neighbors of magic and semimagic nuclei are analyzed within the self-consistent Theory of Finite Fermi Systems (TFFS) based on the Energy Density Functional by S. A. Fayans et al. The perturbation theory in g {/L 2} is used where g L is the phonon-particle coupling vertex. A model is developed with separating non-regular PC contributions, the rest is supposed to be regular and included into the standard TFFS parameters. An ansatz is proposed to take into account the so-called tadpole term which ensures the total angular momentum conservation with g {/L 2} accuracy. An approximate method is suggested to take into account higher-order terms in g {/L 2}. Calculations are carried out for four odd-proton chains, the odd Tl, Bi, In, and Sb ones. Different PC corrections strongly cancel each other. In the result, the total PC correction to the magnetic moment in magic nuclei is, as a rule, negligible. In non-magic nuclei considered it is noticeable and, with only one exception, negative. On average it is of the order of -(0.1-0.5) µ N and improves the agreement of the theory with the data. Simultaneously we calculated the gyromagnetic ratios g {/L ph} of all low-lying phonons in 208Pb. For the 3{1/-} state it is rather close to the Bohr-Mottelson model prediction whereas for other L phonons, two 5- and six positive parity states, the difference from the Bohr-Mottelson values is significant.