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Sample records for vibrio marisflavi sp

  1. Vibrio fujianensis sp. nov., isolated from aquaculture water.

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    Fang, Yujie; Chen, Aiping; Dai, Hang; Huang, Ying; Kan, Biao; Wang, Duochun

    2018-02-13

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic strain, designated FJ201301 T , was isolated from aquaculture water collected from Fujian province, China. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain FJ201301 T belonged to the genus Vibrio, formed a distinct cluster with Vibriocincinnatiensis ATCC 35912 T and shared the highest similarity with Vibriosalilacus CGMCC 1.12427 T . A 15 bp insertion found in the 16S rRNA gene was a significant marker that distinguished strain FJ201301 T from several phylogenetic neighbours (e.g. V. cincinnatiensis). Multilocus sequence analysis of eight genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA; concatenated 4135 bp sequence) showed that, forming a long and independent phylogenetic branch, strain FJ201301 T clustered with V. cincinnatiensis ATCC 35912 T , Vibrioinjenensis KCTC 32233 T and Vibriometschnikovii CIP 69.14 T clearly separated from V. salilacus CGMCC 1.12427 T . Furthermore, the highest in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between strain FJ201301 T and the closest related species were 26.3 and 83.1 % with V. cincinnatiensis ATCC 35912 T , less than the proposed cutoff levels for species delineation, i.e. 70 and 95 %, respectively. Biochemical, sequence and genomic analysis suggested the designation of strain FJ201301 T representing a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio fujianensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJ201301 T (=DSM 104687 T =CGMCC 1.16099 T ).

  2. Vibrio sp. DSM 14379 pigment production--a competitive advantage in the environment?

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    Starič, Nejc; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2010-10-01

    The ability to produce several antibacterial agents greatly increases the chance of producer's survival. In this study, red-pigmented Vibrio sp. DSM 14379 and Bacillus sp., both isolated from the same sampling volume from estuarine waters of the Northern Adriatic Sea, were grown in a co-culture. The antibacterial activity of the red pigment extract was tested on Bacillus sp. in microtiter plates. The MIC(50) for Bacillus sp. was estimated to be around 10⁻⁵ mg/L. The extract prepared form the nonpigmented mutant of Vibrio sp. had no antibacterial effect. The pigment production of Vibrio sp. was studied under different physicochemical conditions. There was no pigment production at high or low temperatures, high or low salt concentrations in peptone yeast extract (PYE) medium, low glucose concentration in mineral growth medium or high glucose concentration in PYE medium. This indicates that the red pigment production is a luxurious good that Vibrio sp. makes only under favorable conditions. The Malthusian fitness of Bacillus sp. in a co-culture with Vibrio sp. under optimal environmental conditions dropped from 4.0 to -7.6, which corresponds to three orders of magnitude decrease in the number of CFU relative to the monoculture. The nonpigmented mutant of Vibrio sp. in a co-culture with Bacillus sp. had a significant antibacterial activity. This result shows that studying antibacterial properties in isolation (i.e. pigment extract only) may not reveal full antibacterial potential of the bacterial strain. The red pigment is a redundant antibacterial agent of Vibrio sp.

  3. Corrosion of mild steel and stainless steel by marine Vibrio sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wagh, A.B.

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of stainless steel and mild steel coupons exposed to media with and without a bacterial culture Vibrio sp. was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Pitting type of corrosion was noticed which was more...

  4. Reclassification of the larval pathogen for marine bivalves Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus as Vibrio europaeus sp. nov.

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    Dubert, Javier; Romalde, Jesús L; Spinard, Edward J; Nelson, David R; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Barja, Juan L

    2016-11-01

    The Orientalis clade has a relevant significance for bivalve aquaculture since it includes the pathogens Vibrio bivalvicida, Vibrio tubiashii subsp. tubiashii and Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus. However, the previous taxonomic description of the subspecies of V. tubiashii shows some incongruities that should be emended. In the genomic age, the comparison between genome assemblies is the key to clarify the taxonomic position of both subspecies. With this purpose, we have tested the ability of multilocus sequence analysis based on eight housekeeping gene sequences (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA), different in silico genome-to-genome comparisons, chemotaxonomic features and phenotypic traits to reclassify the subspecies V. tubiashii subsp. europaeus within the Orientalis clade. This polyphasic approach clearly demonstrated that this subspecies is phylogenetically and phenotypically distinct from V. tubiashii and should be elevated to the rank of species as Vibrio europaeus sp. nov. This reclassification allows us to update the Orientalis clade (V. bivalvicida,V. brasiliensis, V. crosai, V. hepatarius, V. orientalis, V. sinaloensis, V. tubiashii and V. europaeus sp. nov.) and reconstruct a better phylogeny of the genus Vibrio. An emended description of V. tubiashii is provided. Finally, the proposed novel species is represented by emergent bivalve pathogens [type strain PP-638T (=CECT 8136T=DSM 27349T), PP2-843 and 07/118 T2] responsible for high mortalities in Spanish and French hatcheries.

  5. Infection Vibrio sp. Bacteria on Kappaphycus Seaweed Varieties Brown and Green

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    Irmawati, Yuni; Sudirjo, Fien

    2017-10-01

    Disease in seaweed or ice-ice, until today is still a major problem in the cultivation of seaweed. Changes in extreme environmental conditions is a trigger factor of ice-ice, which can result in seaweed susceptible to infection with pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria Vibrio sp. This research aims to determine the bacteria Vibrio sp. infection in seaweed Kappaphycus varieties of brown and green. Vibrio sp. bacteria isolated in the infected seaweed thallus ice-ice, grown on TCBS media, purification, gram staining and biochemical tests. Vibrio sp. infected to seaweed Kappaphycus brown and green varieties in containers controlled by different density, 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml. Observations were made to change clinical effect in thallus seaweed for 14 days of observation. The results obtained show that the levels of infection bacteria Vibrio sp. higher in seaweed Kappaphycus green varieties both in density 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml, when compared with varieties brown.

  6. Vibrio bivalvicida sp. nov., a novel larval pathogen for bivalve molluscs reared in a hatchery.

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    Dubert, Javier; Romalde, Jesús L; Prado, Susana; Barja, Juan L

    2016-02-01

    Three isolates were obtained from cultures of carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) reared in a bivalve hatchery (Galicia, NW Spain) from different sources: healthy broodstock, moribund larvae and the seawater corresponding to the larval tank. All isolates were studied by a polyphasic approach, including a phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences of the five housekeeping genes ftsZ, gyrB, pyrH, recA and rpoA. The analysis supported their inclusion in the Orientalis clade of the genus Vibrio, and they formed a tight group separated from the closest relatives: Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaensis, Vibrio tubiashii subsp. tubiashii and Vibrio orientalis. The percentages of genomic resemblance, including average nucleotide identity, DNA-DNA hybridization and in silico genome-to-genome comparison, between the type strain and the closest relatives were below values for species delineation and confirmed the taxonomic position of the new species, which could be differentiated from the related taxa on the basis of several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, including FAME and MALDI-TOF-MS. The pathogenicity of the new species was demonstrated in larvae of R. decussatus, Ruditapes philippinarum, Ostrea edulis and Donax trunculus. The results demonstrated that the strains analyzed represented a novel species in the Orientalis clade of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio bivalvicida sp. nov. is proposed, with 605(T) (= CECT 8855(T)=CAIM 1904(T)) designated as the type strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Vibrio japonicus sp. nov., a novel member of the Nereis clade in the genus Vibrio isolated from the coast of Japan.

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    Doi, Hiroyasu; Osawa, Ikuko; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Kawada, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    A novel Vibrio strain, JCM 31412T, was isolated from seawater collected from the Inland Sea (Setonaikai), Japan, and characterized as a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, ovoid-shaped bacterium with one polar flagellum. Based on 16S rDNA gene identity, strain JCM 31412T showed a close relationship with type strains of Vibrio brasiliensis (LMG 20546T, 98.2% identity), V. harveyi (NBRC 15634T, 98.2%), V. caribbeanicus (ATCC BAA-2122T, 97.8%) and V. proteolyticus (NBRC 13287T, 97.8%). The G+C content of strain JCM 31412T DNA was 46.8%. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of eight loci (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA; 5535bp) further clustered strain JCM 31412T in the Nereis clade, genus Vibrio. Phenotypically, strain JCM 31412T differed from the closest related Vibrio species in its utilization of melibiose and raffinose, and its lack of casein and gelatin hydrolysis. It was further differentiated based on its fatty acid composition, specifically properties of C12:03OH and summed features, which were significantly different from those of V. brasiliensis, V. nigripulchritudo and V. caribbeanicus type strains. Overall, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, and physiological and biochemical analysis differentiated strain JCM 31412T from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Based on these polyphasic taxonomic findings, it was therefore concluded that JCM 31412T was a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio japonicus sp. nov. was proposed, with JCM 31412T (= LMG 29636T = ATCC TSD-62T) as the type strain.

  8. Vibrio japonicus sp. nov., a novel member of the Nereis clade in the genus Vibrio isolated from the coast of Japan.

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    Hiroyasu Doi

    Full Text Available A novel Vibrio strain, JCM 31412T, was isolated from seawater collected from the Inland Sea (Setonaikai, Japan, and characterized as a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, ovoid-shaped bacterium with one polar flagellum. Based on 16S rDNA gene identity, strain JCM 31412T showed a close relationship with type strains of Vibrio brasiliensis (LMG 20546T, 98.2% identity, V. harveyi (NBRC 15634T, 98.2%, V. caribbeanicus (ATCC BAA-2122T, 97.8% and V. proteolyticus (NBRC 13287T, 97.8%. The G+C content of strain JCM 31412T DNA was 46.8%. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA of eight loci (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA; 5535bp further clustered strain JCM 31412T in the Nereis clade, genus Vibrio. Phenotypically, strain JCM 31412T differed from the closest related Vibrio species in its utilization of melibiose and raffinose, and its lack of casein and gelatin hydrolysis. It was further differentiated based on its fatty acid composition, specifically properties of C12:03OH and summed features, which were significantly different from those of V. brasiliensis, V. nigripulchritudo and V. caribbeanicus type strains. Overall, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, and physiological and biochemical analysis differentiated strain JCM 31412T from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Based on these polyphasic taxonomic findings, it was therefore concluded that JCM 31412T was a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio japonicus sp. nov. was proposed, with JCM 31412T (= LMG 29636T = ATCC TSD-62T as the type strain.

  9. Vibrio zhanjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from sea water of shrimp farming pond.

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    Jin, Chunying; Luo, Peng; Zuo, Huali; Chen, Jianming; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile by means of single polar flagellum, rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain E414, was isolated from sea water collected from a farming pond rearing marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in Zhanjiang, Guangdong province, PRC. The strain was able to grow in the presence of 0.5-6% (w/v) NaCl (optimally in 3-6% (w/v) NaCl), between pH 6 and 9 (optimally at pH 7-8), between 15 and 37°C (optimally at 25-30°C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences locate strain E414 in the vicinity of the coralliilyticus clade within the genus Vibrio. DNA-DNA relatedness data and multigene phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of four genes (16S rRNA, rpoA, recA and pyrH) clearly differentiated strain E414 from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. Analysis of phenotypic features, including enzyme activities and utilization and fermentation of various carbon sources, further revealed discrimination between strain E414 and phylogenetically related Vibrio species. The major fatty acid components are C(16:1)ω6c and/or C(16:1)ω7c (27.4%), C(18:1)ω7c and/or C(18:1)ω6c (19.3%) and C(16:0) (18.2%). The DNA G+C content of strain E414 was 38.7 mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness values, it can be concluded that E414 should be placed in the genus Vibrio as representing a novel species, for which the name Vibrio zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain E414 (=CCTCC AB 2011110(T) = NBRC 108723(T) = DSM 24901).

  10. Antioxidative metabolites synthesized by marine pigmented vibrio sp. and its protection on oxidative deterioration of membrane lipids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pawar, R.T.; Mohandass, C.; Dastager, S.G.; Kolekar, Y.M.; Malwankar, R.

    Bacterial strain Vibrio sp. (PIGB 184) isolated from water samples of the Arabian Sea and identified through 16S rRNA demonstrated the production of pigmentary antioxidants with higher ABTS activities 90.9±0.42 % in comparison with the standard...

  11. Vibrio aphrogenes sp. nov., in the Rumoiensis clade isolated from a seaweed.

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    Tanaka, Mami; Endo, Shoko; Kotake, Fumihito; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Amin, A K M Rohul; Feng, Gao; Mino, Sayaka; Doi, Hidetaka; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Yumoto, Isao; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo; Araki, Toshiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A novel strain Vibrio aphrogenes sp. nov. strain CA-1004T isolated from the surface of seaweed collected on the coast of Mie Prefecture in 1994 [1] was characterized using polyphasic taxonomy including multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and a genome based comparison. Both phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the strain could be placed in the Rumoiensis clade in the genus Vibrio. Sequence similarities of the 16S rRNA gene and the multilocus genes against the Rumoiensis clade members, V. rumoiensis, V. algivorus, V. casei, and V. litoralis, were low enough to propose V. aphrogenes sp. nov. strain CA-1004T as a separate species. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data also revealed that the strain CA-1004T was separate from four known Rumoiensis clade species. The G+C content of the V. aphrogenes strain was determined as 42.1% based on the genome sequence. Major traits of the strain were non-motile, halophilic, fermentative, alginolytic, and gas production. A total of 27 traits (motility, growth temperature range, amylase, alginase and lipase productions, and assimilation of 19 carbon compounds) distinguished the strain from the other species in the Rumoiensis clade. The name V. aphrogenes sp. nov. is proposed for this species in the Rumoiensis clade, with CA-1004T as the type strain (JCM 31643T = DSM 103759T).

  12. Proteomic and metabolomic profiles of marine Vibrio sp. 010 in response to an antifoulant challenge

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2013-08-01

    Vibrio spp. have the ability to form biofilms, which may contribute to the subsequent successful colonization by microfouling and macrofouling organisms. The effects of an antifouling compound, poly-ether B, on Vibrio sp. 010 were investigated using flow cytometry, proteomics, and metabolomics. A 2-D gel-based proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins responsive to poly-ether B treatment. The profiles of biofilm metabolites were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Poly-ether B caused a significant reduction in viability. The proteins affected by the treatment were related to nucleotide metabolism, the glyoxylate cycle, and stress responses. Metabolites such as tripeptides, fatty acids, and quorum-sensing molecules were regulated differentially. Down-regulation of proteins and metabolites potentially led to a loss in colonisation ability, thereby affecting the structure of the biofilm. These results suggest that the proteins and metabolites identified may serve as target molecules for potent antifouling compounds. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  13. Rapid Assessment of the Toxicity of Fungal Compounds Using Luminescent Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67

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    Qijie Jian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most tropical fruits after harvest are very perishable because of fungal infection. Since some pathogenic fungi can produce hazardous compounds such as mycotoxins, novel rapid and effective methods to assess those hazardous compounds are urgently needed. Herein we report that Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67, a luminescent bacterium, can be used to rapidly assess the toxicities of mycotoxins and cultures from mycotoxin-producing pathogens. A good correlation (R2 > 0.98 between concentrations of the mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, patulin, and citrinin and the luminous intensity of V. qinghaiensis sp. Q67 was obtained. Furthermore, significant correlations (R2 > 0.96 between the amount of mycotoxin and the luminous intensity from the cultures of 10 major mycotoxin-producing pathogens were also observed. In addition, Fusarium proliferatum (half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 17.49% exhibited greater luminescence suppression than Fusarium semitectum (IC50 = 92.56% or Fusarium oxysporum (IC50 = 28.61%, which was in agreement with the existing higher levels of fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, and deoxynivalenol, which were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These results suggest that V. qinghaiensis sp. Q67 is a promising alternative for the rapid evaluation of the toxicity of fungal mycotoxins.

  14. Characterization of Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus marisflavi Recovered from Common Dentex (Dentex dentex Larviculture System

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    T. AKAYLI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, thirty yellow-pigmented Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from natural intestine microflora and from sea water around the marine cage of a rearing tank of common dentex (Dentex dentex, in the Aegean Sea on the Turkish coast and were characterized. Eighteen isolates were assigned to the species Micrococcus luteus, the other twelve to the species Bacillus marisflavi. Eight representative strains, six from B. marisflavi and two from M. luteus, were chosen for further 16S rDNA analyses. A pathogenicity assay for the isolated bacterial strains was carried out in rainbow trout and it evidenced absence of pathogenicity in the tested strains. The isolated strains were tested for in vitro antagonistic activity against Listonella anguillarum, a pathogen bacterium diffused in Mediterranean aquaculture and affecting various fish species. The isolated bacterial strains showed antagonistic activity against the pathogenic bacterium, suggesting a possible role of isolates as probiotics. In this study, for the first time, bacterial strains of the species B. marisflavi, known as an environmental species, were recovered in the gut microbiota of a healthy fish. The use of the isolates characterized in this study, mainly the yellow-pigmented bacterium, is suggested as possible probiotics to improve fish health, along with alternative methods of maintaining a healthy environment.

  15. DAYA HAMBAT INFUSA RIMPANG KUNYIT (Curcuma longa Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Escherichia coli dan Vibrio sp. pada IKAN KERAPU LUMPUR (Epinephelus tauvina di PASAR KEDONGANAN KABUPATEN BADUNG, BALI

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    Ni Putu Sinta Puspa Dewi

    2017-09-01

    inhibited turmeric infusa rhizome is determined by counting the population of bacteria test after treatment by the method of dilution sampling (Plating Method. The results showed that turmeric rhizome infusion was able significantly (P<0,05 inhibitionto the growth of E. coli and Vibrio sp. both in vitro and in vivo. The control (0% in vitro population E. coli and Vibrio sp. each of 5,23x102 CFU/g and 4,98x102 CFU/g higher than with the treatment of concentration 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Population E. coli and Vibrio sp. in testing by in vivo (concentration 0% each is obtained 4,17x102 CFU/g dan 4,20x102 CFU/g in statistic is different (P<0,05 with the concentration 10%, 15% and 20%. Keywords: Epinephelus tauvina, Curcuma longa Linn, E. coli, Vibrio sp.

  16. The inhibition and resistance mechanisms of actinonin, isolated from marine Streptomyces sp. NHF165, against Vibrio anguillarum

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    Na Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio sp. is the most serious pathogen in marine aquaculture, and the development of anti-Vibrio agents is urgently needed. However, it is extreme lack of high-throughput screening (HTS model for searching anti-Vibrio compounds. Here, we established a protein-based HTS screening model to identify agents targeting peptide deformylase (PDF of Vibrio anguillarum. To find potential anti-Vibrio compounds, crude extracts derived from marine actinomycetes were applied for screening with this model. Notably, crude extract of strain Streptomyces sp. NHF165 inhibited dramatically both on V. anguillarum PDF (VaPDF activity and V. anguillarum cell growth. And actinonin was further identified as the functional component. Anti-VaPDF and anti-V. anguillarum activities of actinonin were dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 6.94 M and 2.85 M, respectively. To understand the resistance of V. anguillarum against actinonin, spontaneous V. anguillarum mutants with resistance against actinonin were isolated. Surprisingly, for the resistant strains, the region between 774 and 852 base pairs was found to be absent in the gene folD which produces 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, a donor of N-formyl to Met-tRNAfmet. When compared to the wild type strain, folD mutant showed 8 times of minimum inhibition concentration on actinonin, however, the folD complementary strain could not grow on the medium supplemented with actinonin, which suggested that folD gene mutation was mainly responsible for the actinonin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that marine derived Streptomyces sp. could produce actinonin with anti-VaPDF activity and the resistance against actinonin by V. anguillarum is mediated by mutation in folD gene.

  17. Updating the Vibrio Clades Defined by Multilocus Sequence Phylogeny: Proposal of Eight New Clades, and the Description of Vibrio tritonius sp. nov.

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    Tomoo eSawabe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To date 142 species have been described in the Vibrionaceae family of bacteria, classified into seven genera; Aliivibrio, Echinomonas, Enterovibrio, Grimontia, Photobacterium, Salinivibrio and Vibrio. As vibrios are widespread in marine environments and show versatile metabolisms and ecologies, these bacteria are recognized as one of the most diverse and important marine heterotrophic bacterial groups for elucidating the correlation between genome evolution and ecological adaptation. However, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, we could not find any robust monophyletic lineages in any of the known genera. We needed further attempts to reconstruct their evolutionary history based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA and/or genome wide taxonomy of all the recognized species groups. In our previous report in 2007, we conducted the first broad multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA to infer the evolutionary history of vibrios using nine housekeeping genes (the 16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA, and we proposed 14 distinct clades in 58 species of Vibrionaceae. Due to the difficulty of designing universal primers that can amplify the genes for MLSA in every Vibrionaceae species, some clades had yet to be defined. In this study, we present a better picture of an updated molecular phylogeny for 86 described vibrio species and 10 genome sequenced Vibrionaceae strains, using 8 housekeeping gene sequences. This new study places special emphasis on 1 eight newly identified clades (Damselae, Mediterranei, Pectenicida, Phosphoreum, Profundum, Porteresiae, Rosenbergii, and Rumoiensis; 2 clades amended since the 2007 proposal with recently described new species; 3 orphan clades of genomospecies F6 and F10; 4 phylogenetic positions defined in 3 genome-sequenced strains (N418, EX25, and EJY3; and 5 description of V. tritonius sp. nov., which is a member of the Porteresiae clade.

  18. Biodegradable and biocompatible biomaterial, polyhydroxybutyrate, produced by an indigenous Vibrio sp. BM-1 isolated from marine environment.

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    Wei, Yu-Hong; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wu, Ho-Shing; Janarthanan, Om-Murugan

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one of the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) which has biodegradable and biocompatible properties. They are adopted in the biomedical field, in, for example, medical implants and drug delivery carriers. This study seeks to promote the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. BM-1, isolated from a marine environment by improving constituents of medium and implementing an appropriate fermentation strategy. This study successfully developed a glycerol-yeast extract-tryptone (GYT) medium that can facilitate the growth of Vibrio sp. BM-1 and lead to the production of 1.4 g/L PHB at 20 h cultivation. This study also shows that 1.57 g/L PHB concentration and 16% PHB content were achieved, respectively, when Vibrio sp. BM-1 was cultivated with MS-GYT medium (mineral salts-supplemented GYT medium) for 12 h. Both cell dry weight (CDW) and residual CDW remained constant at around 8.2 g/L and 8.0 g/L after the 12 h of cultivation, until the end of the experiment. However, both 16% of PHB content and 1.57 g/L of PHB production decreased rapidly to 3% and 0.25 g/L, respectively from 12 h of cultivation to 40 h of cultivation. The results suggest that the secretion of PHB depolymerase that might be caused by the addition of mineral salts reduced PHB after 12 h of cultivation. However, work will be done to explain the effect of adding mineral salts on the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. BM-1 in the near future.

  19. Leisingera sp. JC1, a Bacterial Isolate from Hawaiian Bobtail Squid Eggs, Produces Indigoidine and Differentially Inhibits Vibrios

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    Samantha M. Gromek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Female members of many cephalopod species house a bacterial consortium that is part of their reproductive system, the accessory nidamental gland (ANG. These bacteria are deposited into eggs that are then laid in the environment where they must develop unprotected from predation, pathogens and fouling. In this study, we characterized the genome and secondary metabolite production of Leisingera sp. JC1, a member of the roseobacter clade (Rhodobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria isolated from the jelly coat of eggs from the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. Whole genome sequencing and MLSA analysis revealed that Leisingera sp. JC1 falls within a group of roseobacters associated with squid ANGs. Genome and biochemical analyses revealed the potential for and production of a number of secondary metabolites, including siderophores and acyl-homoserine lactones involved with quorum sensing. The complete biosynthetic gene cluster for the pigment indigoidine was detected in the genome and mass spectrometry confirmed the production of this compound. Furthermore, we investigated the production of indigoidine under co-culture conditions with Vibrio fischeri, the light organ symbiont of E. scolopes, and with other vibrios. Finally, both Leisingera sp. JC1 and secondary metabolite extracts of this strain had differential antimicrobial activity against a number of marine vibrios, suggesting that Leisingera sp. JC1 may play a role in host defense against other marine bacteria either in the eggs and/or ANG. These data also suggest that indigoidine may be partially, but not wholly, responsible for the antimicrobial activity of this squid-associated bacterium. □

  20. Antibiofilm activity of an exopolysaccharide from marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101.

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    Peng Jiang

    Full Text Available Bacterial exopolysaccharides have always been suggested to play crucial roles in the bacterial initial adhesion and the development of complex architecture in the later stages of bacterial biofilm formation. However, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharide was characterized to exert broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition activity. In this study, we firstly reported that a bacterial exopolysaccharide (A101 not only inhibits biofilm formation of many bacteria but also disrupts established biofilm of some strains. A101 with an average molecular weight of up to 546 KDa, was isolated and purified from the culture supernatant of the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QY101 by ethanol precipitation, iron-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides showed that A101 is primarily consisted of galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and glucosamine. A101 was demonstrated to inhibit biofilm formation by a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria without antibacterial activity. Furthermore, A101 displayed a significant disruption on the established biofilm produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not by Staphylococcus aureus. Importantly, A101 increased the aminoglycosides antibiotics' capability of killing P. aeruginosa biofilm. Cell primary attachment to surfaces and intercellular aggregates assays suggested that A101 inhibited cell aggregates of both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, while the cell-surface interactions inhibition only occurred in S. aureus, and the pre-formed cell aggregates dispersion induced by A101 only occurred in P. aeruginosa. Taken together, these data identify the antibiofilm activity of A101, which may make it potential in the design of new therapeutic strategies for bacterial biofilm-associated infections and limiting biofilm formation on medical indwelling devices. The found of A101 antibiofilm activity may also promote a

  1. Aerobic-heterotrophic nitrogen removal through nitrate reduction and ammonium assimilation by marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Y1-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yating; Wang, Yanru; Fu, Lin; Gao, Yizhan; Zhao, Haixia; Zhou, Weizhi

    2017-04-01

    An aerobic marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Y1-5 was screened to achieve efficient nitrate and ammonium removal simultaneously and fix nitrogen in cells without N loss. Approximately 98.0% of nitrate (100mg/L) was removed in 48h through assimilatory nitrate reduction and nitrate reductase was detected in the cytoplasm. Instead of nitrification, the strain assimilated ammonium directly, and it could tolerate as high as 1600mg/L ammonium concentration while removing 844.6mg/L. In addition, ammonium assimilation occurred preferentially in the medium containing nitrate and ammonium with a total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 80.4%. The results of nitrogen balance and Fourier infrared spectra illustrated that the removed nitrogen was all transformed to protein or stored as organic nitrogen substances in cells and no N was lost in the process. Toxicological studies with the brine shrimp species Artemia naupliia indicated that Vibrio sp. Y1-5 can be applied in aquatic ecosystems safely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vibrio galatheae sp. nov., a novel member of the Vibrionaceae family isolated from the Solomon Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giubergia, Sonia; Machado, Henrique; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Based on genetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, a novel species belonging to the genus Vibrio is described. The facultative anaerobic strain S2757T was isolated from a mussel collected in the Solomon Sea (Solomon Islands). Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of 16S rRNA and ...

  3. Penggunaan antimikroba dari isolat Lactobacillus terseleksi sebagai bahan pengawet alami untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Vibrio sp. dan Staphylococcus aureus pada fillet ikan kakap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Yulinery

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The fillet of kakap fish is easy to spoil, because of bacteria deterioration. Antimicrobes produced by Lactobacillus is one of save alternatives. The aim of this research was to know the potency of antimicrobes produced by the selected Lactobacillus to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that contaminated the kakap fillet such as Vibrio sp. and S. aureus. Selected Lactobacillus had been done by the variation of temperature treatments. Diffusion method was used to measure the wide of clear zone made by Vibrio sp.and S.aureus. In application, antimicrobe solution of selected microbes was used for soaking the kakap fillet, then the bacteria grown were counted on the beginning and the seventh day. The result shown that the wide of the inhibition area on Vibrio sp. was wider compareto the inhibition area made by S. aureus of kakap fillet. At treatment of temperature, antimicrobe solution remain to be active, onlyits resistivity depend on stability of antimicrobe yielded by selected Lactobacillus. For application used the antimicrobe producedby Lactobacillus (Mar 8 could inhibit the growth of Vibrio sp. and S. aureus on the 0 day and the seventh day, so that compound of antimicrobe can be used as natural preservative at fish product.

  4. Usefulness of Faecal Streps as Indicator of Presence of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio cholerae in Sewage Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariita, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric pathogens are the most frequent cause of diarrheal illness, which account for an annual mortality rate of three million people and an estimated four billion infection worldwide. One way of preventing this is by ensuring proper sewage treatment. The study was carried out to provide data for level of microbiological contamination as well as baseline data for the future assessment and monitoring of pollution levels of sewage lagoons around Kenyatta university sewage treatment plant. It was also aim to find out the indicator organism that is suitable for the assessment and monitoring of faecal pollution. This paper contains the results of isolation, identification and quantification of faecal coliforms, streps, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio cholerae from Kenyatta university sewage treatments ponds. For the faecal coliforms, detection and quantification was done using the Most Probable Number (MPN technique. The isolation and enumeration of faecal streps, Salmonella sp. and V. cholerae was done using standard methods. Correlation of faecal coliforms with Salmonella sp. and V. cholerae was 85% and 2% respectively. For the faecal streps, correlation with Salmonella sp. and V. cholerae was 78% and 12% respectively. This indicates that faecal streps should be included as indicator organisms of the potential health hazards of polluted water. Most international drinking water quality guidelines and standards include bacterial indicators as a measure of microbial water quality, and for compliance reporting. The results from the study support the idea of using both the faecal streps and coliforms as indicators of faecal pollution.

  5. Vitroprocines, new antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii, discovered from marine Vibrio sp. QWI-06 using mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chen, Pei-Chin; Shih, Chao-Jen; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Lai, Ying-Mi; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Yang, Yu-Liang

    2015-08-01

    A robust and convenient research strategy integrating state-of-the-art analytical techniques is needed to efficiently discover novel compounds from marine microbial resources. In this study, we identified a series of amino-polyketide derivatives, vitroprocines A-J, from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. QWI-06 by an integrated approach using imaging mass spectroscopy and molecular networking, as well as conventional bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation. The structure-activity relationship of vitroprocines against Acinetobacter baumannii is proposed. In addition, feeding experiments with 13C-labeled precursors indicated that a pyridoxal 5‧-phosphate-dependent mechanism is involved in the biosynthesis of vitroprocines. Elucidation of amino-polyketide derivatives from a species of marine bacteria for the first time demonstrates the potential of this integrated metabolomics approach to uncover marine bacterial biodiversity.

  6. Survival of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp fed on diets supplemented with Dunaliella sp. is improved after challenges by Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Félix, Diana; López Elías, José Antonio; Campa Córdova, Ángel Isidro; Martínez Córdova, Luis Rafael; Luna González, Antonio; Cortes Jacinto, Edilmar; Huerta Aldaz, Nolberta; Cano Mendoza, Fernando; Burboa Zazueta, María Guadalupe

    2017-09-01

    Survival of Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated during a Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. This bacteria has been causing significant economic losses in the shrimp industry due to the appearance of early mortality syndrome (EMS), also known as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). Control of bacteria in ponds is difficult to achieve with antibiotics due to environmental infections and antibiotic resistance. New methods have been proposed to control and prevent the impact of bacterial infections. The physiological response indicated by plasma biochemical parameters in shrimp can determine their health and stress status. Meanwhile, shrimp immunology is the key factor in establishing strategies to control diseases. Immunostimulants are the best alternative to antibiotics to prevent or minimize disease damage, and at the same time, these stimulants improve the immune system in shrimp. Four diets containing 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3% of Dunaliella sp. with high β-carotene content were tested in the present study. After 20days of feeding, organisms were infected with V. parahaemolyticus. Protein, glucose, lactate, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as well as activity of prophenoloxidase and phenoloxidase, were determined 48 h post-infection (hpi). Shrimp fed a diet with 3% Dunaliella sp. showed the highest survival. Glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as prophenoloxidase and phenoloxidase activity, were not observed to be suitable indicators during this bacterial infection. The results indicated that the inclusion of Dunaliella sp. in diet increases survival in L. vannamei infected with V. parahaemolyticus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Acute toxicity evaluation of explosive wastewater by bacterial bioluminescence assays using a freshwater luminescent bacterium, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhengfang; Zhao, Quanlin; Zhang, Mohe; Gao, Yuchen

    2011-02-28

    The compositions of explosive wastewater generated from TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) purification stage were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The acute toxicity was evaluated by bacterium bioluminescence assay using a freshwater luminescent bacterium (Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov.) and a marine luminescent bacterium (Photobacterium phosphoreum). The results showed that the wastewater's biodegradability was poor due to the high amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The main organic components were dinitrotoluene sulfonates (DNTS) with small amount of TNT, dinitrotoluene (DNT), mononitrotoluene (MNT) and other derivatives of nitrobenzene. It was highly toxic to luminescent bacteria P. phosphoreum and V. qinghaiensis sp. Nov. After reaction time of 15 min, the relative concentration of toxic pollutants (expressed as reciprocal of dilution ratio of wastewater) at 50% of luminescence inhibition ratio was 5.32×10(-4) for P. phosphoreu, while that was 4.34×10(-4) for V. qinghaiensis. V. qinghaiensis is more sensitive and suitable for evaluating the wastewater's acute toxicity than P. phosphoreum. After adsorption by resin, the acute toxicity can be greatly reduced, which is helpful for further treatment by biological methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A New Membrane Lipid Raft Gene SpFLT-1 Facilitating the Endocytosis of Vibrio alginolyticus in the Crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyi Chen

    Full Text Available Pathogens can enter their host cells by way of endocytosis in which the membrane lipid raft gene flotillins are probably involved in the invasion process and this is an important way to cause infection. In this study, a new gene SpFLT-1 was identified in Scylla paramamosain, which shared high identity with the flotillin-1 of other species. The SpFLT-1 gene was widely distributed in tissues and showed the highest level of mRNA transcripts in the hemocytes. This gene might be a maternal gene based on the evident results that it was highly expressed in maternal ovaries and in the early developmental stages of the zygote and early embryo stage whereas it gradually decreased in zoea 1. SpFLT-1 positively responded to the challenge of Vibrio alginolyticus with a significantly increased level of mRNA expression in the hemocytes and gills at 3 hours post infection (hpi. The SpFLT-1 protein was detected densely in the same fraction layer where the Vibrio protein was most present in the hemocytes and gills at 3 hpi. Furthermore, it was found that the expression of SpFLT-1 decreased to the base level following disappearance of the Vibrio protein at 6 hpi in the gills. Silencing SpFLT-1 inhibited the endocytosis rate of V. alginolyticus but overexpression of the gene could facilitate bacterial entry into the epithelioma papulosum cyprinid cells. Our study indicated that SpFLT-1 may act as a key protein involved in the process of bacterial infection and this sheds light on clarifying the pathogenesis of pathogens infecting S. paramamosain.

  9. Reverse osmosis pretreatment method for toxicity assessment of domestic wastewater using Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan Y; Wang, Xiaochang C; Hao Ngo, Huu; Guo, Wenshan; Wu, Maoni N; Wang, Na

    2013-11-01

    Luminescent bacterial test is a fast and sensitive method for acute toxicity assessment of water and wastewater. In this study, an improved toxicity testing method was developed using the freshwater luminescent bacteria Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 that involved pretreatment of water samples with reverse osmosis (RO) to eliminate the interferences caused by nutrients in concentrated samples and to improve the reliability and sensitivity of the analysis. Because water samples contain low concentrations of several target toxic substances, rapid acute toxicity testing method that is commonly employed does not achieve enough sensitivity. The proposed RO pretreatment could effectively enrich organic and inorganic substances in water samples to enable a more effective and sensitive toxicity evaluation. The kinetic characteristics of toxicity of raw sewage and secondary effluent were evaluated based on the relative luminescence unit (RLU) curves and time-concentration-effect surfaces. It was observed that when the exposure time was prolonged to 8-h or longer, the bacteria reached the logarithmic growth stage. Hence, the stimulating effects of the coexisting ions (such as Na(+), K(+), NO3(-)) in the concentrated samples could be well eliminated. A 10-h exposure time in proposed Q67 test was found to quantitatively evaluate the toxicity of the organic and inorganic pollutants in the RO-concentrated samples. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vibrio sp. strain NM 10, isolated from the intestine of a Japanese coastal fish, has an inhibitory effect against Pasteurella piscicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, H; Matsuo, N; Hirose, Y; Iwato, M; Deguchi, Y

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio sp. strain NM 10 with an inhibitory activity against Pasteurella piscicida K-III was isolated from the intestine of a spotnape ponyfish (Leiognathus nuchalis). This bacterium efficiently produced an antibacterial substance after growth at 20 degrees C for 24 h on 1/5 PYBG agar prepared with 50% seawater at pHs of 7.5 to 9.0. The antibacterial substance was heat labile and proteinaceous, with a molecular mass of less than 5 kDa, possibly a bacteriocin or a bacteriocin-like substance. PMID:9406423

  11. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayu Al-Saari

    Full Text Available Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20 showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity, respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V

  12. Fundamental study of sterilization effects on marine Vibrio sp. in a cylindrical water chamber with supply of only underwater shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhu; Abe, Akihisa; Wang, Yiwei; Huang, Chenguang

    2018-04-01

    The effect of shock sterilization on marine Vibrio sp. is investigated by carrying out a bio-experiment based on a bubble-shockwave interaction. In the experiments, underwater shock waves with different strength and frequencies are produced by a high-voltage power supply in a cylindrical water chamber. The bio-experimental results show marine Vibrio sp. is completely inactivated in a short time by a 1.0-Hz electric discharge. However, a high sterilization effect requires a strong and high frequency of the bubble motion, and it also depends on the lifetime of the bubble. Subsequently, by an experiment with an air gap to prevent the underwater shock waves entering the cell suspension, it is found that the introduction of a strong shock pressure is not entirely required to obtain the effective sterilization. On the other hand, the direct effect of the sterilization by rebound shock wave resulting from the bubble-shock wave interaction is examined in the experiments. The results suggest that free radicals mainly contribute to killing marine bacteria, and direct mechanical effects of the bubble motion are not responsible. In addition, the creation of the OH radical is indirectly confirmed by measuring the H 2 O 2 concentration. Finally, the Herring equation is solved to investigate the condition of free radical generation when considering the effect of thermal conductivity at the bubble interface. As a result, the effective sterilization conditions based on the bubble-shock wave interaction are clearly obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Baruah, Kartik; Van de Wiele, Tom; Dong, Shuanglin; Bossier, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. The strain significantly increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii when administered 6h before the challenge. Under these conditions, LT3 was able to colonize the brine shrimp gastrointestinal tract and to decrease the in vivo pathogen activity as indicated by the bioluminescence of the V. campbellii associated with brine shrimp larvae. In order to investigate the effect of the Bacillus strain on the innate immune system of the brine shrimp larvae, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase mRNA levels were monitored, while heat shock protein 70 mRNA levels were measured as an indicator of physiological stress. Interestingly, 12h after challenge, the prophenoloxidase mRNA level in the larvae pre-treated with LT3 and challenged with V. campbellii was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other treatments. Further, a decreased mRNA level of transglutaminase gene and heat shock protein 70 gene suggested that pretreatment with LT3 results in less stress and tissue damage in the brine shrimp larvae upon V. campbellii challenge. These results indicated that Bacillus sp. LT3 could improve the survival of brine shrimp larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, both by decreasing the in vivo activity of the pathogen and by priming the innate immune response through activating the prophenoloxidase system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antifouling Activity towards Mussel by Small-Molecule Compounds from a Strain of Vibrio alginolyticus Bacterium Associated with Sea Anemone Haliplanella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Huang, Yanqiu; Sheng, Yanqing; Su, Pei; Qiu, Yan; Ke, Caihuan; Feng, Danqing

    2017-03-28

    Mussels are major fouling organisms causing serious technical and economic problems. In this study, antifouling activity towards mussel was found in three compounds isolated from a marine bacterium associated with the sea anemone Haliplanella sp. This bacterial strain, called PE2, was identified as Vibrio alginolyticus using morphology, biochemical tests, and phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 16S rRNA and four housekeeping genes (rpoD, gyrB, rctB, and toxR). Three small-molecule compounds (indole, 3-formylindole, and cyclo (Pro-Leu)) were purified from the ethyl acetate extract of V. alginolyticus PE2 using column chromatography techniques. They all significantly inhibited byssal thread production of the green mussel Perna viridis, with EC50 values of 24.45 μg/ml for indole, 50.07 μg/ml for 3-formylindole, and 49.24 μg/ml for cyclo (Pro-Leu). Previous research on the antifouling activity of metabolites from marine bacteria towards mussels is scarce. Indole, 3-formylindole and cyclo (Pro-Leu) also exhibited antifouling activity against settlement of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus (EC50 values of 8.84, 0.43, and 11.35 μg/ml, respectively) and the marine bacterium Pseudomonas sp. (EC50 values of 42.68, 69.68, and 39.05 μg/ml, respectively). These results suggested that the three compounds are potentially useful for environmentally friendly mussel control and/or the development of new antifouling additives that are effective against several biofoulers.

  15. Vibrio and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013. Vibrio Infection. [Accessed January 2015]. Available at URL: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ vibrio/ index. html Centers for ... 2013. Vibrio parahaemolyticus. [Accessed January 2015]. Available at URL: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ vibrio/ vibriop. html Centers for ...

  16. Cloning and characterization of a beta-1,4-mannanase 5C possessing a family 27 carbohydrate-binding module from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain MA-138.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Megumi; Umemoto, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Hidenori; Nakano, Daiichirou; Tamaru, Yutaka; Araki, Toshiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The beta-1,4-mannanase 5C gene (man5C) of Vibrio sp. strain MA-138 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The man5C gene consisted of 2,010 bp nucleotides encoding a protein of 669 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 76,309. beta-1,4-Mannanase (Man5C) is a modular enzyme composed of a catalytic module belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5, a linker region, and a putative carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) belonging to family 27. Recombinant Man5C exhibited maximal activity at 50 degrees C at pH 7.0, and it had a K(m) of 0.6 mg ml(-1) and a V(max) of 556.2 micromol min(-1) mumol(-1) for glucomannan. Binding studies revealed that the C-terminal putative CBM27 had the ability to bind soluble beta-mannans and contributed to increasing the rate of depolymerization by binding to the polymeric substrate. Man5C of Vibrio sp. MA-138 is the first non-extremophile enzyme to be identified as a beta-mannanase possessing CBM27.

  17. sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    adopted as the first line drug. SP has few untoward effects if used carefully in therapeutic doses. Nausea, vomiting, generalized body weakness; diarrhea, skin rashes and hematological reactions are some of the associated side effects. The drug can cause severe skin reactions such as Steven Johnson's syndrome. This.

  18. Insights into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh Letchumanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages - viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy.

  19. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety...... analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in the birth of the online genomic taxonomy whereby researchers and end-users of taxonomy will be able to identify their isolates through a web...

  20. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in

  1. Vibrio Parahaemolyticus: The Threat of Another Vibrio Acquiring Pandemic Potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramamurthy, T.; Nair, G.B.

    or indirectly via contaminated food and water. Food-borne Vibrio infections tend to occur more frequently in developed countries while transmission of Vibrio infections in developing countries is, by and large, water-borne. Further, the magnitude of food... and pandemics mainly due to poor water supply and personal hygiene. The other important and most common seafood-borne halophilic Vibrio is V. parahaemolyticus. Since its discovery in 1953 (Fujino et al., 1953), many aspects on this pathogen were explored...

  2. Autecology of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, S.; Lugo, T.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Water and shellfish samples collected from estuaries, mangroves, and beaches along the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An array of water quality parameters were also measured simultaneous with bacteria sampling. Both species of vibrio were associated with estuary and mangrove locations, and neither was isolated from sandy beaches. Densities of V. vulnificus were negatively correlated with salinity, 10--15 ppt being optimal. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from sites with salinities between 20 and 35 ppt, the highest densities occurring at 20 ppt. Densities of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus for a tropical estuary surpassed those reported for temperate estuaries by several orders of magnitude. Both densities of total Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in the water were directly related to densities of fecal coliforms, unlike V. vulnificus. The incidence of ONPG(+) strains among sucrose({minus}) Vibrio spp. served as an indicator of the frequency of V. vulnificus in this group. More than 63% of the V. vulnificus isolated were pathogenic. V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus occupy clearly separate niches within the tropical estuarine-marine ecosystem.

  3. Zoonose Vibrio vulnificus: meldingsplicht raadzaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Moller, L.

    2010-01-01

    Op de lijst van meldingsplichtige infectieziekten komen een aantal zoönosen voor, zoals pest, rabiës en leptospirose. De relatief onbekende zoönotische Vibrio vulnificus valt opmerkelijk genoeg niet onder de meldingsplichtige infectieziekten. Juist vanwege het zeer agressieve beloop van een

  4. Prevalence of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Maryland Coastal Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascuale, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    The bacterial family of Vibrionaceae is indigenous in the marine estuarine environments such as the Maryland Coastal Bays. Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are both pathogenic bacteria. Understanding the distribution of Vibrio species is crucial because of the health concerns associated with the bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall abundance of bacteria with a focus on Vibrio species in the Maryland Coastal Bays. Seawater samples were collected from 10 different sites that differ with regard to water quality. The total bacteria count (TBC) was determined by two methods: Total plate count and Epifluorescence microscopy. The most-probable-number (MPN) methodology was used to estimate the population of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. In addition to the bacteriological analysis, the environmental parameters of temperature and salinity were measured using YSI 6600 multiparameter meter. The average total bacteria count was 2.21 log CFU ml-1. Vibrio vulnificus comprised 5% of the total bacteria count while Vibrio parahaemolyticus comprised only 2% of the total bacteria count. Vibrio vulnificus ranged from 0.30 to 2.48 log MPN ml-1 at the sites tested. Lower Vibrio parahaemolyticus count was observed at the sites with a range of 0.30 to 1.97 log MPN ml-1. There was no significant correlation between the environmental parameters and the Vibrio spp. Since both Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus peak in the summer, there is a potential for a risk of wound infections and gastrointestinal illness based on this data.

  5. Ingestion of bacteria overproducing DnaK attenuates Vibrio infection of Artemia franciscana larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaene, Till; Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; MacRae, Thomas H.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Feeding of bacterially encapsulated heat shock proteins (Hsps) to invertebrates is a novel way to limit Vibrio infection. As an example, ingestion of Escherichia coli overproducing prokaryotic Hsps significantly improves survival of gnotobiotically cultured Artemia larvae upon challenge with pathogenic Vibrio campbellii. The relationship between Hsp accumulation and enhanced resistance to infection may involve DnaK, the prokaryotic equivalent to Hsp70, a major molecular chaperone in eukaryotic cells. In support of this proposal, heat-stressed bacterial strains LVS 2 (Bacillus sp.), LVS 3 (Aeromonas hydrophila), LVS 8 (Vibrio sp.), GR 8 (Cytophaga sp.), and GR 10 (Roseobacter sp.) were shown in this work to be more effective than nonheated bacteria in protecting gnotobiotic Artemia larvae against V. campbellii challenge. Immunoprobing of Western blots and quantification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the amount of DnaK in bacteria and their ability to enhance larval resistance to infection by V. campbellii are correlated. Although the function of DnaK is uncertain, it may improve tolerance to V. campbellii via immune stimulation, a possibility of significance from a fundamental perspective and also because it could be applied in aquaculture, a major method of food production. PMID:19373565

  6. Occurrences of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Vellar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the predominant seafood pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis. Samples were collected from Vellar estuary, shrimp ponds and shrimp for characterization of V. parahaemolyticus. A total of 26 blue green centre (BG) Vibrio strains were isolated and characterized through biochemical ...

  7. Function and Regulation of Vibrio campbellii Proteorhodopsin: Acquired Phototrophy in a Classical Organoheterotroph

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    4123–4129. 26. Thompson FL, Iida T, Swings J (2004) Biodiversity of vibrios. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 68: 403–431. 27. Polz MF, Hunt DE, Preheim SP...Weinreich DM (2006) Patterns and mechanisms of genetic and phenotypic differentiation in marine microbes . Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361: 2009...bacterioplankton community structure. Aquat Microb Ecol 39: 235–245. 31. Zabala B, Garcia K, Espejo RT (2009) Enhancement of UV light sensitivity of a

  8. Complete genome sequence of a giant Vibrio phage ValKK3 infecting Vibrio alginolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrin M. Lal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete sequence of a giant lytic marine myophage, Vibrio phage ValKK3 that is specific to Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC® 17749™. Vibrio phage ValKK3 was subjected to whole genome sequencing on MiSeq sequencing platform and annotated using Blast2Go. The complete sequence of ValKK3 genome was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KP671755.

  9. Complete genome sequence of a giant Vibrio phage ValKK3 infecting Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Tamrin M; Sano, Motohiko; Hatai, Kishio; Ransangan, Julian

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the complete sequence of a giant lytic marine myophage, Vibrio phage ValKK3 that is specific to Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC(®) 17749™. Vibrio phage ValKK3 was subjected to whole genome sequencing on MiSeq sequencing platform and annotated using Blast2Go. The complete sequence of ValKK3 genome was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KP671755.

  10. PHYSIOCHEMICAL CONDITIONS AND CONTAMINATION WITH VIBRIOS OF SURFACE WATER AT MATLAB, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Paul

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is water-borne infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. Currently a proportion of people living in rural area like Matlab, Bangladesh are dependent on surface water for various purposes to surface water. People of the area are affected by cholera particularly in rainy seasons. We measured in situ the physicochemical parameters of water using portable meters and counted the Vibrio sp. from water, phytoplankton and zooplankton samples of river and pond water of Matlab, Bangladesh. The culturable Vibrios were counted thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS and taurocholate tellurite gelatin agar (TTGA plates and viable but nonculturable (VBNC by direct fluorescent microscopy. To confirm, we further did PCR of ompW gene and serology for V. cholerae O1/O139. Strong correlation of Vibrios cultural counts with pH, total coliform and faecal coliform heterotropic plate counts and viable but nonculturable (VBNC counts with only total dissolved solids (TDS noticed from the results. We identified 25 V. cholerae non-O1 and five V. cholerae O1 serotype which is main cause of cholera from water, phytoplankton and zooplankton samples of pond and rivers. Therefore, the present study indicated that the surface water sources are the main causes of cholera and reestablished the Matlab as epidemic area of Bangladesh.

  11. The ecological coherence of temperature and salinity tolerance interaction and pigmentation in a non-marine vibrio isolated from Salar de Atacama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem Gallardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of microorganisms from the Vibrio genus in saline lakes from northern Chile had been evidenced using Numerical Taxonomy decades before and, more recently, by phylogenetic analyses of environmental samples and isolates. Most of the knowledge about this genus came from marine isolates and showed temperature and salinity to be integral agents in shaping the niche of the Vibrio populations. The stress tolerance phenotypes of Vibrio sp. Teb5a1 isolated from Salar de Atacama was investigated. It was able to grow without NaCl and tolerated up to 100 g/L of the salt. Furthermore, it grew between 17° and 49°C (optimum 30°C in the absence of NaCl, and the range was expanded into cold temperature (4-49°C in the presence of the salt. Other additional adaptive strategies were observed in response to the osmotic stress: pigment production, identified as the known antibacterial prodigiosin, swimming and swarming motility and synthesis of a polar flagellum. It is possible to infer that environmental congruence might explain the cellular phenotypes observed in Vibrio sp. considering that coupling between temperature and salinity tolerance, the production of antibacterial agents at higher temperatures, flagellation and motility increase the chance of Vibrio sp. to survive in salty environments with high daily temperature swings and UV radiation.

  12. The Ecological Coherence of Temperature and Salinity Tolerance Interaction and Pigmentation in a Non-marine Vibrio Isolated from Salar de Atacama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Karem; Candia, Jonathan E; Remonsellez, Francisco; Escudero, Lorena V; Demergasso, Cecilia S

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of microorganisms from the Vibrio genus in saline lakes from northern Chile had been evidenced using Numerical Taxonomy decades before and, more recently, by phylogenetic analyses of environmental samples and isolates. Most of the knowledge about this genus came from marine isolates and showed temperature and salinity to be integral agents in shaping the niche of the Vibrio populations. The stress tolerance phenotypes of Vibrio sp. Teb5a1 isolated from Salar de Atacama was investigated. It was able to grow without NaCl and tolerated up to 100 g/L of the salt. Furthermore, it grew between 17° and 49°C (optimum 30°C) in the absence of NaCl, and the range was expanded into cold temperature (4-49°C) in the presence of the salt. Other additional adaptive strategies were observed in response to the osmotic stress: pigment production, identified as the known antibacterial prodigiosin, swimming and swarming motility and synthesis of a polar flagellum. It is possible to infer that environmental congruence might explain the cellular phenotypes observed in Vibrio sp. considering that coupling between temperature and salinity tolerance, the production of antibacterial agents at higher temperatures, flagellation and motility increase the chance of Vibrio sp. to survive in salty environments with high daily temperature swings and UV radiation.

  13. Identification of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH) involved in immune defense in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-xia; Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Wang, Ke-jian

    2013-01-01

    Clip domain serine proteinase homologs are involved in many biological processes including immune response. To identify the immune function of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH), originally isolated from hemocytes of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, the Sp-SPH was expressed recombinantly and purified for further studies. It was found that the Sp-SPH protein could bind to a number of bacteria (including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahemolyticus), bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan (PGN), and β-1, 3-glucan of fungus. But no direct antibacterial activity of Sp-SPH protein was shown by using minimum inhibitory concentration or minimum bactericidal concentration assays. Nevertheless, the Sp-SPH protein was found to significantly enhance the crab hemocyte adhesion activity (paired t-test, PSPH protein was demonstrated to promote the survival rate of the animals after challenge with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus which were both recognized by Sp-SPH protein, if pre-incubated with Sp-SPH protein, respectively. Whereas, the crabs died much faster when challenged with Vibrio alginolyiicus, a pathogenic bacterium not recognized by Sp-SPH protein, compared to those of crabs challenged with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus when pre-coated with Sp-SPH protein. Taken together, these data suggested that Sp-SPH molecule might play an important role in immune defense against bacterial infection in the mud crab S. paramamosain.

  14. Bacteriophage interactions with marine pathogenic Vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalatzis, Panagiotis

    Incidents of Vibrio-associated diseases in marine aquaculture are increasingly reported on a global scale, incited also by the world’s rising temperature. Administration of antibiotics has been the most commonly applied remedy used for facing vibriosis outbreaks, giving rise to concerns about...... pathogens. The combinatory administration of virulent bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1, isolated against Vibrio alginolyticus significantly reduced the Vibrio load in cultures of Artemia salina live prey, decreasing subsequently the risk of a vibriosis outbreak in the marine hatchery. During infection...... to studying the interactions between marine pathogenic Vibrio and their corresponding bacteriophages, while discussing the potential and limitations of phage therapy application in the biological control of vibriosis....

  15. Occurrences of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Vellar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-04-03

    2001). Vibrio vulnificus as a health hazard for shrimp consumers. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. 43: 263- 266. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989). Molecular Cloning: A. Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed.

  16. Vibrio diseases of marine fish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. R.; Grimes, D. J.

    1984-03-01

    Several Vibrio spp. cause disease in marine fish populations, both wild and cultured. The most common disease, vibriosis, is caused by V. anguillarum. However, increase in the intensity of mariculture, combined with continuing improvements in bacterial systematics, expands the list of Vibrio spp. that cause fish disease. The bacterial pathogens, species of fish affected, virulence mechanisms, and disease treatment and prevention are included as topics of emphasis in this review.

  17. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  18. Genome engineering in Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Skovgaard, Ole; Ducos-Galand, Magaly

    2012-01-01

    importance in public health, Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has become a preferred model to study bacteria with multipartite genomes. However, most in vivo studies in V. cholerae have been hampered by its genome architecture, as it is difficult to give phenotypes to a specific chromosome....... This difficulty was surmounted using a unique and powerful strategy based on massive rearrangement of prokaryotic genomes. We developed a site-specific recombination-based engineering tool, which allows targeted, oriented, and reciprocal DNA exchanges. Using this genetic tool, we obtained a panel of V. cholerae...... in V. cholerae and the general question concerning bacteria carrying circular chromosomes--by looking at the effect of chromosome size on topological issues. In this article, we show that Dam, RctB, and ParA2/ParB2 are strictly essential for chrII origin maintenance, and we formally demonstrate...

  19. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Vibrio cholerae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Shrestha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cholera is one of the most common diarrhoeal diseases in Nepal. Etiological agent of cholera is Vibrio cholerae which removes essential body fluids, salts and vital nutrients, which are necessary for life causing dehydration and malnutrition. Emerging antimicrobial resistant is common. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of cholera patients in Nepal. METHODS: All the laboratory works were conducted in the bacteriology section of National Public Health Laboratory, Teku from March to September 2005. During this period a total of 340 stool samples from diarrhoeal patients were collected and processed according to the standard laboratory methods. Each patient suffering from diarrhoea was directly interviewed for his or her clinical history during sample collection. RESULTS: A total of 340 stool samples were processed and studied from both sex including all ages of patients. Among the processed sample 53 Vibrio cholerae cases were found. All isolated Vibrio cholerae O1 were El Tor, Inaba. All isolated (100% Vibrio cholerae O1 were sensitive to Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline whereas all were resistant to Nalidixic acid and Cotrimoxazole. Only 15.1% cases were sensitive to Furazolidone whereas 84.9% were resistant. CONCLUSION: All V. cholerae strains isolated in this study were found resistant to Multi Drug Resistant (resistant to at least two antibiotics of different group. Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline were found still more potent antibiotics against Vibrio cholerae isolated during the study. Keywords: antibiotics, susceptibility, Vibrio cholera.

  20. Hatchery mortalities of larval oysters caused by Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio coralliilyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchery production of bivalve shellfish has been hampered by the occasional presence of opportunistic pathogens, particularly Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii. The present study reports the results of several avenues of research to better define these pathogens and the roles they play i...

  1. Rapid proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during freshwater flash floods in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 10(3) most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 10(3) MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 10(4) MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Adverse Effects of Immobilised Pseudoalteromonas on the Fish Pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Wesseling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a prerequisite for use in marine aquaculture, two immobilisation systems were developed by employing the probiotic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain MLms_gA3. Their impact on the survivability of the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum was explored. Probiotic bacteria either grown as a biofilm on ceramic tiles or embedded in alginate beads were added to sterile artificial seawater that contained the fish pathogen. While immobilisation on ceramics followed a recently developed protocol, a medium allowing for alginate microencapsulation was newly developed. Anti-Vibrio activities were obtained with both immobilisation systems. The viable cell counts of V. anguillarum constantly decreased within the first two weeks of the treatments evidencing the potential of the immobilisation systems for providing probiotic-based protection against this pathogen.

  3. Vibrios associated with red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Romalde, J L; Barja, J L; Toranzo, A E

    1990-01-01

    Vibrios were isolated from red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and also throughout the year in the Ria de Pontevedra, Spain. The isolates were grouped into 14 phena by numerical toxonomy. Strains associated with red tides were restricted to four phena: phena I and II were Vibrio alginolyticus, and phena III and IV were Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio anguillarum, respectively. V. anguillarum-like strains (phena V through XI) predominated throughout the year outside the red tide areas. Cytotoxic...

  4. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

  5. Suspension of oysters reduces the populations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K M; Supan, J; Ramirez, A; Johnson, C N

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) are associated with the consumption of raw oysters and cause illnesses ranging from simple gastroenteritis to life-threatening septicaemia. These halophilic bacteria are frequently found in marine and estuarine systems, accumulating within the tissues of a number of aquatic organisms and passing on to humans after consumption, through contaminated water, or via open wounds. As benthic organisms capable of filtering 40 gallons of water per hour, sediment is an important source of potentially pathogenic vibrios in oysters destined for raw consumption. This research used off-bottom oyster culture to reduce vibrio concentrations in oysters. Colony hybridization was used to enumerate Vp and Vv in bottom and suspended oysters. Vv and Vp concentrations were generally lower in oysters suspended off-bottom, and suspension decreased vibrio loads in oysters by an average of 13%. Suspension of oysters reduced vibrio concentrations. This study found that oyster suspension significantly reduced some populations of potentially pathogenic vibrios. These results indicate that oyster suspension could be a viable approach for preharvest treatment to reduce illness in consumers of raw oysters. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Bacillus coahuilensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic species from a desiccation lagoon in the Cuatro Ciénegas Valley in Coahuila, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerritos, René; Vinuesa, Pablo; Eguiarte, Luis E; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Alcaraz-Peraza, Luis D; Arvizu-Gómez, Jackeline L; Olmedo, Gabriela; Ramirez, Enrique; Siefert, Janet L; Souza, Valeria

    2008-04-01

    A moderately halophilic, Gram-positive and rod-shaped bacterium, strain m4-4T, was isolated from a Chihuahuan desert lagoon in Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico. Strain m4-4T was found to grow optimally at 30-37 degrees C, pH 7.0-8.0 and 5 % NaCl and to tolerate from 0.5 % to 10 % NaCl. It was shown to be aerobic. The genomic DNA G+C content was about 37 mol%. Strain m4-4T exhibited minimal or no growth on most sugars tested. Its major cellular fatty acids were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences, we observed that the closest relatives of the isolate are moderately halophilic Bacillus species, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity ranging from 96.6 to 97.4 % (Bacillus marisflavi, Bacillus aquimaris and Bacillus vietnamensis). Additionally, using genomic data it was determined that the type strain contains a total of nine rRNA operons with three slightly different sequences. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular properties, strain m4-4T represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus coahuilensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain m4-4T (=NRRL B-41737T =CECT 7197T).

  7. Vibrio population structure - Genetic and population structure analysis of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a marine bacterium capable of causing severe gastroenteritis in humans, usually through the consumption of raw shellfish. Before...

  8. Vibrio ecology - Identifying Environmental Determinants Favorable for the Presence and Transmission of Pathogenic Vibrios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In a tri-coastal collaborative study, the population densities of vibrios are being determined in the Mississippi Sound, Puget Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and Timbalier...

  9. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah; Ravel, J.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    Physical responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. Plate counts...

  10. Benthic ecology of Vibrio spp. and pathogenic Vibrio species in a coastal Mediterranean environment (La Spezia Gulf, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Moreno, Mariapaola; Fabiano, Mauro; Pane, Luigi; Pruzzo, Carla

    2009-11-01

    We carried out a 16-month in situ study to investigate the ecology of Vibrio spp. and pathogenic Vibrio species in coastal sediments of the Mediterranean Sea, employing multiple-regression analysis to reveal the major environmental factors controlling their occurrence in the benthic environment. In addition, association between vibrios and sediment-inhabiting meiofauna, which is a major component of benthic ecosystems, was investigated. Culturable and total Vibrio spp. estimates by most-probable-number technique coupled with standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods, respectively, were at least one order of magnitude higher in sediment than in seawater. In addition, potential human pathogenic species Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in the sediment with V. parahaemolyticus being the most frequently found. In the pelagic environment, 60% of total variance in culturable Vibrio data was explained by sea surface temperature (40%), salinity (13%) and organic matter concentration (7%). In the benthic environment, sea surface temperature was the only factor that significantly affected culturable Vibrio occurrence although it explained only 25% of total variance, suggesting that additional unexplored factors may play a role as well. No correlation was found between culturable Vibrio spp. concentrations and the abundance of harpacticoid copepods in the sediment whilst a negative correlation was found between Vibrio spp. and nematode abundance which accounted for almost 90% of the total meiofaunal density. Taxonomic analysis revealed that selective bacterial feeders accounted for nearly 50% of the total nematode community and included genera such as Terschellingia, Molgolaimus and Halalaimus, suggesting that top-down control by nematode grazing may be an important factor affecting Vibrio occurrence in these sediments. It is concluded that the benthic marine environment may function as a reservoir of Vibrio spp

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibilty of potentially pathogenic halophilic Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is indispensable for empirical treatment of infections and in preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. This study is aimed at determining the antibiotic susceptibility of potentially pathogenic halophylic Vibrio species isolated in Lagos, Nigeria. Susceptibility ...

  12. Comparison of classifications of aptamers against Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a novel method to detect the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus, 45 aptamers were previously selected and tested. In order to better understand the properties of these aptamers, it was essential to classify these aptamers based on appropriate criteria. The primary structure of 45 aptamers against V. alginolyticus was analyzed ...

  13. Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as ...

  14. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BUAH ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill PADA Vibrio harveyi DAN Vibrio alginolyticus Antibacterial Activity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Extract on Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Budianto

    2015-10-01

    Pada penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak air dari buah adas untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio harveyi dan Vibrio alginolyticus dengan menggunakan metode uji Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC dan difusi cakram kertas. Hasil yang diperoleh pada uji MIC, konsentrasi terkecil untuk menghambat pertumbuhan adalah 0,060 g/ml, untuk kedua spesies bakteri. Variasi perlakuan pada uji cakram kertas yaitu konsentrasi A (0,065 g/ml, B (0,070 g/ml, C (0,075 g/ml, D (0,080 g/ml, E (0,085 g/ml, F (0,090 g/ml dan kontrol (0,000 g/ml, hasil yang diperoleh adalah konsentrasi 0,090 g/ml memiliki diameter zona hambat tertinggi sebesar 11,17 ± 0,5 mm (V. harveyi dan 12,53 ± 1,14 mm (V. alginolyticus, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa buah adas (F. vulgare Mill memiliki peranan ekologi yang sangat penting sebagai bahan pengobatan alternatif dalam pengendalian penyebaran penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh V. harveyi dan V. alginolyticus. Kata kunci: Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, uji MIC dan difusi cakram kertas

  15. Plankton composition and environmental factors contribute to Vibrio seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jeffrey W; Good, Brooks; Cole, Dana; Lipp, Erin K

    2009-09-01

    Plankton represent a nutrient-rich reservoir capable of enriching Vibrio species, which can include human pathogens, at higher densities than the surrounding water column. To better understand the relationship between vibrios and plankton, the partitioning of culturable vibrios, on TCBS, between free living and plankton associated (63-200- and >200-microm-size fractions) was monitored over a 1-year period in coastal waters of Georgia, USA. Seasonal changes in the total Vibrio concentration were then compared with changes in environmental parameters as well as changes in the relative composition of the plankton community. Using univariate analyses, Vibrio concentrations were strongly associated with temperature, especially when those vibrios were plankton associated (R(2)=0.69 and 0.88 for the water and both plankton fractions; respectively) (Pplankton fractions were also correlated to shifts in the relative abundance of specific plankton taxa. In the 63-200-micro fraction, Vibrio concentrations were inversely associated with copepods, cyanobacteria and diatoms. In the >200-micro fraction, Vibrio concentrations were positively associated with copepods and negatively associated with decapod larvae. Our results confirm the role of temperature in Vibrio seasonality and highlight an important and independent role for plankton composition in explaining seasonal changes in Vibrio concentration.

  16. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST) corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity condition for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity condition. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk. PMID:26236294

  17. Vibrios associated with red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalde, J L; Barja, J L; Toranzo, A E

    1990-11-01

    Vibrios were isolated from red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and also throughout the year in the Ria de Pontevedra, Spain. The isolates were grouped into 14 phena by numerical toxonomy. Strains associated with red tides were restricted to four phena: phena I and II were Vibrio alginolyticus, and phena III and IV were Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio anguillarum, respectively. V. anguillarum-like strains (phena V through XI) predominated throughout the year outside the red tide areas. Cytotoxicity assays conducted in different poikilothermic and homoiothermic cell lines showed that cytotoxin production was not necessarily associated with the species selected during the red tides.

  18. Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slock, James

    1995-01-01

    Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

  19. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and electrolyte...

  20. Sulfurospirillum barnesii sp. nov. and Sulfurospirillum arsenophilum sp. nov., new members of the Sulfurospirillum clade of the ε-Proteobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J.F.; Ellis, D.J.; Blum, J.S.; Ahmann, D.; Lovley, D.R.; Oremland, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Two strains of dissimilatory arsenate-reducing vibrio-shaped bacteria are assigned to the genus Sulfurospirillum. These two new species, Sulfurospirillum barnesii strain SES-3(T) and Sulfurospirillum arsenophilum strain MIT-13(T), in addition to Sulfurospirillum sp. SM-5, two strains of Sulfurospirillum deleyianum, and Sulfurospirillum arcachonense, form a distinct clade within the ?? subclass of the Proteobacteria based on 16S rRNA analysis.

  1. Carriage of vibrio species by shrimps harvested from the coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Vibrio spp in unprocessed shrimps and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Design: A prospective study of Vibrio spp associated with shrimps harvested from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon. Setting: A laboratory based study at the Department of Life Sciences, University ...

  2. Environmental occurrence and clinical impact of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Stockley, Louise; Rangdale, Rachel; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2010-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterial pathogens found naturally in marine and estuarine waters, and are a leading cause of seafood-associated bacterial illness. These pathogens are commonly reported in the USA and in many Asian countries, including China, Japan and Taiwan; however, there is growing concern that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus may represent an important and increasing clinical problem in Europe. Several factors underlie the need for a greater understanding of these non-cholera vibrios within a European context. First, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus infections are increasing, and tend to follow regional climatic trends, with outbreaks typically following episodes of unusually warm weather. Such findings are especially alarming given current predictions regarding warming of marine waters as a result of global climatic change. Second, a myriad of epidemiological factors may greatly increase the incidence as well as clinical burden of these pathogens - including increasing global consumption and trade of seafood produce coupled to an increase in the number of susceptible individuals consuming seafood produce. Finally, there is currently a lack of detailed surveillance information regarding non-cholerae Vibrio infections in Europe, as these pathogens are not notifiable in many countries, which probably masks the true clinical burden of many human infections. This review will present a pertinent overview of both the environmental occurrence and clinical impact of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in Europe. © 2010 Crown copyright.

  3. Effects of ambient exposure, refrigeration, and icing on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus abundances in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J L; Lydon, K A; Kinsey, T P; Friedman, B; Curtis, M; Schuster, R; Bowers, J C

    2017-07-17

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) illnesses are typically acquired through the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish, particularly oysters. As Vibrio spp. are naturally-occurring bacteria, one means of mitigation of illness is achieved by limiting post-harvest growth. In this study, effects of ambient air storage, refrigeration, and icing of oysters on Vibrio spp. abundances were examined at two sites in Alabama (AL) [Dog River (DR) and Cedar Point (CP)] and one site in Delaware Bay, New Jersey (NJ). As the United States shellfish program recommendations include testing for total these organisms and gene targets, Vv and total (tlh) and pathogenic (tdh+ and trh+) Vp were enumerated from samples using MPN-real-time-PCR approaches. Mean Vv and Vp abundances in oysters from AL-DR were lowest in immediately iced samples (2.3 and -0.1 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in the 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (3.4 and 0.5 log MPN/g, respectively). Similarly, in AL-CP Vv and Vp mean levels in oysters were lowest in immediately iced samples (3.6 and 1.2 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (5.1 and 3.2 log MPN/g, respectively). Mean levels of pathogenic Vp from AL sites were frequently below the limit of detection (ice resulted in lower Vibrio spp. levels in oysters, compared to those that were refrigerated post-harvest. These results suggest vibriosis risk can be mitigated by shorter storage times and more rapid cooling of oysters, providing data regulatory authorities can use to evaluate Vibrio spp. control plans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Vibrio fischeri metabolism: symbiosis and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Anne K

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri is a bioluminescent, Gram-negative marine bacterium that can be found free living and in a mutualistic association with certain squids and fishes. Over the past decades, the study of V. fischeri has led to important discoveries about bioluminescence, quorum sensing, and the mechanisms that underlie beneficial host-microbe interactions. This chapter highlights what has been learned about metabolic pathways in V. fischeri, and how this information contributes to a broader understanding of the role of bacterial metabolism in host colonization by both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, as well as in the growth and survival of free-living bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Vibrios in Diseases of Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Colin B

    2015-08-01

    The tissue, skeleton, and secreted mucus of corals supports a highly dynamic and diverse community of microbes, which play a major role in the health status of corals such as the provision of essential nutrients or the metabolism of waste products. However, members of the Vibrio genus are prominent as causative agents of disease in corals. The aim of this chapter is to review our understanding of the spectrum of disease effects displayed by coral-associated vibrios, with a particular emphasis on the few species where detailed studies of pathogenicity have been conducted. The role of Vibrio shilonii in seasonal bleaching of Oculina patagonica and the development of the coral probiotic hypothesis is reviewed, pointing to unanswered questions about this phenomenon. Detailed consideration is given to studies of V. coralliilyticus and related pathogens and changes in the dominance of vibrios associated with coral bleaching. Other Vibrio-associated disease syndromes discussed include yellow band/blotch disease and tissue necrosis in temperate gorgonian corals. The review includes analysis of the role of enzymes, resistance to oxidative stress, and quorum sensing in virulence of coral-associated vibrios. The review concludes that we should probably regard most-possibly all-vibrios as "opportunistic" pathogens which, under certain environmental conditions, are capable of overwhelming the defense mechanisms of appropriate hosts, leading to rapid growth and tissue destruction.

  6. UJI KETAHANAN LARVA UDANG GALAH DARI BEBERAPA SUMBER POPULASI TERHADAP BAKTERI Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu penyakit yang sering menyerang udang di pembenihan adalah vibriosis, yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio harveyi. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan beberapa strain larva udang galah, yaitu asal Sungai Ogan, Sumatera Selatan; Sungai Asahan, Sumatera Utara; Sungai Barito, Kalimantan Selatan; Sungai Ciasem, Jawa Barat; dan strain GIMacro terhadap infeksi bakteri Vibrio harveyi, sebagai dasar perakitan varietas unggul udang galah. Penelitian dilakukan dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan lima perlakuan, yaitu strain larva dan tiga ulangan. Larva udang galah stadia 4 dari 5 populasi berbeda, dengan panjang rata-rata 2,7±0,4 mm ditempatkan di stoples volume 3 L dengan padat penebaran  larva 100 ekor/L. Setiap wadah diisi 1 L air payau 10‰. Selanjutnya diinfeksi bakteri V. harveyi patogen berumur 24 jam dengan kepadatan 105 cfu/mL. Nauplii Artemia diberikan pada pagi dan sore hari. Parameter yang diamati meliputi pengamatan visual abnormalitas larva uji yang dilihat dari tingkah laku larva dan kondisi organ hepatopankreas, tingkat sintasan, kelimpahan total bakteri Vibrio sp. dan V. harveyi, identifikasi bakteri, dan parameter kualitas air. Selama 48 jam perlakuan sintasan larva yang berasal dari strain induk yang berbeda memberikan hasil berbeda nyata dengan tingkat sintasan tertinggi pada larva asal Barito, yaitu 75%; diikuti GIMacro 65%; Asahan 61,33%; Ciasem 53,66%; strain Ogan 20%. Vibriosis caused by Vibrio harveyi is a serious problem in intensive system hatcheries of freshwater prawn. This study was conducted to study the resistance of larvae from different locations i.e. Ogan River, South Sumatra; Asahan River, North Sumatra; Barito River, South Kalimantan; Ciasem River, West Java; and GIMacro, as part of breeding program to create superior prawn strain. Complete randomized design was used in this study, with 5 treatments, i.e. larvae source and 3 replications. 4th stage of freshwater prawn larvae from

  7. Molecular cloning of the gene which encodes beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from a marine bacterium, Alteromonas sp. strain O-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujibo, H; Fujimoto, K; Tanno, H; Miyamoto, K; Kimura, Y; Imada, C; Okami, Y; Inamori, Y

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the periplasmic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase B) from a marine Alteromonas sp. strain, O-7, was cloned and sequenced. The protein sequence of GlcNAcase B revealed a highly significant homology with Vibrio GlcNAcase and alpha- and beta-chains of human beta-hexosaminidase. PMID:7574618

  8. Molecular cloning of the gene which encodes beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from a marine bacterium, Alteromonas sp. strain O-7.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujibo, H; Fujimoto, K; Tanno, H; Miyamoto, K.; Kimura, Y.; Imada, C; Okami, Y; Inamori, Y

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the periplasmic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase B) from a marine Alteromonas sp. strain, O-7, was cloned and sequenced. The protein sequence of GlcNAcase B revealed a highly significant homology with Vibrio GlcNAcase and alpha- and beta-chains of human beta-hexosaminidase.

  9. Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Gram

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that employs a number of virulence factors as part of its pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to explore marine bacteria as a source of compounds that modulate virulence gene expression in S. aureus. During the global marine Galathea 3 expedition, a strain collection was established comprising bacteria that express antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum and/or Staphylococcus aureus. Within this collection we searched colony material, culture supernatants, and cell extracts for virulence modulating activity showing that 68 out of 83 marine bacteria (affiliated with the Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonas sp. influenced expression of S. aureus hla encoding α-hemolysin toxin and/or spa encoding Protein A. The isolate that upon initial screening showed the highest degree of interference (crude ethyl acetate extract was a Vibrio nigripulchritudo. Extraction, purification and structural elucidation revealed a novel siderophore, designated nigribactin, which induces spa transcription. The effect of nigribactin on spa expression is likely to be independent from its siderophore activity, as another potent siderophore, enterobactin, failed to influence S. aureus virulence gene expression. This study shows that marine microorganisms produce compounds with potential use in therapeutic strategies targeting virulence rather than viability of human pathogens.

  10. Determinación de la frecuencia de Vibrio parahaemolyticus y otros vibriones halofilicos en alimentos preparados con productos marinos frescos y procesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabilia Vilcapoma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó durante las estaciones de verano a otoño de 1988, sobre un total de 122 muestras, correspondiendo 82 a pescado congelado y 40 a cebiches, en su mayoría de tipo "mixto"; todos procedentes de la ciudad de Lima. El procesamiento de las muestras y el aislamiento de los vibrio se efectuaron siguiendo la metodología recomendada por la FDA (1985, con algunas modificaciones. La identificación de las cepas se realizó en base a caracteristicas de colonia, morfología celular y pruebas bioquímicas diferenciales. Se obtuvieron 57 cepas presuntivas de vibriones halofílicos, de las cuales 42 procedieron de pescado congelado y 15 de "cebiches"; se identificaron 5 cepas de Vibrio parahaemoIyticus (8.8% y 14 cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus (24.6% 38 cepas de Vibrio no fueron especificados, catalogándose como Vlbrio sp. (66.6%.

  11. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Allred, Benjamin E; Raymond, Kenneth N; Payne, Shelley M

    2015-09-01

    Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V. cholerae does not use cyclic enterobactin but instead uses its linear derivatives. V. cholerae lacked both a receptor for efficient transport of cyclic enterobactin and enterobactin esterase to promote removal of iron from the ferrisiderophore complex. To further characterize the transport of catechol siderophores, we show that the linear enterobactin derivatives were transported into V. cholerae by either of the catechol siderophore receptors IrgA and VctA, which also transported the synthetic siderophore MECAM [1,3,5-N,N',N″-tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-triaminomethylbenzene]. Vibriobactin is transported via the additional catechol siderophore receptor ViuA, while the Vibrio fluvialis siderophore fluvibactin was transported by all three catechol receptors. ViuB, a putative V. cholerae siderophore-interacting protein (SIP), functionally substituted for the E. coli ferric reductase YqjH, which promotes the release of iron from the siderophore in the bacterial cytoplasm. In V. cholerae, ViuB was required for the use of vibriobactin but was not required for the use of MECAM, fluvibactin, ferrichrome, or the linear derivatives of enterobactin. This suggests the presence of another protein in V. cholerae capable of promoting the release of iron from these siderophores. Vibrio cholerae is a major human pathogen and also serves as a model for the Vibrionaceae, which include other serious human and fish pathogens. The ability of these species to persist and acquire essential

  12. Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita; Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that employs a number of virulence factors as part of its pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to explore marine bacteria as a source of compounds that modulate virulence gene expression in S. aureus. During the global marine Galathea...... 3 expedition, a strain collection was established comprising bacteria that express antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum and/or Staphylococcus aureus. Within this collection we searched colony material, culture supernatants, and cell extracts for virulence modulating activity showing...... that 68 out of 83 marine bacteria (affiliated with the Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonas sp.) influenced expression of S. aureus hla encoding α-hemolysin toxin and/or spa encoding Protein A. The isolate that upon initial screening showed the highest degree of interference (crude ethyl acetate extract...

  13. KEBERADAAN BAKTERI PATOGEN Vibrio cholerae PADA BEBERAPA HASIL PERIKANAN YANG DIJUAL DI PASAR TRADISIONAL KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Yogi Widyastana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the existence of Vibrio cholerae, bacteria that may cause cholera disease, in some fishery products in Denpasar traditional market, Bali. This research used samples taken from three different fisheries products: tuna fishes (Euthynnus affinis, shrimps (Penaeus indicus, and shellfish (Anodonta sp.. They were taken from three traditional markets in Denpasar City: Ketapian, Kumbasari, and Pidada Markets. All samples were cultured on Alkaline Peptone Water (APW media, continued by Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS, and then Biochemical Test and Serology Test undertaken. The results of this study showed that two (7.4% samples taken from Ketapian Market were proved to be positive containing pathogenic bacteria of V. cholerae; they were the shrimps with UA2 code and the shellfish with KA2 code. Meanwhile, there were no V. cholerae contaminations proven to exist in two other kind of products in other two traditional markets.

  14. Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cooked seafood at refrigeration temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J G; Francis, D W; Twedt, R M

    1974-04-01

    The growth and survival of two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated during food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Japan and surface inoculated on cooked shrimp, shrimp with sauce, or cooked crab were tested at various refrigeration temperatures during a 48-h holding period. On cooked shrimp and crab, the vibrios grew well at 18.3 C, but their numbers declined gradually at 10 C and below. At 12.8 C, vibrios remained static for the most part. Thus, it appeared that 12.8 C was the borderline temperature for growth of the organism on cooked seafood. When cocktail sauce was added to surface-inoculated shrimp at a ratio of 2:1, the vibrio die-off rate was accelerated. In the shrimp and sauce few cells remained after 48 h, but in the sauce alone die-off was complete at 6 h.

  15. Opkomst van Vibrio infecties in brakwaterkweekvis : uit de ziekenboeg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, O.L.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2010-01-01

    De laatste paar jaar zijn er diverse Vibrio-soorten als ziekteverwekkende bacterie aangetoond in brak- en zoutwaterkweekvis. We gaan in dit artikel in op vibriose bij tong, tarbot, barramundi een zeebaars.

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and Plasmid Profile of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    32.14%) samples of Vibrio cholerae isolates recovered from water samples from Elele Community. All isolates showed a multiple resistance patterns to 7 antibiotics namely amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, tetracycline, ...

  17. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 х104 CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 х104 CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9%) were Vibrio spp. Vibrio ...

  18. Inactivation of Vibrio anguillarum by attached and planktonic Roseobacter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Melchiorsen, Jette; Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate inhibition of Vibrio by Roseobacter in a combined liquid-surface system. Exposure of Vibrio anguillarum to surface-attached roseobacters (10e7 cfu/cm2) resulted in significant reduction or complete killing of the pathogen inoculated at 10e2 – 10...... cfu/ml. The effect was likely associated with production of tropodithietic acid (TDA), as a TDA-negative mutant did not affect survival or growth of V. anguillarum....

  19. Engineering Vibrio fischeri for Inducible Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrey, Jakob M; Visick, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri serves as a model organism for a variety of natural phenomena, including symbiotic host colonization. The ease with which the V. fischeri genome can be manipulated contributes greatly to our ability to identify the factors involved in these phenomena. Here, we have adapted genetic tools for use in V. fischeri to promote our ability to conditionally control the expression of genes of interest. Specifically, we modified the commonly used mini-Tn5 transposon to contain an outward-facing, LacI-repressible/IPTG-inducible promoter, and inserted the lacI gene into the V. fischeri chromosome. Used together, these tools permit the identification and induction of genes that control specific phenotypes. To validate this approach, we identified IPTG-controllable motility mutants. We anticipate that the ability to randomly insert an inducible promoter into the genome of V. fischeri will advance our understanding of various aspects of the physiology of this microbe.

  20. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisia J Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity.

  1. Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borić, Maja; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment. PMID:22826705

  2. Abundance and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio spp. isolated from microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, A. L.; Darr, K.; Dobbs, F. C.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing concern for `microplastics' (particles resistance profiles of Vibrio spp. found on them. We collected 22 microplastic pieces, paired seawater samples, and from them cultured 44 putative Vibrio spp. isolates, 18 of which were PCR-confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus and 3 as V. vulnificus. There were no PCR-confirmed V. cholerae isolates. We used the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test to examine the isolates' response to six antibiotics: chloramphenicol (30μg), gentamicin (10μg), ampicillin (10μg), streptomycin (10μg), tetracycline (30μg), and rifampin (5μg). Vibrio isolates were susceptible to three or more of the six antibiotics tested and all were susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. There were no apparent differences between the antibiotic susceptibilities of vibrios isolated from microplastics compared to those from the water column. In every instance tested, vibrios on microplastics were enriched by at least two orders of magnitude compared to those from paired seawater samples. This study demonstrates that microplastic particles serve as a habitat for Vibrio species, in particular V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus, confirming the conjecture of Zettler et al. (2013) that plastics may serve as a vector for these and other potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Diversity and antimicrobial activities of microbes from two Irish marine sponges, Suberites carnosus and Leucosolenia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemer, B; Kennedy, J; Margassery, L M; Morrissey, J P; O'Gara, F; Dobson, A D W

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the diversity and antimicrobial activity of bacteria from the marine sponges Suberites carnosus and Leucosolenia sp. Two hundred and thirty-seven bacteria were isolated from the sponges S. carnosus (Demospongiae) and Leucosolenia sp. (Calcarea). Isolates from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were obtained. Isolates of the genus Pseudovibrio were dominant among the bacteria from S. carnosus, whereas Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio were the dominant genera isolated from Leucosolenia sp. Approximately 50% of the isolates from S. carnosus displayed antibacterial activity, and c. 15% of the isolates from Leucosolenia sp. demonstrated activity against the test fungal strains. The antibacterial activity observed was mostly from Pseudovibrio and Spongiobacter isolates, while the majority of the antifungal activity was observed from the Pseudoalteromonas, Bacillus and Vibrio isolates. Both sponges possess a diverse range of bioactive and potentially novel bacteria. Differences observed from the sponge-derived groups of isolates in terms of bioactivity suggest that S. carnosus isolates may be a better source of antibacterial compounds, while Leucosolenia sp. isolates appear to be a better source of antifungal compounds. This is the first study in which cultured bacterial isolates from the marine sponges S. carnosus and a Leucosolenia sp. have been evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The high percentage of antibacterial isolates from S. carnosus and of antifungal isolates from Leucosolenia sp. suggests that these two sponges may be good sources for potentially novel marine natural products. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Smith, Erika; Viveros-Jiménez, Karina; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Nazmi, Kamran; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; de la Garza, Mireya; Martínez-Garcia, Jesús J.; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC) and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species. PMID:29375503

  5. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Smith, Erika; Viveros-Jiménez, Karina; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Bolscher, Jan G M; Nazmi, Kamran; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; de la Garza, Mireya; Martínez-Garcia, Jesús J; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC) and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species.

  6. Anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and determine its relevance in the treatment of vibrios infection. Methods: The agar-well diffusion method was used for screening the extracts for their anti-vibrio activity. Broth micro-dilution assay was used to ...

  7. Prevalence study of Vibrio species and frequency of the virulence genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimps in Genaveh seaport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hosseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio species are important seafood-borne pathogens that are responsible for 50-70% of gasteroenteritis. The present study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of Vibrio species and the distribution of tdh, tlh and trh virulence genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimp samples. Totally, 60 fresh and salted shrimp samples were collected from the Genaveh seaport. Microbial culture was used to isolate Vibrio species. In addition, the presences of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio harveyi and the virulence genes of V. parahaemolyticus were studied using the PCR method. Results showed that 20% of fresh and 23.33% of salted shrimp samples were positive for Vibrio species. In studied samples, V. vulnificus had the highest prevalence rate (8.33%, while V. cholera had the lowest prevalence rate (1.66%. From a total of 4 detected V. parahaemolyticus, all of them had tlh gene (100%. The distribution of tdh and trh genes in isolated V. parahaemolyticus strains were 50% and 25%, respectively. High prevalence of Vibrio species and especially virulent V. parahaemolyticus in samples confirmed the lack of hygienic condition in the production and distribution centers of shrimp.

  8. Non-Cholera Vibrios: The Microbial Barometer of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of climate change in driving the spread of waterborne infectious diseases, such as those caused by bacterial pathogens. One particular group of pathogenic bacteria - vibrios - are a globally important cause of diseases in humans and aquatic animals. These Gram-negative bacteria, including the species Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, grow in warm, low-salinity waters, and their abundance in the natural environment mirrors ambient environmental temperatures. In a rapidly warming marine environment, there are greater numbers of human infections, and most notably outbreaks linked to extreme weather events such as heatwaves in temperate regions such as Northern Europe. Because the growth of pathogenic vibrios in the natural environment is largely dictated by temperature, we argue that this group of pathogens represents an important and tangible barometer of climate change in marine systems. We provide a number of specific examples of the impacts of climate change on this group of bacteria and their associated diseases, and discuss advanced strategies to improve our understanding of these emerging waterborne diseases through the integration of microbiological, genomic, epidemiological, climatic, and ocean sciences. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  10. [Influence of aflatoxin on Vibrio fischeri luminescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we aim to evaluate the inhibitory effect of aflatoxin on Vibrio fischeri luminescence. V. fischeri culture is treated with aflatoxin or the culture broth of aflatoxin-producing strains, and the luminescence intensity of V. fischeri is detected to analyze the influence of aflatoxin on V. fischeri. The logarithmic value of aflatoxin concentration and the decrease ratio of V. fischeri luminescence is in a linear relationship. Based on the regression equation between aflatoxin concentration and luminescence decrease of V. fischeri, the toxin-producing status of different microbes can be detected quickly and exactly: all of six tested Aspergillus flavus strains show toxigenicity to V. fischeri, and their toxin yield reached 14.94 mg/L - 46.45 mg/L (represented by aflatoxin concentration), while the tested Aspergillus oryzae shows no toxigenicity. The above data showed that the luminescence change of V. fischeri could exactly reflect the capability of various microbes to produce toxin (especially aflatoxin), which provided a new clue for rapid detection of aflatoxin in industrial and agricultural production and could be developed as a potential method for aflatoxin assay.

  11. Vibrio parahaemolyticus- An emerging foodborne pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nelapati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic gram negative, motile, oxidase positive, straight or curved rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria that occur naturally in the marine environment. They form part of the indigenous microflora of aquatic habitats of various salinity and are the major causative agents for some of the most serious diseases in fish, shellfish and penacid shrimp. This human pathogen causes acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps through consumption of contaminated raw fish or shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to the consumption of seafood worldwide. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus infection has been increasing in many parts of the world, due to the emergence of O3:K6 serotype carrying the tdh gene which is responsible for most outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this organism is closely correlated with the Kanagawa phenomenon (KP + due to production of Kanagawa hemolysin or the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH. The TDH and TRH (TDH-related hemolysin encoded by tdh and trh genes are considered to be important virulence factors. [Vet. World 2012; 5(1.000: 48-63

  12. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Koepke, Amanda A; Kenah, Eben E; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; LaRocque, Regina C; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B; Harris, Jason B; Longini, Ira M

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-valuelevels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of the transmissibility of endemic cholera within prospectively-followed members of households. The role of direct transmission must be considered when planning cholera control activities.

  13. Role of Vibrio polysaccharide (vps) genes in VPS production, biofilm formation and Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jiunn C N; Syed, Khalid A; Klose, Karl E; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2010-09-01

    Biofilm formation enhances the survival and persistence of the facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae in natural ecosystems and its transmission during seasonal cholera outbreaks. A major component of the V. cholerae biofilm matrix is the Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS), which is essential for development of three-dimensional biofilm structures. The vps genes are clustered in two regions, the vps-I cluster (vpsU, vpsA-K, VC0916-27) and the vps-II cluster (vpsL-Q, VC0934-39), separated by an intergenic region containing the rbm gene cluster that encodes biofilm matrix proteins. In-frame deletions of the vps clusters and genes encoding matrix proteins drastically altered biofilm formation phenotypes. To determine which genes within the vps gene clusters are required for biofilm formation and VPS synthesis, we generated in-frame deletion mutants for all the vps genes. Many of these mutants exhibited reduced capacity to produce VPS and biofilms. Infant mouse colonization assays revealed that mutants lacking either vps clusters or rbmA (encoding secreted matrix protein RbmA) exhibited a defect in intestinal colonization compared to the wild-type. Understanding the roles of the various vps gene products will aid in the biochemical characterization of the VPS biosynthetic pathway and elucidate how vps gene products contribute to VPS biosynthesis, biofilm formation and virulence in V. cholerae.

  14. Differential metabolic responses of clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2013-12-01

    Clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the important marine aquaculture species in North China. However, pathogens can often cause diseases and lead to massive mortalities and economic losses of clam. In this work, we compared the metabolic responses induced by Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus challenges towards hepatopancreas of clam using NMR-based metabolomics. Metabolic responses suggested that both V. anguillarum and V. splendidus induced disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, oxidative and immune stresses with different mechanisms, as indicated by correspondingly differential metabolic biomarkers (e.g., amino acids, ATP, glucose, glycogen, taurine, betaine, choline and hypotaurine) and altered mRNA expression levels of related genes including ATP synthase, ATPase, glutathione peroxidase, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme. However, V. anguillarum caused more severe oxidative and immune stresses in clam hepatopancreas than V. splendidus. Our results indicated that metabolomics could be used to elucidate the biological effects of pathogens to the marine clam R. philippinarum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vibrio fischeri flavohaemoglobin protects against nitric oxide during initiation of the squid-Vibrio symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Dunn, Anne K; Wilneff, Jacqueline; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Spiro, Stephen; Ruby, Edward G

    2010-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in a wide range of biological processes, including innate immunity against pathogens, signal transduction and protection against oxidative stress. However, its possible roles in beneficial host-microbe associations are less well recognized. During the early stages of the squid-vibrio symbiosis, the bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri encounters host-derived NO, which has been hypothesized to serve as a specificity determinant. We demonstrate here that the flavohaemoglobin, Hmp, of V. fischeri protects against NO, both in culture and during colonization of the squid host. Transcriptional analyses indicate that hmp expression is highly responsive to NO, principally through the repressor, NsrR. Hmp protects V. fischeri from NO inhibition of aerobic respiration, and removes NO under both oxic and anoxic conditions. A Δhmp mutant of V. fischeri initiates squid colonization less effectively than wild type, but is rescued by the presence of an NO synthase inhibitor. The hmp promoter is activated during the initial stage of colonization, during which the Δhmp strain fails to form normal-sized aggregates of colonizing cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the sensing of host-derived NO by NsrR, and the subsequent removal of NO by Hmp, influence aggregate size and, thereby, V. fischeri colonization efficiency. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Role for cheR of Vibrio fischeri in the Vibrio-squid symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloney-Marino, Cindy R; Visick, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Upon hatching, the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes is rapidly colonized by its symbiotic partner, the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri . Vibrio fischeri cells present in the seawater enter the light organ of juvenile squid in a process that requires bacterial motility. In this study, we investigated the role chemotaxis may play in establishing this symbiotic colonization. Previously, we reported that V. fischeri migrates toward numerous attractants, including N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), a component of squid mucus. However, whether or not migration toward an attractant such as squid-derived NANA helps the bacterium to localize toward the light organ is unknown. When tested for the ability to colonize juvenile squid, a V. fischeri chemotaxis mutant defective for the methyltransferase CheR was outcompeted by the wild-type strain in co-inoculation experiments, even when the mutant was present in fourfold excess. Our results suggest that the ability to perform chemotaxis is an advantage during colonization, but not essential.

  17. Nasitrema sp.-associated encephalitis in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Homer, Bruce L.; Greiner, Ellis C.; Layton, A. William

    1991-01-01

    An immature female striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) found dead on a northwestern Florida beach in 1988 exhibited severe inflammation bilaterally in the dorsal and mid-thalamus in association with adult trematodes (Nasitrema sp.) and trematode eggs. Numerous specimens of Nasitrema sp. also were present in the pterygoid sinuses. Pneumonia in association with a heavy growth of Vibrio damsela was observed also. This report confirms the occurrence of Nasitrema sp.-associated encephalitis in striped dolphins and in small cetaceans from the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Ocorrência de Vibrio spp., estafilococos coagulase positivo e bactérias entéricas em ostras (Crassostrea gigas) cultivadas na baía sul da ilha de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Roberta Juliano; Pereira, Murilo Anderson; Miotto, Letícia Adélia; Faria, Renata D'Aquino; Silveira Junior, Nelson; Vieira, Cleide Rosana Werneck

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of oysters (Crassostrea gigas), harvested in six different regions of the South Bay of Santa Catarina Island, with Coliforms at 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci, and Salmonella sp. over a period of one year. One hundred eighty oyster samples were collected directly from their culture sites and analyzed. Each sample consisted of a pool of 12 oysters. All of the samples analyzed showed absence of Salmone...

  19. [Genomic variability of vibrio cholerae El Tor biovariant strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, N I; Kostromitina, E A; Osin, A V; Kutyrev, V V

    2005-01-01

    The authors performed comparative analysis of the genomes of 145 clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae El Tor biovariants using single locus and multiplex PCR. The study found that clinical strains isolated from patients with cholera formed a genetically homogenous group, where bacterial chromosome contained all the tested virulence genes, situated on mobile genetic elements that had been acquired by the pathogen at various stages of its evolution. Strains isolated from water ecosystems during interepidemic period were heterogeneous and formed three groups: a small number of virulent strains; non-toxigenic vibrio strains that, in the process of reductional variation in their new econiche, had only managed to maintain individual virulence genes; non-pathogenic "water" vibrios, whose chromosome contained only the genes from its core part, mobile genetic elements being optionally represented only by the persistence island. Molecular typing established genetic relations among V. cholerae strains under study.

  20. Reclassification of Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio logei, Vibrio salmonicida and Vibrio wodanis as Aliivibrio fischeri gen. nov., comb. nov., Aliivibrio logei comb. nov., Aliivibrio salmonicida comb. nov. and Aliivibrio wodanis comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, Henryk; Ast, Jennifer C; Higgins, Melissa J; Carson, Jeremy; Dunlap, Paul V

    2007-12-01

    Four closely related species, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio logei, Vibrio salmonicida and Vibrio wodanis, form a clade within the family Vibrionaceae; the taxonomic status and phylogenetic position of this clade have remained ambiguous for many years. To resolve this ambiguity, we tested these species against other species of the Vibrionaceae for phylogenetic and phenotypic differences. Sequence identities for the 16S rRNA gene were > or =97.4 % among members of the V. fischeri group, but were Vibrio, with which they overlap in G+C content, and Enterovibrio, Grimontia and Salinivibrio, with which they do not overlap in G+C content). Combined analysis of the recA, rpoA, pyrH, gyrB and 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the species of the V. fischeri group form a tightly clustered clade, distinct from these other genera. Furthermore, phenotypic traits differentiated the V. fischeri group from other genera of the Vibrionaceae, and a panel of 13 biochemical tests discriminated members of the V. fischeri group from type strains of Photobacterium and Vibrio. These results indicate that the four species of the V. fischeri group represent a lineage within the Vibrionaceae that is distinct from other genera. We therefore propose their reclassification in a new genus, Aliivibrio gen. nov. Aliivibrio is composed of four species: Aliivibrio fischeri comb. nov. (the type species) (type strain ATCC 7744(T) =CAIM 329(T) =CCUG 13450(T) =CIP 103206(T) =DSM 507(T) =LMG 4414(T) =NCIMB 1281(T)), Aliivibrio logei comb. nov. (type strain ATCC 29985(T) =CCUG 20283(T) =CIP 104991(T) =NCIMB 2252(T)), Aliivibrio salmonicida comb. nov. (type strain ATCC 43839(T) =CIP 103166(T) =LMG 14010(T) =NCIMB 2262(T)) and Aliivibrio wodanis comb. nov. (type strain ATCC BAA-104(T) =NCIMB 13582(T) =LMG 24053(T)).

  1. Long-term effects of ocean warming on vibrios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.

    2012-12-01

    Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global warming may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover environmental DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with warming sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased

  2. Arabinose induces pellicle formation by Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visick, Karen L; Quirke, Kevin P; McEwen, Sheila M

    2013-03-01

    Biofilms are multicellular communities of bacteria attached to a surface and embedded in a protective matrix. In many cases, the signals that induce biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we report that biofilm formation by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri can be induced by the addition of arabinose to LBS (Luria-Bertani-salt), a tryptone-based medium. Growth of cells in the presence of 0.2% arabinose, but not other sugars, induced the production of a pellicle at the air/liquid interfaces of static cultures. V. fischeri failed to grow on arabinose as the sole carbon source, suggesting that pellicle production did not occur as a result of increased growth, but experiments using the acid/base indicator phenol red suggested that V. fischeri may partially metabolize arabinose. Pellicle production was independent of the syp polysaccharide locus but was altered upon disruption of the bcs cellulose locus. Through a screen for mutants defective for pellicle production, we found that loss of motility disrupted the formation of the arabinose-induced pellicle. Among the ∼20 mutants that retained motility were strains with insertions in a putative msh pilus locus and a strain with a defect in yidK, which is involved in galactose catabolism. Mutants with the msh gene disrupted grew poorly in the presence of arabinose, while the yidK mutant appeared to be "blind" to the presence of arabinose. Finally, arabinose impaired symbiotic colonization by V. fischeri. This work thus identifies a novel signal and new pathways involved in control of biofilm formation by V. fischeri.

  3. Development of a More Sensitive and Specific Chromogenic Agar Medium for the Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Other Vibrio Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Marie; Thorsen, Trevor

    2016-11-08

    Foodborne infections in the US caused by Vibrio species have shown an upward trend. In the genus Vibrio, V. parahaemolyticus is responsible for the majority of Vibrio-associated infections. Thus, accurate differentiation among Vibrio spp. and detection of V. parahaemolyticus is critically important to ensure the safety of our food supply. Although molecular techniques are increasingly common, culture-depending methods are still routinely done and they are considered standard methods in certain circumstances. Hence, a novel chromogenic agar medium was tested with the goal of providing a better method for isolation and differentiation of clinically relevant Vibrio spp. The protocol compared the sensitivity, specificity and detection limit for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus between the new chromogenic medium and a conventional medium. Various V. parahaemolyticus strains (n=22) representing diverse serotypes and source of origins were used. They were previously identified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and further verified in our laboratory by tlh-PCR. In at least four separate trials, these strains were inoculated on the chromogenic agar and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar, which is the recommended medium for culturing this species, followed by incubation at 35-37 °C for 24-96 hr. Three V. parahaemolyticus strains (13.6%) did not grow optimally on TCBS, nonetheless exhibited green colonies if there was growth. Two strains (9.1%) did not yield the expected cyan colonies on the chromogenic agar. Non-V. parahaemolyticus strains (n=32) were also tested to determine the specificity of the chromogenic agar. Among these strains, 31 did not grow or exhibited other colony morphologies. The mean recovery of V. parahaemolyticus on the chromogenic agar was ~96.4% relative to tryptic soy agar supplemented with 2% NaCl. In conclusion, the new chromogenic agar is an effective medium to detect V

  4. The light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri possesses a homolog of the Vibrio cholerae transmembrane transcriptional activator ToxR.

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, K A; Schoolnik, G K

    1994-01-01

    A cross-hybridizing DNA fragment to Vibrio cholerae toxR was cloned from the nonpathogenic light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri, and three proteins homologous to V. cholerae ToxR, ToxS, and HtpG were deduced from its DNA sequence. V. fischeri ToxR was found to activate a V. cholerae ToxR-regulated promoter, and an antiserum raised against the amino-terminal domain of V. cholerae ToxR cross-reacts V. fischeri ToxR.

  5. The phytoplankton Nannochloropsis oculata enhances the ability of Roseobacter clade bacteria to inhibit the growth of fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Noor Sharifah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phytoplankton cultures are widely used in aquaculture for a variety of applications, especially as feed for fish larvae. Phytoplankton cultures are usually grown in outdoor tanks using natural seawater and contain probiotic or potentially pathogenic bacteria. Some Roseobacter clade isolates suppress growth of the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. However, most published information concerns interactions between probiotic and pathogenic bacteria, and little information is available regarding the importance of phytoplankton in these interactions. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to identify probiotic Roseobacter clade members in phytoplankton cultures used for rearing fish larvae and to investigate their inhibitory activity towards bacterial fish pathogens in the presence of the phytoplankton Nannochloropsis oculata. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The fish pathogen V. anguillarum, was challenged with 6 Roseobacter clade isolates (Sulfitobacter sp. (2 strains, Thalassobius sp., Stappia sp., Rhodobacter sp., and Antarctobacter sp. from phytoplankton cultures under 3 different nutritional conditions. In an organic nutrient-rich medium (VNSS, 6 Roseobacter clade isolates, as well as V. anguillarum, grew well (10(9 CFU/ml, even when cocultured. In contrast, in a phytoplankton culture medium (ESM based on artificial seawater, coculture with the 6 isolates decreased the viability of V. anguillarum by approximately more than 10-fold. Excreted substances in media conditioned by growth of the phytoplankton N. oculata (NCF medium resulted in the complete eradication of V. anguillarum when cocultured with the roseobacters. Autoclaved NCF had the same inhibitory effect. Furthermore, Sulfitobacter sp. much more efficiently incorporated (14C- photosynthetic metabolites ((14C-EPM excreted by N. oculata than did V. anguillarum. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Cocultures of a phytoplankton species and Roseobacter clade members exhibited a greater

  6. The Phytoplankton Nannochloropsis oculata Enhances the Ability of Roseobacter Clade Bacteria to Inhibit the Growth of Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifah, Emilia Noor; Eguchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Background Phytoplankton cultures are widely used in aquaculture for a variety of applications, especially as feed for fish larvae. Phytoplankton cultures are usually grown in outdoor tanks using natural seawater and contain probiotic or potentially pathogenic bacteria. Some Roseobacter clade isolates suppress growth of the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. However, most published information concerns interactions between probiotic and pathogenic bacteria, and little information is available regarding the importance of phytoplankton in these interactions. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to identify probiotic Roseobacter clade members in phytoplankton cultures used for rearing fish larvae and to investigate their inhibitory activity towards bacterial fish pathogens in the presence of the phytoplankton Nannochloropsis oculata. Methodology/Principal Findings The fish pathogen V. anguillarum, was challenged with 6 Roseobacter clade isolates (Sulfitobacter sp. (2 strains), Thalassobius sp., Stappia sp., Rhodobacter sp., and Antarctobacter sp.) from phytoplankton cultures under 3 different nutritional conditions. In an organic nutrient-rich medium (VNSS), 6 Roseobacter clade isolates, as well as V. anguillarum, grew well (109 CFU/ml), even when cocultured. In contrast, in a phytoplankton culture medium (ESM) based on artificial seawater, coculture with the 6 isolates decreased the viability of V. anguillarum by approximately more than 10-fold. Excreted substances in media conditioned by growth of the phytoplankton N. oculata (NCF medium) resulted in the complete eradication of V. anguillarum when cocultured with the roseobacters. Autoclaved NCF had the same inhibitory effect. Furthermore, Sulfitobacter sp. much more efficiently incorporated 14C- photosynthetic metabolites (14C-EPM) excreted by N. oculata than did V. anguillarum. Conclusion/Significance Cocultures of a phytoplankton species and Roseobacter clade members exhibited a greater antibacterial

  7. Power plays: iron transport and energy transduction in pathogenic vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustusch, Ryan J; Kuehl, Carole J; Crosa, Jorge H

    2011-06-01

    The Vibrios are a unique group of bacteria inhabiting a vast array of aquatic environments. Many Vibrio species are capable of infecting a wide assortment of hosts. Some of these species include V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. anguillarum, and V. cholerae. The ability of these organisms to utilize iron is essential in establishing both an infection in their hosts as well as surviving in the environment. Bacteria are able to sequester iron through the secretion of low molecular weight iron chelators termed siderophores. The iron-siderophore complexes are bound by specific outer membrane receptors and are brought through both the outer and inner membranes of the cell. The energy needed to drive this active transport is achieved through the TonB energy transduction system. When first elucidated in E. coli, the TonB system was shown to be a three protein complex consisting of TonB, ExbB and ExbD. Most Vibrio species carry two TonB systems. The second TonB system includes a fourth protein; TtpC, which is essential for TonB2 mediated iron transport. Some Vibrio species have been shown to carry a third TonB system that also includes a TtpC protein.

  8. Localization of immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outer membrane protein U (OmpU), an adhesion protein of Vibrio mimicus, is a good antigen, but its epitopes are still unclear. In order to locate the epitopes of OmpU protein, epitope prediction was performed using the amino acid sequence of OmpU protein of V. mimicus HX4 strain that was isolated from the diseased ...

  9. Vibrio vulnificus-infektioner i Danmark sommeren 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Brita Grønbech; Frimodt-Møller, N; Dalsgaard, A.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical manifestations and epidemiological data of 11 patients infected with Vibrio vulnificus found in Denmark during the unusually warm summer of 1994 are reported. All patients had been exposed to seawater prior to illness, but none had consumed seafood. Nine patients, including four...

  10. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis

  11. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for polymerase chain ...

  12. Molecular analysis of the emergence of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, EF; Cohen, AL; Naughton, LM

    2008-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogroup...

  13. Detection of quorum sensing molecules from Vibrio harveyi and use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the extraction and detection processes of quorum sensing molecules such as N-aceyl homoserine lactone compounds (AHL) from marine Vibrio harveyi. The spent culture of V. harveyi was solvent partitioned for AHL, rotary evaporated and re-suspended in 50% acetonitrile then detected with reporter ...

  14. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-04-02

    Apr 2, 2003 ... A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for ...

  15. Survival of Vibrio cholerae in industrially polluted water, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing industrial effluents. The effect of iron as well as pH on the survival of Vibrio cholerae (non-O1, El Tor and classical strains) in water samples from 12 points, where selected industrial effluents were discharged into rivers, was studied.

  16. Detection and confirmation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemic cholera caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 is a major health problem in several developing countries. Traditional methods for identifying V. cholerae involve cultural, biochemical and immunological assays which are cumbersome and often take several days to complete. In the present study, a direct cell ...

  17. Vibrio Cholerae 01 Infections In Jos, Nigeria | Opajobi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to determine the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae 01 in stool sample submitted for routine examination of enteric pathogens, as well as identify the serotypes and antibiogram of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics was undertaken. The survey involved the examination of 774 (763 stool and 11 rectal swabs) ...

  18. Ion-swimming speed variation of Vibrio cholerae cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work we report the variation in swimming speed of Vibrio cholerae with respect to the change in concentration of sodium ions in the medium. We have also studied the variation in swimming speed with respect to temperature. We find that the swimming speed initially shows a linear increase with the increase of ...

  19. Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae in Nile perch ( Lates niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) industry in East Africa has suffered severe economic losses in the last few years due to failure to comply with the microbiological standards of European Union (E.U). Fresh and frozen products have been suspected to be contaminated with Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae. This has led to a ...

  20. Detection and confirmation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-20

    Aug 20, 2013 ... Epidemic cholera caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 is a major health problem in several developing countries. Traditional methods for identifying V. cholerae involve cultural, biochemical and immunological assays which are cumber- some and often take several days to complete. In the present study, ...

  1. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of vibrio cholerae 01 strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 No. 7 July 2000. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE 01 STRAINS DURING TWO CHOLERA OUTBREAKS IN DAR ES SALAAM,. TANZANIA. W.K. Urassa, MD, MSc, MMed, Lecturer, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University ...

  2. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in rivers of Mpumalanga province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholera is a life-threatening diarrhoeal disease, which mainly affects inhabitants of developing countries due to poor socio-economic conditions and lack of access to potable water and sanitation. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae are the aetiological agents of cholera. These bacteria are autochthonous to aquatic environments, ...

  3. Vibriophages and Their Interactions with the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen...

  4. Evaluation of in vitro Vibrio static activity of Shewanella algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional methods followed by Biolog microlog software. Since production of antagonistic agents rely on cultural conditions, antagonistic ability of candidate probioic against the mentioned Vibrios was assessed using Response Surface Methodology, with central composite design in which four independents variables ...

  5. Pseudomonas piscicida kills vibrios by two distinct mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudoalteromonas piscicida is a naturally-occurring marine bacterium which kills competing bacteria, including vibrios. In studies by Richards et al. (AEM00175-17), three strains of P. piscicida were isolated and characterized. Strains secreted proteolytic enzymes which likely killed competing or...

  6. Biosurfactant production by hydrocarbon-degrading Brevibacterium and Vibrio isolates from the sea pen Pteroeides spinosum (Ellis, 1764).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Marco; Rizzo, Carmen; Michaud, Luigi; Porporato, Erika Maria Diletta; De Domenico, Emilio; Spanò, Nunziacarla; Lo Giudice, Angelina

    2016-09-01

    Among filter-feeders, pennatulids are the most complex and polymorphic members of the cnidarian class Anthozoa. They display a wide distribution throughout all the oceans, constituting a significant component of the sessile megafauna from intertidal to abyssal depths. In this study, a total of 118 bacterial isolates from enrichment cultures, carried out with homogenates of the sea pen Pteroeides spinosum (Ellis, 1764), were screened for hydrocarbon utilization by using the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol assay. Among them, 83 hydrocarbon-oxidizing isolates were analyzed for biosurfactant production by standard screening tests (i.e., emulsifying activity, E24 detection, surface tension measurement, microplate assay). The 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the affiliation of the most promising isolates to the genera Brevibacterium and Vibrio. Biosurfactant production resulted strongly affected by salinity and temperature conditions, and occurred in the presence of diesel oil and/or crude oil, whereas no production was observed when isolates were grown on tetradecane. The strains resulted able to create stable emulsions, thus suggesting the production of biosurfactants. Further analyses revealed a glycolipidic nature of the biosurfactant extracted from Vibrio sp. PBN295, a genus that has been only recently reported as biosurfactant producer. Results suggest that pennatulids could represent a novel source for the isolation of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria with potential in biosurfactant production. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  8. Isolation of TDA-producing Phaeobacter strains from sea bass larval rearing units and their probiotic effect against pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Artemia cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul; Dourala, Nancy; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gram, Lone

    2016-05-01

    Fish-pathogenic Vibrio can cause large-scale crashes in marine larval rearing units and, since the use of antibiotics can result in bacterial antibiotic resistance, new strategies for disease prevention are needed. Roseobacter-clade bacteria from turbot larval rearing facilities can antagonize Vibrio anguillarum and reduce mortality in V. anguillarum-infected cod and turbot larvae. In this study, it was demonstrated that antagonistic Roseobacter-clade bacteria could be isolated from sea bass larval rearing units. In addition, it was shown that they not only antagonized V. anguillarum but also V. harveyi, which is the major bacterial pathogen in crustaceans and Mediterranean sea bass larvae cultures. Concomitantly, they significantly improved survival of V. harveyi-infected brine shrimp. 16S rRNA gene sequence homology identified the antagonists as Phaeobacter sp., and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that they could belong to a new species. The genomes contained genes involved in synthesis of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), and its production was confirmed by UHPLC-TOFMS. The new Phaeobacter colonized live feed (Artemia) cultures and reduced Vibrio counts significantly, since they reached only 10(4)CFUmL(-1), as opposed to 10(8)CFUmL(-1) in non-Phaeobacter treated controls. Survival of V. anguillarum-challenged Artemia nauplii was enhanced by the presence of wild type Phaeobacter compared to challenged control cultures (89±1.0% vs 8±3.2%). In conclusion, TDA-producing Phaeobacter isolated from Mediterranean marine larviculture are promising probiotic bacteria against pathogenic Vibrio in crustacean live-feed cultures for marine fish larvae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Probiotic modulation of the gut bacterial community of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema E Luis-Villaseñor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of two probiotic mixtures was studied using the fingerprints of the bacterial community of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles exposed to probiotics and challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170. Fingerprints were constructed using 16S rRNA gene and the PCR-SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism technique, and the probiotics used were an experimental Bacillus mixture (Bacillus tequilensis YC5-2 + B. endophyticus C2-2 and YC3-B and the commercial probiotic Alibio. The DNA for PCR-SSCP analyses was extracted directly from the guts of shrimps treated for 20 days with the probiotics and injected with 2.5*10(5 CFU g-1 of V. parahaemolyticus one week after suspension of the probiotic treatment. Untreated shrimps served as positive (injected with V. parahaemolyticus and negative (not injected controls Analysis of the bacterial community carried out after inoculation and 12 and 48 h later confirmed that V. parahaemolyticus was present in shrimps of the positive control , but not in the negative control or treated with the probiotic mixtures. A significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between times after infection. The band patterns in 0-12 h were clustered into a different group from that determined after 48 h, and suggested that during bacterial infection the guts of whiteleg shrimp were dominated by gamma proteobacteria represented by Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. Our results indicate that the experimental and the commercial mixtures are suitable to modulate the bacterial community of L. vannamei and could be used as a probiotic to control vibriosis in juvenile shrimp.

  10. Antibacterial and cytotoxic cytochalasins from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. harbored in Garcinia kola (Heckel) nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Tamokou, Jean-de-Dieu; Mbazoa, Céline Djama; Douala-Meli, Clovis; Sarkar, Prodipta; Bag, Prasanta Kumar; Wandji, Jean

    2016-11-14

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria drastically reduced the efficacy of our antibiotic armory and consequently, increased the frequency of therapeutic failure. The search for bioactive constituents from endophytic fungi against MDR bacteria became a necessity for alternative and promising strategies, and for the development of novel therapeutic solutions. We report here the isolation and structure elucidation of antibacterial and cytotoxic compounds from Phomopsis sp., an endophytic fungus associated with Garcinia kola nuts. The fungus Phomopsis sp. was isolated from the nut of Garcinia kola. The crude extract was prepared from mycelium of Phomopsis sp. by maceration in ethyl acetate and sequentially fractionated by column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral studies and comparison with published data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticancer properties by broth microdilution and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide methods respectively. The samples were also tested spectrophotometrically for their hemolytic properties against human red blood cells. The fractionation of the crude extract afforded three known cytochalasins including 18-metoxycytochalasin J (1), cytochalasins H (2) and J (3) together with alternariol (4). The cytochalasin compounds showed different degrees of antibacterial activities against the tested bacterial pathogens. Shigella flexneri was the most sensitive microorganism while Vibrio cholerae SG24 and Vibrio cholerae PC2 were the most resistant. Ampicillin did not show any antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae NB2, Vibrio cholerae PC2 and Shigella flexneri at concentrations up to 512 μg/mL, but interestingly, these multi-drug resistant bacterial strains were sensitive to the cytochalasin metabolites. These compounds also showed significant cytotoxic properties against human cancer cells (LC

  11. Evaluation of Cholera Toxin Expression in Different Populations of Vibrio cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Ebrahimi Kasgari; Mahnaz Nourani; Yousef Yahyapour; Seyed Ehsanollah Mousavi; Enayatollah Kalantar; Hami Kaboosi; Seyed Mahmoud Amin Marashi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cholera is one of the most diseases of human. Cholera toxin is the most important pathogenic factor in humans that causes diarrhea. The cholera toxin is produced by V. cholerae and CTXфPhage. Objectives: In this study, we have investigated the production cholera toxin with different density of Vibrio cholerae. Materials and Methods: With this propose we inoculated classical strain O1 of Vibrio cholerae ATCC 14035 and Vibrio cholerae O1biovar El Tor N16961 into th...

  12. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia-Valenzuela M.H.; Vergara-Jiménez M.J.; Baez-Flores M.E.; Cabrera-Chavez F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i) food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii) food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii) food without oregano oil (the control). The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae). The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p

  13. Antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites and phylogenetic study of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria, Bacillus sp. at Agatti Island, Lakshadweep Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Mohan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp., Edwardsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter brackii. The secondary metabolites produced by SEB32 from sponge Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1818 [48] was selected with broad range of antibacterial activity and subjected for production, characterization by series of chromatography techniques and spectroscopic methods. Based on the results of FT-IR and mass spectrometry, the active molecule was tentatively predicted as “Pyrrol” and the structure is Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- with molecular formula of C7H10N2O2. The LC50 of active molecule was 31 μg/ml and molecular weight of the metabolites was 154. The potential strain SEB32 was identified by gene sequence (GenBank Accession number JX985748 and identified as Bacillus sp. from GenBank database.

  14. VibrioBase: A Model for Next-Generation Genome and Annotation Database Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Woh Choo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate the ongoing research of Vibrio spp., a dedicated platform for the Vibrio research community is needed to host the fast-growing amount of genomic data and facilitate the analysis of these data. We present VibrioBase, a useful resource platform, providing all basic features of a sequence database with the addition of unique analysis tools which could be valuable for the Vibrio research community. VibrioBase currently houses a total of 252 Vibrio genomes developed in a user-friendly manner and useful to enable the analysis of these genomic data, particularly in the field of comparative genomics. Besides general data browsing features, VibrioBase offers analysis tools such as BLAST interfaces and JBrowse genome browser. Other important features of this platform include our newly developed in-house tools, the pairwise genome comparison (PGC tool, and pathogenomics profiling tool (PathoProT. The PGC tool is useful in the identification and comparative analysis of two genomes, whereas PathoProT is designed for comparative pathogenomics analysis of Vibrio strains. Both of these tools will enable researchers with little experience in bioinformatics to get meaningful information from Vibrio genomes with ease. We have tested the validity and suitability of these tools and features for use in the next-generation database development.

  15. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE ETIOLOGICAL ROLE OF VIBRIO FETUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Little, R B; Taylor, M S

    1920-11-30

    The data bearing on these three cases are quite sufficient to rule out Bacillus abortus as the agent. Not only the cultures and guinea pig tests of fetal tissues and contents of the digestive tract, but also the agglutination and guinea pig tests of the milk, were negative. The same is true of the agglutination tests of the blood serum. Only in one case was the placenta obtained in part. The stained films and the sections from various regions showed no abortion bacilli. Guinea pig tests of placental tissue were negative for Bacillus abortus. On the other hand) minute organisms resembling vibrios were detected in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells within capillaries in the edematous subchorionic tissue. Subsequently the agglutination titer of the blood serum of one of these cases rose to a level indicating infection with Bacillus abortus during the second pregnancy. The peculiar distribution of abortions due to Vibrio fetus among older cows and heifers in this herd, resulting at first in cases among older cows and latterly passing to young stock, may be explained by certain occurrences in the herd itself. It may be assumed that the infection was originally brought in by purchased cows. The young stock is kept segregated from these in a special barn, and when 6 months old it is pastured on outlying farms until returned in an advanced stage of pregnancy. The heifers during the first pregnancy were thus kept away from vibrio carriers until after the first calf was born. In June and July, 1919, 55 older cows, purchased and native, were placed on the young stock pasture. The three cases of abortion in heifers due to Vibrio fetus occurred October 24, November 9, and December 2, 1919. The age and condition of the fetuses accord very well with the assumption that Vibrio fetus was introduced among the young stock in June or July of the same year. The information gathered thus far concerning vibrionic abortion in this herd enables us to formulate a tentative hypothesis

  16. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  17. Characterization of the secretomes of two vibrios pathogenic to mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Stéphanie; Pichereau, Vianney; Jacq, Annick; Paillard, Mathieu; Boisset, Claire; Guérard, Fabienne; Paillard, Christine; Nicolas, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio tapetis causes the brown ring disease in the Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum while Vibrio aestuarianus is associated with massive oyster mortalities. As extracellular proteins are often associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria, we undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the secretomes of both vibrios. The extracellular proteins (ECPs) of both species were fractionated by SEC-FPLC and in vitro assays were performed to measure the effects of each fraction on hemocyte cellular parameters (phagocytosis and adhesion). Fractions showing a significant effect were subjected to SDS-PAGE, and proteins were identified by nano LC-MS/MS. 45 proteins were identified for V. aestuarianus and 87 for V. tapetis. Most of them belonged to outer membrane or were periplasmic, including porins or adhesins that were already described as virulence factors in other bacterial species. Others were transporter components, flagella proteins, or proteins of unknown function (14 and 15 respectively). Interestingly, for V. aestuarianus, we noted the secretion of 3 extracellular enzymes including the Vam metalloprotease and two other enzymes (one putative lipase and one protease). For V. tapetis, we identified five extracellular enymes, i.e. two different endochitinases, one protease, one lipase and an adhesin. A comparison of both secretomes also showed that only the putative extracellular lipase was common to both secretomes, underscoring the difference in pathogenicity mechanisms between these two species. Overall, these results characterize for the first time the secretomes of these two marine pathogenic vibrios and constitute a useful working basis to further analyze the contribution of specific proteins in the virulence mechanisms of these species.

  18. Mutation of Bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for Selective Preparation of Colorants

    OpenAIRE

    Alihosseini, Farzaneh; Lango, Jozsef; Ju, Kou-San; Hammock, Bruce D.; Sun, Gang

    2010-01-01

    A novel marine bacterium strain effectively produced prodiginine type pigments. These colorants could dye wool, silk and synthetic fabrics such as polyester and polyacrylic and also show antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on the dyed products. Methyl nitrosoguanidine was used as a mutation agent to increase the genetic diversity and the production yield of the bacteria of the family of Vibrio gazogenes. The analysis of the mutated samples show...

  19. Wind direction and its linkage with Vibrio cholerae dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit; Broza, Meir

    2007-02-01

    The relevance of climatic events as causative factors for cholera epidemics is well known. However, examinations of the involvement of climatic factors in intracontinental disease distribution are still absent. The spreading of cholera epidemics may be related to the dominant wind direction over land. We examined the geographic diffusion of three cholera outbreaks through their linkage with the wind direction: a) the progress of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in Africa during 1970-1971 and b) again in 2005-2006; and c) the rapid spread of Vibrio cholerae O139 over India during 1992-1993. We also discuss the possible influence of the wind direction on windborn dissemination by flying insects, which may serve as vectors. Analysis of air pressure data at sea level and at several altitudes over Africa, India, and Bangladesh show a correspondence between the dominant wind direction and the intracontinental spread of cholera. We explored the hypothesis that winds have assisted the progress of cholera Vibrios throughout continents. The current analysis supports the hypothesis that aeroplankton (the tiny life forms that float in the air and that may be caught and carried upward by the wind, landing far from their origin) carry the cholera bacteria from one body of water to an adjacent one. This finding may improve our understanding of how climatic factors are involved in the rapid distribution of new strains throughout a vast continental area. Awareness of the aerial transfer of Vibrio cholerae may assist health authorities by improving the prediction of the disease's geographic dissemination.

  20. Adsorption kinetics of laterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio.

    OpenAIRE

    Belas, M R; Colwell, R R

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of laterally and polarly flagellated bacteria to chitin was measured, and from the data obtained, a modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was derived. Results indicated that the adsorption of laterally flagellated Vibrio parahaemolyticus follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, a type of adsorption referred to as surface saturation kinetics, when conditions are favorable for the production of lateral flagella. When conditions were not favorable for the production of lateral fl...

  1. Identification of Vibrio spp. with a set of dichotomous keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerola, I; Blanch, A R

    2008-07-01

    To define a binary biochemical key for the identification of all recognized Vibrio spp. A matrix of phenotypical results was developed based on the previous taxonomical studies and the first description manuscripts. A unification of results from various sources was also performed to integrate different taxonomical studies within the same data matrix. Established criteria for selecting the optimal set of tests yielded the highest discrimination, as well as the lowest number of tests. An initial identification key was defined using arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase tests, as well as defining eight different clusters. This key leads each cluster to a secondary key for species identification. Most of Vibrio spp. presented an identification threshold of 100%. A new set of biochemical keys has been determined provides a scheme for the rapid identification of clinical and environmental species of Vibrio. No more than 14 are needed for even the most complicated identifications. This newly defined set of keys updates and improves similar findings published in previous studies. These biochemical keys are designed for use in routine applications, particularly in environmental and clinical studies involving a high number of isolates.

  2. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe3O4)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe3O4 and CA-Fe3O4/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe3O4, CA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe3O4) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe3O4) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe2O3/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL-1, sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml-1 cm-2, and reproducibility more than 11 times.

  3. Vibrio vulnificus infection in Southern Brazil - Case report Infecção por Vibrio vulnificus no sul do Brasil - Relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João César Beenke França

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vibrio is a member of the family Vibrionaceae, and among their disease-causing species, Vibrio vulnificus, a lactose-positive gram-negative bacillus, is one of the most virulent pathogen of the noncholerae vibrios. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male patient, who was using immunosuppressive therapy, admitted to the hospital for liver transplantation. Twelve hours later, the patient presented high fever, myalgia, anuria and erythematous plaques on lower limbs, of rapid growth and proximal progression. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone, meropenem and oxacillin, however he expired within 30 hours. Blood cultures showed growth of a gram-negative bacillus, which was later identified as Vibrio vulnificus.O gênero Vibrio é membro da família Vibrionaceae, e entre as espécies patogênicas, Vibrio vulnificus, bacilo gram negativo lactose positivo, tem sido frequentemente citado. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente masculino de 39 anos, em uso de medicação imunossupressora, admitido no hospital para transplante hepático. Doze horas após a internação, o paciente evoluiu com febre, mialgias, anúria e placas eritematosas em membros inferiores, com rápido crescimento e evolução proximal. O paciente foi tratado com ceftriaxona, meropenem e oxacilina sem melhora, evoluindo para óbito em 30 horas. Hemocultura mostrou crescimento de bacilo gram negativo posteriormente identificado como Vibrio vulnificus.

  4. Actinobacteria Associated with the Marine Sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and Their Culturability

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp.

  5. Actinobacteria associated with the marine sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and their culturability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp.

  6. Genome-Wide Biases in the Rate and Molecular Spectrum of Spontaneous Mutations in Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Marcus M; Sung, Way; Sebra, Robert; Lynch, Michael; Cooper, Vaughn S

    2017-01-01

    The vast diversity in nucleotide composition and architecture among bacterial genomes may be partly explained by inherent biases in the rates and spectra of spontaneous mutations. Bacterial genomes with multiple chromosomes are relatively unusual but some are relevant to human health, none more so than the causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae Here, we present the genome-wide mutation spectra in wild-type and mismatch repair (MMR) defective backgrounds of two Vibrio species, the low-%GC squid symbiont V. fischeri and the pathogen V. cholerae, collected under conditions that greatly minimize the efficiency of natural selection. In apparent contrast to their high diversity in nature, both wild-type V. fischeri and V. cholerae have among the lowest rates for base-substitution mutations (bpsms) and insertion-deletion mutations (indels) that have been measured, below 10(-)(3)/genome/generation. Vibrio fischeri and V. cholerae have distinct mutation spectra, but both are AT-biased and produce a surprising number of multi-nucleotide indels. Furthermore, the loss of a functional MMR system caused the mutation spectra of these species to converge, implying that the MMR system itself contributes to species-specific mutation patterns. Bpsm and indel rates varied among genome regions, but do not explain the more rapid evolutionary rates of genes on chromosome 2, which likely result from weaker purifying selection. More generally, the very low mutation rates of Vibrio species correlate inversely with their immense population sizes and suggest that selection may not only have maximized replication fidelity but also optimized other polygenic traits relative to the constraints of genetic drift. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunla, Charles A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-07

    Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  8. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Osunla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  9. The Occurrence of Vibrio species in the Gut of Sardinella madrensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of vibrio bacteria in the gut of “Songu”: Sardinella madrensis was investigated using enrichment procedures. Seventy percent (70%) of the total fish samples examined were positive for vibrios. The mean bacterial counts ranged between 2.68 x 102 to 1.30 x 104 cfu/g in all the fish samples. The weight of fish ...

  10. Onderzoek pathogene vibrio soorten in Nederlandse mosselen en oesters in augustus en september 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, C.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Naar aanleiding van de hoge weerstemperatuur in augustus 2003 zijn in de kweek- en verwatergebieden van mosselen en oesters in Nederland enkele monsters onderzocht op de aanwezigheid van voor de mens pathogene vibrio soorten. In geen van de 18 monsters is Vibrio parahaemolyticus, vulnificus of

  11. Effects of Pollution on Vibrios in Woji River OJESANMI, A S; IBE, S N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The effect of pollution on Vibrio spp. in five sampling stations along Woji River in Port. Harcourt was studied in the months of April and November 2010. Vibrio vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus were isolated. The Plate count technique on Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt agar revealed a high.

  12. Effects of Pollution on Vibrios in Woji River | Ojesanmi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pollution on Vibrio spp. in five sampling stations along Woji River in Port Harcourt was studied in the months of April and November 2010. Vibrio vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus were isolated. The Plate count technique on Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt agar revealed a high population density ...

  13. Impact of milk fish farming in the tropics on potentially pathogenic vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, W T; Reyes, J M; Pueblos, M J; Lluisma, A O

    2013-12-15

    Ratios of sucrose-negative to sucrose-positive vibrios on TCBS agar (suc-/suc+) indicate the abundance of potential human pathogenic non-cholera vibrios in coastal mariculture environments of the Lingayen Gulf (Philippines. In guts of adult maricultured milkfish (Chanos chanos) of suc- vibrios reached extreme peak values ranging between 2 and 545 million per g wet weight. Suc- vibrios outnumbered suc+ vibrios in anoxic sediments, too, and were rarely predominant in coastal waters or in oxidized sediments. Suc-/suc+ ratios in sediments increased toward the mariculture areas with distance from the open sea at decreasing redox potentials. There is circumstantial evidence that suc- vibrios can be dispersed from mariculture areas to adjacent environments including coral reefs. An immediate human health risk by pathogenic Vibrio species is discounted, since milkfish guts contained mainly members of the Enterovibrio group. A representative isolate of these contained proteolytic and other virulence factors, but no genes encoding toxins characteristic of clinical Vibrio species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Complete genome sequence for the shellfish pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 isolated from a shellfish hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp), and two...

  15. Bactericidal effect of lactoferrin and lactoferrin chimera against halophilic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon-Sicairos, N.; Canizalez-Roman, A.; de la Garza, M.; Reyes-Lopez, M.; Zazueta-Beltran, J.; Nazmi, K.; Gomez-Gil, B.; Bolscher, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an halophilic member of the genus Vibrio, have increased globally in the last 5 years. Diarrhea caused by V. parahaemolyticus results from eating raw or undercooked seafood. The aim of this work was to investigate whether lactoferrin and some

  16. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Ayini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (% yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 dan sebagai kontrol terdiri dari kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif. Pengumpulan data untuk menentukan MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dilakukan dengan membandingkan kejernihan kultur di medium TSB 2% pada berbagai konsentrasi yang berbeda, dengan kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Penentuan MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration dilakukan dengan melihat ada tidaknya dan jumlah koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus yang muncul pada medium subkultur TSA 2% setelah inkubasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai MIC yaitu konsentrasi 5%, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tabung yang mulai jernih. Nilai MBC ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus adalah konsentrasi 12,5% ditandai dengan sudah tidak munculnya  koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun mimba dapat memberikan efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus secara in vitro.Tiger shrimp cultivation in Indonesia has been growing rapidly. The main obstacle is the shrimp farming vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio algynoliticus. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of neem leaf extract antibakeri against Vibrio algynoliticus. This study used a dilution method to determine the antibacterial effect of neem leaf extract against Vibrio algynoliticus bacteria in vitro. The concentration of the extract used (%: 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5 and as a control consisting of a positive

  17. Comparative assessment of Vibrio virulence in marine fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønneseth, A.; Castillo, D.; D'Alvise, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae infections are a major obstacle for marine larviculture; however, little is known about virulence differences of Vibrio strains. The virulence of Vibrio strains, mostly isolated from vibriosis outbreaks in farmed fish, was tested in larval challenge trials with cod (Gadus morhua...... effects on survival. Some Vibrio strains were pathogenic in all of the larva species, while some caused disease only in one of the species. Twenty-nine of the Vibrio anguillarum strains increased the mortality of larvae from at least one fish species; however, pathogenicity of the strains differed...... markedly. Other Vibrio species had no or less pronounced effects on larval mortalities. Iron uptake has been related to V. anguillarum virulence; however, the presence or absence of the plasmid pJM1 encoding anguibactin did not correlate with virulence. The genomes of V. anguillarum were compared (D...

  18. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A Review on the Pathogenesis, Prevalence and Advance Molecular Identification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. Vibrio parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2 to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the Vibrio parahemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.

  19. Vibrio ecology in PNW - The Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for risk assessment and early warning systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in Vibrio parahaemolyticus-related gastroenteritis from the consumption of raw oysters harvested in...

  20. Occurrence and Diversity of Clinically Important Vibrio Species in the Aquatic Environment of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokashvili, Tamar; Whitehouse, Chris A; Tskhvediani, Ana; Grim, Christopher J; Elbakidze, Tinatin; Mitaishvili, Nino; Janelidze, Nino; Jaiani, Ekaterine; Haley, Bradd J; Lashkhi, Nino; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Tediashvili, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Among the more than 70 different Vibrio species inhabiting marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems, 12 are recognized as human pathogens. The warm subtropical climate of the Black Sea coastal area and inland regions of Georgia likely provides a favorable environment for various Vibrio species. From 2006 to 2009, the abundance, ecology, and diversity of clinically important Vibrio species were studied in different locations in Georgia and across seasons. Over a 33-month period, 1,595 presumptive Vibrio isolates were collected from the Black Sea (n = 657) and freshwater lakes around Tbilisi (n = 938). Screening of a subset of 440 concentrated and enriched water samples by PCR-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS) detected the presence of DNA from eight clinically important Vibrio species: V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi, V. metschnikovii, and V. cincinnatiensis. Almost 90% of PCR/ESI-MS samples positive for Vibrio species were collected from June through November. Three important human-pathogenic Vibrio species (V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus) were detected in 62.8, 37.8, and 21.4% of samples testing positive for Vibrios, respectively. The results of these activities suggest that natural reservoirs for human-pathogenic Vibrios exist in Georgian aquatic environments. Water temperature at all sampling sites was positively correlated with the abundance of clinically important Vibrio spp. (except V. metschnikovii), and salinity was correlated with species composition at particular Black Sea sites as well as inland reservoirs.

  1. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Jason R.; Ebling, Alina M.; Landing, William M.; Joyner, Jessica L.; Kemp, Keri M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrioafter natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust–Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health.

  2. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  3. Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from southeastern Chinese coast are genetically diverse with circulation of clonal complex 3 strains since 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Hu, Weizhao; Wu, Beibei; Zhang, Peipei; Chen, Jianshun; Wang, Shuna; Fang, Weihuan

    2011-11-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to examine the clonal relationship and genetic diversity of 71 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical and seafood-related sources in southeastern Chinese coast between 2002 and 2009. The tested isolates fell into 61 sequence types (STs). Of 17 clinical isolates, 7 belonged to ST3 of the pandemic clonal complex 3, with 3 strains isolated in 2002. Although there was no apparent clonal relationship found between clinical strains and those from seafood-related sources positive with pathogenic markers, there were clonal relationships between clinical strains from this study and those from environmental sources in other parts of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strains of 112 STs (61 STs from this study and 51 retrieved from PUBMLST database covering different continents) could be divided into four branches. The vast majority of our isolates and those from other countries were genetically diverse and clustered into two major branches of mixed distribution (of geographic origins and sample sources), whereas five STs representing six isolates split as two minor branches because of divergence of their recA genes, which had 80%-82% nucleotide identity to typical V. parahaemolyticus strains and 73.3%-76.9% identity to the CDS24 of a Vibrio sp. plasmid p23023, indicating that the recA gene might have recombined by lateral gene transfer. This was further supported by a high ratio of recombination to mutation (3.038) for recA. In conclusion, MLST with fully extractable database is a powerful system for analysis of clonal relationship for strains of a particular region in a national or global scale as well as between clinical and environmental or food-related strains.

  4. Quorum Sensing Disruption in Vibrio harveyi Bacteria by Clay Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Sajo P; Scholin, Jonathon; Ching, San; Chi, Fang; Herpfer, Marc

    2018-01-10

    This work describes the use of clay minerals as catalysts for the degradation of quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-dl-homoserine lactone. Certain clay minerals as a result of their surface properties and porosity can catalytically degrade the quorum sensing molecule into smaller fragments. The disruption of quorum sensing by clay in a growing Gram-negative Vibrio harveyi bacteria culture was also studied by monitoring luminescence and population density of the bacteria, wherein quenching of bacterial quorum sensing activity was observed by means of luminescence reduction. The results of this study show that food-grade clays can be used as biocatalysts in disrupting bacterial activity in various media.

  5. Inhibitory Effect of Glycerin on Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Doki; Seol, Sung Yong; Tak, Ryunbin; Park, Cheong Kyu

    1972-01-01

    In a study of the effect of glycerin in transport media on Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, it was found that a concentration of 30% glycerin was highly inhibitory for V. parahaemolyticus and to a lesser degree for Salmonella. The incorporation of peptone or human feces in media did not reduce the inhibitory effect of glycerin. In media with 15% glycerin, viable counts of V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella increased after 24 hr of incubation both in the presence and absence of feces. Due to the concurrent increase in the total bacterial count in the media containing feces, no enrichment effect was noted. PMID:4565633

  6. Application of Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE as a rapid method for routine determination of Vibrio spp. in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahorm, Kanchana; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of PCR-DGGE and Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE techniques for rapid detection of Vibrio species in foods. Primers GC567F and 680R were initially evaluated for amplifying DNA and cDNA of ten references Vibrio species by PCR method. The GC-clamp PCR amplicons were separated according to their sequences by the DGGE using 10% (w/v) polyacrylamide gel containing 45-70% urea and formamide denaturants. Two pair of Vibrio species, which could not be differentiated on the gel, was Vibrio fluvialis - Vibrio furnissii and Vibrio parahaemolyticus - Vibrio harveyi. To determine the detection limit, in the community of 10 reference strains containing the same viable population, distinct DNA bands of 3 species; Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio alginolyticus were consistently observed by PCR-DGGE technique. In fact, 5 species; Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio fluvialis consistently observed by Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE. In the community containing different viable population increasing from 10 2 to 10 5 CFU/mL, PCR-DGGE analysis only detected the two most prevalent species, while RT-PCR-DGGE detected the five most prevalent species. Therefore, Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE was also selected for detection of various Vibrio cell conditions, including viable cell (VC), injured cells from frozen cultures (IVC) and injured cells from frozen cultures with pre-enrichment (PIVC). It was found that cDNA band of all cell conditions gave the same migratory patterns, except that multiple cDNA bands of Plesiomonas shigelloides under IVC and PIVC conditions were found. When Reverse Transcriptase-PCR-DGGE was used for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the pathogen-spiked food samples, Vibrio parahaemolyticus could be detected in the spiked samples containing at least 10 2 CFU/g of this pathogen. The results obtained also corresponded to standard method (USFDA, 2004

  7. New insights into Oculina patagonica coral diseases and their associated Vibrio spp. communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Portillo, Esther; Yarza, Pablo; Peñalver, Cindy; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A; Antón, Josefa

    2014-09-01

    Bleaching of Oculina patagonica has been extensively studied in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, although no studies have been carried out in the Western basin. In 1996 Vibrio mediterranei was reported as the causative agent of bleaching in O. patagonica but it has not been related to bleached or healthy corals since 2003, suggesting that it was no longer involved in bleaching of O. patagonica. In an attempt to clarify the relationship between Vibrio spp., seawater temperature and coral diseases, as well as to investigate the putative differences between Eastern and Western Mediterranean basins, we have analysed the seasonal patterns of the culturable Vibrio spp. assemblages associated with healthy and diseased O. patagonica colonies. Two sampling points located in the Spanish Mediterranean coast were chosen for this study: Alicante Harbour and the Marine Reserve of Tabarca. A complex and dynamic assemblage of Vibrio spp. was present in O. patagonica along the whole year and under different environmental conditions and coral health status. While some Vibrio spp. were detected all year around in corals, the known pathogens V. mediteranei and V. coralliilyticus were only present in diseased specimens. The pathogenic potential of these bacteria was studied by experimental infection under laboratory conditions. Both vibrios caused diseased signs from 24 °C, being higher and faster at 28 °C. Unexpectedly, the co-inoculation of these two Vibrio species seemed to have a synergistic pathogenic effect over O. patagonica, as disease signs were readily observed at temperatures at which bleaching is not normally observed.

  8. Persistence, seasonal dynamics and pathogenic potential of Vibrio communities from Pacific oyster hemolymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Carolin C; Batista, Frederico M; Wegner, K Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Vibrio occur at a continuum from free-living to symbiotic life forms, including opportunists and pathogens, that can contribute to severe diseases, for instance summer mortality events of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. While most studies focused on Vibrio isolated from moribund oysters during mortality outbreaks, investigations of the Vibrio community in healthy oysters are rare. Therefore, we characterized the persistence, diversity, seasonal dynamics, and pathogenicity of the Vibrio community isolated from healthy Pacific oysters. In a reciprocal transplant experiment we repeatedly sampled hemolymph from adult Pacific oysters to differentiate population from site-specific effects during six months of in situ incubation in the field. We characterized virulence phenotypes and genomic diversity based on multilocus sequence typing in a total of 70 Vibrio strains. Based on controlled infection experiments we could show that strains with the ability to colonize healthy adult oysters can also have the potential to induce high mortality rates on larvae. Diversity and abundance of Vibrio varied significantly over time with highest values during and after spawning season. Vibrio communities from transplanted and stationary oysters converged over time, indicating that communities were not population specific, but rather assemble from the surrounding environment forming communities, some of which can persist over longer periods.

  9. TheSpTransformerGene Family (FormerlySp185/333) in the Purple Sea Urchin and the Functional Diversity of the Anti-Pathogen rSpTransformer-E1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L Courtney; Lun, Cheng Man

    2017-01-01

    The complex innate immune system of sea urchins is underpinned by several multigene families including the SpTransformer family ( SpTrf ; formerly Sp185/333 ) with estimates of ~50 members, although the family size is likely variable among individuals of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus . The genes are small with similar structure, are tightly clustered, and have several types of repeats in the second of two exons and that surround each gene. The density of repeats suggests that the genes are positioned within regions of genomic instability, which may be required to drive sequence diversification. The second exon encodes the mature protein and is composed of blocks of sequence called elements that are present in mosaics of defined element patterns and are the major source of sequence diversity. The SpTrf genes respond swiftly to immune challenge, but only a single gene is expressed per phagocyte. Many of the mRNAs appear to be edited and encode proteins with altered and/or missense sequence that are often truncated, of which some may be functional. The standard SpTrf protein structure is an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, a histidine-rich region, and a C-terminal region. Function is predicted from a recombinant protein, rSpTransformer-E1 (rSpTrf-E1), which binds to Vibrio and Saccharomyces , but not to Bacillus , and binds tightly to lipopolysaccharide, β-1,3-glucan, and flagellin, but not to peptidoglycan. rSpTrf-E1 is intrinsically disordered but transforms to α helical structure in the presence of binding targets including lipopolysaccharide, which may underpin the characteristics of binding to multiple targets. SpTrf proteins associate with coelomocyte membranes, and rSpTrf-E1 binds specifically to phosphatidic acid (PA). When rSpTrf-E1 is bound to PA in liposome membranes, it induces morphological changes in liposomes that correlate with PA clustering and leakage of luminal contents, and it extracts or removes PA from the bilayer. The

  10. The SpTransformer Gene Family (Formerly Sp185/333) in the Purple Sea Urchin and the Functional Diversity of the Anti-Pathogen rSpTransformer-E1 Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. Courtney; Lun, Cheng Man

    2017-01-01

    The complex innate immune system of sea urchins is underpinned by several multigene families including the SpTransformer family (SpTrf; formerly Sp185/333) with estimates of ~50 members, although the family size is likely variable among individuals of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. The genes are small with similar structure, are tightly clustered, and have several types of repeats in the second of two exons and that surround each gene. The density of repeats suggests that the genes are positioned within regions of genomic instability, which may be required to drive sequence diversification. The second exon encodes the mature protein and is composed of blocks of sequence called elements that are present in mosaics of defined element patterns and are the major source of sequence diversity. The SpTrf genes respond swiftly to immune challenge, but only a single gene is expressed per phagocyte. Many of the mRNAs appear to be edited and encode proteins with altered and/or missense sequence that are often truncated, of which some may be functional. The standard SpTrf protein structure is an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, a histidine-rich region, and a C-terminal region. Function is predicted from a recombinant protein, rSpTransformer-E1 (rSpTrf-E1), which binds to Vibrio and Saccharomyces, but not to Bacillus, and binds tightly to lipopolysaccharide, β-1,3-glucan, and flagellin, but not to peptidoglycan. rSpTrf-E1 is intrinsically disordered but transforms to α helical structure in the presence of binding targets including lipopolysaccharide, which may underpin the characteristics of binding to multiple targets. SpTrf proteins associate with coelomocyte membranes, and rSpTrf-E1 binds specifically to phosphatidic acid (PA). When rSpTrf-E1 is bound to PA in liposome membranes, it induces morphological changes in liposomes that correlate with PA clustering and leakage of luminal contents, and it extracts or removes PA from the bilayer. The

  11. Genome analysis of the coral bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Leah; Ron, Eliora; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2008-08-01

    The past few decades have seen a world-wide increase in coral diseases, yet little is known about coral pathogens. In this study, techniques commonly used in pathogenomic research were applied to the coral pathogen Vibrio shiloi in order to identify genetic elements involved in its virulence. Suppressive subtractive hybridization was used to compare the gene content of V. shiloi to that of a closely related but non-pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio mediterranei, resulting in identification of several putative virulence factors and of three novel genomic islands. The entire genome of V. shiloi was further screened for genes related to previously characterized steps in infection: adhesion, superoxide dismutase production and toxin production. Exposure of pure cultures of V. shiloi to crushed coral tissues strongly affected the expression of seven genes encoding pili, zona occludins toxin (Zot) and a superoxide dismutase. Analysis of eight V. shiloi strains isolated in the last decade shows a shift of the natural population from strains carrying all three genomic islands to strains carrying none of them. This shift occurred following appearance of resistance in the coral Oculina patagonica to infection by V. shiloi. The relevance of these findings to the bleaching disease caused by V. shiloi is discussed.

  12. Identification and Initial Characterization of Prophages in Vibrio campbellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lorenz

    Full Text Available Phages are bacteria targeting viruses and represent the most abundant biological entities on earth. Marine environments are exceptionally rich in bacteriophages, harboring a total of 4x1030 viruses. Nevertheless, marine phages remain poorly characterized. Here we describe the identification of intact prophage sequences in the genome of the marine γ-proteobacterium Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 (formerly known as V. harveyi ATCC BAA-1116, which presumably belong to the family of Myoviridae. One prophage was found on chromosome I and shows significant similarities to the previously identified phage ΦHAP-1. The second prophage region is located on chromosome II and is related to Vibrio phage kappa. Exposure of V. campbellii to mitomycin C induced the lytic cycle of two morphologically distinct phages and, as expected, extracellular DNA from induced cultures was found to be specifically enriched for the sequences previously identified as prophage regions. Heat stress (50°C, 30 min was also found to induce phage release in V. campbellii. Notably, promoter activity of two representative phage genes indicated heterogeneous phage induction within the population.

  13. Vibrio cholerae Represses Polysaccharide Synthesis To Promote Motility in Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuning; Liu, Shengyan; Sheng, Ying; Rueggeberg, Karl-Gustav; Wang, Hui; Li, Jie; Gu, Frank X.; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao

    2015-01-01

    The viscoelastic mucus layer of gastrointestinal tracts is a host defense barrier that a successful enteric pathogen, such as Vibrio cholerae, must circumvent. V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is able to penetrate the mucosa and colonize the epithelial surface of the small intestine. In this study, we found that mucin, the major component of mucus, promoted V. cholerae movement on semisolid medium and in liquid medium. A genome-wide screen revealed that Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) production was inversely correlated with mucin-enhanced motility. Mucin adhesion assays indicated that VPS bound to mucin. Moreover, we found that vps expression was reduced upon exposure to mucin. In an infant mouse colonization model, mutants that overexpressed VPS colonized less effectively than wild-type strains in more distal intestinal regions. These results suggest that V. cholerae is able to sense mucosal signals and modulate vps expression accordingly so as to promote fast motion in mucus, thus allowing for rapid spread throughout the intestines. PMID:25561707

  14. Invariant recognition of polychromatic images of Vibrio cholerae 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Mourino-Perez, Rosa R.; Cristobal, Gabriel; Pech-Pacheco, Jose L.

    2002-04-01

    Cholera is an acute intestinal infectious disease. It has claimed many lives throughout history, and it continues to be a global health threat. Cholera is considered one of the most important emergence diseases due its relation with global climate changes. Automated methods such as optical systems represent a new trend to make more accurate measurements of the presence and quantity of this microorganism in its natural environment. Automatic systems eliminate observer bias and reduce the analysis time. We evaluate the utility of coherent optical systems with invariant correlation for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae O1. Images of scenes are recorded with a CCD camera and decomposed in three RGB channels. A numeric simulation is developed to identify the bacteria in the different samples through an invariant correlation technique. There is no variation when we repeat the correlation and the variation between images correlation is minimum. The position-, scale-, and rotation-invariant recognition is made with a scale transform through the Mellin transform. The algorithm to recognize Vibrio cholerae O1 is the presence of correlation peaks in the green channel output and their absence in red and blue channels. The discrimination criterion is the presence of correlation peaks in red, green, and blue channels.

  15. Vibrio fischeri-derived outer membrane vesicles trigger host development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschtgen, Marie-Stephanie; Wetzel, Keith; Goldman, William; McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Ruby, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are critical elements in many host-cell/microbe interactions. Previous studies of the symbiotic association between Euprymna scolopes and Vibrio fischeri had shown that within 12 h of colonizing crypts deep within the squid's light organ, the symbionts trigger an irreversible programme of tissue development in the host. Here, we report that OMV produced by V. fischeri are powerful contributors to this process. The first detectable host response to the OMV is an increased trafficking of macrophage-like cells called haemocytes into surface epithelial tissues. We showed that exposing the squid to other Vibrio species fails to induce this trafficking; however, addition of a high concentration of their OMV, which can diffuse into the crypts, does. We also provide evidence that tracheal cytotoxin released by the symbionts, which can induce haemocyte trafficking, is not part of the OMV cargo, suggesting two distinct mechanisms to induce the same morphogenesis event. By manipulating the timing and localization of OMV signal delivery, we showed that haemocyte trafficking is fully induced only when V. fischeri, the sole species able to reach and grow in the crypts, succeeds in establishing a sustained colonization. Further, our data suggest that the host's detection of OMV serves as a symbiotic checkpoint prior to inducing irreversible morphogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio cholerae Isolates from Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzali H.MD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease that can lead to severe dehydration and death. Antibiotic resistance is a big challenge in infective disease like Cholera. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and trends of antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae isolations in and around Kashan, Iran. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, samples were gathered using census method from 1998 to 2013 in Kashan, Iran. 1132 fecal samples of patients with acute diarrhea and 237 samples of suspected water samples were taken. The serotypes and biotypes were determined by an enzymatic method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by using Disk Diffusion Method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23 software. Fisher-exact and Chi-square tests were used to compare the statistical parameters. Findings: 96 fecal samples (8.5% and 18 water samples (7.6% were positive for Vibrio cholerae. Non-agglutinating (Nag isolates (75.4% were more common than serotype Inaba (13.2% and Ogawa (11.4%. Nag serotypes were mostly resistant to cefixime (44% and ampicillin (33%. In contaminated water samples also the most frequent cases were Nag serotype (50%. Nag serotype showed 22.2% of resistance to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae isolates in Kashan, Iran, are highly resistant to antibiotics, especially Nag serotypes.

  17. Immunological responses of customised probiotics-fed marron, Cherax tenuimanus, (Smith 1912) when challenged with Vibrio mimicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambas, Irfan; Suriawan, Agus; Fotedar, Ravi

    2013-08-01

    A two-phased experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of customised probiotics on marron physiology. During the first phase marron were fed probiotic supplemented feed for 70 days, while in phase two the same marron were challenged with Vibrio mimicus and their physiological responses were investigated for 4 days post-challenged. The experiment was carried out in a purpose-built room, designed for aquaculture research, using 18 of 250 L cylindrical plastic tanks. Five species of isolated probiotic bacteria from commercial probiotic products and marron's intestine were tested in this experiment. The probiotic bacteria were (Bacillus sp.); A10 (Bacillus mycoides); A12 (Shewanella sp.); PM3 (Bacillus subtilis); and PM4 (Bacillus sp.), which were added to the formulated basal marron diet (34% crude protein, 8% crude lipid, 6% ash) at a concentration of 10(8) cfu/g of feed. Immune responses of marron fed probiotics were evaluated by investigating organosomatic indices, growth rate, survival, intermoult period, total haemocytes counts (THC), proportion of granular cells (GC), bacteraemia, bacteria load in the intestine and water quality. The results showed that dietary supplementation of probiotics in marron had no significant impact on growth, intermoult period and survival of the marron. However, their supplementation improved the physiological condition of marron in terms of significantly higher tail muscle indices, THC and proportion of granular cells (GC) and reduced bacterial load in the haemolymph. The addition of probiotics in marron diets also increased the bacteria load in the marron intestine. In addition, dietary supplementation of the customised probiotics was effective in improving the resistance of marron against V. mimicus as they had higher THC, higher proportion of GC and lower presence of bacteria in their haemolymph, after marron were challenged with V. mimicus. The results also showed that probiotic Bacillus

  18. Occurrence of Vibrio species, beta-lactam resistant Vibrio species, and indicator bacteria in ballast and port waters of a tropical harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charmaine; Goh, Shin Giek; Saeidi, Nazanin; Gerhard, William A; Gunsch, Claudia K; Gin, Karina Yew Hoong

    2018-01-01

    Ballast water discharges are potential sources for the spread of invasive and pathogenic aquatic organisms. Ballast waters from six ships docked in the Port of Singapore were tested to determine if indictor organisms fell within proposed standards for ballast water discharge according to regulation D-2 of the Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) guidelines. Vibrio species were cultured on media supplemented with beta-lactam antibiotics to determine the presence of antibiotic resistant Vibrio species in the ballast waters of these vessels. Indicator organisms were quantified using culture media Colilert-18 and Enterolert in ballast waters of six ships docked in a tropical harbor, with uptake from different geographical locations. Of the six ships, one had ballast water originating from the Persian Gulf, another from the East China Sea, and four from the South China Sea. Two of the six ships which carried ballast waters from the East China Sea and the South China Sea did not meet the D-2 stipulated requirements of the Ballast Water Management Convention for indicator organisms with Enterococci values more than three times higher than the acceptable limit of 110 MPN/100mL), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (2 to >110 MPN/100mL) were detected in at least one of six ballast water samples. Using thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS) supplemented with beta-lactam antibiotics (meropenem, ceftazidime), 11 different Vibrio species, exhibiting resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics were isolated; with Vibrio campbellii (44%) and Vibrio alginolyticus (15%) the most detected antibiotic resistant Vibrio species. A practical approach of prioritized screening of high-risk vessels should be conducted to ensure that the water quality meets D-2 standards prior to discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia-Valenzuela M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii food without oregano oil (the control. The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae. The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p <0.05 in tissues from animals whose food was supplemented with oregano oil. We concluded that dietary supplementation of shrimps with oregano oil provides antimicrobial activity into the body of the penaeids.

  20. Salinity-induced survival strategy of Vibrio cholerae associated with copepods in Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thomas, K.U.; Joseph, N.; Raveendran, O.; Nair, S.

    The occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in water, sediment and copepods was studied over a wide range of salinity using conventional and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in the Cochin backwaters. V. cholerae occurred either as culturable or non-culturable...

  1. Competitive Survival of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae in Riverbed Sediments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abia, AL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available investigated the survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae in riverbed sediments of the Apies River. Experiments were performed in flow chambers containing three sediment types and connected...

  2. Vibrio cholerae Detection in Water and Wastewater by Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Barzamini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vibrio cholerae is a significant human pathogen worldwide and annually causes some cases of deaths. Contaminated water plays an important role in transmission of this pathogen, which indicates the importance of early diagnosis. Objectives: The current study aimed to perform Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on water and wastewater samples to determine the detection limit for Vibrio cholerae. Materials and Methods: PCR was performed on the DNA extracted from Vibrio cholerae of the contaminated water and wastewater using ctxA gene specific primers. The accuracy of PCR method to detect these bacteria was also assessed. Results: The result of PCR performed on the extracted DNA showed a specific 241 base pair band. The limit of bacterial detection for water and wastewater were 40 cfu/mL and 81 cfu/mL, respectively. Conclusions: In the current study, PCR performance using the ctxA gene specific primers to detect Vibrio cholerae was found highly accurate and specific.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio fischeri: A Symbiotic Bacterium with Pathogenic Congeners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. G. Ruby; M. Urbanowski; J. Campbell; A. Dunn; M. Faini; R. Gunsalus; P. Lostroh; C. Lupp; J. McCann; D. Millikan; A. Schaefer; E. Stabb; A. Stevens; K. Visick; C. Whistler; E. P. Greenberg

    2005-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri belongs to the Vibrionaceae, a large family of marine γ-proteobacteria that includes several dozen species known to engage in a diversity of beneficial or pathogenic interactions with animal tissue...

  4. Global discovery of colonization determinants in the squid symbiont Vibrio fischeri

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John F. Brooks; Mattias C. Gyllborg; David C. Cronin; Sarah J. Quillin; Celeste A. Mallama; Randi Foxall; Cheryl Whistler; Andrew L. Goodman; Mark J. Mandel

    2014-01-01

    .... To understand the molecular determinants of microbiota selection, we examined colonization of a simplified model in which the light organ of Euprymna scolopes squid is colonized exclusively by Vibrio fischeri bacteria...

  5. Genome sequence of vibrio cholerae G4222, a South African clinical isolate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Rouw, Wouter J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative pathogen autochthonous to the aquatic environment, is the causative agent of cholera. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of V. cholerae G4222, a clinical isolate from South Africa....

  6. Polymorphisms of clip domain serine proteinase and serine proteinase homolog in the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus and their association with Vibrio alginolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Liu, Yuan; Hui, Min; Song, Chengwen; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2017-03-01

    Clip domain serine proteases (cSPs) and their homologs (SPHs) play an important role in various biological processes that are essential components of extracellular signaling cascades, especially in the innate immune responses of invertebrates. Here, polymorphisms of PtcSP and PtSPH from the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus were investigated to explore their association with resistance/susceptibility to Vibrio alginolyticus. Polymorphic loci were identified using Clustal X, and characterized with SPSS 16.0 software, and then the significance of genotype and allele frequencies between resistant and susceptible stocks was determined by a χ 2 test. A total of 109 and 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the genomic fragments of PtcSP and PtSPH, respectively. Notably, nearly half of PtSPH polymorphisms were found in the non-coding exon 1. Fourteen SNPs investigated were significantly associated with susceptibility/resistance to V. alginolyticus ( P <0.05). Among them, eight SNPs were observed in introns, and one synonymous, four non-synonymous SNPs and one ins-del were found in coding exons. In addition, five simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in intron 3 of PtcSP. Although there was no statistically significant difference of allele frequencies, the SSRs showed different polymorphic alleles on the basis of the repeat number between resistant and susceptible stocks. After further validation, polymorphisms investigated here might be applied to select potential molecular markers of P. trituberculatus with resistance to V. alginolyticus.

  7. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  8. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    % of samples were positive for Vibrio spp. It was interesting to note that 38% of the positive stations for both Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. showed a fecal coliform contamination of water at ... coliforms) do not always satisfactorily reflect the hygienic quality of water. The presence of Vibrionaceae on copepods was also investigated. Copepods were sampled at a station located inside the harbour of the city of Naples and were found contaminated by V. cholerae non-Ol, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis...

  9. Multiple Antibiotic Resistances of Vibrio Isolates from Coastal and Brackish Water Areas

    OpenAIRE

    S. Manjusha; G. B. Sarita; K. K. Elyas; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Vibrio spp. from different (brackish and marine) environments. Water samples from nine marine landing sites and two coastal inland aquaculture farms were screened for the Vibrio spp. and assessed their resistance to twenty-two different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the aquatic ecosystem. Tissue samples (shrimp, mussel and sepia) were tested from the sampling site wit...

  10. Identification and Characterization of a Putative Manganese Export Protein in Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Carolyn R.; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.; Peng, Eric D.; Payne, Shelley M.

    2016-01-01

    Manganese plays an important role in the cellular physiology and metabolism of bacterial species, including the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. The intracellular level of manganese ions is controlled through coordinated regulation of the import and export of this element. We have identified a putative manganese exporter (VC0022), named mneA (manganese exporter A), which is highly conserved among Vibrio spp. An mneA mutant exhibited sensitivity to manganese but not to other cations. Under high...

  11. Oligotyping reveals community level habitat selection within the genus Vibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Thomas Schmidt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vibrio is a metabolically and genetically diverse group of facultative anaerobic Bacteria, common in aquatic environments and marine hosts. The genus contains several species of importance to human health and aquaculture, including the causative agents of human cholera and fish vibriosis. Vibrios display a wide variety of known life histories, from opportunistic pathogens to long-standing symbioses with individual host species. Studying Vibrio ecology has been challenging as individual species often display a wide range of habitat preferences, and groups of vibrios can act as socially cohesive groups. Although strong associations with salinity, temperature and other environmental variables have been established, the degree of habitat or host specificity at both the individual and community levels is unknown. Here we use oligotyping analyses in combination with a large collection of existing Vibrio 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequence data to reveal patterns of Vibrio ecology across a wide range of environmental, host, and abiotic substrate associated habitats. Our data show that individual taxa often display a wide range of habitat preferences yet tend to be highly abundant in either substrate-associated or free-living environments. Our analyses show that Vibrio communities share considerable overlap between two distinct hosts (i.e., sponge and fish yet are distinct from the abiotic plastic substrates. Lastly, evidence for habitat specificity at the community level exists in some habitats, despite considerable stochasticity in others. In addition to providing insights into Vibrio ecology across a broad range of habitats, our study shows the utility of oligotyping as a facile, high-throughput and unbiased method for large scale analyses of publicly available sequence data repositories and suggests its wide application could greatly extend the range of possibilities to explore microbial ecology.

  12. Ocean warming and spread of pathogenic vibrios in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Colwell, Rita R; Pruzzo, Carla

    2013-05-01

    Vibrios are among the most common bacteria that inhabit surface waters throughout the world and are responsible for a number of severe infections both in humans and animals. Several reports recently showed that human Vibrio illnesses are increasing worldwide including fatal acute diarrheal diseases, such as cholera, gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. Many scientists believe this increase may be associated with global warming and rise in sea surface temperature (SST), although not enough evidence is available to support a causal link between emergence of Vibrio infections and climate warming. The effect of increased SST in promoting spread of vibrios in coastal and brackish waters is considered a causal factor explaining this trend. Field and laboratory studies carried out over the past 40 years supported this hypothesis, clearly showing temperature promotes Vibrio growth and persistence in the aquatic environment. Most recently, a long-term retrospective microbiological study carried out in the coastal waters of the southern North Sea provided the first experimental evidence for a positive and significant relationship between SST and Vibrio occurrence over a multidecadal time scale. As a future challenge, macroecological studies of the effects of ocean warming on Vibrio persistence and spread in the aquatic environment over large spatial and temporal scales would conclusively support evidence acquired to date combined with studies of the impact of global warming on epidemiologically relevant variables, such as host susceptibility and exposure. Assessing a causal link between ongoing climate change and enhanced growth and spread of vibrios and related illness is expected to improve forecast and mitigate future outbreaks associated with these pathogens.

  13. Acute Otitis due to Vibrio fluvialis after Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Jen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old female presented with purulent exudate through the left auditive duct and pain in the left ear region, which intensified during mastication. After collection of the pus from the left ear lesion, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for seven days was prescribed for a presumed diagnosis of acute otitis. Four days later, the pus culture grew V. fluvialis which is further identified by API 20E identification system (bioMérieux. Following the successful completion of a course of antibiotics, the patient recovered completely and without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Vibrio fluvialis otitis after swimming in an immunocompetent patient.

  14. Shedding light on bioluminescence regulation in Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashiro, Tim; Ruby, Edward G

    2012-06-01

    The bioluminescence emitted by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri is a particularly striking result of individual microbial cells co-ordinating a group behaviour. The genes responsible for light production are principally regulated by the LuxR-LuxI quorum-sensing system. In addition to LuxR-LuxI, numerous other genetic elements and environmental conditions control bioluminescence production. Efforts to mathematically model the LuxR-LuxI system are providing insight into the dynamics of this autoinduction behaviour. The Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes forms a natural symbiosis with V. fischeri, and utilizes the symbiont-derived bioluminescence for certain nocturnal behaviours, such as counterillumination. Recent work suggests that the tissue with which V. fischeri associates not only can detect bioluminescence but may also use this light to monitor the V. fischeri population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Environmental reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Carla; Erken, Martina; Noorian, Parisa; Sun, Shuyang; McDougald, Diane

    2013-01-01

    It is now well accepted that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the water-borne disease cholera, is acquired from environmental sources where it persists between outbreaks of the disease. Recent advances in molecular technology have demonstrated that this bacterium can be detected in areas where it has not previously been isolated, indicating a much broader, global distribution of this bacterium outside of endemic regions. The environmental persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment can be attributed to multiple intra- and interspecific strategies such as responsive gene regulation and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, as well as interactions with a multitude of other organisms. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that enable the persistence of this bacterium in the environment. In particular, we will discuss how V. cholerae can survive stressors such as starvation, temperature, and salinity fluctuations as well as how the organism persists under constant predation by heterotrophic protists. PMID:24379807

  16. Comparative Genomics of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, Asia, and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Aleisha R.; Van Domselaar, Gary; Stroika, Steven; Walker, Matthew; Kent, Heather; Tarr, Cheryl; Talkington, Deborah; Rowe, Lori; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Dahourou, Georges Anicet; Boncy, Jacques; Smith, Anthony M.; Mabon, Philip; Petkau, Aaron; Graham, Morag; Gilmour, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of clinical isolates from the Haiti outbreak and recent global travelers returning to the United States showed indistinguishable PFGE fingerprints. To better explore the genetic ancestry of the Haiti outbreak strain, we acquired 23 whole-genome Vibrio cholerae sequences: 9 isolates obtained in Haiti or the Dominican Republic, 12 PFGE pattern-matched isolates linked to Asia or Africa, and 2 nonmatched outliers from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenies for whole-genome sequences and core genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the Haiti outbreak strain is genetically related to strains originating in India and Cameroon. However, because no identical genetic match was found among sequenced contemporary isolates, a definitive genetic origin for the outbreak in Haiti remains speculative. PMID:22099115

  17. Pre-earthquake non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Winstead-Derlega, Christopher; Houpt, Eric; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Pape, Jean; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-15

    To our knowledge, there was no record of Vibrio cholerae in Haiti until the 2010 post earthquake outbreak. This study describes the analysis of 301 stool samples from 117 infants in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, who participated in a pediatric nutrition study between July 2008 and October 2009. Nine samples were identified positive with both SYBR Green and Taqman-MGB probe based molecular assays targeting V. cholerae hlyA and toxR, respectively (Ct = 33-40), but none were O1 or O139. Our results from multiple molecular assays demonstrate the presence of non-O1/O139 V. cholerae DNA in stools collected from nine asymptomatic Haitian infants two years prior to the 2010 earthquake.

  18. Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in-situ hybridization for identification of Vibrio spp. in aquatic products and environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Ke; Wu, Shan; Shuai, Jiangbing; Fang, Weihuan

    2015-08-03

    A peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method was developed for specific detection of the Vibrio genus. In silico analysis by BLAST and ProbeCheck showed that the designed PNA probe targeting the 16S rRNAs was suitable for specific identification of Vibrio. Specificity and sensitivity of the probe Vib-16S-1 were experimentally verified by its reactivity against 18 strains of 9 Vibrio species and 14 non-Vibrio strains of 14 representative species. The PNA-FISH assay was able to identify 47 Vibrio positive samples from selectively enriched cultures of 510 samples of aquatic products and environments, comparable with the results obtained by biochemical identification and real-time PCR. We conclude that PNA-FISH can be an alternative method for rapid identification of Vibrio species in a broad spectrum of seafood or related samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic diversity of culturable Vibrio in an Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tzu Nin; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2015-09-17

    Bacillary necrosis associated with Vibrio species is the common cause of larval and spat mortality during commercial production of Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A total of 87 randomly selected Vibrio isolates from various stages of rearing in a commercial mussel hatchery were characterised using partial sequences of the ATP synthase alpha subunit gene (atpA). The sequenced isolates represented 40 unique atpA genotypes, overwhelmingly dominated (98%) by V. splendidus group genotypes, with 1 V. harveyi group genotype also detected. The V. splendidus group sequences formed 5 moderately supported clusters allied with V. splendidus/V. lentus, V. atlanticus, V. tasmaniensis, V. cyclitrophicus and V. toranzoniae. All water sources showed considerable atpA gene diversity among Vibrio isolates, with 30 to 60% of unique isolates recovered from each source. Over half (53%) of Vibrio atpA genotypes were detected only once, and only 7 genotypes were recovered from multiple sources. Comparisons of phylogenetic diversity using UniFrac analysis showed that the culturable Vibrio community from intake, header, broodstock and larval tanks were phylogenetically similar, while spat tank communities were different. Culturable Vibrio associated with spat tank seawater differed in being dominated by V. toranzoniae-affiliated genotypes. The high diversity of V. splendidus group genotypes detected in this study reinforces the dynamic nature of microbial communities associated with hatchery culture and complicates our efforts to elucidate the role of V. splendidus group bacteria in vibriosis.

  20. Prevalensi Gen tdh dan trh Vibrio parahaemolyticus pada Udang Vaname Di Wilayah Indramayu, Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusma Yennie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi Vibrio parahaemolyticus patogenik pada udang vaname yang berasal dari tambak tradisional dan intensif berdasarkan keberadaan gen tdh dan trh. Isolasi dan konfirmasi Vibrio parahaemolyticus mengacu pada BAM (2004, yang dilanjutkan dengan konfirmasi gen tdh dan trh Vibrio parahaemolyticus  menggunakan metode PCR.  Hasil identifikasi menunjukkan bahwa  sebanyak 16/32(50% dan 6/32 (18,8% udang dari tambak tradisional dan intensif positif Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Berdasarkan gen tdh, ditemukan Vibrio parahaemolyticus patogenik pada udang tambak tradisional dan intensif berturut-turut adalah 81% (13/16 dan 50% (3/6. Sementara itu, jika didasarkan pada gen trh, Vibrio parahaemolyticus patogenik pada udang tambak tradisional dan intensif berturut-turut adalah 15/16 (93,8% dan 4/6 (66,7%. Secara keseluruhan prevalensi udang vaname yang positif gen tdh adalah sebesar 72,2% (16/22 gen trh sebesar 86,4% (19/22 dan yang memiliki kedua gen adalah sebanyak 63,6% (14/22.

  1. Impact of Hurricane Irene on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in surface water, sediment, and cultured oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kristi S; Jacobs, John M; Crump, Byron C

    2014-01-01

    To determine if a storm event (i.e., high winds, large volumes of precipitation) could alter concentrations of Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in aquacultured oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and associated surface water and sediment, this study followed a sampling timeline before and after Hurricane Irene impacted the Chesapeake Bay estuary in late August 2011. Aquacultured oysters were sampled from two levels in the water column: surface (0.3 m) and near-bottom (just above the sediment). Concentrations of each Vibrio spp. and associated virulence genes were measured in oysters with a combination of real-time PCR and most probable number (MPN) enrichment methods, and in sediment and surface water with real-time PCR. While concentration shifts of each Vibrio species were apparent post-storm, statistical tests indicated no significant change in concentration for either Vibrio species by location (surface or near bottom oysters) or date sampled (oyster tissue, surface water, and sediment concentrations). V. vulnificus in oyster tissue was correlated with total suspended solids (r = 0.41, P = 0.04), and V. vulnificus in sediment was correlated with secchi depth (r = -0.93, P depth [r = -0.48, P = 0.02 (sediment); r = -0.97, P <0.01 (surface water)] and tidal height [r = -0.96, P <0.01 (sediment), r = -0.59, P <0.01 (surface water)]. The concentrations of Vibrio spp. were higher in oysters relative to other studies (average V. vulnificus 4 × 10(5) MPN g(-1), V. parahaemolyticus 1 × 10(5) MPN g(-1)), and virulence-associated genes were detected in most oyster samples. This study provides a first estimate of storm-related Vibrio density changes in oyster tissues, sediment, and surface water at an aquaculture facility in the Chesapeake Bay.

  2. Regulation of lux Genes in Vibrio fischeri: Control of Symbiosis-Related Gene Expression System in a Marine Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-04

    RR04106 411d019 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) U. Regulation of lux Genes in Vibrio fischeri : Control of a Symbiosis-Related Gene Expression...communication - - 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) The lux genes of Vibrio fischeri encode the ability of this...Regulation of lux Genes in Vibrio fischeri : Control of a Symbiosis-related Gene Expression System in a Marine Bacterium START DATE: 15 August 1988

  3. Coordination of the arc regulatory system and pheromone-mediated positive feedback in controlling the Vibrio fischeri lux operon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Septer, Alecia N; Stabb, Eric V

    2012-01-01

    .... We have explored the interplay between an environmentally responsive regulator and pheromone-mediated positive feedback in intercellular signaling by Vibrio fischeri ES114, a bioluminescent bacterium...

  4. Relative contributions of Vibrio polysaccharide and quorum sensing to the resistance of Vibrio cholerae to predation by heterotrophic protists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyang Sun

    Full Text Available Protozoan grazing is a major mortality factor faced by bacteria in the environment. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems, and its survival depends on its ability to respond to stresses, such as predation by heterotrophic protists. Previous results show that grazing pressure induces biofilm formation and enhances a smooth to rugose morphotypic shift, due to increased expression of Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. In addition to negatively controlling vps genes, the global quorum sensing (QS regulator, HapR, plays a role in grazing resistance as the ΔhapR strain is efficiently consumed while the wild type (WT is not. Here, the relative and combined contributions of VPS and QS to grazing resistance were investigated by exposing VPS and HapR mutants and double mutants in VPS and HapR encoding genes at different phases of biofilm development to amoeboid and flagellate grazers. Data show that the WT biofilms were grazing resistant, the VPS mutants were less resistant than the WT strain, but more resistant than the QS mutant strain, and that QS contributes to grazing resistance mainly in mature biofilms. In addition, grazing effects on biofilms of mixed WT and QS mutant strains were investigated. The competitive fitness of each strain in mixed biofilms was determined by CFU and microscopy. Data show that protozoa selectively grazed the QS mutant in mixed biofilms, resulting in changes in the composition of the mixed community. A small proportion of QS mutant cells which comprised 4% of the mixed biofilm biovolume were embedded in grazing resistant WT microcolonies and shielded from predation, indicating the existence of associational protection in mixed biofilms.

  5. A potent fish pathogenic bacterial killer Streptomyces sp. isolated from the soils of east coast region, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durairaj Thirumurugan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the potentiality of the marine actinobacteria isolated from marine soil against fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: In the present study, a total of 33 soil samples were collected from the Bay of Bengal, east coast region (ECR of Tamilnadu, South India. Then they were used for the isolation of actinobacteria by using conventional serial dilution technique on starch casein agar medium. The antibacterial activities of the actinobacteria were screened primarily by using cross streak plate method against fish pathogenic bacteria namely Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Aeromonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp. The antimicrobial efficacy of the selected isolates was carried out with various organic solvents, and finally the active compound was subjected to chromatographic techniques including TLC and GC-MS. Results: Of the 82 actinobacteria isolated, 21 (26% isolates were possessed antibacterial activity against fish pathogenic bacteria. Out of 21 antibacterial isolates, the isolate ECR77 was selected for further study based on its potential activity against fish pathogenic bacteria. Of the various solvents tested, the ethyl acetate extract had good antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial pathogens. The isolate ECR77 grew well on oat meal agar medium with 2% salt level at 35 °C. GC-MS study found that the presence of bioactive compounds namely tetradecanoic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid. The morphological, physiological, biochemical and cultural characteristics of the potential isolate were supported the identity up to generic level as Streptomyces sp. ECR77. Conclusions: The results obtained from this study concludes that the ECR soils of South India is a hot spot of novel bioactive compound producing marine actinobacteria with great pharmaceutical values.

  6. Survey on antimicrobial resistance patterns in Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 in Germany reveals carbapenemase-producing Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eBier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the occurrence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species is expected for waters in Northern Europe as a consequence of global warming. In this context, a higher incidence of Vibrio infections is predicted for the future and forecasts suggest that people visiting and living at the Baltic Sea are at particular risk.This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance patterns among Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 isolates that could pose a public health risk. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 141 V. vulnificus and 184 V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains isolated from German coastal waters (Baltic Sea and North Sea as well as from patients and retail seafood was assessed by broth microdilution and disk diffusion. Both species were susceptible to most of the agents tested (12 subclasses and no multidrug-resistance was observed. Among V. vulnificus isolates, non-susceptibility was exclusively found towards aminoglycosides. In case of V. cholerae, a noticeable proportion of strains was non-susceptible to aminopenicillins and aminoglycosides. In addition, resistance towards carbapenems, quinolones, and folate pathway inhibitors was sporadically observed. Biochemical testing indicated the production of carbapenemases with unusual substrate specificity in four environmental V. cholerae strains. Most antimicrobial agents recommended for treatment of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 infections were found to be effective in vitro. However, the occurrence of putative carbapenemase producing V. cholerae in German coastal waters is of concern and highlights the need for systematic monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility in potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Europe.

  7. Echinoparyphium montgomeriana n. sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life-cycle and seasonal abundance of. Echinoparyphium montgomeriana n. sp. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Natal, South Africa. c.c. Appleton, Fiona A. Donnelly and Ingrid M. Eriksson. South African Medical Research Council, Durban. A new species of Echinoparyphium, E. montgomeriana, is described from ...

  8. Archaeperidinium saanichi sp. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Yamaguchi, Aika; Kawami, Hisae

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new species, Archaeperidinium saanichi sp. nov. within the Archaeperidinium minutum Jörgensen 1912 species complex. We examined the morphological variation of the cyst and motile stage by incubation experiments from sediment samples collected in coastal British Columbia...

  9. Relationships between environmental factors and pathogenic Vibrios in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C N; Flowers, A R; Noriea, N F; Zimmerman, A M; Bowers, J C; DePaola, A; Grimes, D J

    2010-11-01

    Although autochthonous vibrio densities are known to be influenced by water temperature and salinity, little is understood about other environmental factors associated with their abundance and distribution. Densities of culturable Vibrio vulnificus containing vvh (V. vulnificus hemolysin gene) and V. parahaemolyticus containing tlh (thermolabile hemolysin gene, ubiquitous in V. parahaemolyticus), tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin gene, V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity factor), and trh (tdh-related hemolysin gene, V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity factor) were measured in coastal waters of Mississippi and Alabama. Over a 19-month sampling period, vibrio densities in water, oysters, and sediment varied significantly with sea surface temperature (SST). On average, tdh-to-tlh ratios were significantly higher than trh-to-tlh ratios in water and oysters but not in sediment. Although tlh densities were lower than vvh densities in water and in oysters, the opposite was true in sediment. Regression analysis indicated that SST had a significant association with vvh and tlh densities in water and oysters, while salinity was significantly related to vibrio densities in the water column. Chlorophyll a levels in the water were correlated significantly with vvh in sediment and oysters and with pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (tdh and trh) in the water column. Furthermore, turbidity was a significant predictor of V. parahaemolyticus density in all sample types (water, oyster, and sediment), and its role in predicting the risk of V. parahaemolyticus illness may be more important than previously realized. This study identified (i) culturable vibrios in winter sediment samples, (ii) niche-based differences in the abundance of vibrios, and (iii) predictive signatures resulting from correlations between environmental parameters and vibrio densities.

  10. Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fabio Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

  11. Effectiveness of icing as a postharvest treatment for control of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody, Kevin; Senevirathne, Reshani; Janes, Marlene; Jaykus, Lee Ann; Supan, John

    2008-07-01

    The focus of this research was to investigate the efficacy of icing as a postharvest treatment for reduction of the levels of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in commercial quantities of shellstock oysters. The experiments were conducted in June and August of 2006 and consisted of the following treatments: (i) on-board icing immediately after harvest; (ii) dockside icing approximately 1 to 2 h prior to shipment; and (iii) no icing (control). Changes in the levels of pathogenic Vibrio spp. during wholesale and retail handling for 2 weeks postharvest were also monitored. On-board icing achieved temperature reductions in all sacks in accordance with the National Shellfish Sanitation Program standard, but dockside icing did not meet this standard. Based on one-way analysis of variance, the only statistically significant relationship between Vibrio levels and treatment occurred for samples harvested in August; in this case, the levels of V. vulnificus in the noniced oysters were significantly higher (P iced on-board. When analyzing counts over the 14-day storage period, using factorial analysis, there were statistically significant differences in V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus levels by sample date and/or treatment (P iced) oysters had significantly higher gaping (approximately 20%) after 1 week in cold storage than did noniced oysters (approximately 10%) and gaping increased significantly by day 14 of commercial storage. On-board and dockside icing did not predictably reduce the levels of V. vulnificus or V. parahaemolyticus in oysters, and icing negatively impacted oyster survival during subsequent cold storage.

  12. Impact of Hurricane Irene on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in surface water, sediment and cultured oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi S Shaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine if a storm event (i.e., high winds, large volumes of precipitation could alter concentrations of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in aquacultured oysters (Crassostrea virginica and associated surface water and sediment, this study followed a sampling timeline before and after Hurricane Irene impacted the Chesapeake Bay estuary in late August 2011. Aquacultured oysters were sampled from two levels in the water column: surface 0.3 m and near-bottom just above the sediment. Concentrations of each Vibrio spp. and associated virulence genes were measured in oysters with a combination of real-time PCR and most probable number enrichment methods, and in sediment and surface water with real-time PCR. While concentration shifts of each Vibrio species were apparent post-storm, statistical tests indicated no significant change in concentration change for either Vibrio species by location (surface or near bottom oysters or date sampled (oyster tissue, surface water and sediment concentrations. V. vulnificus in oyster tissue was correlated with total suspended solids (r=0.41, p=0.04, and V. vulnificus in sediment was correlated with secchi depth (r=-0.93, p< 0.01, salinity (r=-0.46, p=0.02, tidal height (r=-0.45, p=0.03, and surface water V. vulnificus (r=0.98, p< 0.01. V. parahaemolyticus in oyster tissue did not correlate with environmental measurements, but V. parahaemolyticus in sediment and surface water correlated with several measurements including secchi depth (r=-0.48, p=0.02[sediment]; r=-0.97 p< 0.01[surface water] and tidal height (r=-0.96. p< 0.01[sediment], r=-0.59,p< 0.01 [surface water]. The concentrations of Vibrio spp. were higher in oysters relative to other studies (average V. vulnificus 4x105 MPN g-1, V. parahaemolyticus 1x105 MPN g-1, and virulence-associated genes were detected in most oyster samples. This study provides a first estimate of storm-related Vibrio density changes in oyster tissues, sediment and

  13. Microcrustáceos y Vibrio cholerae O1 viable no cultivable (VNC: resultados en la Cuenca del Río Salí, Tucumán, Argentina Microcrustaceans and viable but nonculturable (VNC Vibrio cholerae O1: results in the Salí River basin, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Locascio de Mitrovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae reside habitualmente en aguas marinas y continentales. Según las condiciones ambientales y los recursos le sean “favorables” o “desfavorables”, se generan estados viables cultivables (VC o viables no cultivables (VNC respectivamente y, bajo esta última forma sobrevive. Para abordar la problemática del cólera en la Cuenca del Río Salí (Tucumán, Argentina, se realizaron muestreos durante los años 2003-2005 donde se consideraron aspectos fisicos, químicos, biológicos y sanitarios. Para evaluar los probables reservorios del patógeno, se analizó el zooplancton del Río Salí (Canal Norte y Banda Río Salí y Río Lules. La mayor representatividad taxonómica la registraron los copépodos, especialmente Eucyclops neumani (Pesta, 1927, junto a Acanthocyclops robustus (Sars, 1863, Metacyclops sp., Paracyclops chiltoni y Notodiaptomus incompositus (Brian, 1925, además de algunos rotíferos y cladóceros como (Lecane sp., y (Brachionus sp., Moina sp. y Leydigia sp.. La frecuencia de ocurrencia fue baja y no superó el 25%. El Canal Norte fue ambiente más propicio por la riqueza específica, abundancia y constancia de la comunidad. Las variables fisicas y químicas asociadas al zooplancton coincidirían con los valores que por nuestros registros y los antecedentes, se conocen para el desarrollo del patógeno. En el período estival hubo coincidencia entre la presencia de la forma VNC de V. cholerae O1 (inmunofluorescencia con anticuerpos anti O1 y el desarrollo del zooplancton. Se observaron formas VNC sobre apéndices o estructuras de copépodos ciclopoideos y cladóceros quidóridos, reflejando probablemente afinidad con sustratos quitinosos.Vibrio cholerae habitually lives in marine and continental waters. According to "favourable" or "unfavourable" resources and environmental conditions, viable (VC or viable non-culturable (VNC states will be generated, surviving only the latter form. To address the problem of

  14. Vibrio cholerae Colonization of Soft-Shelled Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiazheng; Yan, Meiying; Gao, He; Lu, Xin; Kan, Biao

    2017-07-15

    Vibrio cholerae is an important human pathogen and environmental microflora species that can both propagate in the human intestine and proliferate in zooplankton and aquatic organisms. Cholera is transmitted through food and water. In recent years, outbreaks caused by V. cholerae-contaminated soft-shelled turtles, contaminated mainly with toxigenic serogroup O139, have been frequently reported, posing a new foodborne disease public health problem. In this study, the colonization by toxigenic V. cholerae on the body surfaces and intestines of soft-shelled turtles was explored. Preferred colonization sites on the turtle body surfaces, mainly the carapace and calipash of the dorsal side, were observed for the O139 and O1 strains. Intestinal colonization was also found. The colonization factors of V. cholerae played different roles in the colonization of the soft-shelled turtle's body surface and intestine. Mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) of V. cholerae was necessary for body surface colonization, but no roles were found for toxin-coregulated pili (TCP) or N-acetylglucosamine-binding protein A (GBPA). Both TCP and GBPA play important roles for colonization in the intestine, whereas the deletion of MSHA revealed only a minor colonization-promoting role for this factor. Our study demonstrated that V. cholerae can colonize the surfaces and the intestines of soft-shelled turtles and indicated that the soft-shelled turtles played a role in the transmission of cholera. In addition, this study showed that the soft-shelled turtle has potential value as an animal model in studies of the colonization and environmental adaption mechanisms of V. cholerae in aquatic organisms.IMPORTANCE Cholera is transmitted through water and food. Soft-shelled turtles contaminated with Vibrio cholerae (commonly the serogroup O139 strains) have caused many foodborne infections and outbreaks in recent years, and they have become a foodborne disease problem. Except for epidemiological

  15. An outbreak of Vibrio cholerae in Vikas Nagar, Chandigarh, India

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    Sonia Puri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : On 1 July 2012, a large number of cases of acute diarrheal episodes were reported in Vikas Nagar, Chandigarh. A rapid response team was sent to investigate this outbreak on 3 July 2012. Aim : To determine the reasons for the outbreak and to focus on the identification of a gap in the management of the epidemic by applying remedial measures in the Vibrio cholera outbreak in the Vikas Nagar area of Chandigarh district. Materials and Methods : A house-to-house survey of 2765 houses was performed with 20 teams of Auxillary Nurse Midwife ANM/Anganwadi workers. Information regarding age, sex, place of residence, occupation, date of onset and treatment history and laboratory finding were collected. Environmental investigation and laboratory investigation of the stool samples were also performed. As the study was conducted during an emergency response to the outbreak, and was designed to provide information to orient the public health response, ethical approval was not required. Remedial measures were implemented. Results : A total of 1875 patients reported to the various health facilities of the Vikas Nagar area with complaints of increased frequency of loose watery diarrhea and a few had vomiting episodes during the time period of 1 - 14 July 2012. Four deaths were reported. Three hundred eighteen (318 cases were found in the house-to-house survey of 2765 houses of the area. Twenty-six percent of the cases were in the age group of 1800 MPN/100 mL was reported from 10 water samples. Investigations revealed that the epidemic was waterborne. Leakages in the pipes were found at many places leading to mixing of water with drainage, and water samples collected from the houses of the cases were found to be positive for Vibrio cholerae. Conclusion : Among the identified gaps, delays in the initiation of the investigation of the epidemic and pipe leakages were the most important. In India, waterborne epidemics are usual occurrences during the year

  16. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence

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    Gil Ana I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of foodborne disease. Beginning in 1996, a more virulent strain having serotype O3:K6 caused major outbreaks in India and other parts of the world, resulting in the emergence of a pandemic. Other serovariants of this strain emerged during its dissemination and together with the original O3:K6 were termed strains of the pandemic clone. Two genomes, one of this virulent strain and one pre-pandemic strain have been sequenced. We sequenced four additional genomes of V. parahaemolyticus in this study that were isolated from different geographical regions and time points. Comparative genomic analyses of six strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Asia and Peru were performed in order to advance knowledge concerning the evolution of V. parahaemolyticus; specifically, the genetic changes contributing to serotype conversion and virulence. Two pre-pandemic strains and three pandemic strains, isolated from different geographical regions, were serotype O3:K6 and either toxin profiles (tdh+, trh- or (tdh-, trh+. The sixth pandemic strain sequenced in this study was serotype O4:K68. Results Genomic analyses revealed that the trh+ and tdh+ strains had different types of pathogenicity islands and mobile elements as well as major structural differences between the tdh pathogenicity islands of the pre-pandemic and pandemic strains. In addition, the results of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis showed that 94% of the SNPs between O3:K6 and O4:K68 pandemic isolates were within a 141 kb region surrounding the O- and K-antigen-encoding gene clusters. The "core" genes of V. parahaemolyticus were also compared to those of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus, in order to delineate differences between these three pathogenic species. Approximately one-half (49-59% of each species' core genes were conserved in all three species, and 14-24% of the core genes were species-specific and in different

  17. Microalgae associated Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 as the nano particle synthesizing unit to produce antimicrobial silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, Karthic; Sudha, S. S.; Francis, Mebin; Sowmya, T.; Rengaramanujam, J.; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy

    2013-09-01

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antimicrobial property was studied using bacteria isolated from Spirulina products. Isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp. MSK 1 (JX495945), Staphylococcus sp. MSK 2 (JX495946), Bacillus sp. MSK 3 (JX495947) and Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 (JX495948). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using bacterial culture filtrate with AgNO3. The initial syntheses of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer (by measuring the color change to intense brown). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed evidence that proteins are possible reducing agents and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) study showing the metal silver as major signal. The structure of AgNPs was determined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Synthesized Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 40-65 nm have antimicrobial property against human pathogens like Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Streptococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Among the isolates Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 alone showed good activity in both synthesis of AgNPs and antimicrobial activity. This work demonstrates the possible use of biological synthesized silver nanoparticles to combat the drug resistant problem.

  18. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomics of the golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus pathogen, Vibrio harveyi strain QT520

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    Zhigang Tu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium that is an opportunistic pathogen of commercially farmed marine vertebrate species. To understand the pathogenicity of this species, the genome of V. harveyi QT520 was analyzed and compared to that of other strains. The results showed the genome of QT520 has two unique circular chromosomes and three endogenous plasmids, totaling 6,070,846 bp with a 45% GC content, 5,701 predicted ORFs, 134 tRNAs and 37 rRNAs. Common virulence factors, including ACF, IlpA, OmpU, Flagellin, Cya, Hemolysin and MARTX, were detected in the genome, which are likely responsible for the virulence of QT520. The results of genomes comparisons with strains ATCC 33843 (392 (MAV and ATCC 43516 showed that greater numbers genes associated with types I, II, III, IV and VI secretion systems were detected in QT520 than in other strains, suggesting that QT520 is a highly virulent strain. In addition, three plasmids were only observed in the complete genome sequence of strain QT520. In plasmid p1 of QT520, specific virulence factors (cyaB, hlyB and rtxA were identified, suggesting that the pathogenicity of this strain is plasmid-associated. Phylogenetic analysis of 12 complete Vibrio sp. genomes using ANI values, core genes and MLST revealed that QT520 was most closely related to ATCC 33843 (392 (MAV and ATCC 43516, suggesting that QT520 belongs to the species V. harveyi. This report is the first to describe the complete genome sequence of a V. harveyi strain isolated from an outbreak in a fish species in China. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to compare the V. harveyi genomes of several strains. The results of this study will expand our understanding of the genome, genetic characteristics, and virulence factors of V. harveyi, setting the stage for studies of pathogenesis, diagnostics, and disease prevention.

  19. Isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from fecal specimens on mannitol salt agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, M M; Kabat, W J

    1976-08-01

    Unless laboratories use an inhibitory medium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus will be unrecognizable in fecal specimens. The use of a medium exclusively for vibrio isolation, such as thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS), however, may not be considered economically justified in the United States. The isolation and recognition of V. parahaemolyticus is reported on mannitol salt agar (MS), a medium which is used for fecal specimens here. Eight Kanagawa-positive and two of three Kanagawa-negative strains of V. parahaemolyticus grew as well on MS as on TCBS and better than on a representative enteric medium, Hektoen enteric agar (HE). Twenty-two fecal specimens from 16 noninfected individuals were inoculated with known quantities of V. parahaemolyticus, and recovery of these vibrios was assessed on TCBS, MS, and HE. Recovery of vibrios from MS and TCBS was similar when inoculum size was 10(3) colony-forming units/ml or greater. Recovery of vibrios from mixed culture was distinctly lower on HE. The colonial morphology of V. parahaemolyticus and several other bacteria on MS is illustrated.

  20. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, PArtemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytoplankton production systems in a shellfish hatchery: variations of the bacterial load and diversity of vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, J; Fernández-Pardo, A; Nóvoa, S; Barja, J L; Prado, S

    2015-06-01

    Outbreaks of disease caused by some Vibrio species represent the main production bottleneck in shellfish hatcheries. Although the phytoplankton used as food is one of the main sources of bacteria, studies of the associated bacterial populations, specifically vibrios, are scarce. The aim of the study was the microbiological monitoring of the microalgae as the first step in assessing the risk disease for bivalve cultures. Two phytoplankton production systems were sampled weekly throughout 1-year period in a bivalve hatchery. Quantitative analysis revealed high levels of marine heterotrophic bacteria in both systems throughout the study. Presumptive vibrios were detected occasionally and at low concentrations. In most of the cases, they belonged to the Splendidus and Harveyi clades. The early detection of vibrios in the microalgae may be the key for a successful bivalve culture. Their abundance and diversity were affected by factors related to the hatchery environment. This work represents the first long study where the presence of vibrios was evaluated rigorously in phytoplankton production systems and provides a suitable microbiological protocol to control and guarantee the quality of the algal cultures to avoid the risk of transferring potential pathogens to shellfish larvae and/or broodstock. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effect of Climate Change on the Concentration and Associated Risks of Vibrio Spp. in Dutch Recreational Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, Ankie; Schets, Franciska M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; de Nijs, Ton; Schijven, Jack F; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the number of reported cases of recreational- water-related Vibrio illness in the Netherlands is low. However, a notable higher incidence of Vibrio infections has been observed in warm summers. In the future, such warm summers are expected to occur more often, resulting in enhanced water

  3. Effect of Climate Change on the Concentration and Associated Risks of Vibrio Spp. in Dutch Recreational Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Ankie; Schets, Franciska M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; de Nijs, Ton; Schijven, Jack F

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the number of reported cases of recreational- water-related Vibrio illness in the Netherlands is low. However, a notable higher incidence of Vibrio infections has been observed in warm summers. In the future, such warm summers are expected to occur more often, resulting in enhanced water temperatures favoring Vibrio growth. Quantitative information on the increase in concentration of Vibrio spp. in recreational water under climate change scenarios is lacking. In this study, data on occurrence of Vibrio spp. at six different bathing sites in the Netherlands (2009-2012) were used to derive an empirical formula to predict the Vibrio concentration as a function of temperature, salinity, and pH. This formula was used to predict the effects of increased temperatures in climate change scenarios on Vibrio concentrations. For Vibrio parahaemolyticus, changes in illness risks associated with the changed concentrations were calculated as well. For an average temperature increase of 3.7 °C, these illness risks were calculated to be two to three times higher than in the current situation. Current illness risks were, varying per location, on average between 10(-4) and 10(-2) per person for an entire summer. In situations where water temperatures reached maximum values, illness risks are estimated to be up to 10(-2) and 10(-1) . If such extreme situations occur more often during future summers, increased numbers of ill bathers or bathing-water-related illness outbreaks may be expected. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Ocurrence of Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci and enteric bacteria in oysters (Crassostrea gigas harvested in the south bay of Santa Catarina island, Brazil Ocorrência de Vibrio spp., estafilococos coagulase positivo e bactérias entéricas em ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas na baía sul da ilha de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Roberta Juliano Ramos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of oysters (Crassostrea gigas, harvested in six different regions of the South Bay of Santa Catarina Island, with Coliforms at 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci, and Salmonella sp. over a period of one year. One hundred eighty oyster samples were collected directly from their culture sites and analyzed. Each sample consisted of a pool of 12 oysters. All of the samples analyzed showed absence of Salmonella, 18 (10% samples showed presence of Escherichia coli, 15 (8.3% samples were positive for V. alginolyticus, and Vibriocholerae was detected in 4 samples (2.2%. The counts of positive-coagulase staphylococci varied from O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação de ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas em diferentes regiões da Baía Sul da Ilha de Santa Catarina, por coliformes a 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp. Estafilococos coagulase positiva e Salmonella sp., durante o período de um ano. Foram analisadas 180 amostras, coletadas diretamente no local de cultivo. Todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram ausência de Salmonella, 18 (10% amostras apresentaram presença de Escherichia coli, 15 (8,3% amostras positivas para Vibrio alginolyticus e V. cholerae foi detectado em 4 amostras (2,2%. As contagens de Estafilococos coagulase positiva variaram de <10 a 1,9 x 102 UFC.g-1, enquanto que as contagens de coliformes a 45 ºC e E. coli variaram de <3 a 1,5 x 102 NMP.g-1 e <3 e 4,3 x 10 NMP.g-1, respectivamente. As contagens de V. parahaemolyticus e V. vulnificus variaram de <3 a 7 NMP.g-1, para ambos os microrganismos, sugerindo um monitoramento tanto destas espécies quanto da temperatura das águas marinhas nas regiões de cultivo. Com base nos resultados das análises microbiológicas, as amostras analisadas mostraram qualidade bacteriológica aceitável, ou seja, dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos na legislação brasileira.

  5. Cellulose effects on morphology and elasticity of Vibrio fischeri biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Christopher; Shabtai, Yael; Piatkovsky, Maria; Herzberg, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose effects on Vibrio fischeri biofilm morphology were tested for the wild-type and two of its isogenic mutants that either exhibit increased cellulose production or do not produce cellulose at all. Confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging of each biofilm revealed that total sessile volume increases with cellulose expression, but the size of colonies formed with cellulose was smaller, creating a more diffuse biofilm. These morphological differences were not attributed to variations in bacterial deposition, extracellular polymeric substances affinity to the surface or bacterial growth. A positive correlation was found between cellulose expression, Young's (elastic) modulus of the biofilm analyzed with atomic force microscope and shear modulus of the related extracellular polymeric substances layers analyzed with quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Cellulose production also correlated positively with concentrations of extracellular DNA. A significant negative correlation was observed between cellulose expression and rates of diffusion through the extracellular polymeric substances. The difference observed in biofilm morphology is suggested as a combined result of cellulose and likely extracellular DNA (i) increasing biofilm Young's modulus, making shear removal more difficult, and (ii) decreased diffusion rate of nutrients and wastes into and out of the biofilm, which effectively limits colony size.

  6. Genetic characterization of trh positive Vibrio spp. isolated from Norway

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    Anette eBauer Ellingsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH genes are carried by most virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovars. In Norway, trh+ V. parahaemolyticus constitute 4.4% and 4.5 % of the total number of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis and water, respectively. The trh gene is located in a region close to the gene cluster for urease production (ure. This region was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996 and it was found that a nickel transport operon (nik was located between the first gene (ureR and the rest of the ure cluster genes. The organization of the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster in the Norwegian trh+ isolates was unknown. In this study, we explore the gene organization within the trh-ureR-nik-ure cluster for these isolates. PCR analyses revealed that the genes within the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster of Norwegian trh+ isolates were organized in a similar fashion as reported previously for TH33996. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship among these trh+ isolates was investigated using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. Analysis by MLST or ureR-trh sequences generated two different phylogenetic trees for the same strains analyzed, suggesting that ureR-trh genes have been acquired at different times in Norwegian V. parahaemolyticus isolates. MLST results revealed that some pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Norway appear to be highly genetically related.

  7. Genetic components of stringent response in Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Ritesh Ranjan; Das, Bhabatosh; Dasgupta, Shreya; Bhadra, Rupak K.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional stress elicits stringent response in bacteria involving modulation of expression of several genes. This is mainly triggered by the intracellular accumulation of two small molecules, namely, guanosine 3’-diphosphate 5’-triphosphate and guanosine 3’,5’-bis(diphosphate), collectively called (p)ppGpp. Like in other Gram-negative bacteria, the cellular level of (p)ppGpp is maintained in Vibrio cholerae, the causative bacterial pathogen of the disease cholera, by the products of two genes relA and spoT. However, apart from relA and spoT, a novel gene relV has recently been identified in V. cholerae, the product of which has been shown to be involved in (p)ppGpp synthesis under glucose or fatty acid starvation in a ΔrelA ΔspoT mutant background. Furthermore, the GTP binding essential protein CgtA and a non-DNA binding transcription factor DksA also seem to play several important roles in modulating stringent response and regulation of other genes in this pathogen. The present review briefly discusses about the role of all these genes mainly in the management of stringent response in V. cholerae. PMID:21415497

  8. The pathogenesis, detection and prevention of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

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    Rongzhi eWang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative motile bacterium that inhabits marine and estuarine environments throughout the world, is a major food-borne pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases in humans after the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. The global occurrence of V. parahaemaolyticus accentuates the importance of investigating its virulence factors and their effects on the human host. This review describes the virulence factors of V. parahaemolyticus reported to date, including hemolysin, urease, two type III secretion systems (T3SS and two type VI secretion systems (T6SS, which both cause both cytotoxicity in cultured cells and enterotoxicity in animal models. We describe various types of detection methods, based on virulence factors, that are used for quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. We also discuss some useful preventive measures and therapeutic strategies for the diseases mediated by V. parahaemolyticus, which can reduce, to some extent, the damage to humans and aquatic animals attributable to V. parahaemolyticus. This review extends our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus mediated by virulence factors and the diseases it causes in its human host. It should provide new insights for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  9. Mutation of Bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for Selective Preparation of Colorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihosseini, Farzaneh; Lango, Jozsef; Ju, Kou-San; Hammock, Bruce D.; Sun, Gang

    2010-01-01

    A novel marine bacterium strain effectively produced prodiginine type pigments. These colorants could dye wool, silk and synthetic fabrics such as polyester and polyacrylic and also show antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on the dyed products. Methyl nitrosoguanidine was used as a mutation agent to increase the genetic diversity and the production yield of the bacteria of the family of Vibrio gazogenes. The analysis of the mutated samples showed that two new main colorants as well as three previously found ones were produced. Liquid chromatography electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the structures of the newly produced colorants. Mass measurements revealed that the colorants C1, C2, C3, C4 have molecular masses of 321, 323, 351, and 295 Da. One unstable colorant C5 with molecular mass of 309 Da was detected as well. The mutated bacteria strains increased the yield of pigment production by about 81% and produced prodigiosin in 97% purity. The antibiotic activities of pure colorants are discussed as well. Based on their bio-activity and excellent dyeing capabilities, these colorants could be employed in cosmetic and textile industries. PMID:19902486

  10. Mutation of bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for selective preparation of colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihosseini, Farzaneh; Lango, Jozsef; Ju, Kou-San; Hammock, Bruce D; Sun, Gang

    2010-01-01

    A novel marine bacterium strain effectively produced prodiginine type pigments. These colorants could dye wool, silk and synthetic fabrics such as polyester and polyacrylic and also show antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on the dyed products. Methyl nitrosoguanidine was used as a mutation agent to increase the genetic diversity and the production yield of the bacteria of the family of Vibrio gazogenes. The analysis of the mutated samples showed that two new main colorants as well as three previously found ones were produced. Liquid chromatography electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the structures of the newly produced colorants. Mass measurements revealed that the colorants C1, C2, C3, C4 have molecular masses of 321, 323, 351, and 295 Da. One unstable colorant C5 with molecular mass of 309 Da was detected as well. The mutated bacteria strains increased the yield of pigment production by about 81% and produced prodigiosin in 97% purity. The antibiotic activities of pure colorants are discussed as well. Based on their bio-activity and excellent dyeing capabilities, these colorants could be employed in cosmetic and textile industries.

  11. The association between non-biting midges and Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broza, Meir; Gancz, Hanan; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2008-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems, yet its interactions within this habitat are poorly understood. Here we describe the current knowledge on the interaction of V. cholerae with one group of co-inhabitants, the chironomids. Chironomids, non-biting midges (Chironomidae, Diptera), are an abundant macroinvertebrate group encountered in freshwater aquatic habitats. As holometabolous insects, chironomids start life when their larvae hatch from eggs laid at the water/air interface; through various feeding strategies, the larvae grow and pupate to become short-lived, non-feeding, adult flying insects. The discovery of the connection between V. cholerae and chironomids was accidental. While working with Chironomus transavaalensis, we observed the disintegration of its egg masses and searched for a possible microbial agent. We identified V. cholerae as the primary cause of this phenomenon. Haemagglutinin/protease, a secreted extracellular enzyme, degraded the gelatinous matrix surrounding the eggs, enabling bacterial growth. Observation of chironomids in relation to V. cholerae continuously for 7 years in various types of water bodies in Israel, India, and Africa revealed that environmental V. cholerae adhere to egg-mass surfaces of various Chironomini ('bloodworms'). The flying adults' potential to serve as mechanical vectors of V. cholerae from one water body to another was established. This, in turn, suggested that these insects play a role in the ecology of V. cholerae and possibly take part in the dissemination of the pathogenic serogroups during, and especially between, epidemics.

  12. Environmental reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae

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    Carla eLutz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now well accepted that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the water-borne disease cholera, is acquired from environmental sources where it persists between outbreaks of the disease. Recent advances in molecular technology have demonstrated that this bacterium could be detected in areas where it had not been isolated from before, indicating a much broader, global distribution of this bacterium rather than specifically within regions where cholera is endemic. The environmental persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment can be attributed to multiple intra- and interspecific strategies such as responsive gene regulation and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, as well as interactions with a multitude of other organisms. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that enable the persistence of the bacterium in the sometimes hostile environment. In particular, we will discuss how V. cholerae can survive stressors such as starvation, temperature and salinity fluctuations as well as how the organism persists under constant predation by heterotrophic protists.

  13. Vibrio cholerae: A historical perspective and current trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Oyenike Oladokun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae is a Gram-negative, curved, rod-shaped bacteria with two of its strains V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 known to cause cholera, a deadly diarrheal disease that has repeatedly plagued the world in pandemics since 1817 and still remains a public health problem globally till today. The pathogens’ persistence in aquatic milieux during inter-epidemic periods is facilitated by the production of a biofilm, thus evolving from being an infection of oral-fecal transmission to a more composite ecological framework of a communicable disease. The outbreaks of cholera spread rapidly in various intensities within and among countries and even continents and the World Health Organization estimates that 3–5 million cases outbreak and over 200 000 die yearly from cholera. Also, the impact of a cholera epidemic is not limited to its high morbidity and mortality rates alone, but also the grievous impact on the economy of the countries experiencing the outbreaks. In this review, we carried out an overview of V. cholerae including its isolation and detection, genetics as well as a comparison of the toxigenic and non-toxigenic determinants in the human host and the host defences. Furthermore, the history of global pandemics, cost implications, conflict and ecological methodologies of cholera prevention and control. The management of disease and antibiotic resistance in V. cholerae are also highlighted.

  14. Directed evolution of Vibrio fischeri LuxR signal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Tashiro, Yohei; Saito, Kyoichi; Kawai-Noma, Shigeko; Umeno, Daisuke

    2016-11-01

    LuxR is the core component of Vibrio fischeri quorum sensing. It acts as the transcriptional activator by binding to its cognate signaling molecules 3-oxo-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC6HSL). Although several acyl-HSLs with 3-oxo groups are known to activate LuxR with similar efficiency, acyl-HSLs without 3-oxo groups are very weak inducers. We conducted a round of LuxR directed evolution to acquire LuxR mutants with higher signal sensitivity to octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C8HSL). All of the isolated mutants showed increased signal sensitivity to many other acyl-HSLs, including C8HSL, and some to the LuxR antagonist p-coumaroyl-HSL. The evolution of their ligand sensitivity proceeded through the stabilization of the signal-bound state, thereby elevating the effective concentration of LuxR at the ON-state. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Predation response of Vibrio fischeri biofilms to bacterivorus protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Gorman, Clayton; Erken, Martina; Steinberg, Peter D; McDougald, Diane; Nishiguchi, Michele K

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri proliferates in a sessile, stable community known as a biofilm, which is one alternative survival strategy of its life cycle. Although this survival strategy provides adequate protection from abiotic factors, marine biofilms are still susceptible to grazing by bacteria-consuming protozoa. Subsequently, grazing pressure can be controlled by certain defense mechanisms that confer higher biofilm antipredator fitness. In the present work, we hypothesized that V. fischeri exhibits an antipredator fitness behavior while forming biofilms. Different predators representing commonly found species in aquatic populations were examined, including the flagellates Rhynchomonas nasuta and Neobodo designis (early biofilm feeders) and the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis (late biofilm grazer). V. fischeri biofilms included isolates from both seawater and squid hosts (Euprymna and Sepiola species). Our results demonstrate inhibition of predation by biofilms, specifically, isolates from seawater. Additionally, antiprotozoan behavior was observed to be higher in late biofilms, particularly toward the ciliate T. pyriformis; however, inhibitory effects were found to be widespread among all isolates tested. These results provide an alternative explanation for the adaptive advantage and persistence of V. fischeri biofilms and provide an important contribution to the understanding of defensive mechanisms that exist in the out-of-host environment.

  16. Quorum Sensing in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Miyashiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization.

  17. Quorum Sensing in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Subhash C.; Miyashiro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization. PMID:23965960

  18. The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benktander

    Full Text Available The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Galα3Galα3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.

  19. Characterization of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Cheryl; Tarr, Cheryl; Parsons, Michele B.; Dahourou, Georges; Freeman, Molly; Joyce, Kevin; Turnsek, Maryann; Garrett, Nancy; Humphrys, Michael; Gomez, Gerardo; Stroika, Steven; Boncy, Jacques; Ochieng, Benjamin; Oundo, Joseph; Klena, John; Smith, Anthony; Keddy, Karen; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention received reports of cases of severe watery diarrhea in Haiti. The cause was confirmed to be toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. We characterized 122 isolates from Haiti and compared them with isolates from other countries. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion and broth microdilution. Analyses included identification of rstR and VC2346 genes, sequencing of ctxAB and tcpA genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with SfiI and NotI enzymes. All isolates were susceptible to doxycycline and azithromycin. One pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern predominated, and ctxB sequence of all isolates matched the B-7 allele. We identified the tcpETCIRS allele, which is also present in Bangladesh strain CIRS 101. These data show that the isolates from Haiti are clonally and genetically similar to isolates originating in Africa and southern Asia and that ctxB-7 and tcpETCIRS alleles are undergoing global dissemination. PMID:22099116

  20. Genetic characterization of trh positive Vibrio spp. isolated from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Anette B; Olsen, Jaran S; Granum, Per E; Rørvik, Liv M; González-Escalona, Narjol

    2013-01-01

    The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) genes are carried by most virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovars. In Norway, trh+ V. parahaemolyticus constitute 4.4 and 4.5% of the total number of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and water, respectively. The trh gene is located in a region close to the gene cluster for urease production (ure). This region was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996 and it was found that a nickel transport operon (nik) was located between the first gene (ureR) and the rest of the ure cluster genes. The organization of the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster in the Norwegian trh+ isolates was unknown. In this study, we explore the gene organization within the trh-ureR-nik-ure cluster for these isolates. PCR analyses revealed that the genes within the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster of Norwegian trh+ isolates were organized in a similar fashion as reported previously for TH33996. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship among these trh+ isolates was investigated using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Analysis by MLST or ureR-trh sequences generated two different phylogenetic trees for the same strains analyzed, suggesting that ureR-trh genes have been acquired at different times in Norwegian V. parahaemolyticus isolates. MLST results revealed that some pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Norway appear to be highly genetically related.

  1. Immune response of shrimp (Penaeus monodon against Vibrios furnissii pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Subramanian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse experimental infection and immune system of shrimp (Penaeus monodon against Vibrios furnissii (V. furnissii. Methods: Experimental animals were collected and acclimatized by maintaining specific temperature, pH and salinity to avoid mortality. Shrimps were experimentally infected with V. furnissii and their immune responses were monitored. After the infection all the shrimps were monitored for any symptoms, death rate in 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 h. Then haemolymph were collected and tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium and lysozyme were monitored in every 12 h at the interval of 48 h. Results: Shrimps infected by live V. furnissii had showed gradual increase in tetrahydrocannabinol, phenol oxidase activity, nitro-blue-tetrazolium and lysozyme activity comparing with the killed and control. Conclusions: The live V. furnissii had showed infection in the shrimp immune system. The live V. furnissii shows infection in experimental shrimps comparing with killed V. furnissii. So the V. furnissii in nature cause the infection in shrimp Penaeus monodon immune system. This report could be applied to control of the infection in shrimp hatchery.

  2. Quorum sensing in the squid-Vibrio symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Subhash C; Miyashiro, Tim

    2013-08-07

    Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization.

  3. Vibrio alginolyticus Associated Chronic Myringitis Acquired in Mediterranean Waters of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Ekrem Citil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio alginolyticus was originally classified as biotype 2 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Most clinical isolates are recovered from superficial wounds or the external ear infections. V. alginolyticus is acknowledged to be nearly nonpathogenic in humans. The reason for presence of V. alginolyticus’s virulence is uncertain. We describe a chronic myringitis case in a 47-year-old female due to V. alginolyticus. According to her anamnesis, it was detected that she had sea bathing history in Mugla Coast in Turkey. Pure isolation of V. alginolyticus was obtained from external auditory canal’s culture. Investigation and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolate were performed by the automatized BD Phoenix system and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, respectively. The bacteria were sensitive to all antibiotics. This case was presented to pay attention to Vibrio alginolyticus infections.

  4. Evaluation of Cholera Toxin Expression in Different Populations of Vibrio cholera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ebrahimi Kasgari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholera is one of the most diseases of human. Cholera toxin is the most important pathogenic factor in humans that causes diarrhea. The cholera toxin is produced by V. cholerae and CTXфPhage. Objectives: In this study, we have investigated the production cholera toxin with different density of Vibrio cholerae. Materials and Methods: With this propose we inoculated classical strain O1 of Vibrio cholerae ATCC 14035 and Vibrio cholerae O1biovar El Tor N16961 into the AKI medium. Then, the total mRNA was determined by standard procedure which was converted into total cDNA. Results: Cholra toxin production was determined by qPCR and maximum production of cholera toxin was at 1010 cfu/mL. Conclusions: In conclusion, production of cholera toxin was minimized almost up to zero at 1010.5 cfu/mL; which could be due to presence of high level concentration of autoinducer.

  5. Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), seawater and sediments of the Maryland Coastal Bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, C; Parveen, S; Chigbu, P; Jacobs, J; Rhodes, M; Harter-Dennis, J

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and V. vulnificus (Vv) in blue crabs, water and sediment from the Maryland Coastal Bays (MCBs), USA. Crab, haemolymph, sediment and seawater samples were collected monthly from four sites in MCBs from February 2012 through October 2012 with environmental parameters recorded. The most-probable-number (MPN) methodology was used to enumerate Vp and Vv with presumptive colonies and the presence of virulence markers confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results indicate that blue crabs contained both Vp and Vv at densities (7·28 and 5·43 log MPN g(-1) , respectively) higher than those reported for bivalves. In addition, markers for clinically relevant strains of both species were detected in over 30% of samples. Haemolymph, sediment and seawater samples were also routinely positive for both species and clinically relevant strains, but generally at lower densities than found in crabs (4·27, 3·28, and 2·39 log MPN g(-1) per ml(-1) Vp, and 4·28, 2·49 and 2·38 log MPN g(-1) per ml(-1) Vv). Blue crabs concentrate Vp and Vv at levels greater than found in water or sediment. While changes in abundance associated with temperature are apparent, there is little evidence to support differences among sampling locations. These results highlight the potential for blue crab related vibriosis and the importance of proper handling, cooking and care of this popular seafood before consumption. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from various ecological niches on Vibrio species pathogenic to crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran Priyaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To abrogate pathogenic vibrios in aquaculture by testing the potential of Pseudomonas isolates from fresh water, brackish and marine environments as probiotics. Methods: Purification and structural elucidation of antagonistic compound were carried out. Antagonistic activity of the compound against 7 Vibrio spp. was performed. Influence of salinity on the production of pyocyanin and the toxicity was done through the compound using brine shrimp lethality assay. Molecular characterization was performed to confirm that the isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Salinity was found to regulate the levels of pyocyanin production, with 5-10 g/L as the optimum. All Pseudomonas isolates grew at salinities ranging from 5 to 70 g/L. Isolates of marine origin produced detectable levels of pyocyanin up to 45 g/L salinity. Brackish and freshwater isolates ceased to produce pyocyanin at salinities above 30 g/L and 20 g/L, respectively. Culture supernatants of all 5 Pseudomonas isolates possessed the ability to restrict the growth of Vibrio spp. and maximum antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi was obtained when they were grown at salinities of 5 to 10 g/L. The marine isolate MCCB117, even when grown at a salinity of 45 g/L possessed the ability to inhibit Vibrio spp. Conclusions: The present investigation showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCCB119 would be ideal for application in freshwater, MCCB102 and MCCB103 in brackish water and MCCB117 and MCCB118 in marine aquaculture systems as putative probiotics in the management of vibrios.

  7. Chitinase determinants of Vibrio vulnificus: gene cloning and applications of a chitinase probe.

    OpenAIRE

    Wortman, A T; Somerville, C C; Colwell, R R

    1986-01-01

    To initiate study of the genetic control of chitinolytic activity in vibrios, the chitobiase gene was isolated by cloning chromosomal DNA prepared from Vibrio vulnificus. Chimeric plasmids were constructed from Sau3A I partial digests of chromosomal DNA by ligating 5 to 15-kilobase fragments into the BamHI site, i.e., in the Tcr gene, of pBR322 (Amr Tcr). The resulting plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli DH1. Chitobiase activity of the insert-bearing clones was detected by using a...

  8. Cerebral absces med Vibrio cholerae non-01 efter badning i dansk havvand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Trine; Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2012-01-01

    We present the first case of intracerebral abscess after blood-borne infection with non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (non-01). The patient was a 66 year-old woman who was infected after swimming in Danish seawater during an unusually hot summer. She had predisposing haemochromatosis and a skin lesion...... on the ankle. We treated the patient with meropenem and ciprofloxacin for six weeks followed by ciprofloxacin for four weeks, and she recovered with hemiparesis and speech impairment. Marine Vibrio species may produce intracranial infection in predisposed individuals, even in temperate climate zones....

  9. Comparative Genome Analyses of Vibrio anguillarum Strains Reveal a Link with Pathogenicity Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; D'Alvise, Paul; Xu, Ruiqi

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a marine bacterium that can cause vibriosis in many fish and shellfish species, leading to high mortalities and economic losses in aquaculture. Although putative virulence factors have been identified, the mechanism of pathogenesis of V. anguillarum is not fully understood...... a link between genotype and virulence characteristics of Vibrio anguillarum, which can be used to unravel the molecular evolution of V. anguillarum and can also be important from survey and diagnostic perspectives. Importance : Comparative genome analysis of strains of a pathogenic bacterial species can...

  10. Elongation of exogenous fatty acids by the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, D M

    1989-01-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria require myristic acid (C14:0) to produce the myristaldehyde substrate of the light-emitting luciferase reaction. Since both endogenous and exogenous C14:0 can be used for this purpose, the metabolism of exogenous fatty acids by luminescent bacteria has been investigated. Both Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri incorporated label from [1-14C]myristic acid (C14:0) into phospholipid acyl chains as well as into CO2. In contrast, Photobacterium phosphoreum did not exhibit p...

  11. Characterization of a Vibrio cholerae phage isolated from the coastal water of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talledo, Miguel; Rivera, Irma N G; Lipp, Erin K; Neale, Angela; Karaolis, David; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2003-05-01

    A Vibrio cholerae bacteriophage, family Myoviridae, was isolated from seawater collected from the coastal water of Lima, Peru. Genome size was estimated to be 29 kbp. The temperate phage was specific to V. cholerae and infected 12/13 V. cholerae O1 strains and half of the four non-O1/non-O139 strains tested in this study. Vibrio cholerae O139 strains were resistant to infection and highest infection rates were obtained in low nutrient media amended with NaCl or prepared using seawater as diluent.

  12. Vibrio plantisponsor sp. nov., a diazotrophic bacterium isolated from a mangrove associated wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rameshkumar, N.; Gomez-Gil, B.; Sproer, C.; Lang, E.; Kumar, N.D.; Krishnamurthi, S.; Nair, S.; Roque, A.

    und Zellkulturen GmbH, Inhoffenstraße 7b, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany 5 Aquatic Animal Health and Environmental Division, Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai, India , Pincode - 600 028 6 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona... were compared against the sequences available from GenBank using the BLASTN program [1] and the EzTaxon database [12]. The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were determined by using the EzTaxon server (http://www.eztaxon.org/; 12...

  13. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  14. O-antigen and Core Carbohydrate of Vibrio fischeri Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Deborah M. B.; Yu, Liping; Krasity, Benjamin C.; Choudhury, Biswa; Mandel, Mark J.; Brennan, Caitlin A.; Ruby, Edward G.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Apicella, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri exists in a symbiotic relationship with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, where the squid provides a home for the bacteria, and the bacteria in turn provide camouflage that helps protect the squid from night-time predators. Like other Gram-negative organisms, V. fischeri expresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on its cell surface. The structure of the O-antigen and the core components of the LPS and their possible role in colonization of the squid have not previously been determined. In these studies, an O-antigen ligase mutant, waaL, was utilized to determine the structures of these LPS components and their roles in colonization of the squid. WaaL ligates the O-antigen to the core of the LPS; thus, LPS from waaL mutants lacks O-antigen. Our results show that the V. fischeri waaL mutant has a motility defect, is significantly delayed in colonization, and is unable to compete with the wild-type strain in co-colonization assays. Comparative analyses of the LPS from the wild-type and waaL strains showed that the V. fischeri LPS has a single O-antigen repeat composed of yersiniose, 8-epi-legionaminic acid, and N-acetylfucosamine. In addition, the LPS from the waaL strain showed that the core structure consists of l-glycero-d-manno-heptose, d-glycero-d-manno-heptose, glucose, 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, 8-epi-legionaminic acid, phosphate, and phosphoethanolamine. These studies indicate that the unusual V. fischeri O-antigen sugars play a role in the early phases of bacterial colonization of the squid. PMID:22247546

  15. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to

  16. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype strains reveal distinct signatures in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia.

  17. RpoS controls the Vibrio cholerae mucosal escape response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Toftgaard Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae causes a severe diarrhoeal disease by secreting a toxin during colonization of the epithelium in the small intestine. Whereas the initial steps of the infectious process have been intensively studied, the last phases have received little attention. Confocal microscopy of V. cholerae O1-infected rabbit ileal loops captured a distinctive stage in the infectious process: 12 h post-inoculation, bacteria detach from the epithelial surface and move into the fluid-filled lumen. Designated the "mucosal escape response," this phenomenon requires RpoS, the stationary phase alternative sigma factor. Quantitative in vivo localization assays corroborated the rpoS phenotype and showed that it also requires HapR. Expression profiling of bacteria isolated from ileal loop fluid and mucus demonstrated a significant RpoS-dependent upregulation of many chemotaxis and motility genes coincident with the emigration of bacteria from the epithelial surface. In stationary phase cultures, RpoS was also required for upregulation of chemotaxis and motility genes, for production of flagella, and for movement of bacteria across low nutrient swarm plates. The hapR mutant produced near-normal numbers of flagellated cells, but was significantly less motile than the wild-type parent. During in vitro growth under virulence-inducing conditions, the rpoS mutant produced 10- to 100-fold more cholera toxin than the wild-type parent. Although the rpoS mutant caused only a small over-expression of the genes encoding cholera toxin in the ileal loop, it resulted in a 30% increase in fluid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Together, these results show that the mucosal escape response is orchestrated by an RpoS-dependent genetic program that activates chemotaxis and motility functions. This may furthermore coincide with reduced virulence gene expression, thus preparing the organism for the next stage in its life cycle.

  18. Vibrio cholerae Infection of Drosophilamelanogaster Mimics the Human Disease Cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, the pandemic diarrheal disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, continues to be a major public health challenge in the developing world. Cholera toxin, which is responsible for the voluminous stools of cholera, causes constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase, resulting in the export of ions into the intestinal lumen. Environmental studies have demonstrated a close association between V. cholerae and many species of arthropods including insects. Here we report the susceptibility of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to oral V. cholerae infection through a process that exhibits many of the hallmarks of human disease: (i death of the fly is dependent on the presence of cholera toxin and is preceded by rapid weight loss; (ii flies harboring mutant alleles of either adenylyl cyclase, Gsalpha, or the Gardos K channel homolog SK are resistant to V. cholerae infection; and (iii ingestion of a K channel blocker along with V. cholerae protects wild-type flies against death. In mammals, ingestion of as little as 25 mug of cholera toxin results in massive diarrhea. In contrast, we found that ingestion of cholera toxin was not lethal to the fly. However, when cholera toxin was co-administered with a pathogenic strain of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomal deletion of the genes encoding cholera toxin, death of the fly ensued. These findings suggest that additional virulence factors are required for intoxication of the fly that may not be essential for intoxication of mammals. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time the mechanism of action of cholera toxin in a whole organism and the utility of D. melanogaster as an accurate, inexpensive model for elucidation of host susceptibility to cholera.

  19. Toxicity of individual naphthenic acids to Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Rowland, Steven J

    2011-11-15

    Numerous studies have suggested that the toxicity of organic compounds containing at least one carboxylic acid group and broadly classified as "naphthenic acids", is of environmental concern. For example, the acute toxicity of the more than 1 billion m(3) of oil sands process-affected water and the hormonal activity of some offshore produced waters has been attributed to the acids. However, experimental evidence for the toxicity of the individual acids causing these effects has not been very forthcoming. Instead, most data have been gathered from assays of incompletely characterized extracts of the water, which may contain other toxic constituents. An alternative approach is to assay the individual identified toxicants. Since numerous petroleum-derived naphthenic acids and some in oil sands process water, have recently been identified, we were able to measure the toxicity of some individual acids to the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri. Thirty-five pure individual acids were either synthesized or purchased for this purpose. We also used the US EPA ECOSAR computer model to predict the toxicity of each acid to the water flea, Daphnia magna. Both are well-accepted toxicological screening end points. The results show how toxic some of the naphthenic acids really are (e.g., V. fischeri Effective Concentrations for 50% response (EC(50)) 0.004 to 0.7 mM) and reveal the influence of hydrophobicity and aqueous solubility on the toxicities. Comparison with measured toxicities of other known, but more minor, constituents of oil sands process water, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylphenols, helps place these toxicities into a wider context. Given the reported toxicological effects of naphthenic acids to other organisms (e.g., fish, plants), the toxicities of the acids to further end points should now be determined.

  20. A Comprehensive Epidemiological Research for Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most important pathogen for seafood-borne gastroenteritis in Shanghai and the rest of the world. A total of 42 V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from 1900 fecal specimens collected from patients in Shanghai hospital presenting from January 2014 to December 2015. All isolates were evaluated for potential virulence factors [tdh, trh, and type three secretion system (T3SS genes], typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST and screened for antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype. And for the first time, the relationship between virulence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of these isolates were identified. The results showed that 37 isolates carried the tdh gene (88.1% and only seven isolates were positive for the trh gene. The T3SS1 and T3SS2 genes were detected in all strains and only trh-positive isolates are also containing the T3SS2β genes. MLST analysis of the 42 Shanghai isolates identified 20 sequence types (STs with 16 novel STs and that these clinical V. parahaemolyticus strains showed high degrees of genetic diversity. All isolates expressed high levels of resistance against Ampicillin (100.0%, Streptomycin (100.0%, Cephazolin (92.9%, Kanamycin (92.8% and Amikacin (90.5%, and eight out of 38 resistance genes (SHV, tet(B, strA, qnrA, gryA, qnrB, sulI, sulII were detected in at least two isolates. This study confirms that antimicrobial resistance of clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates is greater than those of environmental isolates. Furthermore, no clear correlation between antimicrobial resistance and virulence or genetic diversity was found in this study. These results add to epidemiological data of clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Shanghai and highlight the need for additional mechanistic studies, especially antimicrobial resistance, to reduce the burden of disease caused by this pathogen in China.

  1. Isolation, gene cloning and expression profile of a pathogen recognition protein: a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH) involved in the antibacterial response in the crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ke-jian

    2010-07-01

    To identify the frontline defense molecules against microbial infection in the crab Scylla paramamosain, a live crab pathogenic microbe, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, was recruited as an affinity matrix to isolate innate immune factors from crab hemocytes lysate. Interestingly, a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH) was obtained together with an antimicrobial peptide-antilipopolysaccharide factor (Sp-ALF). We then determined the full-length cDNA sequence of Sp-SPH, which contained 1298bp with an open reading frame of 1107bp encoding 369 amino acid residues. Multiple alignment analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of Sp-SPH shared overall identity (83.8%) with those of SPH-containing proteins from other crab species. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the Sp-SPH transcripts were present in various tissues including eye stalk, subcuticular epidermis, gill, hemocyte, stomach, thorax ganglion, brain and muscle of S. paramamosain. The Sp-SPH was highly expressed in selected different development stages including embryo (I, II, III and V), zoea (I), megalopa, and juvenile. Importantly, the prophenoloxidase was also present in the embryos, zoea, juvenile and adult crabs, but relatively lower in megalopa compared to those of other stages. Furthermore, the Sp-SPH mRNA expression showed a statistically significant increase (PSPH suggested that it might function as an innate immune recognition molecule and play a key role in host defense against microbe invasion in the crab S. paramamosain. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simple, direct conjugation of bacterial O-SP-core antigens to proteins: development of cholera conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Kalsy, Anuj; Charles, Richelle C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T; Kováč, Pavol

    2011-10-19

    Bacterial O-SP-core antigens can be conjugated to proteins in the same, simple way as synthetic, linker-equipped carbohydrates by applying squaric acid chemistry. Introduction of spacers (linkers) to either O-SP-core antigens or protein carriers, which is involved in commonly applied protocols, is not required. The newly developed method described here consists of preparation of a squaric acid monoester derivative of O-SP-core antigen, utilizing the amino group inherent in the core, and reaction of the monoester with the carrier protein. The intermediate monoester can be easily purified; its conjugation can be monitored by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry and, thus, readily controlled, since the conjugation can be terminated when the desired carbohydrate-protein ratio is reached. Here, we describe production of conjugates containing the O-SP-core antigen of Vibrio cholerae O1, the major cause of cholera, a severe dehydrating diarrheal disease of humans. The resultant products are recognized by convalescent phase sera from patients recovering from cholera in Bangladesh, and anti-O-SP-core-protein responses correlate with plasma antilipopolysaccharide and vibriocidal responses, which are the primary markers of protection from cholera. The results suggest that such conjugates have potential as vaccines for cholera and other bacterial diseases.

  3. Detection of Vibrio splendidus and related species in Chamelea gallina sampled in the Adriatic along the Abruzzi coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Torresi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio species are an important and widespread component of marine microbial communities. Some Vibrio strains are potentially pathogenic to marine vertebrates and invertebrates. The aim of this study was to identify vibrios, in particular Vibrio splendidus and related species, isolated from clams (Chamelea gallina collected along the coasts of the Abruzzi region from May to October 2007. The isolates obtained were phenotyped and classified as belonging to the genus Vibrio. The strains underwent biochemical testing in accordance with Alsina’s scheme for V. splendidus identification. Molecular analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic space region and recA gene was used to identify V. splendidus and related species. All the samples examined were found to contain halophylic Vibrio species, with V. alginolyticus, V. splendidus-related species and V. mediterranei most commonly found. A polymerase chain reaction of the 16S-23S intergenic space region and sequencing of the recA gene from isolates confirmed that phenotyping of Vibrio species is not sufficient to distinguish between different species. Differentiation of the highly related species among V. splendidus-related clusters remains an important issue. In this regard, our data suggests sequencing the recA genes was far more discriminatory than sequencing 16S rDNA for this purpose.

  4. Abundance and distribution of Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus following a major freshwater intrusion into the Mississippi Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitt, Kimberly J; Grimes, D Jay

    2013-04-01

    In response to a major influx of freshwater to the Mississippi Sound following the opening of the Bonnet Carre Spillway, water samples were collected from three sites along the Mississippi shoreline to assess the impact of altered salinity on three pathogenic Vibrio species. Salinity readings across the affected area during the 2011 sample period ranged from 1.4 to 12.9 ppt (mean = 7.0) and for the 2012 sample period from 14.1 to 23.6 ppt (mean = 19.8). Analyses of the data collected in 2011 showed a reduction in densities of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus with a concurrent increase of Vibrio cholerae numbers, with V. cholerae becoming the only Vibrio detected once salinity readings dropped to 6 ppt. Follow-up samples taken in 2012 after recovery of the salinity in the sound showed that the relative densities of the three pathogenic vibrios had reverted back to normal levels. This study shows that although the spillway was open but a few weeks and the effects were therefore time limited, the Mississippi River water had a profound, if temporary, effect on Vibrio ecology in the Mississippi Sound.

  5. Prevalence and heterogeneity of Hemolysin gene vhh among hatchery isolates of Vibrio harveyi in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; George, J.; Kumar, S.

    , Baticados MCL, Cruz-Lacierda ER, de la Pena EL (1990) Occurrence of luminous bacterial disease of Penaeus monodon larvae in the Philippines. Aquaculture 91:1-13 19. Liu PC, Lee KK, Chen SN (1996) Pathogenicity of different isolates of Vibrio harveyi...

  6. Molecular Analysis and Toxigenic Potential of Vibrio cholerae Isolated from Hilsha fish (Tenualosa ilisha), Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Tulsiani, Suhella

    Exposure to contaminated fish may upsurge the virulent strains of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly human pathogen in the households of rural and urban Bangladesh. Since V. cholerae spreading was reported from the Bay of Bengal, this study hypothesized that Hilsha (Tenualosa ilisha), a marine and fresh...

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of the Fish Pathogen Vibrio harveyi Strains VH2 and VH5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; D'Alvise, Paul; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is an important marine pathogen that is responsible for vibriosis outbreaks in cultured fish and invertebrates worldwide. Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of V. harveyi strains VH2 and VH5, isolated from farmed juvenile Seriola dumerili during outbreaks of vibriosis...

  8. Vibrio cholerae O1 from superficial water of the Tucunduba Stream, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, L.L.C.; Vale, E.R.V.; Garza, D.R.; Vicente, A.C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks two major virulence factors - CTX and TCP - but carries other genes related to virulence. Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized. PMID:24031874

  9. Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related organisms in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The occurrence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related organisms were studied from offshore water samples (Lat. 10 degrees N and Long. 65 degrees to 69 degrees E) collected at 5, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 m depths and in the surface...

  10. Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Sakazaki et al) related organisms in the Laccadive Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    The occurrence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related organisms were studied from offshore water samples (Lat. 10 degrees N and Long. 65 degrees to 69 degrees E) collected at 5, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 m depths and in the surface...

  11. INS refuerza vigilancia y diagnóstico de enfermedad diarreica producida por Vibrio parahemolyticus

    OpenAIRE

    Huapaya, Blanca

    2005-01-01

    El Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) está fortaleciendo la vigilancia y el diagnóstico en el Perú del Vibrio parahaemolyticus, bacteria causante de una enfermedad diarreica aguda, que a inicios de este año produjo un brote de aproximadamente 10 mil casos en Chile.

  12. Effects of triclosan on bacterial community composition and 'Vibrio' populations in natural seawater microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Ann Lydon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals and personal care products, including antimicrobials, can be found at trace levels in treated wastewater effluent. Impacts of chemical contaminants on coastal aquatic microbial community structure and pathogen abundance are unknown despite the potential for selection through antimicrobial resistance. In particular, 'Vibrio', a marine bacterial genus that includes several human pathogens, displays resistance to the ubiquitous antimicrobial compound triclosan. Here we demonstrated through use of natural seawater microcosms that triclosan (at a concentration of ~5 ppm can induce a significant 'Vibrio' growth response (68–1,700 fold increases in comparison with no treatment controls for three distinct coastal ecosystems: Looe Key Reef (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Doctors Arm Canal (Big Pine Key, FL, and Clam Bank Landing (North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, SC. Additionally, microbial community analysis by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing for Looe Key Reef showed distinct changes in microbial community structure with exposure to 5 ppm triclosan, with increases observed in the relative abundance of 'Vibrio'naceae (17-fold, Pseudoalteromonadaceae (65-fold, Alteromonadaceae (108-fold, Colwelliaceae (430-fold, and Oceanospirillaceae (1,494-fold. While the triclosan doses tested were above concentrations typically observed in coastal surface waters, results identify bacterial families that are potentially resistant to triclosan and/or adapted to use triclosan as a carbon source. The results further suggest the potential for selection of 'Vibrio' in coastal environments, especially sediments, where triclosan may accumulate at high levels.

  13. Diversity of Vibrio spp in Karstic Coastal Marshes in the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Carrillo, Icela; Estrella-Gómez, Neyi Eloísa; Zamudio-Maya, Marcela; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal bodies of water formed by the combination of seawater, underground rivers and rainwater comprise the systems with the greatest solar energy flow and biomass production on the planet. These characteristics make them reservoirs for a large number species, mainly microorganisms. Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are natural inhabitants of these environments and their presence is determined by variations in the nutrient, temperature and salinity cycles generated by the seasonal hydrologic behavior of these lagoon systems. This study determined the diversity of the genus Vibrio in 4 coastal bodies of water on the Yucatan Peninsula (Celestun Lagoon, Chelem Lagoon, Rosada Lagoon and Sabancuy Estuary). Using the molecular technique of 454 pyrosequencing, DNA extracted from water samples was analyzed and 32,807 reads were obtained belonging to over 20 culturable species of the genus Vibrio and related genera. OTU (operational taxonomic unit) richness and Chao2 and Shannon Weaver diversity indices were obtained with the database from this technique. Physicochemical and environmental parameters were determined and correlated with Vibrio diversity measured in OTUs.

  14. Crystallization of the HigBA2 toxin-antitoxin complex from Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadǽi, San; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The genome of Vibrio cholerae encodes two higBA toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules that are activated by amino-acid starvation. Here, the TA complex of the second module, higBA2, as well as the C-terminal domain of the corresponding HigA2 antitoxin, have been purified and crystallized. The HigBA2 complex...

  15. Indole-positive Vibrio vulnificus isolated from disease outbreaks on a Danish eel farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Høi, L.; Siebeling, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus was isolated in 1996 from 2 disease outbreaks on a Danish eel farm which used brackish water. A characteristic clinical sign was extensive, deep muscle necrosis in the head region. V. vulnificus was isolated from kidney, mucus, spleen, gill and intestine of diseased eels. Thirty...

  16. Diversity of Vibrio spp in Karstic Coastal Marshes in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Coastal bodies of water formed by the combination of seawater, underground rivers and rainwater comprise the systems with the greatest solar energy flow and biomass production on the planet. These characteristics make them reservoirs for a large number species, mainly microorganisms. Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are natural inhabitants of these environments and their presence is determined by variations in the nutrient, temperature and salinity cycles generated by the seasonal hydrologic behavior of these lagoon systems. This study determined the diversity of the genus Vibrio in 4 coastal bodies of water on the Yucatan Peninsula (Celestun Lagoon, Chelem Lagoon, Rosada Lagoon and Sabancuy Estuary). Using the molecular technique of 454 pyrosequencing, DNA extracted from water samples was analyzed and 32,807 reads were obtained belonging to over 20 culturable species of the genus Vibrio and related genera. OTU (operational taxonomic unit) richness and Chao2 and Shannon Weaver diversity indices were obtained with the database from this technique. Physicochemical and environmental parameters were determined and correlated with Vibrio diversity measured in OTUs. PMID:26252792

  17. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A Rare Cause of Chronic Diarrhea in a Heart Transplant Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Shuja, Asim; Dickstein, Aaron; Lee, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus usually causes a self-limiting acute diarrheal illness, and is rarely tested for in cases of chronic diarrhea. We present a rare case of chronic diarrhea caused by V. parahaemolyticus in a heart transplant patient requiring antibiotic treatment.

  18. Vibrio fischeri σ54 Controls Motility, Biofilm Formation, Luminescence, and Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Alan J.; Millikan, Deborah S.; Campbell, Joy M.; Visick, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that the putative Vibrio fischeri rpoN gene, which encodes σ54, controls flagellar biogenesis, biofilm development, and bioluminescence. We also show that rpoN plays a requisite role initiating the symbiotic association of V. fischeri with juveniles of the squid Euprymna scolopes.

  19. Measurement and analysis of Vibrio fischeri cell-based microfluidic device for personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The cell-based microfluidic chip was designed and fabricated as a low-cost detector to continuously monitor toxicants in drinking water or human urine samples, which is expected to be an important component of a household health monitoring system in the future. The bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio Fischeri, was selected to validate the function of device. Water samples and Vibrio fischeri cells were mixed and encapsulated into droplets in air flow, which can guarantee sufficient oxygen supply for cells in droplets. Preliminary tests were performed using copper ion (Cu(2+)) as the model toxicant. The droplet system was measured and analyzed at various flow rates in different observation chambers. Both deionized water and human urine samples were tested in the cell-based device. Interestingly, a strong relation between the R.L.U. (Relative Luminescence Units) in the observation chamber and the minute concentration of toxicant (Cu(2+)) was found using deionized water as solvent, whereas the relation was insignificant using human urine as solvent. This study showed the Vibrio fischeri cell-based device might be reliably employed as an early-warning system for the safety of drinking water. However, Vibrio fischeri is not competent to detect dangerous materials in a complex biofluid. With the replacement of cell sensors, the microfluidic device might be functional to analyze urine samples in theory.

  20. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus-infecting bacteriophage qdvp001: genome sequence and endolysin with a modular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyu; Li, Mengzhe; Lin, Hong; Wang, Jingxue; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2016-10-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a marine pathogen, is a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans after consumption of contaminated seafood. In recent years, infections with V. parahaemolyticus have become an increasingly frequent factor in microbial food poisoning; therefore, it is urgent to figure out ways to control Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Endolysins, lytic enzymes encoded by bacteriophages, have been regarded as a therapeutic alternative to antibiotics in control of bacterial growth and have been successfully utilized in various areas. Here, we report the full genome sequence of the novel phage qdvp001, which lyses Vibrio parahaemolyticus 17802. The qdvp001 genome consists of a 134,742-bp DNA with a G+C content of 35.35 % and 227 putative open reading frames. Analysis revealed that the qdvp001 open reading frames encoded various putative functional proteins with a putative endolysin gene (ORF 60). No holin genes were identified in qdvp001. ORF 60 was cloned and expressed. The results showed that the purified endolysin Lysqdvp001 had a high hydrolytic activity toward Vibrio parahaemolyticus and a broader spectrum compared to that of the parental bacteriophage qdvp001. Thus, purified endolysin Lysqdvp001 has a potential to be used as an antibacterial agent in the future.

  1. Cerebral absces med Vibrio cholerae non-01 efter badning i dansk havvand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Torp; Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Olsen, Katharina Elisabeth Pribil

    2012-01-01

    We present the first case of intracerebral abscess after blood-borne infection with non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (non-01). The patient was a 66 year-old woman who was infected after swimming in Danish seawater during an unusually hot summer. She had predisposing haemochromatosis and a skin lesion...

  2. Prevalence and Molecular Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (tdh+) isolated from seafood using PCR-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pathogen most frequently implicated in foodborne outbreaks linked to the consumption of seafood in the coastal cities of China. The pathogenicity of environmental V. parahaemolyticus is mostly correlated with the production of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH). In orde...

  3. A checkpoint control orchestrates the replication of the two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Marbouty, Martial; Martins, Francisco de Lemos

    2016-01-01

    of the important differences between plasmids and chromosomes is that the latter replicate during a defined period of the cell cycle, ensuring a single round of replication per cell. Vibrio cholerae carries two circular chromosomes, Chr1 and Chr2, which are replicated in a well-orchestrated manner with the cell...

  4. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    all five ISR classes, could be successfully used to study phylogeny in this organism. [Ghatak A, Majumdar A and Ghosh R K 2005 Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated before, during and after the O139 outbreak based on the intergenomic heterogeneity of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic ...

  5. Carbapenemase VCC-1-Producing Vibrio cholerae in Coastal Waters of Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jaeckel, Claudia; Bortolaia, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    During antimicrobial drug resistance testing for Vibrio spp. from coastal waters of Germany, we identified 4 nontoxigenic, carbapenem-resistant V. cholerae isolates. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the carbapenemase gene bla(VCC-1). In addition, a molecular survey showed that more bla...

  6. A survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in estuarine waters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined whether the estuarine and freshwater environment in Beira, Mozambique, serves as a reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. Ninety-nine estuarine water samples were collected at 6 sites in Beira. An additional 54 samples were collected from rural areas around Beira which included 3 freshwater ...

  7. [MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometric analysis in the accelerated identification of the Vibrio genus microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, M V; Mironova, L V; Basov, E A; Ostyak, A S; Kulikalova, E S; Urbanovich, L Ya; Balahonov, S V

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop methodological approaches to identification of the Vibrio genus representatives using the MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometric analysis technologies. The aspects of the biological safety in sample preparations for mass-spectrometric analysis were studied, reference spectra of six typical V. cholerae strains were developed. Identification of 55 strains, representatives of the Vibrio genus, including 45 V. cholerae strains with different epidemic importance, was performed using the MALDI Biotyper 3.0 basis comprising V. cholerae reference spectra. The possibility of reliable definition of the tested strain taxonomic belonging to the species level was demonstrated. Thus, the results completely corresponded to the data of classical microbiological identification. Stability and reproducibility of the offered research method was experimentally shown. The results allow identification of the Vibrio genus representatives to be implemented with the use of the mass-spectrometric analysis as an effective method that defines a species belonging of the basic Vibrio genus representatives in the shortest-terms.

  8. Vibrio vulnificus outbreaks in Dutch eel farms since 1996: strain diversity and impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, O.L.M.; Zanten, van E.; Jansen, R.; Roozenburg, I.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Dijkstra, A.; Boers, S.A.; Voorbergen-Laarman, M.; Möller, A.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a potentially zoonotic bacterial pathogen of fish, which can infect humans (causing necrotic fasciitis). We analysed 24 V. vulnificus isolates (from 23 severe eel disease outbreaks in 8 Dutch eel farms during 1996 to 2009, and 1 clinical strain from an eel farmer) for genetic

  9. Migratory deficiency of Clithon retropictus hemocytes to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, N H; Kato, E; Okamoto, Y

    1990-08-01

    Hemocytes of a marine gastropod, Nerita albicilla, but not those of an estuarine gastropod, Clithon retropictus, were observed to migrate to live and heat-killed cells of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli through Nucleopore membrane in Blind well chamber. The defective migration of C. retropictus hemocytes might reflect, at least in part, the survival of V. parahaemolyticus in the estuarine gastropod.

  10. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO SPP. ISOLATED ON AQUACULTURED GILTHEAD SEA BREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scarano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp isolated from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata farmed on sea cages and to identify and characterize the pathogen by molecular techniques. Eighty fish were collected from two hatcheries located on the North-Est Sardinian Mediterranean coast, and microbiological analysis were performed on different body parts such as skin, gills, muscle and intestinal tract. Subsequently 100 pure colonies with typical morphology and phenotypic characteristics were selected and submitted to the molecular identification. The analysis on the prevalence of Vibrio spp showed the effect of the hatchery rearing system (P<0.001, of the date of sampling (P<0.001, and of the body part (P<0.001. All the strains selected were confirmed to be members of the genus Vibrio spp by the molecular method/techinique/identification, whereas the rpoA gene sequence analyses allowed to identify 89 strains belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi, 6 to V. diabolicus, 2 to V. parahaemolyticus and 1 to V. mediterranei.

  11. First study of Vibrios in larval cultures of pullet carpet shell clam (Venerupis corrugata in hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Dubert Pérez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocol for hatchery culture of the pullet carpet shell clam Venerupis corrugata spat is currently under development, as the only reliable means of providing spat to replenish natural beds or to support aquaculture activities. Among other variables, the microbiota has been demonstrated to be critical for successful bivalve culture. Shellfish hatcheries are hindered by fatal outbreaks of disease, regardless the bivalve species. These mass mortalities are mainly caused by opportunistic bacteria belonging to genus Vibrio and constitute one bottleneck for this economic activity. Different species, as V. tubiashii, V. pectenicida, V. splendidus, V. neptunius, V. ostreicida and V. bivalvicida, have been identified as responsible of mortalities in hatchery-reared larvae, affecting a wide range of bivalves. This is the first report of the microbiota associated with larval cultures of the pullet carpet shell clam. We present the results of the microbiological analyses of two larval cultures of pullet carpet shell reared in the Centro de Investigacións Mariñas (CIMA, Xunta de Galicia de Ribadeo (Galicia, NW Spain following the procedures developed in the institution. Each batch, A and B, was obtained from broodstocks collected in natural environment but in different geographical locations, the stock A (SW Galicia and the stock B (NW Galicia. Previous records of mortalities led us to divide each batch in two. One sub-batch (A1 and B1 was cultured following the routine procedures. Antibiotic was experimentally added to the other sub-batch (A2 and B2 with the aim of evaluating the effects on the culturable bacterial population (total marine bacteria and presumptive vibrios and on larval survival. Chloramphenicol, formerly the most commonly used antibiotic in bivalve hatcheries, was supplied with each change of seawater during larval development. Microbiological samples of broodstock, larvae and seawater in culture tanks were taken and processed

  12. Clinical manifestations of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae infections.

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    Yen-Ting Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholera are uncommon. The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections. METHODS: The clinical charts of all patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections and who were treated in two hospitals in Taiwan were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: From July 2009 to June 2014, a total of 83 patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections were identified based on the databank of the bacteriology laboratories of two hospitals. The overall mean age was 53.3 years, and men comprised 53 (63.9% of the patients. Liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus were the two most common underlying diseases, followed by malignancy. The most common type of infection was acute gastroenteritis (n = 45, 54.2%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 12, 14.5% and primary bacteremia (n = 11, 13.3%. Other types of infection, such as peritonitis (n = 5, 6.0%, skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI (n = 5, 6.0%, urinary tract infection (n = 3, 3.6% and pneumonia (2, 2.4%, were rare. July and June were the most common months of occurrence of V. cholera infections. The overall in-hospital mortality of 83 patients with V. cholera infections was 7.2%, but it was significantly higher for patients with primary bacteremia, hemorrhage bullae, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory failure, or admission to an ICU. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that in-hospital mortality was significantly associated with acute respiratory failure (odds ratio, 60.47; 95% CI, 4.79-763.90, P = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Non-O1 V. cholera infections can cause protean disease, especially in patients with risk factors and during warm-weather months. The overall mortality of 83 patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections was only 7.2%; however, this value varied among different types of infection.

  13. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in aquaculture: photoinactivation studies of Vibrio fischeri.

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    Eliana Alves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT combines light, a light-absorbing molecule that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction, and oxygen. The combined action of these three components originates reactive oxygen species that lead to microorganisms' destruction. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of PACT on Vibrio fischeri: 1 with buffer solution, varying temperature, pH, salinity and oxygen concentration values; 2 with aquaculture water, to reproduce photoinactivation (PI conditions in situ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To monitor the PI kinetics, the bioluminescence of V. fischeri was measured during the experiments. A tricationic meso-substituted porphyrin (Tri-Py(+-Me-PF was used as photosensitizer (5 µM in the studies with buffer solution and 10-50 µM in the studies with aquaculture water; artificial white light (4 mW cm(-2 and solar irradiation (40 mW cm(-2 were used as light sources; and the bacterial concentration used for all experiments was ≈10(7 CFU mL(-1 (corresponding to a bioluminescence level of 10(5 relative light units--RLU. The variations in pH (6.5-8.5, temperature (10-25°C, salinity (20-40 g L(-1 and oxygen concentration did not significantly affect the PI of V. fischeri, once in all tested conditions the bioluminescent signal decreased to the detection limit of the method (≈7 log reduction. The assays using aquaculture water showed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the suspended matter. Total PI of V. fischeri in aquaculture water was achieved under solar light in the presence of 20 µM of Tri-Py(+-Me-PF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If PACT is to be used in environmental applications, the matrix containing target microbial communities should be previously characterized in order to establish an efficient protocol having into account the photosensitizer concentration, the light source and the total light dose delivered. The possibility of using solar light in PACT to

  14. Emergence of Asiatic Vibrio diseases in South America in phase with El Niño.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Huapaya, Blanca; Gavilan, Ronnie G; Blanco-Abad, Veronica; Ansede-Bermejo, Juan; Cadarso-Suarez, Carmen; Figueiras, Adolfo; Trinanes, Joaquin

    2008-11-01

    The seventh pandemic of Vibrio cholerae unexpectedly reached the coast of Peru in 1991, causing an explosive emergence of infections throughout the American continents. The origin and routes of dissemination are as yet unknown. A new Vibrio epidemic arose in 1997 in South America (northern Chile) when the pandemic clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was for the fist time detected outside of Asia. These 2 cases were concurrent with 2 episodes of El Niño. We carried out a survey of records of V. parahaemolyticus infection and of strains existing in the Instituto Nacional de Salud of Peru between 1994 and 2005. Association between the El Niño event and the V. parahaemolyticus disease was analyzed through generalized additive models applied to time-series data with negative binomial response, selecting some oceanographic factors distinctive of the movement of the El Niño waters. Epidemiologic data and laboratory investigations of the strains showed that V. parahaemolyticus infections caused by the pandemic clone emerged in the coasts of Peru linked to the 1997 El Niño episode. The epidemic dissemination of this clone matched the expansion and dynamics of the poleward propagation and the receding of the El Niño waters. This pattern was similar to previously reported onset of cholera epidemic in 1991. These findings identify the El Niño episodes as a reliable vehicle for the introduction and propagation of Vibrio pathogens in South America. The movement of oceanic waters seems to be one of the driving forces of the spread of Vibrio diseases.

  15. Diversity of vibrios in the haemolymph of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, B; Roque, A; Lacuesta, B; Rotllant, G

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise and identify vibrios isolated from the haemolymph of apparently healthy adult spider crabs (Maja brachydactyla) wild-caught in the Spanish localities of Galician coast and in the Canary Islands and also from captive animals held at IRTA's facilities in the Ebro Delta of Catalonia, north-west Spanish Mediterranean coast. A total of 277 bacterial isolates were obtained, and of these, 171 were characterised with rep-PCR, resulting electrophoretic bands were analysed and clusters formed. Identification of representative strains of each cluster was made by sequencing the 16S rRNA. Samples from animals caught in Galicia and captive at IRTA (around 15-18°C) rendered mostly species belonging to the Splendidus clade (72·2 and 76·6% respectively), commonly found in cold waters (below 20°C). Higher species diversity was found in the haemolymph of the captive animals. In the warmer Canary Islands waters (around 21°C), the diversity of vibrios is dominated by three clades, Harveyi (Vibrio core group, 39·3%), Orientalis (23·2%) and Splendidus (21·4%) with a species diversity that equals that of the colder captive animals. Differences in the vibrios populations were found in the haemolymph extracted from animals collected from the three localities. Potential new species were found, and their description is under way. As with other invertebrates, spider crabs also contain a diverse population of vibrios. These findings should help researchers to diagnose when a crab is infected. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. The Vibrio cholerae cytolysin promotes chloride secretion from intact human intestinal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucantonio Debellis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of the Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to serogroup O1 and O139 is due to the production of virulence factors such as cholera toxin (CT and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP. The remaining serogroups, which mostly lack CT and TCP, are more frequently isolated from aquatic environmental sources than from clinical samples; nevertheless, these strains have been reported to cause human disease, such as sporadic outbreaks of watery diarrhoea and inflammatory enterocolitis. This evidence suggested the possibility that other virulence factor(s than cholera toxin might be crucial in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhoea, but their nature remains unknown. VCC, the hemolysin produced by virtually all Vibrio cholerae strains, has been proposed as a possible candidate, though a clear-cut demonstration attesting VCC as crucial in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhoea is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Electrophysiological parameters and paracellular permeability of stripped human healthy colon tissues, obtained at subtotal colectomy, mounted in Ussing chamber were studied in the presence or absence of VCC purified from culture supernatants of V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain. Short circuit current (I(SC and transepithelial resistance (R(T were measured by a computerized voltage clamp system. The exposure of sigmoid colon specimens to 1 nM VCC resulted in an increase of I(SC by 20.7%, with respect to the basal values, while R(T was reduced by 12.3%. Moreover, increase in I(SC was abolished by bilateral Cl(- reduction. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that VCC, by forming anion channels on the apical membrane of enterocytes, triggers an outward transcellular flux of chloride. Such an ion movement, associated with the outward movement of Na(+ and water, might be responsible for the diarrhoea caused by the non-toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae.

  17. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  18. Vibrio cholerae/mimicus in fecal microbiota of healthy children in a cholera endemic urban slum setting in Kolkata, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sur, Dipika; Kurakawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Takuya; Nomoto, Koji; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2012-01-01

    During a double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled probiotic trial among 3758 children residing in an urban slum in Kolkata, India, Vibrio cholerae / mimicus was detected in fecal microbiota of healthy children...

  19. Amplification of tlh gene in other Vibrionaceae specie by specie-specific multiplex PCR of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romina Yáñez; Roberto Bastías; Gastón Higuera; Oscar Salgado; Pantelis Katharios; Jaime Romero; Romilio Espejo; Katherine García

    2015-01-01

    Background: The surveillance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Chilean coast has been mainly performed by multiplex PCR amplification of three different hemolysin genes, which are specie-specific virulence factors...

  20. Daya Hambat Ekstrak Daun Pegagan (Centella asiatica yang Diambil di Batusangkar terhadap Pertumbuhan Kuman Vibrio cholerae secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelvita Sari Ramadhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPegagan (Centella asiatica merupakan salah satu tanaman yang digunakan sebagai obat. Salah satu manfaat yang bisa didapatkan dari pegagan (Centella asiatica adalah antibakterinya. Manfaat antibakterinya didapatkan karena pegagan (Centella asiatica mengandung zat antibakteri, diantaranya adalah saponin, tannin, alkaloid, dan flavonoid. Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang daya hambat ekstrak pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap pertumbuhan Vibrio cholerae secara in vitro, dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui daya hambat ekstrak pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap pertumbuhan Vibrio cholera secara in vitro. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode eksperimental laboratorium dengan metode difusi (cakram, pada berbagai konsentrasi yaitu 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, dan100%, di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa ekstrak daun pegagan (Centella asiatica yang diambil di daerah Batusangkar, ternyata tidak dapat menghambat pertumbuhan kuman Vibrio cholerae secara in vitro, sedangkan tetrasiklin yang digunakan sebagai kontrol positif memberikan daya hambat yang baik terhadap pertumbuhan Vibrio cholera, dengan zona hambat 16,3 mm. Ada atau tidaknya daya hambat ekstrak pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap pertumbuhan Vibrio cholerae dalam penelitian ini bisa dipengaruhi oleh jenis bakteri yang digunakan, metode pembuatan ekstrak yang dipakai, dan sumber daun pegagan yang digunakan dalam penelitian.Kata kunci: efek antibakteri, ekstrak daun pegagan (Centella asiatica, Vibrio choleraeAbstractCentella asiatica is one of the plants used as medicine. One of the benefits that can be obtained from Centella asiatica is an antibacterial effect. Antibacterial effect obtained as Centella asiatica contains anti-bacterial substances, such as saponins, tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. This study was conducted to determine the inhibition of extracts of Centella asiatica on the growth of Vibrio cholerae in vitro

  1. The Vibrio cholerae O139 O-antigen polysaccharide is essential for Ca2+-dependent biofilm development in sea water

    OpenAIRE

    Kierek, Katharine; Watnick, Paula I.

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is both an inhabitant of estuarine environments and the etiologic agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Previous work has demonstrated that V. cholerae forms both an exopolysaccharide-dependent biofilm and a Ca2+-dependent biofilm. In this work, we demonstrate a role for the O-antigen polysaccharide of V. cholerae in Ca2+-dependent biofilm development in model and true sea water. Interestingly, V. cholerae biofilms, as well as the biofilms of several other Vibrio species, di...

  2. Population dynamics of Vibrio and Pseudomonas species isolated from farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): a seasonal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatje, Eva; Neuman, Christina; Stevenson, Hollie; Bowman, John P; Katouli, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio and Pseudomonas species have been shown to be part of the normal microbiota of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), with some strains causing disease in fish. The factors affecting their prevalence and persistence in the salmon gut, however, have not been well studied. In this study, we collected 340 Vibrio and 150 Pseudomonas isolates from the hindgut of farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon, fed with two commercially available diets. Samples were collected every 6-8 weeks between July 2011 and May 2012. Isolates from selective agar were initially identified using biochemical tests and confirmed using genus-specific primers and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequencing. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR was used to type both Pseudomonas and Vibrio; the latter was further typed using a biochemical fingerprinting method (PhP-RV plates). We observed low species diversity with strains comprising Vibrio ichthyoenteri/Vibrio scophthalmi, Vibrio crassostreae/Vibrio splendidus, Aliivibrio finisterrensis, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Pseudomonas fragi. Out of 340 Vibrio isolates, 238 (70 %) belonged to 21 clonal types and were found predominantly during summer when water temperatures reached 15 to 21 °C. Of these, the four major clonal types were found in multiple samples (70 %). P. fragi, on the other hand, was only found during the colder water temperatures and belonged to 18 clonal types. The presence of both groups of bacteria and their clonal types were independent of the fish diets used, suggesting that the water temperature was the main factor of the prevalence and persistence of these bacteria in the gut of Atlantic salmon.

  3. Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Barh

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.

  4. Real-time PCR detection and quantification of fish probiotic Phaeobacter strain 27-4 and fish pathogenic Vibrio in microalgae, rotifer, Artemia and first feeding turbot (Psetta maxima) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prol, M.J.; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Pintado, J.

    2009-01-01

    To develop a SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR protocol enabling detection and quantification of a fish probiotic and two turbot pathogenic Vibrio spp. in microcosms. Phaeobacter 27-4, Vibrio anguillarum 90-11-287 and Vibrio splendidus DMC-1 were quantified as pure and mixed cultures and in p......To develop a SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR protocol enabling detection and quantification of a fish probiotic and two turbot pathogenic Vibrio spp. in microcosms. Phaeobacter 27-4, Vibrio anguillarum 90-11-287 and Vibrio splendidus DMC-1 were quantified as pure and mixed cultures...

  5. Free living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas and coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nelly G. Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated ballast water into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of ballast waters transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i ballast water tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ~1 to 32 oS and (iii three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. Vibrio cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms, and was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+, involved in cholera disease, were found in ballast water (2% and harbor (2% samples. These results confirm that ballast water is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in ballast water management programs.

  6. Integrated evaluation of environmental parameters influencing Vibrio occurrence in the coastal Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) facing the Venetian lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburlotto, Greta; Bianchi, Franco; Gennari, Micol; Ghidini, Valentina; Socal, Giorgio; Aubry, Fabrizio Bernardi; Bastianini, Mauro; Tafi, Mariacarla; Lleo, Maria M

    2012-01-01

    In the marine environment, the persistence and abundance of Vibrio are related to a number of environmental parameters. The influence of the different environmental variables in determining the Vibrio occurrence could be different in the specific geographic areas around the world. Moreover, oceanographic parameters are generally interdependent and should not be considered separately when their influence on bacterial presence and concentration is tested. In this study, an integrated approach was used to identify key parameters determining the abundance of Vibrio spp in marine samples from the Venetian Lagoon in Italy, which is an important area for fish farming and tourism. Multivariate techniques have been adopted to analyze the dataset: using PCA, it was shown that a relatively high proportion of the total variance in this area was mainly due to two independent variables, namely salinity and temperature. Using cluster analysis, it was possible to categorize different groups with homogeneous features as regards space ("stations") and time ("seasons") distribution, as well as to quantify the values of environmental variables and the Vibrio abundances in each category. Furthermore, integrating key environmental factors and bacterial concentration values, it was possible to identify levels of salinity and sea surface temperature which were optimal for Vibrio concentration in water, plankton, and sediment samples. The identification of key environmental variables conditioning Vibrio occurrence should facilitate ocean monitoring, making it possible to predict unexpected variations in marine microflora which determine possible public health risks in coastal areas.

  7. Diversity and dynamics of the Vibrio community in well water used for drinking in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A; Bordalo, A A

    2014-09-01

    Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and can be found either in culturable or in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. The genus comprises many pathogenic species accountable for water and food-borne diseases that prove to be fatal, especially in developing countries, as in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa), where cholera is endemic. In order to ascertain the abundance and structure of Vibrio spp. community in well waters that serve as the sole source of water for the population, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), PCR-denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and cloning approaches were used. Results suggest that Vibrio spp. were present throughout the year in acidic, freshwater wells with a seasonal community composition shift. Vibrio spp. abundance was in accordance with the abundance found in coastal environments. Sequences closely related to pathogenic Vibrio species were retrieved from well water revealing exposure of the population to such pathogens. pH, ammonium, and turbidity, regulated by the rain pattern, seem to be the variables that contributed mostly to the shaping and selection of the Vibrio spp. community. These results reinforce the evidence for water monitoring with culture-independent methods and the clear need to create/recover water infrastructures and a proper water resources management in West African countries with similar environmental conditions.

  8. Growth of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa Eltor in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Marius; Füchslin, Hans Peter; Hammes, Frederik; Egli, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Growth of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa Eltor was studied with a growth assay in which autoclaved and filtered (0.22 microm) freshwater was inoculated at low cell density (5 x 10(3) cells ml(-1)) and proliferation was followed with flow cytometry. Against the common view, V. cholerae was able to grow extensively in different kinds of freshwater. The bacterium multiplied in river water, lake water and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant up to a cell density of 1.55 x 10(6) cells ml(-1). In these samples, apparent assimilable organic carbon (AOC(app)) concentrations ranged from 52 up to 800 microg l(-1) and the results demonstrate a positive trend between the AOC(app) concentration and final cell concentration, suggesting that AOC was a key parameter governing growth of V. cholerae. No growth was observed in waters (tap and bottled drinking water) containing less than approximately 60 microg AOC(app) l(-1). When pure cultures of V. cholerae were grown on identical lake water at different temperatures (20, 25 and 30 degrees C) the maximum specific growth rates (micromax) achieved were 0.22 h(-1), 0.32 h(-1) and 0.45 h(-1), respectively. In addition, growth was characterized in lake water samples amended with different concentrations of NaCl. The highest micromax of V. cholerae was recorded at moderate salinity levels (5 g NaCl l(-1), micromax=0.84 h(-1)), whereas at 30 g NaCl l(-1) (micromax=0.30 h(-1)) or 0 g NaCl l(-1) (micromax)=0.40 h(-1)) specific growth rates were significantly reduced. In the water tested here, micro(max) of V. cholerae was always around 50 % of that exhibited by a freshwater community of indigenous bacteria enriched from the water sampling site. Direct batch competition experiments between V. cholerae and the lake water bacterial community were performed at different temperatures in which V. cholerae was enumerated in the total community using fluorescent-surface antibodies. In all cases V. cholerae was able to grow and constituted around 10

  9. Coordination of the Arc Regulatory System and Pheromone-Mediated Positive Feedback in Controlling the Vibrio fischeri lux Operon: e49590

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alecia N Septer; Eric V Stabb

    2012-01-01

    .... We have explored the interplay between an environmentally responsive regulator and pheromone-mediated positive feedback in intercellular signaling by Vibrio fischeri ES114, a bioluminescent bacterium...

  10. DETECTION OF VIRULENCE GENES IN ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF Vibrio cholerae FROM ESTUARIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Gleire Rodrigues de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS, and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes.

  11. Detection of virulence genes in environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae from estuaries in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues de; Neves, Soraya da Silva; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Vila-Nova, Candida Machado Vieira Maia; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil) and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS), and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes.

  12. Gene cloning and prokaryotic expression of recombinant flagellin A from Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Wang, Xiuli; Guo, Sheping; Liu, Yang; Ge, Hui; Qiu, Xuemei

    2010-11-01

    The Gram-negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen in humans and marine animals. Bacteria flagellins play an important role during infection and induction of the host immune response. Thus, flagellin proteins are an ideal target for vaccines. We amplified the complete flagellin subunit gene ( flaA) from V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. We then cloned and expressed the gene into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The gene coded for a protein that was 62.78 kDa. We purified and characterized the protein using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and Anti-His antibody Western blotting, respectively. Our results provide a basis for further studies into the utility of the FlaA protein as a vaccine candidate against infection by Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In addition, the purified FlaA protein can be used for further functional and structural studies.

  13. The Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Quorum Sensing-Regulated Luminescence of Vibrio fischeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Addie; Hagen, Steve; Son, Minjun

    2015-03-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism by which bacteria communicate through the secretion and detection of extracellular signaling molecules known as autoinducers. This research focuses on the quorum sensing regulated bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri, a marine bacterium that lives in symbiosis with certain fish and squid species. Previous studies of V. harveyi, a close relative of V. fisheri, indicate that a strong magnetic field has a positive effect on V.harveyi bioluminescence. However the effect of magnetic fields on quorum sensing-regulated luminescence is in general poorly understood. We grew V. fischeri in solid and liquid growth media, subject to strong static magnetic fields, and imaged the bioluminescence over a period of forty-eight hours. Luminescence patterns were analyzed in both the spatial and time dimensions. We find no indication that a magnetic field influences Vibrio fischeri luminescence either positively or negatively. This research was funded by the Grant Number NSF DMR-1156737.

  14. Siderocalin outwits the coordination chemistry of vibriobactin, a siderophore of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Benjamin E; Correnti, Colin; Clifton, Matthew C; Strong, Roland K; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2013-09-20

    The human protein siderocalin (Scn) inhibits bacterial iron acquisition by binding catechol siderophores. Several pathogenic bacteria respond by making stealth siderophores that are not recognized by Scn. Fluvibactin and vibriobactin, respectively of Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio cholerae , include an oxazoline adjacent to a catechol. This chelating unit binds iron either in a catecholate or a phenolate-oxazoline coordination mode. The latter has been suggested to make vibriobactin a stealth siderophore without directly identifying the coordination mode in relation to Scn binding. We use Scn binding assays with the two siderophores and two oxazoline-substituted analogs and the crystal structure of Fe-fluvibactin:Scn to show that the oxazoline does not prevent Scn binding; hence, vibriobactin is not a stealth siderophore. We show that the phenolate-oxazoline coordination mode is present at physiological pH and is not bound by Scn. However, Scn binding shifts the coordination to the catecholate mode and thereby inactivates this siderophore.

  15. Tropical Atlantic marine macroalgae with bioactivity against virulent and antibiotic resistant Vibrio

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    Giselle Cristina Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol, hexane and acetone-based extracts of the macroalgae Padina gymnospora (PG, Hypnea musciformes (HM, Ulva fasciata (UF and Caulerpa prolifera (CP was investigated. The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the algae antimicrobial effect against standard strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica and five virulent antibiotic-resistant strains of V. brasiliensis, V. xuii and V. navarrensis (isolated from the hemolymph of Litopenaeus vannamei. Ethanol extracts of PG and HM inhibited all Vibrio strains. E. coli and P. aeruginosa were only susceptible to ethanol extracts of PG. Among the methanol extracts, only UF was bioactive, inhibiting V. navarrensis. The observed inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of PG, HM and UF against virulent antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggests these macroalgal species constitute a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  16. Structural Characterization of the Extracellular Polysaccharide from Vibrio cholerae O1 El-Tor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Fitnat; Fong, Jiunn; Sadovskaya, Irina; Grard, Thierry; Vinogradov, Evgeny

    2014-01-01

    The ability to form biofilms is important for environmental survival, transmission, and infectivity of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera in humans. To form biofilms, V. cholerae produces an extracellular matrix composed of proteins, nucleic acids and a glycoconjugate, termed Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS). Here, we present the data on isolation and characterization of the polysaccharide part of the VPS (VPS-PS), which has the following structure: where α-D-Glc is partially (∼20%) replaced with α-D-GlcNAc. α-GulNAcAGly is an amide between 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-guluronic acid and glycine. Apparently, the polysaccharide is bound to a yet unidentified component, which gives it high viscosity and completely suppresses any NMR signals belonging to the sugar chains of the VPS. The only reliable method to remove this component at present is a treatment of the whole glycoconjugate with concentrated hydrochloric acid. PMID:24520310

  17. Structural dynamics of RbmA governs plasticity of Vibrio cholerae biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jiunn CN; Rogers, Andrew; Michael, Alicia K; Parsley, Nicole C; Cornell, William-Cole; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Singh, Praveen K; Hartmann, Raimo; Drescher, Knut; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Dietrich, Lars EP

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation is critical for the infection cycle of Vibrio cholerae. Vibrio exopolysaccharides (VPS) and the matrix proteins RbmA, Bap1 and RbmC are required for the development of biofilm architecture. We demonstrate that RbmA binds VPS directly and uses a binary structural switch within its first fibronectin type III (FnIII-1) domain to control RbmA structural dynamics and the formation of VPS-dependent higher-order structures. The structural switch in FnIII-1 regulates interactions in trans with the FnIII-2 domain, leading to open (monomeric) or closed (dimeric) interfaces. The ability of RbmA to switch between open and closed states is important for V. cholerae biofilm formation, as RbmA variants with switches that are locked in either of the two states lead to biofilms with altered architecture and structural integrity. PMID:28762945

  18. Characterization of clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in Zhoushan, China, from 2013 to 2014.

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    Hongling Wang

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is recognized as major cause of foodborne illness of global public health concern. This study collected 107 strains of V. parahaemolyticus during active surveillance of diarrheal diseases in hospitals in Zhoushan during 2013 to 2014 and investigated their serotypes, virulence genes (tdh, trh, and orf8, antimicrobial resistance, and genotypes. The dominant serotypes of the 107 clinical strains were O3:K6, O4:K8, and O4:KUT with 87.9% and 3.7% of the strains carrying the virulence genes tdh and trh, respectively. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated divergence among the clinical strains. Most isolates were sensitive to the common antimicrobial agents used against the Vibrio species except ampicillin. We conclude that continuous surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus in diarrhea patients is a public health priority and is useful for conducting risk assessment of foodborne illnesses caused by V. parahaemolyticus.

  19. New Insights into Pathogenic Vibrios Affecting Bivalves in Hatcheries: Present and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Dubert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hatcheries constitute nowadays the only viable solution to support the husbandry of bivalve molluscs due to the depletion and/or overexploitation of their natural beds. Hatchery activities include the broodstock conditioning and spawning, rearing larvae and spat, and the production of microalgae to feed all stages of the production cycle. However, outbreaks of disease continue to be the main bottleneck for successful larval and spat production, most of them caused by different representatives of the genus Vibrio. Therefore, attention must be paid on preventive and management measures that allow the control of such undesirable bacterial populations. The present review provides an updated picture of the recently characterized Vibrio species associated with disease of bivalve molluscs during early stages of development, including the controversial taxonomic affiliation of some of them and relevant advances in the knowledge of their virulence determinants. The problematic use of antibiotics, as well as its eco-friendly alternatives are also critically discussed.

  20. Occurrence and distribution of bacteria indicators, chemical tracers and pathogenic vibrios in Singapore coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Shin Giek; Bayen, Stéphane; Burger, David; Kelly, Barry C; Han, Ping; Babovic, Vladan; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-01-15

    Water quality in Singapore's coastal area was evaluated with microbial indicators, pathogenic vibrios, chemical tracers and physico-chemical parameters. Sampling sites were grouped into two clusters (coastal sites at (i) northern and (ii) southern part of Singapore). The coastal sites located at northern part of Singapore along the Johor Straits exhibited greater pollution. Principal component analysis revealed that sampling sites at Johor Straits have greater loading on carbamazepine, while turbidity poses greater influence on sampling sites at Singapore Straits. Detection of pathogenic vibrios was also more prominent at Johor Straits than the Singapore Straits. This study examined the spatial variations in Singapore's coastal water quality and provided the baseline information for health risk assessment and future pollution management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DETECTION OF VIRULENCE GENES IN ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF Vibrio cholerae FROM ESTUARIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues; Neves, Soraya da Silva; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Vila-Nova, Candida Machado Vieira Maia; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil) and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS), and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes. PMID:25229224

  2. Differential specificity of selective culture media for enumeration of pathogenic vibrios: advantages and limitations of multi-plating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Steward, Grieg F

    2015-04-01

    Plating environmental samples on vibrio-selective chromogenic media is a commonly used technique that allows one to quickly estimate concentrations of putative vibrio pathogens or to isolate them for further study. Although this approach is convenient, its usefulness depends directly on how well the procedure selects against false positives. We tested whether a chromogenic medium, CHROMagar Vibrio (CaV), used alone (single-plating) or in combination (double-plating) with a traditional medium thiosulfate-citrate-bile-salts (TCBS), could improve the discrimination among three pathogenic vibrio species (Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus) and thereby decrease the number of false-positive colonies that must be screened by molecular methods. Assays were conducted on water samples from two estuarine environments (one subtropical, one tropical) in a variety of seasonal conditions. The results of the double-plating method were confirmed by PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. Our data indicate that there is no significant difference in the false-positive rate between CaV and TCBS when using a single-plating technique, but determining color changes on the two media sequentially (double-plating) reduced the rate of false positive identification in most cases. The improvement achieved was about two-fold on average, but varied greatly (from 0- to 5-fold) and depended on the sampling time and location. The double-plating method was most effective for V. vulnificus in warm months, when overall V. vulnificus abundance is high (false positive rates as low as 2%, n=178). Similar results were obtained for V. cholerae (minimum false positive rate of 16%, n=146). In contrast, the false positive rate for V. parahaemolyticus was always high (minimum of 59%, n=109). Sequence analysis of false-positive isolates indicated that the majority of confounding isolates are from the Vibrionaceae family, however, members of distantly related bacterial groups were also able to

  3. Marine Bacillus spp. associated with the egg capsule of Concholepas concholepas (common name "loco") have an inhibitory activity toward the pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, Yanett; Riquelme, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    The pandemic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, isolated from seawater, sediment, and marine organisms, is responsible for gastroenteric illnesses in humans and also cause diseases in aquaculture industry in Chile and other countries around the world. In this study, bacterial flora with inhibitory activity against pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were collected from egg capsules of Concholepas concholepas and evaluated. The 16S rRNA fragment was sequenced from each isolated strain to determine its identity using the GenBank database. A phylogenetic analysis was made, and tests for the productions of antibacterial substance were performed using the double-layer method. Forty-five morphotypes of bacterial colonies were isolated, 8 of which presented an inhibitory effect on the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. 16S rRNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis show that these strains constitute taxa that are phylogenetically related to the Bacillus genus and are probably sister species or strains of the species Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniform, or Bacillus sp. It is important to determine the nature of the antibacterial substance to evaluate their potential for use against the pathogen species V. parahaemolyticus.

  4. Inhibition of enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae by gangliosides from human milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Otnaess, A B; Laegreid, A; Ertresvåg, K

    1983-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae was associated with the ganglioside fraction of human milk. Both the milk fat and skim milk contained gangliosides that inhibited the toxins. The most purified milk fraction contained three glycolipid components, of which two migrated close to ganglioside GM1 on thin-layer chromatography plates. A component with a slightly different mobility from GM1 appeared to be associated with the inhibitory activity. Milk gangli...

  5. Molecular uptake of chitooligosaccharides through chitoporin from the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipa Suginta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chitin is the most abundant biopolymer in marine ecosystems. However, there is no accumulation of chitin in the ocean-floor sediments, since marine bacteria Vibrios are mainly responsible for a rapid turnover of chitin biomaterials. The catabolic pathway of chitin by Vibrios is a multi-step process that involves chitin attachment and degradation, followed by chitooligosaccharide uptake across the bacterial membranes, and catabolism of the transport products to fructose-6-phosphate, acetate and NH(3. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study reports the isolation of the gene corresponding to an outer membrane chitoporin from the genome of Vibrio harveyi. This porin, expressed in E. coli, (so called VhChiP was found to be a SDS-resistant, heat-sensitive trimer. Immunoblotting using anti-ChiP polyclonal antibody confirmed the expression of the recombinant ChiP, as well as endogenous expression of the native protein in the V. harveyi cells. The specific function of VhChiP was investigated using planar lipid membrane reconstitution technique. VhChiP nicely inserted into artificial membranes and formed stable, trimeric channels with average single conductance of 1.8±0.13 nS. Single channel recordings at microsecond-time resolution resolved translocation of chitooligosaccharides, with the greatest rate being observed for chitohexaose. Liposome swelling assays showed no permeation of other oligosaccharides, including maltose, sucrose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose and raffinose, indicating that VhChiP is a highly-specific channel for chitooligosaccharides. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first evidence that chitoporin from V. harveyi is a chitooligosaccharide specific channel. The results obtained from this study help to establish the fundamental role of VhChiP in the chitin catabolic cascade as the molecular gateway that Vibrios employ for chitooligosaccharide uptake for energy production.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio campbellii LMB 29 Isolated from Red Drum with Four Native Megaplasmids

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    Jinxin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are the most common pathogens for animals reared in aquaculture. Vibrio campbellii, which is often involved in shrimp, fish and mollusks diseases, is widely distributed in the marine environment worldwide, but our knowledge about its pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance is very limited. The existence of this knowledge gap is at least partially because that V. campbellii was originally classified as Vibrio harveyi, and the detailed information of its comparative genome analysis to other Vibrio spp. is currently lacking. In this study, the complete genome of a V. campbellii predominant strain, LMB29, was determined by MiSeq in conjunction with PacBio SMRT sequencing. This genome consists of two circular DNA chromosomes and four megaplasmids. Comparative genome analysis indicates that LMB29 shares a 96.66% similarity (average nucleotide identity with the V. campbellii ATCC strain BAA-1116 based on a 75% AF (average fraction calculations, and its functional profile is very similar to V. campbellii E1 and V. campbellii CAIM115. Both type III secretion system (T3SS and type VI secretion system (T6SS, along with the tlh gene which encodes a thermolabile hemolysin, are present in LMB29 which may contribute to the bacterial pathogenesis. The virulence of this strain was experimental confirmed by performing a LDH assay on a fish cell infection model, and cell death was observed as early as within 3 h post infection. Thirty-seven antimicrobial resistance genes (>45% identity were predicted in LMB29 which includes a novel rifampicin ADP ribosyltransferase, arr-9, in plasmid pLMB157. The gene arr-9 was predicted on a genomic island with horizontal transferable potentials which may facilitate the rifampicin resistance dissemination. Future researches are needed to explore the pathogenesis of V. campbellii LMB29, but the availability of this genome sequence will certainly aid as a basis for further analysis.

  7. Identification of DNA Sequences Specific for Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 2 Strains by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung-Te; Amaro, Carmen; Sanjuán, Eva; Hor, Lien-I

    2005-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus can be divided into three biotypes, and only biotype 2, which is further divided into serovars, contains eel-virulent strains. We compared the genomic DNA of a biotype 2 serovar E isolate (tester) with the genomic DNAs of three biotype 1 strains by suppression subtractive hybridization and then tested the distribution of the tester-specific DNA sequences in a wide collection of bacterial strains. In this way we identified three plasmid-borne DNA sequences that were specific ...

  8. Role of iron, capsule, and toxins in the pathogenicity of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 for mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, C; Biosca, E G; Fouz, B; Toranzo, A E; Garay, E

    1994-01-01

    The virulence mechanisms of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 have been studied and compared with those of biotype 1 in mice as the experimental animals. Biotype 2 isolates from European eels were as virulent for mice as biotype 1 strains (50% lethal dose, about 10(5) CFU per mouse); a septicemic infection developed in less than 24 h. These strains had several properties in common with biotype 1 organisms including capsule expression, uptake of various iron sources, and production of exoproteins, w...

  9. [ISOLATION OF ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE GENES IN VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1 AND O139 SEROGROUP STRAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadnova, S P; Smirnova, N I

    2015-01-01

    Determination of sensitivity of V. cholerae O1 serogroup El Tor biovar and O139 serogroup strains to antibiotics and determination of the presence of antibiotics resistance genes in their genome. The studies were carried out in 75 V. cholerae O1 and O139 serogroup strains. Sensitivity of cultures to antibiotics was determined by disc-diffusion method. DNA isolation was carried out in the presence of 6M guanidine thiocyanate. PCR was carried out in multi-channel amplificator Tercyc. A multiplex PCR was constructed, that includes 5 primer pairs for the detection of O1 and O139 serogroup resistance genes of vibrios to sulfame- thoxazolum, streptomycin B, trimethoprim, the presence of SXT element, an amplification program was developed. Using the developed PCR, V. cholerae O1 serogroup El Tor biovar strains with multiple drug resistance were established to be imported into Russia in 1993. The presence of SXT elements with genes of resistance to 4 antibiotics simultaneously was detected precisely in these strains, that belong to toxigenic genovariants of V. cholerae El Tor biovar. All the El Tor vibrio strains imported in the subsequent years were shown to stably preserve SXT element, this indicates its important role in biology of cholera vibrios. O139 serogroup strains with intact SXT element and having a deletion of the gene coding trimethoprim resistance were isolated. The data obtained may be used to establish molecular-genetic mechanisms of emergence of antibiotics resistant strains of cholera vibrio, construction of novel gene diagnostic test-systems and carrying out passportization of strains that are stored in the State collection of pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Insights into Vibrio parahaemolyticus CHN25 Response to Artificial Gastric Fluid Stress by Transcriptomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the causative agent of food-borne gastroenteritis disease. Once consumed, human acid gastric fluid is perhaps one of the most important environmental stresses imposed on the bacterium. Herein, for the first time, we investigated Vibrio parahaemolyticus CHN25 response to artificial gastric fluid (AGF stress by transcriptomic analysis. The bacterium at logarithmic growth phase (LGP displayed lower survival rates than that at stationary growth phase (SGP under a sub-lethal acid condition (pH 4.9. Transcriptome data revealed that 11.6% of the expressed genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus CHN25 was up-regulated in LGP cells after exposed to AGF (pH 4.9 for 30 min, including those involved in sugar transport, nitrogen metabolism, energy production and protein biosynthesis, whereas 14.0% of the genes was down-regulated, such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter and flagellar biosynthesis genes. In contrast, the AGF stress only elicited 3.4% of the genes from SGP cells, the majority of which were attenuated in expression. Moreover, the number of expressed regulator genes was also substantially reduced in SGP cells. Comparison of transcriptome profiles further revealed forty-one growth-phase independent genes in the AGF stress, however, half of which displayed distinct expression features between the two growth phases. Vibrio parahaemolyticus seemed to have evolved a number of molecular strategies for coping with the acid stress. The data here will facilitate future studies for environmental stresses and pathogenicity of the leading seafood-borne pathogen worldwide.

  11. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host–pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp. PMID:22673627

  12. Vibrio parahemolyticus septicaemia in a liver transplant patient: a case report

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    Fairweather Morgan G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vibrio parahemolyticus is the leading cause of vibrio-associated gastroenteritis in the United States of America, usually related to poor food handling; only rarely has it been reported to cause serious infections including sepsis and soft tissue infections. In contrast, Vibrio vulnificus is a well-known cause of septicaemia, especially in patients with cirrhosis. We present a patient with V. parahemolyticus sepsis who had an orthotic liver transplant in 2007 and was on immunosuppression for chronic rejection. Clinical suspicion driven by patient presentation, travel to Gulf of Mexico and soft tissue infection resulted in early diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Case presentation A 48 year old Latin American man with a history of chronic kidney disease, orthotic liver transplant in 2007 secondary to alcoholic end stage liver disease on immunosuppressants, and chronic rejection presented to the emergency department with fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, left lower extremity swelling and fluid filled blisters after a fishing trip in the Gulf of Mexico. Samples from the blister and blood grew V. parahemolyticus. The patient was successfully treated with ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Febrile patients with underlying liver disease and/or immunosuppression should be interviewed regarding recent travel to a coastal area and seafood ingestion. If this history is obtained, appropriate empiric antibiotics must be chosen. Patients with liver disease and/or immunosuppresion should be counselled to avoid eating raw or undercooked molluscan shellfish. People can prevent Vibrio sepsis and wound infections by proper cooking of seafood and avoiding exposure of open wounds to seawater or raw shellfish products.

  13. Characterization of the Hemorrhagic Reaction Caused by Vibrio vulnificus Metalloprotease, a Member of the Thermolysin Family

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Shin-ichi; Nakazawa, Hiromi; Kawata, Koji; Tomochika, Ken-ichi; Tobe, Kazuo; Shinoda, Sumio

    1998-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen causing wound infections and septicemia, characterized by hemorrhagic and edematous damage to the skin. This human pathogen secretes a metalloprotease (V. vulnificus protease [VVP]) as an important virulence determinant. When several bacterial metalloproteases including VVP were injected intradermally into dorsal skin, VVP showed the greatest hemorrhagic activity. The level of the in vivo hemorrhagic activity of the bacterial metalloproteas...

  14. Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace), the third toxin of a Vibrio cholerae virulence cassette.

    OpenAIRE

    Trucksis, M; Galen, J E; Michalski, J; Fasano, A; Kaper, J B

    1993-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae causes the potentially lethal disease cholera through the elaboration of the intestinal secretogen cholera toxin. A second toxin of V. cholerae, Zot, decreases intestinal tissue resistance by modifying intercellular tight junctions. In this report, a third toxin of V. cholerae, Ace (accessory cholera enterotoxin), is described. Ace increases short-circuit current in Ussing chambers and causes fluid secretion in ligated rabbit ileal loops. The predicted protein sequence of Ace ...

  15. Assessing single and joint toxicity of three phenylurea herbicides using Lemna minor and Vibrio fischeri bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Iatrou, Evangelia I

    2015-01-01

    Single and joint toxicity of three substituted urea herbicides, namely monolinuron [3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea], linuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea] and diuron [1-(3,4 dichlorophenyl)-3,3 dimethyl urea], were studied. The duckweed Lemna minor and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri were used for the toxicity assessment and they were exposed to various concentrations of the herbicides, individually and in binary mixtures. The exposure time was 7d for the duckweed and 30 min for the bacterium. Estimation of EC50 values was performed by frond counting and reduction in light output for Lemna minor and Vibrio fischeri, respectively. Lemna minor was found to be much more sensitive than Vibrio fischeri to target compounds. The toxicity of the three herbicides applied solely was estimated to be in decreasing order: diuron (EC50=28.3 μg L(-1))≈linuron (EC50=30.5 μg L(-1))>monolinuron (EC50=300 μg L(-1)) for the duckweed and linuron (EC50=8.2 mg L(-1))>diuron (EC50=9.2 mg L(-1))>monolinuron (EC50=11.2 mg L(-1)) for the bacterium. Based on the environmental concentrations reported in the literature and EC50 values obtained from Lemna minor experiments, Risk Quotients (RQ) much higher than 1 were calculated for diuron and linuron. In Lemna minor experiments, combination of target compounds resulted to additive effects due to their same mode of phenylurea action on photosynthetic organisms. Regarding Vibrio fischeri, synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects were observed, which varied according to the concentrations of target compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transmission to Eels, Portals of Entry, and Putative Reservoirs of Vibrio vulnificus Serovar E (Biotype 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco-Noales, Ester; Milán, Miguel; Fouz, Belén; Sanjuán, Eva; Amaro, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus serovar E (formerly biotype 2) is the etiologic agent that is responsible for the main infectious disease affecting farmed eels. Although the pathogen can theoretically use water as a vehicle for disease transmission, it has not been isolated from tank water during epizootics to date. In this work, the mode of transmission of the disease to healthy eels, the portals of entry of the pathogen into fish, and their putative reservoirs have been investigated by means of laborator...

  17. Vibrio cholerae Infection of Drosophila melanogaster Mimics the Human Disease Cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, Nathan S.; Salomon, Robert N.; Kerry Garrity; Isabelle Reveillaud; Alan Kopin; F Rob Jackson; Watnick, Paula I.

    2005-01-01

    Cholera, the pandemic diarrheal disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, continues to be a major public health challenge in the developing world. Cholera toxin, which is responsible for the voluminous stools of cholera, causes constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase, resulting in the export of ions into the intestinal lumen. Environmental studies have demonstrated a close association between V. cholerae and many species of arthropods including insects. Here we report...

  18. An acute gastroenteritis outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O4:K55 in Nursing College, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatapai, A; Moungthong, B; Thunyaharn, S; Huttayananont, S; Rangsin, R

    2010-08-01

    A cluster of acute gastroenteritis among nursing students was noticed on 13th September 2005. Between 13th and 17th September 2005, a retrospective cohort study was then conducted to identify the most likely cause of gastroenteritis at a nursing college in Bangkok, Thailand. Self-administered questionnaires, interviews, environmental investigations, and rectal swabs from all participants were carried out. In the investigation, 98.9% female nursing students were investigated and had completed the questionnaire, 49.4% of the participants were diagnosed to have acute gastroenteritis. The predominant symptoms were watery diarrhoea (90.8%) and abdominal cramps (71.3%). Of 28.9% of rectal swab isolates were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus O4:K55 (40.4%), Salmonella spp. (19.2%), Vibrio cholerae non O1/non O139/non O141 (11.5%), Aeromonas trota (3.9%), Vibrio alginolyticus (1.9%) and other co-infections (23.1%). The tdh gene was identified from all V. parahaemolyticus using multiplex PCR. The implicated food risk factor for gastroenteritis was boiled egg (adjusted prevalence rate ratio; PR=1.9, 95% CI, 1.04-3.79). However the bitter melon soup was not significantly associated for gastroenteritis (adjusted PR=1.3, 95% CI, 0.98-1.82). The population attributable fraction analysis indicated that boiled eggs item was an implicated food risk for this outbreak (PAF=45.8%). Vibrio parahaemolyticus O4:K55 was identified as a major causative agent for gastroenteritis in which the contaminated boiled eggs was a vehicle in this outbreak. Cross-contamination control should be emphasized in food operation plans among institutes.

  19. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipasiri Soonthornchai

    Full Text Available Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host's epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host's gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids.

  20. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornchai, Wipasiri; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2015-01-01

    Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host’s epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host’s gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids. PMID:26285030

  1. Microbial Experimental Evolution as a Novel Research Approach in the Vibrionaceae and Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eSoto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists. The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to a solid substrate such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study.

  2. Vibrio vulnificus infection in São Paulo, Brazil: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Elmor de Araujo

    Full Text Available Non cholera Vibrio may cause conjunctivitis, wound infection, gastroenteritis and serious sepsis. Transmission to men is through contact with skin, mucosa or wounds exposed to marine water, and consumption of certain barely cooked or raw seafood, more frequently in the summer. This is one of the first cases of severe infection related to Vibrio vulnificus described in Brazil. The patient was an old man, who ingested seafood in Guarujá, a seashore city near São Paulo, 3 days before hospitalization. He was admitted to the emergency room in an ill state with septic shock. On 2 sets of blood culture a highly virulent microorganism was isolated, Vibrio vulnificus, which leads to sepsis and frequently to death in susceptible patients. The objective of this report was to use this case to discuss clinical aspects, microbiological diagnosis and treatment of the infection caused by this agent, besides the review of epidemiology, associated risk factors and prevention before consuming or getting in contact with seafood, especially in patients with greater susceptibility to this kind of infection.

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella and Vibrio spp. in seafood products sold in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunle; Ghate, Vinayak; Phua, Leslie; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2012-07-01

    Foodborne hazards in seafood have only recently received increased attention in Singapore since the illness outbreak in 2009 that was associated with consumption of Indian rojak (a traditional salad of fruits, vegetables, and seafood). The microbiological quality of seafood must be evaluated for assurance of food safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and to determine the prevalence of Salmonella and Vibrio spp. in seafood sold in Singapore. A total of 116 samples (41 prawn, 44 shellfish, and 31 fishball samples) were collected from major supermarkets and wet markets in Singapore. The mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial counts for prawn, shellfish, and fishballs were 2 to 7 log CFU/g. One Salmonella Lexington strain was isolated from a thawed-frozen shellfish product and two Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from commercial fishball and shrimp meat products. Thus, seafood sold in Singapore has the potential to be contaminated with Vibrio spp. and Salmonella, and proper handling at food service establishments is required to ensure food safety. Effective control measures also are needed to prevent cross-contamination during postharvest seafood processing.

  4. Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, William; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2014-01-01

    The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists). The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to solid substrates such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study. PMID:25538686

  5. Acetone Formation in the Vibrio Family: a New Pathway for Bacterial Leucine Catabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek-Marshall, Michele; Wojciechowski, Cheryl; Wagner, William P.; Fall, Ray

    1999-01-01

    There is current interest in biological sources of acetone, a volatile organic compound that impacts atmospheric chemistry. Here, we determined that leucine-dependent acetone formation is widespread in the Vibrionaceae. Sixteen Vibrio isolates, two Listonella species, and two Photobacterium angustum isolates produced acetone in the presence of l-leucine. Shewanella isolates produced much less acetone. Growth of Vibrio splendidus and P. angustum in a fermentor with controlled aeration revealed that acetone was produced after a lag in late logarithmic or stationary phase of growth, depending on the medium, and was not derived from acetoacetate by nonenzymatic decarboxylation in the medium. l-Leucine, but not d-leucine, was converted to acetone with a stoichiometry of approximately 0.61 mol of acetone per mol of l-leucine. Testing various potential leucine catabolites as precursors of acetone showed that only α-ketoisocaproate was efficiently converted by whole cells to acetone. Acetone production was blocked by a nitrogen atmosphere but not by electron transport inhibitors, suggesting that an oxygen-dependent reaction is required for leucine catabolism. Metabolic labeling with deuterated (isopropyl-d7)-l-leucine revealed that the isopropyl carbons give rise to acetone with full retention of deuterium in each methyl group. These results suggest the operation of a new catabolic pathway for leucine in vibrios that is distinct from the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A pathway seen in pseudomonads. PMID:10601206

  6. A single regulatory gene is sufficient to alter Vibrio aestuarianus pathogenicity in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudenège, David; Travers, Marie Agnès; Lemire, Astrid; Petton, Bruno; Haffner, Philippe; Labreuche, Yannick; Tourbiez, Delphine; Mangenot, Sophie; Calteau, Alexandra; Mazel, Didier; Nicolas, Jean Louis; Jacq, Annick; Le roux, Frédérique

    2015-11-01

    Oyster diseases caused by pathogenic vibrios pose a major challenge to the sustainability of oyster farming. In France, since 2012 a disease affecting specifically adult oysters has been associated with the presence of Vibrio aestuarianus. Here, by combining genome comparison, phylogenetic analyses and high-throughput infections of strains isolated before or during the recent outbreaks, we show that virulent strains cluster into two V. aestuarianus lineages independently of the sampling dates. The bacterial lethal dose was not different between strains isolated before or after 2012. Hence, the emergence of a new highly virulent clonal strain is unlikely. Each lineage comprises nearly identical strains, the majority of them being virulent, suggesting that within these phylogenetically coherent virulent lineages a few strains have lost their pathogenicity. Comparative genomics allowed the identification of a single frameshift in a non-virulent strain. This mutation affects the varS gene that codes for a signal transduction histidine-protein kinase. Genetic analyses confirmed that varS is necessary for infection of oysters and for a secreted metalloprotease expression. For the first time in a Vibrio species, we show here that VarS is a key factor of pathogenicity. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Natural transformation of Vibrio fischeri requires tfoX and tfoY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack-Berti, Amber; Wollenberg, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent evidence has indicated that natural genetic transformation occurs in Vibrio cholerae, and that it requires both induction by chitin oligosaccharides, like chitohexaose, and expression of a putative regulatory gene designated tfoX. Using sequence and phylogenetic analyses we have found two tfoX paralogues in all sequenced genomes of the genus Vibrio. Like V. cholerae, when grown in chitohexaose, cells of V. fischeri are able to take up and incorporate exogenous DNA. Chitohexaose-independent transformation by V. fischeri was observed when tfoX was present in multi-copy. The second tfoX paralogue, designated tfoY, is also required for efficient transformation in V. fischeri, but is not functionally identical to tfoX. Natural transformation of V. fischeri facilitates rapid transfer of mutations across strains, and provides a highly useful tool for experimental genetic manipulation in this species. The presence of chitin-induced competence in several vibrios highlights the potential for a conserved mechanism of genetic exchange across this family of environmentally important marine bacteria. PMID:21966921

  8. Efficacy of chitosan oligosaccharide as aquatic adjuvant administrated with a formalin-inactivated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Haizhen; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-12-01

    Vaccine is one of the efficient candidates to prevent fish disease through activating host immune response in aquaculture. Actually, several vaccines are often administered with adjuvants to increase immunostimulation, especially for some water-based formalin-killed vaccines. However, side effects are inevitable after vaccination of some adjuvants. Therefore, exploration for effective and harmless aquatic adjuvants is urgently needed. In this study, immunoprotection of a formalin-inactivated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine applied with chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) was analyzed. High levels of protection were achieved in zebrafish and turbot vaccinated with inactivated vaccine and COS (RPS of 89.0 ± 4.5% and 80.0 ± 6.9%) compared with fish vaccinated with inactivated vaccine alone (RPS of 47.8 ± 6.6% and 64.7 ± 5.8%) at 4 week post vaccination. Moreover, high antibody reaction and cross-protection against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi were observed of turbot vaccinated with inactivated vaccine and COS. In conclusion, COS can enhance immunoprotection of a formalin-inactivated V. anguillarum vaccine, significantly activate humoral immune response of host, and be benefit for inhibition against pathogens. Therefore, COS would be a potential adjuvant for aquatic vaccine design in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Prophage CTXphi genome variability and its role in alteration of Vibrio cholerae El Tor virulence characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, N I; Osin, A V; Nefedov, K S; Kul'shan', T A; Zadnova, S P; Livanova, L F; Toporkov, A V; Kutyrev, V V

    2007-01-01

    Comparative analysis of CTXphi prophage genome of 366 V. cholerae El Tor strains isolated from infected people and water was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction. Four groups of vibrios, which carry different combinations of ctxA, zot, and ace genes from core region of CTXphi prophage coding key (cholera enterotoxin) and accessory (Zot and Ace toxins) pathogenicity factors, were determined: ctxA(+) zot(-) ace(+), ctxA(-) zot(+) ace(+), ctxA(-) zot(+) ace(-), ctxA(-) zot(-) ace(+). Vibrios that had lost all tested genes were also revealed. Genomic rearrangements occurring in water environment in virulent V. cholerae strains, which acquired foreign pathogenicity genes necessary for their existence in human organism, were proposed as one of the mechanisms of formation of clones with an incomplete or no prophage. Infection process in model animals challenged with wild and isogenic strains of V. cholerae differing in the set of the phage genes (ctxA, zot, and ace) was comparatively analyzed. It was shown that variability of CTXphi prophage genome was an important factor of modification of cholera vibrios virulent characteristics. Obtained data point to usefulness of ctxA, zot, and ace phage genes detection in wild V. cholerae isolates as it could permit evaluation of their virulent potential determining the severity of the infection.

  10. [Pathogenicity island region of clinical and environmental strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, isolated in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Harold; Ulloa, María Teresa; Guerra, Fabiola; Osorio, Carlos G

    2009-02-01

    Most clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus produce a major virulence factor known as the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH). TDH is encoded by the tdh gene which is located in a genomic pathogenicity island (PAI). Most environmental isolates are described as tdh negative. To assess if environmental strains lack the full pathogenicity island or if only the tdh gene is deleted. Thirty eight clinical and 66 environmental strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied. PAI was characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presence of tdhA and tdhS genes, was determined by Southern blot. Fifty three environmental strains (80%) lacked a full PAI when compared with clinical strains. In environmental strains, Southern blot and sequence analysis showed that a genetic region of 80 kilobase pairs including genes from VPA1310 to VPA1396 was missing. These results highlight the genetic dynamism of Vibrio parahaemolyticus pathogenecity island region and suggest that new pathogenic strains could appear by horizontal transfer of the island between toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains.

  11. Priming the prophenoloxidase system of Artemia franciscana by heat shock proteins protects against Vibrio campbellii challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Ranjan, Jayant; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Macrae, Thomas H; Bossier, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Like other invertebrates, the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana relies solely on innate immunity, which by definition lacks adaptive characteristics, to combat against invading pathogens. One of the innate mechanisms is melanisation of bacteria mediated by the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system. The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) derived from either prokaryote (Escherichia coli) or eukaryote (Artemia), well conserved and immune-dominant molecules, protect Artemia against Vibrio campbellii. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these proteins protect Artemia against Vibrio campbellii infection are unknown. Here we demonstrated that feeding gnotobiotically grown Artemia with either Artemia Hsp70 or the E. coli Hsp70 equivalent DnaK, each overproduced in E. coli, followed by V. campbellii challenge enhanced the proPO system, at both mRNA and protein activity levels. Additionally, the Artemia fed with these proteins survived well in a Vibrio challenge assay. These results indicated that Hsp70s derived from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic sources generate protective immunity in the crustacean Artemia against V. campbellii infection by priming the proPO system. This is apparently the first in vivo report on priming activity of Hsp70 in an invertebrate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vibrios in hatchery cultures of the razor clam, Solen marginatus (Pulteney).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, S; Dubert, J; da Costa, F; Martínez-Patiño, D; Barja, J L

    2014-03-01

    Hatchery culture of the razor clam, Solen marginatus (Pulteney), has recently been developed in Galicia (NW Spain). However, recurrent episodes of mortalities of larval and post-larval cultures have been recorded during the course of various studies. The disease signs were similar to those described for other bivalve species in outbreaks caused by bacteria of the genus Vibrio. In this article, we present the results of microbiological monitoring of two batches of razor clams with different survival rates. All fermentative isolates were identified as members of the Splendidus clade within the genus Vibrio. Some of these isolates, identified as Vibrio splendidus-like, were clearly associated with the batch suffering mortalities, indicating their possible role as pathogens. Similar strains were found in the broodstock, suggesting vertical transmission of these bacteria. This is the first study of the microbiota associated with hatchery culture of S. marginatus, and the results will provide useful information for the optimization of a protocol for hatchery culture of this bivalve species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178T = IBT 23262T), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171T = IBT 23253T...

  14. Uji Fitokimia, Kandungan Total Fenol dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Mikroalga Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp., dan Nannochloropsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diini Fithriani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan fitokimia, total fenol, dan aktivitas antioksidan dari mikroalga Spirulina sp., Nannochloropsis sp., dan Chlorella sp. Mikroalga diekstrak dengan ekstraksi tunggal menggunakan etanol. Skrining fitokimia dilakukan secara kualitatif. Analisis total fenol dilakukan secara spektrofotometri dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu. Analisis antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH dan Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. Skrining fitokimia menunjukkan keberadaan tanin, flavonoid, steroid, glikosida, dan alkaloid pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga, sedangkan saponin hanya terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dan Chlorella sp., adapun triterpenoid tidak terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan total fenol, aktivitas antioksidan (IC50, dan kapasitas antioksidan (FRAP tertinggi diperoleh pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dengan nilai berturut turut sebesar 0,32 ± 0,025 mg GAE g-1D.W., 518,94 ppm, dan  49,95 ± 2,02 (mmol Fe2+ eq.g-1D.W. Dalam penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kandungan fenol total memiliki korelasi  yang kuat  dengan kapasitas antioksidan metode FRAP (R2= 0,84, dan aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH (R2= 0,79.

  15. Identification of an MITF gene and its polymorphisms associated with the Vibrio resistance trait in the clam Meretrix petechialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujing; Yue, Xin; Jiang, Fengjuan; Wang, Hongxia; Liu, Baozhong

    2017-09-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) regulates the transcription of its target genes by binding to their promoters. In this study, an MITF gene, MpMITF was identified in the clam Meretrix petechialis. The full-length cDNA of MpMITF is 3564 bp with an ORF of 1365 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of a conserved functional structure of bHLH-LZ, which could bind with E-box. The mRNA and protein expression levels of MpMITF were significantly up-regulated 6 h post-Vibrio injection. The mRNA expression of MpMITF increased on day 2 and peaked on day 10 post-Vibrio immersion. Furthermore, MpMITF expression was significantly up-regulated in most resistant families of clams (P clams after the Vibrio immersion challenge. These results suggest that, in clams, MpMITF participates in the immune response against a Vibrio infection. Genotyping in two clam groups with different resistant levels to Vibrio parahaemolyticus (i.e., 11-R and 11-S), thirteen SNPs and five haplotypes were detected in the DNA sequence of MpMITF, of which five SNPs and two haplotypes were associated with Vibrio resistance. Four SNPs (SNP2, 5, 6 and 13) and one haplotype (Hap1) were further confirmed to be associated with Vibrio resistance in M. petechialis by association analysis in different clam families. This study deepens the understanding of MITF in marine bivalves and provides potential candidate markers for resistance selection in the clam M. petechialis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwai, S M; Alfallani, E A; Abolghait, S K; Garbaj, A M; Naas, H T; Moawad, A A; Gammoudi, F T; Rayes, H M; Barbieri, I; Eldaghayes, I M

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localities in Libya (Tripoli, Regdalin, Janzour and Tobruk). Vibrio spp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6 % of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS. Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 ×10(4) CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 ×10(4) CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9%) were Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahemolyticus was isolated from camel meat for the first time. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio spp. foodborne illnesses. This data will be used to provide information on the magnitude of such pathogens in Libyan seafood, meat and meat products.

  17. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Azwai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localities in Libya (Tripoli, Regdalin, Janzour and Tobruk. Vibrio spp. were detected by conventional cultural and molecular method using PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA. Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6% yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27 of processed seafood samples (n=46 yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS. Among cultured seafood samples, the highest bacterial count was recorded in clam with a count of 3.8 х104 CFU\\g. Chicken burger samples showed the highest bacterial count with 6.5 х104 CFU\\g. Molecular analysis of the isolates obtained in this study, showed that 11 samples out of 48 (22.9% were Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahemolyticus was isolated from camel meat for the first time. This study is an initial step to provide a baseline for future molecular research targeting Vibrio spp. foodborne illnesses. This data will be used to provide information on the magnitude of such pathogens in Libyan seafood, meat and meat products.

  18. Patella sp. (Gastropoda: Mollusca Mukus Salgısına Denizel Bakterilerin Yerleşimi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beria Falakalı Mutaf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tutunma ve kayma hareketleri gösteren Patella türlerinin oluşturduğu mukus salgısı mikroorganizmalar için bir yapışma ortamıdır. Türlere göre mukus salgısının bakterilerin çoğalma potansiyellerine etkisinin araştırılması amaçlanmış, deniz suyundan izole edilen Vibrio fluvialis ve V. furnissii türleri Patella caerulea ve P. rustica mukusuna aşılanmıştır. Yapışma yoğunlukları karşılaştırmalı olarak kristal viyole ile boyanmış lamlarda ışık mikroskobu düzeyinde belirlenmiştir. Vibrio türlerinin mukus tercihleri Patella türlerine göre farklılık göstermiştir. Bu çalışma bulguları, Patella sp. mukus tabakasının kaya üzerinde denizel bakterilerin yerleşimi açısından önemini ve bu bakterilerin diğer organizmalar için uyarıcı etki oluşturabileceğini düşündürmektedir

  19. The emergence of Vibrio pathogens in Europe: ecology, evolution, and pathogenesis (Paris, 11-12th March 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Frédérique; Wegner, K Mathias; Baker-Austin, Craig; Vezzulli, Luigi; Osorio, Carlos R; Amaro, Carmen; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Defoirdt, Tom; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Blokesch, Melanie; Mazel, Didier; Jacq, Annick; Cava, Felipe; Gram, Lone; Wendling, Carolin C; Strauch, Eckhard; Kirschner, Alexander; Huehn, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Global change has caused a worldwide increase in reports of Vibrio-associated diseases with ecosystem-wide impacts on humans and marine animals. In Europe, higher prevalence of human infections followed regional climatic trends with outbreaks occurring during episodes of unusually warm weather. Similar patterns were also observed in Vibrio-associated diseases affecting marine organisms such as fish, bivalves and corals. Basic knowledge is still lacking on the ecology and evolutionary biology of these bacteria as well as on their virulence mechanisms. Current limitations in experimental systems to study infection and the lack of diagnostic tools still prevent a better understanding of Vibrio emergence. A major challenge is to foster cooperation between fundamental and applied research in order to investigate the consequences of pathogen emergence in natural Vibrio populations and answer federative questions that meet societal needs. Here we report the proceedings of the first European workshop dedicated to these specific goals of the Vibrio research community by connecting current knowledge to societal issues related to ocean health and food security.

  20. The Emergence of Vibrio pathogens in Europe: Ecology, Evolution and Pathogenesis (Paris, 11-12 March 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique eLe Roux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change has caused a worldwide increase in reports of Vibrio-associated diseases with ecosystem-wide impacts on humans and marine animals. In Europe, higher prevalence of human infections followed regional climatic trends with outbreaks occurring during episodes of unusually warm weather. Similar patterns were also observed in Vibrio-associated diseases affecting marine organisms such as fish, bivalves and corals. Basic knowledge is still lacking on the ecology and evolutionary biology of these bacteria as well as on their virulence mechanisms. Current limitations in experimental systems to study infection and the lack of diagnostic tools still prevent a better understanding of Vibrio emergence. A major challenge is to foster cooperation between fundamental and applied research in order to investigate the consequences of pathogen emergence in natural Vibrio populations and answer federative questions that meet societal needs. Here we report the proceedings of the first European workshop dedicated to these specific goals of the Vibrio research community by connecting current knowledge to societal issues related to ocean health and food security.

  1. Free-Living and Plankton-Associated Vibrios: Assessment in Ballast Water, Harbor Areas, and Coastal Ecosystems in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Irma N. G.; Souza, Keili M. C.; Souza, Claudiana P.; Lopes, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    Ballast water (BW) is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated BW into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of BWs transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i) BW tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii) port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ∼1 to 32°S and (iii) three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. V. cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms and, apart from the Santos harbor, was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+), involved in cholera disease, were found in BW (2%) and harbor (2%) samples. These results confirm that BW is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in BW management programs. PMID:23335920

  2. The emergence of Vibrio pathogens in Europe: ecology, evolution, and pathogenesis (Paris, 11–12th March 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Frédérique Le; Wegner, K. Mathias; Baker-Austin, Craig; Vezzulli, Luigi; Osorio, Carlos R.; Amaro, Carmen; Ritchie, Jennifer M.; Defoirdt, Tom; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Blokesch, Melanie; Mazel, Didier; Jacq, Annick; Cava, Felipe; Gram, Lone; Wendling, Carolin C.; Strauch, Eckhard; Kirschner, Alexander; Huehn, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Global change has caused a worldwide increase in reports of Vibrio-associated diseases with ecosystem-wide impacts on humans and marine animals. In Europe, higher prevalence of human infections followed regional climatic trends with outbreaks occurring during episodes of unusually warm weather. Similar patterns were also observed in Vibrio-associated diseases affecting marine organisms such as fish, bivalves and corals. Basic knowledge is still lacking on the ecology and evolutionary biology of these bacteria as well as on their virulence mechanisms. Current limitations in experimental systems to study infection and the lack of diagnostic tools still prevent a better understanding of Vibrio emergence. A major challenge is to foster cooperation between fundamental and applied research in order to investigate the consequences of pathogen emergence in natural Vibrio populations and answer federative questions that meet societal needs. Here we report the proceedings of the first European workshop dedicated to these specific goals of the Vibrio research community by connecting current knowledge to societal issues related to ocean health and food security. PMID:26322036

  3. Necrotizing soft-tissue infections and sepsis caused by Vibrio vulnificus compared with those caused by Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yao-Hung; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Li, Yen-Yao; Peng, Kuo-Ti

    2007-03-01

    Vibrio and Aeromonas species, which can cause necrotizing fasciitis and primary septicemia, are members of the Vibrionaceae family and thrive in aquatic environments. Because the clinical symptoms and signs of necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis caused by these two bacteria are similar, the purposes of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas infections, to analyze the risk factors for death, and to compare the effects of surgical treatment on the outcome. The cases of thirty-two patients with necrotizing soft-tissue infections and sepsis caused by Vibrio vulnificus (seventeen patients) and Aeromonas species (fifteen patients) were retrospectively reviewed over a four-year period. Surgical débridement or immediate limb amputation was initially performed in all patients. Demographic data, underlying diseases, laboratory results, and clinical outcome were analyzed for each patient in both groups. Six patients in the Vibrio vulnificus group and four patients in the Aeromonas group died. The patients who died had significantly lower serum albumin levels than did the patients who survived (p tissue infection with Vibrio vulnificus (contact with seawater or raw seafood) or Aeromonas species (contact with fresh or brackish water, soil, or wood). Early fasciotomy and culture-directed antimicrobial therapy should be aggressively performed in those patients with hypotensive shock, leukopenia, severe hypoalbuminemia, and underlying chronic illness, especially a combination of hepatic dysfunction and diabetes mellitus.

  4. Free-living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas, and coastal ecosystems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Irma N G; Souza, Keili M C; Souza, Claudiana P; Lopes, Rubens M

    2012-01-01

    Ballast water (BW) is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated BW into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of BWs transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i) BW tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii) port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ∼1 to 32°S and (iii) three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. V. cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms and, apart from the Santos harbor, was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA(+), tcpA(+)), involved in cholera disease, were found in BW (2%) and harbor (2%) samples. These results confirm that BW is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in BW management programs.

  5. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces sp. SS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Behera, Sujit Kumar

    2014-11-01

    In the present study the microbial biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by secondary metabolites of Streptomyces sp. SS2 in an eco-friendly approach has been reported. The Streptomyces sp. SS2 was isolated from the soil sediment of Similipal Biosphere Reserve. The identification of this strain was determined by phenotypical characteristics (morphological and biochemical) and molecular characterization method using 16 s rDNA sequencing. The morphological study was also done by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The preliminary characterization of biosynthesized silver nanoparticle was carried out using UV-Vis spectrum analysis, which showed an absorption peak at 420 nm corresponding to plasmon absorption of silver. The average size and charge (zeta potential) of the particles were found to be 67.95 ± 18.52 nm and -17.7 ± 5.30 mV, respectively. The functional groups were identified by FTIR studies and their morphology (round and spherical shape) was determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC 1089), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 7164), Staphylococcus epidermis (MTCC 3615), Vibrio cholerae (MTCC 3904) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 1144). These biotechnological approaches of synthesis of nanoparticles can direct a new path in biomaterial sciences and enrich biomedical applications.

  6. Misidentification of Vibrio cholerae O155 isolated from imported shrimp as O serogroup O139 due to cross-agglutination with commercial O139 antisera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Mazur, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2002-01-01

    Fish and shellfish products imported into Denmark are routinely analyzed for pathogenic Vibrio spp., particularly Vibrio cholerae, if products originate from subtropical or tropical areas. A V. cholerae strain that agglutinated commercial O139 antiserum but not the O1, Inaba, or Ogawa antisera...

  7. Validation and characterization of a human volunteer challenge model for cholera by using frozen bacteria of the new Vibrio cholerae epidemic serotype, O139

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, MB; Giannella, RA; Losonsky, GA; Lang, DR; Parker, S; Hawkins, JA; Gunther, C; Schiff, GA

    1999-01-01

    Until recently, all epidemic strains of Vibrio cholerae were of the O1 serotype. Current epidemics have also been caused by a new serotype, Vibrio cholerae O139. Although the pathogenesis and clinical features of O139 cholera are similar to those of O1 cholera, immunity to serotype O1 does not

  8. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  9. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Tobias C; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-09-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13N(T) ( = DSM 26257(T) = CCUG 63287(T)), Bin4N(T) ( = DSM 26254(T) = CCUG 63291(T)), Hon2N(T) ( = DSM 26255(T) = CCUG 63289(T)), Hma8N(T) ( = DSM 26256(T) = CCUG 63629(T)), Hma2N(T) ( = DSM 26263(T) = CCUG 63633(T)), Bma5N(T) ( = DSM 26265(T) = CCUG 63301(T)) and Biut2N(T) ( = DSM 26262(T) = CCUG 63631(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  10. Rapid discrimination of environmental Vibrio by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddabra, Rkia; Prévost, Gilles; Scheftel, Jean-Michel

    2012-04-20

    The aim of this study was to discriminate 30 Vibrio strains isolated from two wastewater treatment plants from Agadir, Morocco by two molecular typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Out of the 30 strains of Vibrio examined in this study, 5 isolates could not be typed by PFGE and consistently appeared as a smear on the gel. In general, high genetic biodiversity among the Vibrio strains was found regardless to the isolation source. The results of MALDI TOF analysis show a high congruence of strain grouping demonstrating the accuracy and reliability of MALDI-TOF MS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring of different vibrio species affecting marine fishes in Lake Qarun and Gulf of Suez: Phenotypic and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibriosis is a globally threatening bacterial disease affecting mariculture with high mortalities and severe economic losses. Isolation and Identification of different vibrio species were performed to a total number of one hundred moribund and freshly dead Solea aegyptiaca, Epinephelus marginatus and Mugil cephalus collected from Lake Qarun and Gulf of Suez. Phenotypic picture and molecular identification based on use of 16SrRNA gene sequence confirmed 44 strains as vibrio species. Further molecular identification of retrieved vibrio spp. using species specific primers for collagenase, ToxR and Vvh genes categorized 10 isolates belong to V. alginolyticus, 8 isolates belong to V. parahaemolyticus and 6 isolates belong to V. vulnificus. The total prevalence of vibriosis was 44% where the highest prevalence was recorded in Lake Qarun examined fishes.

  12. Factores ambientales vinculados con la aparición y dispersión de las epidemias de Vibrio en América del Sur Environmental drivers of emergence and spreading of Vibrio epidemics in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie G. Gavilán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El Vibrio cholerae y el V. parahaemolyticus son las principales especies de Vibrio que ocasionan infecciones en seres humanos. Las infecciones causadas por estos dos patógenos están teniendo una creciente importancia debido a su imparable expansión a nivel mundial. En el presente artículo se resumen los aspectos ecológicos asociados con la llegada y dispersión de las epidemias por V. parahaemolyticus y V. cholera en Perú desde una perspectiva sudamericana. De igual forma, se discute las similitudes en la aparición del cólera en 1991 y las infecciones por V. parahaemolyticus en 1997 en Perú, que sirvieron como experimentos únicos para analizar la relación entre las epidemias de Vibrio y los cambios en el medio ambiente. Estas dos radiaciones epidémicas constituyen unos claros ejemplos que apoyan la teoría de la dispersión oceánica de vibrios patógenos y permiten identificar a los episodios de El Niño como un mecanismo potencial de transmisión de enfermedades a través del océano.Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus are the two Vibrio species with a major impact on human health. Diseases caused by both pathogens are acquiring increasing relevance due to their expansion at global scale. In this paper, we resume the ecological aspects associated with the arrival and spreading of infections caused by V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae in Peru from a South American perspective. Moreover, we discuss the similarities in the emergence in Peru of cholera cases in 1991 and V. parahaemolyticus infections in 1997. These constituted exceptional experiments to evaluate the relationships between the Vibrio epidemics and changes in the environment. The epidemic radiations of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus constitute to clear examples supporting the oceanic dispersion of pathogenic vibrios and have enabled the identification of El Niño events as a potential mechanism for the spreading of diseases through the ocean.

  13. Allelochemicals Produced by Brown Macroalgae of the Lobophora Genus Are Active against Coral Larvae and Associated Bacteria, Supporting Pathogenic Shifts to Vibrio Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Bromhall, Katrina; Motti, Cherie A; Munn, Colin B; Bourne, David G

    2017-01-01

    Pervasive environmental stressors on coral reefs are attributed with shifting the competitive balance in favor of alternative dominants, such as macroalgae. Previous studies have demonstrated that macroalgae compete with corals via a number of mechanisms, including the production of potent primary and secondary metabolites that can influence coral-associated microbial communities. The present study investigates the effects of the Pacific brown macroalga Lobophora sp. (due to the shifting nature of the Lobophora species complex, it will be referred to here as Lobophora sp.) on coral bacterial isolates, coral larvae, and the microbiome associated with the coral Porites cylindrica. Crude aqueous and organic macroalgal extracts were found to inhibit the growth of coral-associated bacteria. Extracts and fractions were also shown to inhibit coral larval settlement and cause mortality at concentrations lower (coral tissues exposed to aqueous (e.g., hydrophilic) crude extracts demonstrated a significant shift to Vibrio dominance and a loss of sequences related to the putative coral bacterial symbiont, Endozoicomonas sp., based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. This study contributes to growing evidence that macroalgal allelochemicals, dissolved organic material, and native macroalgal microbial assemblages all play a role in shifting the microbial equilibrium of the coral holobiont away from a beneficial state, contributing to a decline in coral fitness and a shift in ecosystem structure. Diverse microbial communities associate with coral tissues and mucus, providing important protective and nutritional services, but once disturbed, the microbial equilibrium may shift from a beneficial state to one that is detrimental or pathogenic. Macroalgae (e.g., seaweeds) can physically and chemically interact with corals, causing abrasion, bleaching, and overall stress. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence suggesting that macroalgae play a critical role in shifting the

  14. Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2009-09-01

    Bacteria isolated from eucalyptus leaves and shoots showing symptoms of blight and die-back collected in Uganda, Uruguay and Argentina and from maize displaying brown stalk rot symptoms in South Africa were tentatively placed in the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. These isolates, together with two strains (LMG 2558 and LMG 2560) previously assigned to Pantoea agglomerans based on protein electrophoregrams but later excluded from this species, were further investigated using molecular techniques. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) revealed that the strains were phylogenetically closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea stewartii and Pantoea ananatis. MLSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis placed the strains into four separate clusters, not containing any of the type strains of species of the genus Pantoea. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed the classification of the isolates into four novel species, for which the names Pantoea vagans sp. nov. (type strain R-21566T=LMG 24199T=BCC 105T=BD 765T), Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov. (type strain R-25678T=LMG 24197T=BCC 076T=BD 769T), Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. (type strain R-31523T=LMG 24200T=BCC 109T=BD 767T) and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. (type strain LMG 2558T=BD 871T=NCPPB 1682T) are proposed.

  15. Diversity and ecological structure of vibrios in benthic and pelagic habitats along a latitudinal gradient in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane A. Chimetto Tonon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the diversity and population structure of the 775 Vibrio isolates from different locations of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO, including St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA, Abrolhos Bank (AB and the St. Sebastian region (SS, between 2005 and 2010. In this study, 195 novel isolates, obtained from seawater and major benthic organisms (rhodoliths and corals, were compared with a collection of 580 isolates previously characterized (available at www.taxvibrio.lncc.br. The isolates were distributed in 8 major habitat spectra according to AdaptML analysis on the basis of pyrH phylogenetic reconstruction and ecological information, such as isolation source (i.e., corals: Madracis decactis, Mussismilia braziliensis, M. hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Scolymia wellsi; zoanthids: Palythoa caribaeorum, P. variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi; fireworm: Hermodice carunculata; rhodolith; water and sediment and sampling site regions (SPSPA, AB and SS. Ecologically distinct groups were discerned through AdaptML, which finds phylogenetic groups that are significantly different in their spectra of habitat preferences. Some habitat spectra suggested ecological specialization, with habitat spectra 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to specialization on SPSPA, AB, and SS, respectively. This match between habitat and location may reflect a minor exchange of Vibrio populations between geographically isolated benthic systems. Moreover, we found several widespread Vibrio species predominantly from water column, and different populations of a single Vibrio species from H. carunculata in ecologically distinct groups (H-1 and H-8 respectively. On the other hand, AdaptML detected phylogenetic groups that are found in both the benthos and in open water. The ecological grouping observed suggests dispersal and connectivity between the benthic and pelagic systems in AB. This study is a first attempt to characterize the biogeographic distribution of vibrios in both

  16. Diversity and ecological structure of vibrios in benthic and pelagic habitats along a latitudinal gradient in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruno Sergio de O.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Valle, Cecilia; Alves, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Giselle; Garcia, Gizele; Lopes, Rubens M.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the diversity and population structure of the 775 Vibrio isolates from different locations of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO), including St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Abrolhos Bank (AB) and the St. Sebastian region (SS), between 2005 and 2010. In this study, 195 novel isolates, obtained from seawater and major benthic organisms (rhodoliths and corals), were compared with a collection of 580 isolates previously characterized (available at www.taxvibrio.lncc.br). The isolates were distributed in 8 major habitat spectra according to AdaptML analysis on the basis of pyrH phylogenetic reconstruction and ecological information, such as isolation source (i.e., corals: Madracis decactis, Mussismilia braziliensis, M. hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Scolymia wellsi; zoanthids: Palythoa caribaeorum, P. variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi; fireworm: Hermodice carunculata; rhodolith; water and sediment) and sampling site regions (SPSPA, AB and SS). Ecologically distinct groups were discerned through AdaptML, which finds phylogenetic groups that are significantly different in their spectra of habitat preferences. Some habitat spectra suggested ecological specialization, with habitat spectra 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to specialization on SPSPA, AB, and SS, respectively. This match between habitat and location may reflect a minor exchange of Vibrio populations between geographically isolated benthic systems. Moreover, we found several widespread Vibrio species predominantly from water column, and different populations of a single Vibrio species from H. carunculata in ecologically distinct groups (H-1 and H-8 respectively). On the other hand, AdaptML detected phylogenetic groups that are found in both the benthos and in open water. The ecological grouping observed suggests dispersal and connectivity between the benthic and pelagic systems in AB. This study is a first attempt to characterize the biogeographic distribution of vibrios in both seawater and

  17. Population dynamics, antibiotics resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species isolated from aquatic sources in Northern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to compare population dynamics, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species from seawater and sediment collected from Northern Malaysia. Isolates with different colony morphology were characterized using both biochemical and molecular methods before testing for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Results obtained from this study showed that in Kedah, the population of Aeromonas isolated from sediment was highest in Pantai Merdeka (8.22 log CFU/ml), Pulau Bunting recorded the highest population of Aeromonas from sediment (8.43 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater and sediment were highest in Kuala Sanglang (9.21 log CFU/ml). In Kuala Perlis, the population of Aeromonas isolated from seawater was highest in Jeti (7.94 log CFU/ml). Highest population of Aeromonas from sediment was recorded in Kampong Tanah Baru (7.99 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater was highest in Padang Benta (8.42 log CFU/g) while Jeti Kuala Perlis had highest population of Vibrio isolated from sediment. It was observed that location does not influence population of Aeromonas. The results of the independent t - test revealed that there was no significant relationship between location and population of Vibrio (df = 10, t = 1.144, p > 0.05). The occurrence of biofilm formation and prevalence of antibiotic resistant Aeromonas and Vibrio species in seawater and sediment pose danger to human and aquatic animals' health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Light Organ Symbiosis in the Distribution and Diversity of the Marine Luminous Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    of the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri NOOO14-91-J-1670 Li L AUTHOR(S) Edward G. Ruby Di t .b-.ti&-- ś. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...2. Lee, K.-H., and E.G. Ruby (1992) Detection of the light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri in Hawaiian seawater using luj gene probes. Appl. Environ...the presence of a significant population of typically ’- m culturable V. fischeri cells in seawater that have entered a non-culturable state from which

  19. Screening for antibacterial activity in 72 species of wood-colonizing fungi by the Vibrio fisheri bioluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrimec, Maja Berden; Zrimec, Alexis; Slanc, Petra; Kac, Javor; Kreft, Samo

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics leads scientists to discover new antibacterial drugs. Ninety samples of wood-colonizing fungi were cultivated on agar plates, and their extracts tested for antibacterial activity using the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence test. Two fungi species, Serpula lacrymans and Nectria vilior, were found to be a potential new source of thermostable antibiotics. Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence test was found to be a useful method for antibacterial activity screening from the samples of natural origin. Copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shrimps in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320 isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185 toxR-positive isolate exhibit the TDH-related hemolysin (trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%, chloramphenicol (95%, trimethoprim-sulfamet (93%, gentamicin (85%, levofloxacin (83% and tetracycline (82%. The chloramphenicol (catA2 and kanamycin (aphA-3 resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields.

  1. Sigma E regulators control hemolytic activity and virulence in a shrimp pathogenic Vibrio harveyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimonsri Rattanama

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio are important marine and aquaculture pathogens. Hemolytic activity has been identified as a virulence factor in many pathogenic vibrios including V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi and V. vulnificus. We have used transposon mutagenesis to identify genes involved in the hemolytic activity of shrimp-pathogenic V. harveyi strain PSU3316. Out of 1,764 mutants screened, five mutants showed reduced hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar and exhibited virulence attenuation in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. Mutants were identified by comparing transposon junction sequences to a draft of assembly of the PSU3316 genome. Surprisingly none of the disrupted open reading frames or gene neighborhoods contained genes annotated as hemolysins. The gene encoding RseB, a negative regulator of the sigma factor (σ(E, was interrupted in 2 out of 5 transposon mutants, in addition, the transcription factor CytR, a threonine synthetase, and an efflux-associated cytoplasmic protein were also identified. Knockout mutations introduced into the rpoE operon at the rseB gene exhibited low hemolytic activity in sheep blood agar, and were 3-to 7-fold attenuated for colonization in shrimp. Comparison of whole cell extracted proteins in the rseB mutant (PSU4030 to the wild-type by 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed 6 differentially expressed proteins, including two down-regulated porins (OmpC-like and OmpN and an upregulated protease (DegQ which have been associated with σ(E in other organisms. Our study is the first report linking hemolytic activity to the σ(E regulators in pathogenic Vibrio species and suggests expression of this virulence-linked phenotype is governed by multiple regulatory pathways within the V. harveyi.

  2. Feeding truncated heat shock protein 70s protect Artemia franciscana against virulent Vibrio campbellii challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Kartik; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Shihao, Li; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) are highly conserved in evolution, leading to striking similarities in structure and composition between eukaryotic Hsp70s and their homologs in prokaryotes. The eukaryotic Hsp70 like the DnaK (Escherichia coli equivalent Hsp70) protein, consist of three functionally distinct domains: an N-terminal 44-kDa ATPase portion, an 18-kDa peptide-binding domain and a C-terminal 10-kDa fragment. Previously, the amino acid sequence of eukaryotic (the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana) Hsp70 and DnaK proteins were shown to share a high degree of homology, particularly in the peptide-binding domain (59.6%, the putative innate immunity-activating portion) compared to the N-terminal ATPase (48.8%) and the C-terminal lid domains (19.4%). Next to this remarkable conservation, these proteins have been shown to generate protective immunity in Artemia against pathogenic Vibrio campbellii. This study, aimed to unravel the Vibrio-protective domain of Hsp70s in vivo, demonstrated that gnotobiotically cultured Artemia fed with recombinant C-terminal fragment (containing the conserved peptide binding domain) of Artemia Hsp70 or DnaK protein were well protected against subsequent Vibrio challenge. In addition, the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, at both mRNA and protein activity levels, was also markedly induced by these truncated proteins, suggesting epitope(s) responsible for priming the proPO system and presumably other immune-related genes, consequently boosting Artemia survival upon challenge with V. campbellii, might be located within this conserved region of the peptide binding domain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Elongation of exogenous fatty acids by the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, D M

    1989-01-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria require myristic acid (C14:0) to produce the myristaldehyde substrate of the light-emitting luciferase reaction. Since both endogenous and exogenous C14:0 can be used for this purpose, the metabolism of exogenous fatty acids by luminescent bacteria has been investigated. Both Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri incorporated label from [1-14C]myristic acid (C14:0) into phospholipid acyl chains as well as into CO2. In contrast, Photobacterium phosphoreum did not exhibit phospholipid acylation or beta-oxidation using exogenous fatty acids. Unlike Escherichia coli, the two Vibrio species can directly elongate fatty acids such as octanoic (C8:0), lauric (C12:0), and myristic acid, as demonstrated by radio-gas liquid chromatography. The induction of bioluminescence in late exponential growth had little effect on the ability of V. harveyi to elongate fatty acids, but it did increase the amount of C14:0 relative to C16:0 labeled from [14C]C8:0. This was not observed in a dark mutant of V. harveyi that is incapable of supplying endogenous C14:0 for luminescence. Cerulenin preferentially decreased the labeling of C16:0 and of unsaturated fatty acids from all 14C-labeled fatty acid precursors as well as from [14C]acetate, suggesting that common mechanisms may be involved in elongation of fatty acids from endogenous and exogenous sources. Fatty acylation of the luminescence-related synthetase and reductase enzymes responsible for aldehyde synthesis exhibited a chain-length preference for C14:0, which also was indicated by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography of the acyl groups attached to these enzymes. The ability of V. harveyi to activate and elongate exogenous fatty acids may be related to an adaptive requirement to metabolize intracellular C14:0 generated by the luciferase reaction during luminescence development.

  4. Elongation of exogenous fatty acids by the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria require myristic acid (C14:0) to produce the myristaldehyde substrate of the light-emitting luciferase reaction. Since both endogenous and exogenous C14:0 can be used for this purpose, the metabolism of exogenous fatty acids by luminescent bacteria has been investigated. Both Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri incorporated label from (1-14C)myristic acid (C14:0) into phospholipid acyl chains as well as into CO2. In contrast, Photobacterium phosphoreum did not exhibit phospholipid acylation or beta-oxidation using exogenous fatty acids. Unlike Escherichia coli, the two Vibrio species can directly elongate fatty acids such as octanoic (C8:0), lauric (C12:0), and myristic acid, as demonstrated by radio-gas liquid chromatography. The induction of bioluminescence in late exponential growth had little effect on the ability of V. harveyi to elongate fatty acids, but it did increase the amount of C14:0 relative to C16:0 labeled from (14C)C8:0. This was not observed in a dark mutant of V. harveyi that is incapable of supplying endogenous C14:0 for luminescence. Cerulenin preferentially decreased the labeling of C16:0 and of unsaturated fatty acids from all 14C-labeled fatty acid precursors as well as from (14C)acetate, suggesting that common mechanisms may be involved in elongation of fatty acids from endogenous and exogenous sources. Fatty acylation of the luminescence-related synthetase and reductase enzymes responsible for aldehyde synthesis exhibited a chain-length preference for C14:0, which also was indicated by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography of the acyl groups attached to these enzymes. The ability of V. harveyi to activate and elongate exogenous fatty acids may be related to an adaptive requirement to metabolize intracellular C14:0 generated by the luciferase reaction during luminescence development.

  5. Vibrio vulnificus induces mTOR activation and inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Li Xie

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium, can cause life-threatening primary septicemia, especially in patients with liver diseases. How V. vulnificus affects the liver and how it acts on macrophages are not well understood. In this report, we demonstrated that V. vulnificus infection causes a strong inflammatory response, marked expansion of liver-resident macrophages, and liver damage in mice. We demonstrated further that V. vulnificus activates mTOR in macrophages and inhibition of mTOR differentially regulates V. vulnificus induced inflammatory responses, suggesting the possibility of targeting mTOR as a strategy to modulate V. vulnificus induced inflammatory responses.

  6. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion Systems manipulate host cell MAPK for critical steps in pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia

    2010-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen causing inflammation of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Pathogenic strains of this bacterium possess two Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) that deliver effector proteins into host cells. In order to better understand human host cell responses to V. parahaemolyticus, the modulation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation in epithelial cells by an O3:K6 clinical isolate, RIMD2210633, was investigated. The importance of MAPK activation for the ability of the bacterium to be cytotoxic and to induce secretion of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was determined.

  7. A novel protein secretion factor from a Vibrio species which operates in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokugawa, K; Kakitani, M; Ishii, T; Nakamura, K; Masaki, H; Uozumi, T

    1994-06-15

    A DNA fragment specific to a Vibrio species was found to promote extracellular secretion of proteins, when cloned into Escherichia coli. Cells harboring a plasmid carrying this fragment secreted significant amounts of periplasmic beta-lactamase and alkaline phosphatase into the medium, however most cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase was retained within the cell. The DNA sequence essential for this property was found to be a gene encoding 76 amino acids, which was designated as the 'PAS factor'. Highly expressed PAS factor is harmful to the cell, this may be due to a disruption of the membrane structure and/or function.

  8. USE OF MODIFIED CAMP TEST FOR PRELIMINARY NONSEROLOGIC IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE IN STOOL SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Lesmana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu modifikasi uji CAMP digunakan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi untuk identifikasi Vibrio cholerae pada sampel klinis. Dari 579 usap dubur penderita diare, 92 (16% memberikan hasil isolasi V. cholerae 01 biotipe El Tor dan 34 (6% V. cholerae non-01. Semua isolat V. cholerae 01 El Tor menunjukkan reaksi CAMP positif kuat dengan gambaran hemolisis sinergistik lengkap berbentuk sosis; sedangkan V. cholerae non-01 memberikan reaksi CAMP yang sempit dengan pola hemolisis menyerupai bulan sabit. Hasil uji CAMP yang dilakukan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi sesuai dengan metode biakan konvensional yang menyertakan tes aglutinasi dengan antiserum V. cholerae 01 untuk mengidentifikasi V. cholerae.

  9. The two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae are initiated at different time points in the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tue; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Skovgaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the cause of the diarrhoeal disease cholera, has its genome divided between two chromosomes, a feature uncommon for bacteria. The two chromosomes are of different sizes and different initiator molecules control their replication independently. Using novel methods...... at approximately the same time and the average number of replication origins per cell is higher for chromosome I than for chromosome II. Analysis of cell-cycle parameters shows that chromosome replication and segregation is exceptionally fast in V. cholerae. The divided genome and delayed replication of chromosome...

  10. Purification of Protease from Vibrio cholerae O1 and its Partial Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinose, Yoshio; Ehara, Masahiko; Utsunomiya, Akiyoshi

    1992-01-01

    A protease produced by a clinical isolate of Vibrio cholerae O1 was purified to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ultracentrifuge and succesive column chromatography on a Bio-gel A5m and a TSK gel G-3000SW HPLC column. The molecular weight of the purified protease was estimated to be 32,000 on the basis of its mobility on SDS-PAGE and was identical to HA/protease biochemically and physicochemically as previously reported (Booth et al., 1983; Honda et al., 1987). The hema...

  11. Rotation of Vibrio fischeri Flagella Produces Outer Membrane Vesicles That Induce Host Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschtgen, Marie-Stephanie; Lynch, Jonathan B; Koch, Eric; Schwartzman, Julia; McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Ruby, Edward

    2016-08-15

    Using the squid-vibrio association, we aimed to characterize the mechanism through which Vibrio fischeri cells signal morphogenesis of the symbiotic light-emitting organ. The symbiont releases two cell envelope molecules, peptidoglycan (PG) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that, within 12 h of light organ colonization, act in synergy to trigger normal tissue development. Recent work has shown that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by V. fischeri are sufficient to induce PG-dependent morphogenesis; however, the mechanism(s) of OMV release by these bacteria has not been described. Like several genera of both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, V. fischeri cells elaborate polar flagella that are enclosed by an extension of the outer membrane, whose function remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that along with the well-recognized phenomenon of blebbing from the cell's surface, rotation of this sheathed flagellum also results in the release of OMVs. In addition, we demonstrate that most of the development-inducing LPS is associated with these OMVs and that the presence of the outer membrane protein OmpU but not the LPS O antigen on these OMVs is important in triggering normal host development. These results also present insights into a possible new mechanism of LPS release by pathogens with sheathed flagella. Determining the function(s) of sheathed flagella in bacteria has been challenging, because no known mutation results only in the loss of this outer membrane-derived casing. Nevertheless, the presence of a sheathed flagellum in such host-associated genera as Vibrio, Helicobacter, and Brucella has led to several proposed functions, including physical protection of the flagella and masking of their immunogenic flagellins. Using the squid-vibrio light organ symbiosis, we demonstrate another role, that of V. fischeri cells require rotating flagella to induce apoptotic cell death within surface epithelium, which is a normal step in the organ's development

  12. Septic arthritis and subsequent fatal septic shock caused by Vibrio vulnificus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a rare but potential fatal bacterium that can cause severe infections. Wound infections, primary sepsis and gastroenteritis are the most common clinical features. Septic arthritis caused by V. vulnificus is an atypical presentation that has been reported in only two case...... reports; however, it has not been previously noted in Denmark. The authors report a case of septic arthritis caused by V. vulnificus in an immunocompromised patient. The disease progressed to severe sepsis and subsequent death within 10 h of admission....

  13. Fuse or die: how to survive the loss of Dam in Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Kennedy, Sean P; Soler-Bistue, Alfonso J.

    2014-01-01

    Dam methylates GATC sequences in γ-proteobacteria genomes, regulating several cellular functions including replication. In Vibrio cholerae, which has two chromosomes, Dam is essential for viability, owing to its role in chr2 replication initiation. In this study, we isolated spontaneous mutants...... of V. cholerae that were able to survive the deletion of dam. In these mutants, homologous recombination and chromosome dimer resolution are essential, unless DNA mismatch repair is inactivated. Furthermore, the initiator of chr2 replication, RctB, is no longer required. We show that, instead...

  14. Antibiotic Resistance and Integron of Vibrio cholerae Detection from School Street Foods in Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    DEASHINTA, NADIA; WATURANGI, DIANA ELIZABETH; YOGIARA,

    2007-01-01

    Street foods represent foods and beverages prepared by vendors in streets or other public places, i.e. schools. Food safety issues perceive street foods as a potential major public risk. Street foods contaminated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae may lead to serious poisoning to school-age children. In this study, 17 isolates of V. cholerae were obtained from nine (45%) of total 20 street foods samples collected in Jakarta. Five (29%) were confirmed to be V. cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa using bio...

  15. In vitro attachment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to hemocytes of two gastropod molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, N H; Tanigawa, T; Tanaka, Y; Osatake, H; Tanaka, K

    1991-04-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus D-3 was observed to attach to hemocytes of a marine gastropod mollusc, Nerita albicilla, regardless of the presence of N. albicilla serum. The organism attached to hemocytes of an estuarine gastropod, Clithon retropictus, in the presence of C. retropictus serum while the attachment to the hemocytes was decreased significantly in the absence of the serum. These evidences suggest that N. albicilla hemocytes would facilitate the clearance of V. parahaemolyticus from the alimentary tract of the mollusc and that C. retropictus hemocytes would protect C. retropictus against the invasion of V. parahaemolyticus to hemocoel of the mollusc.

  16. Heterogeneity among isolates of Vibrio vulnificus recovered from eels ( Anguilla anguilla ) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi, L.; Dalsgaard, Inger; DePaola, A.

    1998-01-01

    are genetically heterogenous as shown by ribotyping, Ribotyping also showed that the same isolates map persist in an eel farm and cause recurrent outbreaks, Phage typing did not correlate with ribotyping or serotyping. However, we observed that 26 of 28 isolates, which mere not susceptible to any of the phages......The findings of this study demonstrate that Vibrio vulnificus isolates recovered from diseased eels in Denmark are heterogeneous as shown by O serovars, capsule types, ribotyping, phage typing, and plasmid profiling, The study: includes 85 V. vulnificus isolates isolated from the gills, intestinal...

  17. Characterization of a new beta-lactamase gene from isolates of Vibrio spp. in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Lyu Jin; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jin, Ji Woong; Jeong, Hyun Do

    2012-04-01

    PCR was performed to analyze the beta-lactamase genes carried by ampicillin-resistant Vibrio spp. strains isolated from marine environments in Korea between 2006 and 2009. All 36 strains tested showed negative results in PCR with the primers designed from the nucleotide sequences of various known beta-lactamase genes. This prompted us to screen new beta-lactamase genes. A novel beta-lactamase gene was cloned from Vibrio alginolyticus KV3 isolated from the aquaculture water of Geoje Island of Korea. The determined nucleotide sequence (VAK-3 beta-lactamase) revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 852 bp, encoding a protein of 283 amino acids (aa), which displayed low homology to any other beta-lactamase genes reported in public databases. The deduced 283 aa sequence of VAK-3, consisting of a 19 aa signal peptide and a 264 aa mature protein, contained highly conserved peptide segments specific to class A beta-lactamases including the specific amino acid residues STFK (62-65), SDN (122-124), E (158), and RTG (226-228). Results from PCR performed with primers specific to the VAK-3 beta-lactamase gene identified 3 of the 36 isolated strains as V. alginolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, and Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, indicating the utilization of various beta-lactamase genes including unidentified ones in ampicillin-resistant Vibrio spp. strains from the marine environment. In a mating experiment, none of the isolates transfered the VAK-3 beta-lactamase gene to the Escherichia coli recipient. This lack of mobility, and the presence of a chromosomal acyl-CoA flanking sequence upstream of the VAK-3 beta- lactamase gene, led to the assumption that the location of this new beta-lactamase gene was in the chromosome, rather than the mobile plasmid. Antibiotic susceptibility of VAK-3 beta-lactamase was indicated by elevated levels of resistance to penicillins, but not to cephalosporins in the wild type and E. coli harboring recombinant plasmid pKV-3, compared with those of

  18. An Sp1/Sp3 binding polymorphism confers methylation protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanis A Boumber

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of genes show aberrant DNA hypermethylation in cancer, yet little is known about the causes of this hypermethylation. We identified RIL as a frequent methylation target in cancer. In search for factors that influence RIL hypermethylation, we found a 12-bp polymorphic sequence around its transcription start site that creates a long allele. Pyrosequencing of homozygous tumors revealed a 2.1-fold higher methylation for the short alleles (P<0.001. Bisulfite sequencing of cancers heterozygous for RIL showed that the short alleles are 3.1-fold more methylated than the long (P<0.001. The comparison of expression levels between unmethylated long and short EBV-transformed cell lines showed no difference in expression in vivo. Electrophorectic mobility shift assay showed that the inserted region of the long allele binds Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, a binding that is absent in the short allele. Transient transfection of RIL allele-specific transgenes showed no effects of the additional Sp1 site on transcription early on. However, stable transfection of methylation-seeded constructs showed gradually decreasing transcription levels from the short allele with eventual spreading of de novo methylation. In contrast, the long allele showed stable levels of expression over time as measured by luciferase and approximately 2-3-fold lower levels of methylation by bisulfite sequencing (P<0.001, suggesting that the polymorphic Sp1 site protects against time-dependent silencing. Our finding demonstrates that, in some genes, hypermethylation in cancer is dictated by protein-DNA interactions at the promoters and provides a novel mechanism by which genetic polymorphisms can influence an epigenetic state.

  19. A novel protein, TtpC, is a required component of the TonB2 complex for specific iron transport in the pathogens Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio cholerae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stork, M.; Otto, B.R.; Crosa, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Active transport across the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria requires the energy that is generated by the proton motive force in the inner membrane. This energy is transduced to the outer membrane by the TonB protein in complex with the proteins ExbB and ExbB. In the pathogen Vibrio

  20. OmpU as a biomarker for rapid discrimination between toxigenic and epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in a modified MALDI-TOF MS assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauw, A.; Trip, H.; Niemcewicz, M.; Sellek, R.; Heng, J.M.E.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Jong, A.L. de; Majchrzykiewicz-Koehorst, J.A.; Olsen, J.S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Outbreaks are caused by a genetically homogenous group of strains from serogroup O1 or O139 that are able to produce the cholera toxin. Rapid detection and identification of these epidemic strains is essential for an

  1. Burkholderia latens sp. nov., Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov., Burkholderia arboris sp. nov., Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. and Burkholderia metallica sp. nov., novel species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaere, Elke; Lipuma, John J; Baldwin, Adam; Henry, Deborah; De Brandt, Evie; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Speert, David; Dowson, Chris; Vandamme, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The taxonomic position of five recA gene clusters of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) isolates was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The levels of 16S rRNA and recA gene sequence similarity, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data and the intermediate DNA-DNA binding values demonstrated that these five clusters represented five novel species within the Bcc. Biochemical identification of these species is difficult, as is the case for most Bcc species. However, identification of these novel species can be accomplished through recA gene sequence analysis, MLST and BOX-PCR profiling and by recA RFLP analysis. For diagnostic laboratories, recA gene sequence analysis offers the best combination of accuracy and simplicity. Based on these results, we propose five novel Bcc species, Burkholderia latens sp. nov. (type strain FIRENZE 3(T) =LMG 24064(T) =CCUG 54555(T)), Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov. (type strain AU1075(T) =LMG 24065(T) =CCUG 54558(T)), Burkholderia arboris sp. nov. (type strain ES0263A(T) =LMG 24066(T) =CCUG 54561(T)), Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. (type strain AU0475(T) =LMG 24067(T) =CCUG 54564(T)) and Burkholderia metallica sp. nov. (type strain AU0553(T) =LMG 24068(T) =CCUG 54567(T)). In the present study, we also demonstrate that Burkholderia ubonensis should be considered a member of the Bcc.

  2. Occurrence of Vibrio Pathotypes in the Final Effluents of Five Wastewater Treatment Plants in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyokazi Nongogo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the occurrence of Vibrio pathogens in the final effluents of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs located in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa over a 12 months period between September 2012 and August 2013 using standard membrane filtration technique followed by cultivation on thiosulphate citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS agar. The identities of the presumptive Vibrio isolates were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR including delineation into V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. fluvialis pathotypes. The counts of Vibrio spp. varied with months in all the study sites and ranged in the order of 101 and 104 CFU/100mL. Vibrio distribution also showed seasonality with high counts being obtained in autumn and spring (p < 0.05. Prevalence of Vibrio spp. among the five WWTPs also differed significantly (p < 0.05. Of the 300 isolates that were confirmed as belonging to the Vibrio genus, 29% (86 were V. fluvialis, 28% (84 were V. vulnificus and 12% (35 were V. parahaemolyticus. The isolation of Vibrio pathogens from the final effluent suggests that this pathogen is in circulation in some pockets of the population and that the WWTPs under study do not efficiently remove bacterial pathogens from the wastewater and consequently are threats to public health.

  3. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... alternative: Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp. Moguel-Salazar Fernando, Brito-Argáez Ligia, Díaz-Brito Mayra and Islas-Flores Ignacio*. Unidad de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Plantas del Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C. Calle 43. No. 130, Colonia Chuburná de Hidalgo, ...

  4. Vibrio cholerae O1 secretes an extracellular matrix in response to antibody-mediated agglutination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Danielle E.; Levinson, Kara J.

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 is one of two serogroups responsible for epidemic cholera, a severe watery diarrhea that occurs after the bacterium colonizes the human small intestine and secretes a potent ADP-ribosylating toxin. Immunity to cholera is associated with intestinal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies, which are known to inhibit V. cholerae motility and promote bacterial cell-cell crosslinking and aggregation. Here we report that V. cholerae O1 classical and El Tor biotypes produce an extracellular matrix (ECM) when forcibly immobilized and agglutinated by ZAC-3 IgG, an intestinally-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the core/lipid A region of LPS. ECM secretion, as demonstrated by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy, occurred within 30 minutes of antibody exposure and peaked by 3 hours. Non-motile mutants of V. cholerae did not secrete ECM following ZAC-3 IgG exposure, even though they were susceptible to agglutination. The ECM was enriched in O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) but not Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS). Finally, we demonstrate that ECM production by V. cholerae in response to ZAC-3 IgG was associated with bacterial resistant to a secondary complement-mediated attack. In summary, we propose that V. cholerae O1, upon encountering anti-LPS antibodies in the intestinal lumen, secretes an ECM (or O-antigen capsule) possibly as a strategy to shield itself from additional host immune factors and to exit an otherwise inhospitable host environment. PMID:29293563

  5. Association of Vibrio cholerae with plankton in coastal areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizárraga-Partida, M L; Mendez-Gómez, E; Rivas-Montaño, A M; Vargas-Hernández, E; Portillo-López, A; González-Ramírez, A R; Huq, A; Colwell, R R

    2009-01-01

    The El Niño event of 1997/1998 provided an opportunity to carry out a field experiment in which the relationship of sea surface temperature and the association of Vibrio cholerae with marine plankton could be assessed in Mexican coastal and estuarine areas. Plankton samples were collected from May 1997 through June 1999. Sites included the Mexican ports of Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos and Frontera in the Gulf of Mexico and Ensenada, Guaymas, Mazatlán, Manzanillo, Acapulco and Oaxaca in the Pacific Ocean. Sampling was also accomplished during two oceanographic cruises in the Yucatan channel of the Caribbean Sea. Bacteriological analyses for V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 were carried out. Also, the taxonomic structure of the plankton populations was determined. Vibrio cholerae O1 was detected only in Veracruz samples collected during April, May and June 1999, when La Niña climatic conditions prevailed. It is concluded that V. cholerae O1 in Mexico derives from its marine and estuarine origin and not from sewage contamination. The significant number of Acartia tonsa copepodites and V. cholerae copepodite-positive samples suggests a significant role of this copepod in the occurrence and distribution of V. cholerae in coastal areas of Mexico.

  6. Metalloprotease vsm is the major determinant of toxicity for extracellular products of Vibrio splendidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesse, Johan; Delsert, Claude; Saulnier, Denis; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Zagorec, Monique; Munier-Lehmann, Hélène; Mazel, Didier; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2008-12-01

    Genomic data combined with reverse genetic approaches have contributed to the characterization of major virulence factors of Vibrio species; however, these studies have targeted primarily human pathogens. Here, we investigate virulence factors in the oyster pathogen Vibrio splendidus LGP32 and show that toxicity is correlated to the presence of a metalloprotease and its corresponding vsm gene. Comparative genomics showed that an avirulent strain closely related to LGP32 lacked the metalloprotease. The toxicity of LGP32 metalloprotease was confirmed by exposing mollusk and mouse fibroblastic cell lines to extracellular products (ECPs) of the wild type (wt) and a vsm deletion mutant (Deltavsm mutant). The ECPs of the wt induced a strong cytopathic effect whose severity was cell type dependent, while those of the Deltavsm mutant were much less toxic, and exposure to purified protein demonstrated the direct toxicity of the Vsm metalloprotease. Finally, to investigate Vsm molecular targets, a proteomic analysis of the ECPs of both LGP32 and the Deltavsm mutant was performed, revealing a number of differentially expressed and/or processed proteins. One of these, the VSA1062 metalloprotease, was found to have significant identity to the immune inhibitor A precursor, a virulence factor of Bacillus thuringiensis. Deletion mutants corresponding to several of the major proteins were constructed by allelic exchange, and the ECPs of these mutants proved to be toxic to both cell cultures and animals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Vsm is the major toxicity factor in the ECPs of V. splendidus.

  7. Prevalence and population analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in aquatic products from South China markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tengfei; Wu, Qingping; Xu, Xiaoke; Zhang, Jumei; Guo, Weipeng

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common foodborne pathogen in aquatic products. To investigate the prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in aquatic products in South China, 224 samples were collected from markets in four provinces (11 cities) from May 2013 to January 2014. One hundred and fifty isolates were isolated from 98 samples. All isolates were analyzed for the presence of thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related haemolysin (TRH) by PCR, antibiotic susceptibility analysis by disk diffusion method, serotyping by multiplex PCR and molecular typing by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) typing. Although all 150 isolates were negative for tdh, 61 strains were trh positive (40.67%). Antimicrobial susceptibility results indicated that most strains were resistant to streptomycin (88.67%), cefazolin (66.00%) and ampicillin (62.67%). All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol. Forty percent of all isolates were O2 type. The 150 isolates were grouped into three clusters by ERIC-PCR typing. The results demonstrated the presence of V. parahaemolyticus in aquatic products from the retail market and this methodology can be used for microbiological risk assessment in China. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Structural characterization of the extracellular polysaccharide from Vibrio cholerae O1 El-Tor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitnat Yildiz

    Full Text Available The ability to form biofilms is important for environmental survival, transmission, and infectivity of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera in humans. To form biofilms, V. cholerae produces an extracellular matrix composed of proteins, nucleic acids and a glycoconjugate, termed Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS. Here, we present the data on isolation and characterization of the polysaccharide part of the VPS (VPS-PS, which has the following structure: -4-α-GulpNAcAGly3OAc-(1-4-β-D-Glcp-(1-4-α-Glcp-(1-4-α-D-Galp-(1- where α-D-Glc is partially (∼20% replaced with α-D-GlcNAc. α-GulNAcAGly is an amide between 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-guluronic acid and glycine. Apparently, the polysaccharide is bound to a yet unidentified component, which gives it high viscosity and completely suppresses any NMR signals belonging to the sugar chains of the VPS. The only reliable method to remove this component at present is a treatment of the whole glycoconjugate with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

  9. Emerging Seafood Preservation Techniques to Extend Freshness and Minimize Vibrio Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eRonholm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the popularity of seafood consumption is increasing exponentially. To meet the demands of a growing market, the seafood industry has increasingly been innovating ways keep their products fresh and safe while increasing production. Marine environments harbour several species of indigenous microorganisms, some of which, including Vibrio spp., may be harmful to humans, and all of which are part of the natural microbiota of the seafood. After harvest, seafood products are then often shipped over large geographic distances, sometimes for prolonged periods, during which the food must stay fresh and pathogen proliferation must be minimized. Upon arrival there is often a strong desire, arising from both culinary and nutritional considerations, to consume seafood products raw, or minimally cooked. This supply chain and the popular preferences have increased challenges for the seafood industry. This has resulted in a desire to develop methodologies that reduce pathogenic and spoilage organisms in seafood items to comply with regulations and result in minimal changes to the taste, texture, and nutritional content of the final product. This mini-review discusses and compares several emerging technologies, such as treatment with plant derived natural compounds, phage lysis, high-pressure processing, and irradiation for their ability to control pathogenic vibrios, limit the growth of spoilage organisms, and keep the desired organoleptic properties of the seafood product intact.

  10. Broad spectrum pro-quorum-sensing molecules as inhibitors of virulence in vibrios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Leung Ng

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS is a bacterial cell-cell communication process that relies on the production and detection of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. QS allows bacteria to perform collective activities. Vibrio cholerae, a pathogen that causes an acute disease, uses QS to repress virulence factor production and biofilm formation. Thus, molecules that activate QS in V. cholerae have the potential to control pathogenicity in this globally important bacterium. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen, we identified eleven molecules that activate V. cholerae QS: eight molecules are receptor agonists and three molecules are antagonists of LuxO, the central NtrC-type response regulator that controls the global V. cholerae QS cascade. The LuxO inhibitors act by an uncompetitive mechanism by binding to the pre-formed LuxO-ATP complex to inhibit ATP hydrolysis. Genetic analyses suggest that the inhibitors bind in close proximity to the Walker B motif. The inhibitors display broad-spectrum capability in activation of QS in Vibrio species that employ LuxO. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first molecules identified that inhibit the ATPase activity of a NtrC-type response regulator. Our discovery supports the idea that exploiting pro-QS molecules is a promising strategy for the development of novel anti-infectives.

  11. Modeling and forecasting the distribution of Vibrio vulnificus in Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, John M.; Rhodes, M.; Brown, C. W.; Hood, Raleigh R.; Leight, A.; Long, Wen; Wood, R.

    2014-11-01

    The aim is to construct statistical models to predict the presence, abundance and potential virulence of Vibrio vulnificus in surface waters. A variety of statistical techniques were used in concert to identify water quality parameters associated with V. vulnificus presence, abundance and virulence markers in the interest of developing strong predictive models for use in regional oceanographic modeling systems. A suite of models are provided to represent the best model fit and alternatives using environmental variables that allow them to be put to immediate use in current ecological forecasting efforts. Conclusions: Environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity and turbidity are capable of accurately predicting abundance and distribution of V. vulnificus in Chesapeake Bay. Forcing these empirical models with output from ocean modeling systems allows for spatially explicit forecasts for up to 48 h in the future. This study uses one of the largest data sets compiled to model Vibrio in an estuary, enhances our understanding of environmental correlates with abundance, distribution and presence of potentially virulent strains and offers a method to forecast these pathogens that may be replicated in other regions.

  12. Cholix Toxin, a Novel ADP-ribosylating Factor from Vibrio cholerae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, Rene; Purdy, Alexandra E.; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Kimber, Matthew S.; Bartlett, Douglas H.; Merrill, A. Rod (Guelph); (NIH); (UCSD)

    2008-07-15

    The ADP-ribosyltransferases are a class of enzymes that display activity in a variety of bacterial pathogens responsible for causing diseases in plants and animals, including those affecting mankind, such as diphtheria, cholera, and whooping cough. We report the characterization of a novel toxin from Vibrio cholerae, which we call cholix toxin. The toxin is active against mammalian cells (IC50 = 4.6 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml) and crustaceans (Artemia nauplii LD50 = 10 {+-} 2 {mu}g/ml). Here we show that this toxin is the third member of the diphthamide-specific class of ADP-ribose transferases and that it possesses specific ADP-ribose transferase activity against ribosomal eukaryotic elongation factor 2. We also describe the high resolution crystal structures of the multidomain toxin and its catalytic domain at 2.1- and 1.25-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The new structural data show that cholix toxin possesses the necessary molecular features required for infection of eukaryotes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocation to the host cytoplasm, and inhibition of protein synthesis by specific modification of elongation factor 2. The crystal structures also provide important insight into the structural basis for activation of toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. These results indicate that cholix toxin may be an important virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae that likely plays a significant role in the survival of the organism in an aquatic environment.

  13. Development of a highly sensitive lateral immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Guan, Yuyao; Cheng, Shiliang; Huang, Yidan; Yan, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Guanjun; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Tianqiang

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is widely present in brackish water all over the world, causing infections in certain aquatic animals. It is also a foodborne pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. The aim of this study is to develop an immunochromatographic lateral flow assay (LFA) for rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus in both aquatic products and human feces of diarrheal patients. Two monoclonal antibody (MAb) pairs, GA1a-IC9 and IC9-KB4c, were developed and proven to be highly specific and sensitive to V. parahaemolyticus. Based on the two MAb pairs, two types of LFA strips were prepared. Their testing limits for V. parahaemolyticus culture were both 1.2×103CFU/ml. The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were both 100% for the 32 tested microbial species, including 6 Vibrio species. Subsequently, the LFA strips were used to test Whiteleg shrimps and human feces. The type II strip showed a higher diagnostic sensitivity. Its sensitivity and specificity for hepatopancreas and fecal samples from 13 Whiteleg shrimps and fecal samples from 146 human diarrheal patients were all 100%. In conclusion, our homemade type II LFA is a very promising testing device for rapid and convenient detection of V. parahaemolyticus infection not only in aquatic animals, but also in human diarrheal patients. This sensitive immunochromtographic LFA allows rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus without requirement of culture enrichment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Environmental Conditions Associated with Elevated Vibrio parahaemolyticus Concentrations in Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Urquhart

    Full Text Available Reports from state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that the annual number of reported human vibriosis cases in New England has increased in the past decade. Concurrently, there has been a shift in both the spatial distribution and seasonal detection of Vibrio spp. throughout the region based on limited monitoring data. To determine environmental factors that may underlie these emerging conditions, this study focuses on a long-term database of Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in oyster samples generated from data collected from the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire over a period of seven consecutive years. Oyster samples from two distinct sites were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus abundance, noting significant relationships with various biotic and abiotic factors measured during the same period of study. We developed a predictive modeling tool capable of estimating the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus presence in coastal New Hampshire oysters. Results show that the inclusion of chlorophyll a concentration to an empirical model otherwise employing only temperature and salinity variables, offers improved predictive capability for modeling the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus in the Great Bay Estuary.

  15. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagro FERNÁNDEZ-DELGADO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce surface colonization at 24 h. Biofilms from the environmental strain were observed at 48 h with high cellular aggregations embedded in Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS, while less confluence and VPS production with microcolonies of elongated cells were observed in biofilms produced by the clinical strain. At 96 h the biofilms of the environmental strain were released from the surface leaving coccoid cells and residual structures, whereas biofilms of the clinical strain formed highly organized structures such as channels, mushroom-like and pillars. This is the first study that has shown the in vitro ability of V. cholerae to colonize and form biofilms on stainless steel used in food processing.

  16. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Rojas, Héctor; Duque, Zoilabet; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, M Alexandra; Alciaturi, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce surface colonization at 24 h. Biofilms from the environmental strain were observed at 48 h with high cellular aggregations embedded in Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS), while less confluence and VPS production with microcolonies of elongated cells were observed in biofilms produced by the clinical strain. At 96 h the biofilms of the environmental strain were released from the surface leaving coccoid cells and residual structures, whereas biofilms of the clinical strain formed highly organized structures such as channels, mushroom-like and pillars. This is the first study that has shown the in vitro ability of V. cholerae to colonize and form biofilms on stainless steel used in food processing.

  17. Modeling and forecasting the distribution of Vibrio vulnificus in Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J M; Rhodes, M; Brown, C W; Hood, R R; Leight, A; Long, W; Wood, R

    2014-11-01

    To construct statistical models to predict the presence, abundance and potential virulence of Vibrio vulnificus in surface waters of Chesapeake Bay for implementation in ecological forecasting systems. We evaluated and applied previously published qPCR assays to water samples (n = 1636) collected from Chesapeake Bay from 2007-2010 in conjunction with State water quality monitoring programmes. A variety of statistical techniques were used in concert to identify water quality parameters associated with V. vulnificus presence, abundance and virulence markers in the interest of developing strong predictive models for use in regional oceanographic modeling systems. A suite of models are provided to represent the best model fit and alternatives using environmental variables that allow them to be put to immediate use in current ecological forecasting efforts. Environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity and turbidity are capable of accurately predicting abundance and distribution of V. vulnificus in Chesapeake Bay. Forcing these empirical models with output from ocean modeling systems allows for spatially explicit forecasts for up to 48 h in the future. This study uses one of the largest data sets compiled to model Vibrio in an estuary, enhances our understanding of environmental correlates with abundance, distribution and presence of potentially virulent strains and offers a method to forecast these pathogens that may be replicated in other regions. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Transcriptional characterization of Vibrio fischeri during colonization of juvenile Euprymna scolopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Luke R; Nikolakakis, Kiel; Pan, Shu; Reed, Jennifer; Knight, Rob; Ruby, Edward G

    2017-05-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the monospecific symbiont of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the establishment of this association involves a number of signaling pathways and transcriptional responses between both partners. We report here the first full RNA-Seq dataset representing host-associated V. fischeri cells from colonized juvenile E. scolopes, as well as comparative transcriptomes under both laboratory and simulated marine planktonic conditions. These data elucidate the broad transcriptional changes that these bacteria undergo during the early stages of symbiotic colonization. We report several previously undescribed and unexpected transcriptional responses within the early stages of this symbiosis, including gene expression patterns consistent with biochemical stresses inside the host, and metabolic patterns distinct from those reported in associations with adult animals. Integration of these transcriptional data with a recently developed metabolic model of V. fischeri provides us with a clearer picture of the metabolic state of symbionts within the juvenile host, including their possible carbon sources. Taken together, these results expand our understanding of the early stages of the squid-vibrio symbiosis, and more generally inform the transcriptional responses underlying the activities of marine microbes during host colonization. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Chemoreceptor VfcA mediates amino acid chemotaxis in Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Caitlin A; DeLoney-Marino, Cindy R; Mandel, Mark J

    2013-03-01

    Flagellar motility and chemotaxis by Vibrio fischeri are important behaviors mediating the colonization of its mutualistic host, the Hawaiian bobtail squid. However, none of the 43 putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) encoded in the V. fischeri genome has been previously characterized. Using both an available transposon mutant collection and directed mutagenesis, we isolated mutants for 19 of these genes, and screened them for altered chemotaxis to six previously identified chemoattractants. Only one mutant was defective in responding to any of the tested compounds; the disrupted gene was thus named vfcA (Vibrio fischeri chemoreceptor A; locus tag VF_0777). In soft-agar plates, mutants disrupted in vfcA did not exhibit the serine-sensing chemotactic ring, and the pattern of migration in the mutant was not affected by the addition of exogenous serine. Using a capillary chemotaxis assay, we showed that, unlike wild-type V. fischeri, the vfcA mutant did not undergo chemotaxis toward serine and that expression of vfcA on a plasmid in the mutant was sufficient to restore the behavior. In addition to serine, we demonstrated that alanine, cysteine, and threonine are strong attractants for wild-type V. fischeri and that the attraction is also mediated by VfcA. This study thus provides the first insights into how V. fischeri integrates information from one of its 43 MCPs to respond to environmental stimuli.

  20. Cloning, expressing, and hemolysis of tdh, trh and tlh genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonggang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin

    2011-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) is one of the pathogenic vibrios endangering net-cage cultured Pseudosciaena crocea, Fennerpenaeus chinensis, and shellfish in coastal areas of China. Several types of hemolysins produced by Vp have been characterized as major virulence factors. They are thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) and thermolabile hemolysin (TLH). In this study, we cloned tdh, trh, and tlh genes from the genome DNA of VP by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We ligated the three genes into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a (+), and transformed the recombinant plasmids into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expression of recombinant proteins was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalacto-pyranoside (IPTG). The recombinant proteins were expressed in a form of inclusion bodies and thus purified with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Western blotting results showed that recombinant proteins, TDH, TRH and TLH, could be recognized by rabbit anti-VP serum. The three purified proteins were renatured by gradient dialysis. The renatured proteins exhibited hemolytic activity except for TLH in the presence of phosphatidylcholine. These results not only are helpful for better understanding these genes' functions under a single factor level, but also provide evidence for VP vaccine engineering.

  1. Vibrio cholerae O1 secretes an extracellular matrix in response to antibody-mediated agglutination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Baranova

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae O1 is one of two serogroups responsible for epidemic cholera, a severe watery diarrhea that occurs after the bacterium colonizes the human small intestine and secretes a potent ADP-ribosylating toxin. Immunity to cholera is associated with intestinal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies, which are known to inhibit V. cholerae motility and promote bacterial cell-cell crosslinking and aggregation. Here we report that V. cholerae O1 classical and El Tor biotypes produce an extracellular matrix (ECM when forcibly immobilized and agglutinated by ZAC-3 IgG, an intestinally-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb against the core/lipid A region of LPS. ECM secretion, as demonstrated by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy, occurred within 30 minutes of antibody exposure and peaked by 3 hours. Non-motile mutants of V. cholerae did not secrete ECM following ZAC-3 IgG exposure, even though they were susceptible to agglutination. The ECM was enriched in O-specific polysaccharide (OSP but not Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. Finally, we demonstrate that ECM production by V. cholerae in response to ZAC-3 IgG was associated with bacterial resistant to a secondary complement-mediated attack. In summary, we propose that V. cholerae O1, upon encountering anti-LPS antibodies in the intestinal lumen, secretes an ECM (or O-antigen capsule possibly as a strategy to shield itself from additional host immune factors and to exit an otherwise inhospitable host environment.

  2. Sentinel Surveillance Detects Low Circulation of Vibrio cholerae Serotype Inaba in Haiti, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Rafael; Lazo, Alcides; Somarriba, Lorenzo; Mas, Pedro

    2015-07-01

    Over 700,000 cases of cholera were reported in Haiti between October 2010 and February 2015. In November 2011, the Cuban Medical Team serving in Haiti established a laboratory-supported sentinel surveillance system for cholera in 10 public hospitals (one in each of Haiti's 10 departments), to estimate the proportion of hospitalized patients with cholera and detect emergence of new Vibrio cholerae serotypes. Each month, the first ten stool samples collected from patients admitted with acute watery diarrhea were studied in all hospitals involved. Surveillance system findings from November 1, 2011, to October 30, 2012 showed that acute watery diarrhea was caused by V. cholerae serogroup O1 in 45.9% (210/458) of patients: Serotype Ogawa was found in 98.6% of this isolates (207/210) and serotype Inaba in 1.4% (3/210), indicating low circulation level of the latter in Haiti. Continuing laboratory sentinel surveillance of V. cholerae is needed to monitor the spread of the disease and prevent and contain outbreaks, particularly of new serotypes. It is important to ensure that these findings are systematically integrated with data available to MSPP from other surveillance sources. KEYWORDS Vibrio cholerae, serotype Inaba, serotype Ogawa, epidemiological surveillance, medical cooperation, Haiti, Cuba.

  3. The dual nature of haemocyanin in the establishment and persistence of the squid–vibrio symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Natacha; Schwartzman, Julia; Augustin, René; Zhou, Lawrence; Ruby, Edward G.; Hourdez, Stéphane; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    We identified and sequenced from the squid Euprymna scolopes two isoforms of haemocyanin that share the common structural/physiological characteristics of haemocyanin from a closely related cephalopod, Sepia officinalis, including a pronounced Bohr effect. We examined the potential roles for haemocyanin in the animal's symbiosis with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Our data demonstrate that, as in other cephalopods, the haemocyanin is primarily synthesized in the gills. It transits through the general circulation into other tissues and is exported into crypt spaces that support the bacterial partner, which requires oxygen for its bioluminescence. We showed that the gradient of pH between the circulating haemolymph and the matrix of the crypt spaces in adult squid favours offloading of oxygen from the haemocyanin to the symbionts. Haemocyanin is also localized to the apical surfaces and associated mucus of a juvenile-specific epithelium on which the symbionts gather, and where their specificity is determined during the recruitment into the association. The haemocyanin has an antimicrobial activity, which may be involved in this enrichment of V. fischeri during symbiont initiation. Taken together, these data provide evidence that the haemocyanin plays a role in shaping two stages of the squid–vibrio partnership. PMID:24807261

  4. Squid-derived chitin oligosaccharides are a chemotactic signal during colonization by Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Mark J; Schaefer, Amy L; Brennan, Caitlin A; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; Deloney-Marino, Cindy R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Ruby, Edward G

    2012-07-01

    Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is noted as the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. Chitin serves many functions for marine bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae ("vibrios"), in some instances providing a physical attachment site, inducing natural genetic competence, and serving as an attractant for chemotaxis. The marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the specific symbiont in the light-emitting organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The bacterium provides the squid with luminescence that the animal uses in an antipredatory defense, while the squid supports the symbiont's nutritional requirements. V. fischeri cells are harvested from seawater during each host generation, and V. fischeri is the only species that can complete this process in nature. Furthermore, chitin is located in squid hemocytes and plays a nutritional role in the symbiosis. We demonstrate here that chitin oligosaccharides produced by the squid host serve as a chemotactic signal for colonizing bacteria. V. fischeri uses the gradient of host chitin to enter the squid light organ duct and colonize the animal. We provide evidence that chitin serves a novel function in an animal-bacterial mutualism, as an animal-produced bacterium-attracting synomone.

  5. The dual nature of haemocyanin in the establishment and persistence of the squid-vibrio symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Natacha; Schwartzman, Julia; Augustin, René; Zhou, Lawrence; Ruby, Edward G; Hourdez, Stéphane; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2014-06-22

    We identified and sequenced from the squid Euprymna scolopes two isoforms of haemocyanin that share the common structural/physiological characteristics of haemocyanin from a closely related cephalopod, Sepia officinalis, including a pronounced Bohr effect. We examined the potential roles for haemocyanin in the animal's symbiosis with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Our data demonstrate that, as in other cephalopods, the haemocyanin is primarily synthesized in the gills. It transits through the general circulation into other tissues and is exported into crypt spaces that support the bacterial partner, which requires oxygen for its bioluminescence. We showed that the gradient of pH between the circulating haemolymph and the matrix of the crypt spaces in adult squid favours offloading of oxygen from the haemocyanin to the symbionts. Haemocyanin is also localized to the apical surfaces and associated mucus of a juvenile-specific epithelium on which the symbionts gather, and where their specificity is determined during the recruitment into the association. The haemocyanin has an antimicrobial activity, which may be involved in this enrichment of V. fischeri during symbiont initiation. Taken together, these data provide evidence that the haemocyanin plays a role in shaping two stages of the squid-vibrio partnership.

  6. Resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella, Shigella y Vibrio cholerae: Perú 1997-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Arias B

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es un problema de salud pública, en este caso se presentan los resultados de la resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella, Shigella y Vibrio cholerae entre los años 1997 y 2002 de las cepas confirmadas por el Instituto Nacional de Salud, procedentes de los laboratorios referenciales regionales de las diferentes direcciones de salud del Perú. La confirmación se realizó mediante bioquímica y serotipificación; para las pruebas de sensibilidad se utilizó el método de disco difusión. Se evaluaron un total de 542 cepas de Salmonella, 1034 de Shigella y 603 de Vibrio cholerae. La resistencia de Shigella frente a ampicilina muestra un promedio de 74,4% durante los 6 años; cloramfenicol con 65,9 %, cotrimoxazol con 72,2 %. En Salmonella se observa un promedio de 3,46 % para ampicilina; 2,83 % para cloranfenicol; en gentamicina 3,9 % y cotrimoxazol 1,1. V. Cholerae entre 1997 y 1999 mostraron promedios de resistencia de 19 % a cotrimoxazol, 12,1 % a tetraciclina y 10,2 % a ampicilina. A partir del año 2000, no se reportaron casos, por lo que se recibieron pocas cepas de esta especie. Se evidencia el problema de resistencia de Shigella frente a ampicilina, cloramfenicol y cotrimoxazol.

  7. Broad spectrum pro-quorum-sensing molecules as inhibitors of virulence in vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai-Leung; Perez, Lark; Cong, Jianping; Semmelhack, Martin F; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-cell communication process that relies on the production and detection of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. QS allows bacteria to perform collective activities. Vibrio cholerae, a pathogen that causes an acute disease, uses QS to repress virulence factor production and biofilm formation. Thus, molecules that activate QS in V. cholerae have the potential to control pathogenicity in this globally important bacterium. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen, we identified eleven molecules that activate V. cholerae QS: eight molecules are receptor agonists and three molecules are antagonists of LuxO, the central NtrC-type response regulator that controls the global V. cholerae QS cascade. The LuxO inhibitors act by an uncompetitive mechanism by binding to the pre-formed LuxO-ATP complex to inhibit ATP hydrolysis. Genetic analyses suggest that the inhibitors bind in close proximity to the Walker B motif. The inhibitors display broad-spectrum capability in activation of QS in Vibrio species that employ LuxO. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first molecules identified that inhibit the ATPase activity of a NtrC-type response regulator. Our discovery supports the idea that exploiting pro-QS molecules is a promising strategy for the development of novel anti-infectives.

  8. Vibrio vulnificus Type 6 Secretion System 1 Contains Anti-Bacterial Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina R Church

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus is a bacterium responsible for severe gastroenteritis, sepsis and wound infections. Gastroenteritis and sepsis are commonly associated with the consumption of raw oysters, whereas wound infection is often associated with the handling of contaminated fish. Although classical virulence factors of this emerging pathogen are well characterised, there remains a paucity of knowledge regarding the general biology of this species. To investigate the presence of previously unreported virulence factors, we applied whole genome sequencing to a panel of ten V. vulnificus strains with varying virulence potentials. This identified two novel type 6 secretion systems (T6SSs, systems that are known to have a role in bacterial virulence and population dynamics. By utilising a range of molecular techniques and assays we have demonstrated the functionality of one of these T6SSs. Furthermore, we have shown that this system is subject to thermoregulation and is negatively regulated by increasing salinity concentrations. This secretion system was also shown to be involved in the killing of V. vulnificus strains that did not possess this system and a model is proposed as to how this interaction may contribute to population dynamics within V. vulnificus strains. In addition to this intra-species killing, this system also contributes to the killing of inter bacterial species and may have a role in the general composition of Vibrio species in the environment.

  9. Cholera outbreak caused by drug resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype ElTor serotype Ogawa in Nepal; a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappu Kumar Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped countries including Nepal. Recently drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae has become a serious problem mainly in developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to investigate the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in stool samples from patients with watery diarrhea and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of V. cholerae isolates. Methods A total of 116 stool samples from patients suffering from watery diarrhea during July to December 2012 were obtained from outbreak areas from all over Nepal. Alkaline peptone water and thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (TCBS were used to isolate the Vibrio cholerae. The isolates were identified with the help of colony morphology, Gram’s staining, conventional biochemical testing, serotyping and biotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by agar dilution method. Results Vibrio cholerae was isolated from 26.72 % of total samples. All isolated Vibrio cholerae were confirmed to be Vibrio cholerae serogoup O1 biotype El Tor and serotype Ogawa. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Twenty nine isolates were resistant toward two different classes of antibiotics, one strain was resistant to three different classes of antibiotics and one strain was resistant to four different classes of antibiotics. According to the definition of the multidrug resistant bacteria; 6.45 % of the strains of Vibrio cholerae were found to be multidrug resistant. Conclusions Cholera due to multidrug resistant Vibrio cholerae is also possible in Nepal. According to the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae in our study we recommend to use any antibiotics among tetracycline, doxycycline, levofloxacin, azithromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin for preliminary treatment of cholera in Nepal.

  10. Production of acylated homoserine lactones by different serotypes of Vibrio anguillarum both in culture and during infection of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Christiane; Sigh, Jens; Nielsen, John

    2003-01-01

    Onehundred and forty-eight out of onehundred and fifty strains of Vibrio anguillarum isolated from vibriosis in Danish marine aquaculture produced bacterial communication signals, acylated homoserine lactones, eliciting a response in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pZLR4) monitoring system. One....... anguillarum strains and that no clear pattern relating AHL production to disease or virulence appear....

  11. Construction of a Vibrio splendidus Mutant Lacking the Metalloprotease Gene vsm by Use of a Novel Counterselectable Suicide Vector▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Frédérique; Binesse, Johan; Saulnier, Denis; Mazel, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is a dominant culturable Vibrio in seawater, and strains related to this species are also associated with mortality in a variety of marine animals. The determinants encoding the pathogenic properties of these strains are still poorly understood; however, the recent sequencing of the genome of V. splendidus LGP32, an oyster pathogen, provides an opportunity to decipher the basis of the virulence properties by disruption of candidate genes. We developed a novel suicide vector based on the pir-dependent R6K replicative origin, which potentially can be transferred by RP4-based conjugation to any Vibrio strain and which also carries the plasmid F toxin ccdB gene under control of the PBAD promoter. We demonstrated that this genetic system allows efficient counterselection of integrated plasmids in the presence of arabinose in both V. splendidus and Vibrio cholerae and thus permits efficient markerless allelic replacement in these species. We used this technique to construct several mutants of V. splendidus LGP32, including a derivative with a secreted metalloprotease gene, vsm, deleted. We found that this gene is essential for LGP32 extracellular product toxicity when the extracellular products are injected into oysters but is not necessary for virulence of bacteria in the oyster infection model when bacteria are injected. PMID:17122399

  12. Construction of a Vibrio splendidus mutant lacking the metalloprotease gene vsm by use of a novel counterselectable suicide vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Frédérique; Binesse, Johan; Saulnier, Denis; Mazel, Didier

    2007-02-01

    Vibrio splendidus is a dominant culturable Vibrio in seawater, and strains related to this species are also associated with mortality in a variety of marine animals. The determinants encoding the pathogenic properties of these strains are still poorly understood; however, the recent sequencing of the genome of V. splendidus LGP32, an oyster pathogen, provides an opportunity to decipher the basis of the virulence properties by disruption of candidate genes. We developed a novel suicide vector based on the pir-dependent R6K replicative origin, which potentially can be transferred by RP4-based conjugation to any Vibrio strain and which also carries the plasmid F toxin ccdB gene under control of the PBAD promoter. We demonstrated that this genetic system allows efficient counterselection of integrated plasmids in the presence of arabinose in both V. splendidus and Vibrio cholerae and thus permits efficient markerless allelic replacement in these species. We used this technique to construct several mutants of V. splendidus LGP32, including a derivative with a secreted metalloprotease gene, vsm, deleted. We found that this gene is essential for LGP32 extracellular product toxicity when the extracellular products are injected into oysters but is not necessary for virulence of bacteria in the oyster infection model when bacteria are injected.

  13. The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) is a repressor of Vibrio cholerae exopolysaccharide biosynthesis (vps) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Ayala, Julio C; Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A

    2012-04-01

    The capacity of Vibrio cholerae to form biofilms has been shown to enhance its survival in the aquatic environment and play important roles in pathogenesis and disease transmission. In this study, we demonstrated that the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein is a repressor of exopolysaccharide (vps) biosynthesis genes and biofilm formation.

  14. The emergence of Vibrio pathogens in Europe: ecology, evolution, and pathogenesis (Paris, 11-12th March 2015)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeRoux, Frederique; Wegner, K. Mathias; Baker-Austin, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Global change has caused a worldwide increase in reports of Vibrio-associated diseases with ecosystem-wide impacts on humans and marine animals. In Europe, higher prevalence of human infections followed regional climatic trends with outbreaks occurring during episodes of unusually warm weather...

  15. The effect of γ radiation on the expression of the virulence genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo; Kim, Dongho

    2007-11-01

    The principle benefit of food irradiation is the reduction of food-borne bacteria in food products. However, the microbiological safety with respect to increased virulence of surviving pathogens after irradiation remains an important issue with regard to the effectiveness of food irradiation. In this study, the transcriptional changes of virulence genes of Salmonella and Vibrio spp. after γ radiation were investigated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Samonella typhimurium is dependent upon the products of a large number of genes located within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI) on the chromosome. The expressions of seven genes including four SPI genes, hilD, ssrB, pipB, and sopD, were measured at 1 h after 1 kGy irradiation. Compared with non-irradiated controls, the expression of hilD encoded within SPI1 and sopD encoding SPI1-related effector proteins was reduced about 4- and 16-fold, respectively. The expressions of Vibrio toxin genes, vvhA, ctxA, and tdh, were also monitored during the course of a growth cycle after re-inoculation of irradiated Vibrio spp. (0.5 and 1.0 kGy). The expressions of Vibrio toxin genes tested did not increase compared with non-irradiated counterparts. Results from this study indicate that γ radiation is much more likely to reduce the virulence gene expression of surviving pathogens.

  16. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to visualize infection dynamics of Vibrio anguillarum following intraperitoneal injection and bath exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Korbut, Rozalia; Ohtani, Maki

    2017-01-01

    , for which the vaccines are targeted. The zebrafish is by now a well established practical vertebrate model species due in part to its size and ease of maintenance and genetic manipulation. Here we use zebrafish as a model to visualize and compare the development of infection of Vibrio anguillarum...

  17. Comparison of a commercial biochemical kit and an oligonucleotide probe for identification of environmental isolates of Vibrio vulnificus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Høi, L.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for the identification and isolation of environmental isolates of Vibrio vulnificus were evaluated. Alkaline peptone water supplemented with polymyxin B and colistin-polymyxin B- cellobiose agar were employed for the isolation of suspected V. vulnificus from water, sediment and shellfish...

  18. Extended serotyping scheme for Vibrio anguillarum with the definition and characterization of seven provisional O-serogroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Grisez, L.; van Houdt, R.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the serotyping scheme of the fish pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum and defines seven additional O-serogroups. Strains, collected in our laboratories that were nontypable with antisera against the previously defined 16 O-serotypes, were used for generating new...

  19. Climate influence on Vibrio and associated human diseases during the past half-century in the coastal North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Grande, Chiara; Reid, Philip C; Hélaouët, Pierre; Edwards, Martin; Höfle, Manfred G; Brettar, Ingrid; Colwell, Rita R; Pruzzo, Carla

    2016-08-23

    Climate change is having a dramatic impact on marine animal and plant communities but little is known of its influence on marine prokaryotes, which represent the largest living biomass in the world oceans and play a fundamental role in maintaining life on our planet. In this study, for the first time to our knowledge, experimental evidence is provided on the link between multidecadal climatic variability in the temperate North Atlantic and the presence and spread of an important group of marine prokaryotes, the vibrios, which are responsible for several infections in both humans and animals. Using archived formalin-preserved plankton samples collected by the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey over the past half-century (1958-2011), we assessed retrospectively the relative abundance of vibrios, including human pathogens, in nine areas of the North Atlantic and North Sea and showed correlation with climate and plankton changes. Generalized additive models revealed that long-term increase in Vibrio abundance is promoted by increasing sea surface temperatures (up to ∼1.5 °C over the past 54 y) and is positively correlated with the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) climatic indices (P < 0.001). Such increases are associated with an unprecedented occurrence of environmentally acquired Vibrio infections in the human population of Northern Europe and the Atlantic coast of the United States in recent years.

  20. MICROFLORA EN OSTRAS CHILENAS Y SU INCIDENCIA EN LA COLONIZACION POR VIBRIOS PATOGENOS Y EN LA DESCOMPOSICION POST COSECHA.

    OpenAIRE

    ROMERO ORMAZABAL, JAIME MOISES

    2002-01-01

    Las ostras constituyen un importante producto de exportación y de consumo interno. Estos bivalvos se consumen crudos y enteros, con toda su carga bacteriana, que en algunos casos puede incluir vibrios patógenos. La carga bacteriana consiste de bacterias a 95p.

  1. Antiadhesive activity of poly-hydroxy butyrate biopolymer from a marine Brevibacterium casei MSI04 against shrimp pathogenic vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, George Seghal; Lipton, Anuj Nishanth; Priyadharshini, Sethu; Anitha, Kumar; Suárez, Lucia Elizabeth Cruz; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Choi, Ki Choon; Selvin, Joseph; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2014-08-13

    Vibrio pathogens are causative agents of mid-culture outbreaks, and early mortality syndrome and secondary aetiology of most dreadful viral outbreaks in shrimp aquaculture. Among the pathogenic vibrios group, Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi are considered as the most significant ones in the grow-out ponds of giant black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in India. Use of antibiotics was banned in many countries due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains and accumulation of residual antibiotics in harvested shrimp. There is an urgent need to consider the use of alternative antibiotics for the control of vibriosis in shrimp aquaculture. Biofilm formation is a pathogenic and/or establishment mechanism of Vibrio spp. This study aims to develop novel safe antibiofilm and/or antiadhesive process using PHB to contain vibrios outbreaks in shrimp aquaculture. In this study a poly-hydroxy butyrate (PHB) polymer producing bacterium Brevibacterium casei MSI04 was isolated from a marine sponge Dendrilla nigra and production of PHB was optimized under submerged-fermentation (SmF) conditions. The effect of carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources on PHB production and enhanced production of PHB by response surface methods were demonstrated. The maximum PHB accumulation obtained was 6.74 g/L in the optimized media containing 25 g/L starch as carbon source, 96 h of incubation, 35°C and 3% NaCl. The highest antiadhesive activity upto 96% was recorded against V. vulnificus, and V. fischeri, followed by 92% against V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus and 88% inhibition was recorded against V. harveyi. In this study, a thermostable biopolymer was chemically characterized as PHB based on 1HNMR spectra, FT-IR and GC-MS spectra. The NMR spectra revealed that the polymer was an isocratic homopolymer and it also confirmed that the compound was PHB. The antiadhesive activity of PHB was determined in microtitre plate assay and an effective concentration (EC) of PHB (200

  2. Detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Vibrio cholerae in tap water and bottled drinking water in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Hassan; Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Asgarifar, Amin

    2013-06-07

    The quality of drinking water has an important role in human infection and disease. This study was aimed at comparing polymerase chain reaction and culture in detecting Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Vibrio cholera in tape water and bottled drinking water in various seasons in Isfahan province, Iran. A total of 448 water samples from tap water and bottled mineral water were taken over 6 months, from July 2010 to December 2010, and after filtration, samples were examined by culture and polymerase chain reaction methods for detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Vibrio cholerae. The culture method showed that 34 (7.58%), 4 (0.89%) and 3 (0.66%) of all 448 water samples were positive for Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Vibrio cholera, respectively. The uidA gene from Escherichia coli, IpaB gene from Salmonella species, and epsM gene from Vibrio cholera were detected in 38 (26.38%), 5 (3.47%), and 3 (2.08%) of 144 tap-water samples, respectively. Escherichia coli was detected in 8 (2.63%) of 304 samples of bottled drinking water from 5 companies. The water of southern part of Isfahan and company 5 had the highest prevalence of bacteria. The Escherichia coli water contamination was significantly higher (P waters of southern part and tap waters of central part of Isfahan. This study showed that the polymerase chain reaction assays can be an extremely accurate, fast, safe, sensitive and specific approach to monitor drinking water quality from purification facilities and bottled water companies. Also, our study confirmed the presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Vibrio cholerae as water-borne pathogens in tap water and bottled drinking water of Isfahan, Iran. The present study showed the important public health problem in Isfahan, Iran.

  3. Assessing the function of STAS domain protein SypA in Vibrio fischeri using a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cecilia M; Visick, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes by Vibrio fischeri requires biofilm formation dependent on the 18-gene symbiosis polysaccharide locus, syp. One key regulator, SypA, controls biofilm formation by an as-yet unknown mechanism; however, it is known that SypA itself is regulated by SypE. Biofilm-proficient strains form wrinkled colonies on solid media, while sypA mutants form biofilm-defective smooth colonies. To begin to understand the function of SypA, we used comparative analyses and mutagenesis approaches. sypA (and the syp locus) is conserved in other Vibrios, including two food-borne human pathogens, Vibrio vulnificus (rbdA) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (sypA VP ). We found that both homologs could complement the biofilm defect of the V. fischeri sypA mutant, but their phenotypes varied depending on the biofilm-inducing conditions used. Furthermore, while SypAVP retained an ability to be regulated by SypE, RbdA was resistant to this control. To better understand SypA function, we examined the biofilm-promoting ability of a number of mutant SypA proteins with substitutions in conserved residues, and found many that were biofilm-defective. The most severe biofilm-defective phenotypes occurred when changes were made to a conserved stretch of amino acids within a predicted α-helix of SypA; we hypothesize that this region of SypA may interact with another protein to promote biofilm formation. Finally, we identified a residue required for negative control by SypE. Together, our data provide insights into the function of this key biofilm regulator and suggest that the SypA orthologs may play similar roles in their native Vibrio species.

  4. Characterization of htrB and msbB mutants of the light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, Dawn M; Phillips, Nancy J; Gibson, Bradford W; Apicella, Michael A; Ruby, Edward G; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Hall, Daniel B; Stabb, Eric V

    2008-02-01

    Bacterial lipid A is an important mediator of bacterium-host interactions, and secondary acylations added by HtrB and MsbB can be critical for colonization and virulence in pathogenic infections. In contrast, Vibrio fischeri lipid A stimulates normal developmental processes in this bacterium's mutualistic host, Euprymna scolopes, although the importance of lipid A structure in this symbiosis is unknown. To further examine V. fischeri lipid A and its symbiotic function, we identified two paralogs of htrB (designated htrB1 and htrB2) and an msbB gene in V. fischeri ES114 and demonstrated that these genes encode lipid A secondary acyltransferases. htrB2 and msbB are found on the Vibrio "housekeeping" chromosome 1 and are conserved in other Vibrio species. Mutations in htrB2 and msbB did not impair symbiotic colonization but resulted in phenotypic alterations in culture, including reduced motility and increased luminescence. These mutations also affected sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate, kanamycin, and polymyxin, consistent with changes in membrane permeability. Conversely, htrB1 is located on the smaller, more variable vibrio chromosome 2, and an htrB1 mutant was wild-type-like in culture but appeared attenuated in initiating the symbiosis and was outcompeted 2.7-fold during colonization when mixed with the parent. These data suggest that htrB2 and msbB play conserved general roles in vibrio biology, whereas htrB1 plays a more symbiosis-specific role in V. fischeri.

  5. Cultivation of Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae in Batch culture using Nile tilapia effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda, José A; García-Lozano, Hiram; Navarro, A Karin

    2014-06-01

    Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae were cultured in three volumes of Tilapia Effluent Medium (TEM) in comparison with the Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (Nichols and Bold, 1965). Specific growth rate (μ'), biomass dry productivity (Q), volumetric productivity (Qv) as well as lipid and protein content were measured. Then, volumetric productivities for both lipids and proteins were calculated (QVL and QVP). In Scenedesmus sp., BBM produced higher μ' and Qv than TEM in 1.5L volume. Chlorella sp. showed a higher QVL for BBM than TEM. Any observed difference in protein or lipid productivities among volumes was in favor of a greater productivity for 1.5L volume. Even when TEM had a larger protein content in Chlorella sp. than BBM, QVP was not different. Current results imply that TEM can be used as an alternative growth medium for algae when using Batch cultures, yet productivity is reduced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Daños por Sennius amazonicus, Sennius sp. y Amblycerus sp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) en semillas de Sclerolobium sp. (Leguminosae) .

    OpenAIRE

    Porto Santos, Germi; Vinha Zanuncio, Teresinha; Lourenco de Assis Junior, Sebastiao; Cola Zanuncio, José

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Sclerolobium sp.(N=l000), collected in two localities of Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil were damaged by bruchid beetles: Sennius amazonicus, and two undescribed species of Sennius and Amblycerus. Total seed darnage was 22.3±1.93% including 3.40±0.97% of darnage by Amblycerus sp. Other agents contributed to seed darnage including O.9±O.4% by fungi. Eighty seven mg of Sclerolobium sp. seeds were necessary Cor development oC either S. amazonicus or Sennius sp. which represented 38.3...

  7. DISTRIBUSI Solen sp DI PERAIRAN KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ari Wahyuni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DISTRIBUTION OF Solen sp IN BANGKALAN WATERSSolen sp potential needs to be developed on the island of Madura, particularly in Bangkalan. Solen sp utilization has increased which has the potential to overfishing. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density of Solen sp and their ecology in the waters Modung village, Modung District, Bangkalan. The experiment was conducted in April 2015 using the descriptive method. The materials used include Solen sp and physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, salinity, pH, and substrate. The analyzes were conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Science, Department of Marine Sciences, Trunojoyo University of Madura by using the tool grabsampler, sieveshaker, and pipetting with gravimetric method. The analysis shows the range of values of temperature between 29-300C, salinity between 31-32 ppt, pH were 7.9-8.0 and the type of substrate in the form of sandy mud, as well as the density of Solen sp from 8-10 individuals/m2. All measurement results indicate normal conditions and in accordance with the sea water quality standard for marine life, which can be a suitable habitat for the growth and development of Solen sp. This condition is thought to affect the density of Solen sp.Keywords: Bangkalan, density, distribution, Solen sp, substrate.ABSTRAKPotensi Solen sp perlu dikembangkan di pulau Madura, khususnya di Kabupaten Bangkalan. Pemanfaatan Solen sp mengalami peningkatan sehingga berpotensi overfishing. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan Solen sp dan ekologinya di perairan desa Modung, Kecamatan Modung, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2015 dengan metode deskriptif. Materi dan bahan yang digunakan diantaranya Solen sp dan parameter fisika-kimia lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, pH, dan substrat. Analisa dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Kelautan, Program studi/Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura dengan menggunakan alat

  8. Methylobacterium persicinum sp. nov., Methylobacterium komagatae sp. nov., Methylobacterium brachiatum sp. nov., Methylobacterium tardum sp. nov. and Methylobacterium gregans sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuko; Asahara, Mika; Goto, Keiichi; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2008-05-01

    Eight strains, 002-165T, 002-079T, B0021T, Hojyo2, RB603B, RB677T, 002-074T and RB678, isolated from the environment of food-processing factories in Japan, were characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolates were Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic, non-spore-forming rods. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of these isolates included the presence of C18 : 1omega7c as the major cellular fatty acid and ubiquinone Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The DNA G+C content was 67.1-71.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase B subunit (gyrB) nucleotide sequence confirmed that the eight strains belonged to the Methylobacterium clade. Moreover, a DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed that the eight isolates represented five novel species. On the basis of their phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the isolates represent five novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium persicinum sp. nov. (type strain 002-165T =DSM 19562T =NBRC 103628T =NCIMB 14378T), Methylobacterium komagatae sp. nov. (type strain 002-079T =DSM 19563T =NBRC 103627T =NCIMB 14377T), Methylobacterium brachiatum sp. nov. (type strain B0021T =DSM 19569T =NBRC 103629T =NCIMB 14379T), Methylobacterium tardum sp. nov. (type strain RB677T =DSM 19566T =NBRC 103632T =NCIMB 14380T) and Methylobacterium gregans sp. nov. (type strain 002-074T =DSM 19564T =NBRC 103626T =NCIMB 14376T) are proposed.

  9. Enhanced Detection of Vibrio Cholerae in Oyster Homogenate Based on Centrifugal Removal of Inhibitory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donita; DePaola, Angelo; Young, Ronald B.

    1998-01-01

    The disease cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, has been associated with consumption of contaminated seafood, including raw oysters. Detection of V. cholerae in foods typically involves blending the oysters, diluting the homogenate in alkaline peptone water (APW), overnight enrichment, and isolation on selective agar. Unfortunately, the oyster homogenate must be diluted to large volumes because lower dilutions inhibit the growth of V. cholerae. The goals of this study were to develop an alternative to large dilutions and to evaluate the basis for the inhibition observed in lower dilutions of oyster homogenates. Centrifugation of oyster homogenates at 10,000 x g for 15 min, followed by enrichment of the resulting pellet in APW, was found to eliminate the inhibition of V. cholerae growth. Inhibition appears not to be due to competing microflora but to a component(s) released when V. cholerae grows in the presence of oyster homogenate. The inhibitory component(s) kills the V. cholerae after the cell concentration reaches > 10(exp 8) cells/mL, rather than initially preventing their growth. The pH also declines from 8.0 to 5.5 during this period; however, the pH decline by itself appears not to cause V. cholerae death. Seven strains of V. cholerae (01 and non-01) and two strains of V. vulnificus were susceptible to the inhibitory agent(s). However, other Vibrio and non-Vibrio species tested were not inhibited by the oyster homogenates. Based on digestion of oyster homogenates with pronase, trypsin and lipase, the inhibitory reaction involves a protein(s). In a preliminary trial with oyster homogenate seeded with 1 cfu/g of V. cholerae, the modified centrifugation technique detected a slightly higher percentage of samples at a 1:10 dilution than the standard FDA Bacteriological Analytical Method (BAM) detected in uncentrifuged oyster homogenate at a 1:100 dilution. V. cholerae in seeded samples could also be detected more frequently by the modified centrifugation method

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 following a single-source introduction to Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lee S; Petkau, Aaron; Beaulaurier, John; Tyler, Shaun; Antonova, Elena S; Turnsek, Maryann A; Guo, Yan; Wang, Susana; Paxinos, Ellen E; Orata, Fabini; Gladney, Lori M; Stroika, Steven; Folster, Jason P; Rowe, Lori; Freeman, Molly M; Knox, Natalie; Frace, Mike; Boncy, Jacques; Graham, Morag; Hammer, Brian K; Boucher, Yan; Bashir, Ali; Hanage, William P; Van Domselaar, Gary; Tarr, Cheryl L

    2013-07-02

    Prior to the epidemic that emerged in Haiti in October of 2010, cholera had not been documented in this country. After its introduction, a strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 spread rapidly throughout Haiti, where it caused over 600,000 cases of disease and >7,500 deaths in the first two years of the epidemic. We applied whole-genome sequencing to a temporal series of V. cholerae isolates from Haiti to gain insight into the mode and tempo of evolution in this isolated population of V. cholerae O1. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses supported the hypothesis that all isolates in the sample set diverged from a common ancestor within a time frame that is consistent with epidemiological observations. A pangenome analysis showed nearly homogeneous genomic content, with no evidence of gene acquisition among Haiti isolates. Nine nearly closed genomes assembled from continuous-long-read data showed evidence of genome rearrangements and supported the observation of no gene acquisition among isolates. Thus, intrinsic mutational processes can account for virtually all of the observed genetic polymorphism, with no demonstrable contribution from horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Consistent with this, the 12 Haiti isolates tested by laboratory HGT assays were severely impaired for transformation, although unlike previously characterized noncompetent V. cholerae isolates, each expressed hapR and possessed a functional quorum-sensing system. Continued monitoring of V. cholerae in Haiti will illuminate the processes influencing the origin and fate of genome variants, which will facilitate interpretation of genetic variation in future epidemics. Vibrio cholerae is the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, with over three million cases of disease each year. An understanding of the mode and rate of evolutionary change is critical for proper interpretation of genome sequence data and attribution of outbreak sources. The Haiti epidemic provides an unprecedented opportunity to

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria Colonizing Acartia tonsa Copepod Eggs and Displaying Antagonist Effects against Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio alginolyticus and Other Pathogenic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammed Zidour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Copepods represent a major source of food for many aquatic species of commercial interest for aquaculture such as mysis shrimp and early stages of fishes. For the purpose of this study, the culturable mesophilic bacterial flora colonizing Acartia tonsa copepod eggs was isolated and identified. A total of 175 isolates were characterized based on their morphological and biochemical traits. The majority of these isolates (70% were Gram-negative bacteria. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS was used for rapid identification of bacterial isolates. Here, 58% of isolates were successfully identified at the genus level and among them, 54% were identified at the species level. These isolates belong to 12 different genera and 29 species. Five strains, identified as Bacillus pumilus, named 18 COPS, 35A COPS, 35R COPS, 38 COPS, and 40A COPS, showed strong antagonisms against several potential fish pathogens including Vibrio alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, using a differential approach, we show that the antimicrobial activity of the 35R COPS strain is linked primarily to the production of antimicrobial compounds of the amicoumacin family, as demonstrated by the specific UV-absorbance and the MS/MS fragmentation patterns of these compounds.

  12. Chemotaxis cluster 1 proteins form cytoplasmic arrays in Vibrio cholerae and are stabilized by a double signaling domain receptor DosM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briegel, Ariane; Ortega, Davi R; Mann, Petra

    2016-01-01

    motile bacteria contain one or more additional, sometimes purely cytoplasmic, chemoreceptor systems. Vibrio cholerae contains three chemotaxis clusters (I, II, and III). Here, using electron cryotomography, we explore V. cholerae's cytoplasmic chemoreceptor array and establish that it is formed...

  13. Fungi Association with Cedar’s Seeds and Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. Pathogenicities Levantamento de Fungos em Sementes de Cedro e Avaliação da Patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Benetti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This research had as main objectives the evaluation of cedar’s seeds seed-borne fungi and the Fusarium
    sp. and Pestalotia sp. pathogenicities. For the fungi detection Potato Dextrose and Agar medium and Blotter
    test methods were used. For the pathogenicity tests, isolates of Fusarium sp. and Pestalotia sp. were used. The following fungi were observed: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. and Cladosporium sp. The fungi observed in the highest frequencies were: Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp. and Pestalotia sp. A reduction of the germination level was observed in seedlings from cedar’s seed inoculated with Fusarium sp.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.81

    Este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar fungos em sementes de cedro e testar a patogenicidade de Fusarium sp. e Pestalotia sp. Para detecção de fungos, foram utilizados batata-dextrose-ágar e papel filtro. Para o teste de patogenicidade, utilizaram-se isolados de Fusarium sp. e de Pestalotia sp. Foi constatada a presença dos seguintes fungos nas sementes: Pestalotia sp., Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp., Colletotrichum sp., Macrophomina sp. e Cladosporium sp. Os fungos de maior freqüência foram: Fusarium sp., Phomopsis sp. e Pestalotia sp. Observou-se decréscimo nos valores de emergência das plântulas oriundas das sementes inoculadas com Fusarium sp.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.58.81

  14. AI-2 quorum-sensing inhibitors affect the starvation response and reduce virulence in several Vibrio species, most likely by interfering with LuxPQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2009-12-01

    The increase of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio species in aquatic organisms as well as in humans, together with the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, has led to a growing interest in alternative disease control measures. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism for regulating microbial gene expression in a cell density-dependent way. While there is good evidence for the involvement of auto-inducer 2 (AI-2)-based interspecies QS in the control of virulence in multiple Vibrio species, only few inhibitors of this system are known. From the screening of a small panel of nucleoside analogues for their ability to disturb AI-2-based QS, an adenosine derivative with a p-methoxyphenylpropionamide moiety at C-3' emerged as a promising hit. Its mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of Vibrio harveyi AI-2 QS mutants. Our results indicate that this compound, as well as a truncated analogue lacking the adenine base, block AI-2-based QS without interfering with bacterial growth. The active compounds affected neither the bioluminescence system as such nor the production of AI-2, but most likely interfered with the signal transduction pathway at the level of LuxPQ in V. harveyi. The most active nucleoside analogue (designated LMC-21) was found to reduce the Vibrio species starvation response, to affect biofilm formation in Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae, to reduce pigment and protease production in V. anguillarum, and to protect gnotobiotic Artemia from V. harveyi-induced mortality.

  15. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Jalal, T.

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, alfa-L-arabinofuranosidase (alfa-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp and Lactobacillus sp was investigated using different carbon sources Induction...

  16. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maika Genz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S-selective amine transaminase (ATA, a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417 was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal, as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions.

  17. Inhibition of enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae by gangliosides from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otnaess, A B; Laegreid, A; Ertresvåg, K

    1983-05-01

    Inhibitory activity of enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae was associated with the ganglioside fraction of human milk. Both the milk fat and skim milk contained gangliosides that inhibited the toxins. The most purified milk fraction contained three glycolipid components, of which two migrated close to ganglioside GM1 on thin-layer chromatography plates. A component with a slightly different mobility from GM1 appeared to be associated with the inhibitory activity. Milk ganglioside fraction, derived from 2 ml of human milk, contained 1 to 4 micrograms of lipid-bound sialic acid and completely inhibited 0.1 micrograms of cholera toxin in rabbit intestinal loop experiments. It is suggested that human milk gangliosides, although present only in trace amounts, may be important in protecting infants against enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.

  18. Intussusception in a young female with Vibrio gastroenteritis and diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jin Shin; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Jung, Jung Hwa; Jung, Tae Sik; Rhyu, Seung Seok; Moon, Sung Won; Kang, Mi Yeon; Ahn, Yong Jun; Kim, Sun Joo; Chung, Soon Ii

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of functional intussusception is extremely rare in adults. A 23-year-old woman, previously diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), complained of colicky abdominal pain associated with vomiting of 1-day duration. Currant jelly stool was observed. Irrespective of hydration and intravenous insulin injection under the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), her abdominal pain and laboratory parameters did not improve. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT) revealed a jejunojejunal intussusception. We maintained large-volume fluid administration, and her abdominal pain began to subside. The stool culture was positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We confirm the intussusception that was resolved by supportive management without surgical intervention in a patient with gastroenteritis and diabetic ketoacidosis.

  19. Gene cloning and prokaryotic expression of recombinant outer membrane protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Wang, Xiuli; Guo, Sheping; Qiu, Xuemei

    2011-06-01

    Gram-negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen in humans and marine animals. The outer membrane protein of bacteria plays an important role in the infection and pathogenicity to the host. Thus, the outer membrane proteins are an ideal target for vaccines. We amplified a complete outer membrane protein gene (ompW) from V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. We then cloned and expressed the gene into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The gene coded for a protein that was 42.78 kDa. We purified the protein using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and Anti-His antibody Western blotting, respectively. Our results provide a basis for future application of the OmpW protein as a vaccine candidate against infection by V. parahaemolyticus. In addition, the purified OmpW protein can be used for further functional and structural studies.

  20. Genomic epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 associated with floods, Pakistan, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Ali; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Baker, Stephen; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Bokhari, Habib; Wren, Brendan W

    2014-01-01

    In August 2010, Pakistan experienced major floods and a subsequent cholera epidemic. To clarify the population dynamics and transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Pakistan, we sequenced the genomes of all V. cholerae O1 El Tor isolates and compared the sequences to a global collection of 146 V. cholerae strains. Within the global phylogeny, all isolates from Pakistan formed 2 new subclades (PSC-1 and PSC-2), lying in the third transmission wave of the seventh-pandemic lineage that could be distinguished by signature deletions and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Geographically, PSC-1 isolates originated from the coast, whereas PSC-2 isolates originated from inland areas flooded by the Indus River. Single-nucleotide polymorphism accumulation analysis correlated river flow direction with the spread of PSC-2. We found at least 2 sources of cholera in Pakistan during the 2010 epidemic and illustrate the value of a global genomic data bank in contextualizing cholera outbreaks.

  1. Taxonomie et virulence de Vibrio pathogènes de Crassostrea gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaille, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Le principal objectif de ce travail est l'étude d'un autre groupe de bactéries, le groupe J ; comportant les bactéries Mel 38, Mel 39 et Mel 40 . Dans un premier temps nous avons caractérisé les bactéries du groupe J au niveau taxonomique par des méthodes moléculaires. En effet, les outils biochimiques à notre disposition ne sont plus adaptés pour identifier les espèces de Vibrio marins. Les clés d'identification biochimiques d'Alsina et Blanch [ 9 1 sont dépassées car elles n'incluent pas la...

  2. Vaccination in three different ways against vibriosis of Seriola dumerili caused by Vibrio hollisae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rongxing; Zou, Wenzheng; Hu, Shiliu; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Bacterin was prepared by formalin-inactivating the virulent strain of Vibrio hollisae isolated from diseased Seriola dumerili (amberjack) suffering from vibriosis. Healthy S. dumerili were vaccinated by respective procedures of intramuscular injection, immersion, and orally administration. Results of the three different vaccinations were compared. Blood was drawn from the vaccinated fish every 7 days, and the antibody titers and lysozyme activities of the sera were determined. The antibody titer of injected fish was 1:40 at 7 d, and reached its peak of 1:320 at 28 d, while the fish vaccinated by immersion and orally administration exhibited weak antibody responses, the antibody titres of vaccinated fish exhibited significantly higher lysozyme activities ( Pvaccination of S. dumerili by the injection would be the best strategy to prevent the vibriosis in S. dumerili farm.

  3. Antibiotic Resistance and Integron of Vibrio cholerae Detection from School Street Foods in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADIA DEASHINTA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Street foods represent foods and beverages prepared by vendors in streets or other public places, i.e. schools. Food safety issues perceive street foods as a potential major public risk. Street foods contaminated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae may lead to serious poisoning to school-age children. In this study, 17 isolates of V. cholerae were obtained from nine (45% of total 20 street foods samples collected in Jakarta. Five (29% were confirmed to be V. cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa using biochemical tests and serological identification. Of the 17 V. cholerae isolates 47% proved to be resistant to ampicillin, 35% to trimethoprim, 17.6% to tetracycline, and 17.6% to streptomycin. A class 1 integrons bearing streptomycin/spectinomycin resistant gene cassette of aadA1c were discovered on isolate Vc25n. This may leads to horizontal transfer of the antibiotic resistant genes to other bacteria.

  4. The Potential of Bdellovibrio For the Biocontrol of the Infectious Agent Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Olsson Markelova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Bdellovibrio are small and highly motile Gram-negative predators of other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio enters the prey cell, transforming it into a structure that is referred to as a bdelloplast. It then grows and divides inside the bdelloplast, ending in lysis and the release of the Bdellovibrio progeny. Because of this capability, Bdellovibrio is a potential antibacterial agent. In this article, we report the results of studies on the interactions of Bdellovibrio with actively growing and viable but nonculturable (VBNC Vibrio cholerae. A significant observation was that Bdellovibrio attacked both VBNC and actively growing V. cholerae. These results indicate that Bdellovibrio, a “living antibiotic,” has potential as an antibacterial agent in environmental and public health bioprotection.

  5. Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 bacteraemia associated with pneumonia, Italy 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinello, Serena; Marini, Giulia; Parisi, Giancarlo; Gottardello, Lorena; Rossi, Lucia; Besutti, Valeria; Cattelan, Anna Maria

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes an elderly male patient, living in the Veneto Region, Italy, who developed Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia and pneumonia. Some days previously, while on holiday in the Lagoon of Venice, he had been collecting clams in seawater, during which he suffered small abrasions of the skin. On admission to hospital, he was confused, had fever and a cough, but neither diarrhoea nor signs of gastroenteritis were found. Both blood and stool cultures grew V. cholerae of non-O1 non-O-139 type, and the patient recovered after prompt administration of intravenous ceftriaxone for 2 weeks. This clinical case emphasises the role of global warming and climate changes in causing increasing numbers of water-borne infections.

  6. Vibrio vulnificus produces quorum sensing signals of the AHL-class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, E.; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic pathogenic bacterium that can cause vibriosis in humans and fish. The species is subdivided into three biotypes with the fish-virulent strains belonging to biotype 2. The quorum sensing (QS) phenomenon mediated by furanosyl borate diester or autoinducer 2 (AI-2) ha...... biotype 2 strains. No known AHL-related gene was detected by PCR or Southern blot suggesting that AHL-related genes in V. vulnificus are different from those found in other Gram-negative bacteria....... was detected when AHL-positive strains were grown in low-nutrient medium [modified sea water yeast extract (MSWYE)] but not in rich media (tryptic soy broth or brain–heart infusion) and its production was enhanced when blood factors were added to MSWYE. C4-HL was detected in vivo, in eels infected with AHL-positive...

  7. Strategies of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to acquire nutritional iron during host colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Sicairos, Nidia; Angulo-Zamudio, Uriel A.; de la Garza, Mireya; Velázquez-Román, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor M.; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for the growth and development of virtually all living organisms. As iron acquisition is critical for the pathogenesis, a host defense strategy during infection is to sequester iron to restrict the growth of invading pathogens. To counteract this strategy, bacteria such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus have adapted to such an environment by developing mechanisms to obtain iron from human hosts. This review focuses on the multiple strategies employed by V. parahaemolyticus to obtain nutritional iron from host sources. In these strategies are included the use of siderophores and xenosiderophores, proteases and iron-protein receptor. The host sources used by V. parahaemolyticus are the iron-containing proteins transferrin, hemoglobin, and hemin. The implications of iron acquisition systems in the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus are also discussed. PMID:26217331

  8. Quorum sensing determines the choice of antiphage defense strategy in Vibrio anguillarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng; Svenningsen, Sine Lo; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    -acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals in the culture medium, and (iii) survives mainly by one of these two defense mechanisms, rather than by genetic mutation to phage resistance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that V. anguillarum employs quorum-sensing information to choose between two complementary...... antiphage defense strategies. Further, the prevalence of nonmutational defense mechanisms in strain PF430-3 suggests highly flexible adaptations to KVP40 phage infection pressure, possibly allowing the long-term coexistence of phage and host. IMPORTANCE: Comprehensive knowledge on bacterial antiphage...... in pathogenic bacteria. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the presence of quorum-sensing-regulated phage defense mechanisms in the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum and provide evidence that quorum-sensing regulation allows V. anguillarum to alternate between different phage protection mechanisms depending...

  9. Thiocarbamates from Moringa oleifera Seeds Bioactive against Virulent and Multidrug-Resistant Vibrio Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Hofer, Ernesto; Mafezoli, Jair; Barbosa, Francisco Geraldo

    2017-01-01

    Prospect of antibacterial agents may provide an alternative therapy for diseases caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of Moringa oleifera seed extracts against 100 vibrios isolated from the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Ethanol extracts at low (MOS-E) and hot (MOS-ES) temperature are shown to be bioactive against 92% and 90% of the strains, respectively. The most efficient Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) levels of MOS-E and MOS-ES against a high percentage of strains were 32 µg mL−1. Bioguided screening of bioactive compounds showed that the ethyl acetate fraction from both extracts was the only one that showed antibacterial activity. Vibriocidal substances, niazirine and niazimicine, were isolated from the aforementioned fraction through chromatographic fractionation. PMID:28770224

  10. Determining Vaccination Frequency in Farmed Rainbow Trout Using Vibrio anguillarum O1 Specific Serum Antibody Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylén, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    with an experimental vaccine based on inactivated V. anguillarum O1 bacterin in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant were used for ELISA optimisation. Subsequently, sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against V. anguillarum were analysed with the ELISA. The measured serum antibody levels were......Background Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid...... marker for assessing vaccination status in a fish population. For this purpose a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and used to evaluate sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated against V. anguillarum O1. Study Design Immune sera from rainbow trout immunised...

  11. Antagonistic Activity of Probiotic Organism Against Vibrio cholerae and Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbes are useful in many ways in the modern world. Probiotics one of them, which refers to, acid adherence bacteria in the intestinal cells, are able to survive at low pH and produce large amount of lactic acid. The present investigation deals with the antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus organism against pathogens. The organism was isolated from the curd sample. Identification of bacteria was done by various biochemical testing. The present study revealed that L. acidophilus inhibits Vibrio cholerae more efficiently than Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella dysentriae. When L. acidophilus and V. cholerae were grown together, L. acidophilus dominated the growth and competitively inhibited the growth of V. cholerae. L. acidophilus was also found to inhibit Cryptococcus neoformans.

  12. Comparative Genomics of Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolated from Cholera Patients in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Dalsgaard, Anders

    AIM: Cholera remains an endemic disease in Bangladesh and recently, the severity of the disease has significantly increased in urban area since the emergence of the new variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor. In this study, Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) was utilized to investigate the current genomic...... profile of V. cholerae O1 strains, isolated from symptomatic patients in the low-income urban area of Arichpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS: During October 2015, three V. cholerae O1 strains (VC-1, 2 and 3) were isolated from rectal swabs of two patients living in households 588 m apart. One of the two...... patients was co-infected with two V. cholerae strains (VC-1 and VC-3). Major virulence factors, biotype and antimicrobial resistance genes were identified by WGS. A global phylogenetic tree was inferred using genome wide SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) analysis. RESULTS: All the V. cholerae strains...

  13. Biofilm formation and phenotypic variation enhance predation-driven persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; McDougald, D.; Moreno, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae in aquatic environments is the principal cause for seasonal occurrence of cholera epidemics. This causality has been explained by postulating that V. cholerae forms biofilms in association with animate and inanimate surfaces....... Alternatively, it has been proposed that bacterial pathogens are an integral part of the natural microbial food web and thus their survival is constrained by protozoan predation. Here, we report that both explanations are interrelated. our data show that biofilms are the protective agent enabling V. cholerae...... to survive protozoan grazing while their planktonic counterparts are eliminated. Grazing on planktonic V. cholerae was found to select for the biofilm-enhancing rugose phase variant, which is adapted to the surf ace-associated niche by the production of exopolymers. Interestingly, grazing resistance in V...

  14. Monitoring water sources for environmental reservoirs of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Meer T; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Weber, Chad D; Johnson, Judith A; Rashid, Mohammad H; Birch, Catherine S; Brumback, Babette A; Beau de Rochars, Valery E Madsen; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar

    2014-03-01

    An epidemic of cholera infections was documented in Haiti for the first time in more than 100 years during October 2010. Cases have continued to occur, raising the question of whether the microorganism has established environmental reservoirs in Haiti. We monitored 14 environmental sites near the towns of Gressier and Leogane during April 2012-March 2013. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains were isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 179 water samples; nontoxigenic O1 V. cholerae was isolated from an additional 3 samples. All samples containing V. cholerae O1 also contained non-O1 V. cholerae. V. cholerae O1 was isolated only when water temperatures were ≥31°C. Our data substantiate the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment in Haiti. These isolations may reflect establishment of long-term environmental reservoirs in Haiti, which may complicate eradication of cholera from this coastal country.

  15. Urea hydrolysis can predict the potential pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysner, C A; Abeyta, C; Trost, P A; Wetherington, J H; Jinneman, K C; Hill, W E; Wekell, M M

    1994-01-01

    The ability of some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to hydrolyze urea (uh+) can be used as a marker to predict which strains isolated from molluscan shellfish harvested in the Pacific Northwest are potentially pathogenic. The thermostable direct hemolysin-producing (TDH+) characteristic is a marker that is correlated with potential pathogenicity, and all of the TDH+ strains that we have isolated have been found to be uh+. Most of the uh+ strains belong to somatic antigen groups O3, O4 and O5. TDH+ strains are usually members of groups O4 and O5. The strains most often associated with human illness are members of the uh+, O4 group. The test for urease production is a simple screening test that can be helpful in predicting which strains are potentially pathogenic. PMID:8085837

  16. Roles of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH in Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendru eRaghunath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood borne bacterial gastroenteritis in the world, often associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. However, not all strains of V. parahaemolyticus are pathogenic. The thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH or TDH-related haemolysin (TRH encoded by tdh and trh genes, respectively are considered major virulence factors in V. parahaemolyticus. However, about 10% of clinical strains do not contain tdh and/or trh. Environmental isolates of V. parahaemolyticus lacking tdh and/or trh are also highly cytotoxic to human gastrointestinal cells. Even in the absence of these hemolysins, V. parahaemolyticus remains pathogenic indicating other virulence factors exist. This mini review aims at discussing the possible roles of tdh and trh genes in clinical and environmental isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.

  17. Roles of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Pendru

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood borne bacterial gastroenteritis in the world, often associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. However, not all strains of V. parahaemolyticus are pathogenic. The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) encoded by tdh and trh genes, respectively, are considered major virulence factors in V. parahaemolyticus. However, about 10% of clinical strains do not contain tdh and/or trh. Environmental isolates of V. parahaemolyticus lacking tdh and/or trh are also highly cytotoxic to human gastrointestinal cells. Even in the absence of these hemolysins, V. parahaemolyticus remains pathogenic indicating other virulence factors exist. This mini review aims at discussing the possible roles of tdh and trh genes in clinical and environmental isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.

  18. Survivals of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli in a gastropod mollusc, Heminerita japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, N H; Iwao, K; Kato, E

    1991-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains D-3 and R-13 were found to be cleared within 7 days from a marine neritid gastropod mollusc, Heminerita japonica, maintained in artificial seawater with salinities of 15, 25 and 35 permil (%) at 25 degrees C. Escherichia coli strain YS-2 survived at a level of 10(2) colony forming units per gram in the mollusc maintained in 15% water for up to 14 days and fell to non-detectable level within 7 days in a 35% salinity group. The ability of H. japonica to clear these organisms seems to be less active than that of a marine species. Nerita albicilla, and more active than that of an estuarine species. Clithon retropictus.

  19. Crustin protein Amk1 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon inhibits Vibrio harveyi and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moltira Tonganunt1*

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A crustin gene (Amk1 was identified from a haemocyte library of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA consists of 411 bp encoding a deduced precursor of 136 amino acids with a signal peptide of 17 aminoacids. Amk1 contains a hydrophobic and a Gly-rich region at the N-terminus and a 12 conserved cysteine domain (6-DSC at the C-terminus. Transcripts of Amk1 are mainly detected in haemocytes and gills by RT-PCR analysis. A recombinant Amk1was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. This has a molecular mass of 43.66 kDa with a predicted pI of 8.23. Antibacterial assays demonstrated that recombinant Amk1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegativebacteria with strong inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio harveyi.

  20. Ricerca di Vibrio splendidus e delle specie correlate in esemplari di Chamelea gallina prelevati nel tratto di mare Adriatico antistante la regione Abruzzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Torresi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Le specie del genere Vibrio, ampiamente diffuse nell’ambiente marino, sono potenzialmente patogene per vertebrati e invertebrati marini. Il presente studio ha avuto l’obiettivo di identificare le specie di Vibrio, in particolare Vibrio splendidus e specie ad esso correlate, in campioni di Chamelea gallina (vongola prelevate nel tratto di mare Adriatico antistante la regione Abruzzo nel periodo Maggio-Ottobre 2007. I microrganismi isolati dai 37 campioni sono stati caratterizzati fenotipicamente e classificati come specie appartenenti al genere Vibrio. In particolare, per l’identificazione di V. splendidus sono state effettuate analisi biochimiche secondo lo schema di Alsina. Per confermare gli isolati caratterizzati biochimicamente e per identificare V. splendidus e le specie ad esso correlate sono stati utilizzati rispettivamente analisi molecolari della regione intergenica 16S-23S e sequenziamento del gene recA. Tutti i campioni sono risultati contaminati da specie di Vibrio alofile; è stata riscontrata una maggior frequenza di isolamento per V. alginolyticus, V. splendidus e specie ad esso correlate e V. mediterranei. Le analisi molecolari effettuate hanno confermato l’impossibilità di identificare tutte le specie del genere Vibrio con la caratterizzazione fenotipica. I risultati ottenuti hanno dimostrato come il sequenziamento del gene recA consenta una discriminazione maggiore rispetto a quello del 16S rDNA. L’attribuzione delle specie nel gruppo V. splendidus-related risulta tuttavia ancora controversa.