WorldWideScience

Sample records for vibratory hub loads

  1. Predicting vibratory stresses from aero-acoustic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Matthew D.

    Sonic fatigue has been a concern of jet aircraft engineers for many years. As engines become more powerful, structures become more lightly damped and complex, and materials become lighter, stiffer, and more complicated, the need to understand and predict structural response to aeroacoustic loads becomes more important. Despite decades of research, vibration in panels caused by random pressure loads, such as those found in a supersonic jet, is still difficult to predict. The work in this research improves on current prediction methods in several ways, in particular for the structural response due to wall pressures induced by supersonic turbulent flows. First, solutions are calculated using time-domain input pressure loads that include shock cells and their interaction with turbulent flow. The solutions include both mean (static) and oscillatory components. Second, the time series of stresses are required for many fatigue assessment counting algorithms. To do this, a method is developed to compute time-dependent solutions in the frequency domain. The method is first applied to a single-degree-of-freedom system. The equations of motion are derived and solved in both the frequency domain and the time domain. The pressure input is a random (broadband) signal representative of jet flow. The method is then applied to a simply-supported beam vibrating in flexure using a line of pressure inputs computed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A modal summation approach is used to compute structural response. The coupling between the pressure field and the structure, through the joint acceptance, is reviewed and discussed for its application to more complicated structures. Results from the new method and from a direct time domain method are compared for method verification. Because the match is good and the new frequency domain method is faster computationally, it is chosen for use in a more complicated structure. The vibration of a two-dimensional panel loaded by jet

  2. Fundamental understanding, prediction and validation of rotor vibratory loads in steady-level flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Anubhav

    This work isolates the physics of aerodynamics and structural dynamics from the helicopter rotor aeromechanics problem, investigates them separately, identifies the prediction deficiencies in each, improves upon them, and couples them back together. The objective is to develop a comprehensive analysis capability for accurate and consistent prediction of rotor vibratory loads in steady level flight. The rotor vibratory loads are the dominant source of helicopter vibration. There are two critical vibration regimes for helicopters in steady level flight: (1) low speed transition and (2) high speed forward flight. The mechanism of rotor vibration at low speed transition is well understood---inter-twinning of blade tip vortices below the rotor disk. The mechanism of rotor vibration at high speed is not clear. The focus in this research is on high speed flight. The goal is to understand the key mechanisms involved and accurately model them. Measured lift, chord force, pitching moment and damper force from the UH-60A Flight Test Program are used to predict, validate and refine the rotor structural dynamics. The prediction errors originate entirely from structural modeling. Once validated, the resultant blade deformations are used to predict and validate aerodynamics. Air loads are calculated using a table look up based unsteady lifting-line model and compared with predictions from a 3-dimensional unsteady CFD model. Both Navier-Stokes and Euler predictions are studied. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) The 3D Navier-Stokes CFD analysis is then consistently coupled with a rotor comprehensive analysis to improve prediction of rotor vibratory loads at high speed. The CFD-comprehensive code coupling is achieved using a loose coupling methodology. The CFD analysis significantly improves section pitching moment prediction near the blade tip, because it captures the steady and unsteady 3D transonic effects. Accurate pitching moments drive elastic twist deformations which together

  3. Optimal Capacity Configuration for Energy Hubs Considering Part-Load Characteristics of Generation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Deng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The simulation model is one of the key points affecting the optimal planning and operation of energy hubs (EHs. Since treating the efficiencies of generation units as constants would significantly simplify the calculation, only a simplified model is investigated in most research works. In this paper, aiming at optimizing the capacity configuration of an EH, we present a part-load characteristics-based (PLCB model, in which the efficiencies of generation units will change with the fluctuating load. Based on the PLCB model, the accuracy of the EH model can be improved. Furthermore, a two-stage planning method is proposed to solve the optimal capacity configuration problem of the EH. Group Search Optimizer (GSO is used to determine the optimal size in the first stage, and a mathematical programming method is applied to obtain the optimal operation of the EH in the second stage. Comparative studies using the PLCB model and the simplified model are performed to examine the impacts of equipment part-load characteristics on the sizing results. Simulation results indicate that the proposed model appears to have a better economic performance than the simplified model.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: vibratory urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions vibratory urticaria vibratory urticaria Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Vibratory urticaria is a condition in which exposing the skin ...

  5. A vibratory micromechanical gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxenhorn, Burton; Greiff, Paul

    A novel vibratory micromechanical gyro with an active area less than one millimeter square has been analyzed, designed, and built. It has been demonstrated that such a gyro can be built using semiconductor fabrication techniques, and that the resulting performance is reasonably predictable. Further improvement of this gyro will result in an instrument that is small, low power, and in particular, will be very cheap in large quantitites.

  6. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  7. Performance and Vibratory Loads Data From a Wind-Tunnel Test of a Model Helicopter Main-Rotor Blade With a Paddle-Type Tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Mirick, Paul H.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to obtain data to permit evaluation of paddle-type tip technology for possible use in future U.S. advanced rotor designs. Data was obtained for both a baseline main-rotor blade and a main-rotor blade with a paddle-type tip. The baseline and paddle-type tip blades were compared with regard to rotor performance, oscillatory pitch-link loads, and 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system loads. Data was obtained in hover and forward flight over a nominal range of advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.425. Results indicate that the paddle-type tip offers no performance improvements in either hover or forward flight. Pitch-link oscillatory loads for the paddle-type tip are higher than for the baseline blade, whereas 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system loads are generally lower.

  8. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    "Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new...... challenges and requires new competencies, some of which may conflict with existing best-practices for incremental innovations. ‘Innovation hubs' are a type of organisational structure dedicated to RI projects that have been used by companies to manage these conflicts by maintaining a certain degree...... of separation from the culture and routines of the mainstream organisation. Unfortunately, it would appear that many attempts to set-up innovation hubs have ended in failure within a few years; not before considerable time, effort and resource has been expended. This paper reports on a study of six innovation...

  9. Comparison of Axial Capacity of Vibratory-Driven Piles to Impact-Driven Piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    vibratory-driven process results in less compacatiori at the pile tip, thus lowering the tip capacity. Hunter and Davisson (1969), in their...Loading Tests," US Army Engineer District, Little Rock, Ark. Hunter, A. A., and Davisson , M. T. (1969). "Measurement of Pile Load Transfer," Performance

  10. GEC Ferranti piezo vibratory gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Prototypes of a piezo-electric vibratory angular rate transducer (gyroscope) (PVG) have been constructed and evaluated. The construction is on the lines suggested by Burdess. The sensitive element is a cylinder of radially poled piezo-electric ceramic. The cylinder is metallized inside and out, and the outer metallization is divided into eight electrodes. The metallization on the inside is earthed. A phase locked loop, using pairs of the electrodes, causes the cylinder to vibrate in one of its two fundamental, degenerate modes. In the presence of rotation, some of the vibration is coupled into the outer mode. This can be detected, or suppressed with a closed-up technique and provides a measure of rotation rate. The gyroscope provides a number of advantages over rotating mass and optical instruments: low size and mass, lower power consumption, potentially high reliability, potentially good dormancy, low cost and high maximum rate.

  11. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  12. Quadratic Assignment of Hubs in p-Hub Median Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin

    We introduce Generalized p-Hub Median Problem (GpHMP) that seeks to locate p hub nodes and install p distinct hub facilities/operators on the hubs while discount factor resulted by consolidation of flow on the hub links depends on the facilities/operators that are installed/operating on both hub...... nodes end-point. In contrast, in traditional hub location problems it is commonly assumed that all the hub facilities share a similar characteristic and economy of scale resulted by consolidation of flow over hub edges is not directly relevant to the hub facilities being installed at both end...

  13. ANALYSIS OF VIBRATORY PROTECTION SYSTEM VIBRATION DURING HARMONIC AND POLYHARMONIC EXCITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mikulik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a mathematical model of local «driver-seat» system and an algorithm for vibratory loading formation at external actions. Results of the investigations on the system vibration according to minimum vibration acceleration depending on transfer force factor acting on the seat and a vibration isolation factor are presented in the paper.

  14. Virtual Campus Hub technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercoulen, Frank; Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio

    This deliverable briefly describes which technological components have been delivered for the Virtual Campus Hub and how they can be used. A detailed discussion of the technical details of the components, how they were realized and how they fit the VCH concept can be found in deliverables D5.......4. Virtual Campus Hub Technology Evaluation Report and D6.7 The Virtual Campus Hub Concept....

  15. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  16. Parametrically disciplined operation of a vibratory gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external stable clock reference is produced by driving an electrostatic bias electrode at approximately twice this sub-harmonic frequency to achieve disciplined frequency and phase operation of the resonator. A nearly symmetric parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope that can oscillate in any transverse direction and has more than one bias electrostatic electrode that can be independently driven at twice its oscillation frequency at an amplitude and phase that disciplines its damping to zero in any vibration direction. In addition, operation of a parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope is taught in which the precession rate of the driven vibration pattern is digitally disciplined to a prescribed non-zero reference value.

  17. Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolyuk, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the latest theoretical analysis and design methodologies of different types of Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes (CVG). Together, the chapters analyze different types of sensitive element designs and their kinematics, derivation of motion equations, analysis of sensitive elements dynamics in modulated and demodulated signals, calculation and optimization of main performance characteristics, and signal processing and control. Essential aspects of numerical simulation of CVG using Simulink® are also covered. This is an ideal book for graduate students, researchers, and engineers working in fields that require gyroscope application, including but not limited to: inertial sensors and systems, automotive and consumer electronics, small unmanned aircraft control systems, personal mobile navigation systems and related software development, and augmented and virtual reality systems.

  18. Modification of piezoelectric vibratory gyroscope resonator parameters by feedback control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A method for analyzing the effect of feedback control on the dynamics of piezoelectric resonators used in vibratory gyroscopes has been developed. This method can be used to determine the feasibility of replacing the traditional mechanical balancing...

  19. Vibratory gyroscopes : identification of mathematical model from test data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Simple mathematical model of vibratory gyroscopes imperfections is formulated, which includes anisotropic damping and variation of mass-stiffness parameters and their harmonics. The method of identification of parameters of the mathematical model...

  20. Vibratory device for taking ocean floor sediment cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edigariav, Z.P.; Kudinov, E.I.; Sukhov, V.E.

    1973-04-04

    The present invention relates to devices for taking sediment cores from the ocean floor. It consists in a vibratory device, comprising a string of pipe, a vibrator disposed on the string of pipe for sinking the pipe into the ocean floor, an arrangement for providing for periodical engagement and disengagement of the vibrator with the string of pipe, a hoist providing for periodical displacement of the vibrator, which is originally disposed on the lower portion of the string of pipe, up the string as the latter is being sunk into the ocean floor, and operatively coupled with the engaging arrangement. A piston is freely displaceable in the string of pipe and fixed relative to the ocean floor when the pipe is being sunk, to retain the ocean floor sediments in the pipe. The core of sediment is pressed against the piston under the action of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressures. A system is provided for stabilizing the device consisting of a load platform, a float, and guide cables. (6 claims)

  1. Transport hub flow modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...

  2. Configuration System for Simulation Based Design of Vibratory Bowl Feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Michael Natapon; Mathiesen, Simon; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Vibratory bowl feeders are still among the most commonly used production equipment for automated part feeding, where parts are correctly oriented for further manipulation by being conveyed through a set of orienting devices. Designing vibratory bowl feeders involves selecting and sequencing a num...... the configuration task. To test the approach, the configuration system is used to find three device sequences for feeding three parts in specific orientations. The sequences are validated through simulation and real world experiments, showing good consistency....

  3. Optimization of vibratory welding process parameters using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pravin Kumar; Kumar, S. Deepak; Patel, D.; Prasad, S. B. [National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand (India)

    2017-05-15

    The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of vibratory welding technique on mechanical properties of 6 mm thick butt welded mild steel plates. A new concept of vibratory welding technique has been designed and developed which is capable to transfer vibrations, having resonance frequency of 300 Hz, into the molten weld pool before it solidifies during the Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process. The important process parameters of vibratory welding technique namely welding current, welding speed and frequency of the vibrations induced in molten weld pool were optimized using Taguchi’s analysis and Response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of process parameters on tensile strength and hardness were evaluated using optimization techniques. Applying RSM, the effect of vibratory welding parameters on tensile strength and hardness were obtained through two separate regression equations. Results showed that, the most influencing factor for the desired tensile strength and hardness is frequency at its resonance value, i.e. 300 Hz. The micro-hardness and microstructures of the vibratory welded joints were studied in detail and compared with those of conventional SMAW joints. Comparatively, uniform and fine grain structure has been found in vibratory welded joints.

  4. The Banana Genome Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D’Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world’s favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/ PMID:23707967

  5. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  6. Effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laessøe, Line; Sønksen, Jens; Bagi, Per

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions.......We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions....

  7. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  8. The Virtual Campus Hub Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Monaco, Lucio

    The research infrastructure project Virtual Campus Hub (VCH) runs from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Four technical universities in Europe, who are all active in the field of sustainable energy, form the project consortium: the Technical University of Denmark, The Royal Institute...... of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final concept of Virtual Campus Hub. It gives...... an overview of the project achievements and recommends best practices for the use of the Virtual Campus Hub elements: a series of applications for online teaching and collaboration which are connected to a technical platform, the Virtual Campus Hub portal, using the European research infrastructure Géant/eduGAIN....

  9. A subharmonic vibratory pattern in normal vocal folds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    This study observes in detail an F-0/2 (sounding an octave below an original tone) subharmonic vibratory pattern produced in a normal larynx. Simultaneous electroglottographic and photoglottographic measurements reveal two different open phases within a subharmonic cycle-the first shorter with a

  10. Automation Selection and Sequencing of Traps for Vibratory Feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Simon; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Vibratory parts feeders with mechanical orienting devices are used extensively in the assembly automation industry. Even so, the design process is based on trial-and-error approaches and is largely manual. In this paper, a methodology is presented for automatic design of this type of feeder...

  11. Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust optimization framework for energy hub management. It is well known that the operation of energy systems can be negatively affected by uncertain parameters, such as stochastic load demand or generation. In this regard, it is of high significance to propose efficient...... Theory (IGDT) to tackle this uncertainty as an efficient robust optimization tool with low complexity to ensure the optimal operation of the system according to the priorities of the decision maker entity. The proposed optimization framework is also implemented on a benchmark energy hub which includes...

  12. Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    tools in order to deal with uncertainties and to provide reliable operating conditions. On a broader scale, an energy hub includes diverse energy sources for supplying both electrical load and heating/cooling demands with stochastic behaviors. Therefore, this paper utilizes the Information Decision Gap...... Theory (IGDT) to tackle this uncertainty as an efficient robust optimization tool with low complexity to ensure the optimal operation of the system according to the priorities of the decision maker entity. The proposed optimization framework is also implemented on a benchmark energy hub which includes...

  13. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Bethmann, H.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  14. An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Daniel E; Gerstl, Stephan S A; Chin, Jackson; Hirschi, Blake; Evans, James E

    2017-01-01

    Environmental control during transfer between instruments is required for samples sensitive to air or thermal exposure to prevent morphological or chemical changes prior to analysis. Atom probe tomography is a rapidly expanding technique for three-dimensional structural and chemical analysis, but commercial instruments remain limited to loading specimens under ambient conditions. In this study, we describe a multifunctional environmental transfer hub allowing controlled cryogenic or room-temperature transfer of specimens under atmospheric or vacuum pressure conditions between an atom probe and other instruments or reaction chambers. The utility of the environmental transfer hub is demonstrated through the acquisition of previously unavailable mass spectral analysis of an intact organic molecule made possible via controlled cryogenic transfer into the atom probe using the hub. The ability to prepare and transfer specimens in precise environments promises a means to access new science across many disciplines from untainted samples and allow downstream time-resolved in situ atom probe studies.

  15. SUN HUB – ENERGY HUB FOR OUTDOOR TABLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Solar cells integrated into products are attracting more and more attention especially due to the dramatically declining cost of solar cells. Furthermore, we are getting more dependent on portable units like mobile phones, tablets and PCs which has to be charged to be of any use. Especially...... Sun Hubs to monitor the overall energy system and the consumption of each functionality in the table....

  16. Review of research on AFPM hub motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo DAI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of new energy vehicles is an important way to promote the sustainable development of automobile industry, and it is also the key measure to solve the problems of energy and environment. As an important type of new energy vehicles, electric vehicles will play an important role in the future competition in the automotive industry, especially in the field of electric vehicle driven by wheel. With the advantages of compact structure, high power density, low working noise and good heat dissipation performance, the AFPM motor has gradually become the preferred object of the hub driving device. Based on the statement of the technical development and research status about AFPM motor, this paper mainly analyzes the engineering application and technical problems of AFPM motor in hub drive, especially the matching of AFPM motor with other systems and the problem of heat dissipation at high load conditions, and looks forward to the key role in the future development of the automotive industry. This paper will play a certain reference and guiding role in the application of AFPM motor in the field of new energy vehicles.

  17. Incidence of central venous catheter hub contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Julie L; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rice, Mark J; Rand, Kenneth H; Fahy, Brenda G

    2017-06-01

    To investigate microorganisms causing central venous catheter contamination and how this contamination differs across different catheter metrics. After obtaining IRB approval and informed consent, 830 cultures were prospectively obtained from 45 ICU patients with central venous catheter or peripherally inserted central catheter. Bacterial colonies were identified by mass spectrometry. Bacterial contamination of central catheter hubs occurred 44% of the time in this study in the ICU setting. Coagulase-positive staphylococci cultures had higher median (±interquartile range) CFUs (12±232) versus coagulase-negative (3±10) and other bacteria (1±3; Pcentral venous pressure monitoring connections (25.8% vs. 7.1% without). Internal jugular sites (10.0% vs. 2.7% femoral, 6.2% PICC, P=0.031) and medial lumens of triple lumen catheters (11.9% vs. 5.6% distal, 7.0% proximal, P=0.049) had increased incidence of higher bacteria loads (>15 CFUs). This study found a high incidence of central access catheter hub bacterial contamination, which correlated with positive blood cultures in 2 of 3 total bacteremia cases identified in the 45 patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Fan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.

  19. Error Model and Compensation of Bell-Shaped Vibratory Gyro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Su; Ning Liu; Qing Li

    2015-01-01

    A bell-shaped vibratory angular velocity gyro (BVG), inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a type of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. This paper focuses on development of an error model and compensation of the BVG. A dynamic equation is firstly established, based on a study of the BVG working mechanism. This equation is then used to evaluate the relationship between the angular rate output signal and bell-shaped resonator character, analyze the influence of the main error source...

  20. Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyid Hasan Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by

  1. Design and Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade Hub using Aluminium Alloy AA 6061-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, S.; Jaswanthvenkatram, V.; Sai kumar, Y. J. N. V.; Sohaib, S. Md.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the design and analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade hub using different material. The hub is very crucial part of the wind turbine, which experience the loads from the blades and the loads were transmitted to the main shaft. At present wind turbine is more expensive and weights more than a million pounds, with the nacelle, rotor hub and blades accounting for most of the weight. In this work Spheroidal graphite cast iron GGG 40.3 is replaced by aluminium alloy 6061-T6 to enhance the casting properties and also to improve the strength-weight ratio. This transition of material leads to reduction in weight of the wind turbine. All the loads caused by wind and extreme loads on the blades are transferred to the hub. Considering the IEC 61400-1 standard for defining extreme loads on the hub the stress and deflection were calculated on the hub by using Finite element Analysis. Result obtained from ANSYS is compared and discussed with the existing design.

  2. SUN HUB – ENERGY HUB FOR OUTDOOR TABLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Solar cells integrated into products are attracting more and more attention especially due to the dramatically declining cost of solar cells. Furthermore, we are getting more dependent on portable units like mobile phones, tablets and PCs which has to be charged to be of any use. Especially on fe...... Sun Hubs to monitor the overall energy system and the consumption of each functionality in the table....

  3. Optimal hub location in pipeline networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, D.R.; Wirasinghe, S.C.; Chakma, A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses optimization strategies and techniques for the location of natural gas marketing hubs in the North American gas pipeline network. A hub is a facility at which inbound and outbound network links meet and freight is redirected towards their destinations. Common examples of hubs used in the gas pipeline industry include gas plants, interconnects and market centers. Characteristics of the gas pipeline industry which are relevant to the optimization of transportation costs using hubs are presented. Allocation techniques for solving location-allocation problems are discussed. An outline of the research in process by the authors in the field of optimal gas hub location concludes the paper.

  4. An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Gerstl, Stephan S. A.; Chin, Jackson; Hirschi, Blake; Evans, James. E.

    2017-05-02

    Environmental control during transfer between instruments is required for specimens sensitive to air or thermal exposure to prevent morphological or chemical changes. Atom Probe Tomography is an expanding technique but commercial instruments remain limited to loading under ambient conditions. Here we describe a multifunctional environmental transfer hub allowing controlled cryogenic, atmospheric and vacuum transfer between an Atom Probe and other instruments containing separate chambers to allow downstream time-resolved in-situ studies.

  5. The dynamics of cavity clusters in ultrasonic (vibratory) cavitation erosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, I.; Mørch, Knud Aage

    1980-01-01

    The erosion of solids caused by cavitating liquids is a result of the concerted collapse of clusters of cavities. In vibratory cavitation equipment the clusters grow and collapse adjacent to a solid surface and are typically of hemispherical or cylindrical form. In the present paper the collapse...... process of these clusters is described and the collapse equations are developed and solved. The theoretical results are compared with results from high-speed photography of the clusters and with the initial stages of cavitation erosion on metal specimens. Experimental and theoretical results show...

  6. Used Furan Sand Reclamation in REGMAS Vibratory Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper, especially dealt with problems of reclamation of used furan sand, carried out in new, vibratory sand reclamation unit REGMAS developed by researches from AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering in Cracow (Poland. Functional characteristics of reclamation unit as well as the results of reclamation of used sand with furfuryl resin are discussed in the paper. The quality of reclaim was tested by means of the LOI and pH value, dust content in the reclaim and at least by the the quality of the castings produced in moulds prepared with the use of reclaimed matrix.

  7. How Big is Too Big for Hubs: Marginal Profitability in Hub-and-Spoke Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Leola B.; Schmidt, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing the scale of hub operations at major airports has led to concerns about congestion at excessively large hubs. In this paper, we estimate the marginal cost of adding spokes to an existing hub network. We observe entry/non-entry decisions on potential spokes from existing hubs, and estimate both a variable profit function for providing service in markets using that spoke as well as the fixed costs of providing service to the spoke. We let the fixed costs depend upon the scale of operations at the hub, and find the hub size at which spoke service costs are minimized.

  8. Field Tests to Investigate the Penetration Rate of Piles Driven by Vibratory Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors directly affecting the penetration rate of piles installed by vibratory driving technique are summarized and classified into seven aspects which are driving force, resistance, vibratory amplitude, energy consumption, speeding up at the beginning, pile plumbness keeping, and slowing down at the end, from the mechanism and engineering practice of the vibratory pile driving. In order to find out how these factors affect the penetration rate of the pile in three major actors of vibratory pile driving: (i the pile to be driven, (ii the selected driving system, and (iii the imposed soil conditions, field tests on steel sheet piles driven by vibratory driving technique in different soil conditions are conducted. The penetration rates of three different sheet pile types having up to four different lengths installed using two different vibratory driving systems are documented. Piles with different lengths and types driven with or without clutch have different penetration rates. The working parameters of vibratory hammer, such as driving force and vibratory amplitude, have great influences on the penetration rate of the pile, especially at the later stages of the sinking process. Penetration rate of piles driven in different soil conditions is uniform because of the different penetration resistance including shaft friction and toe resistance.

  9. Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an initial high level strategy for carrying out the responsibilities of the national Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub to deliver a standards based service...

  10. Mechanical Design, Analysis, and Testing of a Two-Bladed Wind Turbine Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, J.

    2002-06-01

    Researchers at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in Golden, Colorado, began performing the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment in 1993 to better understand the unsteady aerodynamics and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines. The experiment consists of an extensively instrumented, downwind, three-bladed, 20-kilowatt wind turbine. In May 1995, I received a request from the NWTC to design a two-bladed hub for the experiment. For my thesis, I present the results of the mechanical design, analysis, and testing of the hub. The hub I designed is unique because it runs in rigid, teetering, or independent blade-flapping modes. In addition, the design is unusual because it uses two servomotors to pitch the blades independently. These features are used to investigate new load reduction, noise reduction, blade pitch optimization, and yaw control techniques for two-bladed turbines. I used a methodology by G. Phal and W. Bietz to design the hub. The hub meets all the performance specifications except that it achieves only 90% of the specified teeter range. In my thesis, I focus on the analysis and testing of the hub body. I performed solid-mechanics calculations, ran a finite-element analysis simulation, and experimentally investigated the structural integrity of the hub body.

  11. Logistics hubs: an integration of transport infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Logistics hubs are very well established internationally and many examples exist where these have been successfully built and implemented. This success have lead to the proliferation of such hubs and in South Africa there are many "decision makers...

  12. Innovation Hub How-To

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Firms around the world are eager to replicate the successes of enterprises that have established innovation labs in California's Silicon Valley. An analysis of four leading US companies that have set up idea incubators in the Valley—Xerox, Apple, Google, and Cisco—point to eight factors for success...... in establishing an innovative environment: carefully considering the decision to set up such a center, hiring the right people, designing a framework for effective output, creating a buffer from bureaucratic distractions, securing a leader to champion the effort, focusing on business outcomes, fostering...... disruptive over incremental innovation, and being patient. Regardless of where an innovation hub is established, the key to success lies in hiring creative, intrinsically motivated staff and then giving them the freedom to do what they do best....

  13. Dynamic hubs show competitive and static hubs non-competitive regulation of their interaction partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurv Goel

    Full Text Available Date hub proteins have 1 or 2 interaction interfaces but many interaction partners. This raises the question of whether all partner proteins compete for the interaction interface of the hub or if the cell carefully regulates aspects of this process? Here, we have used real-time rendering of protein interaction networks to analyse the interactions of all the 1 or 2 interface hubs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the cell cycle. By integrating previously determined structural and gene expression data, and visually hiding the nodes (proteins and their edges (interactions during their troughs of expression, we predict when interactions of hubs and their partners are likely to exist. This revealed that 20 out of all 36 one- or two- interface hubs in the yeast interactome fell within two main groups. The first was dynamic hubs with static partners, which can be considered as 'competitive hubs'. Their interaction partners will compete for the interaction interface of the hub and the success of any interaction will be dictated by the kinetics of interaction (abundance and affinity and subcellular localisation. The second was static hubs with dynamic partners, which we term 'non-competitive hubs'. Regulatory mechanisms are finely tuned to lessen the presence and/or effects of competition between the interaction partners of the hub. It is possible that these regulatory processes may also be used by the cell for the regulation of other, non-cell cycle processes.

  14. Adaptive Control of a Vibratory Angle Measuring Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungsu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control algorithm for realizing a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope so that rotation angle can be directly measured without integration of angular rate, thus eliminating the accumulation of numerical integration errors. The proposed control algorithm uses a trajectory following approach and the reference trajectory is generated by an ideal angle measuring gyroscope driven by the estimate of angular rate and the auxiliary sinusoidal input so that the persistent excitation condition is satisfied. The developed control algorithm can compensate for all types of fabrication imperfections such as coupled damping and stiffness, and mismatched stiffness and un-equal damping term in an on-line fashion. The simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed control algorithm that is capable of directly measuring rotation angle without the integration of angular rate. PMID:22163667

  15. Climate Change and Some Other Implications of Vibratory Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn McLaren

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern Process Philosophy began when Alfred North Whitehead realized that existence is primarily vibratory, not points but processes. Vibrations are best understood as sound waves, or through using auditory metaphors rather than visual ones. Our Universe is more like music than matter, but how does this help us better understand it? In this paper I use the example of the large ocean current oscillators that help drive our climate systems to reveal the more effective nature of auditory approaches. Through an auditory approach, we can better understand the ways these oscillations constrain and interact with other levels of oscillations as well as how they might be destroyed by other levels. This can then lead to us extending our ethics to the conservation of these oscillations.

  16. The Numerical FEM Model of the Kinematics of the Vibratory Shot Peening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Bławucki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of numerical calculations, with the finite element method in the ABAQUS program environment, of the vibratory shot peening process with loose peening elements. The behaviour of shot peening elements was analysed in the kinematic aspect. The impact of the initial deployment of vibratory shot peening elements on their behaviour during processing was investigated, including the displacement, velocity, acceleration and the number of collisions. The way of determining the effectiveness of the processing with the vibratory shot peening was illustrated.

  17. Electroejaculation versus vibratory stimulation in spinal cord injured men: sperm quality and patient preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, D A; Sønksen, J; Menge, A C; McCabe, M; Keller, L M

    1997-06-01

    We compared semen quality and patient preference between penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation in spinal cord injured men. We treated 11 spinal cord injured men with penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation in random order. End points examined were semen analysis, sperm functional assessment, and patient pain scores (1 to 10) and preferred procedure. Differences between the procedures were determined with the paired Student t test. There was no difference in antegrade sperm count but penile vibratory stimulation specimens had greater motility (26.0 versus 10.7%), viability (25.2 versus 9.7%) and motile sperm count (185.0 x 10(6) versus 97.0 x 10(6)). The retrograde sperm count was greater (but not significant) in electroejaculation patients. The total (antegrade plus retrograde) and motile sperm counts were not different. There was no difference in immunobead test (all negative), cervical mucus penetration or sperm penetration assay, although the percent hamster egg penetration approached significance (53.7% for penile vibratory stimulation versus 22.1% for electroejaculation, p = 0.06). There was no difference in the peak blood pressures and no complications were noted. Pain scores were significantly greater for electroejaculation compared to penile vibratory stimulation (5.2 versus 1.7, respectively). All patients preferred penile vibratory stimulation. There was a slight advantage in sperm quality and a high patient preference in favor of penile vibratory stimulation. Penile vibratory stimulation should be attempted first to induce ejaculation in spinal cord injured men, with electroejaculation reserved for failures.

  18. Sphincteric events during penile vibratory ejaculation and electroejaculation in men with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønksen, J; Ohl, D A; Wedemeyer, G

    2001-02-01

    We investigate internal and external sphincter responses during penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation in men with spinal cord injury. Ejaculation induction with simultaneous recording of external and internal sphincter pressures was performed in 9 spinal cord injured men. Of the patients with upper motor neuron lesions 3 underwent penile vibratory stimulation and 3 underwent electroejaculation. In 3 men who did not respond to PVS, including 1 with upper motor neuron and 2 with lower motor neuron lesions, penile vibratory stimulation and subsequent electroejaculation were performed. In successful penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation upper motor neuron cases external sphincter pressure first reached a peak (average 180 cm. H2O) and subsequently decrease followed in 3 to 10 seconds by a peak in internal sphincter pressure (average 178 cm. H2O), which exceeded external sphincter pressure and ejaculation occurred. During electroejaculation, the pattern progressed, despite complete discontinuation of electrical stimulation. In electroejaculation, there was a trend for a more rapid return of external sphincter pressure greater than internal sphincter pressure, which may explain the electroejaculation retrograde fraction. In nonresponders external sphincter pressure never increased to more than 105 cm. H2O in response to penile vibratory stimulation and no ejaculation was induced. In nonresponders to penile vibratory stimulation, electroejaculation induced a typical sustained increase in internal sphincter pressure and external sphincter pressure but at lower peak pressures. Forceful contraction of the external sphincter followed by contraction of the internal sphincter always precedes ejaculation during electroejaculation and penile vibratory stimulation. Similarities between penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation suggest that the latter induces ejaculation via a complex neurological pathway rather than by simple direct end organ

  19. Jean-Martin Charcot and his vibratory chair for Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G

    2009-08-11

    Vibration therapy is currently used in diverse medical specialties ranging from orthopedics to urology to sports medicine. The celebrated 19th-century neurologist, J.-M. Charcot, used vibratory therapy to treat Parkinson disease (PD). This study analyzed printed writings by Charcot and other writers on vibratory therapy and accessed unpublished notes from the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris. Charcot lectured on several occasions on vibratory therapy and its neurologic applications. He developed a vibration chair for patients with PD after he observed that patients were more comfortable and slept better after a train or carriage ride. He replicated this experience by having patients undergo daily 30-minute sessions in the automated vibratory chair (fauteuil trépidant). His junior colleague, Gilles de la Tourette, extended these observations and developed a helmet that vibrated the head on the premise that the brain responded directly to the pulsations. Although after Charcot's death vibratory therapy was not widely pursued, vibratory appliances are reemerging in 21st century medicine and can be retested using adaptations of Charcot's neurologic protocols.

  20. Vocal fold vibratory characteristics of healthy geriatric females--analysis of high-speed digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kartini; Yan, Yuling; Bless, Diane

    2012-11-01

    A high proportion of the geriatric population suffers from presbylaryngis and presbyphonia; however, our knowledge of vibratory patterns in this population is almost nonexistent. In this study, we investigate the vocal fold vibratory patterns of healthy elderly females to determine which features or combination of them could best describe the geriatric voices. Cross-sectional study with 20 elderly healthy females with no history of voice problems. Hilbert transformed glottal area waveforms (GAWs) from serial high-speed digital imaging of sustained phonation are used to provide quantitative measures of glottal vibratory characteristics and perturbations; open quotient, jitter, and shimmer. Nyquist plots provide interpretable patterns to portray the vibratory characteristics as clear, pressed, breathy, and atypical patterns. The GAW from most elderly speakers (50%) showed vibratory characteristics associated with a more pressed voice and higher glottal perturbation values: their Nyquist plot patterns show wide scatterings around the rim of the plot reflecting a much-reduced ability in sustaining vibratory oscillation; these were distinct differences from previously reported data on younger speakers. Qualitative examination revealed more anteriorly placed glottal gaps in the geriatric females. These findings have important implications in understanding voice production in the geriatric population and in helping to establish normal perturbation references among female speakers across age. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  1. Semen quality of spinal cord injured men is better when obtained by vibratory stimulation versus electroejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, N L; Padron, O F; Lynne, C M

    1997-01-01

    Most spinal cord injured men require assisted ejaculation procedures to obtain semen, and the majority can achieve this result by vibratory stimulation or electroejaculation. We determined if semen obtained by vibratory stimulation differed in quality from that obtained by electroejaculation. Between subjects and within subjects designs were used. Of 77 spinal cord injured men 23 underwent vibratory stimulation only, 44 electroejaculation only and 10 both procedures. Antegrade, retrograde and total ejaculates were analyzed in each subject for total sperm count, percent motile sperm and percent sperm with rapid linear motion. With vibratory stimulation compared to electroejaculation the percent motile sperm and percent sperm with rapid linear motion were significantly greater, whereas total sperm count was similar, in the antegrade specimens and total ejaculates. This finding was true for different groups of subjects as well as within a group of the same subjects. Semen obtained by vibratory stimulation is of better quality than that obtained by electroejaculation. In medical practices that include assisted ejaculation of spinal cord injured men, we recommend obtaining a specimen by vibratory stimulation. If that method fails electroejaculation should be performed.

  2. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  3. Investigation of Rotor Performance and Loads of a UH-60A Individual Blade Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Romander, Ethan A.; Norman, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel measurements of performance, loads, and vibration of a full-scale UH-60A Black Hawk main rotor with an individual blade control (IBC) system are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive helicopter analysis CAMRAD II and a coupled CAMRAD II/OVERFLOW 2 analysis. Measured data show a 5.1% rotor power reduction (8.6% rotor lift to effective-drag ratio increase) using 2/rev IBC actuation with 2.0 amplitude at = 0.4. At the optimum IBC phase for rotor performance, IBC actuator force (pitch link force) decreased, and neither flap nor chord bending moments changed significantly. CAMRAD II predicts the rotor power variations with the IBC phase reasonably well at = 0.35. However, the correlation degrades at = 0.4. Coupled CAMRAD II/OVERFLOW 2 shows excellent correlation with the measured rotor power variations with the IBC phase at both = 0.35 and = 0.4. Maximum reduction of IBC actuator force is better predicted with CAMRAD II, but general trends are better captured with the coupled analysis. The correlation of vibratory hub loads is generally poor by both methods, although the coupled analysis somewhat captures general trends.

  4. Emerging hubs in phantom perception connectomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain networks are small-world networks typically characterized by the presence of hubs, i.e. nodes that have significantly greater number of links in comparison to other nodes in the network. These hubs act as short cuts in the network and promote long-distance connectivity. Long-distance connections increase the efficiency of information transfer but also increase the cost of the network. Brain disorders are associated with an altered brain connectome which reflects either as a complete change in the network topology, as in, the replacement of hubs or as an alteration in the connectivity between the hubs while retaining network structure. The current study compares the network topology of binary and weighted networks in tinnitus patients and healthy controls by studying the hubs of the two networks in different oscillatory bands. The EEG of 311 tinnitus patients and 256 control subjects are recorded, pre-processed and source-localized using sLORETA. The hubs of the different binary and weighted networks are identified using different measures of network centrality. The results suggest that the tinnitus and control networks are distinct in all the frequency bands but substantially overlap in the gamma frequency band. The differences in network topology in the tinnitus and control groups in the delta, theta and the higher beta bands are driven by a change in hubs as well as network connectivity; in the alpha band by changes in hubs alone and in the gamma band by changes in network connectivity. Thus the brain seems to employ different frequency band-dependent adaptive mechanisms trying to compensate for auditory deafferentation.

  5. Error Model and Compensation of Bell-Shaped Vibratory Gyro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing

    2015-09-17

    A bell-shaped vibratory angular velocity gyro (BVG), inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a type of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. This paper focuses on development of an error model and compensation of the BVG. A dynamic equation is firstly established, based on a study of the BVG working mechanism. This equation is then used to evaluate the relationship between the angular rate output signal and bell-shaped resonator character, analyze the influence of the main error sources and set up an error model for the BVG. The error sources are classified from the error propagation characteristics, and the compensation method is presented based on the error model. Finally, using the error model and compensation method, the BVG is calibrated experimentally including rough compensation, temperature and bias compensation, scale factor compensation and noise filter. The experimentally obtained bias instability is from 20.5°/h to 4.7°/h, the random walk is from 2.8°/h(1/2) to 0.7°/h(1/2) and the nonlinearity is from 0.2% to 0.03%. Based on the error compensation, it is shown that there is a good linear relationship between the sensing signal and the angular velocity, suggesting that the BVG is a good candidate for the field of low and medium rotational speed measurement.

  6. Design and Development of an Integrated Workstation Automation Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andrew; Ghatikar, Girish; Sartor, Dale; Lanzisera, Steven

    2015-03-30

    Miscellaneous Electronic Loads (MELs) account for one third of all electricity consumption in U.S. commercial buildings, and are drivers for a significant energy use in India. Many of the MEL-specific plug-load devices are concentrated at workstations in offices. The use of intelligence, and integrated controls and communications at the workstation for an Office Automation Hub – offers the opportunity to improve both energy efficiency and occupant comfort, along with services for Smart Grid operations. Software and hardware solutions are available from a wide array of vendors for the different components, but an integrated system with interoperable communications is yet to be developed and deployed. In this study, we propose system- and component-level specifications for the Office Automation Hub, their functions, and a prioritized list for the design of a proof-of-concept system. Leveraging the strength of both the U.S. and India technology sectors, this specification serves as a guide for researchers and industry in both countries to support the development, testing, and evaluation of a prototype product. Further evaluation of such integrated technologies for performance and cost is necessary to identify the potential to reduce energy consumptions in MELs and to improve occupant comfort.

  7. KINEMATIC ANALYSES OF THE GOLF SWING HUB PATH AND ITS ROLE IN GOLFER/CLUB KINETIC TRANSFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the fundamental geometric and kinematic characteristics of the swing hub path of the golf shot for four diverse subjects. In addition, the role of the hub path geometry in transferring the kinetic quantities from the golfer to the club were investigated. The hub path was found to have a complex geometry with significantly changing radii, and a constantly moving center-of-curvature during the downswing for all subjects. While the size and shape of the hub path differed considerably among the subjects, a three phase radius-based pattern was revealed that aligned with distinct stages of the downswing. Artificially controlling and optimizing the hub path of the better golfer in the group indicated that a non-circular hub path was superior to a constant radius path in minimizing the kinetic loading while generating the highest possible club head velocity. The shape and purpose of the hub path geometry appears to result from a complex combination of achieving equilibrium between the golfer and the club, and a purposeful configuring of the path to control the outward movement of the club while minimizing the kinetic loading on the golfer yet transferring the maximum kinetic quantities to the club. Describing the downswing relative to the hub path phasing is presented and was found to be informative since the phases align with significant swing, kinetic and kinematic markers. These findings challenge golf swing modeling methodologies which fix the center-of-curvature of the hub path thus constraining it to constant radius motion

  8. Using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT) in Cytoscape to Identify Contextually Relevant Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Lynn, David J

    2017-09-13

    Highly connected nodes in biological networks are called network hubs. Hubs are topologically important to the structure of the network and have been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), an application within Cytoscape 3, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene or protein expression data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes than expected by chance. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew; Reislev, Nina Linde; Garde, Ellen; Nielsen, Mads; Feragen, Aasa

    2016-03-01

    A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied, but can smooth discriminative signals in the population, degrading predictive performance. We present a novel hub-detection optimized for supervised learning that both clusters network nodes based on population level variation in connectivity and also takes the learning problem into account. The found hubs are a low-dimensional representation of the network and are chosen based on predictive performance as features for a linear regression. We apply our method to the problem of finding age-related changes in structural connectivity. We compare our supervised hub-detection (SHD) to an unsupervised hub-detection and a linear regression using the original network connections as features. The results show that the SHD is able to retain regression performance, while still finding hubs that represent the underlying variation in the population. Although here we applied the SHD to brain networks, it can be applied to any network regression problem. Further development of the presented algorithm will be the extension to other predictive models such as classification or non-linear regression.

  10. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat).

  11. Interference of Overlapping Insect Vibratory Communication Signals: An Eushistus heros Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Čokl

    Full Text Available Plants limit the range of insect substrate-borne vibratory communication by their architecture and mechanical properties that change transmitted signal time, amplitude and frequency characteristics. Stinkbugs gain higher signal-to-noise ratio and increase communication distance by emitting narrowband low frequency vibratory signals that are tuned with transmission properties of plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate hitherto overlooked consequences of duetting with mutually overlapped narrowband vibratory signals. The overlapped vibrations of the model stinkbug species Eushistus heros, produced naturally or induced artificially on different plants, have been analysed. They represent female and male strategies to preserve information within a complex masked signal. The brown stinkbugs E. heros communicate with species and gender specific vibratory signals that constitute characteristic duets in the calling, courtship and rivalry phases of mating behaviour. The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse. Overlapping of signals induces interference that changes their amplitude pattern to a sequence of regularly repeated pulses in which their duration and the difference between frequencies of overlapped vibrations are related inversely. Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains. In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls.

  12. Detecting functional hubs of ictogenic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubler, Frederic; Gast, Heidemarie; Abela, Eugenio; Rummel, Christian; Hauf, Martinus; Wiest, Roland; Pollo, Claudio; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative EEG (qEEG) has modified our understanding of epileptic seizures, shifting our view from the traditionally accepted hyper-synchrony paradigm toward more complex models based on re-organization of functional networks. However, qEEG measurements are so far rarely considered during the clinical decision-making process. To better understand the dynamics of intracranial EEG signals, we examine a functional network derived from the quantification of information flow between intracranial EEG signals. Using transfer entropy, we analyzed 198 seizures from 27 patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. During each seizure we considered for each network the in-, out- and total "hubs", defined respectively as the time and the EEG channels with the maximal incoming, outgoing or total (bidirectional) information flow. In the majority of cases we found that the hubs occur around the middle of seizures, and interestingly not at the beginning or end, where the most dramatic EEG signal changes are found by visual inspection. For the patients who then underwent surgery, good postoperative clinical outcome was on average associated with a higher percentage of out- or total-hubs located in the resected area (for out-hubs p = 0.01, for total-hubs p = 0.04). The location of in-hubs showed no clear predictive value. We conclude that the study of functional networks based on qEEG measurements may help to identify brain areas that are critical for seizure generation and are thus potential targets for focused therapeutic interventions.

  13. Hub Status and Indexation of Container Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-An Park

    2015-06-01

    This study develops two sub-indexes of port classification and capacity, and combines cases of these two sub-indexes into various types in order to find a proper port hub index. The paper demonstrates how different types of port hub index are useful measurements for evaluating outputs and inputs of container ports. In a case analysis we show that the indexes of period variables and lagged variables have more explanatory power with regard to changes of port throughputs and high correlation with inputs.

  14. Optimal Expansion Co-Planning of Reconfigurable Electricity and Natural Gas Distribution Systems Incorporating Energy Hubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzheng Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a carbon-constrained world, natural gas with low emission intensity plays an important role in the energy consumption area. Energy consumers and distribution networks are linked via energy hubs. Meanwhile, reconfiguration that optimizes operational performance while maintaining a radial network topology is a worldwide technique in the electricity distribution system. To improve the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure, the expansion of electricity distribution lines and elements within energy hubs should be co-planned. In this paper, the co-planning process is modeled as a mixed integer quadratic programming problem to handle conflicting objectives simultaneously. We propose a novel model to identify the optimal co-expansion plan in terms of total cost. Operational factors including energy storages and reconfiguration are considered within the systems to serve electricity, cooling and heating loads. Reconfiguration and elements in energy hubs can avoid or defer new elements’ installation to minimize the investment cost, maintenance cost, operation cost, and interruption cost in the planning horizon. The proposed co-planning approach is verified on 3 and 12-node electricity and natural gas distribution systems coupled via energy hubs. Numerical results show the ability of our proposed expansion co-planning approach based on energy hub in meeting energy demand.

  15. The effect of penile vibratory stimulation on male fertility potential, spasticity and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Læssøe, Line; Sønksen, J

    2005-01-01

    Present the possibility for treatment of male infertility, spasticity, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned (SCL) individuals with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS).......Present the possibility for treatment of male infertility, spasticity, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned (SCL) individuals with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS)....

  16. Structural Calculations of Drip Shield Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Mastilovic

    2003-06-16

    The objective of this calculation is twofold. First, to determine whether or not separation of interlocking drip shield (DS) segments occurs during vibratory ground motion. Second, if DS separation does not occur, to estimate the area of the DS for which the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit. (The area of DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 [see Attachment I] where the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit will be, for brevity, referred to as ''the damaged area'' throughout this document; also, DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 will be referred to, for brevity, as ''DS plates'' henceforth.) The stress limit used throughout this document is defined as 50 percent of yield strength of the DS plate material, Titanium Grade 7 (Ti-7) (SB-265 R52400), at temperature of 150 C. A set of 15 calculations is performed at two different annual frequencies of occurrence (annual exceedance frequency): 10{sup -6} per year (1/yr) and 10{sup -7} 1/yr . (Note: Due to computational problems only five realizations at 10{sup -7} 1/yr are presented in this document.) Additionally, one calculation is performed at the annual frequency of occurrence of 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} 1/yr. The scope of this document is limited to reporting whether or not the DS separation occurs. If the DS separation does not occur the scope is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of the damaged area. All these results are evaluated for the DS plates. This calculation is intended for use in support of the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application seismicity modeling. This calculation is associated with the DS design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses'' (Ref. 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The DS is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref. 5, p. 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance

  17. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  18. Hubs and spokes in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2017-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries are involved in much more RTAs than others. Furthermore, some countries take in a position as a hub: they have trade agreements with many other countries, while their partner countries are much less involved in RTA relations. Even

  19. Twin hub network : Identificatie van kansrijke netwerken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Macharis, C.; Meers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Twin hub network gaat over de bundeling rail container stromen van en naar de zeehavens Rotterdam en Antwerpen en van kleinere zeehavens in de range Duinkerken – Amsterdam. Door de bundeling moet het mogelijk worden om grotere treinladingen en/of hogere treinfrequenties te organiseren en meer inland

  20. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied, but ...... network regression problem. Further development of the presented algorithm will be the extension to other predictive models such as classification or non-linear regression....... hubs are a low-dimensional representation of the network and are chosen based on predictive performance as features for a linear regression. We apply our method to the problem of finding age-related changes in structural connectivity. We compare our supervised hub-detection (SHD) to an unsupervised hub......-detection and a linear regression using the original network connections as features. The results show that the SHD is able to retain regression performance, while still finding hubs that represent the underlying variation in the population. Although here we applied the SHD to brain networks, it can be applied to any...

  1. Emerging Education Hubs: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder; Ho, K.-C.; Yeoh, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of a globalising post-Fordist political economy, countries and universities are increasingly pursuing strategic transnational education and research alliances. This article analyses the Global Schoolhouse, a key education policy platform that aims to transform Singapore into a knowledge and innovation hub by establishing networks…

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Composites Using Smart Materials and Optimization Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chattopadhyay, A

    2001-01-01

    The vibratory load reduction at rotor hub using self-sensing piezoelectric material and closed loop control is investigated, A composite box beam theory is developed to model the primary load carrying...

  3. Formation of Hub Cities: Transportation Cost Advantage and Population Agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Hideo Konishi

    1999-01-01

    Many cities are located on rivers or coasts. This paper argues that such cities developed as transportation hubs or markets for interregional trade, since these locations provide better access (lower marginal transportation costs) to other regions. Local products are collected at such hubs, and interregional trade then takes place among these transportation hubs. As the volume of trade between hubs increases, more workers are needed in order to meet labor demand for shipping and handling comm...

  4. The Regional Dimension of Education Hubs: Leading and Brokering Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in the last decade in Asia and the Middle East. These ambitious policy initiatives share a common interest in cross-border higher education even though diverse rationales underpin their development. While some claim to be an international education hub, others claim to be a regional education hub or…

  5. Southwest Regional Climate Hub and California Subsidiary Hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Elias; Caiti Steele; Kris Havstad; Kerri Steenwerth; Jeanne Chambers; Helena Deswood; Amber Kerr; Albert Rango; Mark Schwartz; Peter Stine; Rachel Steele

    2015-01-01

    This report is a joint effort of the Southwest Regional Climate Hub and the California Subsidiary Hub (Sub Hub). The Southwest Regional Climate Hub covers Arizona, California, Hawai‘i and the U.S. affiliated Pacific Islands, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah and contains vast areas of western rangeland, forests, and high-value specialty crops (Figure 1). The California Sub...

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of the transport of granular materials by inclined vibratory conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, E.M.; Sloot, E.M.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was made of the conveying speed with which granular materials are transported by vibratory conveyors. The basic assumption made is that the layer of granular material can be considered as a point mass. The theory incorporates rest, slide, and flight phases of the

  7. Considerations Concerning the Dynamics of Vibratory Mills Used in Powders’ Mechanical Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Panaitescu-Liess

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic mechanical milling process in a powder mill was studied by analyzing the vibratory effects of vibration and shock phenomena on the material microstructure ground. During the milling process, there were noticed both distinct modes of ball motion: the one generated by the periodic vibration and the one produced by chaotic vibration.

  8. Effects of vibratory pile driver noise on echolocation and vigilance in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Brian K; Bowman, Victoria F; Houser, Dorian S; Tormey, Megan; Banks, Patchouly; Finneran, James J; Jenkins, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Vibratory pile drivers, used for marine construction, can produce sustained, high sound pressure levels (SPLs) in areas that overlap with dolphin habitats. Dolphins rely on echolocation for navigation, detecting predators and prey, and to coordinate group behavior. This study examined the effects of vibratory pile driver noise on dolphin sustained target detection capabilities through echolocation. Five dolphins were required to scan their enclosure and indicate the occurrences of phantom echoes during five different source levels of vibratory pile driver playback sound (no-playback control, 110, 120, 130, and 140 dB re 1 μPa). Three of the dolphins demonstrated a significant decrease in target detection performance at 140 dB playback level that was associated with an almost complete secession of echolocation activity. The performance of two dolphins was not affected. All dolphins rapidly returned to baseline levels of target detection performance by their second replication. However, an increased number of clicks was produced at the highest playback SPL. The data suggest that the decrease in vigilant behavior was due to the vibratory pile driver noise distracting the dolphins and decreasing their motivation to perform the task.

  9. Wave radiation from vibratory and impact pile driving in a layered acousto-elastic medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A.

    2014-01-01

    A steel monopile is the most common foundation type of a wind turbine installed offshore and is driven into place with the help of vibratory or impact hammers. Underwater noise generated during the installation of steel monopiles has recently received considerable attention from international

  10. Assessment of Penile Vibratory Stimulation as a Management Strategy in Men with Secondary Retarded Orgasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christian J.; Ahmed, Absaar; Valenzuela, Rolando; Parker, Marilyn; Mulhall, John P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of penile vibratory stimulation for the management of retarded orgasm. Retarded orgasm, a condition characterized by difficulty achieving orgasm and ejaculation, is one of the most recalcitrant of the male sexual dysfunctions. Currently, no evidence-based treatments have been proven to ameliorate this condition. METHODS Men who had a complete inability to achieve an orgasm during sexual relations in the previous 3 months were instructed in the use of penile vibratory stimulation. The men’s responses were measured by self-report of orgasm function and using the orgasm and satisfaction domains of the International Index of Erectile Function. The responses were assessed at baseline (admission into the study) and at 3 and 6 months. RESULTS A total of 36 men met the inclusion criteria, and 72% reported the restoration of orgasm. These responders reported that orgasm during sexual relations occurred 62% of the time. A statistically and clinically significant increase occurred in the orgasm and satisfaction domains of the International Index of Erectile Function between the baseline visit and the 3-month follow-up visit. These gains were sustained at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Penile vibratory stimulation is an effective treatment for retarded orgasm. Penile vibratory stimulation should be integrated into current cognitive-behavioral sex therapy techniques to achieve maximal effectiveness and satisfaction. PMID:17382163

  11. Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to analyze whether vibratory insoles enhance balance stability for elderly fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Chih; Yang, Wen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a common and devastating problem among elderly people. In a previous study, vibratory insoles were developed to improve postural stability for elderly fallers. To verify the effects of vibratory insoles, a two-stage experiment was conducted to collect center of pressure (COP) signals from 26 elderly fallers and 16 healthy young subjects while standing still. The DFA is used to analyze the behavior of different time-series data obtained from the trajectory of COP. Postural stability was compared by the DFA scaling exponent between a control condition (before using vibratory insoles) and a vibration condition (after using vibratory insoles). For elderly fallers, DFA scaling exponents 95% confidence interval were [1.434, 1.547] and [1.329, 1.451] under control and vibration conditions in the anteroposterior (AP) direction, respectively. The experimental results revealed that temporary stimuli of appropriate amplitude produced by vibration insoles enhanced postural stability in elderly fallers and was more obvious in the AP direction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Ian L.

    Over the past decade, a significant amount of research activity has been devoted to developing electromechanical systems that can convert ambient mechanical vibrations into usable electric power. Such systems, referred to as vibratory energy harvesters, have a number of useful of applications, ranging in scale from self-powered wireless sensors for structural health monitoring in bridges and buildings to energy harvesting from ocean waves. One of the most challenging aspects of this technology concerns the efficient extraction and transmission of power from transducer to storage. Maximizing the rate of power extraction from vibratory energy harvesters is further complicated by the stochastic nature of the disturbance. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to develop feedback control algorithms which optimize the average power generated from stochastically-excited vibratory energy harvesters. This dissertation will illustrate the performance of various controllers using two vibratory energy harvesting systems: an electromagnetic transducer embedded within a flexible structure, and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam. Compared with piezoelectric systems, large-scale electromagnetic systems have received much less attention in the literature despite their ability to generate power at the watt--kilowatt scale. Motivated by this observation, the first part of this dissertation focuses on developing an experimentally validated predictive model of an actively controlled electromagnetic transducer. Following this experimental analysis, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory is used to compute unconstrained state feedback controllers for two ideal vibratory energy harvesting systems. This theory is then augmented to account for competing objectives, nonlinearities in the harvester dynamics, and non-quadratic transmission loss models in the electronics. In many vibratory energy harvesting applications, employing a bi-directional power electronic drive to actively

  13. Reproductive Biology, Mating Behavior, and Vibratory Communication of the Brown-Winged Stink Bug, Edessa meditabunda (Fabr. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonor Cavalcante A. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe different aspects of the reproductive biology, mating behavior, and vibratory communication of the pentatomid Edessa meditabunda (Fabr.. This species shows lower copulation frequency and reproductive potential with longer sexual maturation period compared to other species of pentatomids. Females with multiple mating show increased fecundity when compared with single-mated females and both increased fecundity and reduced longevity when compared with virgin females. Courtship and mating behavior and vibratory signals are typical and similar to what was observed in other species of pentatomids, except that males started the courtship. These results constitute the first paper on biology, behavior, and vibratory communication among species of the subfamily Edessinae.

  14. Differences in joint-position sense and vibratory threshold in runners with and without a history of overuse injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switlick, Tiffany; Kernozek, Thomas W; Meardon, Stacey

    2015-02-01

    A relationship between altered postural control and injury has been reported in sports. Sensorimotor function serves a fundamental role in postural control and is not often studied in runners. Persons who sustain running injury may have altered sensorimotor function contributing to risk of injury or reinjury. To determine if differences in knee and ankle proprioception or plantar sensation exist between injured and noninjured runners. Retrospective case-control study. University campus. Twenty runners with a history of lower-extremity overuse injury and 20 noninjured runners were examined. Injured runners were subcategorized into 2 groups based on site of injury: foot/ankle and knee/hip. Active absolute joint-repositioning error of the ankle at 20° inversion and 10° eversion and the knee at 15° and 40° flexion was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. Vibratory threshold at the calcaneus, arch, and great toe was determined for each subject using a handheld electric sensory threshold instrument. Runners in the injured-foot/ankle group had increased absolute error during ankle-eversion repositioning (6.55° ± 3.58°) compared with those in the noninjured (4.04° ± 1.78°, P = .01) and the hip/knee (3.63° ± 2.2°, P = .01) groups. Runners in the injured group, as a whole, had greater sensitivity in the arch of the plantar surface (2.94 ± 0.52 V) than noninjured runners (2.38 ± 0.53 V, P = .02). Differences in ankle-eversion proprioception between runners with a history of ankle and foot injuries and noninjured runners were observed. Runners with a history of injury also displayed an increased vibratory threshold in the arch region compared with noninjured runners. Poor ankle-joint-position sense and increased plantar sensitivity suggest altered sensorimotor function after injury. These factors may influence underlying postural control and contribute to altered loading responses commonly observed in injured runners.

  15. Assessing inspection sensitivity as it relates to damage tolerance in composite rotor hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk

    2001-08-01

    Increasing niche applications, growing international markets, and the emergence of advanced rotorcraft technology are expected to greatly increase the population of helicopters over the next decade. In terms of fuselage fatigue, helicopters show similar trends as fixed-wing aircraft. The highly unsteady loads experienced by rotating wings not only directly affect components in the dynamic systems but are also transferred to the fixed airframe structure. Expanded use of rotorcraft has focused attention on the use of new materials and the optimization of maintenance practices. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center (AANC) at Sandia National Labs has joined with Bell Helicopter andother agencies in the rotorcraft industry to evaluate nondestructive inspection (NDI) capabilities in light of the damage tolerance of assorted rotorcraft structure components. Currently, the program's emphasis is on composite rotor hubs. The rotorcraft industry is constantly evaluating new types of lightweight composite materials that not only enhance the safety and reliability of rotor components but also improve performance and extended operating life as well. Composite rotor hubs have led to the use of bearingless rotor systems that are less complex and require less maintenance than their predecessors. The test facility described in this paper allows the structural stability and damage tolerance of composite hubs to be evaluated using realistic flight load spectrums of centrifugal force and bending loads. NDI was integrated into the life-cycle fatigue tests in order to evaluate flaw detection sensitivity simultaneously wiht residual strength and general rotor hub peformance. This paper will describe the evolving use of damage tolerance analysis (DTA) to direct and improve rotorcraft maintenance along with the related use of nondestructive inspections to manage helicopter safety. OVeralll, the data from this project will provide information to improve the producibility, inspectability

  16. Extension of Goldstein's circulation function for optimal rotors with hub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic interaction or interference between rotor blades and hub body is usually very complicated, but some useful simplifications can be made by considering the hub with an infinite cylinder. Various attempts to find the optimum distribution of circulation by the lifting vortex lines...... method have been previously proposed to describe the blade interaction with the hub modeled by the infinite cylinder. In this case, the ideal distribution of bound circulation on the rotor blades is such that the shed vortex system in the hub-area is a set of helicoidal vortex sheets moving uniformly...... as if rigid, exactly as in the case where there is no influence of the streamtube deformations by the central hub-body. In the present investigation, we consider a more specific problem of the rotor-hub interaction where the initial flow streamtubes and the rotor slipstream submitted strong deformations...

  17. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  18. IMPACT OF VIBRATORY AND ROTATIONAL SHOT PEENING ONTO SELECTED PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM ALLOY SURFACE LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zaleski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of tests on impact of vibratory and rotational shot peening of the Ti6A12Mo2Cr titanium alloy onto the processed object surface roughness and surface layer microhardness. The external surfaces of ring-shaped samples were shot peened. The preceding process consisted of turning with a cubic boron nitride blade knife. Steel beads, having a diameter of 6 mm, were used as a processing medium. The variable parameters of shot peening were vibrator amplitude and shot peening time. The range of recommended technological parameters for vibratory and rotational shot peening was determined. As a result of shot peening, the surface roughness could be reduced by approximately 4 times and the surface layer could be hardened to the depth of approximately 0.4 mm.

  19. Vibratory-compacted (vipac/sphere-pac) nuclear fuels - a comparison with pelletized nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, K.; Rubin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thompson, M

    2001-07-01

    In order to achieve the packing densities required for nuclear fuel stability, economy and performance, the fuel material must be densified. This has traditionally been performed by high-temperature sintering. (At one time, fuel densification was investigated using cold/hot swaging. However, this fabrication method has become uncommon.) Alternatively, fuel can be densified by vibratory compaction (VIPAC). During the late 1950's and into the 1970's, in the U.S., vibratory compaction fuel was fabricated and test irradiated to evaluate its applicability compared to the more traditional pelletized fuel for nuclear reactors. These activities were primarily focused on light water reactors (LWR) but some work was performed for fast reactors. This paper attempts to summarize these evaluations and proposes to reconsider VIPAC fuel for future use. (author)

  20. Vibratory sensory testing in acute compartment syndromes: a clinical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J H; Mackinnon, S E; Beatty, S E; Dellon, A L; O'Brien, J P

    1987-05-01

    Invasive and noninvasive diagnostic testing was correlated in 11 patients with acute compartmental syndromes of the forearm. The excellent correlation between diminished perception of vibration and increasing compartmental pressure suggested that 256 cycle per second (cps) vibratory stimuli may be useful clinically in determining the appropriate time for surgical intervention in the acute compartmental syndrome. In 12 adult male volunteers, elevated compartment pressures were created in the anterior tibial compartment of the leg. A decrease in perception to 256 cycle per second (cps) vibratory stimulus was the earliest sensory abnormality to occur with elevated tissue compartment pressures. Analysis of variance showed significantly that 256-cps vibration was the most reliable and earliest sensory modality to change at pressures of 35 to 40 mmHg. These clinical and experimental findings support the use of the 256-cps tuning fork as a noninvasive diagnostic test in the evaluation of the patient with suspected acute compartment syndrome.

  1. Testing and Life Prediction for Composite Rotor Hub Flexbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Gretchen B.

    2004-01-01

    A summary of several studies of delamination in tapered composite laminates with internal ply-drops is presented. Initial studies used 2D FE models to calculate interlaminar stresses at the ply-ending locations in linear tapered laminates under tension loading. Strain energy release rates for delamination in these laminates indicated that delamination would likely start at the juncture of the tapered and thin regions and grow unstably in both directions. Tests of glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy linear tapered laminates under axial tension delaminated as predicted. Nonlinear tapered specimens were cut from a full-size helicopter rotor hub and were tested under combined constant axial tension and cyclic transverse bending loading to simulate the loading experienced by a rotorhub flexbeam in flight. For all the tested specimens, delamination began at the tip of the outermost dropped ply group and grew first toward the tapered region. A 2D FE model was created that duplicated the test flexbeam layup, geometry, and loading. Surface strains calculated by the model agreed very closely with the measured surface strains in the specimens. The delamination patterns observed in the tests were simulated in the model by releasing pairs of MPCs along those interfaces. Strain energy release rates associated with the delamination growth were calculated for several configurations and using two different FE analysis codes. Calculations from the codes agreed very closely. The strain energy release rate results were used with material characterization data to predict fatigue delamination onset lives for nonlinear tapered flexbeams with two different ply-dropping schemes. The predicted curves agreed well with the test data for each case studied.

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of the transport of granular materials by inclined vibratory conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Sloot, E.M.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was made of the conveying speed with which granular materials are transported by vibratory conveyors. The basic assumption made is that the layer of granular material can be considered as a point mass. The theory incorporates rest, slide, and flight phases of the material. Although the emphasis of this study is on the effect of the inclination (and declination) of the conveyor on the conveying speed, the effects of throw number, friction coefficient and vi...

  3. The appropriation of GitHub for curation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available GitHub is a widely used online collaborative software development environment. In this paper, we describe curation projects as a new category of GitHub project that collects, evaluates, and preserves resources for software developers. We investigate: (1 what motivates software developers to curate resources; (2 why curation has occurred on GitHub; (3 how curated resources are used by software developers; and (4 how the GitHub platform could better support these practices. We conduct in-depth interviews with 16 software developers, each of whom hosts curation projects on GitHub. Our results suggest that the motivators that inspire software developers to curate resources on GitHub are similar to those that motivate them to participate in the development of open source projects. Convenient tools (e.g., Markdown syntax and Git version control system and the opportunity to address professional needs of a large number of peers attract developers to engage in curation projects on GitHub. Benefits of curating on GitHub include learning opportunities, support for development work, and professional interaction. However, curation is limited by GitHub’s document structure, format, and a lack of key features, such as search. In light of this, we propose design possibilities to encourage and improve appropriations of GitHub for curation.

  4. An Introduction to Version Control Using GitHub Desktop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel van Strien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson you will be introduced to the basics of version control, understand why it is useful and implement basic version control for a plain text document using GitHub Desktop. By the end of this lesson you should understand: * what version control is and why it can be useful * the differences between Git and GitHub * how to implement version control using ‘GitHub Desktop,’ a Graphical User Interface for GitHub * be aware of other resources that will help you implement version control in your academic writing

  5. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for solving the reliable multiple allocation hub location problem under hub disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Chaharsooghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The hub location problem (HLP is one of the strategic planning problems encountered in different contexts such as supply chain management, passenger and cargo transportation industries, and telecommunications. In this paper, we consider a reliable uncapacitated multiple allocation hub location problem under hub disruptions. It is assumed that every open hub facility can fail during its use and in such a case, the customers originally assigned to that hub, are either reassigned to other operational hubs or they do not receive service in which case a penalty must be paid. The problem is modeled as two-stage stochastic program and a metaheuristic algorithm based on the adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS is proposed. Extensive computational experiments based on the CAB and TR data sets are conducted. Results show the high efficiency of the proposed solution method.

  6. 3D Warping Actuation Driven Dynamic Camber Control Concept for Helicopter Rotor Blades Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a rotorcraft, optimized camber change not only reduces vibratory hub loads and noise but also increases available thrust and improved flight control augmentation....

  7. A versatile framework for cooperative hub network development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for cooperative hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for the transshipment of goods is expensive and, therefore, involves considerable risks for cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at

  8. The East African Resilience Innovation Hub | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The East African Resilience Innovation Hub. By 2025, poverty will primarily be centred in low-income, conflict and violence-affected African states. This project will invest in an East Africa research hub that will help resolve priority policy challenges related to violence, disaster, and conflict. Poverty, conflict, and development ...

  9. Education Hubs: A Fad, a Brand, an Innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen significant changes in all aspects of internationalization but most dramatically in the area of education and research moving across national borders. The most recent developments are education hubs. The term "education hub" is being used by countries who are trying to build a critical mass of local and foreign…

  10. 14 CFR 398.2 - Number and designation of hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.2... of three classifications: (1) A large hub is a place accounting for at least 1.00 percent of the total enplanements in the United States; (2) A medium hub is a place accounting for at least 0.25...

  11. 16 CFR 1512.12 - Requirements for wheel hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for wheel hubs. 1512.12 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.12 Requirements for wheel hubs. All bicycles (other than sidewalk bicycles) shall meet the following requirements: (a) Locking devices. Wheels shall be...

  12. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  13. The East African Resilience Innovation Hub | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The East African Resilience Innovation Hub. By 2025, poverty will primarily be centred in low-income, conflict and violence-affected African states. This project will invest in an East Africa research hub that will help resolve priority policy challenges related to violence, disaster, and conflict. Poverty, conflict, and development ...

  14. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... to consumers due to better integration of wind power into the power grid and more effcient trading of wind power on energy markets. This thesis is a scientic contribution to the advancement of wind energy forecasting with mesoscale numerical weather prediction models. After an economic and theoretical overview...

  15. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  16. The development of hub architecture in the human functional brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kai; Hallquist, Michael N; Luna, Beatriz

    2013-10-01

    Functional hubs are brain regions that play a crucial role in facilitating communication among parallel, distributed brain networks. The developmental emergence and stability of hubs, however, is not well understood. The current study used measures of network topology drawn from graph theory to investigate the development of functional hubs in 99 participants, 10-20 years of age. We found that hub architecture was evident in late childhood and was stable from adolescence to early adulthood. Connectivity between hub and non-hub ("spoke") regions, however, changed with development. From childhood to adolescence, the strength of connections between frontal hubs and cortical and subcortical spoke regions increased. From adolescence to adulthood, hub-spoke connections with frontal hubs were stable, whereas connectivity between cerebellar hubs and cortical spoke regions increased. Our findings suggest that a developmentally stable functional hub architecture provides the foundation of information flow in the brain, whereas connections between hubs and spokes continue to develop, possibly supporting mature cognitive function.

  17. Hub exchange operations in intermodal hub-and spoke networks : A performance comparison of rail-rail exchange facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontekoning, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of hub-and-spoke networks in intermodal transport is suggested as one of the potential solutions for helping to increase the intermodal market share. Traditionally, trains are shunted at hubs; this is a time-consuming process. Since the early 1990s a new type of intermodal

  18. Vibratory stimulation and rectal probe electroejaculation as therapy for patients with spinal cord injury: semen parameters and pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, A; Werner, M A; Bastuba, M; Title, C; Oates, R D

    1996-02-01

    The conception rate of patients with spinal cord injuries following penile vibratory stimulation and rectal probe electroejaculation in conjunction with self-insemination, intrauterine insemination or assisted reproductive technique is poorly documented. We reviewed our success rates with penile vibratory stimulation and rectal probe electroejaculation, and the pregnancy rates achieved with self-insemination, intrauterine insemination and assisted reproductive techniques. A total of 78 consecutive patients with spinal cord injuries had a complete neurological examination and was treated initially with penile vibratory stimulation. If unsuccessful, rectal probe electroejaculation was performed to obtain an ejaculate. The ejaculate was then used with self-insemination, intrauterine insemination or assisted reproductive techniques and pregnancies were monitored. Vibratory stimulation was successful in 20 of 37 patients (54%) with a cervical lesion, 14 of 26 (54%) with a lesion at or above T10 and none of 15 when the lesion was below T10. All patients except 2 who elected followup rectal probe electroejaculation had antegrade or retrograde ejaculate. Six patients (7.7%) with extremely poor semen quality were not candidates for assisted fertilization. Of 27 couples who attempted conception 17 were successful (5 self-insemination, 5 intrauterine insemination and 7 assisted reproductive techniques). Penile vibratory stimulation should be used as first line therapy in patients with lesions above T10 while rectal probe electroejaculation should be considered as a second option. Motivated patients can achieve success with self-insemination, intrauterine insemination and assisted reproductive techniques.

  19. Research on Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro’s Character of Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a new type Coriolis vibratory gyro that was inspired by Chinese traditional clocks. The resonator fuses based on a variable thickness axisymmetric multicurved surface shell. Its characteristics can directly influence the performance of BVG. The BVG structure not only has capabilities of bearing high overload, high impact and, compared with the tuning fork, vibrating beam, shell and a comb structure, but also a higher frequency to overcome the influence of the disturbance of the exterior environment than the same sized hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG and the traditional cylinder vibratory gyroscope. It can be widely applied in high dynamic low precision angular rate measurement occasions. The main work is as follows: the issue mainly analyzes the structure and basic principle, and investigates the bell-shaped resonator’s mathematical model. The reasonable structural parameters are obtained from finite element analysis and an intelligent platform. Using the current solid vibration gyro theory analyzes the structural characteristics and principles of BVG. The bell-shaped resonator is simplified as a paraboloid of the revolution mechanical model, which has a fixed closed end and a free opened end. It obtains the natural frequency and vibration modes based on the theory of elasticity. The structural parameters are obtained from the orthogonal method by the research on the structural parameters of the resonator analysis. It obtains the modal analysis, stress analysis and impact analysis with the chosen parameters. Finally, using the turntable experiment verifies the gyro effect of the BVG.

  20. Identification of the 3D Vibratory Motion of a Rigid Body by Accelerometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Puccio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the motion of a rigid body by means of linear accelerometers is a problem already investigated by many researchers, but still debated. The optimisation of the number and placement of accelerometers is also another important aspect of the problem. In this study, an experimental procedure is proposed and applied to identify the rigid-body vibratory motion of the steering wheel of a sporting car, by means of six linear accelerometers. Some numerical simulations for investigating possible errors are also presented.

  1. Cavitation Erosion Tests Performed by Indirect Vibratory Method on Stainless Steel Welded Samples with Hardened Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Dumitru Nedeloni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of cavitation erosion tests performed on two types of samples. The materials of the samples are frequently used for manufacturing and repairs of the hydro turbines components submitted to cavitation. The first sample was made by welding of an austenitic stainless steel on austenito-feritic base material. The second sample was made similarly with the first but with a martensitic base material. After the welding processes, on both samples was applied a hardening treatment by surface peening. The cavitation erosion tests were performed on vibratory equipment using the indirect method with stationary specimen. The results show a good cavitation erosion resistance on both samples.

  2. Optimization of process parameters during vibratory welding technique using Taguchi's analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pravin Kumar; Patel, D.; Prasad,S.B.

    2016-01-01

    With an aim to improve the mechanical properties of a weld joint, a new concept of vibratory setup has been designed which is capable to stir the molten weld pool before it solidifies during shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) operation. Mechanical vibration having resonance frequency of 300 Hz and amplitude of 0.5 mm was transferred to the molten weld pool of 6 mm thick mild steel butt-welded joints during the welding operation. The experimental work was conducted at various ranges of frequenc...

  3. Identification of elasticity modulus by vibratory analysis (Application to a natural composite: Aleppo pine wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAOUI Abdelhakim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for the determination of the elasticity modulus in the vibratory domain of materials. This approach is based on research and interpretation of the spectrum of natural frequencies resulting from natural vibrations based on the theory of elastic beams. The tests consist of classical tests of longitudinal vibrations of natural composite beams (Aleppo pine wood, long enough to observe some natural frequencies. This identification method showed a good correlation between the theoretical and experimental values, notably the evaluation of the modal parameter for the case of the resonant frequencies and the identification of the modulus of elasticity of the materials used.

  4. Penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation in the treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønksen, Jens; Ohl, Dana A

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the current understanding of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) and electroejaculation (EEJ) procedures and its clinical use in men with ejaculatory dysfunction. Unfortunately, the record of treating such individuals has been quite poor, but within recent years development and refinement of PVS and EEJ in men with spinal cord injury (SCI) has significantly enhanced the prospects for treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction. The majority of spinal cord injured men are not able to produce antegrade ejaculation by masturbation or sexual stimulation. However, approximately 80% of all spinal cord injured men with an intact ejaculatory reflex arc (above T10) can obtain antegrade ejaculation with PVS. Electroejaculation may be successful in obtaining ejaculate from men with all types of SCI, including men who do not have major components of the ejaculatory reflex arc. Because vibratory stimulation is very simple in use, non-invasive, it does not require anaesthesia and is preferred by the patients when compared with EEJ, PVS is recommended to be the first choice of treatment in spinal cord injured men. Furthermore, EEJ has been successfully used to induce ejaculation in men with multiple sclerosis and diabetic neuropathy. Any other conditions which affect the ejaculatory mechanism of the central and/or peripheral nervous system including surgical nerve injury may be treated successfully with EEJ. Finally, for sperm retrieval and sperm cryopreservation before intensive anticancer therapy in pubertal boys, PVS and EEJ have been successfully performed in patients who failed to obtain ejaculation by masturbation. Nearly all data concerning semen characteristics in men with ejaculatory dysfuntion originate from spinal cord injured men. Semen analyses demonstrate low sperm motility rates in the majority of spinal cord injured men. The data give evidence of a decline in spermatogenesis and motility of ejaculated spermatozoa shortly after (few

  5. Comparison of energy costs for different control laws of a vibratory robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golitsyna, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In the study there are introduced several control methods that maximize average velocity of the vibratory robot subject to several constraints. The robot is presented by a rigid box with a pendulum inside it. It can move forwards and backwards and there is a Coulomb friction between the box and the surface. In the paper it is not only shown the difference and advantages of proposed control laws but there is also done a comparison between efforts done by the motor that provides rotation of the pendulum for different control methods.

  6. Hub height optimization to increase energy production of wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaselbehagh, A.; Archer, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effect of hub height optimization on the annual energy production (AEP) of a wind farm. The only optimization variable was the hub height of each wind turbine and all other characteristics of the wind farm, including the base location of the wind turbines and the rotor diameter, remained unchanged. A greedy search algorithm was coupled with geometry-based models to perform the hub height optimization at a test wind farm (Lillgrund in Sweden). The optimization was carried out with 360 wind directions and wind speeds ranging from the cut-in to the cut-out wind speeds under neutral atmospheric conditions. Large eddy simulations were also conducted to provide further details on the flow characteristics and to validate the performance of the optimal layout. Although the optimization algorithm was designed so that the hub height of each wind turbine could have any magnitude between the minimum Hmin and the maximum Hmax recommended by the manufacturer, the optimization process ended up with a layout that included only two different hub heights, either "short" turbines with Hmin or "tall" turbines with Hmax, and no hub height in between was assigned to any of the wind turbines. The location of the short and tall turbines within the wind farm depends on the relative frequency of wind directions at the site; an irregular distribution was achieved for the Lillgrund wind farm studied here, with half of the turbines short and half tall. The AEP of the optimized wind farm with multiple hub heights was approximately 2% ( 5 GWh) higher than that of the wind farm with a single hub height Hmax. The hub height optimization not only improves the AEP of a wind farm, it also decreases the capital costs, as half of the wind turbines are cheaper to build because their towers are 20% shorter.

  7. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses the competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an existing dominating operator, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes its...... market share—which depends on the service time and transportation cost—by locating a predefined number of hubs at candidate ports and designing its network. While general-purpose solvers do not solve instances of even small size, an accelerated Lagrangian method combined with a primal heuristic obtains...

  8. Liner Shipping Hub Network Design in a Competitive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    A new mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an alliance, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes its market share...... — proportional to service time and transportation cost —by locating a predefined number of hubs at candidate ports and designing its network. While general-purpose solvers do not solve instances of even small size, an accelerated lagrangian method coupled with a primal heuristic obtains very good bounds. Our...

  9. Idea Hubs as Nexus of Collective Creativity in Digital Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciriello, Raffaele; Richter, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Digital innovation radically transforms the nature of corporate innovation practices, implying a growing need for deeper understanding its origins and outcomes. In this paper, we conceptualize the focal points of social networking in digital innovation as idea hubs. We focus our analysis...... on instances of idea hubs in two multinational European software companies, where we conducted a case study over a two-year period, and collected data in form of interviews, digital documents, and participant observations. In doing so, we identify a set of social networking practices in which idea hubs serve...... of digital artifacts individuals can choose from, offline interaction still plays a major role in facilitating digital innovation....

  10. Flow Merging and Hub Route Optimization in Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerui Weng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal hub routing problem of merged tasks in collaborative transportation. This problem allows all carriers’ transportation tasks to reach the destinations optionally passing through 0, 1, or 2 hubs within limited distance, while a cost discount on arcs in the hub route could be acquired after paying fixed charges. The problem arises in the application of logistics, postal services, airline transportation, and so forth. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer programming model, and provide two heuristic approaches, respectively, based on Lagrangian relaxation and Benders decomposition. Computational experiments show that the algorithms work well.

  11. Structural-Acoustic Coupling Effects on the Non-Vacuum Packaging Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Wu, Yulie; Zhang, Yongmeng; Tao, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Xiao, Dingbang

    2013-01-01

    The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm. PMID:24351631

  12. Optimization of process parameters during vibratory welding technique using Taguchi's analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With an aim to improve the mechanical properties of a weld joint, a new concept of vibratory setup has been designed which is capable to stir the molten weld pool before it solidifies during shielded metal arc welding (SMAW operation. Mechanical vibration having resonance frequency of 300 Hz and amplitude of 0.5 mm was transferred to the molten weld pool of 6 mm thick mild steel butt-welded joints during the welding operation. The experimental work was conducted at various ranges of frequencies, welding current and welding speed. Taguchi's analysis technique has been applied to optimize the process parameters; the response values for analysis are yield strength and micro-hardness. The test results showed that with the application of the vibratory treatment the values of hardness and tensile properties increased. The auxiliary vibrations induced into the weld pool resulted in increased micro-hardness of the weld metal which indicates the orientation of the crystal and refinement of grains took place. This study shows that vibration applied into the weld pool can be successfully improved the mechanical properties of welded joints. Thus this research attempt provided an alternative welding technique for grain refinement of weldments.

  13. Mechanical and Electrical Noise in Sense Channel of MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xukai; Jia, Jia; Gao, Yang; Li, Hongsheng

    2017-10-11

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of mechanical and electrical noise in the sense channel of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscopes. Closed-form expressions for the power spectral density (PSD) of the noise equivalent rate (NER) of gyroscopes in the open-loop and the force-rebalance operations are derived by using an averaged PSD model and an equivalent transfer function. The obtained expressions are verified through numerical simulations, demonstrating close agreements between the analytic and the numerical models. Based on the derived expressions for the PSD of the NER, the impacts of the modal frequency split, quality factor, and the gain of the feedback forcer, as well as the gain of the signal conditioning circuit, on the gyroscope noise characteristics are theoretically analyzed. In addition, the angle random walk (ARW) and the standard deviation of the NER are also discussed through the PSD models. Finally, the effects of the loop closing, the mode matching, and the gain of the feedback forcer on the PSD of the NER were verified via a MEMS vibratory gyroscope with a tunable modal frequency split.

  14. [Penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation in the treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Long-chang; Liu, Ji-hong

    2005-03-01

    The fertility potential of infertile men can be enhanced to a great extent by the application of assisted reproduction techniques such as intrauterine insemination or in-vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection, but how to obtain semen from men with ejaculatory dysfunction remains a problem. The development and refinement of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) and electroejaculation (EEJ) have significantly brightened the prospects for the treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction. Because vibratory stimulation is non-invasive and easy to perform, and needs no anaesthesia, it is preferred by most of the patients to EEJ, and recommended to be the first choice of treatment for ejaculatory dysfunction. Approximately 80% of all ejaculatory dysfunction men with an intact ejaculatory reflex arc (above T10 ) can obtain antegrade ejaculation by PVS. Any condition which affects the ejaculatory mechanism of the central and/or peripheral nervous system including surgical nerve injury may be treated successfully by EEJ. The purpose of this review is to present the current understanding of PVS and EEJ procedures and their clinical use in men with ejaculatory dysfunction.

  15. Academic: Sci-Hub Sparks Critique of Librarian

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisa Peet

    2016-01-01

      The website repository Sci-Hub, which enables users to download freely scholarly articles that normally require institutional subscriptions or individual payments, has found itself at the center...

  16. The East African Resilience Innovation Hub | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    affected African states. This project will invest in an East Africa research hub that will help resolve priority policy challenges related to violence, disaster, and conflict. Poverty, conflict, and development Promoting development and humanitarian ...

  17. Model and solution methods for some hub location problems

    OpenAIRE

    Peiró Ramada, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we study some hub location problems in the context of transportation networks. These are combinatorial optimization problems appearing in situations where there is a need of transporting some traffic, like items, people, and information, from many origins to many destinations. Instead of sending these flows using a direct shipment between all pairs of nodes in the network, a subset of these nodes is selected to use as hubs, with the aim of consolidating and distribute the flows...

  18. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step t...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  19. Dissociated multimodal hubs and seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douw, Linda; DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; Liu, Hesheng; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-04-01

    Brain connectivity at rest is altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in "hub" areas such as the posterior default mode network (DMN). Although both functional and anatomical connectivity are disturbed in TLE, the relationships between measures as well as to seizure frequency remain unclear. We aim to clarify these associations using connectivity measures specifically sensitive to hubs. Connectivity between 1000 cortical surface parcels was determined in 49 TLE patients and 23 controls with diffusion and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two types of hub connectivity were investigated across multiple brain modules (the DMN, motor system, etcetera): (1) within-module connectivity (a measure of local importance that assesses a parcel's communication level within its own subnetwork) and (2) between-module connectivity (a measure that assesses connections across multiple modules). In TLE patients, there was lower overall functional integrity of the DMN as well as an increase in posterior hub connections with other modules. Anatomical between-module connectivity was globally decreased. Higher DMN disintegration (DD) coincided with higher anatomical between-module connectivity, whereas both were associated with increased seizure frequency. DD related to seizure frequency through mediating effects of anatomical connectivity, but seizure frequency also correlated with anatomical connectivity through DD, indicating a complex interaction between multimodal networks and symptoms. We provide evidence for dissociated anatomical and functional hub connectivity in TLE. Moreover, shifts in functional hub connections from within to outside the DMN, an overall loss of integrative anatomical communication, and the interaction between the two increase seizure frequency.

  20. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben

    2016-01-01

    At the most fundamental level, main rotor loading noise is caused by the harmonically-varying aerodynamic loads (acoustic pressures) exerted by the rotating blades on the air. Rotorcraft main rotor noise is therefore, in principle, a function of rotor control inputs, and thus the forces and moments required to achieve steady, or "trim", flight equilibrium. In certain flight conditions, the ensuing aerodynamic loading on the rotor(s) can result in highly obtrusive harmonic noise. The effect of the propulsive force, or X-force, on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is well documented. This paper presents an acoustics parametric sensitivity analysis of the effect of varying rotor aerodynamic pitch hub trim moments on BVI noise radiated by an S-70 helicopter main rotor. Results show that changing the hub pitching moment for an isolated rotor, trimmed in nominal 80 knot, 6 and 12 deg descent, flight conditions, alters the miss distance between the blades and the vortex in ways that have varied and noticeable effects on the BVI radiated-noise directionality. Peak BVI noise level is however not significantly altered. The application of hub pitching moment allows the attitude of the fuselage to be controlled; for example, to compensate for the uncomfortable change in fuselage pitch attitude introduced by a fuselage-mounted X-force controller.

  1. Optimization of Hybrid Hub-and-Spoke Network Operation for Less-Than-Truckload Freight Transportation considering Incremental Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mixed integer linear programming model (MILP for optimizing the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation for a less-than-truckload transportation service. The model aims to minimize the total operation costs (transportation cost and transfer cost, given the determined demand matrix, truck load capacity, and uncapacitated road transportation. The model also incorporates an incremental quantity discount function to solve the reversal of the total cost and the total demand. The model is applied to a real case of a Chinese transportation company engaged in nationwide freight transportation. The numerical example shows that, with uncapacitated road transportation, the total costs and the total vehicle trips of the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation are, respectively, 8.0% and 15.3% less than those of the pure hub-and-spoke network operation, and the assumed capacity constraints in an extension model result in more target costs on the hybrid hub-and-spoke network. The two models can be used to support the decision making in network operations by transportation and logistics companies.

  2. Modal Damping Ratio and Optimal Elastic Moduli of Human Body Segments for Anthropometric Vibratory Model of Standing Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj; Gupta, T C

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to accurately estimate inertial, physical, and dynamic parameters of human body vibratory model consistent with physical structure of the human body that also replicates its dynamic response. A 13 degree-of-freedom (DOF) lumped parameter model for standing person subjected to support excitation is established. Model parameters are determined from anthropometric measurements, uniform mass density, elastic modulus of individual body segments, and modal damping ratios. Elastic moduli of ellipsoidal body segments are initially estimated by comparing stiffness of spring elements, calculated from a detailed scheme, and values available in literature for same. These values are further optimized by minimizing difference between theoretically calculated platform-to-head transmissibility ratio (TR) and experimental measurements. Modal damping ratios are estimated from experimental transmissibility response using two dominant peaks in the frequency range of 0-25 Hz. From comparison between dynamic response determined form modal analysis and experimental results, a set of elastic moduli for different segments of human body and a novel scheme to determine modal damping ratios from TR plots, are established. Acceptable match between transmissibility values calculated from the vibratory model and experimental measurements for 50th percentile U.S. male, except at very low frequencies, establishes the human body model developed. Also, reasonable agreement obtained between theoretical response curve and experimental response envelop for average Indian male, affirms the technique used for constructing vibratory model of a standing person. Present work attempts to develop effective technique for constructing subject specific damped vibratory model based on its physical measurements.

  3. Identification of promising Twin Hub networks : Report of Work Package 1 of the Intermodal rail freight Twin hub Network Northwest Europe - project (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Meijer, S.; Witteveen, C.; Meijers, B.M.; Pekin, E.; Macharis, C.; Kiel, J.; Kawabata, Y.; Vos, W.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first deliverable of the project Intermodal Rail Freight Twin Hub Network Northwest Europe. We call its subject Twin hub network and the organisational entity to carry out the actions the Twin hub project. The project is funded by INTERREG NWE (programme IVb). Its work started in

  4. Effect of residual stress on modal patterns of MEMS vibratory gyroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Shankar, E-mail: shankardutta77@gmail.com; Panchal, Abha; Kumar, Manoj; Pal, Ramjay; Bhan, R. K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, DRDO, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, India 110054 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Deep boron diffusion often induces residual stress in bulk micromachined MEMS structures, which may affect the MEMS devices operation. In this study, we studied the modal patterns of MEMS vibratory gyroscope under the residual stress (100 – 1000 MPa). Modal patterns and modal frequencies of the gyro are found to be dependent on the residual stress values. Without any residual stress, the modal frequencies drive and sense modeswere found to be 20.06 kHz and 20.36 kHz respectively. In presence of 450 MPa residual stress, the modal frequencies of the drive and sense modes were changed to 42.75 kHz and 43.07 kHz respectively.

  5. Characterization of vibratory turning in cutting zone using a pneumatic quick-stop device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Amini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Shear angle and sticking length are two crucial parameters in mechanics of metal cutting. These two parameters directly influence machinability factors such as cutting forces. Thus, shear angle and sticking length were investigated in vibratory turning process by using a pneumatic quick-stop device which was designed and fabricated, in this study. After preparation of ultrasonic assisted turning set-up, experimental tests have been carried out on two types of steel: AISI-1060 and AISI 304. Accordingly, the process of chip formation in each particular cutting test was quickly stopped when deformed chip was still in contact with workpiece. As a result, it was revealed that added linear vibration leads the turning operation to be improved by increase of shear angle and decrease of sticking length. Moreover, the effect of ultrasonic vibration on cutting force and chip micro-hardness is evaluated.

  6. Interspectral combination type resonances of nonlinear conservative/nonconservative distributed parameter vibratory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, J.

    1985-06-01

    This paper investigates the properties/formation of combination type resonances of nonlinear conservative/nonconservative distributed parameter vibratory systems subject to external harmonic inputs containing a profusion of frequencies. Overall, this includes the evaluation of simultaneously excited harmonic, sub/superharmonics as well as combination harmonics created by interactions between external and interspectral system frequency branches. Additionally, effort is also given to handling nonconservative characteristics wherein critical damping levels may suppress specific combination harmonics. The foregoing is made possible through the development of a warped and constrained multiple time scales perturbation solution scheme. To illustrate the scheme as well as the nature and form of external and interspectral interaction, a nonlinear nonconservative version of the wave equation which is excited by complex external harmonic fields is given detailed consideration.

  7. Development of vibratory stress relief actuators based on giant magnetostrictive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen

    2005-12-01

    A kind of actuator, which is used in the high frequency Vibratory Stress Relief (VSR), was researched. The actuator is based on the technology of giant magnetostrictive materials. The design principle of the actuator was firstly analyzed, which consists of the analysis of giant magnetostrictive materials and a force generator. Then the design criterion of magnetostrictive actuators was deeply discussed, which includes the dimension design of magnetostrictive materials, the design of magnetic field and the design of elimination of heat. Finally, a real actuator was developed, which has been used in the high frequency VSR. The experimental results show that the developed actuator works very well. Large exciting force but small vibration amplitude will make it widely used in the VSR.

  8. Application of vibratory-percussion crusher for disintegration of supertough materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, E. V.; Kazakov, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    This article describes the results of theoretical and experimental studies of a vibratory-percussion crusher, which is driven from a pair of self-synchronizing vibration exciters, attached to the shell symmetrically about its vertical axis. In addition to that, crusher’s dynamic model is symmetrical and balanced. Forced oscillation laws for crusher working members and their amplitude-frequency characteristics have been inducted. Domains of existence of synchronous opposite-phase oscillations of crusher working members (crusher’s operating mode) and crusher capabilities have been identified. The results of mechanical and technological tests of a pilot crusher presented in the article show that this crusher may be viewed as an advanced machine for disintegration of supertough materials with minimum regrinding of finished products.

  9. Vibratory synchronization transmission of a cylindrical roller in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Wen, Bangchun; Zhao, Chunyu

    2017-11-01

    In present work vibratory synchronization transmission (VST) of a cylindrical roller with dry friction in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters, is studied. Using the average method, the criterion of implementing synchronization of two exciters and that of ensuring VST of a roller, are achieved. The criterion of stability of the synchronous states satisfies the Routh-Hurwitz principle. The influences of the structural parameters of the system to synchronization and stability, are discussed numerically, which can be served as the theoretical foundation for engineering designs. An experiment is carried out, which approximately verify the validity of the theoretical and numerical results, as well as the feasibility of the method used. Utilizing the VST theory of a roller, some types of vibrating crushing or grinding equipments, etc., can be designed.

  10. Wave Transformation for International Hub Port Planning (Transformasi Gelombang untuk Perencanaan Pelabuhan Hub Internasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Nugroho Sugianto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia sehingga peran pelabuhan sangat vital dalam pembangunan ekonomi. Pelabuhan bukan hanya sekedar sebagai pelengkap infrastruktur, melainkan harus direncanakan dan dikelola dengan baik serta memperhatikan fenomena dinamika perairan laut seperti pola gelombang laut. Data gelombang laut menjadi faktor penting dalam perencanaan tata letak dan tipe bangunan pantai karena dipengaruhi oleh tinggi gelombang signifikan, tunggang pasang surut dan transformasi gelombang. Penelitian ini mengalisis karaketristrik dan bentuk transformasi gelombang untuk perencanaan Pelabuhan Hub Internasional, sebagai studi kasus adalah pelabuhan di Kuala Tanjung, Kabupaten Batu Bara. Pelabuhan di Kuala Tanjung merupakan salah satu dari 2 pelabuhan hub internasional yang direncanakan akan dibangun oleh pemerintah Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode kuantitatif yang dilakukan dengan perhitungan statistik dan pemodelan matematik dengan modul hydrodinamic dan spectral wave untuk mengetahui arah penjalaran dan transformasi gelombang. Hasil dari data ECMWF selama 1999–Juni 2014, diketahui tinggi gelombang signifikan (Hs maksimum mencapai 1,69 m dan periode maksimum 8 detik. Karakteristik gelombang termasuk klasifikasi gelombang laut transisi dengan nilai d.L-1 berkisar anrata 0,27–0,48 dan berdasarkan periodenya diklasifikasikan sebagai gelombang gravitasi.Transformasi gelombang terjadi akibat pendangkalan dengan koefesian pendangkalan Ks 0,93–0,98 dan proses refraksi gelombang dengan koefesien Kr 0,97–0,99. Tinggi gelombang pecah Hb sebesar 1,24 meter dengan kedalaman gelombang pecah db sebesar 1,82 meter. Efektifitas desain bangunan terminal di Pelabuhan Kuala Tanjung secara keseluruhan untuk sepanjang musim sebesar 79,8% atau dapat dikatakan cukup efektif dalam meredam gelombang. Kata kunci: transformasi gelombang, tinggi dan periode gelombang, pelabuhan Indonesia is one of the largest

  11. A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Lin, Yiyu; Liu, Siqi; Zheng, Xudong; Jin, Zhonghe

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a novel oscillation control algorithm for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation (MEAM) technique, which enhances the robustness against the frequency variation of the driving mode, compared to the conventional EAM (CEAM) scheme. In this approach, the carrier voltage exerted on the proof mass is frequency-modulated by the drive resonant frequency. Accordingly, the pick-up signal from the interface circuit involves a constant-frequency component that contains the amplitude and phase information of the vibration displacement. In other words, this informational detection signal is independent of the mechanical resonant frequency, which varies due to different batches, imprecise micro-fabrication and changing environmental temperature. In this paper, the automatic gain control loop together with the phase-locked loop are simultaneously analyzed using the averaging method and Routh-Hurwitz criterion, deriving the stability condition and the parameter optimization rules of the transient response. Then, a simulation model based on the real system is set up to evaluate the control algorithm. Further, the proposed MEAM method is tested using a field-programmable-gate-array based digital platform on a capacitive vibratory gyroscope. By optimizing the control parameters, the transient response of the drive amplitude reveals a settling time of 45.2 ms without overshoot, according well with the theoretical prediction and simulation results. The first measurement results show that the amplitude variance of the drive displacement is 12 ppm in an hour while the phase standard deviation is as low as 0.0004°. The mode-split gyroscope operating under atmospheric pressure demonstrates an outstanding performance. By virtue of the proposed MEAM method, the bias instability and angle random walk are measured to be 0.9° h-1 (improved by 2.4 times compared to the CEAM method) and 0.068° (√h)-1 (improved by 1.4 times

  12. Flow Structures within a Helicopter Rotor Hub Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Reich, David; Schmitz, Sven

    2015-11-01

    A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48'' Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. The measurement suite included total hub drag and wake velocity measurements (LDV, PIV, stereo-PIV) at three downstream locations. The main objective was to understand the spatiotemporal evolution of the unsteady wake between the rotor hub and the nominal location of the empennage (tail). Initial analysis of the data revealed prominent two- and four-per-revolution fluid structures linked to geometric hub features persisting into the wake far-field. In addition, a six-per-revolution fluid structure was observed in the far-field, which is unexpected due to the lack of any hub feature with the corresponding symmetry. This suggests a nonlinear interaction is occurring within the wake to generate these structures. This presentation will provide an overview of the experimental data and analysis with particular emphasis on these six-per-revolution structures.

  13. HIV protein sequence hotspots for crosstalk with host hub proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sarmady

    Full Text Available HIV proteins target host hub proteins for transient binding interactions. The presence of viral proteins in the infected cell results in out-competition of host proteins in their interaction with hub proteins, drastically affecting cell physiology. Functional genomics and interactome datasets can be used to quantify the sequence hotspots on the HIV proteome mediating interactions with host hub proteins. In this study, we used the HIV and human interactome databases to identify HIV targeted host hub proteins and their host binding partners (H2. We developed a high throughput computational procedure utilizing motif discovery algorithms on sets of protein sequences, including sequences of HIV and H2 proteins. We identified as HIV sequence hotspots those linear motifs that are highly conserved on HIV sequences and at the same time have a statistically enriched presence on the sequences of H2 proteins. The HIV protein motifs discovered in this study are expressed by subsets of H2 host proteins potentially outcompeted by HIV proteins. A large subset of these motifs is involved in cleavage, nuclear localization, phosphorylation, and transcription factor binding events. Many such motifs are clustered on an HIV sequence in the form of hotspots. The sequential positions of these hotspots are consistent with the curated literature on phenotype altering residue mutations, as well as with existing binding site data. The hotspot map produced in this study is the first global portrayal of HIV motifs involved in altering the host protein network at highly connected hub nodes.

  14. Revisiting control establishments for emerging energy hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Vahidreza

    Emerging small-scale energy systems, i.e., microgrids and smartgrids, rely on centralized controllers for voltage regulation, load sharing, and economic dispatch. However, the central controller is a single-point-of-failure in such a design as either the controller or attached communication links failure can render the entire system inoperable. This work seeks for alternative distributed control structures to improve system reliability and help to the scalability of the system. A cooperative distributed controller is proposed that uses a noise-resilient voltage estimator and handles global voltage regulation and load sharing across a DC microgrid. Distributed adaptive droop control is also investigated as an alternative solution. A droop-free distributed control is offered to handle voltage/frequency regulation and load sharing in AC systems. This solution does not require frequency measurement and, thus, features a fast frequency regulation. Distributed economic dispatch is also studied, where a distributed protocol is designed that controls generation units to merge their incremental costs into a consensus and, thus, push the entire system to generate with the minimum cost. Experimental verifications and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulations are used to study efficacy of the proposed control protocols.

  15. Dynamic response of NASA Rotor Test Apparatus and Sikorsky S-76 hub mounted in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall L.; Hoque, Muhammed S.

    1994-01-01

    A shake test was conducted in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, using the NASA Ames Rotor Test Apparatus (RTA) and the Sikorsky S-76 rotor hub. The primary objective of this shake test was to determine the modal properties of the RTA, the S-76 rotor hub, and the model support system installed in the wind tunnel. Random excitation was applied at the rotor hub, and vibration responses were measured using accelerometers mounted at various critical locations on the model and the model support system. Transfer functions were computed using the load cell data and the accelerometer responses. The transfer function data were used to compute the system modal parameters with the aid of modal analysis software.

  16. Sci-Hub provides access to nearly all scholarly literature

    OpenAIRE

    Himmelstein, Daniel S.; Romero, Ariel R.; McLaughlin, Stephen R.; Tzovaras, Bastian Greshake; Greene, Casey S.

    2017-01-01

    The website Sci-Hub provides access to scholarly literature via full text PDF downloads. The site enables users to access articles that would otherwise be paywalled. Since its creation in 2011, Sci-Hub has grown rapidly in popularity. However, until now, the extent of Sci-Hub’s coverage was unclear. As of March 2017, we find that Sci-Hub’s database contains 68.9% of all 81.6 million scholarly articles, which rises to 85.2% for those published in toll access journals. Coverage varies by discip...

  17. Penile vibratory stimulation in the recovery of urinary continence and erectile function after nerve‐sparing radical prostatectomy: a randomized, controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fode, Mikkel; Borre, Michael; Ohl, Dana A; Lichtbach, Jonas; Sønksen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in the preservation and restoration of erectile function and urinary continence in conjunction with nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP...

  18. Study of electrode slice forming of bicycle dynamo hub power connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dyi-Cheng; Jao, Chih-Hsuan

    2013-12-01

    Taiwan's bicycle industry has been an international reputation as bicycle kingdom, but the problem in the world makes global warming green energy rise, the development of electrode slice of hub dynamo and power output connector to bring new hope to bike industry. In this study connector power output to gather public opinion related to patent, basis of collected documents as basis for design, structural components in least drawn to power output with simple connector. Power output of this study objectives connector hope at least cost, structure strongest, highest efficiency in output performance characteristics such as use of computer-aided drawing software Solid works to establish power output connector parts of 3D model, the overall portfolio should be considered part types including assembly ideas, weather resistance, water resistance, corrosion resistance to vibration and power flow stability. Moreover the 3D model import computer-aided finite element analysis software simulation of expected the power output of the connector parts manufacturing process. A series of simulation analyses, in which the variables relied on first stage and second stage forming, were run to examine the effective stress, effective strain, press speed, and die radial load distribution when forming electrode slice of bicycle dynamo hub.

  19. Analysis of Sci-Hub downloads of computer science papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andročec Darko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific knowledge is disseminated by research papers. Most of the research literature is copyrighted by publishers and avail- able only through paywalls. Recently, some websites offer most of the recent content for free. One of them is the controversial website Sci-Hub that enables access to more than 47 million pirated research papers. In April 2016, Science Magazine published an article on Sci-Hub activity over the period of six months and publicly released the Sci-Hub’s server log data. The mentioned paper aggregates the view that relies on all downloads and for all fields of study, but these findings might be hiding interesting patterns within computer science. The mentioned Sci-Hub log data was used in this paper to analyse downloads of computer science papers based on DBLP’s list of computer science publications. The top downloads of computer science papers were analysed, together with the geographical location of Sci-Hub users, the most downloaded publishers, types of papers downloaded, and downloads of computer science papers per publication year. The results of this research can be used to improve legal access to the most relevant scientific repositories or journals for the computer science field.

  20. Comparative assembly hubs: Web-accessible browsers for comparative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Raney, Brian J.; Armstrong, Joel; Clawson, Hiram; Zweig, Ann; Karolchik, Donna; Kent, William James; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Researchers now have access to large volumes of genome sequences for comparative analysis, some generated by the plethora of public sequencing projects and, increasingly, from individual efforts. It is not possible, or necessarily desirable, that the public genome browsers attempt to curate all these data. Instead, a wealth of powerful tools is emerging to empower users to create their own visualizations and browsers. Results: We introduce a pipeline to easily generate collections of Web-accessible UCSC Genome Browsers interrelated by an alignment. It is intended to democratize our comparative genomic browser resources, serving the broad and growing community of evolutionary genomicists and facilitating easy public sharing via the Internet. Using the alignment, all annotations and the alignment itself can be efficiently viewed with reference to any genome in the collection, symmetrically. A new, intelligently scaled alignment display makes it simple to view all changes between the genomes at all levels of resolution, from substitutions to complex structural rearrangements, including duplications. To demonstrate this work, we create a comparative assembly hub containing 57 Escherichia coli and 9 Shigella genomes and show examples that highlight their unique biology. Availability and implementation: The source code is available as open source at: https://github.com/glennhickey/progressiveCactus The E.coli and Shigella genome hub is now a public hub listed on the UCSC browser public hubs Web page. Contact: benedict@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25138168

  1. Portable Desktop Apps with GitHub Electron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Wouldn't it be nice if you could develop applications that work everywhere, regardless of Operating System or Platform? Even better, what if you could employ the same front-end technologies you use for your web/mobile apps? Meet GitHub Electron.

  2. DAVINC3I: moving towards responsive hub network designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, R.; Keizer, de M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Wenink, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch floricultural sector is generally appreciated for its world leadership; the Netherlands is the flower trading hub for the European market. There are two trends affecting this position. First, virtualisation makes trade flows relatively footloose and flexible. Moreover, it enables the use

  3. Interaction of railway and marine transport (Murmansk Transport Hub)

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov A.A.; Solov'yov A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of problems of interaction between water (marine) and railway transport on the example of the Murmansk Transport Hub has been presented; some prospects for the development of technology for interaction with the logistics of transportation of general cargo in the Murmansk Commercial Seaport, Murmansk Marine Fishing Port, and oil terminals of the Kola Bay have been shown

  4. The Insula : A "Hub of Activity" in Migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsook, David; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Erpelding, Nathalie; Borra, Ronald; Linnman, Clas; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino

    2016-01-01

    The insula, a cortical hub buried within the lateral sulcus, is involved in a number of processes including goal-directed cognition, conscious awareness, autonomic regulation, interoception, and somatosensation. While some of these processes are well known in the clinical presentation of migraine

  5. Native Avatars, Online Hubs, and Urban Indian Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Gabriel S.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching American Indian literature with online resources can help diverse urban Indian and multicultural students connect with American Indian cultures, histories, and Nations. This online-enriched pedagogy adopts Susan Lobo's sense of the city as an "urban hub," or activist community center, an urban area linked to reservations in which Native…

  6. The Urban Food Hubs Solution: Building Capacity in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Access to affordable fresh food is an ongoing challenge for underserved urban neighborhoods across the United States. Several are designated food deserts with no access to a full-service grocery store within a one-mile radius. The Urban Food Hubs of the College of Agriculture, Urban Sustainability, and Environmental Sciences (CAUSES) of the…

  7. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how

  8. Vibratory stimulation from powered-toothbrush: A novel approach for orthodontic pain reduction after initial archwire placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Raghav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vibratory stimulation has been reported as an effective means in reducing the orthodontic pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vibratory stimulation from powered-toothbrushes as a noninvasive and nonpharmacological method of reducing pain caused after initial archwire placement and to compare it with other common modalities of management. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial included 75 patients of age 13–25 years, scheduled for fixed mechanotherapy. Patients were divided into five groups: Control, placebo multivitamin, paracetamol, chewing-gum (Cg, and powered-toothbrush. After placement of 0.016″ Nickel Titanium initial archwire (upper/lower in each patient, the discomfort perceived at 2 h, 6 h, bedtime, 24 h, 2 days, 3 days, and 7 days were marked individually using Wong-Baker (0–5 and numeric (0–10 pain rating scales. Kruskal–Wallis test, Friedman test, unpaired t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Vibratory stimulation from powered-toothbrushes effectively reduced pain after initial archwire placement. It did not alter the pattern of pain perception, but significantly reduced the overall intensity of pain at each time interval. Cg was not found effective enough to be recommended as a routine treatment modality. Conclusion: Powered-toothbrushes can be recommended as a nonpharmacological and noninvasive substitute for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for effective pain reduction in the clinical practice.

  9. Perception of Frequency, Amplitude and Azimuth of a Vibratory Dipole-Source by the Octavolateralis System of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Deena D.; Braun, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were conditioned to suppress respiration to a 40 Hz vibratory source and subsequently tested for stimulus generalization to frequency, stimulus amplitude and position (azimuth). Animals completely failed to generalize to frequencies separated by octave intervals, both lesser and greater than the CS. However they did appear to generalize weakly to an aerial loudspeaker stimulus of the same frequency (40 Hz) after conditioning with an underwater vibratory source. Animals had a gradually decreasing amount of generalization to amplitude changes, suggesting a perceptual dimension of loudness. Animals generalized largely or completely to the same underwater source presented at a range of source azimuths. When these azimuths were presented at a transect of 3 cm, some animals did show decrements in generalization, while others did not. This suggests that although azimuth may be perceived more saliently at distances closer to a dipole source, perception of position is not immediately salient in conditioned vibratory source detection. Differential responding to test stimuli located towards the head or tail suggests the presence of perceptual differences between sources that are rostral or caudal with respect to the position of the animal or perhaps the head. PMID:21574689

  10. Multiple Hub Network Choice in the Liberalized European Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berechman, Joseph; deWit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A key question that so far has received relatively little attention in the germane literature is that of the changes at various airports as a result of the EU liberalization policies. That is, presently, most major European airports still benefit from the so-called home-carrier phenomenon where the country's publicly or semi-publicly owned carrier uses the country's main airport as its gateway hub and, consequently, the home-carrier is also the principal user of this airport (in terms of proportion of total aircraft movements, number of passengers transported, connections, slots ownership, etc.). The country's main airport has substantially benefited from these monopoly conditions of airline captivity, strongly determined by the bilateral system of international air transport regulation. Therefore, European major airports were used to operate in essentially different markets, compared to the increasingly competitive markets of their home based carriers. This partly explains relative stability of transport volumes and financial results of European major airports compared to the relatively volatile financial results of most European national airlines. However, the liberalization of European aviation is likely to change this situation. Market access is open now to all community carriers, i.e. carriers with majority ownership and effective control in the hands of EU citizens. Ticket prices are free, governments can only intervene in case of dumping or excessive pricing. A community airline can choose its seat in any of the 15 member states. Licensing procedures are harmonized between member states. In the last few months community carriers have had unrestricted route access within the EU. Most probably this development will be extended to countries inside and outside Europe. Last year the European Commission got the mandate to start negotiations with 10 other European countries. In the meantime the EC has also started negotiations with the USA on so-called soft rights

  11. System Modeling of a MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope and Integration to Circuit Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyukjin J; Seok, Seyeong; Lim, Geunbae

    2017-11-18

    Recently, consumer applications have dramatically created the demand for low-cost and compact gyroscopes. Therefore, on the basis of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, many gyroscopes have been developed and successfully commercialized. A MEMS gyroscope consists of a MEMS device and an electrical circuit for self-oscillation and angular-rate detection. Since the MEMS device and circuit are interactively related, the entire system should be analyzed together to design or test the gyroscope. In this study, a MEMS vibratory gyroscope is analyzed based on the system dynamic modeling; thus, it can be mathematically expressed and integrated into a circuit simulator. A behavioral simulation of the entire system was conducted to prove the self-oscillation and angular-rate detection and to determine the circuit parameters to be optimized. From the simulation, the operating characteristic according to the vacuum pressure and scale factor was obtained, which indicated similar trends compared with those of the experimental results. The simulation method presented in this paper can be generalized to a wide range of MEMS devices.

  12. Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancheng Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG, one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method.

  13. System Modeling of a MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope and Integration to Circuit Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukjin J. Kwon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, consumer applications have dramatically created the demand for low-cost and compact gyroscopes. Therefore, on the basis of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology, many gyroscopes have been developed and successfully commercialized. A MEMS gyroscope consists of a MEMS device and an electrical circuit for self-oscillation and angular-rate detection. Since the MEMS device and circuit are interactively related, the entire system should be analyzed together to design or test the gyroscope. In this study, a MEMS vibratory gyroscope is analyzed based on the system dynamic modeling; thus, it can be mathematically expressed and integrated into a circuit simulator. A behavioral simulation of the entire system was conducted to prove the self-oscillation and angular-rate detection and to determine the circuit parameters to be optimized. From the simulation, the operating characteristic according to the vacuum pressure and scale factor was obtained, which indicated similar trends compared with those of the experimental results. The simulation method presented in this paper can be generalized to a wide range of MEMS devices.

  14. Separation of water from metal working emulsions by ultrafiltration using vibratory membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulai-Mostefa, Nadji; Frappart, Matthieu; Akoum, Omar; Ding, Luhui; Jaffrin, Michel Y

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we investigate the application of a vibratory shear-enhanced filtration system (VSEP) to separation of water from oil-in-water emulsions. The VSEP module consists in an annular membrane of 500 cm(2) area which oscillates azimuthally in its own plane with an amplitude depending upon frequency. Polyethersulfone (PES) membranes of 50 and 20 kDa were used. Test fluids consisted of oil-in-water emulsion at an oil concentration of 4% prepared from a concentrated cutting fluid. The critical flux for stable operation was investigated by increasing the permeate flux in steps while monitoring the transmembrane pressure (TMP). With a 50 kDa membrane the flux increased nonlinearly with TMP and reached 250 L h(-1)m(-2) at a TMP of 1500 kPa while permeate turbidity decayed from 1.8 to 0.9 NTU above 600 kPa from an initial emulsion turbidity of 21,900 NTU. With the 20 kDa membrane, the flux increased linearly with TMP until 1600 kPa, but the oil concentration in permeate became negligible (turbidity near zero NTU). Concentration tests showed that the flux decreased linearly with ln(VRR) where VRR is the volume reduction ratio while permeate turbidity increased exponentially to 25NTU above a VRR of 4. This work confirms the high performance of the VSEP for oil separation from water in metal working emulsions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A high-efficiency self-powered wireless sensor node for monitoring concerning vibratory events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dacheng; Li, Suiqiong; Li, Mengyang; Xie, Danpeng; Dong, Chuan; Li, Xinxin

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a self-powered wireless alarming sensor node (SWASN), which was designed to monitor the occurrence of concerning vibratory events. The major components of the sensor node include a vibration-threshold-triggered energy harvester (VTTEH) that powers the sensor node, a dual threshold voltage control circuit (DTVCC) for power management and a radio frequency (RF) signal transmitting module. The VTTEH generates significant electric energy only when the input vibration reaches certain amplitude. Thus, the VTTEH serves as both the power source and the vibration-event-sensing element for the sensor node. The DTVCC was specifically designed to utilize the limited power supply from the VTTEH to operate the sensor node. Constructed with only voltage detectors and MOSFETs, the DTVCC achieved low power consumption, which was 65% lower compared with the power management circuit designed in our previous work. Meanwhile, a RF transmit circuit was constructed based on the commercially available CC1110-F32 wireless transceiver chip and a compact planar antenna was designed to improve the signal transmission distance. The sensor node was fabricated and was characterized both in the laboratory and in the field. Experimental results showed that the SWASN could automatically send out alarming signals when the simulated concerning event occurred. The waiting time between two consecutive transmission periods is less than 125 s and the transmission distance can reach 1.31 km. The SWASN will have broad applications in field surveillances.

  16. Penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation before anticancer therapy in two pubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, M L; Sommer, P; Carlsen, E; Sønksen, J O; Schmiegelow, K; Müller, J R

    1998-01-01

    Because more than 70% of children with cancer become long-term survivors, more emphasis is put on reducing late effects. Cryopreservation of semen and the intracytoplasmic sperm injection technique makes it possible to obtain pregnancy with very poor sperm quality. Two new semen retrieval methods are described that are applicable in pubertal boys with a fertility potential, although not psychologically ready to produce a semen sample, who are likely to become infertile because of anticancer therapy. Two pubertal boys (aged 14 and 15 years) had a late testicular relapse of pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Hodgkin disease, stage II, respectively. In patient 1, penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) was tried under general anesthesia without success and electroejaculation (EEJ) was performed. Before alkylating chemotherapy and testicular irradiation, PVS was performed with success in patient 2. An antegrade ejaculate of 0.7 ml with 1% motile spermatozoa and an retrograde ejaculate with 1.6 x 10(6)/ml spermatozoa (5% with fair motility) was obtained from patient 1. An antegrade ejaculate of 1.5 ml with 2.5 x 10(6)/ml spermatozoa (29% with fair motility) was obtained from patient 2. PVS should be the first choice of treatment because it is noninvasive, simple, and easily applied. Because EEJ requires general anesthesia, it should be used as a second option.

  17. Penile vibratory stimulation in the treatment of post-prostatectomy incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in the treatment of post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence (UI). METHODS: Patients with post-prostatectomy UI were included in a 12-week trial. A 24-hr pad test and a 72-hr voiding diary were collected at baseline. Participants were randomized...... men were available for analyses. The difference in the change on the pad test between the groups did not reach statistical significance at 6 weeks (P = 0.13) while the change in incontinence episodes between groups approached statistical significance (P = 0.052). However, there was a median reduction...... of -33 g (P = 0.021) on the pad test and a median reduction in daily incontinence episodes of -1 (P = 0.023) in group 1 at 6 weeks. At 12 weeks, group 2 had a median decrease on the pad test of -8 g (P = 0.10) and no change in incontinence episodes. A pooled analysis showed a decline on the pad test...

  18. Calibration procedures for improved accuracy of wind turbine blade load measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Johansson, Hjalmar [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    External loads acting on wind turbine blades are mainly transferred via the hub to the rest of the structure. It is therefore a normal approach to measure the loads acting on the turbine by load measurements in the blade roots. The load measurement is often accomplished by measurements of strain on the surface of the blade or the hub. The strain signals are converted to loads by applying calibration factors to the measurements. This paper deals with difficulties associated with load measurements on two different wind turbines; one with strain gauges applied to a steel hub where a linear stress-load relationship is expected and the other with strain gauges applied to the GFRP blade close to the bearings where strong non-linearity`s and temperature effects are expected. This paper suggests calibration methods to overcome these problems. 2 refs, 11 figs

  19. Addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Saraiva de Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When considering hub-and-spoke networks with single allocation, the absence of alternative routes makes this kind of systems specially vulnerable to congestion effects. In order to improve the design of such networks, congestion costs must be addressed. This article deploys two different techniques for addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks: the Generalized Benders Decomposition and the Outer Approximation method. Both methods are able to solve large scale instances. Computational experiments show how the adoption of advanced solution strategies, such as Pareto-optimal cut generation on the Master Problem branch-and-bound tree, may be decisive. They also demonstrate that the solution effort is not only associated with the size of the instances, but also with their combination of the installation and congestion costs.

  20. Channel Bonding in Linux Ethernet Environment using Regular Switching Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-wen Hsueh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth plays an important role for quality of service in most network systems. There are many technologies developed to increase host bandwidth in a LAN environment. Most of them need special hardware support, such as switching hub that supports IEEE Link Aggregation standard. In this paper, we propose a Linux solution to increase the bandwidth between hosts with multiple network adapters connected to a regular switching hub. The approach is implemented as two Linux kernel modules in a LAN environment without modification to the hardware and operating systems on host machines. Packets are dispatched to bonding network adapters for transmission. The proposed approach is backward compatible, flexible and transparent to users and only one IP address is needed for multiple bonding network adapters. Evaluation experiments in TCP and UDP transmission are shown with bandwidth gain proportionally to the number of network adapters. It is suitable for large-scale LAN systems with high bandwidth requirement, such as clustering systems.

  1. Idea Exchange Music Hub Hits the Right Note in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Bester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Libraries and Galleries has made many changes over the last two years, rebranding as Idea Exchange and adding 3D printers, creative spaces and many on-site events. This article focuses on one of the organization’s newest innovations, the addition of a Music Hub, and the challenges of creating a space where members can learn and collaborate musically without disturbing those around them.

  2. Location of an intermediate hub for port activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Ş.; Ştefănică, C.; Roşca, E.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.

    2015-11-01

    An intermediate hub might increase the accessibility level of ports but also hinterland and so it can be considered more than a facility with a transhipment role. These hubs might lead to the development of other transport services and enhance their role in gathering and covering economic centres within hinterlands and also getting the part of logistic facility for the ports, with effects on port utilization and its connectivity to global economy. A new location for a hub terminal leads to reduced transport distances within hinterland, with decreased transport costs and external effects, so with gains in people's life quality. Because the production and distribution systems are relatively fixed on short and medium term and the location decisions are strategic and on long term, the logistic chains activities location models have to consider the uncertainties regarding the possible future situations. In most models, production costs are considered equal, the location problem reducing itself to a problem that aims to minimize the total transport costs, meaning the transport problem. The main objective of the paper is to locate a hub terminal that links the producers of cereals that are going to be exported by naval transportation with the Romanian fluvial-maritime ports (Galaţi, Brăila). GIS environment can be used to integrate and analyse a great amount of data and has the ability of using functions as location - allocation models necessary both to private and public sector, being able to determine the optimal location for services like factories, warehouses, logistic platforms and other public services.

  3. Hub and Spoke Logistics for Maritime Patrol and Reconnaissance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    are for JP8, GSF , GSE and ORDN at H&S. .................................................................................16 Table 2. Percentage of...extremis level). Approximately 98%–100% of the H&S demands are being met for JP8, GSE, and GSF . DAKBG only achieves a 67% sustainment rate for ORDN...Equipment GSF Ground Support Equipment Diesel Fuel H&S Hub and Spoke ISAR Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar JP8 Aviation Fuel (Jet Propeller and

  4. South East Europe Hub and Spoke Air Network Reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Pavlin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the passenger and cargo historical traffic data analysis at the Zagreb Airport, at certain airports in the wider region and globally for a period of half a century. The war during 1990s and the disintegration of Yugoslavia had as a consequence the breakdown of air transport based on hub and spoke system with three airports as a hub: Zagreb, Belgrade and Ljubljana. During and after the war, the domestic airliner in the region and a foreign airliner implemented primarily point-to-point system. Hub airports have become origin-destination airports with mainly local passengers and insignificant ratio of transfer and transit passengers. The causes of slow passenger and cargo traffic growth at the Zagreb Airport and of passengers at certain airports in the narrow region have been analysed and the results are lower growth of air traffic at capital airports of the new countries and greater air traffic growth on the capital airports and others in the countries of a wide region comparing with the global passenger transport growth. The paper indicates the possible measures to increase the share of transfer passengers and cargo traffic at the Zagreb Airport and certain airports in the immediate region.

  5. Matrix logistics indicators assessment of distributed transport hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Arefyev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper is devoted to the distributed transport hub substantiation and assessment. The paper  was an example of the technique and form an array of logistical factors as variables that determine this condition. Experience in organizing multimodal transport showed that the "bottleneck" of transport logistics are items of cargo handling ports, terminals, freight stations and warehouses. At the core of the solution of these problems is the problem of estimating the variables determine the Multi-purpose Hubs. The aim is to develop a method of forming the system of logistical multiplying factors determine the role of each of the types in the technologiacal process of distributed Multi-purpose Hubs. Methods: The assessment model for the formation of Distributed Transport Units  can be based on formal methods to predict the behavior of complex systems engineering complexes. Then one of the approaches to the solution of the problem may be the matrix method of technological factors. Results and conclusions: The proposed methodology of the selection and validation of logistic coefficients has the practical importance in the models development for assessing the condition and behavior of Distributed Transport.

  6. Research dedusting efficiency of the inertial hub with adjustable parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharapov Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of construction materials every year production increases, thus increasing emissions pollutants into the atmosphere subjected to cleaning. At the enterprises of building materials production equipment becoming outdated both morally and physically exhausted their useful life. Technological design standards in the operation of purification equipment has undergone a number of changes. There are a large number of works devoted to the theory of cyclone separation. They examined calculation method and to determine the minimum size of particles is separated completely from the air stream in a cyclone. In theory, the high efficiency cyclones are relatively small separation of particles from the air stream. The experiments show that certain fractions of full capture occurs from the cyclones and out relatively large particles. Designed dust device hubs. They capture dust particles with low specific density and smaller than 5–10 microns. Rational use of hubs is achieved in the aspiration systems high performance. They are placed in front of or between the filter and the cyclone filter. Hub much reduces the amount of dust-laden air directed onto a thin cleaning. This reduces energy consumption for manufacturing as a whole, as well as, due to a possible decrease in performance fine filters, reducing their initial cost, metal consumption, maintenance costs and reduce the area occupied by them.

  7. Penile vibratory stimulation in the treatment of post-prostatectomy incontinence: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-02-01

    To examine penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in the treatment of post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence (UI). Patients with post-prostatectomy UI were included in a 12-week trial. A 24-hr pad test and a 72-hr voiding diary were collected at baseline. Participants were randomized to receive PVS for the first 6 weeks (group 1) or for the final 6 weeks (group 2) of the study. The primary outcome was the difference in leakage between groups 1 and 2 at 6 weeks as measured by changes in the pad test. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.org (NCT01540656). Data from 31 men were available for analyses. The difference in the change on the pad test between the groups did not reach statistical significance at 6 weeks (P = 0.13) while the change in incontinence episodes between groups approached statistical significance (P = 0.052). However, there was a median reduction of -33 g (P = 0.021) on the pad test and a median reduction in daily incontinence episodes of -1 (P = 0.023) in group 1 at 6 weeks. At 12 weeks, group 2 had a median decrease on the pad test of -8 g (P = 0.10) and no change in incontinence episodes. A pooled analysis showed a decline on the pad test of -13.5 g (P = 0.004) after PVS. Small improvements were seen in subjective symptom scores and 58% stated to be satisfied with PVS. Self-limiting side effects were experienced by 15% of patients. PVS is feasible in the treatment of post-prostatectomy UI. Larger trials are needed to document the clinical efficacy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of Axial Force on the Performance of Micromachined Vibratory Rate Gyroscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Niu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is reported in the published literature that the resonant frequency of a silicon micromachined gyroscope decreases linearly with increasing temperature. However, when the axial force is considerable, the resonant frequency might increase as the temperature increases. The axial force is mainly induced by thermal stress due to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the structure and substrate. In this paper, two types of micromachined suspended vibratory gyroscopes with slanted beams were proposed to evaluate the effect of the axial force. One type was suspended with a clamped-free (C-F beam and the other one was suspended with a clamped-clamped (C-C beam. Their drive modes are the bending of the slanted beam, and their sense modes are the torsion of the slanted beam. The relationships between the resonant frequencies of the two types were developed. The prototypes were packaged by vacuum under 0.1 mbar and an analytical solution for the axial force effect on the resonant frequency was obtained. The temperature dependent performances of the operated mode responses of the micromachined gyroscopes were measured. The experimental values of the temperature coefficients of resonant frequencies (TCF due to axial force were 101.5 ppm/°C for the drive mode and 21.6 ppm/°C for the sense mode. The axial force has a great influence on the modal frequency of the micromachined gyroscopes suspended with a C-C beam, especially for the flexure mode. The quality factors of the operated modes decreased with increasing temperature, and changed drastically when the micromachined gyroscopes worked at higher temperatures.

  9. Effect of axial force on the performance of micromachined vibratory rate gyroscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhanqiang; Xiao, Dingbang; Wu, Xuezhong; Dong, Peitao; Chen, Zhihua; Niu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Xu

    2011-01-01

    It is reported in the published literature that the resonant frequency of a silicon micromachined gyroscope decreases linearly with increasing temperature. However, when the axial force is considerable, the resonant frequency might increase as the temperature increases. The axial force is mainly induced by thermal stress due to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the structure and substrate. In this paper, two types of micromachined suspended vibratory gyroscopes with slanted beams were proposed to evaluate the effect of the axial force. One type was suspended with a clamped-free (C-F) beam and the other one was suspended with a clamped-clamped (C-C) beam. Their drive modes are the bending of the slanted beam, and their sense modes are the torsion of the slanted beam. The relationships between the resonant frequencies of the two types were developed. The prototypes were packaged by vacuum under 0.1 mbar and an analytical solution for the axial force effect on the resonant frequency was obtained. The temperature dependent performances of the operated mode responses of the micromachined gyroscopes were measured. The experimental values of the temperature coefficients of resonant frequencies (TCF) due to axial force were 101.5 ppm/°C for the drive mode and 21.6 ppm/°C for the sense mode. The axial force has a great influence on the modal frequency of the micromachined gyroscopes suspended with a C-C beam, especially for the flexure mode. The quality factors of the operated modes decreased with increasing temperature, and changed drastically when the micromachined gyroscopes worked at higher temperatures.

  10. A randomized trial of clitoral vacuum suction versus vibratory stimulation in neurogenic female orgasmic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Marcalee; Bashir, Khurram; Alexander, Craig; Marson, Lesley; Rosen, Raymond

    2017-09-09

    To examine safety and efficacy of use of a clitoral vacuum suction device (CVSD) versus vibratory stimulation (V) to treat orgasmic dysfunction in women with MS or SCI. Randomized clinical trial. Two academic medical centers. Thirty-one women including 20 with MS and 11 with SCI. A 12-week trial of the use of a CVSD versus V MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI) and Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS). 23 women (18 MS; 5 SCI) completed the study including 13/16 randomized to CVSD and 10/15 randomized to V. There was a statistically significant increase in total FSFI score (p=.011), desire (p=. 009), arousal (p=.009), lubrication (p=.008), orgasm (p=.012), and satisfaction (p=.049) and a significant decrease in distress as measured by FSDS (p=.020) in subjects using the CVSD. In subjects who used V, there was a statistically significant increase in the orgasm subscale of the FSFI (p=.028). Subjects using the CVSD maintained improvements 4 weeks after treatment. CVSD is safe and overall efficacious to treat female neurogenic sexual dysfunction related to MS and SCI. V is also safe and efficacious to female neurogenic orgasmic dysfunction; however, results were limited to the active treatment period. Due to ease of access and cost, clinicians can consider use of V for women with MS or SCI with orgasmic dysfunction. CVSD is recommended for women with multiple sexual dysfunctions or for whom V is ineffective. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Features analysis for identification of date and party hubs in protein interaction network of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzarezaee, Mitra; Araabi, Babak N; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2010-12-19

    It has been understood that biological networks have modular organizations which are the sources of their observed complexity. Analysis of networks and motifs has shown that two types of hubs, party hubs and date hubs, are responsible for this complexity. Party hubs are local coordinators because of their high co-expressions with their partners, whereas date hubs display low co-expressions and are assumed as global connectors. However there is no mutual agreement on these concepts in related literature with different studies reporting their results on different data sets. We investigated whether there is a relation between the biological features of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins and their roles as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs, and date hubs. We propose a classifier that separates these four classes. We extracted different biological characteristics including amino acid sequences, domain contents, repeated domains, functional categories, biological processes, cellular compartments, disordered regions, and position specific scoring matrix from various sources. Several classifiers are examined and the best feature-sets based on average correct classification rate and correlation coefficients of the results are selected. We show that fusion of five feature-sets including domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, and composition pairs with two and one gaps provide the best discrimination with an average correct classification rate of 77%. We study a variety of known biological feature-sets of the proteins and show that there is a relation between domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, composition pairs with two and one gaps of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins, and their roles in the protein interaction network as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs and date hubs. This study also confirms the possibility of predicting non-hubs, party hubs and date hubs

  12. Development and evaluation of a vibratory-pneumatic pomegranate arils extractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Nassiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran is a frontier of pomegranate fruit production in the world (with almost 40 % of the world`s production. However due to traditional processing operations is not ranked as the largest pomegranate exporter. Saveh, Neyriz and Ferdows are the top pomegranate producing cities in Iran. Pomegranate is consumed as a fresh fruit as well as processed product as food additive, paste, syrup, jelly, pectin, jam, beverage, essence, vinegar and concentrate. Aril extraction is the first and essential postharvest operation for pomegranate processing. Arils are mostly extracted manually even in large scales for fresh and processed consumption. This labor intensive operation is rational when aril quality is an important index for consumer. But whenever pomegranate juice is desired, the aril quality has no priority for consumer, and therefore arils can be extracted with less care. Sarig (1985 was the first inventor of a pomegranate aril extractor who employed air jet force to extract the arils. Later, other researchers employed the same method as well as water jet to extract fruit juice and sac. In the present study, fabrication and evaluation of vibratory aril extractor augmented with air system was conducted. Materials and Methods The study was conducted using Rabab cultivar samples which were manually harvested from an orchard in Neyriz town, Fars province. Samples were kept in refrigerator at 5 0C till experimental trials. Initial moisture content of fruit skin, arils and internal fleshes were measured by gravimetric method as 31.7±2.6 %, 61.5±1.8 % and 42.8±1.4 %, respectively and for a whole fruit was measured 45.3±11.5 % (w.b.. For conducting laboratory tests, an aril extraction unit was designed and fabricated. It comprised a steel main frame, a 746 W electric motor, drive mechanism (eccentric and shaft, sample retentive unit, air jet unit, aril tank, and an air compressor-tank assembly. Sample retentive unit was designed in such a

  13. Virtual Hubs for facilitating access to Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel Á.; Ernst, Julia; Brumana, Raffaella; Brauman, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In October 2014 the ENERGIC-OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". In ENERGIC-OD, Virtual Hubs are conceived as information systems supporting the full life cycle of Open Data: publishing, discovery and access. They facilitate the use of Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and data services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus, beyond a certain extent, heterogeneity is irreducible especially in interdisciplinary contexts. ENERGIC-OD Virtual Hubs address heterogeneity adopting a mediation and brokering approach: specific components (brokers) are dedicated to harmonize service interfaces, metadata and data models, enabling seamless discovery and access to heterogeneous infrastructures and datasets. As an innovation project, ENERGIC-OD will integrate several existing technologies to implement Virtual Hubs as single points of access to geospatial datasets provided by new or existing platforms and infrastructures, including INSPIRE-compliant systems and Copernicus services. ENERGIC OD will deploy a

  14. Implementation of the resonant vibratory feeders control algorithm on Simatic S7-1200 from MATLAB Simulink enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Radomir B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulink is an important tool for modeling and simulation of process and control algorithms. It's expansion, PLC Coder, enables direct conversion of model subsystem into SCL, structured text code, which is then used by PLC IDE to create function blocks. This shortens developing time of algorithms for PLC controller. Also, this reduces possibility for a coding error. This paper describes Simulink PLC Coder and workflow for developing PID control algorithm for Siemens Simatic S7-1200 PLC. Control object used here is resonant vibratory feeder having electromagnetic drive.

  15. Penile vibratory stimulation in the recovery of urinary continence and erectile function after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Borre, Michael; Ohl, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in the preservation and restoration of erectile function and urinary continence in conjunction with nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013...... and 12 months after surgery with the IIEF-5 questionnaire and questions regarding urinary bother. Patients using up to one pad daily for security reasons only were considered continent. The study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ (NCT01067261). RESULTS: Data from 68 patients were available...

  16. Loads and Performance Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Generic Model Helicopter Rotor Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to acquire data for use in assessing the ability of current and future comprehensive analyses to predict helicopter rotating-system and fixed-system vibratory loads. The investigation was conducted with a generic model helicopter rotor system using blades with rectangular planform, no built-in twist, uniform radial distribution of mass and stiffnesses, and a NACA 0012 airfoil section. Rotor performance data, as well as mean and vibratory components of blade bending and torsion moments, fixed-system forces and moments, and pitch link loads were obtained at advance ratios up to 0.35 for various combinations of rotor shaft angle-of-attack and collective pitch. The data are presented without analysis.

  17. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT: A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Muetze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly connected nodes (hubs in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.   Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat.

  18. Definition of the equivalent atmospheric stability for wind turbine fatigue load assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, M.C.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wind turbine fatigue loads on atmospheric stability is assessed. It is shown that fatigue loads depend strongly on stability, and highest loads occur for very unstable conditions. For a given hub height wind speed one can dene an equivalent atmospheric stability that

  19. Dynamically Tuned Blade Pitch Links for Vibration Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Judah; Chopra, Inderjit; Kottapalli, Sesi

    1994-01-01

    A passive vibration reduction device in which the conventional main rotor blade pitch link is replaced by a spring/damper element is investigated using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code. A case study is conducted for a modern articulated helicopter main rotor. Correlation of vibratory pitch link loads with wind tunnel test data is satisfactory for lower harmonics. Inclusion of unsteady aerodynamics had little effect on the correlation. In the absence of pushrod damping, reduction in pushrod stiffness from the baseline value had an adverse effect on vibratory hub loads in forward flight. However, pushrod damping in combination with reduced pushrod stiffness resulted in modest improvements in fixed and rotating system hub loads.

  20. A Topological Description of Hubs in Amino Acid Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gaci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We represent proteins by amino acid interaction networks. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Once we have compared this type of graphs to the general model of scale-free networks, we analyze the existence of nodes which highly interact, the hubs. We describe these nodes taking into account their position in the primary structure to study their apparition frequency in the folded proteins. Finally, we observe that their interaction level is a consequence of the general rules which govern the folding process.

  1. The home hemodialysis hub: physical infrastructure and integrated governance structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark R; Young, Bessie A; Fox, Sally J; Cleland, Calli J; Walker, Robert J; Masakane, Ikuto; Herold, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    An effective home hemodialysis program critically depends on adequate hub facilities and support functions and on transparent and accountable organizational processes. The likelihood of optimal service delivery and patient care will be enhanced by fit-for-purpose facilities and implementation of a well-considered governance structure. In this article, we describe the required accommodation and infrastructure for a home hemodialysis program and a generic organizational structure that will support both patient-facing clinical activities and business processes. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  2. Use Videostrobokymography to Quantitatively Analyze the Vibratory Characteristics Before and After Conservative Medical Treatment of Vocal Fold Leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Yong-Wang; Liu, Li-Yan; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    To quantitatively analyze the vibratory characteristics of vocal folds before and after conservative treatments to evaluate the outcomes of conservative treatments for vocal fold leukoplakia using videostrobokymography (VSK). This is a prospective study. Twenty patients and 20 controls were enrolled into the study. All patients received conservative treatments for 3 weeks and received VSK examination before and 3 weeks after the treatments. All controls only received VSK examination once. Vocal fold lengths of 25%, 50%, and 75% were chosen as the line-scan positions to evaluate the vocal fold vibration. Open quotient (OQ) and asymmetry index (AI) were obtained using VSK. Significant improvements in the main symptoms including voice hoarseness were found. Videostroboscopic findings showed that the white lesions on the vocal folds almost completely disappeared in all patients, and the vocal fold flexibility returned to normal. All OQs and AIs at each line-scan position in patients before the treatments were larger than those in controls (P  0.017). VSK could quantitatively evaluate the vibratory characteristics of vocal folds before and after the treatments, and conservative treatment could improve VSK measurements to normal control values, suggesting that VSK is a tool to assess the outcomes of the conservative treatments for vocal fold leukoplakia. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Shadow Libraries and You: Sci-Hub Usage and the Future of ILL

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Gabriel J.; McLaughlin, Stephen R.; Asher, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    The paper "pirating" site Sci-Hub is used all over the world. Is Sci-Hub download traffic affecting usage of interlibrary loan? We use two independent methods to uncover any relationships. What is it about the most requested articles from Sci-Hub that causes users to obtain their research articles via extra-legal means? This paper attempts to answer these questions and more.

  4. The hubs of the human connectome are generally implicated in the anatomy of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Nicolas A; Mechelli, Andrea; Scott, Jessica; Carletti, Francesco; Fox, Peter T; McGuire, Philip; Bullmore, Edward T

    2014-08-01

    Brain networks or 'connectomes' include a minority of highly connected hub nodes that are functionally valuable, because their topological centrality supports integrative processing and adaptive behaviours. Recent studies also suggest that hubs have higher metabolic demands and longer-distance connections than other brain regions, and therefore could be considered biologically costly. Assuming that hubs thus normally combine both high topological value and high biological cost, we predicted that pathological brain lesions would be concentrated in hub regions. To test this general hypothesis, we first identified the hubs of brain anatomical networks estimated from diffusion tensor imaging data on healthy volunteers (n = 56), and showed that computational attacks targeted on hubs disproportionally degraded the efficiency of brain networks compared to random attacks. We then prepared grey matter lesion maps, based on meta-analyses of published magnetic resonance imaging data on more than 20 000 subjects and 26 different brain disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging lesions that were common across all brain disorders were more likely to be located in hubs of the normal brain connectome (P brain disorders had lesions that were significantly more likely to be located in hubs (P human brain networks are more likely to be anatomically abnormal than non-hubs in many (if not all) brain disorders. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  5. Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Moureau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Needleless connectors (NC are used on virtually all intravascular devices, providing an easy access point for infusion connection. Colonization of NC is considered the cause of 50% of postinsertion catheter-related infections. Breaks in aseptic technique, from failure to disinfect, result in contamination and subsequent biofilm formation within NC and catheters increasing the potential for infection of central and peripheral catheters. Methods. This systematic review evaluated 140 studies and 34 abstracts on NC disinfection practices, the impact of hub contamination on infection, and measures of education and compliance. Results. The greatest risk for contamination of the catheter after insertion is the NC with 33–45% contaminated, and compliance with disinfection as low as 10%. The optimal technique or disinfection time has not been identified, although scrubbing with 70% alcohol for 5–60 seconds is recommended. Studies have reported statistically significant results in infection reduction when passive alcohol disinfection caps are used (48–86% reduction. Clinical Implications. It is critical for healthcare facilities and clinicians to take responsibility for compliance with basic principles of asepsis compliance, to involve frontline staff in strategies, to facilitate education that promotes understanding of the consequences of failure, and to comply with the standard of care for hub disinfection.

  6. In-wheel hub SRM simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Milton W., III

    Is it feasible to replace the conventional gasoline engine and subsequent drive system in a motorcycle with an electric switched reluctance motor (SRM) by placing the SRM inside the rear wheel, thereby removing the need for things such as a clutch, chain, transmission, gears and sprockets? The goal of this thesis is to study the theoretical aspect of prototyping and analyzing an in-wheel electric hub motor to replace the standard gasoline engine traditionally found on motorcycles. With the recent push for clean energy, electric vehicles are becoming more common. All currently produced electric motorcycles use conventional, prefabricated electric motors connected to the traditional sprocket and chain design. This greatly restricts the efficiency and range of these motorcycles. My design stands apart by turning the rear wheel into a SRM which uses electromagnets around a non-magnetic core to convert electrical energy into mechanical force driving the rear wheel. To my knowledge, there is currently no motorcycle designed with an in-wheel hub SRM. A three-phase SRM and a five-phase SRM will be simulated and analyzed using MATLAB with Simulink. Factors such as friction, weight, power, etc. will be taken into account in order to create a realistic simulation as if it were inside the rear wheel of a motorcycle. Since time and finances will not allow for a full scale build, a scaled model three-phase SRM will be attempted for demonstration purposes.

  7. PGD: a pangolin genome hub for the research community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tze King; Tan, Ka Yun; Hari, Ranjeev; Mohamed Yusoff, Aini; Wong, Guat Jah; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Mutha, Naresh V R; Rayko, Mike; Komissarov, Aleksey; Dobrynin, Pavel; Krasheninnikova, Ksenia; Tamazian, Gaik; Paterson, Ian C; Warren, Wesley C; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    Pangolins (order Pholidota) are the only mammals covered by scales. We have recently sequenced and analyzed the genomes of two critically endangered Asian pangolin species, namely the Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica) and the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla). These complete genome sequences will serve as reference sequences for future research to address issues of species conservation and to advance knowledge in mammalian biology and evolution. To further facilitate the global research effort in pangolin biology, we developed the Pangolin Genome Database (PGD), as a future hub for hosting pangolin genomic and transcriptomic data and annotations, and with useful analysis tools for the research community. Currently, the PGD provides the reference pangolin genome and transcriptome data, gene sequences and functional information, expressed transcripts, pseudogenes, genomic variations, organ-specific expression data and other useful annotations. We anticipate that the PGD will be an invaluable platform for researchers who are interested in pangolin and mammalian research. We will continue updating this hub by including more data, annotation and analysis tools particularly from our research consortium.Database URL: http://pangolin-genome.um.edu.my. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF MANUFACTURING TEHNOLOGY FOR “ECCENTRIC MASS” COMPONENT OF A NEW TYPE OF VIBRATORY COMPACTOR USING NX 7.5 SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftimie Dorin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technological optimization process of the eccentric mass component using the NX 7.5 software. The new design of the vibratory compactor with variable amplitudes was modeled 3D. The manufacturing technology presents graphical aspects of operations during mechanical processing.

  9. Dynamic Calibration of the NASA Ames Rotor Test Apparatus Steady/Dynamic Rotor Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall L.; vanAken, Johannes M.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Ames Rotor Test Apparatus was modified to include a Steady/Dynamic Rotor Balance. The dynamic calibration procedures and configurations are discussed. Random excitation was applied at the rotor hub, and vibratory force and moment responses were measured on the steady/dynamic rotor balance. Transfer functions were computed using the load cell data and the vibratory force and moment responses from the rotor balance. Calibration results showing the influence of frequency bandwidth, hub mass, rotor RPM, thrust preload, and dynamic loads through the stationary push rods are presented and discussed.

  10. Network performance, hub connectivity potential, and competitive position of primary airports in Asia/Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumoto, H.; Veldhuis, J.; de Wit, J.; Burghouwt, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, hub-and-spoke network configurations are more and more developed in the Asia/Pacific region. In this paper, it is argued that the measurement of network performance in hub-and-spoke systems should take into account the quantity and quality of both direct and indirect connections. The

  11. Hub network design for sparse travel demand within the African aviation industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ssamula, B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available and analysed to reveal that the best option for a hub network is the so-called geo-political network. A geo-political network is where hubs are created in the North, South, East and West of Africa, at airports with strong political influence, high passenger...

  12. The Complexities and Challenges of Regional Education Hubs: Focus on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane; Morshidi, Sirat

    2011-01-01

    The race to establish regional education hubs is a recent development in cross-border higher education. This article briefly examines the rationales and strategies used by three countries in the Middle East and three in South East Asia which are working towards positioning themselves as regional education hubs. The different approaches and…

  13. Global Stability of a Synchronous Regime in Hub Clusters of the Power Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrichev, A. S.; Zakharov, D. G.; Nekorkin, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    We study stability of a synchronous regime in hub clusters of the power networks, which are simulated by ensembles of phase oscillators. An approach allowing one to estimate the regions in the parameter space, which correspond to the global asymptotic stability of this regime, is presented. The method is illustrated by an example of a hub cluster consisting of one generator and two consumers.

  14. A note on hierarchical hubbing for a generalization of the VPN problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Robust network design refers to a class of optimization problems that occur when designing networks to efficiently handle variable demands. In this context, Fréchette et al. (2013) recently explored hierarchical hubbing: a routing strategy involving a multiplicity of "hubs" connected to terminals

  15. Knowledge Hub y los recursos educativos abiertos en Contaduría

    OpenAIRE

    Farías Martínez, Gabriela María

    2013-01-01

    Desafíos de la educación superior en México; Formación académica y profesional en contaduría; Knowledge Hub como medio para compartir y construir conocimiento; Iniciativa Knowledge Hub IES Contaduría

  16. Hub Group: An Innovative Approach to Group Therapy in a Short-Term Inpatient Adolescent Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitel, Ashley; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes Hub Group, a short-term ward-based group therapy program for institutionalized adolescents. Backed by a behaviorally-based privilege system, Hub Group contracting methods facilitate rapid investment in group therapy and promote change. Advantages and disadvantages of including mixed levels of functioning in the same group are discussed.…

  17. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...

  18. Competition and coordination in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets: An industry pre-merger case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper investigates the nature of conduct that existed in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets prior to the recent merger wave of the legacy carriers. We explore the strategic importance of network carrier hubs in form of “spheres of influence” on airline market conduct. We also simultaneously recognize the overgrowing role played by Low Cost Carriers (LCC over the years by estimating two conduct parameters - one in markets where LCCs directly compete head-to-head with legacy carriers and the other for markets which LCCs do not serve but has presence in the hub airports or adjacent airports comprising the market endpoints. Thus our supply side framework also sheds some light on the issue of perfect contestability in airline industry. Design/methodology/approach: We estimate a structural oligopoly model for differentiated products with competitive interactions using DB1B data for first quarter of 2004. Findings: Our results imply that the nature of competition is more aggressive relative to Bertrand behavior in hub-to-hub markets and that these markets are less than perfectly contestable. Originality/value: This paper adds to the empirical literature of airline competition by enabling estimation of the actual conduct parameter assuming firm price setting behavior in presence of product differentiation. Contrary to existing literature on airline competition, a structural model enables us to systematically separate out effects of demand, cost and strategic factors on observed airline prices.

  19. Engineering applications and analysis of vibratory motion fourth order fluid film over the time dependent heated flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohmand, Muhammad Ismail; Mamat, Mustafa Bin; Shah, Qayyum

    2017-07-01

    This article deals with the time dependent analysis of thermally conducting and Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) liquid film flow of a fourth order fluid past a vertical and vibratory plate. In this article have been developed for higher order complex nature fluids. The governing-equations have been modeled in the terms of nonlinear partial differential equations with the help of physical boundary circumstances. Two different analytical approaches i.e. Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), have been used for discoveryof the series clarification of the problems. Solutions obtained via two diversemethods have been compared using the graphs, tables and found an excellent contract. Variants of the embedded flow parameters in the solution have been analysed through the graphical diagrams.

  20. A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    modeling using homogenized properties based on the measured mass. Drive belt stiffness was derived from the empirically measured drive system...This complex connectivity between the drive components was found to be very difficult to model using traditional finite-element methods ...actuator was modeled using beams based on actuator geometry connected by a linear spring. One of the beams was assigned a coefficient of thermal

  1. Paneth cells: the hub for sensing and regulating intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Zhihua

    2016-05-01

    The complex interplay between symbiotic bacteria and host immunity plays a key role in shaping intestinal homeostasis and maintaining host health. Paneth cells, as one of the major producers of antimicrobial peptides in the intestine under steady-state conditions, play a vital role in regulating intestinal flora. Many studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated genes have put Paneth cells at the center of IBD pathogenesis. In this perspective, we focus on mechanistic studies of different cellular processes in Paneth cells that are regulated by various IBD-associated susceptibility genes, and we discuss the hypothesis that Paneth cells function as the central hub for sensing and regulating intestinal flora in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  2. Features analysis for identification of date and party hubs in protein interaction network of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araabi Babak N

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been understood that biological networks have modular organizations which are the sources of their observed complexity. Analysis of networks and motifs has shown that two types of hubs, party hubs and date hubs, are responsible for this complexity. Party hubs are local coordinators because of their high co-expressions with their partners, whereas date hubs display low co-expressions and are assumed as global connectors. However there is no mutual agreement on these concepts in related literature with different studies reporting their results on different data sets. We investigated whether there is a relation between the biological features of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins and their roles as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs, and date hubs. We propose a classifier that separates these four classes. Results We extracted different biological characteristics including amino acid sequences, domain contents, repeated domains, functional categories, biological processes, cellular compartments, disordered regions, and position specific scoring matrix from various sources. Several classifiers are examined and the best feature-sets based on average correct classification rate and correlation coefficients of the results are selected. We show that fusion of five feature-sets including domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, and composition pairs with two and one gaps provide the best discrimination with an average correct classification rate of 77%. Conclusions We study a variety of known biological feature-sets of the proteins and show that there is a relation between domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, composition pairs with two and one gaps of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins, and their roles in the protein interaction network as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs and date hubs. This study also confirms the

  3. A Collaborative Scheduling Model for the Supply-Hub with Multiple Suppliers and Multiple Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment.

  4. MODELS AND METHODS FOR LOGISTICS HUB LOCATION: A REVIEW TOWARDS TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Luisa dos Santos Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Logistics hubs affect the distribution patterns in transportation networks since they are flow-concentrating structures. Indeed, the efficient moving of goods throughout supply chains depends on the design of such networks. This paper presents a literature review on the logistics hub location problem, providing an outline of modeling approaches, solving techniques, and their applicability to such context. Two categories of models were identified. While multi-criteria models may seem best suited to find optimal locations, they do not allow an assessment of the impact of new hubs on goods flow and on the transportation network. On the other hand, single-criterion models, which provide location and flow allocation information, adopt network simplifications that hinder an accurate representation of the relationshipbetween origins, destinations, and hubs. In view of these limitations we propose future research directions for addressing real challenges of logistics hubs location regarding transportation networks design.

  5. The AII amacrine cell connectome: a dense network hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Robert E; Anderson, James R; Jones, Bryan W; Sigulinsky, Crystal L; Lauritzen, James S

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian AII retinal amacrine cell is a narrow-field, multistratified glycinergic neuron best known for its role in collecting scotopic signals from rod bipolar cells and distributing them to ON and OFF cone pathways in a crossover network via a combination of inhibitory synapses and heterocellular AII::ON cone bipolar cell gap junctions. Long considered a simple cell, a full connectomics analysis shows that AII cells possess the most complex interaction repertoire of any known vertebrate neuron, contacting at least 28 different cell classes, including every class of retinal bipolar cell. Beyond its basic role in distributing rod signals to cone pathways, the AII cell may also mediate narrow-field feedback and feedforward inhibition for the photopic OFF channel, photopic ON-OFF inhibitory crossover signaling, and serves as a nexus for a collection of inhibitory networks arising from cone pathways that likely negotiate fast switching between cone and rod vision. Further analysis of the complete synaptic counts for five AII cells shows that (1) synaptic sampling is normalized for anatomic target encounter rates; (2) qualitative targeting is specific and apparently errorless; and (3) that AII cells strongly differentiate partner cohorts by synaptic and/or coupling weights. The AII network is a dense hub connecting all primary retinal excitatory channels via precisely weighted drive and specific polarities. Homologs of AII amacrine cells have yet to be identified in non-mammalians, but we propose that such homologs should be narrow-field glycinergic amacrine cells driving photopic ON-OFF crossover via heterocellular coupling with ON cone bipolar cells and glycinergic synapses on OFF cone bipolar cells. The specific evolutionary event creating the mammalian AII scotopic-photopic hub would then simply be the emergence of large numbers of pure rod bipolar cells.

  6. Low-frequency vibratory exercise reduces the risk of bone fracture more than walking: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusi, Narcís; Raimundo, Armando; Leal, Alejo

    2006-11-30

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a new type of exercise that has been increasingly tested for the ability to prevent bone fractures and osteoporosis in frail people. There are two currently marketed vibrating plates: a) the whole plate oscillates up and down; b) reciprocating vertical displacements on the left and right side of a fulcrum, increasing the lateral accelerations. A few studies have shown recently the effectiveness of the up-and-down plate for increasing Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and balance; but the effectiveness of the reciprocating plate technique remains mainly unknown. The aim was to compare the effects of WBV using a reciprocating platform at frequencies lower than 20 Hz and a walking-based exercise programme on BMD and balance in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight physically untrained post-menopausal women were assigned at random to a WBV group or a Walking group. Both experimental programmes consisted of 3 sessions per week for 8 months. Each vibratory session included 6 bouts of 1 min (12.6 Hz in frequency and 3 cm in amplitude with 60 degrees of knee flexion) with 1 min rest between bouts. Each walking session was 55 minutes of walking and 5 minutes of stretching. Hip and lumbar BMD (g.cm-2) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and balance was assessed by the blind flamingo test. ANOVA for repeated measurements was adjusted by baseline data, weight and age. After 8 months, BMD at the femoral neck in the WBV group was increased by 4.3% (P = 0.011) compared to the Walking group. In contrast, the BMD at the lumbar spine was unaltered in both groups. Balance was improved in the WBV group (29%) but not in the Walking group. The 8-month course of vibratory exercise using a reciprocating plate is feasible and is more effective than walking to improve two major determinants of bone fractures: hip BMD and balance.

  7. The noise generated by a landing gear wheel with hub and rim cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Angland, David; Zhang, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Wheels are one of the major noise sources of landing gears. Accurate numerical predictions of wheel noise can provide an insight into the physical mechanism of landing gear noise generation and can aid in the design of noise control devices. The major noise sources of a 33% scaled isolated landing gear wheel are investigated by simulating three different wheel configurations using high-order numerical simulations to compute the flow field and the FW-H equation to obtain the far-field acoustic pressures. The baseline configuration is a wheel with a hub cavity and two rim cavities. Two additional simulations are performed; one with the hub cavity covered (NHC) and the other with both the hub cavity and rim cavities covered (NHCRC). These simulations isolate the effects of the hub cavity and rim cavities on the overall wheel noise. The surface flow patterns are visualised by shear stress lines and show that the flow separations and attachments on the side of the wheel, in both the baseline and the configuration with only the hub cavity covered, are significantly reduced by covering both the hub and rim cavities. A frequency-domain FW-H equation is used to identify the noise source regions on the surface of the wheel. The tyre is the main low frequency noise source and shows a lift dipole and side force dipole pattern depending on the frequency. The hub cavity is identified as the dominant middle frequency noise source and radiates in a frequency range centered around the first and second depth modes of the cylindrical hub cavity. The rim cavities are the main high-frequency noise sources. With the hub cavity and rim cavities covered, the largest reduction in Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) is achieved in the hub side direction. In the other directivities, there is also a reduction in the radiated sound.

  8. Incremental Optimization of Hub and Spoke Network for the Spokes’ Numbers and Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hub and spoke network problem is solved as part of a strategic decision making process which may have a profound effect on the future of enterprises. In view of the existing network structure, as time goes on, the number of spokes and the flow change because of different sources of uncertainty. Hence, the incremental optimization of hub and spoke network problem is considered in this paper, and the policy makers should adopt a series of strategies to cope with the change, such as setting up new hubs, adjusting the capacity level of original hubs, or closing some original hubs. The objective is to minimize the total cost, which includes the setup costs for the new hubs, the closure costs, and the adjustment costs for the original hubs as well as the flow routing costs. Two mixed-integer linear programming formulations are proposed and analyzed for this problem. China Deppon Logistics as an example is performed to present computational analysis, and we analyze the changes in the solutions driven by the number of spokes and the flow. The tests also allow an analysis to consider the effect of variation in parameters on network.

  9. Hubs and Authorities in the World Trade Network Using a Weighted HITS Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Katsuhide; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the economic hubs and authorities of the world trade network (WTN) from to , an era of rapid economic globalization. Using a well-defined weighted hyperlink-induced topic search (HITS) algorithm, we can calculate the values of the weighted HITS hub and authority for each country in a conjugate way. In the context of the WTN, authority values are large for countries with significant imports from large hub countries, and hub values are large for countries with significant exports to high-authority countries. The United States was the largest economic authority in the WTN from to . The authority value of the United States has declined since , and China has now become the largest hub in the WTN. At the same time, China's authority value has grown as China is transforming itself from the “factory of the world” to the “market of the world.” European countries show a tendency to trade mostly within the European Union, which has decreased Europe's hub and authority values. Japan's authority value has increased slowly, while its hub value has declined. These changes are consistent with Japan's transition from being an export-driven economy in its high economic growth era in the latter half of the twentieth century to being a more mature, economically balanced nation. PMID:25050940

  10. Identification of transient hub proteins and the possible structural basis for their multiple interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Miho; Ishida, Takashi; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2008-01-01

    Proteins that can interact with multiple partners play central roles in the network of protein-protein interactions. They are called hub proteins, and recently it was suggested that an abundance of intrinsically disordered regions on their surfaces facilitates their binding to multiple partners. However, in those studies, the hub proteins were identified as proteins with multiple partners, regardless of whether the interactions were transient or permanent. As a result, a certain number of hub proteins are subunits of stable multi-subunit proteins, such as supramolecules. It is well known that stable complexes and transient complexes have different structural features, and thus the statistics based on the current definition of hub proteins will hide the true nature of hub proteins. Therefore, in this paper, we first describe a new approach to identify proteins with multiple partners dynamically, using the Protein Data Bank, and then we performed statistical analyses of the structural features of these proteins. We refer to the proteins as transient hub proteins or sociable proteins, to clarify the difference with hub proteins. As a result, we found that the main difference between sociable and nonsociable proteins is not the abundance of disordered regions, in contrast to the previous studies, but rather the structural flexibility of the entire protein. We also found greater predominance of charged and polar residues in sociable proteins than previously reported.

  11. Connectome hubs at resting state in children and adolescents: Reproducibility and psychopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Sato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain hubs are key integrative regions in brain networks. Recently, brain hubs identified through resting-state fMRI have emerged as interesting targets to increase understanding of the relationships between large-scale functional networks and psychopathology. However, few studies have directly addressed the replicability and consistency of the hub regions identified and their association with symptoms. Here, we used the eigenvector centrality (EVC measure obtained from graph analysis of two large, independent population-based samples of children and adolescents (7–15 years old; total N = 652; 341 subjects for site 1 and 311 for site 2 to evaluate the replicability of hub identification. Subsequently, we tested the association between replicable hub regions and psychiatric symptoms. We identified a set of hubs consisting of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus (IPL/IPS. Moreover, lower EVC values in the right IPS were associated with psychiatric symptoms in both samples. Thus, low centrality of the IPS was a replicable sign of potential vulnerability to mental disorders in children. The identification of critical and replicable hubs in functional cortical networks in children and adolescents can foster understanding of the mechanisms underlying mental disorders.

  12. Fatigue based design and analysis of wheel hub for Student formula car by Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, V.; Ranganathan, A. S.; Satish, S.; Alexis, S. John; Siva kumar, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the existing design of Wheel hub used for Student formula cars, the brake discs cannot be removed easily since the disc is mounted in between the knuckle and hub. In case of bend or any other damage to the disc, the replacement of the disc becomes difficult. Further using OEM hub and knuckle that are used for commercial vehicles will result in increase of unsprung mass, which should be avoided in Student formula cars for improving the performance. In this design the above mentioned difficulties have been overcome by redesigning the hub in such a way that the brake disc could be removed easily by just removing the wheel and the caliper and also it will have reduced weight when compared to existing OEM hub. A CAD Model was developed based on the required fatigue life cycles. The forces acting on the hub were calculated and linear static structural analysis was performed on the wheel hub for three different materials using ANSYS Finite Element code V 16.2. The theoretical fatigue strength was compared with the stress obtained from the structural analysis for each material.

  13. Tomato histone H2B monoubiquitination enzymes SlHUB1 and SlHUB2 contribute to disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea through modulating the balance between SA- and JA/ET-mediated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafen; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Huijuan; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Zhigang; Song, Fengming

    2015-10-21

    Histone H2B monoubiquitination pathway has been shown to play critical roles in regulating growth/development and stress response in Arabidopsis. In the present study, we explored the involvement of the tomato histone H2B monoubiquitination pathway in defense response against Botrytis cinerea by functional analysis of SlHUB1 and SlHUB2, orthologues of the Arabidopsis AtHUB1/AtHUB2. We used the TRV-based gene silencing system to knockdown the expression levels of SlHUB1 or SlHUB2 in tomato plants and compared the phenotype between the silenced and the control plants after infection with B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Biochemical and interaction properties of proteins were examined using in vitro histone monoubiquitination and yeast two-hybrid assays, respectively. The transcript levels of genes were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The tomato SlHUB1 and SlHUB2 had H2B monoubiquitination E3 ligases activity in vitro and expression of SlHUB1 and SlHUB2 was induced by infection of B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 and by treatment with salicylic acid (SA) and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Silencing of either SlHUB1 or SlHUB2 in tomato plants showed increased susceptibility to B. cinerea, whereas silencing of SlHUB1 resulted in increased resistance against Pst DC3000. SlMED21, a Mediator complex subunit, interacted with SlHUB1 but silencing of SlMED21 did not affect the disease resistance to B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. The SlHUB1- and SlHUB2-silenced plants had thinner cell wall but increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased callose deposition and exhibited altered expression of the genes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway and in ROS generation and scavenging system. Expression of genes in the SA-mediated signaling pathway was significantly upregulated, whereas expression of genes in the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated signaling pathway were markedly decreased in SlHUB1- and SlHUB2

  14. E-hubs: the new B2B (business-to-business) marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S; Sawhney, M

    2000-01-01

    Electronic hubs--Internet-based intermediaries that host electronic marketplaces and mediate transactions among businesses--are generating a lot of interest. Companies like Ariba, Chemdex, and Commerce One have already attained breathtaking stock market capitalizations. Venture capitalists are pouring money into more business-to-business start-ups. Even industrial stalwarts like GM and Ford are making plans to set up their own Web markets. As new entrants with new business models pour into the business-to-business space, it's increasingly difficult to make sense of the landscape. This article provides a blueprint of the e-hub arena. The authors start by looking at the two dimensions of purchasing: what businesses buy--manufacturing inputs or operating inputs--and how they buy--through systematic sourcing or spot sourcing. They classify B2B e-hubs into four categories: MRO hubs, yield managers, exchanges, and catalog hubs, and they discuss each type in detail. Drilling deeper into this B2B matrix, the authors look at how e-hubs create value--through aggregation and matching--and explain when each mechanism works best. They also examine the biases of e-hubs. Although many e-hubs are neutral--they're operated by independent third parties--some favor the buyers or sellers. The authors explain the differences and discuss the pros and cons of each position. The B2B marketplace is changing rapidly. This framework helps buyers, sellers, and market makers navigate the landscape by explaining what the different hubs do and how they add the most value.

  15. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...... systems (ESSs), and heating/cooling devices such as electrical heater, heat-pumps and absorption chillers. The optimal scheduling and management of the examined energy hub assets in line with electrical transactions with distribution network is modeled as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem...

  16. City Hub:a cloud based IoT platform for Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, Rodger; Blackstock, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cloud based Smart City hubs are an attractive approach to addressing some of the complex issues faced when deploying PaaS infrastructure for Smart Cities. In this paper we introduce the general notion of IoT hubs and then discusses our work to generalize our IoT hub as a Smart City PaaS. Two key issues are identified, support for hybrid public/private cloud and interoperability. We briefly describe our approach to these issues and discuss our experiences deploying two cloud-based Smart City h...

  17. Hierarchical Feedback Modules and Reaction Hubs in Cell Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Lan, Yueheng

    2015-01-01

    Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks. PMID:25951347

  18. Arc protein: a flexible hub for synaptic plasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaienko, Oleksii; Patil, Sudarshan; Eriksen, Maria Steene; Bramham, Clive R

    2017-09-07

    Mammalian excitatory synapses express diverse types of synaptic plasticity. A major challenge in neuroscience is to understand how a neuron utilizes different types of plasticity to sculpt brain development, function, and behavior. Neuronal activity-induced expression of the immediate early protein, Arc, is critical for long-term potentiation and depression of synaptic transmission, homeostatic synaptic scaling, and adaptive functions such as long-term memory formation. However, the molecular basis of Arc protein function as a regulator of synaptic plasticity and cognition remains a puzzle. Recent work on the biophysical and structural properties of Arc, its protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications have shed light on the issue. Here, we present Arc protein as a flexible, multifunctional and interactive hub. Arc interacts with specific effector proteins in neuronal compartments (dendritic spines, nuclear domains) to bidirectionally regulate synaptic strength by distinct molecular mechanisms. Arc stability, subcellular localization, and interactions are dictated by synaptic activity and post-translational modification of Arc. This functional versatility and context-dependent signaling supports a view of Arc as a highly specialized master organizer of long-term synaptic plasticity, critical for information storage and cognition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence оf 2d Vibratory Motion Conveyed to Billet on Force And Timing Parameters of its Contact Interaction With Sawing Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental investigation on influence of 2D vibratory dimension conveyed to a billet on force and timing parameters of its contact interaction with a sawing disc. Description of the modernized sawing section ensuring conveyance of 2D vibratory motion to a billet, methodology and  hardware facilities applied for normal force measurement of its impact with the disc and longevity of their contact for the period of the billet circulation motion. The paper provides, analyzes and generalizes experimentally obtained dependences reflecting influence of gap clearance between a boom and an upper stop on the mentioned force and timing parameters of the billet contact interaction with the sawing disc.

  20. Low-frequency vibratory exercise reduces the risk of bone fracture more than walking: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Alejo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-body vibration (WBV is a new type of exercise that has been increasingly tested for the ability to prevent bone fractures and osteoporosis in frail people. There are two currently marketed vibrating plates: a the whole plate oscillates up and down; b reciprocating vertical displacements on the left and right side of a fulcrum, increasing the lateral accelerations. A few studies have shown recently the effectiveness of the up-and-down plate for increasing Bone Mineral Density (BMD and balance; but the effectiveness of the reciprocating plate technique remains mainly unknown. The aim was to compare the effects of WBV using a reciprocating platform at frequencies lower than 20 Hz and a walking-based exercise programme on BMD and balance in post-menopausal women. Methods Twenty-eight physically untrained post-menopausal women were assigned at random to a WBV group or a Walking group. Both experimental programmes consisted of 3 sessions per week for 8 months. Each vibratory session included 6 bouts of 1 min (12.6 Hz in frequency and 3 cm in amplitude with 60° of knee flexion with 1 min rest between bouts. Each walking session was 55 minutes of walking and 5 minutes of stretching. Hip and lumbar BMD (g·cm-2 were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and balance was assessed by the blind flamingo test. ANOVA for repeated measurements was adjusted by baseline data, weight and age. Results After 8 months, BMD at the femoral neck in the WBV group was increased by 4.3% (P = 0.011 compared to the Walking group. In contrast, the BMD at the lumbar spine was unaltered in both groups. Balance was improved in the WBV group (29% but not in the Walking group. Conclusion The 8-month course of vibratory exercise using a reciprocating plate is feasible and is more effective than walking to improve two major determinants of bone fractures: hip BMD and balance.

  1. Influence of the Radial Clearance of a Squeeze Film Damper on the Vibratory Behavior of a Single Spool Gas Turbine Designed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Creci; José Orlando Balastrero; Sidney Domingues; Luis Vanderlei Torres; João Carlos Menezes

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a numerical investigation using the finite element method on the vibratory behavior of a single spool gas turbine designed for unmanned aerial vehicle applications. The shaft of the rotor-bearing system is supported on a front bearing composed of a deep groove ball bearing with a vibration absorber element and a rear squeeze film damper bearing. Three radial clearances for the squeeze film damper were analyzed to determine the best geometric configuration for the rear bear...

  2. Sci-Hub: What Librarians Should Know and Do about Article Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of journal articles has driven many researchers to turn to a new way of getting access: "pirate" article sites. Sci-Hub, the largest and best known of these sites, currently offers instant access to more than 58 million journal articles. Users attracted by the ease of use and breadth of the collection may not realize that these articles are often obtained using stolen credentials and downloading them may be illegal. This article will briefly describe Sci-Hub and how it works, the legal and ethical issues it raises, and the problems it may cause for librarians. Librarians should be aware of Sci-Hub and the ways it may change their patrons' expectations. They should also understand the risks Sci-Hub can pose to their patrons and their institutions.

  3. Puertos, espacio y globalización: el desarrollo de hubs en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Daniel Martner Peyrelongue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los puertos hubs se presentan como el nuevo paradigma de desarrollo del transporte y el comercio marítimo internacional en la globalización. Prácticamente todos los países latinoamericanos anuncian megaproyectos para el desarrollo de puertos hubs en sus litorales, generando grandes expectativas de desarrollo regional, con un débil sustento tanto teórico como empírico. En este sentido, el presente trabajo busca contribuir a la caracterización del modelo de puertos hubs en países periféricos dentro de la economíamundo capitalista, aludiendo, en especial, al caso mexicano. Se trata de aportar elementos de análisis para reconocer, a grandes rasgos, las posibilidades del desarrollo de hubs en los litorales mexicanos, desde la perspectiva de los estudios regionales y la geografía del transporte.

  4. Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunpeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the four papers in the special issues on ‘Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia’. The papers examine lessons and experience from European hub development, other commodity, the Japanese history on developing of futures markets and inter-fuel substitution in East Asia. The papers finds that liquid futures market is the key to formulate benchmark prices while a well-developed spot market is the foundation; political will and strong leadership are required to overcome the power of incumbents and to restructure the gas market that impede the the development of competitive markets; and East Asia needs to develop its indigenous gas or LNG trading hubs even in low oil prices period and its developing market allows easier changes in new contracts than in existing ones. This hub development requires governments to go through tough domestic market reforms, including liberalization and cooperation with each other and with gas exporters.

  5. Collaborative Policy of the Supply-Hub for Assemble-to-Order Systems with Delivery Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the collaborative mechanisms of the Supply-Hub in the Assemble-to-Order system (ATO system hereafter with upstream delivery uncertainty. We first propose a collaborative replenishment mechanism in the ATO system, and construct a replenishment model with delivery uncertainty in use of the Supply-Hub. After transforming the original model into a one-dimensional optimization problem, we derive the optimal assembly quantity and reorder point of each component. In order to enable the Supply-Hub to conduct collaborative replenishment with each supplier, the punishment and reward mechanisms are proposed. The numerical analysis illustrates that service level of the Supply-Hub is an increasing function of both punishment and reward factors. Therefore, by adjusting the two factors, suppliers’ incentives of collaborative replenishment can be significantly enhanced, and then the service level of whole ATO system can be improved.

  6. Design of an innovative bike brake integrated into the wheel hub

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenti, M.; Ortiz Marzo, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The public urban bike services demand more robust mechanical devices to resist misuse and vandalism. An innovative wheel hub integrated bike brake was designed making use of CAD-3D and numerical analysis tools and considering both technological and economical criteria. Unlike the other existing hub integrated bike brakes, the new design ensures an homogeneous pressure distribution on the braking pads, which maximizes its lifespan, reduces the maintenance costs and guarantees an uniform perfor...

  7. Joint position sense and vibratory perception sense in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III (hypermobility type).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaut, Lies; De Paepe, Anne; Malfait, Fransiska; Cools, Ann; Calders, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    Neurophysiological deficits could make patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type III (hypermobility type) more vulnerable to musculoskeletal problems, particularly to joint instability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether joint position sense (JPS) and vibratory perception sense (VPS) in EDS type III patients in the knee and shoulder joints are impaired. Thirty-two female EDS type III patients as defined by the Villefranche criteria and 32 individually gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects were included in the study. Range of motion was determined using a goniometer, passive and active JPS were assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer system, and the VPS was measured by a biothesiometer. Daily physical activity was evaluated by the Baecke questionnaire. The EDS type III group showed significantly larger ranges of movement (P physical activity (SPA) compared to the control group (P = 0.023). Considering SPA as covariate, the EDS type III group demonstrated a significant impairment in knee joint reposition compared to the control group (P = 0.018). No significant differences were found for shoulder JPS. The VPS was not significantly different in the EDS type III group compared to the control group. In addition, no significant correlation was found between JPS and VPS, neither at the knee nor at the shoulder joint. This is the first study examining proprioception deficits in EDS type III patients as defined by the Villefranche criteria. Further research on the neurophysiological dysfunctions and mechanisms in this pathologic entity is needed.

  8. Design and Analysis of a Novel Fully Decoupled Tri-axis Linear Vibratory Gyroscope with Matched Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Kong, Lun; Gao, Haiyu

    2015-07-13

    We present in this paper a novel fully decoupled silicon micromachined tri-axis linear vibratory gyroscope. The proposed gyroscope structure is highly symmetrical and can be limited to an area of about 8.5 mm × 8.5 mm. It can differentially detect three axes' angular velocities at the same time. By elaborately arranging different beams, anchors and sensing frames, the drive and sense modes are fully decoupled from each other. Moreover, the quadrature error correction and frequency tuning functions are taken into consideration in the structure design for all the sense modes. Since there exists an unwanted in-plane rotational mode, theoretical analysis is implemented to eliminate it. To accelerate the mode matching process, the particle swam optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted and a frequency split of 149 Hz is first achieved by this method. Then, after two steps of manual adjustment of the springs' dimensions, the frequency gap is further decreased to 3 Hz. With the help of the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS, the natural frequencies of drive, yaw, and pitch/roll modes are found to be 14,017 Hz, 14,018 Hz and 14,020 Hz, respectively. The cross-axis effect and scale factor of each mode are also simulated. All the simulation results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, which means the design is effective and worthy of further investigation on the integration of tri-axis accelerometers on the same single chip to form an inertial measurement unit.

  9. Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Life of Ti-6Al-4V Treated by Vibratory Stress Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Jun Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibratory stress relief (VSR is a highly efficient and low-energy consumption method to relieve and homogenize residual stresses in materials. Thus, the effect of VSR on the fatigue life should be determined. Standard fatigue specimens are fabricated to investigate the fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy treated by VSR. The dynamic stresses generated under different VSR amplitudes are measured, and then the relationship between the dynamic stress and vibration amplitude is obtained. Different specimen groups are subjected to VSRs with different amplitudes and annealing treatment with typical process parameters. Residual stresses are measured to evaluate the stress relieving effects. Finally, the fatigue behavior under different states is determined by uniaxial tension–compression fatigue experiments. Results show that VSR and annealing treatment have negative effects on the fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V. The fatigue life is decreased with the increase in VSR amplitude. When the VSR amplitude is less than 0.1 mm, the decrease in fatigue limit is less than 2%. Compared with specimens without VSR or annealing treatment, the fatigue limit of the specimens treated by VSR with 0.2 mm amplitude and annealing treatment decreases by 10.60% and 8.52%, respectively. Although the stress relieving effect is better, high amplitude VSR will lead to the decrease of Ti-6Al-4V fatigue life due to the defects generated during vibration. Low amplitude VSR can effectively relieve the stress with little decrease in fatigue life.

  10. Anesthetic block of the dorsal penile nerve inhibits vibratory-induced ejaculation in men with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, J A; Brackett, N L; Lynne, C M; Green, J T; Aballa, T C

    2000-06-01

    [corrected] We investigated which nerve pathways are necessary to achieve ejaculation using penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Eight men with SCI were selected based on the presence of a bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) and consistent antegrade ejaculation with PVS. Level of injury was cervical (4), upper thoracic (4), and lower thoracic (1). Mean age was 30.4 years (range 22 to 38). Usual responses to PVS included autonomic dysreflexia (4), erection (4), and consistent somatic responses such as abdominal contractions (8). Local anesthesia of the dorsal penile nerves (penile block) was achieved using 1% plain lidocaine injection. Effective penile block was confirmed by loss of the BCR. Two PVS ejaculation trials were performed: one trial during the penile block and one trial when the penile block had worn off. In 4 subjects, the bladder contents were analyzed for retrograde ejaculation. With the penile block, ejaculation was inhibited in 100% of the subjects. None of the bladder washings demonstrated sperm, indicating absence of retrograde ejaculation. None of the subjects exhibited their usual erectile response, somatic responses, or signs of autonomic dysreflexia. After the penile block wore off, PVS induced ejaculation in all subjects. If subjects usually had erection, somatic responses, or signs of autonomic dysreflexia, these also returned. Our data suggest that ejaculatory response to PVS in SCI men requires the presence of intact dorsal penile nerves.

  11. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is a network disorder with altered cortical hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Woorim; Chung, Chun Kee

    2015-05-01

    Electrophysiologic hubs within the large-scale functional networks in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) have not been investigated. We hypothesized that mTLE with HS has different resting-state network hubs in their large-scale functional networks compared to the hubs in healthy controls (HC). We also hypothesized that the hippocampus would be a functional hub in mTLE patients with HS. Resting-state functional networks, identified by using magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands, were evaluated. Networks in 44 mTLE patients with HS (left mTLE = 22; right mTLE = 22) were compared with those in 46 age-matched HC. We investigated betweenness centrality at the source-level MEG network. The main network hubs were at the pole of the left superior temporal gyrus in the beta band, the pole of the left middle temporal gyrus in the beta and gamma bands, left hippocampus in the theta and alpha bands, and right posterior cingulate gyrus in all four frequency bands in mTLE patients; all of which were different from the main network hubs in HC. Only patients with left mTLE showed profound differences from HC at the left hippocampus in the alpha band. Our analysis of resting-state MEG signals shows that altered electrophysiologic functional hubs in mTLE patients reflect pathophysiologic brain network reorganization. Because we detected network hubs in both hippocampal and extrahippocampal areas, it is probable that mTLE is a large-scale network disorder rather than a focal disorder. The hippocampus was a network hub in left mTLE but not in right mTLE patients, which may be due to intrinsic functional and structural asymmetries between left and right mTLE patients. The evaluation of cortical hubs, even in the spike-free resting-state, could be a clinical diagnostic marker of mTLE with HS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Disrupted nodal and hub organization account for brain network abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Koshimori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree. Hub regions were identified in the healthy control and patient groups. We found nodal and hub changes in patients compared with healthy controls, including the right pre-supplementary motor area, left anterior insula, bilateral mid-insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus. In general, nodal regions within the sensorimotor network (i.e. right pre-supplementary motor area and right mid-insula displayed weakened connectivity, with the former node associated with more severe bradykinesia, and impaired integration with default mode network regions. The left mid-insula also lost its hub properties in patients. Within the executive networks, the left anterior insular cortex lost its hub properties in patients, while a new hub region was identified in the right caudate nucleus, paralleled by an increased level of inter- and intra-connectivity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex possibly representing compensatory mechanisms. These findings highlight the diffuse changes in nodal organization and regional hub disruption accounting for the distributed abnormalities across brain networks and the clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease.

  13. A Passenger Flow Risk Forecasting Algorithm for High-Speed Railway Transport Hub Based on Surveillance Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow risk forecasting is a vital task for safety management in high-speed railway transport hub. In this paper, we considered the passenger flow risk forecasting problem in high-speed railway transport hub. Based on the surveillance sensor networks, a passenger flow risk forecasting algorithm was developed based on spatial correlation. Computational results showed that the proposed forecasting approach was effective and significant for the high-speed railway transport hub.

  14. The application of design criteria for locating a hub configured supply chain for a restaurant cluster in the Stellenbosch area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B. Struwig

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Restaurants, in general, utilise numerous suppliers. Normally they deliver on different days in the week and at different times during the day, logistically not an optimum approach. Not only does the current practice cause frequent interruptions, but by segregating the food supply chain unnecessary traffic is generated. This article investigated the need for developing a third party supplier hub, the best positioning of that hub and the most economical routes to the customers. With the aim of providing non-franchised restaurants with the necessary leverage to become market leaders, the hub is planned to only service the restaurants within the vicinity of the Stellenbosch area. In such a hub-configured supply chain, the suppliers would be delivering to the proposed hub, from where once-off deliveries to all the restaurants may be made on days and/or times determined by them. In order to investigate the benefits of providing such a hub structure, a systematic implementation approach was used. The first step was to do market research in order to establish the need for such a hub. That is, the viability of the hub from a restaurant’s perspective was established. The next step entailed the investigation of the design criteria needed in determining a favourable hub location. Four possible hub locations were identified. The Clark and Wright’s savings algorithm was then used to determine the optimal hub location and the feasibility of the results was verified with the aid of a global positioning system (GPS device. The last steps followed involved the determination of an effective hub floor plan that may be utilised, possible products that can be supplied to the restaurants and the necessary assets needed to provide the hub’s service. Finally, by incorporating all these facets, a cost analysis was done to determine the hub’s profitability.

  15. Understanding farmers' preferences for artificial insemination services provided through dairy hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, I A; Zander, K K; Bauer, S; Baltenweck, I

    2017-04-01

    Africa has a shortage of animal products but increasing demand because of population growth, urbanisation and changing consumer patterns. Attempts to boost livestock production through the use of breeding technologies such as artificial insemination (AI) have been failing in many countries because costs have escalated and success rates have been relatively low. One example is Kenya, a country with a relatively large number of cows and a dairy industry model relevant to neighbouring countries. There, an innovative dairy marketing approach (farmer-owned collective marketing systems called dairy hubs) has been implemented to enhance access to dairy markets and dairy-related services, including breeding services such as AI. So far, the rate of participation in these dairy hubs has been slow and mixed. In order to understand this phenomenon better and to inform dairy-related development activities by the Kenyan government, we investigated which characteristics of AI services, offered through the dairy hubs, farmers prefer. To do so, we applied a choice experiment (CE), a non-market valuation technique, which allowed us to identify farmers' preferences for desired characteristics should more dairy hubs be installed in the future. This is the first study to use a CE to evaluate breeding services in Kenya and the results can complement findings of studies of breeding objectives and selection criteria. The results of the CE reveal that dairy farmers prefer to have AI services offered rather than having no service. Farmers prefer AI services to be available at dairy hubs rather than provided by private agents not affiliated to the hubs, to have follow-up services for pregnancy detections, and to use sexed semen rather than conventional semen. Farmers would further like some flexibility in payment systems which include input credit, and are willing to share the costs of any AI repeats that may need to occur. These results provide evidence of a positive attitude to AI services

  16. nanoHUB.org: Experiences and Challenges in Software Sustainability for a Large Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Zentner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The science gateway nanoHUB.org, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF, serves a large scientific community dedicated to research and education in nanotechnology with community-contributed simulation codes as well as a vast repository of other materials such as recorded presentations, teaching materials, and workshops and courses. Nearly 330,000 users annually access over 4400 items of content on nanoHUB, including 343 simulation tools. Arguably the largest nanotechnology facility in the world, nanoHUB has led the way not only in providing open access to scientific code in the nanotechnology community, but also in lowering barriers to the use of that code, by providing a platform where developers are able to easily and quickly deploy code written in a variety of languages with user-friendly graphical user interfaces and where users can run the latest versions of codes transparently on the grid or other powerful resources without ever having to download or update code. Being a leader in open access code deployment provides nanoHUB with opportunities and challenges as it meets the current and future needs of its community. This paper discusses the experiences of nanoHUB in addressing and adapting to the changing landscape of scientific software in ways that best serve its community and meet the needs of the largest portion of its user base.

  17. USDA Regional Climate Hubs - Partnering to bring information and tools to managers of working lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, USDA announced the location of seven Regional Hubs for Risk Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate Change (Climate Hubs) and three "Sub Hubs". The mission of these Climate Hubs is to develop and deliver science-based region-specific information and technologies to agricultural and natural resource managers that enable climate-smart decision-making and to direct land managers to USDA programs that can assist them in implementing those decisions. This mission is similar to that of Cooperative Extension and the Agricultural Experiment Stations (both of which benefit from USDA funding); therefore it is crucial that we partner with Land Grant Universities in order to achieve this mission. As USDA stands up these Climate Hubs we are working closely with USDA agencies, Land Grant Universities, other federal climate science programs, and other partners to determine how best to provide usable information and tools to farmers, ranchers and forest land managers to enable them to make climate-smart decisions.

  18. Functional Connectivity Hubs Could Serve as a Potential Biomarker in Alzheimer's Disease: A Reproducible Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiuchao; Zhu, Maohu; Cui, Yue; Yu, Chunshui; Sui, Jing; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Jieqiong; Duan, Yunyun; Zhang, Zengqiang; Wang, Luning; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    Cortical hubs that link functionally specialized neural systems are crucial for cognition. Evidence suggests that the location and organization of hubs are related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, two issues remain unclear: (i) where and how hubs change in AD, and (ii) whether hubs could be a potential pre-diagnosis biomarker for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)--a prodromal phase of AD. Accordingly, we examined the functional connectivity density (FCD) in two cohorts of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (26 AD, 27 controls; 33 AD, 21 controls) and revealed consistently vulnerable FCD hub regions in AD compared with controls: within the default mode network, short-range FCD decreases in the posterior cingulate cortex and increases in the medial prefrontal cortex; within the frontal lobe, long-range FCD increases in the medial prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. Furthermore, FCD correlates with cognitive score and could distinguish MCI from controls with high accuracy (71.08% in dataset 1, 81% in dataset 2). By reflecting a robust and reproducible global shift in brain functions, FCD provides an fMRI biomarker for the underlying mechanism in AD.

  19. DataHub: Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    The DataHub addresses four areas of significant needs: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactives nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc), in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  20. DataHub - Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    DataHub addresses four areas of significant need: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactive nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc.) in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis is on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  1. TYPE PROJECTS HUB - AN INTERNATIONAL MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Nistor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact Hub is a global network of local spaces and communities designed to facilitate sustainable impact through collaboration. Local Impact Hubs are autonomous companies that offer co-working spaces, programming, events platforms, and communities of individuals and organizations with ideas to build a better world. Hub was established in 2005 in London with the aim of creating a space dedicated to inspire, connect and enable people to achieve a sustainable entrepreneurial idea. The idea was simple: There are a lot of people with good ideas for a "better world". What seem to be missing are places to help these people to move from intent to action and to find like-minded for a greater impact. In Romania about four years ago, first opened in Bucharest office space hubs in Romania (for entrepreneurs in technology and business where teams from different companies could collaborate. The idea to open a hub in Bucharest focused on social innovation and entrepreneurship appeared some time ago in the context in which part of the team now has worked since 2010 at the initiation and growth of a community to support social entrepreneurship. In all this diversity, there is a common mission: “we can create if we put all our innovation capacity in the common goal to create a positive impact through our work?”

  2. Multi-Item Distribution Policies with Supply Hub and Lateral Transshipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Jin-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply Hub is defined as the horizontal coordination among the suppliers while lateral transshipment is a horizontal coordination policy among the retailers. By considering the Supply Hub and lateral transshipment simultaneously, ones can reduce the total cost of the supply chain system and improve the response to customer requirement and the customers’ satisfaction. We investigate the distribution policies for the supply chain which consists of multisuppliers, single Supply Hub, and multidistributors. In the system, both Supply Hub and distributors adopt the (t, S policy, Supply Hub will not be out of stock, and backlogging is forbidden. Customer requirements at distributors are assumed to be independent random variables complying with uniform distribution; transshipment is assumed to be bidirectional, instantaneous, and emergent. We establish the distribution models, respectively, for the cases of transshipment or no transshipment. For the case with transshipment, we design a GA-based solution method involving a two-stage selection technology, that is, firstly, selecting individuals from parent population to generate offspring chromosomes and, secondly, selecting individuals from the interim population comprising all of the parent and offspring genomes, to form the next-generation population. We show that lateral transshipment can increase the overall profit of the supply chain by the comparison examinations between the models with and without transshipment.

  3. The influence of hubs in the structure of a neuronal network during an epileptic seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Abner Cardoso; Cerdeira, Hilda A.; Machado, Birajara Soares

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose changes in the structure of a neuronal network with the intention to provoke strong synchronization to simulate episodes of epileptic seizure. Starting with a network of Izhikevich neurons we slowly increase the number of connections in selected nodes in a controlled way, to produce (or not) hubs. We study how these structures alter the synchronization on the spike firings interval, on individual neurons as well as on mean values, as a function of the concentration of connections for random and non-random (hubs) distribution. We also analyze how the post-ictal signal varies for the different distributions. We conclude that a network with hubs is more appropriate to represent an epileptic state.

  4. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Heat Flow in Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Hub Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasil, Muhammed; Plesner, Daniel; Walther, Jens Honore

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the heat dissipation in the hub motor of an electric two-wheeler using lumped parameter (LP), finite element (FE) and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. The motor uses external rotor permanent magnet brushless DC topology and nearly all of its losses are generated...... in the stator. The hub motor construction restricts the available conductive paths for heat dissipation from the stator to the ambient only through the shaft. In contrast to an internal rotor structure, where the stator winding losses are diffused via conduction, here convection plays a major role in loss...... dissipation. Therefore, a LP thermal model with improved convection modelling has been proposed to calculate the temperature of the components inside the hub motor. The developed model is validated with the FE thermal model and the test data. In addition, CFD tools has been used to accurately model...

  5. Synchronization and long-time memory in neural networks with inhibitory hubs and synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Elena; Burioni, Raffaella; di Volo, Matteo; Vezzani, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical role of inhibitory and highly connected nodes (hub) in synchronization and input processing of leaky-integrate-and-fire neural networks with short term synaptic plasticity. We take advantage of a heterogeneous mean-field approximation to encode the role of network structure and we tune the fraction of inhibitory neurons fI and their connectivity level to investigate the cooperation between hub features and inhibition. We show that, depending on fI, highly connected inhibitory nodes strongly drive the synchronization properties of the overall network through dynamical transitions from synchronous to asynchronous regimes. Furthermore, a metastable regime with long memory of external inputs emerges for a specific fraction of hub inhibitory neurons, underlining the role of inhibition and connectivity also for input processing in neural networks.

  6. Application of higher harmonic control to hingeless rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Chopra, Inderjit

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical formulation has been dveloped to predict the vibratory hub loads of a helicopter rotor system in forward flight. The analysis is used to calculate the optimal higher harmonic control inputs and associated actuator power required to minimize these hub loads. The present formulation is based on a finite element method in space and time. A nonlinear time domain, unsteady aerodynamic model is used to obtain the airloads, and the rotor induced inflow is calculated using a nonuniform inflow model. Predicted vibratory hub loads are correlated with experimental data obtained from a scaled model rotor. Results of a parametric study on a hingeless rotor show that blade flap, lag and torsion vibration characteristics, offset of blade center of mass from elastic axis, offset of elastic axis from quarter-chord axis, and blade thrust greatly affect the higher harmonic control actuator power requirement.

  7. Vibration of compressively loaded shear deformable flat panels exhibiting initial geometric imperfections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librescu, L.; Chang, M. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical study results are presented which indicate that, in the prebuckling range, the natural frequency predicted by the shear-deformable plate theory is smaller than that associated with its transverse-shear rigid counterpart. The opposite behavior occurs in the postbuckling/postcritical range. With increasing transverse shear flexibility, greater differences between frequencies predicted by shear deformation and infinitely rigid transverse shear theories emerge. The character of in-plane boundary conditions is a determinant of both increasing/decreasing buckling loads and increasing/decreasing vibratory frequencies.

  8. Hub vortex instability and wake dynamics in axial flow wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Daniel; Howard, Kevin; Yang, Xiaolei; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-11-01

    The near wake region of an axial flow wind turbine has two distinct shear layers: an outer tip vortex shear layer, which rotates in the same direction as the rotor, and an inner counter-rotating hub vortex shear layer. Recent simulations (Kang et al., J. Fluid Mech. 744, 376 (2014)), corroborated with experiments (Chamorro et al., J. Fluid Mech. 716, 658 (2013)), showed that the hub vortex can undergo spiral vortex breakdown immediately downstream of the turbine. The precessing hub vortex core intercepts and interacts with the tip vortex shear layer causing the large-scale wake meandering motions in the far wake to intensify. These results were obtained for an axial flow hydrokinetic turbine in a turbulent open channel flow. Here we integrate high-resolution LES with experiments to show that a hub vortex instability also occurs in the near wake of a wind turbine in a wind tunnel. We show that the interactions of the hub vortex with the outer flow have significant effects on the wake meandering amplitude and frequency. Our results reinforce the conclusions of Kang et al. (2014) that the hub vortex must be included in wake models to simulate wake interactions at the power plant scale and optimize turbine siting for realistic terrain and wind conditions. This work was supported by DOE (DE-EE0002980, DE-EE0005482 and DE-AC04-94AL85000), the NSF (IIP-1318201), the IREE early career award (UMN) and NSF CAREER: Geophysical Flow Control (CBET-1351303). Computational resources were provided by MSI.

  9. Special section on smart grids: A hub of interdisciplinary research : IEEE ACCESS Special section editorial smart grids: A hub of interdisciplinary research

    OpenAIRE

    Husain Rehmani, Mubashir; Erol-Kantarci, Melike; Rachedi, Abderrezak; MILENA, RADENKOVIC,; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The smart grid is an important hub of interdisciplinary research where researchers from different areas of science and technology combine their efforts to enhance the traditional electrical power grid. Due to these efforts, the traditional electrical grid is now evolving. The envisioned smart grid will bring social, environmental, ethical, legal and economic benefits. Smart grid systems increasingly involve machine-to-machine communication as well as human-to-human, or...

  10. Decentralized Fuzzy P-hub Centre Problem: Extended Model and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mousavinia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the uncapacitated P-hub center problem in a network under decentralized management assuming time as a fuzzy variable. In this network, transport companies act independently, each company makes its route choices according to its own criteria. In this model, time is presented by triangular fuzzy number and used to calculate the fraction of users that probably choose hub routes instead of direct routes. To solve the problem, two genetic algorithms are proposed. The computational results compared with LINGO indicate that the proposed algorithm solves large-scale instances within promising computational time and outperforms LINGO in terms of solution quality.

  11. Determinants of a regional port-centric logistics hub: The case of East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hercules Haralambides; Simme Veldman; Eric van Drunen; Miaojia Liu

    2011-01-01

    Demand for port capacity in East Africa is rising rapidly, and possibilities for expansion in the existing ports are limited. Studies indicate that, by 2016, a new port north of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) should be operational, serving, as a regional hub, the needs of the total (captive and non-captive) hinterland of East African ports. The objective of this article is to assess the economic potential, in terms of logistics costs of alternative hub-port locations. To that effect we first descri...

  12. Japanese Forwarders’ Local Import Hub in Asia: 3PL Power and Environmental Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio MIYASHITA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate by an econometric method which countries or regions in Asia are superior import hubs for Japan based on two axes, the third party logistics (3PL business power of Japanese local forwarders and the logistical environment catch-up speed of these countries. According to the estimated results, this simple model can explain the structural changes in China's logistics based on its WTO accession and can develop Japanese forwarders’ stable import hub ranking by suggesting total optimization in the East Asian NIES (newly industrial economies and the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Countries districts by Japanese forwarders.

  13. Virtual Campus Hub: A single sign-on system for cross-border collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Vercoulen, F.; Monaco, L.

    2013-01-01

    Four technical universities in Europe work together in the EU-funded project Virtual Campus Hub (FP7 RI-283746, www.virtualcampushub.eu) to lower the technical barriers for cross-border collaboration. Universities have many connections to the outside world (e.g. to other universities, to joint...... a personalized portal where users must provide their identity in order to access the content. An important part of the Virtual Campus Hub project is to gain new experiences and document best practices when it comes to using the different online applications in real teaching situations and especially...

  14. Sci-Hub as a Mirror of Research and Educational Institutions’ Acquisition of E-resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail E. Shvartsman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: new approaches are required to select the optimal strategy of e-resources acquisition. The aim of the study is to find additional criteria for evaluating online resources, to decide whether to subscribe to these resources. To analyze the real needs of researchers and estimate usability of scholarly resources we propose to use the statistics of downloads from the Sci-Hub website as the most accessible resource nowadays. We presume the requests to Sci-Hub demonstrate the real needs of scientists, pedagogical staff, postgraduate and students in the science articles. Materials and Methods: using open statistics on the Sci-Hub website, we extracted the dataset referred to the Russian Federation. We obtained the data on the downloaded articles with the API CrossrRef and analyzed distribution of the articles over topics, regions, years of publication and publishers. Results: we present tables, graphs and diagrams illustrated the extent of illegal downloading from the Sci-Hub website. The data on Dubna, Chernogolovka, Sarov, Puschino research centers is highlighted. The legal and illegal download statistics are compared. Discussion and Conclusions: official data on use of e-resources in universities appears incomplete with out evaluation of the Sci-Hub downloads. The practical significance of the study lies in the ability to use the above statistics to identify gaps in acquisition and problems in the organization of information support for education and science. The Sci-Hub factor should be taken into account in the information support for research and education. This article describes methods to improve the usability of online resources and American Chemical Society was used as an example. The most requested chemical journals in Sci-Hub were selected. Statistics demonstrates insufficiency of the acquisition of scientific centers with chemical journals, and the problems of cooperation among institutions in obtaining information. It is

  15. Ultraviolet-LIGA-based fabrication and characterization of a nonresonant drive-mode vibratory gyro/accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Payal; Zaman Khan, Khamar; Khonina, Svetlana Nikolaevna; Kazanskiy, Nikolay Lvovich; Gopal, Ram

    2016-07-01

    A dual-purpose nonresonant 2-degrees of freedom (DOF) drive-mode and 1-DOF sense-mode vibratory gyro/accelerometer fabricated using the economical ultraviolet-lithographie-galvanoformung-abformung (UV-LIGA) fabrication process using SU-8 photoresist is reported. The dual-purpose device presented is capable of detecting acceleration at the lower-frequency band and angular rate at the operating frequency band thereby functioning as both accelerometer and gyroscope. This is achieved by designing the structure such that the frequency response of the drive oscillator has two drive resonances with a flat zone between them, while the sense oscillator has one resonance, which is deliberately placed in the flat region between the two drive resonances. For angular rate detection, the device is operated in the flat zone at the sense resonance frequency at which the device is less susceptible to frequency variations due to both environmental variation and fabrication imperfections and hence is said to be operating in robust mode. The steady-state response and discrimination for angular rate and acceleration sensing have been devised using analytical modeling. The fabrication process is optimized to realize a gyro/accelerometer that has a 9-μm-thick nickel structural layer and 4-μm capacitive gaps. The overall miniature device size is 2.0 mm×1.9 mm. The experimental frequency response of the fabricated devices shows drive-mode resonances at 2.85 and 4.96 kHz and sense resonance at 3.85 kHz compared to the respective design values of drive-mode resonance frequencies 2.97 and 4.81 kHz and sense resonance frequency of 4 kHz. To demonstrate the dual-purpose capability of the device, acceleration characterization has been carried out and presented. The fabricated sensor is packaged in a ceramic package and interfaced with a MS3110 differential capacitive read out IC to characterize the acceleration response of the sensor, using an out-of-plane shaker. The bandwidth for

  16. 76 FR 10328 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Vestas Nacelles America, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles, Hubs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... manufacturing and warehousing of wind turbine nacelles, hubs, blades and towers at the Vestas Nacelles America... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Vestas Nacelles America, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles, Hubs, Blades and Towers), Brighton, Denver, Pueblo, and Windsor, CO Pursuant to its...

  17. Influence of the Radial Clearance of a Squeeze Film Damper on the Vibratory Behavior of a Single Spool Gas Turbine Designed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Creci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a numerical investigation using the finite element method on the vibratory behavior of a single spool gas turbine designed for unmanned aerial vehicle applications. The shaft of the rotor-bearing system is supported on a front bearing composed of a deep groove ball bearing with a vibration absorber element and a rear squeeze film damper bearing. Three radial clearances for the squeeze film damper were analyzed to determine the best geometric configuration for the rear bearing, considering the rotordynamic performance of the entire system. Whirl speeds and unbalanced system responses were carefully evaluated to determine the best radial clearance for the squeeze film damper. After defining the best radial clearance, a transient analysis was performed to simulate the transition of the system through resonance, and a spectral map is presented to illustrate the vibratory behavior of the system considering the influence of all related important frequencies. The rotordynamic behavior of the system is predicted, and vibration problems are avoided. Its mechanical drawings were released to manufacturing, and the first prototype is in the experimental test phase, thus indicating that the numerical results presented in this study are consistent.

  18. Obtention of hydroxyapatite submicrometric of bovine origin by vibratory grinding for rapid prototyping; Obtencao de hidroxiapatita submicrometrica de origem bovina por moagem vibratoria visando prototipagem rapida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meira, C.R.; Purquerio, B.M.; Fortulan, C.A., E-mail: camilameira@sc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Braga, F.J.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Submicron bovine hydroxyapatite was obtained for rapid prototyping. Hydroxyapatite structure originated from bovine mineral bone has great importance among the biomaterials and biocompatibility due to its great similarity with the human bone structure. This study aims to obtain powder for manufacture by rapid prototyping of scaffolds. This technique manufacture requires highly reactive powders to compensate for the absence of pressure forming. Hydroxyapatite was milled in a ball mill and vibratory mill, and analyzed for their average equivalent spherical diameter and surface area. Test specimens were isostatically pressed at 100 MPa and machined into cylindrical test specimens. These specimens were sintered at several temperatures to determine the optimal sintering temperature based on densification and chemistry stability. In grinding ball mill was obtained particles of equivalent diameter of 0.74 micron in vibratory mill of 0.46 micrometers. An average flexural strength of 100 MPa and 99,8% of real density was attained for the sample sintered at 1300 deg C/2h, signaling potential for use in rapid prototyping. (author)

  19. Hub-and-Spoke or else? Free trade agreements in the 'enlarged' European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Santis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to estimate if and how the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA and the Baltic Free Trade Agreement (BFTA exerted a significant impact on intra-European trade, effectively reducing the influence of the European Association Agreements (EAs in shaping the European trade structure as a hub-and-spoke system - with the EU15 being the hub and the CEECs the spoke. This paper analyses bilateral trade flows between eight CEECs and EU-23. We estimate a gravity equation using a system GMM dynamic panel data approach. Results support the assumptions that gravity forces and "persistence effects" matter. With respect to the effect of free trade agreements, evidence is found that Free trade agreements between CEECs matter: There is evidence that the presence of intra-periphery agreements helped expand intra-periphery trade and limited the emergence of a "hub-and-spoke" relationship between CEECs and EU. This results have important policy implications for the trade strategy of "future" EU members of the Southeastern European Countries as well as of the Southern Mediterranean Countries. According to the empirical results, these countries should move towards a regional free-trade area as exemplified by the CEFTA and the BFTA to avoid "hub-and-spoke" effects.

  20. Network Competition - the Coexistence of Hub-and-Spoke and Point-to-Point Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderighi, M.; Cento, A.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper identifies conditions under which asymmetric equilibria may exist when carriers compete in designing their network configurations in a game-theoretical framework. Two carriers are assumed here, which are allowed to play three different strategies: Point-to-point (PP), hub-and-spoke (HS) or

  1. Effectiveness of Hub and Spoke Model for Dissemination of Innovative Farm Technologies to the Farming Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sriram

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hub and Spoke Model was established for dissemination of the innovative farming technologies at farmers’ doorstep. The study was conducted to measure the Effectiveness of Hub and Spoke Model for dissemination of innovative farm technologies at Tiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu. The respondents were selected by adopting purposive random sampling technique. A sample of 75 respondents from five villages of Polur block was selected for this study. The hub and spoke model was established and the knowledge gain of the subjects both at the pre and post exposure stages were collected using teacher made knowledge tests respectively. The data were collected using a well structured and pre-tested interview schedule. The data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical tools. The percentage of knowledge gained before the exposure to treatment was 40.20 per cent and after exposed it was 76.70 per cent. The mean knowledge gain is 36.50 per cent. The ‘t’ value 19.93 per cent indicates that the knowledge gained by the respondents was found to be significant at one per cent level. It was identified that there existed a significant differences in the effectiveness of the hub and spoke services in imparting knowledge.

  2. Fleet deployment, network design and hub location of liner shipping companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem...

  3. Towards collaborative, intermodal hub networks. A case study in the fast moving consumer goods market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, B.; Ruijgrok, C.; Tavasszy, L.

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative hub networks can provide an answer to the need to decrease logistics cost and maintain logistics service levels by shifting consolidated flows to modes that are better suited for handling large volumes (rail, barge, coastal shipping), so economies of scale can be obtained. This

  4. Role of governance in creating a commodity hub: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Haris

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The body of work on natural gas hubs has been expanding rapidly in recent years, with most of the current work examining the creation of gas hubs focusing on either the European experience or the North American experience. In this paper, we adopt a different perspective and place the focus on experience of hub building from other international commodities. We analyse three commodities - crude oil, iron ore and coal, and draw experience on the role of governance in development of hub based prices. In particular, we propose that the role of governance is different at different stages of the pricing transition to market based pricing. Governance could play an important role at the initial stage, building the relevant soft and physical infrastructure which facilitates the reaping of first mover advantage. As the market develops, private sector players may prefer less involvement of governance, which may distort markets. With market stabilization, governance should be focused on maintaining stable rules and regulation for private sector development, as well as monitoring for further changes in global trends. To facilitate the building of a benchmark price, the public sector should adopt a long-term and overarching view on industry growth.

  5. Requirements, model and prototype for a multi-utility locational and security information hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This project lays the foundation for building an exchange hub for locational and security data and risk assessment of potential excavation work. It acts primarily at 2 stages: upstream of the mark-out process, as a decision support tool to help strea...

  6. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, R.; Almeida, L.; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception

  7. Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were…

  8. Education Hubs: International, Regional and Local Dimensions of Scale and Scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Education hubs are important new developments. They represent a new generation of cross-border education activities where critical mass, co-location and connection between international, regional and local universities, students, research institutes and private industry are key. Different scales (city, zone and country) and types (student, talent,…

  9. PERSEUS-HUB: Interactive and Collective Exploration of Large-Scale Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Jin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphs emerge naturally in many domains, such as social science, neuroscience, transportation engineering, and more. In many cases, such graphs have millions or billions of nodes and edges, and their sizes increase daily at a fast pace. How can researchers from various domains explore large graphs interactively and efficiently to find out what is ‘important’? How can multiple researchers explore a new graph dataset collectively and “help” each other with their findings? In this article, we present Perseus-Hub, a large-scale graph mining tool that computes a set of graph properties in a distributed manner, performs ensemble, multi-view anomaly detection to highlight regions that are worth investigating, and provides users with uncluttered visualization and easy interaction with complex graph statistics. Perseus-Hub uses a Spark cluster to calculate various statistics of large-scale graphs efficiently, and aggregates the results in a summary on the master node to support interactive user exploration. In Perseus-Hub, the visualized distributions of graph statistics provide preliminary analysis to understand a graph. To perform a deeper analysis, users with little prior knowledge can leverage patterns (e.g., spikes in the power-law degree distribution marked by other users or experts. Moreover, Perseus-Hub guides users to regions of interest by highlighting anomalous nodes and helps users establish a more comprehensive understanding about the graph at hand. We demonstrate our system through the case study on real, large-scale networks.

  10. Branding by Proxy? : How hubs market (or not) higher education systems globally: the example of Qatar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremonini, Leon; Taylor, John; Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2017-01-01

    This chapter proposes a framework to understand if and how hubs contribute to stronger positioning of higher education system in global competition, and uses the case of Qatar to draw conclusions. Increasingly, governments around the world invest in so-called “education hubs”, which host excellent

  11. Multiple interactions between regulatory regions are required to stabilize an active chromatin hub.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.P. Patrinos (George); M. de Krom (Mariken); E. de Boer (Ernie); A. Langeveld (An); A.M.A. Imam (Ali); J. Strouboulis (John); W.L. de Laat (Wouter); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe human beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is required for the maintenance of an open chromatin configuration of the locus. It interacts with the genes and the hypersensitive regions flanking the locus to form an active chromatin hub (ACH) transcribing the genes. Proper

  12. Brief Report: The Negev Hospital-University-Based (HUB) Autism Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, Gal; Dinstein, Ilan; Michaelowski, Analya; Flusser, Hagit; Ilan, Michal; Faroy, Michal; Bar-Sinai, Asif; Manelis, Liora; Stolowicz, Dana; Yosef, Lili Lea; Davidovitch, Nadav; Golan, Hava; Arbelle, Shosh; Menashe, Idan

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the heterogeneous etiologies of autism will require investment in comprehensive longitudinal data acquisition from large community based cohorts. With this in mind, we have established a hospital-university-based (HUB) database of autism which incorporates prospective and retrospective data from a large and ethnically diverse…

  13. Changed hub and corresponding functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawang Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the most prevalent mental disorders. In the brain, the hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, whether the changed pattern in functional network hubs contributes to the onset of MDD remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory methods, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in MDD. First, we constructed the whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks and calculated a functional connectivity strength (FCS map in each subject in 34 MDD patients and 34 gender-, age-, and education level-matched healthy controls (HC. Next, the two-sample t-test was applied to compare the FCS maps between HC and MDD patients and identified significant decreased FCS in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC in MDD patients. Subsequent functional connectivity analyses of sgACC showed disruptions in functional connectivity with posterior insula, middle and inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum in MDD patients. Furthermore, the changed FCS of sgACC and functional connections to sgACC were significantly correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS scores in MDD patients. The results of the present study revealed the abnormal hub of sgACC and its corresponding disrupted frontal-limbic-visual cognitive-cerebellum functional networks in MDD. These findings may provide a new insight for the diagnosis and treatment of MDD.

  14. Development of passive-controlled HUB (teetered brake & damper mechanism) of horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yukimaru; Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    For the purpose of the improvement of reliability of the Mega-Watt wind turbine, this paper indicates the development of an original mechanism for the passive-controlled hub, which has the effects of braking and damping on aerodynamic forces. This mechanism is useful for variable speed control of the large wind turbine. The passive-controlled hub is the combination of two mechanisms. One is the passive-teetered and damping mechanism, and the other is the passive-variable-pitch mechanism. These mechanism are carried out by the combination of the teetering and feathering motions. When the wind speed exceeds the rated wind speed, the blade is passively teetered in a downwind direction and, simultaneously, a feathering mechanism, which is linked to the teetering mechanism through a connecting rods, is activated. Testing of the model horizontal axis wind turbine in a wind tunnel showed that the passive-controlled hub mechanism can suppress the over-rotational speed of the rotor. By the application of the passive-controlled hub mechanism, the maximum rotor speed is reduced to about 60%.

  15. Hub and shroud fillets influence on the radial compressor stage efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syka Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes numerical simulations of an air flow in the radial compressor stage in the NUMECA CFD software. During the tasks evaluating the stepped and straight impeller seals and hub and shroud fillets influence on working characteristics and flow field was observed. Also the CFD results comparison with results from the empiric design tool and the measurement is described.

  16. National Geothermal Data System Hub Deployment Timeline (Appendix E-1-d)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudill, Christy [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey)

    2015-12-20

    Excel spreadsheet describing activity, spending, and development for the four data hubs (Arizona Geoloical Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois Geological Survey, and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology) serving data for the National Geothermal Data System under the State Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System Project.

  17. Evaluating Hub and Spoke models of practice learning in Scotland, UK: a multiple case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Michelle; Conlon, Margaret; Banks, Debbie

    2012-10-01

    Most of UK students' practice learning experience is based on a rotational placement model which often leads to students lacking confidence and feeling anxious about the complexities of the care environment. To evaluate the impact of Hub and Spoke model(s) of clinical practice placement across geographically diverse locations, with a particular focus on enhancing the student practice learning experience. Multiple case study design. Comprised undergraduate student nurses from Adult, Learning Disability and Mental Health programmes from 3 Scottish Schools of Nursing. A mixed methods approach which included quantitative and qualitative date tools. All three Hub and Spoke models shared two broad findings: 1) In the three Hub and Spoke models detailed in this paper, there is a continuum of student led learning which supports the process with opportunities for individual students to be positively innovative and creative in their learning approaches. Depth of learning was achieved in two ways; a) the method in which Hub placements are organised, managed and structured and, b) the depth of empathy and sensitivity to the individual at the centre of the care. 2) Placement capacity is increased: The classification of placements is reviewed to produce broader categories, Engagement of mentors/enhanced student/mentor relationship. Practice Learning must be seen as an academic endeavour that promotes deep, meaningful, person-centred learning rather than superficial, compartmentalised placement-centred learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hub-and-Spoke Student Blogging and Advantages for Classroom Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues for a particular form of student blogging as a powerful tool for generating and sustaining student engagement and conversation. After a brief discussion of pedagogical principles, "hub-and-spoke" blogging is presented as a means to facilitate a more student and discussion-centered classroom. Based upon recent research and the…

  19. Creating a Virtual Learning Community with HUB Architecture: CLEERhub as a Case Study of User Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Vogt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aim of this article is to investigate the adoption patterns of HUB platforms that create and support virtual learning communities (VLC. The adoption patterns of one particular HUB called the Collaboratory for Engineering Education Research or CLEERhub, is presented as an example of how HUBs may be used as VLCs. After explaining the affordances of the HUB architecture, the article uses two approaches to discuss the adoption of CLEERhub by users. First, the authors link the five stages of Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation model with various CLEERhub user metrics. The resultant mapping suggests that CLEERhub users are primarily in early stages of adoption. This is not an unexpected finding given that CLEERhub has been recently created. The second approach to studying adoption investigates the experience of a group of college students who used CLEERhub to aid them in completing a group assignment. A CLEERhub Usage Survey was developed and implemented during the last part of the semester to collect information about students’ experience with CLEERhub. Student reactions to CLEERhub were generally positive. After the two approaches are presented, the paper connects the approaches by speculating on how student experience (adoption approach 2 might be mapped to the five stages of Rogers’ model (adoption approach 1. The paper ends with considerations and suggestions for best practices.

  20. Strategic analysis on establishing a natural gas trading hub in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Tong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the LNG importing price premium in the Asia–Pacific markets has become increasingly high, generating great effects on the economic development in China. In addition, the natural gas dependence degree is expanding continuously, making it extremely urgent to establish a natural gas trading hub in China, with the aim to ensure national energy security, to gain the pricing power, and to build the regional benchmark prices. Through a comparative analysis of internal strength/weakness and external competitiveness, we concluded that with intensively-issued supporting policies on the natural gas sector, the initiation of spot and futures markets, the rapid growth of gas production and highly-improved infrastructures, as well as Shanghai's advantageous location, China has more advantages in establishing an Asian Natural Gas Trading Hub than other counties like Singapore, Japan and Malaysia. Moreover, based on the SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat and the marketization process analysis, the following strategies were presented: to impel the establishment of a natural gas trading hub depending on the gas supply condition, to follow the policies to complete the gas storage system, to form regional communities by taking comparative advantages, and to reinforce the marketization reform and regulation system establishment with foreign experiences for reference. This study rationalized the necessity and practicality of establishing a natural gas trading hub in China and will help China make a proper decision and find a periodical strategic path in this sector.

  1. LinkHub: a Semantic Web system that facilitates cross-database queries and information retrieval in proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Kei-Hoi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key abstraction in representing proteomics knowledge is the notion of unique identifiers for individual entities (e.g. proteins and the massive graph of relationships among them. These relationships are sometimes simple (e.g. synonyms but are often more complex (e.g. one-to-many relationships in protein family membership. Results We have built a software system called LinkHub using Semantic Web RDF that manages the graph of identifier relationships and allows exploration with a variety of interfaces. For efficiency, we also provide relational-database access and translation between the relational and RDF versions. LinkHub is practically useful in creating small, local hubs on common topics and then connecting these to major portals in a federated architecture; we have used LinkHub to establish such a relationship between UniProt and the North East Structural Genomics Consortium. LinkHub also facilitates queries and access to information and documents related to identifiers spread across multiple databases, acting as "connecting glue" between different identifier spaces. We demonstrate this with example queries discovering "interologs" of yeast protein interactions in the worm and exploring the relationship between gene essentiality and pseudogene content. We also show how "protein family based" retrieval of documents can be achieved. LinkHub is available at hub.gersteinlab.org and hub.nesg.org with supplement, database models and full-source code. Conclusion LinkHub leverages Semantic Web standards-based integrated data to provide novel information retrieval to identifier-related documents through relational graph queries, simplifies and manages connections to major hubs such as UniProt, and provides useful interactive and query interfaces for exploring the integrated data.

  2. Coffee Shops, Classrooms and Conversations: public engagement and outreach in a large interdisciplinary research Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jennifer A.

    2014-05-01

    Public engagement and outreach activities are increasingly using specialist staff for co-ordination, training and support for researchers, they are also becoming expected for large investments. Here, the experience of public engagement and outreach a large, interdisciplinary Research Hub is described. dot.rural, based at the University of Aberdeen UK, is a £11.8 million Research Councils UK Rural Digital Economy Hub, funded as part of the RCUK Digital Economy Theme (2009-2015). Digital Economy research aims to realise the transformational impact of digital technologies on aspects of the environment, community life, cultural experiences, future society, and the economy. The dot.rural Hub involves 92 researchers from 12 different disciplines, including Geography, Hydrology and Ecology. Public Engagement and Outreach is embedded in the dot.rural Digital Economy Hub via an Outreach Officer. Alongside this position, public engagement and outreach activities are compulsory part of PhD student contracts. Public Engagement and Outreach activities at the dot.rural Hub involve individuals and groups in both formal and informal settings organised by dot.rural and other organisations. Activities in the realms of Education, Public Engagement, Traditional and Social Media are determined by a set of Underlying Principles designed for the Hub by the Outreach Officer. The underlying Engagement and Outreach principles match funding agency requirements and expectations alongside researcher demands and the user-led nature of Digital Economy Research. All activities include researchers alongside the Outreach Officer are research informed and embedded into specific projects that form the Hub. Successful public engagement activities have included participation in Café Scientifique series, workshops in primary and secondary schools, and online activities such as I'm a Scientist Get Me Out of Here. From how to engage 8 year olds with making hydrographs more understandable to members of

  3. An Airlift Hub-and-Spoke Location-Routing Model with Time Windows: Case Study of the CONUS-to-Korea Airlift Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, David

    1998-01-01

    .... This study develops an alternative hub-and-spoke combined location-routing integer linear programming prototype model, and uses this model to determine what advantages a hub-and-spoke system offers...

  4. Measurement of Crashback Loads on a Blade of Propeller 4381 in an Open and Ducted Configuration in the 36-inch Water Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    best load measurements obtained using an in-hub dynamometer [1]. The load difference between the tow tank and water tunnel results when operating in...3 Figure 3. Four quadrant towing tank performance of Propeller 4381 ................................ 4...Figure 4. Crashback quadrant data for Propeller 4381 in the towing tank and in the 36-inch water tunnel

  5. When Is Hub Gene Selection Better than Standard Meta-Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, Peter; Mischel, Paul S.; Horvath, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when) hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data). Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis) and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility) in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1) Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2) finding methylation markers related to age, and (3) finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1). However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than) a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2). The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques applied to

  6. When is hub gene selection better than standard meta-analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Langfelder

    Full Text Available Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data. Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1 Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2 finding methylation markers related to age, and (3 finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1. However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2. The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques

  7. Design sensitivity analysis for an aeroelastic optimization of a helicopter blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joon; Chopra, Inderjit

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity of vibratory hub loads of a four-bladed hingeless rotor with respect to blade design parameters is investigated using a finite element formulation in space and time. Design parameters include nonstructural mass distribution (spanwise and chordwise), chordwise offset of center of gravity from aerodynamic center, blade bending stiffnesses (flap, lag and torsion). Hub loads selected are 4/rev vertical hub shear and 3/rev hub moment in the rotating reference frame. The sensitivity derivatives of vertical hub loads with respect to blade design parameters are compared using two approaches, finite difference scheme and analytical approach using chain rule differentiation. The analytical derivative approach developed as an integral part of response solution (finite element in time) is a powerful method for an aeroelastic optimization of a helicopter rotor.

  8. Design and Analysis of CH-47 External Cargo Handling System (Snubbed Load).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    coefficient data for the basic CH-47 airframe (which included the fuse- lage and pylons, landing gear, and fuel pod strakes - no spoilers, rotor hubs ...Campbell APPROVED BY 𔃾 , ’ DATE _/_,,!_____ T S. Garnett APPROVED BY ’: / DATE /7/’" B.B. Blake, APPROVED BY A -ell__ DATE______w.L. Well.Ter ( PoRN ...design concept. the shaft by keys. The Breeze Load Lowering Safety Brake absorbs kinetic Installed onto the drive shoe hub are two friction plates, energy

  9. SPARK: Sparsity-based analysis of reliable k-hubness and overlapping network structure in brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangjoo; Lina, Jean-Marc; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Functional hubs are defined as the specific brain regions with dense connections to other regions in a functional brain network. Among them, connector hubs are of great interests, as they are assumed to promote global and hierarchical communications between functionally specialized networks. Damage to connector hubs may have a more crucial effect on the system than does damage to other hubs. Hubs in graph theory are often identified from a correlation matrix, and classified as connector hubs when the hubs are more connected to regions in other networks than within the networks to which they belong. However, the identification of hubs from functional data is more complex than that from structural data, notably because of the inherent problem of multicollinearity between temporal dynamics within a functional network. In this context, we developed and validated a method to reliably identify connectors and corresponding overlapping network structure from resting-state fMRI. This new method is actually handling the multicollinearity issue, since it does not rely on counting the number of connections from a thresholded correlation matrix. The novelty of the proposed method is that besides counting the number of networks involved in each voxel, it allows us to identify which networks are actually involved in each voxel, using a data-driven sparse general linear model in order to identify brain regions involved in more than one network. Moreover, we added a bootstrap resampling strategy to assess statistically the reproducibility of our results at the single subject level. The unified framework is called SPARK, i.e. SParsity-based Analysis of Reliable k-hubness, where k-hubness denotes the number of networks overlapping in each voxel. The accuracy and robustness of SPARK were evaluated using two dimensional box simulations and realistic simulations that examined detection of artificial hubs generated on real data. Then, test/retest reliability of the method was assessed

  10. Sharing environmental models: An Approach using GitHub repositories and Web Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Nuest, Daniel; Pross, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    The GLUES (Global Assessment of Land Use Dynamics, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ecosystem Services) project established a spatial data infrastructure for scientific geospatial data and metadata (http://geoportal-glues.ufz.de), where different regional collaborative projects researching the impacts of climate and socio-economic changes on sustainable land management can share their underlying base scenarios and datasets. One goal of the project is to ease the sharing of computational models between institutions and to make them easily executable in Web-based infrastructures. In this work, we present such an approach for sharing computational models relying on GitHub repositories (http://github.com) and Web Processing Services. At first, model providers upload their model implementations to GitHub repositories in order to share them with others. The GitHub platform allows users to submit changes to the model code. The changes can be discussed and reviewed before merging them. However, while GitHub allows sharing and collaborating of model source code, it does not actually allow running these models, which requires efforts to transfer the implementation to a model execution framework. We thus have extended an existing implementation of the OGC Web Processing Service standard (http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps), the 52°North Web Processing Service (http://52north.org/wps) platform to retrieve all model implementations from a git (http://git-scm.com) repository and add them to the collection of published geoprocesses. The current implementation is restricted to models implemented as R scripts using WPS4R annotations (Hinz et al.) and to Java algorithms using the 52°North WPS Java API. The models hence become executable through a standardized Web API by multiple clients such as desktop or browser GIS and modelling frameworks. If the model code is changed on the GitHub platform, the changes are retrieved by the service and the processes will be updated

  11. Influence of atmospheric stability on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Barlas, Thanasis K.

    2013-01-01

    is up to 3% only. The wind profiles and turbulence under diabatic conditions have contrasting influences on the loads; for example, under stable conditions, loads induced by the wind profile are larger because of increased wind shear, whereas those induced by turbulence are lower because of less......Simulations of wind turbine loads for the NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine under diabatic conditions are performed. The diabatic conditions are incorporated in the input wind field in the form of wind profile and turbulence. The simulations are carried out for mean wind speeds between 3 and 16 m s1...... at the turbine hub height. The loads are quantified as the cumulative sum of the damage equivalent load for different wind speeds that are weighted according to the wind speed and stability distribution. Four sites with a different wind speed and stability distribution are used for comparison. The turbulence...

  12. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Agler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe-microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe-microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial "hubs," are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe-microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on "hub" microbes, which, via microbe-microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two "hub" microbes (the

  13. Effects of rotor location, coning, and tilt on critical loads in large wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Several large (1500 kW) horizontal rotor configurations were analyzed to determine the effects on dynamic loads of upwind downwind rotor locations, coned and radial blade positions, and tilted and horizontal rotor axis positions. Loads were calculated for a range of wind velocities at three locations in the structure: (1) the blade shank; (2) the hub shaft; and (3) the yaw drive. Blade axis coning and rotor axis tilt were found to have minor effects on loads. However, locating the rotor upwind of the tower significantly reduced loads at all locations analyzed.

  14. Load mitigation of unbalanced wind turbines using PI-R individual pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    ) controller and two resonant (R) compensators is presented. The PI-R regulator is implemented in the hub reference frame to reduce both the balanced and unbalanced loads of the turbine. The wind turbine code FAST (fatigue, aerodynamics, structures and turbulence) is used for the wind turbine load modelling...... unbalance will cause extra loads and fatigue on the wind turbine rotor, which has not been taken into consideration by the traditional IPC method. This study presents a new control strategy to mitigate the loads of the unbalance wind turbines. An IPC scheme consisting of a proportional-integral (PI...

  15. Designing Hub-and-Spoke School Bus Transportation Network: A Case Study of Wonkwang University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyuk Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of hub-and-spoke school bus transportation network design. The case study here utilizes a mathematical model that is the P-median optimization model to determine optimal hub locations. The P-median problem is a combinatorial optimization problem that includes many binary variables and constraints. The selected objective of the model is to minimize the total travel time satisfying other operational constraints. To elevate usability of decision making in the future, we implement the simulation model through the template model in spreadsheet platform. The developed model is used as a future reference to find operational directions of school bus managing policy and also tested on the case of Wonkwang University.

  16. Clinical bioethics integration, sustainability, and accountability: the Hub and Spokes Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, S; Chidwick, P; Berry, S; Secker, B; Hebert, P; Shaul, R; Faith, K; Singer, P

    2005-01-01

    The "lone" clinical bioethicist working in a large, multisite hospital faces considerable challenges. While attempting to build ethics capacity and sustain a demanding range of responsibilities, he or she must also achieve an acceptable level of integration, sustainability, and accountability within a complex organisational structure. In an effort to address such inherent demands and to create a platform towards better evaluation and effectiveness, the Clinical Ethics Group at the Joint Centre for Bioethics at the University of Toronto is implementing the Hub and Spokes Strategy at seven hospitals. The goal of the Hub and Spokes Strategy is to foster an ethical climate and strengthen ethics capacity broadly throughout healthcare settings as well as create models in clinical bioethics that are excellent and effective. PMID:15863679

  17. Nonlinear model of a rotating hub-beams structure: Equations of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warminski, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Dynamics of a rotating structure composed of a rigid hub and flexible beams is presented in the paper. A nonlinear model of a beam takes into account bending, extension and nonlinear curvature. The influence of geometric nonlinearity and nonconstant angular velocity on dynamics of the rotating structure is presented. The exact equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are derived on the basis of the Hamilton's principle. The simplification of the exact nonlinear mathematical model is proposed taking into account the second order approximation. The reduced partial differential equations of motion together with associated boundary conditions can be used to study natural or forced vibrations of a rotating structure considering constant or nonconstant angular speed of a rigid hub and an arbitrary number of flexible blades.

  18. Fast reversible learning based on neurons functioning as anisotropic multiplex hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Roni; Goldental, Amir; Sheinin, Anton; Sardi, Shira; Kanter, Ido

    2017-05-01

    Neural networks are composed of neurons and synapses, which are responsible for learning in a slow adaptive dynamical process. Here we experimentally show that neurons act like independent anisotropic multiplex hubs, which relay and mute incoming signals following their input directions. Theoretically, the observed information routing enriches the computational capabilities of neurons by allowing, for instance, equalization among different information routes in the network, as well as high-frequency transmission of complex time-dependent signals constructed via several parallel routes. In addition, this kind of hubs adaptively eliminate very noisy neurons from the dynamics of the network, preventing masking of information transmission. The timescales for these features are several seconds at most, as opposed to the imprint of information by the synaptic plasticity, a process which exceeds minutes. Results open the horizon to the understanding of fast and adaptive learning realities in higher cognitive brain's functionalities.

  19. Ethylene Response Factors: A Key Regulatory Hub in Hormone and Stress Signaling1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is essential for many developmental processes and a key mediator of biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants. The ethylene signaling and response pathway includes Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs), which belong to the transcription factor family APETALA2/ERF. It is well known that ERFs regulate molecular response to pathogen attack by binding to sequences containing AGCCGCC motifs (the GCC box), a cis-acting element. However, recent studies suggest that several ERFs also bind to dehydration-responsive elements and act as a key regulatory hub in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of the ethylene signaling and response pathway, with emphasis on ERFs and their role in hormone cross talk and redox signaling under abiotic stresses. We conclude that ERFs act as a key regulatory hub, integrating ethylene, abscisic acid, jasmonate, and redox signaling in the plant response to a number of abiotic stresses. PMID:26103991

  20. Design of a Gear-Shifting Control Mechanism for 8-Speed Bicycle Drive Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-An Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The multi-speed drive hub stored on the rear wheel of a bicycle is an important speed-changing device to adjust the pedaling force and driving speed. This paper proposes a feasible gear-shifting control mechanism of an 8-speed distributed-flow-type transmission mechanism. A transmission mechanism consisting of two parallel-connected transmission units and one differential unit is introduced first. Then, based on the clutching sequence table, the embodiment design of a gear-shifting control mechanism is presented to selectively control the engagement of pawl-and-ratchet clutches and slot-with-block clutches as well as govern the power-flow path. The power-flow path at each speed-stage of this 8-speed drive hub is analyzed to verify the feasibility of the proposed design.

  1. Giant hub Src and Syk tyrosine kinase thermodynamic profiles recapitulate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic scaling theory, previously applied mainly to small proteins, here analyzes quantitative evolution of the titled functional network giant hub enzymes. The broad domain structure identified homologically is confirmed hydropathically using amino acid sequences only. The most surprising results concern the evolution of the tyrosine kinase globular surface roughness from avians to mammals, which is first order, compared to the evolution within mammals from rodents to humans, which is second order. The mystery of the unique amide terminal region of proto oncogene tyrosine protein kinase is resolved by the discovery there of a rare hydroneutral septad targeting cluster, which is paralleled by an equally rare octad catalytic cluster in tyrosine kinase in humans and a few other species (cat and dog). These results, which go far towards explaining why these proteins are among the largest giant hubs in protein interaction networks, use no adjustable parameters.

  2. Establishment of a Hub for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Online Monitoring Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Magdy S. Tawfik; Binh T. Pham

    2011-08-01

    Implementation of online monitoring and prognostics in existing U.S. nuclear power plants will involve coordinating the efforts of national laboratories, utilities, universities, and private companies. Internet-based collaborative work environments provide necessary communication tools to facilitate interaction between geographically diverse participants. Available technologies were considered, and a collaborative workspace was established at INL as a hub for the light water reactor sustainability online monitoring community.

  3. Sensor Networks Hierarchical Optimization Model for Security Monitoring in High-Speed Railway Transport Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the sensor networks hierarchical optimization problem in high-speed railway transport hub (HRTH. The sensor networks are optimized from three hierarchies which are key area sensors optimization, passenger line sensors optimization, and whole area sensors optimization. Case study on a specific HRTH in China showed that the hierarchical optimization method is effective to optimize the sensor networks for security monitoring in HRTH.

  4. Virtual science hub: an open source platform to enrich science teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Barra Arias, Enrique; Gordillo Méndez, Aldo; Quemada Vives, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Virtual Science Hub platform. It is an open source platform that combines a social network, an e-learning authoring tool, a videoconference service and a learning object repository for science teaching enrichment. These four main functionalities fit very well together. The platform was released in April 2012 and since then it has not stopped growing. Finally we present the results of the surveys conducted and the statistics gathered to validate this approach.

  5. Design for all: multimodal transport hubs and travelers with visual Impairments (timodev project)

    OpenAIRE

    GRANGE-FAIVRE, Céline; PIGEON, Caroline; PAGOT, Chloé; COSMA, Isabelle; CHATEAUROUX, Elodie; MARIN-LAMELLET, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The development of public transport increases the multimodal trip solutions, and the development of multimodal transport hubs. The main challenge for operators is to facilitate the shift between the different public transport modes, with the best coherence, readability and compatibility. Several studies have mainly focused on the presentation of information design facilitating the connections between transport modes, but few of these investigated multimodality for people with visual impairmen...

  6. Radicalization of the Settlers’ Youth: Hebron as a Hub for Jewish Extremism

    OpenAIRE

    Geneviève Boucher Boudreau

    2014-01-01

    The city of Hebron has been a hub for radicalization and terrorism throughout the modern history of Israel. This paper examines the past trends of radicalization and terrorism in Hebron and explains why it is still a present and rising ideology within the Jewish communities and organization such as the Hilltop Youth movement. The research first presents the transmission of social memory through memorials and symbolism of the Hebron hills area and then presents the impact of Meir Kahana’s move...

  7. FROM PRE-OIL SETTLEMENT TO POST-OIL HUB: The Urban Transformation of Doha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wiedmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since oil production commenced in the middle of the 20th century Qatar's capital Doha witnessed a rapid urbanisation period. Today, new development strategies, which have been implemented to diversify Qatar's economy, have led to a new urban transformation process with the vision to establish Doha as hub within global networks. Economic transformation processes in Qatar have always caused new structures within its society, which in turn affected urban developments. After decades of urbanisation based on the export of oil, the introduction of a hub vision at the end of the 1990s marked a new process that has been rethinking urbanism in Qatar. Although current developments have attracted worldwide attention, there has been rather little scientific reflection as to how current urbanism in the Gulf should be understood in relation to its past and projected future. Therefore, this paper seeks to investigate the various factors impacting Doha's urban environment during economic transformation processes. Each economc transformation has had a large impact  on the structure of the city’s society as well as its built environment. The curren transformation process can still be considered at its beginning. In order to understand the impact of contemporary economic diversification strategies, the city’s past urbanisation stages and their spatial development factors had to be analysed. All in all four distinct phases of urbanism can be distinguished in the case of Doha: The pre-oil settlement, the modernisation period, the oil city and the globalised hub.

  8. Cortical Dynamics in Presence of Assemblies of Densely Connected Weight-Hub Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Setareh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental measurements of pairwise connection probability of pyramidal neurons together with the distribution of synaptic weights have been used to construct randomly connected model networks. However, several experimental studies suggest that both wiring and synaptic weight structure between neurons show statistics that differ from random networks. Here we study a network containing a subset of neurons which we call weight-hub neurons, that are characterized by strong inward synapses. We propose a connectivity structure for excitatory neurons that contain assemblies of densely connected weight-hub neurons, while the pairwise connection probability and synaptic weight distribution remain consistent with experimental data. Simulations of such a network with generalized integrate-and-fire neurons display regular and irregular slow oscillations akin to experimentally observed up/down state transitions in the activity of cortical neurons with a broad distribution of pairwise spike correlations. Moreover, stimulation of a model network in the presence or absence of assembly structure exhibits responses similar to light-evoked responses of cortical layers in optogenetically modified animals. We conclude that a high connection probability into and within assemblies of excitatory weight-hub neurons, as it likely is present in some but not all cortical layers, changes the dynamics of a layer of cortical microcircuitry significantly.

  9. Characteristics of steady vibration in a rotating hub-beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Caishan; Ma, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A rotating beam features a puzzling character in which its frequencies and modal shapes may vary with the hub's inertia and its rotating speed. To highlight the essential nature behind the vibration phenomena, we analyze the steady vibration of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam with a quasi-steady-state stretch. Newton's law is used to derive the equations governing the beam's elastic motion and the hub's rotation. A combination of these equations results in a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) that fully reflects the mutual interaction between the two kinds of motion. Via the Fourier series expansion within a finite interval of time, we reduce the PDE into an infinite system of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) in spatial domain. We further nondimensionalize the ODE and discretize it via a difference method. The frequencies and modal shapes of a general rotating beam are then determined numerically. For a low-speed beam where the ignorance of geometric stiffening is feasible, the beam's vibration characteristics are solved analytically. We validate our numerical method and the analytical solutions by comparing with either the past experiments or the past numerical findings reported in existing literature. Finally, systematic simulations are performed to demonstrate how the beam's eigenfrequencies vary with the hub's inertia and rotating speed.

  10. Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec reduced neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Louise; Ohlin, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec could reduce the incidence of neonatal sepsis in a level-three neonatal intensive care unit. We studied the incidence of neonatal sepsis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) for 16.5 months before the initiative was launched on May 15, 2012 and then for a further 8.5 months after it was introduced. The hub routine was applied to all intravenous catheters. During the control period before the initiative was launched, there were nine cases of CoNS sepsis compared with no cases after it was introduced, resulting in a decrease in sepsis incidence from 1.5% to 0% with a risk reduction of 1.5% (0.53-2.58%) (p = 0.06). In the preterm infant population, the incidence of sepsis decreased from 3.6% to 0% (1.1-6.0%) (p = 0.11). Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec seemed to be an efficient way of preventing sepsis caused by CoNS in newborn infants. However, the evidence for the benefits will remain weak until a large randomised trial has been completed. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Continuous Integration for Concurrent MOOSE Framework and Application Development on GitHub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Slaughter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For the past several years, Idaho National Laboratory’s MOOSE framework team has employed modern software engineering techniques (continuous integration, joint application/framework source code repos- itories, automated regression testing, etc. in developing closed-source multiphysics simulation software (Gaston et al., 'Journal of Open Research Software' vol. 2, article e10, 2014. In March 2014, the MOOSE framework was released under an open source license on GitHub, significantly expanding and diversifying the pool of current active and potential future contributors on the project. Despite this recent growth, the same philosophy of concurrent framework and application development continues to guide the project’s development roadmap. Several specific practices, including techniques for managing multiple repositories, conducting automated regression testing, and implementing a cascading build process are discussed in this short paper. Special attention is given to describing the manner in which these practices naturally synergize with the GitHub API and GitHub-specific features such as issue tracking, Pull Requests, and project forks.

  12. A fractal growth model: Exploring the connection pattern of hubs in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongyan; Wang, Xingyuan; Huang, Penghe

    2017-04-01

    Fractal is ubiquitous in many real-world networks. Previous researches showed that the strong disassortativity between the hub-nodes on all length scales was the key principle that gave rise to the fractal architecture of networks. Although fractal property emerged in some models, there were few researches about the fractal growth model and quantitative analyses about the strength of the disassortativity for fractal model. In this paper, we proposed a novel inverse renormalization method, named Box-based Preferential Attachment (BPA), to build the fractal growth models in which the Preferential Attachment was performed at box level. The proposed models provided a new framework that demonstrated small-world-fractal transition. Also, we firstly demonstrated the statistical characteristic of connection patterns of the hubs in fractal networks. The experimental results showed that, given proper growing scale and added edges, the proposed models could clearly show pure small-world or pure fractal or both of them. It also showed that the hub connection ratio showed normal distribution in many real-world networks. At last, the comparisons of connection pattern between the proposed models and the biological and technical networks were performed. The results gave useful reference for exploring the growth principle and for modeling the connection patterns for real-world networks.

  13. The air transportation hub-and-spoke design problem: comparison between a continuous and a discrete solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guina Sotomayor Alzamora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hub-and-spoke network design problem, also known as the hub location problem, aims to find the concentration points in a given network flow so that the sum of the distances of the linkages is minimized. In this work, we compare discrete solutions of this problem, given by the branch-and-cut method applied to the p-hub median model, with continuous solutions, given by the hyperbolic smoothing technique applied to a min-sum-min model. Computational experiments for particular instances of the Brazilian air transportation system, with the number of hubs varying from 2 to 8, are conducted with the support of a discretization heuristic and the Voronoi diagram.

  14. A New Spin on Library Media Centers: The Hub of the School with the Help of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Linda R.

    2005-01-01

    Library media centers can evolve into technological, informational, and recreational hub of schools and can help technophobes access their many resources. A greater and better understanding of what it is exactly that library media specialists do can thus be achieved.

  15. Googling Service Boundaries for Endovascular Clot Retrieval Hub Hospitals in a Metropolitan Setting: Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thanh G; Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Clissold, Benjamin; Ly, John; Singhal, Shaloo; Ma, Henry; Srikanth, Velandai

    2017-05-01

    There is great interest in how endovascular clot retrieval hubs provide services to a population. We applied a computational method to objectively generate service boundaries for such endovascular clot retrieval hubs, defined by traveling time to hub. Stroke incidence data merged with population census to estimate numbers of stroke in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Traveling time from randomly generated addresses to 4 endovascular clot retrieval-capable hubs (Royal Melbourne Hospital [RMH], Monash Medical Center [MMC], Alfred Hospital [ALF], and Austin Hospital [AUS]) estimated using Google Map application program interface. Boundary maps generated based on traveling time at various times of day for combinations of hubs. In a 2-hub model, catchment was best distributed when RMH was paired with MMC (model 1a, RMH 1765 km2 and MMC 1164 km2) or with AUS (model 1c, RMH 1244 km2 and AUS 1685 km2), with no statistical difference between models (P=0.20). Catchment was poorly distributed when RMH was paired with ALF (model 1b, RMH 2252 km2 and ALF 676 km2), significantly different from both models 1a and 1c (both P<0.05). Model 1a had the greatest proportion of patients arriving within ideal time of 30 minutes followed by model 1c (P<0.001). In a 3-hub model, the combination of RMH, MMC, and AUS was superior to that of RMH, MMC, and ALF in catchment distribution and travel time. The method was also successfully applied to the city of Adelaide demonstrating wider applicability. We provide proof of concept for a novel computational method to objectively designate service boundaries for endovascular clot retrieval hubs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Developing Port Klang as National Load Centre and Regional Hub Through Synchronized Supply Chain and Efficient Port Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Loo Ming

    2007-01-01

    The ocean covers more than two third of the earth’s surface and this provides immense maritime opportunities in marine transportation and trade. Ships that ply the maritime domain are primary mode of transportation and carry about 80% of the world trade volume (Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD July 2003). Port Operations and ancillary services such as freight forwarding, shipping play an enormous role in generating economic growth. Seaborne trades through port termin...

  17. Southern California Wind Power Sensitivity to Turbine Hub Height, Rotor Radius and Rated Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, S. B.; Hall, A. D.; Hughes, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Using hourly output from a 6km resolution mesoscale model and hypothetical wind turbine power curves, we quantify the sensitivity of wind power throughout Southern California to three key attributes of wind turbines: hub height, rotor radius and rated power. Changes in rotor diameter influence power in the variable speed region of the turbine power curve (wind speeds between the cut-in and rated speeds). For most Southern California regions, the bulk (>50%) of the wind speed distribution is contained between these two speeds. Rated power changes affect wind power for winds between the rated and cut-out speeds. Only offshore and mountain pass regions contain >40% of the wind speed distribution affected by rated power changes. Hub height changes can result in a wind distribution shift to the right, the magnitude of the shift dependent upon vertical wind shear. Thus, well-mixed boundary layer regions including offshore are less sensitive to hub height changes. All of these sensitivities fluctuate diurnally and seasonally with the amplitude dependent upon location. Using a turbine component cost scaling model, we compute total cost increments associated with each of the three turbine attribute changes. Among the three turbine characteristics explored, rotor radius provides the largest wind power change per dollar cost increment. Area averaged and maximum power change per dollar cost increment for rotor radius is 1.42 and 2.73 Watts/dollar, respectively. Although area averaged power change per dollar cost increment for rated power and hub height are similar (0.23 and 0.24 Watts/dollar), spatial variability of power sensitivity to rated power is greater. As much as 1 Watt/dollar cost increment in rated power is gained for offshore and mountain regions. Regions most insensitive to all three turbine characteristic changes include the coastal basin (Los Angeles to San Diego) and the southern San Joaquin Valley. Mountain passes are most sensitive to rated power and rotor

  18. Aseptic technique for accessing central venous catheters: applying a standardised tool to audit 'scrub the hub' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desra, Andra P; Breen, Jennifer; Harper, Susan; Slavin, Monica A; Worth, Leon J

    2016-05-07

    To reduce the risk of infections associated with indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs), practices for hub disinfection have been widely promoted. The objective of this study was to design and implement a standardised tool to monitor compliance with 'scrub the hub' practices at an Australian centre. Review of existing literature and recommendations regarding scrub the hub practices was performed to identify nine key components that could be audited by direct observation of staff in clinical areas. The tool was reviewed by stakeholders in infection prevention, infectious diseases and senior nursing roles prior to pilot evaluation. Twenty attempts to access a CVC were audited. In all instances, scrub the hub practices were commenced. However, a 15-second scrub was performed in only 60% of cases, and the hub was permitted to dry in only 65% of instances. With respect to maintaining an aseptic field, the overall compliance was 40%, and compliance was lowest for maintenance of a non-touch technique for key parts and sites, and hand hygiene practices following CVC access. A standardised clinical audit tool for monitoring aseptic access of CVCs enabled identification of practices amendable to targeted intervention and education, such as duration of hub disinfection. This tool would be readily utilised to facilitate quality improvement initiatives in a range of healthcare contexts, including high-risk inpatient and ambulatory care settings.

  19. Brokered virtual hubs for facilitating access and use of geospatial Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel; Kamali, Nargess; Brumana, Raffaella; Braumann, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Open Data is a major trend in current information technology scenario and it is often publicised as one of the pillars of the information society in the near future. In particular, geospatial Open Data have a huge potential also for Earth Sciences, through the enablement of innovative applications and services integrating heterogeneous information. However, open does not mean usable. As it was recognized at the very beginning of the Web revolution, many different degrees of openness exist: from simple sharing in a proprietary format to advanced sharing in standard formats and including semantic information. Therefore, to fully unleash the potential of geospatial Open Data, advanced infrastructures are needed to increase the data openness degree, enhancing their usability. In October 2014, the ENERGIC OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". The ENERGIC OD Virtual Hubs aim to facilitate the use of geospatial Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus

  20. Transfer hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontekoning, Y.; Kreuzberger, I.; Van de Graaf, A.

    2006-01-01

    Road transport systems suffer from congested roads,environmental legislation, and the threat of pay-as-you-go systems. All grist to the mill as far as the railways are concerned.Unfortunately cargo transport by rail is not exactly renowned for its flexibility and reliability, and the quality offered

  1. Predicting Tail Buffet Loads of a Fighter Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    Buffet loads on aft aerodynamic surfaces pose a recurring problem on most twin-tailed fighter airplanes: During maneuvers at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from various surfaces on the forward parts of such an airplane (engine inlets, wings, or other fuselage appendages) often burst, immersing the tails in their wakes. Although these vortices increase lift, the frequency contents of the burst vortices become so low as to cause the aft surfaces to vibrate destructively. Now, there exists a new analysis capability for predicting buffet loads during the earliest design phase of a fighter-aircraft program. In effect, buffet pressures are applied to mathematical models in the framework of a finite-element code, complete with aeroelastic properties and working knowledge of the spatiality of the buffet pressures for all flight conditions. The results of analysis performed by use of this capability illustrate those vibratory modes of a tail fin that are most likely to be affected by buffet loads. Hence, the results help in identifying the flight conditions during which to expect problems. Using this capability, an aircraft designer can make adjustments to the airframe and possibly the aerodynamics, leading to a more robust design.

  2. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  3. Interpatch foraging in honeybees-rational decision making at secondary hubs based upon time and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najera, Daniel A; McCullough, Erin L; Jander, Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    For honeybees, Apis mellifera, the hive has been well known to function as a primary decision-making hub, a place from which foragers decide among various directions, distances, and times of day to forage efficiently. Whether foraging honeybees can make similarly complex navigational decisions from locations away from the hive is unknown. To examine whether or not such secondary decision-making hubs exist, we trained bees to forage at four different locations. Specifically, we trained honeybees to first forage to a distal site "CT" 100 m away from the hive; if food was present, they fed and then chose to go home. If food was not present, the honeybees were trained to forage to three auxiliary sites, each at a different time of the day: A in the morning, B at noon, and C in the afternoon. The foragers learned to check site CT for food first and then efficiently depart to the correct location based upon the time of day if there was no food at site CT. Thus, the honeybees were able to cognitively map motivation, time, and five different locations (Hive, CT, A, B, and C) in two spatial dimensions; these are the contents of the cognitive map used by the honeybees here. While at site CT, we verified that the honeybees could choose between 4 different directions (to A, B, C, and the Hive) and thus label it as a secondary decision-making hub. The observed decision making uncovered here is inferred to constitute genuine logical operations, involving a branched structure, based upon the premises of motivational state, and spatiotemporal knowledge.

  4. Protein interaction networks as metric spaces: a novel perspective on distribution of hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhal, Emad; Gamieldien, Junaid; Mwambene, Eric C

    2014-01-18

    In the post-genomic era, a central and overarching question in the analysis of protein-protein interaction networks continues to be whether biological characteristics and functions of proteins such as lethality, physiological malfunctions and malignancy are intimately linked to the topological role proteins play in the network as a mathematical structure. One of the key features that have implicitly been presumed is the existence of hubs, highly connected proteins considered to play a crucial role in biological networks. We explore the structure of protein interaction networks of a number of organisms as metric spaces and show that hubs are non randomly positioned and, from a distance point of view, centrally located. By analysing how the human functional protein interaction network, the human signalling network, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli protein-protein interaction networks from various databases are distributed as metric spaces, we found that proteins interact radially through a central node, high degree proteins coagulate in the centre of the network, and those far away from the centre have low degree. We further found that the distribution of proteins from the centre is in some hierarchy of importance and has biological significance. We conclude that structurally, protein interaction networks are mathematical entities that share properties between organisms but not necessarily with other networks that follow power-law. We therefore conclude that (i) if there are hubs defined by degree, they are not distributed randomly; (ii) zones closest to the centre of the network are enriched for critically important proteins and are also functionally very specialised for specific 'house keeping' functions; (iii) proteins closest to the network centre are functionally less dispensable and may present good targets for therapy development; and (iv) network biology requires its own network theory modelled on actual biological evidence

  5. Single Allocation Hub-and-spoke Networks Design Based on Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Pingle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitated single allocation hub-and-spoke networks can be abstracted as a mixed integer linear programming model equation with three variables. Introducing an improved ant colony algorithm, which has six local search operators. Meanwhile, introducing the "Solution Pair" concept to decompose and optimize the composition of the problem, the problem can become more specific and effectively meet the premise and advantages of using ant colony algorithm. Finally, location simulation experiment is made according to Australia Post data to demonstrate this algorithm has good efficiency and stability for solving this problem.

  6. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Luo,1,2 Linghong Guo,1 Xi-Jian Dai,3 Qinglai Wang,2 Wenzhong Zhu,2 Xinjun Miao,2 Honghan Gong1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs.Results: Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, right hippocampus (BA 35, 36, and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11 and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18, and left precuneus (BA 7, 19. SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R2=0.296, P=0.006.Conclusion: The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear

  7. Revealing Long-Range Interconnected Hubs in Human Chromatin Interaction Data Using Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, R. E.; Arneodo, A.; Jensen, P.; Audit, B.

    2013-09-01

    We use graph theory to analyze chromatin interaction (Hi-C) data in the human genome. We show that a key functional feature of the genome—“master” replication origins—corresponds to DNA loci of maximal network centrality. These loci form a set of interconnected hubs both within chromosomes and between different chromosomes. Our results open the way to a fruitful use of graph theory concepts to decipher DNA structural organization in relation to genome functions such as replication and transcription. This quantitative information should prove useful to discriminate between possible polymer models of nuclear organization.

  8. A review of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) as a competitive South-East Asia hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardai, A. M.; Er, A. Z.; Johari, M. K.; Noor, A. A. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL) against its competitors in Southeast Asia countries. Due to the geographical and market relevance issues, several airport hubs around KUL are chosen for comparison: Changi International Airport (SIN), Suvarnabhumi International Airport (BKK) and Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is used to evaluate the comparative situation between the airports in relation to changing industry and market environment. The study discovers some competitive edges for KUL. Nonetheless, the airport still has to be improved to face future challenges and it is under imminent threat of new aircraft technology.

  9. The use of Gene Ontology terms for predicting highly-connected 'hub' nodes in protein-protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkasov Artem

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions mediate a wide range of cellular functions and responses and have been studied rigorously through recent large-scale proteomics experiments and bioinformatics analyses. One of the most important findings of those endeavours was the observation that 'hub' proteins participate in significant numbers of protein interactions and play critical roles in the organization and function of cellular protein interaction networks (PINs 12. It has also been demonstrated that such hub proteins may constitute an important pool of attractive drug targets. Thus, it is crucial to be able to identify hub proteins based not only on experimental data but also by means of bioinformatics predictions. Results A hub protein classifier has been developed based on the available interaction data and Gene Ontology (GO annotations for proteins in the Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens genomes. In particular, by utilizing the machine learning method of boosting trees we were able to create a predictive bioinformatics tool for the identification of proteins that are likely to play the role of a hub in protein interaction networks. Testing the developed hub classifier on external sets of experimental protein interaction data in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA 252 and Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that our approach can predict hub proteins with a high degree of accuracy. A practical application of the developed bioinformatics method has been illustrated by the effective protein bait selection for large-scale pull-down experiments that aim to map complete protein-protein interaction networks for several species. Conclusion The successful development of an accurate hub classifier demonstrated that highly-connected proteins tend to share certain relevant functional properties reflected in their Gene Ontology annotations. It is anticipated that the developed

  10. Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of a Low Power Hub Motor Using Feedforward Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşir, Mehmet; Bayır, Raif; Uyaroğlu, Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Low power hub motors are widely used in electromechanical systems such as electrical bicycles and solar vehicles due to their robustness and compact structure. Such systems driven by hub motors (in wheel motors) encounter previously defined and undefined faults under operation. It may inevitably lead to the interruption of the electromechanical system operation; hence, economic losses take place at certain times. Therefore, in order to maintain system operation sustainability, the motor should be precisely monitored and the faults are diagnosed considering various significant motor parameters. In this study, the artificial feedforward backpropagation neural network approach is proposed to real-time monitor and diagnose the faults of the hub motor by measuring seven main system parameters. So as to construct a necessary model, we trained the model, using a data set consisting of 4160 samples where each has 7 parameters, by the MATLAB environment until the best model is obtained. The results are encouraging and meaningful for the specific motor and the developed model may be applicable to other types of hub motors. The prosperous model of the whole system was embedded into Arduino Due microcontroller card and the mobile real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis system prototype for hub motor was designed and manufactured. PMID:26819590

  11. Hub nodes in the network of human Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways: Characteristics and potential as drug targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. MD Aksam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in the cross-talk between ERK1/2, ERK5, JNK, and P38 signalling pathways integrate the network of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways. Graph theory-based approach is used to construct the network of MAPK pathways, and to observe the network organisational principles. Connectivity pattern reveals rich-club among the hubs, enabling structural ordering. A positive correlation between the degree of the nodes and percentage of essential protein showed hubs are central to the network architecture and function. Furthermore, attributes like connectivity, inter/intra-pathway class, position in the pathway, protein type and subcellular localization of the essential and non-essential proteins are characterizing complex functional roles. Shared properties of 34 cancerous essential proteins lack to be drug targets. We identified the seven nodes overlapping properties of the hub, essential and causing side effects on targeting them. We exploit the strategy of cancerous, non-hub and non-essential proteins as potential drug targets and identified 4EBP1, BAD, CHOP10, GADD45, HSP27, MKP1, RNPK, MLTKa/b, cPLA2, eEF2K and elF4E. We have illustrated the implication of targeting hub nodes and proposed network-based drug targets which would cause less side effect.

  12. Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of a Low Power Hub Motor Using Feedforward Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şimşir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power hub motors are widely used in electromechanical systems such as electrical bicycles and solar vehicles due to their robustness and compact structure. Such systems driven by hub motors (in wheel motors encounter previously defined and undefined faults under operation. It may inevitably lead to the interruption of the electromechanical system operation; hence, economic losses take place at certain times. Therefore, in order to maintain system operation sustainability, the motor should be precisely monitored and the faults are diagnosed considering various significant motor parameters. In this study, the artificial feedforward backpropagation neural network approach is proposed to real-time monitor and diagnose the faults of the hub motor by measuring seven main system parameters. So as to construct a necessary model, we trained the model, using a data set consisting of 4160 samples where each has 7 parameters, by the MATLAB environment until the best model is obtained. The results are encouraging and meaningful for the specific motor and the developed model may be applicable to other types of hub motors. The prosperous model of the whole system was embedded into Arduino Due microcontroller card and the mobile real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis system prototype for hub motor was designed and manufactured.

  13. Design and Analysis of a Novel Speed-Changing Wheel Hub with an Integrated Electric Motor for Electric Bicycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an innovative electromechanical device which integrates a brushless DC (BLDC hub motor with a speed-changing wheel hub stored on the rear wheel of an electric bicycle. It combines a power source and a speed-changing mechanism to simultaneously provide functions of power generation and transmission for electric bicycles. As part of the proposed integrated device, the wheel hub consists of a basic planetary gear train providing three forward speeds including a low-speed gear, a direct drive, and a high-speed gear. Each gear is manually controlled by the shift control sleeve to selectively engage or disengage four pawl-and-ratchet clutches based on its clutching sequence table. The number of gear teeth of each gear element of the wheel hub is synthesized. The BLDC hub motor is an exterior-rotor-type permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Two-dimensional finite-element analysis (FEA software is employed to facilitate the motor design and performance analysis. An analysis of the power transmission path at each gear is provided to verify the validity of the proposed design. The results of this work are beneficial to the embodiment, design, and development of novel electromechanical devices for the power and transmission systems of electric bicycles.

  14. Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of a Low Power Hub Motor Using Feedforward Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşir, Mehmet; Bayır, Raif; Uyaroğlu, Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Low power hub motors are widely used in electromechanical systems such as electrical bicycles and solar vehicles due to their robustness and compact structure. Such systems driven by hub motors (in wheel motors) encounter previously defined and undefined faults under operation. It may inevitably lead to the interruption of the electromechanical system operation; hence, economic losses take place at certain times. Therefore, in order to maintain system operation sustainability, the motor should be precisely monitored and the faults are diagnosed considering various significant motor parameters. In this study, the artificial feedforward backpropagation neural network approach is proposed to real-time monitor and diagnose the faults of the hub motor by measuring seven main system parameters. So as to construct a necessary model, we trained the model, using a data set consisting of 4160 samples where each has 7 parameters, by the MATLAB environment until the best model is obtained. The results are encouraging and meaningful for the specific motor and the developed model may be applicable to other types of hub motors. The prosperous model of the whole system was embedded into Arduino Due microcontroller card and the mobile real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis system prototype for hub motor was designed and manufactured.

  15. Analysis of 2D Torus and Hub Topologies of 100Mb/s Ethernet for the Whitney Commodity Computing Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Kevin T.; Fineberg, Samuel A.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A variety of different network technologies and topologies are currently being evaluated as part of the Whitney Project. This paper reports on the implementation and performance of a Fast Ethernet network configured in a 4x4 2D torus topology in a testbed cluster of 'commodity' Pentium Pro PCs. Several benchmarks were used for performance evaluation: an MPI point to point message passing benchmark, an MPI collective communication benchmark, and the NAS Parallel Benchmarks version 2.2 (NPB2). Our results show that for point to point communication on an unloaded network, the hub and 1 hop routes on the torus have about the same bandwidth and latency. However, the bandwidth decreases and the latency increases on the torus for each additional route hop. Collective communication benchmarks show that the torus provides roughly four times more aggregate bandwidth and eight times faster MPI barrier synchronizations than a hub based network for 16 processor systems. Finally, the SOAPBOX benchmarks, which simulate real-world CFD applications, generally demonstrated substantially better performance on the torus than on the hub. In the few cases the hub was faster, the difference was negligible. In total, our experimental results lead to the conclusion that for Fast Ethernet networks, the torus topology has better performance and scales better than a hub based network.

  16. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL VIBRATION GENERATED IN OSCILLATING/VIBRATORY PLATFORM ON THE CONCENTRATION OF PLASMA BIOMARKERS AND ON THE WEIGHT IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Cardoso, André Luiz Bandeira Dionísio; Dionello, Carla da Fontoura; Morel, Danielle Soares; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liana; Cavalcanti, Rebeca Graça Costa; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) exercise has been used in health sciences. Authors have reported that changes on the concentration of plasma biomarkers could be associated with the WBV effects. The aim of this investigation is to assess the consequences of exposition of 25 Hz mechanical vibration generated in oscillating/vibratory platform (OVP) on the concentration of some plasma biomarkers and on the weight of rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided into two groups. The animals of the Experimental Group (EG) were submitted to vibration (25 Hz) generated in an OVP with four bouts of 30 seconds with rest time of 60 seconds between the bouts. This procedure was performed daily for 12 days. The animals of the control group (CG) were not exposed to vibration. Results: Our findings show that the WBV exercise at 25 Hz was not capable to alter significantly (p<0.05) the weight of the rats. A significant alteration in the concentrations of amylase was found. Conclusion: Our results indicate a modulation of the WBV exercise with vibration of 25 Hz of frequency (i) in the pathways related to the weight and (ii) in the concentration of some biomarkers, such as amylase. PMID:28740944

  17. Acoustic-Frequency Vibratory Stimulation Regulates the Balance between Osteogenesis and Adipogenesis of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Xi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis can be associated with the disordered balance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Although low-frequency mechanical vibration has been demonstrated to promote osteogenesis, little is known about the influence of acoustic-frequency vibratory stimulation (AFVS. BM-MSCs were subjected to AFVS at frequencies of 0, 30, 400, and 800 Hz and induced toward osteogenic or adipogenic-specific lineage. Extracellular matrix mineralization was determined by Alizarin Red S staining and lipid accumulation was assessed by Oil Red O staining. Transcript levels of osteogenic and adipogenic marker genes were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cell proliferation of BM-MSCs was promoted following exposure to AFVS at 800 Hz. Vibration at 800 Hz induced the highest level of calcium deposition and significantly increased mRNA expression of COL1A1, ALP, RUNX2, and SPP1. The 800 Hz group downregulated lipid accumulation and levels of adipogenic genes, including FABP4, CEBPA, PPARG, and LEP, while vibration at 30 Hz supported adipogenesis. BM-MSCs showed a frequency-dependent response to acoustic vibration. AFVS at 800 Hz was the most favorable for osteogenic differentiation and simultaneously suppressed adipogenesis. Thus, acoustic vibration could potentially become a novel means to prevent and treat osteoporosis.

  18. Aspects of transport transit hubs construction management in coordination with object lifecycle projecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilina Nina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article involves the results of the research in the field of the initial phase in the project of the object lifecycle for urban public transportation transit hubs (TTH. The main purpose is to provide definition and justification of area parameters for spatial solution of a hub with consideration of its construction viability and sustainability of urban development. In the article there are presented the results of analytical studies of the data available in the approved Planning documentation for TTH objects listed in the short-term program of TTH construction in Moscow. The point of interest was to obtain correlations between the total area of TTH area, areas of commercial and technological use and passenger traffic value in order to define territory balance providing request from city authorities and private investors for construction project management. Also, there is presented the theoretical model as an evaluation guide that allows evaluating not only the demand of a city and its population in the development of TTH territory but also and especially the requirements for placing commercial areas inside TTH.

  19. Impact of Tidal Level Variations on Wave Energy Absorption at Wave Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy absorption of the wave energy converters (WEC characterized by a limited stroke length —like the point absorbers developed at Uppsala University—depends on the sea level variation at the deployment site. In coastal areas characterized by high tidal ranges, the daily energy production of the generators is not optimal. The study presented in this paper quantifies the effects of the changing sea level at the Wave Hub test site, located at the south-west coast of England. This area is strongly affected by tides: the tidal height calculated as the difference between the Mean High Water Spring and the Mean Low Water Spring in 2014 was about 6.6 m. The results are obtained from a hydro-mechanic model that analyzes the behaviour of the point absorber at the Wave Hub, taking into account the sea state occurrence scatter diagram and the tidal time series at the site. It turns out that the impact of the tide decreases the energy absorption by 53%. For this reason, the need for a tidal compensation system to be included in the design of the WEC becomes compelling. The economic advantages are evaluated for different scenarios: the economic analysis proposed within the paper allows an educated guess to be made on the profits. The alternative of extending the stroke length of the WEC is investigated, and the gain in energy absorption is estimated.

  20. Strategies for reduced distortion during laser beam welding of shaft-hub joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschenhenke, F.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F. [Bremer Institut fuer angewandte Strahltechnik, Bremen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The joining of shaft-hub connections is gaining in importance in the area of power train applications. The quality demands in abrasion and power transmission are playing a major role. Dimensional as well as repeat accuracies are essential quality criteria, which have to be focused on. The understanding of the whole process chain in view of different distortion potentials introduced in each processing step provides the ability to control the distortion of the welded components. The laser beam sources of the new generation permit a high power welding process and high beam quality at the same time. These laser beams are capable of producing deep and narrow weld seams. This work deals with compensation strategies of deformations during laser beam welding in axial welded shaft-hub joints made of steel. Furthermore, simultaneous welding with two laser beams and the influence of the process chain were investigated to characterise the influence of these strategies tactile differential measurements were done. The results were discussed regarding numerical calculations in the FEM application SYSWELD. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Hexcrete Tower for Harvesting Wind Energy at Taller Hub Heights - Budget Period 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sritharan, Sri [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Interest in designing taller towers for wind energy production in the United States (U.S.) has been steadily growing. In May 2015, it was revealed that taller towers will make wind energy production a reality in all 50 states, including some states that have nearly zero renewables in their energy portfolio. Facilitating wind energy production feasibility in all 50 states will no doubt contribute to increasing the electricity produced by wind from 4.5% in 2013 to a targeted scenario of 35% by 2050 in the Wind Vision report. This project focuses on the Hexcrete tower concept developed for tall towers using High Strength Concrete (HSC) and/or Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC). Among other benefits, the Hexcrete concept overcomes transportation and logistical challenges, thus facilitating construction of towers with hub heights of 100-m (328-ft) and higher. The goal of this project is to facilitate widespread deployment of Hexcrete towers for harvesting wind energy at 120 to 140-m (394 to 459-ft) hub heights and reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of wind energy production in the U.S. The technical scope of the project includes detailed design and optimization of at least three wind turbine towers using the Hexcrete concept together with experimental validation and LCOE analyses and development of a commercialization plan.

  2. EXPANSION OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION, GRADUATE UNEMPLOYMENT AND THE KNOWLEDGE HUB IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamini Samaranayake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the nexus between the existing university education system and graduate unemployment, and to explore the responses of successive governments to address this issue. It also examines the viability and potential of the knowledge hub as a solution to graduate unemployment. Towards this end, it argues that the solution to graduate employment lies in implementing structural changes that are concurrent to changes that are taking place at the international level in higher education. It illustrates, with the use of relevant sources, the pressing issue of graduate un- and underemployment, and identifies the mismatch between skills and requirements as a major factor contributing to intensify the crisis. It observes that strategies such as training unemployed graduates to enable them to acquire the competencies needed for the modern work place, developing systems to link them to the world of work, re-structuring the university system such that it is more concerned with quality and relevance rather than the width of knowledge imparted, and introducing job-oriented programmes could partially address this issue. It also identifies the proposal to establish a knowledge hub in Sri Lanka as constituting a long term and sustainable strategy not only to mitigate the effects of graduate un- and underemployment, but also to facilitate a lucrative source of revenue for the country.

  3. Ethylene Response Factors: A Key Regulatory Hub in Hormone and Stress Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene is essential for many developmental processes and a key mediator of biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants. The ethylene signaling and response pathway includes Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs), which belong to the transcription factor family APETALA2/ERF. It is well known that ERFs regulate molecular response to pathogen attack by binding to sequences containing AGCCGCC motifs (the GCC box), a cis-acting element. However, recent studies suggest that several ERFs also bind to dehydration-responsive elements and act as a key regulatory hub in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of the ethylene signaling and response pathway, with emphasis on ERFs and their role in hormone cross talk and redox signaling under abiotic stresses. We conclude that ERFs act as a key regulatory hub, integrating ethylene, abscisic acid, jasmonate, and redox signaling in the plant response to a number of abiotic stresses. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Reviewing the Justice and Security Hub Modality as Piloted in Liberia

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    Rory Keane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘The Republic of Bangui’ or ‘the Republic of Monrovia’ are phrases we sometimes hear from practitioners to describe post conflict countries where very few services exist outside the capital city. This is especially the case for security – the critical public good in post conflict countries. In response to the need to bring security services closer to the citizens who often need them most, the Government of Liberia and the United Nations are piloting a new approach financed by the UN Peacebuilding Fund (PBF – the so-called ‘Justice and Security Hubs’. The donor community and the United Nations are watching closely. If this works, there is indication from UN officials that the model could potentially be replicated in other settings such as the East of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, Haiti and the northern states of South Sudan. If the hub concept is capable of being adapted and successful elsewhere, the United Nations will not only have added a new instrument to its peacekeeping toolkit but will also firmly demonstrate how the UN Peacebuilding Fund can in essence be catalytic in fostering long-term and comprehensive approaches to peacebuilding. This practice note outlines the process of developing and constructing the first hub in Liberia, which is due to be partly operational by the end of 2012, and provides a prognosis on its chances for success.

  5. Multiperiod Hierarchical Location Problem of Transit Hub in Urban Agglomeration Area

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    Ting-ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid urbanization in developing countries, urban agglomeration area (UAA forms. Also, transportation demand in UAA grows rapidly and presents hierarchical feature. Therefore, it is imperative to develop models for transit hubs to guide the development of UAA and better meet the time-varying and hierarchical transportation demand. In this paper, the multiperiod hierarchical location problem of transit hub in urban agglomeration area (THUAA is studied. A hierarchical service network of THUAA with a multiflow, nested, and noncoherent structure is described. Then a multiperiod hierarchical mathematical programming model is proposed, aiming at minimizing the total demand weighted travel time. Moreover, an improved adaptive clonal selection algorithm is presented to solve the model. Both the model and algorithm are verified by the application to a real-life problem of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China. The results of different scenarios in the case show that urban population migration has a great impact on the THUAA location scheme. Sustained and appropriate urban population migration helps to reduce travel time for urban residents.

  6. Preservation of structural brain network hubs is associated with less severe post-stroke aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Kocher, Madison; Nesland, Travis; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Post-stroke aphasia is typically associated with ischemic damage to cortical areas or with loss of connectivity among spared brain regions. It remains unclear whether the participation of spared brain regions as networks hubs affects the severity of aphasia. We evaluated language performance and magnetic resonance imaging from 44 participants with chronic aphasia post-stroke. The individual structural brain connectomes were constructed from diffusion tensor. Hub regions were defined in accordance with the rich club classification and studied in relation with language performance. Number of remaining left hemisphere rich club nodes was associated with aphasia, including comprehension, repetition and naming sub-scores. Importantly, among participants with relative preservation of regions of interest for language, aphasia severity was lessened if the region was not only spared, but also participated in the remaining network as a rich club node: Brodmann area (BA) 44/45 - repetition (p = 0.009), BA 39 - repetition (p = 0.045) and naming (p aphasia severity after stroke.

  7. Passivity-based control with collision avoidance for a hub-beam spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Chen, Ti; Jin, Dongping; Hu, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    For the application of robotically assembling large space structures, a feedback control law is synthesized for transitional and rotational maneuvers of a 'tug' spacecraft in order to transport a flexible element to a desired position without colliding with other space bodies. The flexible element is treated as a long beam clamped to the 'tug' spacecraft modelled as a rigid hub. First, the physical property of passivity of Euler-Lagrange system is exploited to design the position and attitude controllers by taking a simpler obstacle-free control problem into account. To reduce sensing and actuating requirements, the vibration modes of the beam appendage are supposed to be not directly measured and actuated on. Besides, the requirements of measuring velocities are removed with the aid of a dynamic extension technique. Second, the bounding boxes in the form of super-quadric surfaces are exploited to enclose the maximal extents of the obstacles and the hub-beam spacecraft. The collision avoidance between bounding boxes is achieved by applying additional repulsive force and torque to the spacecraft based on the method of artificial potential field. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed control scheme is numerically demonstrated via case studies.

  8. Clique of functional hubs orchestrates population bursts in developmentally regulated neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Luccioli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been discovered that single neuron stimulation can impact network dynamics in immature and adult neuronal circuits. Here we report a novel mechanism which can explain in neuronal circuits, at an early stage of development, the peculiar role played by a few specific neurons in promoting/arresting the population activity. For this purpose, we consider a standard neuronal network model, with short-term synaptic plasticity, whose population activity is characterized by bursting behavior. The addition of developmentally inspired constraints and correlations in the distribution of the neuronal connectivities and excitabilities leads to the emergence of functional hub neurons, whose stimulation/deletion is critical for the network activity. Functional hubs form a clique, where a precise sequential activation of the neurons is essential to ignite collective events without any need for a specific topological architecture. Unsupervised time-lagged firings of supra-threshold cells, in connection with coordinated entrainments of near-threshold neurons, are the key ingredients to orchestrate population activity.

  9. Topology and Non-Deterministic Polynomial Time Computation : Avoidance of The Misbehaviour of Hub-Free Diagrams and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Gasperin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To study groups with small Dehn's function, Olshanskii and Sapir developed a new invariant of bipartite chords diagrams and applied it to hub-free realization of S-machines. In this paper we consider this new invariant together with groups constructed from S-machines containing the hub relation. The idea is to study the links between the topology of the asymptotic cones and polynomial time computations. Indeed it is known that the topology of such metric space depends on diagrams without hubs that do not correspond to the computations of the considered S-machine. This work gives sufficient conditions that avoid this misbehaviour, but as we shall see the method has a significant drawback.

  10. Solving a multi-objective chance-constrained hub covering location problem by discrete invasive weed optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Nikokalam-Mozafar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stochastic bi-objective model for a single-allocation hub covering problem (HCP with the variable capacity and uncertainty parameters. Locating hubs can influence the performance of hub and spoke networks, as a strategic decision. The presented model optimizes two objectives minimizing the total transportation cost and the maximum transportation time from an origin to a destination simultaneously. Then, due to the NP-hardness of the multi-objective chance-constrained HCP, the presented model is solved by a well-known meta-heuristic algorithm, namely multi-objective invasive weed optimization. Additionally, the associated results are compared with a well-known multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. Furthermore, the computational results of the foregoing algorithms are reported in terms four well-known metrics, namely quality, spacing, diversification, and mean ideal distance. Finally, the conclusion is reported.

  11. Analysis of Food Hub Commerce and Participation Using Agent-Based Modeling: Integrating Financial and Social Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Caroline C; Stone, Richard T; Dorneich, Michael C; Gilbert, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Factors influencing long-term viability of an intermediated regional food supply network (food hub) were modeled using agent-based modeling techniques informed by interview data gathered from food hub participants. Previous analyses of food hub dynamics focused primarily on financial drivers rather than social factors and have not used mathematical models. Based on qualitative and quantitative data gathered from 22 customers and 11 vendors at a midwestern food hub, an agent-based model (ABM) was created with distinct consumer personas characterizing the range of consumer priorities. A comparison study determined if the ABM behaved differently than a model based on traditional economic assumptions. Further simulation studies assessed the effect of changes in parameters, such as producer reliability and the consumer profiles, on long-term food hub sustainability. The persona-based ABM model produced different and more resilient results than the more traditional way of modeling consumers. Reduced producer reliability significantly reduced trade; in some instances, a modest reduction in reliability threatened the sustainability of the system. Finally, a modest increase in price-driven consumers at the outset of the simulation quickly resulted in those consumers becoming a majority of the overall customer base. Results suggest that social factors, such as desire to support the community, can be more important than financial factors. An ABM of food hub dynamics, based on human factors data gathered from the field, can be a useful tool for policy decisions. Similar approaches can be used for modeling customer dynamics with other sustainable organizations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. WHAT IS CONTROLLING THE FRAGMENTATION IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225–0.506?: DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FRAGMENTATION IN TWIN HUBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, Gemma; Girart, Josep Miquel [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Palau, Aina [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pillai, Thushara [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Anglada, Guillem, E-mail: busquet@ice.cat [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission toward hub-N and hub-S of the infrared dark cloud G14.225–0.506 carried out with the Submillimeter Array, together with observations of the dust emission at 870 and 350 μm obtained with APEX and CSO telescopes. The large-scale dust emission of both hubs consists of a single peaked clump elongated in the direction of the associated filament. At small scales, the SMA images reveal that both hubs fragment into several dust condensations. The fragmentation level was assessed under the same conditions and we found that hub-N presents 4 fragments while hub-S is more fragmented, with 13 fragments identified. We studied the density structure by means of a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profile at 870 and 350 μm and the spectral energy distribution adopting a Plummer-like function to describe the density structure. The parameters inferred from the model are remarkably similar in both hubs, suggesting that density structure could not be responsible for determining the fragmentation level. We estimated several physical parameters, such as the level of turbulence and the magnetic field strength, and we found no significant differences between these hubs. The Jeans analysis indicates that the observed fragmentation is more consistent with thermal Jeans fragmentation compared with a scenario in which turbulent support is included. The lower fragmentation level observed in hub-N could be explained in terms of stronger UV radiation effects from a nearby H ii region, evolutionary effects, and/or stronger magnetic fields at small scales, a scenario that should be further investigated.

  13. Suppression of secondary flows in a double suction centrifugal pump with different loading distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, H. F.; Wang, F. J.; Zhang, Z. C.; Yao, Z. F.; Zhou, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary flow is one of the main reasons for low efficiency in double suction centrifugal pump. In a 3-D inverse design method, the pump blade could be designed by a specified loading distribution to control the flow field in pump. In order to study the influence of loading distribution on secondary flow of a double suction centrifugal pump, the external characteristics and the internal flow field of the pump with three kinds of loading distributions are analysed by using CFD approach. According to the simulation results, it is found that the form of fore-loading distribution at shroud and aft-loading distribution at hub could improve the optimal efficiency and broaden the high efficiency area of the pump. Furthermore, the secondary flow in impeller exit region and volute could be significantly suppressed if the slope of loading distribution curve of shroud is set to be -0.7.

  14. Investigation of the relationship between main-bearing loads and wind field characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E.; Turnbull, A.; McMillan, D.; Feuchtwang, J.; Golysheva, E.; Elliott, R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between main bearing loads and the characteristics of the incident wind field in which a wind turbine is operating. For a 2MW wind turbine model, fully aeroelastic multibody simulations are performed in 3D turbulent wind fields across the wind turbines operational envelope. Hub loads are extracted and then injected into a simplified drivetrain model of a single main-bearing configuration whose parameters are determined using finite element software. The main bearing reaction loads and load ratios from the simplified model are presented and analysed. The results indicate that there is a strong link between wind field characteristics and the loading experienced by a single main-bearing, with more damaging load ratios seen to occur in low turbulence and high shear wind conditions.

  15. Beta cell 5'-shifted isomiRs are candidate regulatory hubs in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Baran-Gale

    Full Text Available Next-generation deep sequencing of small RNAs has unveiled the complexity of the microRNA (miRNA transcriptome, which is in large part due to the diversity of miRNA sequence variants ("isomiRs". Changes to a miRNA's seed sequence (nucleotides 2-8, including shifted start positions, can redirect targeting to a dramatically different set of RNAs and alter biological function. We performed deep sequencing of small RNA from mouse insulinoma (MIN6 cells (widely used as a surrogate for the study of pancreatic beta cells and developed a bioinformatic analysis pipeline to profile isomiR diversity. Additionally, we applied the pipeline to recently published small RNA-seq data from primary human beta cells and whole islets and compared the miRNA profiles with that of MIN6. We found that: (1 the miRNA expression profile in MIN6 cells is highly correlated with those of primary human beta cells and whole islets; (2 miRNA loci can generate multiple highly expressed isomiRs with different 5'-start positions (5'-isomiRs; (3 isomiRs with shifted start positions (5'-shifted isomiRs are highly expressed, and can be as abundant as their unshifted counterparts (5'-reference miRNAs. Finally, we identified 10 beta cell miRNA families as candidate regulatory hubs in a type 2 diabetes (T2D gene network. The most significant candidate hub was miR-29, which we demonstrated regulates the mRNA levels of several genes critical to beta cell function and implicated in T2D. Three of the candidate miRNA hubs were novel 5'-shifted isomiRs: miR-375+1, miR-375-1 and miR-183-5p+1. We showed by in silico target prediction and in vitro transfection studies that both miR-375+1 and miR-375-1 are likely to target an overlapping, but distinct suite of beta cell genes compared to canonical miR-375. In summary, this study characterizes the isomiR profile in beta cells for the first time, and also highlights the potential functional relevance of 5'-shifted isomiRs to T2D.

  16. Disconnection of network hubs and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Erik D; Hellyer, Peter J; Scott, Gregory; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2015-06-01

    results were then replicated in a separate group of patients without microbleeds. The most influential graph metrics were betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality, which provide measures of the extent to which a given brain region connects other regions in the network. Reductions in betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality were particularly evident within hub regions including the cingulate cortex and caudate. Our results demonstrate that betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality are reduced within network hubs, due to the impact of traumatic axonal injury on network connections. The dominance of betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality suggests that cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury results from the disconnection of network hubs by traumatic axonal injury. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  17. Far-infrared observations of a massive cluster forming in the Monoceros R2 filament hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, T. S. M.; Griffin, M. J.; Schneider, N.; Motte, F.; Könyves, V.; André, P.; Di Francesco, J.; Didelon, P.; Pattle, K.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Anderson, L. D.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bontemps, S.; Elia, D.; Fuente, A.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Kirk, J.; Marsh, K.; Men'shchikov, A.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Peretto, N.; Pezzuto, S.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Spinoglio, L.; Tigé, J.; Treviño-Morales, S. P.; White, G. J.

    2017-10-01

    We present far-infrared observations of Monoceros R2 (a giant molecular cloud at approximately 830 pc distance, containing several sites of active star formation), as observed at 70 μm, 160 μm, 250 μm, 350 μm, and 500 μm by the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the Herschel imaging survey of OB young stellar objects (HOBYS) Key programme. The Herschel data are complemented by SCUBA-2 data in the submillimetre range, and WISE and Spitzer data in the mid-infrared. In addition, C18O data from the IRAM 30-m Telescope are presented, and used for kinematic information. Sources were extracted from the maps with getsources, and from the fluxes measured, spectral energy distributions were constructed, allowing measurements of source mass and dust temperature. Of177 Herschel sources robustly detected in the region (a detection with high signal-to-noise and low axis ratio at multiple wavelengths), including protostars and starless cores, 29 are found in a filamentary hub at the centre of the region (a little over 1% of the observed area). These objects are on average smaller, more massive, and more luminous than those in the surrounding regions (which together suggest that they are at a later stage of evolution), a result that cannot be explained entirely by selection effects. These results suggest a picture in which the hub may have begun star formation at a point significantly earlier than the outer regions, possibly forming as a result of feedback from earlier star formation. Furthermore, the hub may be sustaining its star formation by accreting material from the surrounding filaments. Full Tables 4 and D.1-D.9 and the C180 datacube are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A22

  18. Quality of hub-and-spoke networks; the effects of time-table co-ordination on waiting time and rescheduling time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, M.R.E.; Rietveld, P.

    2001-01-01

    Low frequencies of aircraft may have substantial negative effects on scheduling costs and waiting costs at hub airports. Appropriate timetabling of carriers will reduce these costs. In this paper we propose a measure for the quality of the co-ordination of timetables by carriers in hub airports. An

  19. Ligt de toekomst van Schiphol in Dubai? : over de opkomst van Dubai als mega hub en hoe samenwerking met deze luchthaven de concurrentiepositie van Schiphol kan versterken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Makhloufi, Abdel; Onstein, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Schiphol dreigt in rap tempo zijn concurrentiepositie als hub te verliezen aan Dubai. Het behoud en versterking van de hub-functie van Schiphol moet een hoge prioriteit krijgen bij het kabinet, stakeholders en Metropoolregio Amsterdam. Een strategisch samenwerkingsverband met Dubai kan daarbij het

  20. A Futile Search for Values and Pedagogy? A Discursive Analysis of the Marketing Messages of Branch-Campuses in Higher Education Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karram, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Higher education has become a key strategy for the economic development of certain city-states that are positioning themselves as higher education hubs, recruiting both students and foreign providers. This article presents the findings of a research study that examined the online messages of foreign branch-campuses in education hubs (Dubai, Hong…

  1. Global trade & the Dutch hub: understanding variegated forms of embeddedness of international trade in the Netherlands: clothing, flowers, and high-tech products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, M.

    2010-01-01

    As global trade increases, some regions have become specialized in international trade and logistics, forming hubs to larger market areas. Although a lot is known about international trade in quantitative terms, much less is known about actual trade activities taking place in trade hubs and the ways

  2. Environment as a home to architecture. The Cremona City Hub project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Faroldi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban regeneration pro- ject of the former Marketplace area promoted by the Local Administration in Cremona through a two-step international contest which ended in May 2012, relies on the willingness to guarantee new and high standards of welcoming and liveability within a logic of “smart city” to be meant as an healthy, dynamic and economically sustainable city. The promotion of energy policies, the close connection between the urban and the architectural project, a new dimension of welcoming and residentiality, the environmental quality, and the fruition of culture, represent questions to which new project development capabilities intend to ensure adequate answers. The experimental research of the Cremona City Hub project targets these very values.

  3. Vacuole membrane contact sites and domains: emerging hubs to coordinate organelle function with cellular metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malia, Pedro Carpio; Ungermann, Christian

    2016-04-15

    Eukaryotic cells rely on a set of membrane-enclosed organelles to perform highly efficient reactions in an optimized environment. Trafficking of molecules via vesicular carriers and membrane contact sites (MCS) allow the coordination between these compartments, though the precise mechanisms are still enigmatic. Among the cellular organelles, the lysosome/vacuole stands out as a central hub, where multiple pathways merge. Importantly, the delivered material is degraded and the monomers are recycled for further usage, which explains its wide variety of roles in controlling cellular metabolism. We will highlight recent advances in the field by focusing on the yeast vacuole as a model system to understand lysosomal function in general. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  4. The PHR proteins: intracellular signaling hubs in neuronal development and axon degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Brock; Murphey, Rodney K; Borgen, Melissa A

    2016-03-23

    During development, a coordinated and integrated series of events must be accomplished in order to generate functional neural circuits. Axons must navigate toward target cells, build synaptic connections, and terminate outgrowth. The PHR proteins (consisting of mammalian Phr1/MYCBP2, Drosophila Highwire and C. elegans RPM-1) function in each of these events in development. Here, we review PHR function across species, as well as the myriad of signaling pathways PHR proteins regulate. These findings collectively suggest that the PHR proteins are intracellular signaling hubs, a concept we explore in depth. Consistent with prominent developmental functions, genetic links have begun to emerge between PHR signaling networks and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Finally, we discuss the recent and important finding that PHR proteins regulate axon degeneration, which has further heightened interest in this fascinating group of molecules.

  5. A New Approach for Offshore Wind Farm Energy Yields Calculation with Mixed Hub Height Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for calculating the energy yields of offshore wind farm with mixed types of wind turbines is proposed. The Jensen model is selected as the base and developed to a three dimension wake model to estimate the energy yields. Since the wind turbines are with differe...... hub heights, the wind shear effect is also taken into consideration. The results show that the proposed wake model is effective in calculating the wind speed deficit. The calculation framework is applicable for energy yields calculation in offshore wind farms.......In this paper, a mathematical model for calculating the energy yields of offshore wind farm with mixed types of wind turbines is proposed. The Jensen model is selected as the base and developed to a three dimension wake model to estimate the energy yields. Since the wind turbines are with different...

  6. Southern African Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutondo, Moola S.; Simpemba, Prospery

    2016-10-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realizing the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU (International Astronomical Union) capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilization of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia (some supported by funds from IAU Annual Call for proposals).

  7. MNCS' PERCEPTION ON THE FEASIBILITY OF SOUTH KOREA AS A BUSINESS HUB OF NORTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Il Lee

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the financial crisis of 1997, the South Korean government has moved towards a new market-driven paradigm of economic growth based on foreign direct investment (FDI replacing the decades old state-driven economic growth model. One of the attempts made by the government is its ambition to transform the nation into a business and economic hub of Northeast Asia. However, despite the growing concern on the topic among government agencies, media, research centers and academia, the absence of a cohesive and realistic approach to the issue is a relative void in the literature. This paper, which is based on findings from interviews with foreign companies operating in Korea during 2002, offers a cultural and institutional insight into the critical and often invisible issues to be considered for a successful realization of the vision.

  8. The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandu, Evaristus M.; Rhoades, Dawna L.

    2006-01-01

    Air transportation plays an important role in the social and economic development of the global system and the countries that seek to participate in it. As Africa seeks to take its place in the global economy, it is increasingly looking to aviation as the primary means of connecting its people and goods with the world. It has been suggested that Africa as a continent needs to move toward a system of hubs to optimize its scarce resources. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya, is one of the airports in the eastern region of Africa that is seeking to fill this role. This paper discusses the prospects for success and the challenges that it will need to overcome, including projections through 2020 for the growth in passenger and cargo traffic.

  9. Heavy Lift Helicopter - Advanced Technology Component Program - Hub and Upper Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    upper conatrvols whii I.e. revealing other deficienc.-es. S 1~"m i t p’’ ALO blemiu ing was accoi-iplished on the DSTR for the hub and uppvr controls...basedl on SUCCQýS fU 1 tat.iLJ U( tes~isti ho t the sc issors , and thc 1r liited d(I01rue ot the 1 icVt t I Ik * Liqht rust wa.,; f ound on the...andt thu rust stains are monst likely tree iron (In t b mce Protcotype bearintis specity pass ivat i n toirvven t recu r rfe’ncu * ~ i &~.J

  10. Development of a MicroTCA Carrier Hub for CMS at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitriyev, M; Wu, S X; Rohlf, J; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12042

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a Micro TCA Carrier Hub card which provides timing, control and data acquisition functions in a Micro TCA crate for HL-LHC readout electronics. This module may be mounted in the primary or redundant MCH slot in a Micro TCA crate, and distributes low-jitter LHC RF clock and encoded fast timing signals to up to 12 AMC modules. In addition, it receives buffer status signals and DAQ data at up to 600 MBytes/sec from each AMC. The prototype module is built on a commercial MCH base board with a custom mezzanine board stack. The latest Xilinx® Virtex®-6 FPGA are used to provide a clear upgrade path. Prototype modules have been developed for a CMS HCAL test beam in summer 2010. We describe the specifications of the module, its application in a Micro TCA system beyond CMS HCAL, and our experience in commissioning the module for the test beam

  11. On the interconnection of stable protein complexes: inter-complex hubs and their conservation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Concettina

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes are key molecular entities that perform a variety of essential cellular functions. The connectivity of proteins within a complex has been widely investigated with both experimental and computational techniques. We developed a computational approach to identify and characterise proteins that play a role in interconnecting complexes. We computed a measure of inter-complex centrality, the crossroad index, based on disjoint paths connecting proteins in distinct complexes and identified inter-complex hubs as proteins with a high value of the crossroad index. We applied the approach to a set of stable complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Homo sapiens. Just as done for hubs, we evaluated the topological and biological properties of inter-complex hubs addressing the following questions. Do inter-complex hubs tend to be evolutionary conserved? What is the relation between crossroad index and essentiality? We found a good correlation between inter-complex hubs and both evolutionary conservation and essentiality.

  12. Routing optimization for multi-type containerships in a hub-and-spoke network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Ji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the ship routing optimization problem in a hub-and-spoke network. A routing optimization model for multi-type containerships with time deadlines is established, and the target is to minimize the total cost, which consists of the total travelling cost, total service cost and total waiting cost. The model is set up through an improved genetic algorithm. The study data are from the Pearl River Delta region of China, which include 1 hub port and 29 feeder ports and have a population of 30 million. Result shows that when the iteration time reaches 190, the total cost comes to 521 thousand yuan near the optimal value. There are 6 routes, including 3 containerships of 100 TEU, 2 containerships of 150 TEU and 1 containership of 200 TEU. At the same time, in the single-type containerships case, there are 7 routes, and when the iteration time reaches 120, the total cost comes to 573 thousand yuan, which is close to the optimal value. Comparing the two cases, it shows that the model for multi-type containerships with time deadlines is reasonable, and the algorithm is practicable. In the last, three factors, which may affect the total cost to carry out sensitivity analysis are chosen. It shows that time deadline, containership capacity and cargo handling capacity of each port have significant influence on the total cost. It is also shown that the total cost for multi-type containerships is always less than that for the single-type containerships.

  13. White Matter Disruptions in Schizophrenia Are Spatially Widespread and Topologically Converge on Brain Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Paul; Baker, Simon T; Cropley, Vanessa L; Bousman, Chad; Fornito, Alex; Cocchi, Luca; Fullerton, Janice M; Rasser, Paul; Schall, Ulrich; Henskens, Frans; Michie, Patricia T; Loughland, Carmel; Catts, Stanley V; Mowry, Bryan; Weickert, Thomas W; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia; Carr, Vaughan; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Pantelis, Christos; Zalesky, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    White matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have been widely reported, although the consistency of findings across studies is moderate. In this study, neuroimaging was used to investigate white matter pathology and its impact on whole-brain white matter connectivity in one of the largest samples of patients with schizophrenia. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were compared between patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 326) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 197). Between-group differences in FA and MD were assessed using voxel-based analysis and permutation testing. Automated whole-brain white matter fiber tracking and the network-based statistic were used to characterize the impact of white matter pathology on the connectome and its rich club. Significant reductions in FA associated with schizophrenia were widespread, encompassing more than 40% (234ml) of cerebral white matter by volume and involving all cerebral lobes. Significant increases in MD were also widespread and distributed similarly. The corpus callosum, cingulum, and thalamic radiations exhibited the most extensive pathology according to effect size. More than 50% of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical white matter fiber bundles comprising the connectome were disrupted in schizophrenia. Connections between hub regions comprising the rich club were disproportionately affected. Pathology did not differ between patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder and was not mediated by medication. In conclusion, although connectivity between cerebral hubs is most extensively disturbed in schizophrenia, white matter pathology is widespread, affecting all cerebral lobes and the cerebellum, leading to disruptions in the majority of the brain's fiber bundles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Trade-off between Multiple Constraints Enables Simultaneous Formation of Modules and Hubs in Neural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhan; Wang, Shengjun; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Zhou, Changsong

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter , and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of , resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real networks. The discrepancy

  15. Southern Africa Regional Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siseho Mutondo, Moola

    2015-08-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi® technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realising the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilisation of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. This resource also forms the foundation for closer collaboration between SAROAD member countries. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia. A further two projects involve the collaboration of Zambia and other regional member countries in order to foster engagement with important regional astronomy facilities (e.g. SKA). SAROAD has identified the IAU’s International Year of Light and a starting point for offering regional support for IAU-endorsed global activities. SAROAD has set up a hub dedicated to regional events and activities about the International Year of Light. SAROAD has a database of regional authorities to enable contact with the region's decision makers and experts. SAROAD will hold an annual event which brings forum for astronomy for development. The creation of the database and the SAROAD Road show is a first step towards this goal. The SAROAD website has helped to advertise upcoming events for astronomy development and education; it is used to provide advice, guidance and information for astronomers in all countries in the Southern Africa. Fundraising is the primary goal for SAROAD in 2015 towards financial self-sufficiency by 2020. We report on the methods that work best

  16. Trade-off between multiple constraints enables simultaneous formation of modules and hubs in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Chen

    Full Text Available The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter α, and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of α, resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of α values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real

  17. Between Hub Status and Parallelism: Examining the G20-BRICS Dynamics in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cooper

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, the G20 needs to be examined as a decentred focal point in the global system. The dominant formative image of the G20 has been that of a 21st C concert of powers. Yet, as witnessed by the ongoing dynamics of the summit process, the G20 has become fragmented. As the G20 has moved away from its apex function, it has become a nexus forum/networked focal point. Of key importance in this context is the role of the BRICS grouping of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. At the same time as this major challenger is increasingly embedded at the hub of global governance represented by the G20, it is also engaged in a diverse array of parallel initiatives. In terms of their informal modes of operation, the G20 and the BRICS share some marked similarities. As the roles of networked fora are consolidated, the diversity of activities expands to incorporate a range of state and non-state actors. However, at the same time the club culture of both the G20 and the BRICS is contested, reducing the like-mindedness associated with traditional concerts of power. The conceptual arguments developed in this paper are illustrated and reinforced by recent practices, including the Hangzhou G20 and the Goa BRICS summit. The global system is in the midst of a protracted period of discontinuity characterized by profound and intense tension between the push for a consolidated form of institutional synergy (with the G20 as the hub focal point and the pull towards potential fragmentation (with the BRICS as the core agent of change. The nature and impact of this dynamic will animate the central debate over global governance in the 21st C.

  18. International environmental and occupational health: From individual scientists to networked science Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. Published in 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Youth-Led Community Arts Hubs: Self-Determined Learning in an Out-of-School Time (OST) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauseman, David Cameron

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from qualitative case studies of three youth-led community arts hubs, a program that is rooted in, and utilizes a self-determined learning approach. Qualitative case studies of three program sites sought to generate meaningful data that could lead to rapid ongoing program development and inform the development and…

  20. Dynamic Migration Intentions and the Impact of Socio-Institutional Environments: A Transit Migration Hub in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, M.J.; Düvell, F.; van Eerdewijk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transit migration is generally defined by migrants having the intention to move onwards to a third country. Based on an empirical investigation in Izmir, a transit migration hub in Turkey, this paper critically discusses intentionality as a valid dimension in conceptualisations of transit migration.

  1. Dynamic migration intentions and the impact of socio-institutional environments: A transit migration hub in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, M.J.; Düvell, F.; Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Transit migration is generally defined by migrants having the intention to move onwards to a third country. Based on an empirical investigation in Izmir, a transit migration hub in Turkey, this paper critically discusses intentionality as a valid dimension in conceptualisations of transit migration.

  2. Debate over a Proposed FedEx Distribution Hub: Examining the Role of Consensus, Power and Norms of Communication Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathleen B.

    This paper examines an ongoing community debate over a proposed FedEx distribution hub to be constructed at the local airport. The essay looks to theorists, including Patsy Healey, Richard Johannesen, Daniel Kemmis, James Klumpp, and Martha Nussbaum. These theorists provide a way to view the role of consensus, power, and norms of communication…

  3. Differential evolution algorithm for multi-commodity and multi-level of service hub covering location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Setak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hub location problem involves a network of origins and destinations over which transportation takes place. There are many studies associated with finding the location of hub nodes and the allocation of demand nodes to these located hub nodes to transfer the only one kind of commodity under one level of service. However, in this study, carrying different commodity types from origin to destination under various levels of services (e.g. price, punctuality, reliability or transit time is studied. Quality of services experienced by users such as speed, convenience, comfort and security of transportation facilities and services is considered as the level of service. In each system, different kinds of commodities with various levels of services can be transmitted. The appropriate level of service that a commodity can be transmitted through is chosen by customer preferences and the specification of the commodity. So, a mixed integer programming formulation for single allocation hub covering location problem, which is based on the idea of transferring multi commodity flows under multi levels of service is presented. These two are applied concepts, multi-commodity and multi-level of service, which make the model's assumptions closer to the real world problems. In addition, a differential evolution algorithm is designed to find near-optimal solutions. The obtained solutions using differential evolution (DE algorithm (upper bound, where its parameters are tuned by response surface methodology, are compared with exact solutions and computed lower bounds by linear relaxation technique to prove the efficiency of proposed DE algorithm.

  4. An Analysis of Factors that Influence the Success of Expeditionary Civil Engineer Hub-and-spoke Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    x I. Introduction ...HUB-AND-SPOKE ORGANIZATIONS I. Introduction Background Since the 1960s, expeditionary Air Force civil engineer (CE) capabilities have been...of the wide spectrum of CE capability can be high. For this reason, it is possible that a new multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM ) tool could be of

  5. Joint Optimization of Star P-hub Median Problem and Seat Inventory Control Decisions Considering a Hybrid Routing Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tikani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of integrated capacitated hub location problem and seat inventory control considering concept and techniques of revenue management. We consider an airline company maximizes its revenue by utilizing the best network topology and providing proper booking limits for all itineraries and fare classes. The transportation system arises in the form of a star/star network and includes both hub-stop and non-stop flights. This problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic integer program with mixed-integer recourse. We solve various instances carried out from the Turkish network data set. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, we propose a hybrid optimization method, consisting of an evolutionary algorithm based on genetic algorithm and exact solution. The quality of the solutions found by the proposed meta-heuristic is compared with the original version of GA and the mathematical programming model. The results obtained by the proposed model imply that integrating hub location and seat inventory control problem would help to increase the total revenue of airline companies. Also, in the case of serving non-stop flights, the model can provide more profit by employing less number of hubs.

  6. Air network performance and hub competitive position: evaluation of primary airports in East and South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.; Veldhuis, J.; Matsumoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of hub-and-spoke operations has changed the structure of competition among airlines and airports, meaning that airlines now compete both directly (air services from A to B) as well as indirectly (services from A to B via H). Traditional measures of airport performance, such as passenger

  7. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  8. Evaluating a European knowledge hub on climate change in agriculture: Are we building a better connected community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetnan, Eli Rudinow; Kipling, Richard Philip

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain food security and sustainability of production under climate change, interdisciplinary and international collaboration in research is essential. In the EU, knowledge hubs are important funding instruments for the development of an interconnected European Research Area. Here, network analysis was used to assess whether the pilot knowledge hub MACSUR has affected interdisciplinary collaboration, using co-authorship of peer reviewed articles as a measure of collaboration. The broad community of all authors identified as active in the field of agriculture and climate change was increasingly well connected over the period studied. Between knowledge hub members, changes in network parameters suggest an increase in collaborative interaction beyond that expected due to network growth, and greater than that found in the broader community. Given that interdisciplinary networks often take several years to have an impact on research outputs, these changes within the relatively new MACSUR community provide evidence that the knowledge hub structure has been effective in stimulating collaboration. However, analysis showed that knowledge hub partners were initially well-connected, suggesting that the initiative may have gathered together researchers with particular resources or inclinations towards collaborative working. Long term, consistent funding and ongoing reflection to improve networking structures may be necessary to sustain the early positive signs from MACSUR, to extend its success to a wider community of researchers, or to repeat it in less connected fields of science. Tackling complex challenges such as climate change will require research structures that can effectively support and utilise the diversity of talents beyond the already well-connected core of scientists at major research institutes. But network research shows that this core, well-connected group are vital brokers in achieving wider integration.

  9. CER Hub: An informatics platform for conducting comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional, heterogeneous, electronic clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Brian L; Kurtz, Stephen E; Masica, Andrew; Stevens, Victor J; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Puro, Jon E; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Au, David H; Brannon, Elissa D; Sittig, Dean F

    2015-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) requires the capture and analysis of data from disparate sources, often from a variety of institutions with diverse electronic health record (EHR) implementations. In this paper we describe the CER Hub, a web-based informatics platform for developing and conducting research studies that combine comprehensive electronic clinical data from multiple health care organizations. The CER Hub platform implements a data processing pipeline that employs informatics standards for data representation and web-based tools for developing study-specific data processing applications, providing standardized access to the patient-centric electronic health record (EHR) across organizations. The CER Hub is being used to conduct two CER studies utilizing data from six geographically distributed and demographically diverse health systems. These foundational studies address the effectiveness of medications for controlling asthma and the effectiveness of smoking cessation services delivered in primary care. The CER Hub includes four key capabilities: the ability to process and analyze both free-text and coded clinical data in the EHR; a data processing environment supported by distributed data and study governance processes; a clinical data-interchange format for facilitating standardized extraction of clinical data from EHRs; and a library of shareable clinical data processing applications. CER requires coordinated and scalable methods for extracting, aggregating, and analyzing complex, multi-institutional clinical data. By offering a range of informatics tools integrated into a framework for conducting studies using EHR data, the CER Hub provides a solution to the challenges of multi-institutional research using electronic medical record data. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Sarkar

    Full Text Available A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs, often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs. These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI

  11. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Ultimate and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  12. Transport of pollutants and sediment in the area of the Wave Hub (Celtic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Huntley, David

    2010-05-01

    Ocean waves are a sustainable source of alternative energy that, if properly developed, will provide a quarter of current electricity demand and contribute to lowering the UK's reliance on fossil fuels. The UK government has given planning approval for a pilot power plant called the Wave Hub located in the eastern Celtic Sea off the Cornish north coast. The impact of a small number of devices on the physical environment is expected to be subtle outside the exclusion zone. However, such pilot projects are considered as the launching pad in the UK's ambitious programme to create a new wave energy industry. Large scale off-shore industrial activity can interact with the physical environment of the shelf sea in a two-fold manner: (i) the wave farm is affected by the waves, currents, variation in temperature and movements of sediment, and (ii) it can impact on the marine environment via a number of ways including release of dissolved and suspended matter during construction, operational and decommission stages of the project. These changes in the physical environment can then be translated into changes of the ecosystem and corresponding human activities. The Celtic Sea has a highly variable and complex thermal structure. In the spring and summer the water column becomes stratified due to solar heating of the surface layer, particularly in the areas of greater depth and/or low currents, where the turbulence is insufficient to mix the entire water column. Fronts form at the junctions of stratified and mixed water columns and these fronts generate currents which flow along the fronts. These frontal currents are subject to baroclinic instability and generate a whole set of mesoscale (i.e. comparable with the baroclinic Rossby radius) features such as eddies, filaments and mushroom currents, which are clearly seen on satellite images. Ecosystems are particularly concentrated in the vicinity of fronts so changes in frontal strength or location can have significant biological

  13. The effect of hubbing on the pull-out strength of lateral mass screws in the cervical spine: a biomechanical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ki Hyoung; Yoon, S Tim; Kim, Sang Bum; Hutton, William C

    2015-02-01

    This was a cadaveric biomechanical experiment. To compare the pull-out strength of polyaxial screws that are either hubbed or not hubbed when inserted into the lateral mass. It has been shown in a study on pedicle screws in the thoracic spine that "hubbing" the head of the screw against the dorsal laminar cortex results in significantly lower pull-out strength of the screws. Fifteen segments of the human cervical spine (from C3 to C7) were prepared. Polyaxial screws 3.5 mm in diameter were used. On one side screws 12 mm in length were inserted until the screw head touched the lateral mass; they were then turned 2.5 more times until they were fully hubbed (hubbed screws). On the other side screws 14 mm in length were inserted until the screw head just touched the lateral mass (nonhubbed screws). The 2 mm difference in length was to ensure that the screws were buried to the same length. All screws inserted into the lateral masses underwent tensile pull-out by applying a tensile force down the long axis of the screw. The difference in pull-out strength between the 2 groups was evaluated using a nonparametric paired test (the Wilcoxon signed rank test), which compared side to side on each vertebra. One specimen was excluded because of cement breakage during the biomechanical test. A total of 14 vertebrae were tested. Four vertebrae in the hubbed group showed small fractures or cracks around the screw hole after screw insertion. In a side to side comparison, the hubbed screws had significantly lower pull-out strengths as compared with the nonhubbed screws (P=0.033). Hubbing of lateral mass screws lowers the potential pull-out strength of the screws as compared with the pull-out strength of nonhubbed screws. Thus, hubbing of lateral mass screws, on the basis of the parameters applied in this study, is not recommended.

  14. Identifying the Functional Requirements for an Arizona Astronomy Data Hub (AADH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, G.; Heidorn, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Astronomy data represent a curation challenge for information managers, as well as for astronomers. Extracting knowledge from these heterogeneous and complex datasets is particularly complicated and requires both interdisciplinary and domain expertise to accomplish true curation, with an overall goal of facilitating reproducible science through discoverability and persistence. A group of researchers and professional staff at the University of Arizona held several meetings during the spring of 2015 about astronomy data and the role of the university in curation of that data. The group decided that it was critical to obtain a broader consensus on the needs of the community. With assistance from a Start for Success grant provided by the University of Arizona Office of Research and Discovery and funding from the American Astronomical Society (AAS), a workshop was held in early July 2015, with 28 participants plus 4 organizers in attendance. Representing University researchers as well as astronomical facilities and a scholarly society, the group verified that indeed there is a problem with the long-term curation of some astronomical data not associated with major facilities, and that a repository or "data hub" with the correct functionality could facilitate research and the preservation and use of astronomy data. The workshop members also identified a set of next steps, including the identification of possible data and metadata to be included in the Hub. The participants further helped to identify additional information that must be gathered before construction of the AADH could begin, including identifying significant datasets that do not currently have sufficient preservation and dissemination infrastructure, as well as some data associated with journal publications and the broader context of the data beyond that directly published in the journals. Workshop participants recommended that a set of grant proposal should be developed that ensures community buy-in and

  15. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agler, Matthew T.; Ruhe, Jonas; Kroll, Samuel; Morhenn, Constanze; Kim, Sang-Tae; Weigel, Detlef; Kemen, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms) context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe–microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes) using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe–microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial “hubs,” are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe–microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on “hub” microbes, which, via microbe–microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two “hub” microbes (the

  16. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  17. Penile vibratory stimulation yields increased spermatozoa and accessory gland production compared with rectal electroejaculation in a neurologically intact primate (Saimiri boliviensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, R R; Sonksen, J; Gibson, S V; Rizk, B M; Abee, C R

    1998-09-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques require an efficient semen collection procedure in cases of ejaculatory dysfunction. Anejaculation may be of psychogenic or neurogenic origin but can be overcome with stimulatory techniques. Penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) therapy for anejaculation has recently emerged as an alternative to rectal probe electroejaculation (RPE) and more invasive testicular procedures. Comparison of the stimulatory procedures in neurologically intact subjects is not ethically possible due to the discomfort involved with electroejaculation, and comparison in spinal cord injured men may be compromised due to the intricate effects of chronic denervation on semen quality. We have previously shown the efficacy of PVS in a non-human primate, the squirrel monkey. A cross-over study design comparing semen collected by PVS and RPE was employed during the breeding season in which 15 donor males were divided into two groups. One group received PVS and the other RPE, then, three days later, treatments were reversed. Twelve of 15 animals responded to PVS (80%), all with spermatozoa in the ejaculate. Mean volume (436 +/- 90 microl), motility (80.6 +/- 4.3%), and total spermatozoa (32.8 +/- 10.2 x 10(6)) were significantly higher than in the semen after RPE. RPE resulted in ejaculation in all 15 animals with a semen volume of 205 +/- 25 microl, but fewer samples contained spermatozoa (9/15) resulting in a low total count (0.5 +/- 0.3 x 10(6)). The motility was reduced in those samples with spermatozoa (n = 9; 44.1 +/- 11.4%). Additionally, accessory gland activity was measured via the seminal vesicle and prostrate markers, fructose and citric acid, respectively. The PVS specimens had significantly more fructose (2.9 +/- 0.7 mg/ejaculate) and citric acid (0.46 +/- 0.14 mg/ejaculate) compared to RPE collected specimens (1.2 +/- 0.3 mg/ejaculate and 0.24 +/- 0.04 mg/ejaculate, respectively). In conclusion, PVS produces a much greater sperm yield and increased

  18. Using Metaheuristic Algorithms for Solving a Hub Location Problem: Application in Passive Optical Network Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fiber-optic due to having greater bandwidth and being more efficient compared with other similar technologies, are counted as one the most important tools for data transfer. In this article, an integrated mathematical model for a three-level fiber-optic distribution network with consideration of simultaneous backbone and local access networks is presented in which the backbone network is a ring and the access networks has a star-star topology. The aim of the model is to determine the location of the central offices and splitters, how connections are made between central offices, and allocation of each demand node to a splitter or central office in a way that the wiring cost of fiber optical and concentrator installation are minimized. Moreover, each user’s desired bandwidth should be provided efficiently. Then, the proposed model is validated by GAMS software in small-sized problems, afterwards the model is solved by two meta-heuristic methods including differential evolution (DE and genetic algorithm (GA in large-scaled problems and the results of two algorithms are compared with respect to computational time and objective function obtained value. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is provided. Keyword: Fiber-optic, telecommunication network, hub-location, passive splitter, three-level network.

  19. Overview of JSPS Core-to-Core Program: Forming Research and Educational Hubs of Medical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki

    To foster medical physicists, we introduce the achievement we made since 2011 under the national research project of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Core-to-Core program; 'Forming Research and Educational Hubs of Medical Physics.' On this basis and under the JSPS program, we promoted research and educational exchange with Indiana University (IU) in USA, University of Groningen (The UG) in the Netherland and other cooperating institutions such as University of Minnesota (UM).A total of 23 students and researchers were sent. UG accepted the most among three institutions. In turn, 12 foreign researchers including post-doctor fellows came to Japan for academic seminars or educational lectures.Fifteen international seminars were held; 8 in Japan, 4 in USA, and 3 in the Netherland.Lots of achievement were made through these activities in 5 years. Total of 23 research topics at the international conferences were presented. Total of 12 articles were published in international journals.This program clearly promoted the establishment of international collaboration, and many young researchers and graduate students were exchanged and collaborated with foreign researchers.

  20. Radicalization of the Settlers’ Youth: Hebron as a Hub for Jewish Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Boucher Boudreau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Hebron has been a hub for radicalization and terrorism throughout the modern history of Israel. This paper examines the past trends of radicalization and terrorism in Hebron and explains why it is still a present and rising ideology within the Jewish communities and organization such as the Hilltop Youth movement. The research first presents the transmission of social memory through memorials and symbolism of the Hebron hills area and then presents the impact of Meir Kahana’s movement. As observed, Hebron slowly grew and spread its population and philosophy to the then new settlement of Kiryat Arba. An exceptionally strong ideology of an extreme form of Judaism grew out of those two small towns. As analyzed—based on an exhaustive ethnographic fieldwork and bibliographic research—this form of fundamentalism and national-religious point of view gave birth to a new uprising of violence and radicalism amongst the settler youth organizations such as the Hilltop Youth movement.

  1. AIRE-PHD fingers are structural hubs to maintain the integrity of chromatin-associated interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Massimiliano; Matafora, Vittoria; Saare, Mario; Spiliotopoulos, Dimitrios; Mollica, Luca; Quilici, Giacomo; Chignola, Francesca; Mannella, Valeria; Zucchelli, Chiara; Peterson, Pärt; Bachi, Angela; Musco, Giovanna

    2012-12-01

    Mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene cause autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy. AIRE is expressed in thymic medullary epithelial cells, where it promotes the expression of peripheral-tissue antigens to mediate deletional tolerance, thereby preventing self-reactivity. AIRE contains two plant homeodomains (PHDs) which are sites of pathological mutations. AIRE-PHD fingers are important for AIRE transcriptional activity and presumably play a crucial role in the formation of multimeric protein complexes at chromatin level which ultimately control immunological tolerance. As a step forward the understanding of AIRE-PHD fingers in normal and pathological conditions, we investigated their structure and used a proteomic SILAC approach to assess the impact of patient mutations targeting AIRE-PHD fingers. Importantly, both AIRE-PHD fingers are structurally independent and mutually non-interacting domains. In contrast to D297A and V301M on AIRE-PHD1, the C446G mutation on AIRE-PHD2 destroys the structural fold, thus causing aberrant AIRE localization and reduction of AIRE target genes activation. Moreover, mutations targeting AIRE-PHD1 affect the formation of a multimeric protein complex at chromatin level. Overall our results reveal the importance of AIRE-PHD domains in the interaction with chromatin-associated nuclear partners and gene regulation confirming the role of PHD fingers as versatile protein interaction hubs for multiple binding events.

  2. Saudi Arabia: A future regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2015-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula, blessed with significant natural resources, including oil, gas and minerals. Saudi Arabia has recognised the importance of education in social and economic transformation, and has established a large number of universities, research and advanced technical institutes which have broken the metropolitan boundaries and have been extended to the far-flung areas of the country. There are 68 universities and degree-awarding institutes. The educational budget reached its highest-ever level of $56.56 billion for the year 2014. About 124,000 Saudi students are pursuing higher education in about 500 universities around the world. Saudi Arabia produced 177826 research papers in Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database and in the year 2014 alone, 26168 research papers were published in indexed science journals with a rising h-index of 144. The country is turning into a regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology while swiftly shifting from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy.

  3. Telefacturing Based Distributed Manufacturing Environment for Optimal Manufacturing Service by Enhancing the Interoperability in the Hubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Manupati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent happenings are surrounding the manufacturing sector leading to intense progress towards the development of effective distributed collaborative manufacturing environments. This evolving collaborative manufacturing not only focuses on digitalisation of this environment but also necessitates service-dependent manufacturing system that offers an uninterrupted approach to a number of diverse, complicated, dynamic manufacturing operations management systems at a common work place (hub. This research presents a novel telefacturing based distributed manufacturing environment for recommending the manufacturing services based on the user preferences. The first step in this direction is to deploy the most advanced tools and techniques, that is, Ontology-based Protégé 5.0 software for transforming the huge stored knowledge/information into XML schema of Ontology Language (OWL documents and Integration of Process Planning and Scheduling (IPPS for multijobs in a collaborative manufacturing system. Thereafter, we also investigate the possibilities of allocation of skilled workers to the best feasible operations sequence. In this context, a mathematical model is formulated for the considered objectives, that is, minimization of makespan and total training cost of the workers. With an evolutionary algorithm and developed heuristic algorithm, the performance of the proposed manufacturing system has been improved. Finally, to manifest the capability of the proposed approach, an illustrative example from the real-time manufacturing industry is validated for optimal service recommendation.

  4. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model for Densified Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Md. S. Roni; Kara G. Cafferty; Sandra D. Eksioglu

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for longhaul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus is not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  5. Partner Country Series: Developing a Natural Gas Trading Hub in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The trading of natural gas in the Asia-Pacific region is dominated by long-term contracts in which the price of gas is indexed to that of oil. As the price of gas between Asia and other parts of the world has widened in recent years, observers have raised serious doubts about the sustainability of this pricing model. In this report, the IEA shows what it would take to create a functional, regional natural-gas trading hub in which prices reflect the local supply and demand fundamentals. The report aims to provide stakeholders with insights on the changes that are required in the Asia-Pacific natural gas sector - both downstream and upstream - to allow a competitive natural gas price to emerge. Building on OECD Europe and OECD America experiences, this report sets out to assess perspectives for these changes in the Asia-Pacific natural gas markets. It identifies obstacles and opportunities for a competitive natural gas price in the Asian economies to emerge.

  6. The G protein-coupled receptor heterodimer network (GPCR-HetNet) and its hub components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Brito, Ismel; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Di Palma, Michael; Oflijan, Julia; Skieterska, Kamila; Duchou, Jolien; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Rivera, Alicia; Guidolin, Diego; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-05-14

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) oligomerization has emerged as a vital characteristic of receptor structure. Substantial experimental evidence supports the existence of GPCR-GPCR interactions in a coordinated and cooperative manner. However, despite the current development of experimental techniques for large-scale detection of GPCR heteromers, in order to understand their connectivity it is necessary to develop novel tools to study the global heteroreceptor networks. To provide insight into the overall topology of the GPCR heteromers and identify key players, a collective interaction network was constructed. Experimental interaction data for each of the individual human GPCR protomers was obtained manually from the STRING and SCOPUS databases. The interaction data were used to build and analyze the network using Cytoscape software. The network was treated as undirected throughout the study. It is comprised of 156 nodes, 260 edges and has a scale-free topology. Connectivity analysis reveals a significant dominance of intrafamily versus interfamily connections. Most of the receptors within the network are linked to each other by a small number of edges. DRD2, OPRM, ADRB2, AA2AR, AA1R, OPRK, OPRD and GHSR are identified as hubs. In a network representation 10 modules/clusters also appear as a highly interconnected group of nodes. Information on this GPCR network can improve our understanding of molecular integration. GPCR-HetNet has been implemented in Java and is freely available at http://www.iiia.csic.es/~ismel/GPCR-Nets/index.html.

  7. Using GitHub in the design of e-activities for software refactoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos LÓPEZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to design, plan, apply and assessment educational activities to help in the teaching-learning process of the concept of refactoring. The teaching methodology used is based on two pillars. The first is a progressive learning of the concept of refactoring by e-activities defined at different levels of knowledge of Bloom’s taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation. The second is the use of resources in e-activities that are related to those the student may find during their professional career oriented towards software development: integrated development environments and software project repositories. The result of this work is the definition of a set of Java code refactoring e-activities. The version control functionality of software project repository, i.e.; GitHub, is used in different ways depending on the type of e-activity. Under these assumptions five types of e-activities are designed: Reading and comprehensions, objective tests, problem-based learning, case studies and webinars. The e-activities designed are applied in the context of the course Software Engineering of the Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science at the University of Burgos. The paper concludes analyzing some consequences of the experience from the perspective of using these new e-activities in the teaching-learning process as from the perspective of workload involved for both the teacher and the student.

  8. Evaluating NMME Seasonal Forecast Skill for use in NASA SERVIR Hub Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Roberts, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The coupled forecasts have numerous potential applications, both national and international in scope. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in driving applications models in hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush- Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. A prerequisite for seasonal forecast use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture) is bias correction and skill assessment. Efforts to address systematic biases and multi-model combination in support of NASA SERVIR impact modeling requirements will be highlighted. Specifically, quantilequantile mapping for bias correction has been implemented for all archived NMME hindcasts. Both deterministic and probabilistic skill estimates for raw, bias-corrected, and multi-model ensemble forecasts as a function of forecast lead will be presented for temperature and precipitation. Complementing this statistical assessment will be case studies of significant events, for example, the ability of the NMME forecasts suite to anticipate the 2010/2011 drought in the Horn of Africa and its relationship to evolving SST patterns.

  9. The Spleen: A Hub Connecting Nervous and Immune Systems in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Andrea; Perrotta, Marialuisa; Lembo, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Daniela

    2017-06-07

    Metabolic disorders have been identified as major health problems affecting a large portion of the world population. In addition, obesity and insulin resistance are principal risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Altered immune responses are common features of both hypertension and obesity and, moreover, the involvement of the nervous system in the modulation of immune system is gaining even more attention in both pathophysiological contexts. For these reasons, during the last decades, researches focused their efforts on the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms connecting immune system to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that in these pathological conditions, central neural pathways modulate the activity of the peripheral nervous system, which is strongly involved in onset and progression of the disease. It is interesting to notice that neural reflex can also participate in the modulation of immune functions. In this scenario, the spleen becomes the crucial hub allowing the interaction of different systems differently involved in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we summarize the major findings that dissect the role of the immune system in disorders related to metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions, and how this could also be influenced by neural reflexes.

  10. The Spleen: A Hub Connecting Nervous and Immune Systems in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders have been identified as major health problems affecting a large portion of the world population. In addition, obesity and insulin resistance are principal risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Altered immune responses are common features of both hypertension and obesity and, moreover, the involvement of the nervous system in the modulation of immune system is gaining even more attention in both pathophysiological contexts. For these reasons, during the last decades, researches focused their efforts on the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms connecting immune system to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that in these pathological conditions, central neural pathways modulate the activity of the peripheral nervous system, which is strongly involved in onset and progression of the disease. It is interesting to notice that neural reflex can also participate in the modulation of immune functions. In this scenario, the spleen becomes the crucial hub allowing the interaction of different systems differently involved in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we summarize the major findings that dissect the role of the immune system in disorders related to metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions, and how this could also be influenced by neural reflexes.

  11. Soil protist communities form a dynamic hub in the soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Jousset, Alexandre; Guo, Sai; Karlsson, Ida; Zhao, Qingyun; Wu, Huasong; Kowalchuk, George A; Shen, Qirong; Li, Rong; Geisen, Stefan

    2017-10-13

    Soil microbes are essential for soil fertility. However, most studies focus on bacterial and/or fungal communities, while the top-down drivers of this microbiome composition, protists, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how soil amendments affect protist communities and inferred potential interactions with bacteria and fungi. Specific fertilization treatments impacted both the structure and function of protist communities. Organic fertilizer amendment strongly reduced the relative abundance of plant pathogenic protists and increased bacterivorous and omnivorous protists. The addition of individual biocontrol bacteria and fungi further altered the soil protist community composition, and eventually function. Network analysis integrating protist, bacterial and fungal community data, placed protists as a central hub in the soil microbiome, linking diverse bacterial and fungal populations. Given their dynamic response to soil management practices and key position in linking soil microbial networks, protists may provide the leverage between soil management and the enhancement of bacterial and fungal microbiota at the service of improved soil health.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 13 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.171.

  12. Cahora Bassa and Tete Province (Mozambique): A great potential for an industrial hub in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebitosi, A.B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town (South Africa)], E-mail: Adoniya.Sebitosi@uct.ac.za; Graca, A. da [Directorate of Science and Technology, Central Region, Tete (Mozambique)

    2009-05-15

    Mozambique is host to the great Zambezi River Basin and the World Famous Cahora Bassa power plant that generates some 13,000 GWh annually. The bulk of this energy (85%) is exported but the revenue raised does not appear to have any appreciable impact on the host economy. Moreover it is estimated that a further 10% of the generated energy is lost along the 1414 km long transmission line to South Africa. So quite evidently, Mozambique would benefit more if its energy were utilized by locally based industry. This would also save on the losses that are currently incurred during regional transmission. In this paper the authors visit Tete, the Mozambican Province that hosts the Zambezi Basin. They examine its natural and human resources. They observe that its strategic location gives it easy access to regional markets. They also hold interviews with a number of administrators in the Province. Finally, they conclude that Tete is uniquely advantaged to develop into the next regional industrial hub for the Southern African region. This would also greatly add value to the local resources. To realize this dream will require, conviction supported by strong and timely political commitment as well as hard work. Current trends towards integrated regional trading blocks will provide an even easier access to potential markets and human skills pools.

  13. Cahora Bassa and Tete Province (Mozambique). A great potential for an industrial hub in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebitosi, A.B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa); Da Graca, A. [Directorate of Science and Technology, Central Region, Tete (Mozambique)

    2009-05-15

    Mozambique is host to the great Zambezi River Basin and the World Famous Cahora Bassa power plant that generates some 13,000 GWh annually. The bulk of this energy (85%) is exported but the revenue raised does not appear to have any appreciable impact on the host economy. Moreover it is estimated that a further 10% of the generated energy is lost along the 1414 km long transmission line to South Africa. So quite evidently, Mozambique would benefit more if its energy were utilized by locally based industry. This would also save on the losses that are currently incurred during regional transmission. In this paper the authors visit Tete, the Mozambican Province that hosts the Zambezi Basin. They examine its natural and human resources. They observe that its strategic location gives it easy access to regional markets. They also hold interviews with a number of administrators in the Province. Finally, they conclude that Tete is uniquely advantaged to develop into the next regional industrial hub for the Southern African region. This would also greatly add value to the local resources. To realize this dream will require, conviction supported by strong and timely political commitment as well as hard work. Current trends towards integrated regional trading blocks will provide an even easier access to potential markets and human skills pools. (author)

  14. Morphological, Anatomical and Palynological Studies on Endemic Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub. -Mor. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, anatomical, palynological and seed micromorphological properties of an endemic plant Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub.-Mor. are recorded for the first time. A description and descriptive illustrations of the species are given based on the collected specimens for morphological study. Seed surface of M. anchoniifolia is examined by scanning electron microscope. The seed of M. anchoniifolia was compressed, brownish in colour and the cells of testa were nearly 60-80 μm in diameter and ranged from isodiametric, tetragonal or pentagonal. The anticlinal walls were straight or weakly curved while the outer periclinal walls were concave to flat with smooth surface. In anatomical study, cross sections of root, stem and stem leaf are examined. The root had secondary structure. Periderm consists of 5-8 layers of cells for phellem. Cortex consists of 9-12 layered parenchymatic tissue under the periderm. Secondary phloem ring-shaped, 6-9 layered and consists of companion cells and grouped sieve tubes. Stem had primary structure when analyzed. It is circular with a few irregular ribs in cross section. Cortex is 8-12 layered and parenchymatous. Stoma cells are present on both epidermis. Leaf is isobilateral. There are unicellular and ramified hairs on both surface. Palisade parenchyma cells are 1-2 layered and spongy parenchyma cells are 5-12 layered. M. anchoniifolia has tricolpate pollen type, prolate pollen shape and reticulate exine ornamentation.

  15. Regionalizing healthcare: a vision for transforming Lebanon into a regional academic hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl Elie A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lebanon suffers from a large scale emigration of physicians coupled with an oversaturation of the physician job market. Lebanon is currently witnessing an expansion of its medical education capacity with the establishment of new private medical schools, raising the fears of a worsening market oversaturation. Discussion The neighboring Arabian Gulf countries are suffering from a serious shortage of clinicians and academicians. In spite of their enormous investments in educational, clinical and research collaborative initiatives with some of the most renowned North American medical schools and institutions, their ability to recruit and retain highly qualified clinicians and academicians remains a major challenge. Lebanese universities have the opportunity to establish triangular collaborations with the Gulf regional medical centers and their North American partners. They could achieve this goal by tapping into the globalized and high quality Lebanese physician workforce and consequently regionalize healthcare delivery in the Middle East. Summary By recruiting its globalized and high quality physician workforce to establish collaborations with the Gulf regional, Lebanon could become a regional "academic hub".

  16. Hadamard Upper Bound (HUB) on Optimum Joint Decoding Capacity of Wyner Gaussian Cellular MAC

    CERN Document Server

    Shakir, M Zeeshan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original analytical expression for an upper bound on the optimum joint decoding capacity of Wyner Circular Gaussian Cellular Multiple Access Channel (C-GCMAC) for uniformly distributed Mobile Terminals (MTs). This upper bound is referred to as Hadamard Upper Bound (HUB) and is a novel application of the Hadamard inequality established by exploiting the Hadamard operation between the channel fading and channel slow gain matrices. This paper demonstrates that the theoretical upper bound converges to the actual capacity under constraints like low range of signal to noise ratios and limiting channel slow gain among the MTs and the Base Station (BS) of interest. The behaviour of the theoretical upper bound is critically observed when the inter-cell and the intra-cell time sharing schemes are employed. In this context, we employ an approximation approach to evaluate the effect of the MT distribution on optimal joint decoding capacity for a variable user-density in C-GCMAC. This paper demonstr...

  17. a Virtual Hub Brokering Approach for Integration of Historical and Modern Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, N.; Previtali, M.; Barazzetti, L.; Brumana, R.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    Geospatial data are today more and more widespread. Many different institutions, such as Geographical Institutes, Public Administrations, collaborative communities (e.g., OSM) and web companies, make available nowadays a large number of maps. Besides this cartography, projects of digitizing, georeferencing and web publication of historical maps have increasingly spread in the recent years. In spite of these variety and availability of data, information overload makes difficult their discovery and management: without knowing the specific repository where the data are stored, it is difficult to find the information required and problems of interconnection between different data sources and their restricted interoperability limit a wide utilization of available geo-data. This paper aims to describe some actions performed to assure interoperability between data, in particular spatial and geographic data, gathered from different data providers, with different features and referring to different historical periods. The article summarizes and exemplifies how, starting from projects of historical map digitizing and Historical GIS implementation, respectively for the Lombardy and for the city of Parma, the interoperability is possible in the framework of the ENERGIC OD project. The European project ENERGIC OD, thanks to a specific component - the virtual hub - based on a brokering framework, copes with the previous listed problems and allows the interoperability between different data sources.

  18. A Real-Time Web Services Hub to Improve Situation Awareness during Flash Flood Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, F. R.; Liu, F.; Maidment, D. R.; Hodges, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    The central Texas corridor is one of the most flash flood-prone regions in the United States. Over the years, flash floods have resulted in hundreds of flood fatalities and billions of dollars in property damage. In order to mitigate risk to residents and infrastructure during flood events, both citizens and emergency responders need to exhibit proactive behavior instead of reactive. Real-time and forecasted flood information is fairly limited and hard to come by at varying spatial scales. The University of Texas at Austin has collaborated with IBM Research-Austin and ESRI to build a distributed real-time flood information system through a framework that leverages large scale data management and distribution, Open Geospatial Consortium standardized web services, and smart map applications. Within this paradigm, observed precipitation data encoded in WaterML is ingested into HEC-HMS and then delivered to a high performance hydraulic routing software package developed by IBM that utilizes the latest advancements in VLSI design, numerical linear algebra and numerical integration techniques on contemporary multicore architecture to solve fully dynamic Saint Venant equations at both small and large scales. In this paper we present a real-time flood inundation map application that in conjunction with a web services Hub, seamlessly integrates hydrologic information available through both public and private data services, model services and mapping services. As a case study for this project, we demonstrate how this system has been implemented in the City of Austin, Texas.

  19. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model For Densified Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md S. Roni; Sandra Eksioglu; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for long-haul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus in not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  20. The G Protein-Coupled Receptor Heterodimer Network (GPCR-HetNet and Its Hub Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasiel O. Borroto-Escuela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs oligomerization has emerged as a vital characteristic of receptor structure. Substantial experimental evidence supports the existence of GPCR-GPCR interactions in a coordinated and cooperative manner. However, despite the current development of experimental techniques for large-scale detection of GPCR heteromers, in order to understand their connectivity it is necessary to develop novel tools to study the global heteroreceptor networks. To provide insight into the overall topology of the GPCR heteromers and identify key players, a collective interaction network was constructed. Experimental interaction data for each of the individual human GPCR protomers was obtained manually from the STRING and SCOPUS databases. The interaction data were used to build and analyze the network using Cytoscape software. The network was treated as undirected throughout the study. It is comprised of 156 nodes, 260 edges and has a scale-free topology. Connectivity analysis reveals a significant dominance of intrafamily versus interfamily connections. Most of the receptors within the network are linked to each other by a small number of edges. DRD2, OPRM, ADRB2, AA2AR, AA1R, OPRK, OPRD and GHSR are identified as hubs. In a network representation 10 modules/clusters also appear as a highly interconnected group of nodes. Information on this GPCR network can improve our understanding of molecular integration. GPCR-HetNet has been implemented in Java and is freely available at http://www.iiia.csic.es/~ismel/GPCR-Nets/index.html.

  1. The effect of hubs and shortcuts on fixation time in evolutionary graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Marziyeh; Moradi Miraghaei, Zeinab; Aghababaei Samani, Keivan

    2017-07-01

    How can a new species (like a gene, an idea, or a strategy) take over the whole of a population? This process, which is called fixation, is considerably affected by the structure of the population. There are two key quantities to quantify the fixation process, namely fixation probability and fixation time. Fixation probability has been vastly studied in recent years, but fixation time has not been completely explored, yet. This is because the discovery of a relationship between fixation time and network structure is quite challenging. In this paper we investigate this relationship for a number of well-known complex networks. We show that the existence of a few high-degree nodes (hubs) in the network results in a longer fixation time, while the existence of a few short-cuts decreases the fixation time. Furthermore we investigate the effect of network parameters, such as connection probability, on fixation time. We show that by increasing the density of edges, fixation time decreases for all types of studied networks. Finally, we survey the effect of rewiring probability in a Watts-Strogatz network on fixation time.

  2. Hubness of strategic planning and sociality influences depressive mood and anxiety in College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Je-Yeon; Choi, Yoobin; Kwon, Yoonhee; Lee, Hwa Young; Choi, Soo-Hee; Jang, Joon Hwan

    2017-12-19

    Depressive mood and anxiety can reduce cognitive performance. Conversely, the presence of a biased cognitive tendency may serve as a trigger for depressive mood-anxiety. Previous studies have largely focused on group-wise correlations between clinical-neurocognitive variables. Using network analyses for intra-individual covariance, we sought to decipher the most influential clinical-neurocognitive hub in the differential severity of depressive-anxiety symptoms in a college population. Ninety college students were evaluated for depressive-anxiety symptoms, Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2(MMPI-2), and neuro-cognition. Weighted and undirected version of the intra-individual covariance networks, comprised of 18 clinical-neurocognitive variables satisfied small-worldness and modular organization in the sparsity range of K = 0.20-0.21. Furthermore, betweenness centrality of perseverative error for the Wisconsin card sorting test was reduced in more depressive individuals; higher anxiety was related to the increased betweenness centrality of MMPI-2 clinical scale 0(Si). Elevated edge-betweenness centrality of covariance between the MMPI-2 clinical scale 7(Pt) versus commission error of the continuous performance test predicted more anxiety higher than depressive mood. With intra-individual covariance network of clinical-neurocognitive variables, this study demonstrated critical drivers of depressive mood[attenuated influence of strategic planning] or anxiety[domination of social introversion/extroversion, in addition to the influence of compulsivity-impulsivity covariance as a shortcut component among various clinical-neurocognitive features].

  3. Transforming the New Brunswick Energy Hub: An Analysis on Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Christopher

    This research examines the benefits and disadvantages of instituting a shift from fossil fuel dependence to renewable sources of energy in New Brunswick. The New Brunswick Energy Hub is a complex system acting under the mandate of the White Paper New Brunswick Energy Policy. In my research, I consider information derived from statistical indicators developed by Patlitzianas, Doukas, Kagiannas and Psarras (2008) and compare these findings to the efficacy of energy policies in Germany, Denmark and Spain. These countries are similar to New Brunswick in climate and organizational complexity (US Department of Commerce, 2009). Weighing the outcomes of this comparative study, I discuss my recommendations highlighting the environmental and economic benefits. My research investigates subsidies in each country that allowed them early economic and environmental advantages. Specific regional considerations, such as Denmark's trend of selling energy technology for profit over domestic applications, inform my conclusions. The future New Brunswick Energy Policy should focus on creating favorable conditions for renewable energy development to occur. Some proven conditions include infrastructure development subsidies and the development and annual review of a competitive open access transmission tariff. With the expiry of the current White Paper comes the necessity of this investigation, and the opportunity to address the growing financial and environmental concerns that many politicians and policy planners have failed to deal with in past policies.

  4. TRF2 functions as a protein hub and regulates telomere maintenance by recognizing specific peptide motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeung; Lee, Ok-Hee; Xin, Huawei; Chen, Liuh-Yow; Qin, Jun; Chae, Heekyung Kate; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Safari, Amin; Liu, Dan; Songyang, Zhou

    2009-04-01

    In mammalian cells, the telomeric repeat binding factor (TRF) homology (TRFH) domain-containing telomeric proteins TRF1 and TRF2 associate with a collection of molecules necessary for telomere maintenance and cell-cycle progression. However, the specificity and the mechanisms by which TRF2 communicates with different signaling pathways remain largely unknown. Using oriented peptide libraries, we demonstrate that the TRFH domain of human TRF2 recognizes [Y/F]XL peptides with the consensus motif YYHKYRLSPL. Disrupting the interactions between the TRF2 TRFH domain and its targets resulted in telomeric DNA-damage responses. Furthermore, our genome-wide target analysis revealed phosphatase nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS) and microcephalin 1 (MCPH1) as previously unreported telomere-associated proteins that directly interact with TRF2 via the [Y/F]XL motif. PNUTS and MCPH1 can regulate telomere length and the telomeric DNA-damage response, respectively. Our findings indicate that an array of TRF2 molecules functions as a protein hub and regulates telomeres by recruiting different signaling molecules via a linear sequence code.

  5. The Cancer Genomics Hub (CGHub): overcoming cancer through the power of torrential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Christopher; Cline, Melissa S; Weiler, Erich; Diehkans, Mark; Craft, Brian; Martin, Christy; Murphy, Daniel; Pierce, Howdy; Black, John; Nelson, Donavan; Litzinger, Brian; Hatton, Thomas; Maltbie, Lori; Ainsworth, Michael; Allen, Patrick; Rosewood, Linda; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley; Warner, Jim; Groboske, John; Telc, Haifang; Wilson, Daniel; Sanford, Brian; Schmidt, Hannes; Haussler, David; Maltbie, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Genomics Hub (CGHub) is the online repository of the sequencing programs of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), including The Cancer Genomics Atlas (TCGA), the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and the Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) projects, with data from 25 different types of cancer. The CGHub currently contains >1.4 PB of data, has grown at an average rate of 50 TB a month and serves >100 TB per week. The architecture of CGHub is designed to support bulk searching and downloading through a Web-accessible application programming interface, enforce patient genome confidentiality in data storage and transmission and optimize for efficiency in access and transfer. In this article, we describe the design of these three components, present performance results for our transfer protocol, GeneTorrent, and finally report on the growth of the system in terms of data stored and transferred, including estimated limits on the current architecture. Our experienced-based estimates suggest that centralizing storage and computational resources is more efficient than wide distribution across many satellite labs. Database URL: https://cghub.ucsc.edu. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Inhibition of activated Ras suppresses multiple oncogenic Hub genes in human epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Wang, Ping; Luo, Hui; Wang, Xi-Rui; Wang, Xie-Feng; Zhang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Ying-Yi; Yao, Lei; Liu, Ning; You, Yong-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Cancer cells may involve diverse mutations, but they often rely on continued expression of a single oncoprotein for survival, as a response to targeting this protein. Generally, Ras is overexpressed in human epithelial tumors and cancellation of activated Ras inhibits carcinoma cell proliferation and differentiation ability, and induces apoptotosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms of inhibition of activated Ras that suppress the malignancy activity of human epithelial tumors remain to be illuminated. We utilized text-mining of MEDLINE abstracts with natural language processing to establish the Ras biologic association network, and identified several interactions of this network with the Ras pathway. Our investigation not only examined the expression of Ras and Hub genes (PIK3CA, MDM2, CCND1, EGFR, JUN, MYC, VEGFA, ERK1 and ERK2) but also confirmed inhibition of activated Ras reduced expression of multiple oncogene in vitro studies. Our studies provide strong support for the conclusion that cancellation of activated Ras specifically regulates defective Ras pathways in human tumor cells.

  7. Integrated nanophotonic hubs based on ZnO-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsia Yu; Cheng, Chung Liang; Lin, Yu Shen; Hung, Yann; Mou, Chung Yuan; Chen, Yang Fang

    2011-08-01

    Optical integration is essential for practical application, but it remains unexplored for nanoscale devices. A newly designed nanocomposite based on ZnO semiconductor nanowires and Tb(OH)3/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres has been synthesized and studied. The unique sea urchin-type morphology, bright and sharply visible emission bands of lanthanide, and large aspect ratio of ZnO crystalline nanotips make this novel composite an excellent signal receiver, waveguide, and emitter. The multifunctional composite of ZnO nanotips and Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanoparticles therefore can serve as an integrated nanophotonics hub. Moreover, the composite of ZnO nanotips deposited on a Tb(OH)3/SiO2 photonic crystal can act as a directional light fountain, in which the confined radiation from Tb ions inside the photonic crystal can be well guided and escape through the ZnO nanotips. Therefore, the output emission arising from Tb ions is truly directional, and its intensity can be greatly enhanced. With highly enhanced lasing emissions in ZnO-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 as well as SnO2-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanocomposites, we demonstrate that our approach is extremely beneficial for the creation of low threshold and high-power nanolaser.

  8. Integrated nanophotonic hubs based on ZnO-Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optical integration is essential for practical application, but it remains unexplored for nanoscale devices. A newly designed nanocomposite based on ZnO semiconductor nanowires and Tb(OH3/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres has been synthesized and studied. The unique sea urchin-type morphology, bright and sharply visible emission bands of lanthanide, and large aspect ratio of ZnO crystalline nanotips make this novel composite an excellent signal receiver, waveguide, and emitter. The multifunctional composite of ZnO nanotips and Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanoparticles therefore can serve as an integrated nanophotonics hub. Moreover, the composite of ZnO nanotips deposited on a Tb(OH3/SiO2 photonic crystal can act as a directional light fountain, in which the confined radiation from Tb ions inside the photonic crystal can be well guided and escape through the ZnO nanotips. Therefore, the output emission arising from Tb ions is truly directional, and its intensity can be greatly enhanced. With highly enhanced lasing emissions in ZnO-Tb(OH3/SiO2 as well as SnO2-Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanocomposites, we demonstrate that our approach is extremely beneficial for the creation of low threshold and high-power nanolaser.

  9. Spatial spread of an epidemic through public transportation systems with a hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Connell McCluskey, C; Cressman, Ross

    2013-11-01

    This article investigates an epidemic spreading among several locations through a transportation system, with a hub connecting these locations. Public transportation is not only a bridge through which infections travel from one location to another but also a place where infections occur since individuals are typically in close proximity to each other due to the limited space in these systems. A mathematical model is constructed to study the spread of an infectious disease through such systems. A variant of the next generation method is proposed and used to provide upper and lower bounds of the basic reproduction number for the model. Our investigation indicates that increasing transportation efficiency, and improving sanitation and ventilation of the public transportation system decrease the chance of an outbreak occurring. Moreover, discouraging unnecessary travel during an epidemic also decreases the chance of an outbreak. However, reducing travel by infectives while allowing susceptibles to travel may not be enough to avoid an outbreak. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  11. A operação das companhias aéreas nos aeroportos hub & spoke e nas bases operacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of deregulation of air transportation and all changes that have arisen in the air transport market led to the emergence of new airport concepts, not always clear and easy to understand. Airports Hub & Spoke and operational bases, has specific characteristics to be exploited in this article through case studies that aim to highlight the differences and emphasize its importance for the airlines involved. In this article we are going to evaluate the operation of two airlines that are members of a Strategic Alliance, which operate under a Hub & Spoke network, as well as an example of a low cost airline operating to more than 50 operational bases all over Europe.

  12. Risk management practices in Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan - the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulchmanov, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The study explores the risk management and reporting practices in selected Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan, the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia. The Government of Kazakhstan has planned to transform the economy to a Shari’ah complaint economic system. As risk management is one of the important challenges for banks, this study explores the preparedness of the banking industry in Kazakhstan facing the risk management challenges. Design/methodology/approach – T...

  13. A protein interaction atlas for the nuclear receptors: properties and quality of a hub-based dimerisation network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Graaf David

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors are a large family of eukaryotic transcription factors that constitute major pharmacological targets. They exert their combinatorial control through homotypic heterodimerisation. Elucidation of this dimerisation network is vital in order to understand the complex dynamics and potential cross-talk involved. Results Phylogeny, protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions and gene expression data have been integrated to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the topology and properties of the nuclear receptor interaction network in humans. We discriminate between DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding dimers, and provide a comprehensive interaction map, that identifies potential cross-talk between the various pathways of nuclear receptors. Conclusion We infer that the topology of this network is hub-based, and much more connected than previously thought. The hub-based topology of the network and the wide tissue expression pattern of NRs create a highly competitive environment for the common heterodimerising partners. Furthermore, a significant number of negative feedback loops is present, with the hub protein SHP [NR0B2] playing a major role. We also compare the evolution, topology and properties of the nuclear receptor network with the hub-based dimerisation network of the bHLH transcription factors in order to identify both unique themes and ubiquitous properties in gene regulation. In terms of methodology, we conclude that such a comprehensive picture can only be assembled by semi-automated text-mining, manual curation and integration of data from various sources.

  14. Is it all going to waste?: illegal transports of e-waste in a European trade hub

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Lieselot

    2012-01-01

    This article responds to the call for more empirical knowledge about transnational environmental crime. It does so by analysing the case of illegal transports of electronic waste (e-waste) in a European trade hub. Given the complexity and global nature of transnational environmental crime, it is difficult to determine which actors are involved. In this regard, a local research setting allows the actors involved in illegal transports of e-waste to be identified. This research tries to determin...

  15. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  16. Higher harmonic control analysis for vibration reduction of helicopter rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh Q.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced higher harmonic control (HHC) analysis has been developed and applied to investigate its effect on vibration reduction levels, blade and control system fatigue loads, rotor performance, and power requirements of servo-actuators. The analysis is based on a finite element method in space and time. A nonlinear time domain unsteady aerodynamic model, based on the indicial response formulation, is used to calculate the airloads. The rotor induced inflow is computed using a free wake model. The vehicle trim controls and blade steady responses are solved as one coupled solution using a modified Newton method. A linear frequency-domain quasi-steady transfer matrix is used to relate the harmonics of the vibratory hub loads to the harmonics of the HHC inputs. Optimal HHC is calculated from the minimization of the vibratory hub loads expressed in term of a quadratic performance index. Predicted vibratory hub shears are correlated with wind tunnel data. The fixed-gain HHC controller suppresses completely the vibratory hub shears for most of steady or quasi-steady flight conditions. HHC actuator amplitudes and power increase significantly at high forward speeds (above 100 knots). Due to the applied HHC, the blade torsional stresses and control loads are increased substantially. For flight conditions where the blades are stalled considerably, the HHC input-output model is quite nonlinear. For such cases, the adaptive-gain controller is effective in suppressing vibratory hub loads, even though HHC may actually increase stall areas on the rotor disk. The fixed-gain controller performs poorly for such flight conditions. Comparison study of different rotor systems indicates that a soft-inplane hingeless rotor requires less actuator power at high speeds (above 130 knots) than an articulated rotor, and a stiff-inplane hingeless rotor generally requires more actuator power than an articulated or a soft-inplane hingeless rotor. Parametric studies for a hingeless rotor

  17. A multi-objective optimization model for hub network design under uncertainty: An inexact rough-interval fuzzy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakan, F.; Vahdani, B.; Mohammadi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This article proposes a multi-objective mixed-integer model to optimize the location of hubs within a hub network design problem under uncertainty. The considered objectives include minimizing the maximum accumulated travel time, minimizing the total costs including transportation, fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions costs, and finally maximizing the minimum service reliability. In the proposed model, it is assumed that for connecting two nodes, there are several types of arc in which their capacity, transportation mode, travel time, and transportation and construction costs are different. Moreover, in this model, determining the capacity of the hubs is part of the decision-making procedure and balancing requirements are imposed on the network. To solve the model, a hybrid solution approach is utilized based on inexact programming, interval-valued fuzzy programming and rough interval programming. Furthermore, a hybrid multi-objective metaheuristic algorithm, namely multi-objective invasive weed optimization (MOIWO), is developed for the given problem. Finally, various computational experiments are carried out to assess the proposed model and solution approaches.

  18. Scenario-based modeling for multiple allocation hub location problem under disruption risk: multiple cuts Benders decomposition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaei, Mohsen; Bashiri, Mahdi

    2017-03-01

    The hub location problem arises in a variety of domains such as transportation and telecommunication systems. In many real-world situations, hub facilities are subject to disruption. This paper deals with the multiple allocation hub location problem in the presence of facilities failure. To model the problem, a two-stage stochastic formulation is developed. In the proposed model, the number of scenarios grows exponentially with the number of facilities. To alleviate this issue, two approaches are applied simultaneously. The first approach is to apply sample average approximation to approximate the two stochastic problem via sampling. Then, by applying the multiple cuts Benders decomposition approach, computational performance is enhanced. Numerical studies show the effective performance of the SAA in terms of optimality gap for small problem instances with numerous scenarios. Moreover, performance of multi-cut Benders decomposition is assessed through comparison with the classic version and the computational results reveal the superiority of the multi-cut approach regarding the computational time and number of iterations.

  19. Analysis of Vibratory Driven Pile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    DF ) . Deiier. CO.I Smioak. F)ctl er. ( (C (odite IS. Port IlierICeme. (A; (odeC 155. Port I Iienemeri. (A..: COdIC 156. P’oll F Ficiciiic. (NA...23C;~.i~ ode F)LNA OF19424(1.\\ N i’i nu, toil. F C: ocO’’lK \\;~i~oi .(d ( CGARF R&D(’ Fijbrir\\. (irotoit CI( (I INWI, IANI COdIC S.31F, Norfolk.V

  20. From “Comprehensive Transportation Hub” to “City New Sitting Room”---Overall the design about Jinan East district comprehensive transportation hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jie; Guo, Jianmin; Li, Jin

    2017-08-01

    integrated transport hub or high-speed rail station often talked about, often known as the “city portal” and the title of “city window”, so the comprehensive transportation hub or the high-speed rail station of a city is very important to a region or a provincial. At the same time, it reflects that the managers and users of a city only focus on the comprehensive transportation hub of transportation service function and ignore her cities attributes and functions. Jinan east district comprehensive transportation hub in the beginning of design is given a feature that it has to serve both the traffic and city. We are trying to build a new center for Jinan east new town, the window to welcome people, the city hall of hospitality.

  1. Estimation of fatigue and extreme load distributions from limited data with application to wind energy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzwater, LeRoy M. (Stanford University, Stanford, CA)

    2004-01-01

    An estimate of the distribution of fatigue ranges or extreme loads for wind turbines may be obtained by separating the problem into two uncoupled parts, (1) a turbine specific portion, independent of the site and (2) a site-specific description of environmental variables. We consider contextually appropriate probability models to describe the turbine specific response for extreme loads or fatigue. The site-specific portion is described by a joint probability distribution of a vector of environmental variables, which characterize the wind process at the hub-height of the wind turbine. Several approaches are considered for combining the two portions to obtain an estimate of the extreme load, e.g., 50-year loads or fatigue damage. We assess the efficacy of these models to obtain accurate estimates, including various levels of epistemic uncertainty, of the turbine response.

  2. Environmental and self-sufficiency assessment of the energy metabolism of tourist hubs on Mediterranean Islands : the case of Menorca (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyé Mengual, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Sostenipra Energy performance of island tourism has been analyzed in the literature. However, tourist services tend to concentrate in tourist hubs, especially where mass tourism predominates (e.g., Mediterranean), and the energy metabolism of these systems has not yet been assessed. The present paper models and estimates the energy metabolism of tourist hubs in the Menorca Island (Spain) by integrating social, geographical and environmental methods. Mobility (both external and internal) an...

  3. Abnormal functional connectivity of brain network hubs associated with symptom severity in treatment-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Meng, Chun; Jiang, Ying; Tang, Qunfeng; Wang, Shuai; Xie, Xiyao; Fu, Xiangshuai; Jin, Chunhui; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Jidong

    2016-04-03

    Abnormal brain networks have been observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, detailed network hub and connectivity changes remained unclear in treatment-naive patients with OCD. Here, we sought to determine whether patients show hub-related connectivity changes in their whole-brain functional networks. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and voxel-based graph-theoretic analysis to investigate functional connectivity strength and hubs of whole-brain networks in 29 treatment-naive patients with OCD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation analysis was applied for potential associations with OCD symptom severity. OCD selectively targeted brain regions of higher functional connectivity strength than the average including brain network hubs, mainly distributed in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits and additionally parietal, occipital, temporal and cerebellar regions. Moreover, affected functional connectivity strength in the cerebellum, the medial orbitofrontal cortex and superior occipital cortex was significantly associated with global OCD symptom severity. Our results provide the evidence about OCD-related brain network hub changes, not only in the CSTC circuits but more distributed in whole brain networks. Data suggest that whole brain network hub analysis is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Communications Hubs of the Intestinal Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, David R; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of mammalian health requires the generation of appropriate immune responses against a broad range of environmental and microbial challenges, which are continually encountered at barrier tissue sites including the skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Dysregulated barrier immune responses result in inflammation, both locally and systemically in peripheral organs. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are constitutively present at barrier sites and appear to be highly specialized in their ability to sense a range of environmental and host-derived signals. Under homeostatic conditions, ILC3 respond to local cues to maintain tissue homeostasis and restrict inflammatory responses. In contrast, perturbations in the tissue microenvironment resulting from disease, infection, or tissue damage can drive dysregulated pro-inflammatory ILC3 responses and contribute to immunopathology. The tone of the ILC3 response is dictated by a balance of "exogenous" signals, such as dietary metabolites and commensal microbes, and "endogenous" host-derived signals from stromal cells, immune cells, and the nervous system. ILC3 must therefore have the capacity to simultaneously integrate a wide array of complex and dynamic inputs in order to regulate barrier function and tissue health. In this review, we discuss the concept of ILC3 as a "communications hub" in the intestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues and address the variety of signals, derived from multiple biological systems, which are interpreted by ILC3 to modulate the release of downstream effector molecules and regulate cell-cell crosstalk. Successful integration of environmental cues by ILC3 and downstream propagation to the broader immune system is required to maintain a tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory tone and reinforce barrier function, whereas dysregulation of ILC3 responses can contribute to the onset or progression of clinically relevant chronic inflammatory diseases.

  5. The Mediterranean as a Hub of Maritime Trade and the Role of the New Suez Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Amato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Freight is a key variable of the economy, has a crucial role in the spatial relationships between different and distant markets and, to that extent, represents the physical medium by which exchanges of goods are realized, constituting the backbone of world trade. Throughout history, man has always sought methods by which speed up and simplify the connections between the many points of the globe both through the use of increasingly efficient technologies, and through the construction of new ways of access frequently changing physical morphology of territories. This process is still evolving, and in fact in 2015 there has been a new change that has affected one of the major hubs of the world: the Suez Canal. The Canal doubling is a strong signal of change as not only induces to reflect on current developments within the mode of transport, in particular the increasing race to the naval gigantism, but it also implies a newfound centrality of the Mediterranean Sea which, thanks to the new infrastructure, will increase its transit flows. This involves, on the one hand, an increase in business opportunities, and on the other, the formation of new hierarchies between the port systems of the countries that surround it. The underlying theme of the essay revolves around the recent trend of the modern shipping, and on variables that influenced the decision to double the channel. It will analyze the “New Suez Canal“ and its real capacity to attract more transit flows both in quantitative terms and in relation to the types of ships that can cross it and in relation to the origin of these flows. Finally the focus will be on port and logistics systems of the Mediterranean countries in order to understand which of them is more ready to seize any new opportunities involved.

  6. GEOGRAPHICAL IMPACT ON ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF ENDEMIC KUNDMANNIA ANATOLICA HUB.-MOR. (APIACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanli, Arif; Karadoğan, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Kundmannia anatolica Hub.-Mor. is an endemic specie of Apiaceae diversified in Turkey. Several parts of the plant may contain essential oils in different quantity which can be influenced by environmental factors, mainly altitude. The aim of this study was to test whether there is any altitude effect on volatile chemical constituents of essential oil obtained from the fruits of K. anatolica growing spontaneously in different altitudes of Lakes Region in Turkey. K. anatolica was collected in 2015 at different altitudes (400, 820, 1002 and 1560 m) of Lakes Region Turkey. The fruits of the plants were distilled for 3 h using a Clevenger type apparatus according to the British Pharmacopiea (1980). Essential oils of the fruits were collected using hydro distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS/FID. Essential oil contents of fruits increased by corresponding increase in altitude level. Predominant compounds were a-Pinene (27.87-61.94%) and β-Pinene (24.92-36.46%) of the total oil of K. anatolica. Other important compounds were α-Thujene (2.66-8.15%), l-Limonene (1.83-8.23%), α-Phellandrene (1.85-5.01%) and these compounds were higher in low altitudes. Altitude change affected the terpenoid biosynthesis and oxygenated monoterpenes generally and were greatest when low; while sesquiterpene constituents were greatest at high altitudes. The influence of altitude seems to be an important factor for yielding the chemical profile of K. anatolica essential oils. Thus, the location of the plant must be taken into account depending on the intended use.

  7. Geospatial distribution of metal(loid)s and human health risk assessment due to intake of contaminated groundwater around an industrial hub of northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Rachit; Verma, K S; Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Bhardwaj, S K

    2018-02-12

    The study focused on analyzing concentrations of metal(loid)s, their geospatial distribution in groundwater around an industrial hub of northern India. Human health risk posed due to the intake of contaminated groundwater was also evaluated. For this, 240 samples were assayed using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer. For risk assessment, the methodology proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency was adopted. Geometric mean of Al, As, Mo, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn was 193.13, 27.35, 4.22, 2.85, 92.81, 14.97, 271.78, 25.76, 54.75, 19.50, 16.94, and 1830.27 μg/l, respectively. Levels of Al (84%), As (63%), Ni (63%), Pb (49%), and Se (41%) exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Principal component analysis is accounted for ~ 88% of the total variance and reflected pollution loads of Al, As, Mo, Cr, Fe, Se, and Pb in the groundwater. Based on it, four sources of metal(loid)s, namely geogenic (34.55%), mixed (industrial and agricultural, 26.76%), waste dumping (15.31%), and industrial (11.25%) were identified. Semi-variogram mapping model demonstrated significant geospatial variations of the metal(loid)s. Hazard index (HI) suggested potential non-carcinogenic risks to the inhabitants due to As, Al, Ni, Se, and Pb, which were the largest contributors. Based on maximum concentrations of metal(loid)s, HI for child and adult was above unity. Arsenic was identified as the most hazardous pollutant that may have chronic carcinogenic health implications. At western side of study area, carcinogenic health risks exceeded critical threshold of 1 × 10 -4 , indicating that As posed health risks to residents by intake of groundwater.

  8. SensorWeb Hub infrastructure for open access to scientific research data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filippis, Tiziana; Rocchi, Leandro; Rapisardi, Elena

    2015-04-01

    The sharing of research data is a new challenge for the scientific community that may benefit from a large amount of information to solve environmental issues and sustainability in agriculture and urban contexts. Prerequisites for this challenge is the development of an infrastructure that ensure access, management and preservation of data, technical support for a coordinated and harmonious management of data that, in the framework of Open Data Policies, should encourages the reuse and the collaboration. The neogeography and the citizen as sensors approach, highlight that new data sources need a new set of tools and practices so to collect, validate, categorize, and use / access these "crowdsourced" data, that integrate the data sets produced in the scientific field, thus "feeding" the overall available data for analysis and research. When the scientific community embraces the dimension of collaboration and sharing, access and re-use, in order to accept the open innovation approach, it should redesign and reshape the processes of data management: the challenges of technological and cultural innovation, enabled by web 2.0 technologies, bring to the scenario where the sharing of structured and interoperable data will constitute the unavoidable building block to set up a new paradigm of scientific research. In this perspective the Institute of Biometeorology, CNR, whose aim is contributing to sharing and development of research data, has developed the "SensorWebHub" (SWH) infrastructure to support the scientific activities carried out in several research projects at national and international level. It is designed to manage both mobile and fixed open source meteorological and environmental sensors, in order to integrate the existing agro-meteorological and urban monitoring networks. The proposed architecture uses open source tools to ensure sustainability in the development and deployment of web applications with geographic features and custom analysis, as requested

  9. Hub and spoke model: making rural healthcare in India affordable, available and accessible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Srichand

    2016-01-01

    Quality health care should be within everyone's reach, especially in a developing country. While India has the largest private health sector in the world, only one-fifth of healthcare expenditure is publically financed; it is mostly an out-of-pocket expense. About 70% of Indians live in rural areas making about $3 per day, and a major portion of that goes towards food and shelter and, thus, not towards health care. Transportation facilities in rural India are poor, making access to medical facilities difficult, and infrastructure facilities are minimal, making the available medical care insufficient. The challenge presented to India was to provide health care that was accessible, available and affordable to people in rural areas and the low-income bracket. The intent of this article is to determine whether the hub and spoke model (HSM), when implemented in the healthcare industry, can expand the market reach and increase profits while reducing costs of operations for organizations and, thereby, cost to customers. This article also discusses the importance of information and communications technologies (ICT) in the HSM approach, which the handful of published articles in this topic have failed to discuss. This article opts for an exploratory study, including review of published literature, web articles, viewpoints of industry experts, published journals, and in-depth interviews. This article will discuss how and why the HSM works in India's healthcare industry while isolating its strengths and weaknesses, and analyzing the impact of India's success. India's HSM implementation has become a paramount example of an acceptable model that, while exceeding the needs and expectations of its patients, is cost-effective and has obtained operational and health-driven results. Despite being an emerging nation, India takes the top spot in terms of affordability of ICT as well as for having the highest number of computer-literate graduates and healthcare workers in the world

  10. Hub-filament System in IRAS 05480+2545: Young Stellar Cluster and 6.7 GHz Methanol Maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Baug, T.

    2017-07-01

    To probe the star formation (SF) process, we present a multi-wavelength study of IRAS 05480+2545 (hereafter I05480+2545). Analysis of Herschel data reveals a massive clump (M clump ˜ 1875 {M}⊙ ; peak N(H2) ˜ 4.8 × 1022 cm-2 A V ˜ 51 mag) containing the 6.7 GHz methanol maser and I05480+2545, which is also depicted in a temperature range of 18-26 K. Several noticeable parsec-scale filaments are detected in the Herschel 250 μm image and seem to be radially directed to the massive clump. It resembles more of a “hub-filament” system. Deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) have been identified using the 1-5 μm photometric data, and a significant fraction of YSOs and their clustering are spatially found toward the massive clump, revealing the intense SF activities. An infrared counterpart (IRc) of the maser is investigated in the Spitzer 3.6-4.5 μm images. The IRc does not appear as a point-like source and is most likely associated with the molecular outflow. Based on the 1.4 GHz and Hα continuum images, the ionized emission is absent toward the IRc, indicating that the massive clump harbors an early phase of a massive protostar before the onset of an ultracompact H II region. Together, the I05480+2545 is embedded in a very similar “hub-filament” system to those seen in the Rosette Molecular Cloud. The outcome of the present work indicates the role of filaments in the formation of the massive star-forming clump and cluster of YSOs, which might help channel material to the central hub configuration and the clump/core.

  11. A Biobjective and Trilevel Programming Model for Hub Location Problem in Design of a Resilient Power Projection Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ling Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hubs disruptions are taken into account in design of a resilient power projection network. The problem is tackled from a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM perspective. Not only the network cost in normal state is considered, but also the cost in the worst-case situation is taken into account. A biobjective and trilevel integer programming model is proposed using game theory. Moreover, we develop a metaheuristic based on tabu search and shortest path algorithm for the resolution of the complex model. Computational example indicates that making tradeoffs between the performances of the network in different situations is helpful for designing a resilient network.

  12. KNOWLEDGE HUB: SPIRAL MATRIX THINKING AS A COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP LEARNING IN ONE DRIVE AND WORD ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Валерьевна Комиссарова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the modification of the Knowledge Hub communicative technique of teaching English and other disciplines based on the OneDrive\\Word-online cloud service. Specific options for the organization of group work and individual activities are considered. The article highlights the advantage and the efficiency of teaching and learning by the BYOD (Bring Your Own Device mode. The paper includes examples of organizing of mass support of the study of the course of English for Business and Entrepreneurship (MOOC-Coursera and of information technology of the Humanities program in the computer class and relying on BYOD mobile Internet access of students.

  13. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your calories from carbohydrates. The role of carbohydrates Carbohydrates, also known as starches and sugars, are ... to consume some energy sources during your event. Carbohydrate loading Carbohydrate loading is done the week before ...

  14. Providing farmers, ranchers, and foresters in California with actionable climate information: opportunities and obstacles for California's USDA Regional Climate Sub Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A. C.; Steenwerth, K. L.; Stine, P.; Chambers, J.; Fischer, C.; Kiger, L.; Hedt, T.; Gonzales, O.; Tse, R.; Tse, A.; Gunasekara, A.; Henly, R.; DeLaRosa, J.; Battany, M.; Pathak, T.; Parker, D.; Schwartz, M.; Tjeerdema, R.; Kalansky, J.; Kehmeier, E.; Xides, A.; Marshall, A.; Jagannathan, K.

    2015-12-01

    California is the #1 agricultural state in the US, with output worth $50 billion in 2014. California produces half the nation's specialty crops (fruits, vegetables, and nuts) and is a leader in beef and dairy production. California also has 10% of the forestland west of the Mississippi, including many economically and ecologically important forest types. The USDA Regional Climate Sub Hub for California was created in 2014 to help land users (farmers, ranchers, and forest land owners) cope with climate variability and change, via two-way linkages with producers of climate information. In its first year and a half, the Sub Hub has formed partnerships with California's many other climate-focused organizations, including state and federal government, universities, and NGOs. The Sub Hub coordinates climate-related work among several USDA agencies (ARS, FS, NRCS, and others), which formerly had no mechanism to do so. The Sub Hub also works with other federal climate programs (such as the DOI's CA Landscape Conservation Cooperative, with which the Sub Hub is engaged in a multi-year assessment to balance conservation and agriculture in the Central Valley). State government agencies, such as the Natural Resources Agency and the Department of Food and Agriculture, are key partners for priority-setting and data-sharing. One of the Sub Hub's crucial synergies is with UC Cooperative Extension, which provides insight into land users' needs and provides an outlet to deliver Sub Hub products on the ground. In response to stakeholder concerns, the Sub Hub's 2015-16 emphasis is the ongoing California drought. The Sub Hub's current stakeholder-focused projects include (1) a climate vulnerability assessment of California rangelands, including detailed maps of likely vegetation change and suggestions for location-specific adaptation options; (2) a comprehensive climate-related update of Cooperative Extension's widely used Forest Stewardship Series for private landowners; (3) a study on

  15. Investigation of Maximum Blade Loading Capability of Lift-Offset Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Maximum blade loading capability of a coaxial, lift-offset rotor is investigated using a rotorcraft configuration designed in the context of short-haul, medium-size civil and military missions. The aircraft was sized for a 6600-lb payload and a range of 300 nm. The rotor planform and twist were optimized for hover and cruise performance. For the present rotor performance calculations, the collective pitch angle is progressively increased up to and through stall with the shaft angle set to zero. The effects of lift offset on rotor lift, power, controls, and blade airloads and structural loads are examined. The maximum lift capability of the coaxial rotor increases as lift offset increases and extends well beyond the McHugh lift boundary as the lift potential of the advancing blades are fully realized. A parametric study is conducted to examine the differences between the present coaxial rotor and the McHugh rotor in terms of maximum lift capabilities and to identify important design parameters that define the maximum lift capability of the rotor. The effects of lift offset on rotor blade airloads and structural loads are also investigated. Flap bending moment increases substantially as lift offset increases to carry the hub roll moment even at low collective values. The magnitude of flap bending moment is dictated by the lift-offset value (hub roll moment) but is less sensitive to collective and speed.

  16. Improvement in laboratory test turnaround times for inpatients following move to hub and spoke model of delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David James

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The relative merits of hub and spoke models of service delivery are often debated, but accessing data on how they may benefit service delivery can be difficult, and may hinder the adoption of a model which can benefit the health community. Our aim was to provide objective data that would either support or refute one potential benefit of service redesign, namely the effect on turnaround times within the acute hospital. Design and methods: Data on turnaround times for sequential requests containing creatinine as a request item received from inpatient locations at two acute hospitals were extracted from the laboratory computer system. Monthly data was collected for a period of 5 months prior to and the same 5 month period following the service redesign. Data was subjected to statistical process control (SPC analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction (P<0.05 in the average turnaround time of at least 29% for routine requests and 22% for urgent requests, accompanied by a statistically significant reduction (P<0.05 in upper control limits of least 46% – improving the predictability of result availability and reducing the 95% confidence interval for turnaround times. Conclusions: Adoption of a “hub and spoke” model has the potential to support laboratories in improving both urgent and non-urgent turnaround times in a cost-efficient manner within acute hospitals, and reduce the variability in turnaround time. Keywords: Laboratory organisation, Turnaround time, Efficiency

  17. A Three-Legged Stool or Race? Governance Models for NOAA RISAs, DOI CSCs, and USDA Climate Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    NOAAs Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Teams, DOIs Climate Science Centers (CSCs), and USDAs Regional Climate Hubs (RCHs) have common missions of integrating climate and related knowledge across scientific disciplines and regions to create "actionable" information that decision-makes can use to manage climate risks and impacts at state and local scales. However, the sponsoring agency programs, university investigators, and local federal officials govern each differently. The three models of program and center governance are 1) exclusively university (RISAs), 2) a hybrid of Federal government and (host) university (CSCs,), and 3) exclusively Federal (Hubs). Each model has it's advantages and disadvantages in terms of legal definition and authority, scientific mission requirements and strategies, flexibility and legitimacy to conduct research and to collaborate regionally with constituencies, leadership and governance approach and "friction points,", staff capacity and ability to engage stakeholders, necessity to deliver products and services, bureaucratic oversight, performance evaluation, and political support at Congressional, state, and local levels. Using available sources of information and data, this paper will compare and contrast the strengths and weakness of these three regional applied climate science center governance models.

  18. A Three-Legged Stool or Race? Governance Models for NOAA RISAs, DOI CSCs, and USDA Climate Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    NOAAs Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Teams, DOIs Climate Science Centers (CSCs), and USDAs Regional Climate Hubs (RCHs) have common missions of integrating climate and related knowledge across scientific disciplines and regions to create "actionable" information that decision-makes can use to manage climate risks and impacts at state and local scales. However, the sponsoring agency programs, university investigators, and local federal officials govern each differently. The three models of program and center governance are 1) exclusively university (RISAs), 2) a hybrid of Federal government and (host) university (CSCs,), and 3) exclusively Federal (Hubs). Each model has it's advantages and disadvantages in terms of legal definition and authority, scientific mission requirements and strategies, flexibility and legitimacy to conduct research and to collaborate regionally with constituencies, leadership and governance approach and "friction points,", staff capacity and ability to engage stakeholders, necessity to deliver products and services, bureaucratic oversight, performance evaluation, and political support at Congressional, state, and local levels. Using available sources of information and data, this paper will compare and contrast the strengths and weakness of these three regional applied climate science center governance models.

  19. Sustaining the Higher Education Hub Model: The Challenge of Adequate Academic and Social Support Structures for International Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Richards

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Education Hub (EH concept has perhaps become the single most important focus of higher education policy in most Asian countries. A particular Asian Education Hub model (e.g. Cheng, 2010 is now globally influential with its emphasis on how governments can harness direct as well as indirect economic benefits of a higher education system. Such a model aims to prepare students for employment in an emerging global economy and also to attract fee-paying international students in terms of education as not just a public good but a key and increasingly important area of national investment and economic development. In a related paper which focused on a comparison between distinct Malaysian and Singaporean versions of Asian EH l models developed over the last two decades (Richards, 2011c, we investigated the dangers as well as opportunities at stake. In this paper, we investigate the linked idea that sufficient academic and social support structures for supporting international as well as local students provide the crucial key to the factors of sustainability needed to support the various versions of the general strategy of Higher Education internationalisation.

  20. PGVL Hub: An integrated desktop tool for medicinal chemists to streamline design and synthesis of chemical libraries and singleton compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengwei; Yang, Bo; Mattaparti, Sarathy; Shulok, Thom; Thacher, Thomas; Kong, James; Kostrowicki, Jaroslav; Hu, Qiyue; Na, James; Zhou, Joe Zhongxiang; Klatte, David; Chao, Bo; Ito, Shogo; Clark, John; Sciammetta, Nunzio; Coner, Bob; Waller, Chris; Kuki, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    PGVL Hub is an integrated molecular design desktop tool that has been developed and globally deployed throughout Pfizer discovery research units to streamline the design and synthesis of combinatorial libraries and singleton compounds. This tool supports various workflows for design of singletons, combinatorial libraries, and Markush exemplification. It also leverages the proprietary PGVL virtual space (which contains 10(14) molecules spanned by experimentally derived synthesis protocols and suitable reactants) for lead idea generation, lead hopping, and library design. There had been an intense focus on ease of use, good performance and robustness, and synergy with existing desktop tools such as ISIS/Draw and SpotFire. In this chapter we describe the three-tier enterprise software architecture, key data structures that enable a wide variety of design scenarios and workflows, major technical challenges encountered and solved, and lessons learned during its development and deployment throughout its production cycles. In addition, PGVL Hub represents an extendable and enabling platform to support future innovations in library and singleton compound design while being a proven channel to deliver those innovations to medicinal chemists on a global scale.

  1. Numerical simulation and experimental study for the die forging process of a high-speed railway brake disc hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingyue; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Long; LI, Dianzhong

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of manufacturing a near-net shape forging product of a brake disk hub for the high-speed railway, the die forging process was designed and optimized in this study. Firstly, based on the measured stress-strain curves at different strain rates and the thermal-physical parameters of 40Cr A steel, a finite element model for the forging process of a high-speed railway brake disc hub was established. Then, the temperature, stress and strain fields were studied and analyzed at the pre-forging and the finial-forging stages. Besides, in order to trace the stress and strain evolution, five points at different positions were chosen on the billet, and the comparison of the state conditions was made among these points. The results have demonstrated that the product can be well formed by an elaborately designed three-stage forging process, which may reduce the metal machine allowance and the producing cost effectively. Finally, an industrial trial was made and a machined product with sound quality was obtained.

  2. Free vibration analysis of a rotating hub-functionally graded material beam system with the dynamic stiffening effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Zhang, D. G.; Zhu, W. D.

    2014-02-01

    A comprehensive dynamic model of a rotating hub-functionally graded material (FGM) beam system is developed based on a rigid-flexible coupled dynamics theory to study its free vibration characteristics. The rigid-flexible coupled dynamic equations of the system are derived using the method of assumed modes and Lagrange's equations of the second kind. The dynamic stiffening effect of the rotating hub-FGM beam system is captured by a second-order coupling term that represents longitudinal shrinking of the beam caused by the transverse displacement. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system with the chordwise bending and stretching (B-S) coupling effect are calculated and compared with those with the coupling effect neglected. When the B-S coupling effect is included, interesting frequency veering and mode shift phenomena are observed. A two-mode model is introduced to accurately predict the most obvious frequency veering behavior between two adjacent modes associated with a chordwise bending and a stretching mode. The critical veering angular velocities of the FGM beam that are analytically determined from the two-mode model are in excellent agreement with those from the comprehensive dynamic model. The effects of material inhomogeneity and graded properties of FGM beams on their dynamic characteristics are investigated. The comprehensive dynamic model developed here can be used in graded material design of FGM beams for achieving specified dynamic characteristics.

  3. Integration of transcriptomic and metabolic data reveals hub transcription factors involved in drought stress response in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschen, Sebastián; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Higgins, Janet; Tohge, Takayuki; Watanabe, Mutsumi; González, Sergio; Rivarola, Máximo; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin; Hopp, H Esteban; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R; Paniego, Norma; Fernández, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2017-07-01

    By integration of transcriptional and metabolic profiles we identified pathways and hubs transcription factors regulated during drought conditions in sunflower, useful for applications in molecular and/or biotechnological breeding. Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that effects crop productivity in many agricultural regions. Sunflower is tolerant to drought conditions but the mechanisms involved in this tolerance remain unclear at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to characterize and integrate transcriptional and metabolic pathways related to drought stress in sunflower plants, by using a system biology approach. Our results showed a delay in plant senescence with an increase in the expression level of photosynthesis related genes as well as higher levels of sugars, osmoprotectant amino acids and ionic nutrients under drought conditions. In addition, we identified transcription factors that were upregulated during drought conditions and that may act as hubs in the transcriptional network. Many of these transcription factors belong to families implicated in the drought response in model species. The integration of transcriptomic and metabolomic data in this study, together with physiological measurements, has improved our understanding of the biological responses during droughts and contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved under this environmental condition. These findings will provide useful biotechnological tools to improve stress tolerance while maintaining crop yield under restricted water availability.

  4. Computational modeling and statistical analyses on individual contact rate and exposure to disease in complex and confined transportation hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. L.; Tsui, K. L.; Lo, S. M.; Liu, S. B.

    2018-01-01

    Crowded transportation hubs such as metro stations are thought as ideal places for the development and spread of epidemics. However, for the special features of complex spatial layout, confined environment with a large number of highly mobile individuals, it is difficult to quantify human contacts in such environments, wherein disease spreading dynamics were less explored in the previous studies. Due to the heterogeneity and dynamic nature of human interactions, increasing studies proved the importance of contact distance and length of contact in transmission probabilities. In this study, we show how detailed information on contact and exposure patterns can be obtained by statistical analyses on microscopic crowd simulation data. To be specific, a pedestrian simulation model-CityFlow was employed to reproduce individuals' movements in a metro station based on site survey data, values and distributions of individual contact rate and exposure in different simulation cases were obtained and analyzed. It is interesting that Weibull distribution fitted the histogram values of individual-based exposure in each case very well. Moreover, we found both individual contact rate and exposure had linear relationship with the average crowd densities of the environments. The results obtained in this paper can provide reference to epidemic study in complex and confined transportation hubs and refine the existing disease spreading models.

  5. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  6. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  7. DisasterHub: A mobile application for enabling crowd generated data fusion in Earth Observation disaster management services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironis, Vassilis; Herekakis, Themistocles; Tsouni, Alexia; Kontoes, Charalampos Haris

    2016-04-01

    by DisasterHub, an application proposal that won the MYGEOSS Second Call for Innovative Apps (http://beyond-eocenter.eu/index.php/ann-blog/197-disasterhub-mygeoss). DisasterHub will fill the gap by introducing a mobile application that will act as a middleware between mobile users and BEYOND services, building on the concept of citizen observatories in support of Copernicus, GEO, GEOSS, and UN-SPIDER. In this context the roadmap for generating beneficial EO services through DisasterHub is sketched in two main branches: (i) ingestion, processing and fusion of big multimodal data with additional spatiotemporal evidences (originated from Core Copernicus, GEO, GEOSS) for deriving higher value DRR and EMS products, (ii) interlinking the web and mobile platforms for the exchange and ease access of the societies to open EO/crowd generated data. The benefited communities will be effectively enlarged through DisasterHub mobile app. Mutually the BEYOND ecosystem will profit from the large amount of tagged information returned from the field, forming a unique input to the production chains and assimilation of predictive modeling. In conclusion DisasterHub will showcase in the EO community an enhanced EO services ecosystem with a software infrastructure for easy access of mobile users to the real-time monitoring and early-warning systems of BEYOND and tools for incorporating crowd-sourced data with open geospatial and socioeconomic data via open/linked data ingestion mechanisms (APIs), retrieved from the GEOSS Data-CORE, Copernicus and other EU portals.

  8. Structures and short linear motif of disordered transcription factor regions provide clues to the interactome of the cellular hub radical-induced cell death1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Charlotte; Staby, Lasse; Bendsen, Sidsel Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDRs) lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure, but often facilitate key protein functions. Some interactions between IDRs and folded protein domains rely on short linear motifs (SLiMs). These motifs are challenging to identify, but once found can...... point to larger networks of interactions, such as with proteins that serve as hubs for essential cellular functions. The stress-associated plant protein Radical-Induced Cell Death1 (RCD1) is one such hub, interacting with many transcription factors via their flexible IDRs. To identify the SLiM bound......046 formed different structures or were fuzzy in the complexes. These findings allow us to present a model of the stress-associated RCD1-transcription factor interactome and to contribute to the emerging understanding of the interactions between folded hubs and their intrinsically disordered partners....

  9. Acute effects on pulmonary function in young healthy adults exposed to traffic-related air pollution in semi-closed transport hub in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Zhao, Yan; Shima, Masayuki; Guo, Bin; Liu, Qichen; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-09-01

    Transport hub is an important part of urban comprehensive transportation system. Traffic-related air pollution can reach high level because of difficulty of diffusion and increase of emission in transport hub. However, whether exposure in this semi-closed traffic micro-environment causes acute changes in pulmonary function of commuters still needs to be explored. Forty young healthy adults participated in this randomized, crossover study. Each participant underwent 2 h exposure in a designated transport hub and, on a separate occasion, in an appointed park. Personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were assessed pre-, during and post-exposure. Mixed linear models were used to analyze the pulmonary effects of traffic-related air pollutants. Participants had significantly higher exposures to PM2.5, BC and CO in the transport hub than in the park. Exposure in transport hub induced significant reductions in FEV1 and PEF compared with the park during exposure 1 and 2 h. The reductions were significant associated with traffic-related air pollutants. For instance, per 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 was associated with -0.15 % (95 % CI -0.28, -0.02 %) reduction in FEV1 during exposure 2 h. However, effects became attenuate after 2 h exposure. Short-term exposure in transport hub had acute reduction effects on pulmonary function. More attention should be paid to the health effects of exposure in the semi-closed traffic micro-environment.

  10. Systems biology approach to transplant tolerance: proof of concept experiments using RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down hub genes in Jurkat and HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Wint Wah; Park, Ken; Wauson, Matthew; Gao, Qin; Finn, Patricia W; Perkins, David; Khanna, Ajai

    2012-07-01

    Systems biology is gaining importance in studying complex systems such as the functional interconnections of human genes [1]. To investigate the molecular interactions involved in T cell immune responses, we used databases of physical gene-gene interactions to constructed molecular interaction networks (interconnections) with R language algorithms. This helped to identify highly interconnected "hub" genes AT(1)P5C1, IL6ST, PRKCZ, MYC, FOS, JUN, and MAPK1. We hypothesized that suppression of these hub genes in the gene network would result in significant phenotypic effects on T cells and examined this in vitro. The molecular interaction networks were then analyzed and visualized with Cytoscape. Jurkat and HeLa cells were transfected with siRNA for the selected hub genes. Cell proliferation was measured using ATP luminescence and BrdU labeling, which were measured 36, 72, and 96 h after activation. Following T cell stimulation, we found a significant decrease in ATP production (P cells. However, HeLa cells showed a significant (P cell proliferation when the genes MAPK1, IL6ST, ATP5C1, JUN, and FOS were knocked down. In both Jurkat and HeLa cells, targeted gene knockdown using siRNA showed decreased cell proliferation and ATP production in both Jurkat and HeLa cells. However, Jurkat T cells and HELA cells use different hub genes to regulate activation responses. This experiment provides proof of principle of applying siRNA knockdown of T cell hub genes to evaluate their proliferative capacity and ATP production. This novel concept outlines a systems biology approach to identify hub genes for targeted therapeutics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The effect of critically moving loads on the vibrations of soft soils and isolated railway tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auersch, L.

    2008-02-01

    The dynamic response of the railway track is strongly influenced by the underlying soil. For a soft soil and very high train speeds or for a very soft soil and regular train speeds, the train speed can be close to the speed of elastic waves in the soil. This paper presents a detailed study of the so-called "moving-load effect", i.e. an amplification of the dynamic response due to the load movement, for the tracks on soft soil. The analysis is carried out by evaluating the related integrals in the wavenumber domain. The influence of the load speed is quantified for a large set of parameters, showing that the effect on the soil vibration is reduced with increase of the frequency, track width and inverse wave velocity. Therefore, the moving-load effect associated with vibratory train loads is negligible whereas the amplification associated with the moving dead weight of the train can be significant. The strong moving-load effect on a perfectly homogeneous soil, however, can be strongly diminished by a layered or randomly varying soil situation. This theoretical result is affirmed by measurements at a test site in Germany where the trains run on a very soft soil at a near-critical speed. The results for soft soils are compared with experimental and theoretical results for a stiff soil. It is found that the influence of the stiffness of the soil is much stronger than the moving-load effect. This holds for the soil vibration as well as for the track vibration which both show a minor dependence on the load speed but a considerable dependence on the soil stiffness in theory and experiment. Railway tracks can include soft isolation elements such as rail pads, sleeper shoes and ballast mats. For these types of isolation elements and normal soil conditions, the influence of the load speed is usually negligible. There is only one isolation measure for which the moving load may be effective: a track which is constructed as a heavy mass-spring system. The resonance of this track

  12. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  13. Final Report for Project: Impacts of stratification and non-equilibrium winds and waves on hub-height winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Edward G. [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-07-14

    This project used a combination of turbulence-resolving large-eddy simulations, single-column modeling (where turbulence is parameterized), and currently available observations to improve, assess, and develop a parameterization of the impact of non-equilibrium wave states and stratification on the buoy-observed winds to establish reliable wind data at the turbine hub-height level. Analysis of turbulence-resolving simulations and observations illuminates the non-linear coupling between the atmosphere and the undulating sea surface. This analysis guides modification of existing boundary layer parameterizations to include wave influences for upward extrapolation of surface-based observations through the turbine layer. Our surface roughness modifications account for the interaction between stratification and the effects of swell’s amplitude and wavelength as well as swell’s relative motion with respect to the mean wind direction. The single-column version of the open source Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al., 2008) serves as our platform to test our proposed planetary boundary layer parameterization modifications that account for wave effects on marine atmospheric boundary layer flows. WRF has been widely adopted for wind resource analysis and forecasting. The single column version is particularly suitable to development, analysis, and testing of new boundary layer parameterizations. We utilize WRF’s single-column version to verify and validate our proposed modifications to the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) boundary layer parameterization (Nakanishi and Niino, 2004). We explore the implications of our modifications for two-way coupling between WRF and wave models (e.g.,Wavewatch III). The newly implemented parameterization accounting for marine atmospheric boundary layer-wave coupling is then tested in three-dimensional WRF simulations at grid sizes near 1 km. These simulations identify the behavior of simulated winds at the

  14. "Thanks for Letting Us All Share Your Mammogram Experience Virtually": Developing a Web-Based Hub for Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Adam; Meredith, Joanne; Ure, Cathy; Robinson, Leslie

    2017-10-27

    The decision around whether to attend breast cancer screening can often involve making sense of confusing and contradictory information on its risks and benefits. The Word of Mouth Mammogram e-Network (WoMMeN) project was established to create a Web-based resource to support decision making regarding breast cancer screening. This paper presents data from our user-centered approach in engaging stakeholders (both health professionals and service users) in the design of this Web-based resource. Our novel approach involved creating a user design group within Facebook to allow them access to ongoing discussion between researchers, radiographers, and existing and potential service users. This study had two objectives. The first was to examine the utility of an online user design group for generating insight for the creation of Web-based health resources. We sought to explore the advantages and limitations of this approach. The second objective was to analyze what women want from a Web-based resource for breast cancer screening. We recruited a user design group on Facebook and conducted a survey within the group, asking questions about design considerations for a Web-based breast cancer screening hub. Although the membership of the Facebook group varied over time, there were 71 members in the Facebook group at the end point of analysis. We next conducted a framework analysis on 70 threads from Facebook and a thematic analysis on the 23 survey responses. We focused additionally on how the themes were discussed by the different stakeholders within the context of the design group. Two major themes were found across both the Facebook discussion and the survey data: (1) the power of information and (2) the hub as a place for communication and support. Information was considered as empowering but also recognized as threatening. Communication and the sharing of experiences were deemed important, but there was also recognition of potential miscommunication within online

  15. Visioning for secondary palliative care service hubs in rural communities: a qualitative case study from British Columbia's interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlon Neil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the populations of many developed nations continue to age at rapid rates it is becoming increasingly important to enhance palliative care service delivery in order to meet anticipated demand. Rural areas face a number of challenges in doing this, and thus dedicated attention must be given to determining how to best enhance service delivery in ways that are sensitive to their particular needs. The purposes of this article are to determine the vision for establishing secondary palliative care service hubs (SPCH in rural communities through undertaking a case study, and to ascertain the criteria that need to be considered when siting such hubs. Methods A rural region of British Columbia, Canada was selected for primary data collection, which took place over a five-month period in 2008. Formal and informal palliative care providers (n = 31 were interviewed. A purposeful recruitment strategy was used to maximize occupational and practice diversity. Interviews were conducted by phone using a semi-structured guide. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were managed using NVivo8™ software and analyzed thematically, using investigator triangulation to strengthen interpretation. Results Four themes emerged from the dataset: (1 main SPCH features; (2 determining a location; (3 value-added outcomes; and (4 key considerations. It was found that participants generally supported implementing a SPCH in the rural region of focus. Several consistent messages emerged, including that: (1 SPCHs must create opportunities for two-way information exchange between specialists and generalists and communities; (2 SPCHs should diffuse information and ideas throughout the region, thus serving as a locus for education and a means of enhancing training opportunities; and (3 hubs need not be physical sites in the community (e.g., an office in a hospice or hospital, but may be virtual or take other forms based upon local needs

  16. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  17. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  18. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  19. Flap-wise and chord-wise vibrations of axially functionally graded tapered beams rotating around a hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanoglu, Kemal; Guler, Serkan

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents flap-wise and chord-wise flexural vibration analyses for centrifugally stiffened tapered beams made of functionally graded material in axial direction. Functions of material properties varying along beam are defined in terms of the power law distribution. Calculations are conducted by simple computation technique of the Rayleigh-Ritz method that uses simple shape functions and energy expressions written for centrifugally stiffened Euler-Bernoulli beams. Effects of taper ratio, hub radius, angular velocity and non-homogeneity are inspected for the thin beams with several classical boundary conditions. Results given as non-dimensional natural frequencies are validated by the results given in existing literature and/or the outputs of finite element analyses performed for axially functionally graded solid beam. Achievements and limitations of the method are discussed and clearly reflected.

  20. Analytical Formulation for Sizing and Estimating the Dimensions and Weight of Wind Turbine Hub and Drivetrain Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parsons, T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-09

    This report summarizes the theory, verification, and validation of a new sizing tool for wind turbine drivetrain components, the Drivetrain Systems Engineering (DriveSE) tool. DriveSE calculates the dimensions and mass properties of the hub, main shaft, main bearing(s), gearbox, bedplate, transformer if up-tower, and yaw system. The level of fi¬ delity for each component varies depending on whether semiempirical parametric or physics-based models are used. The physics-based models have internal iteration schemes based on system constraints and design criteria. Every model is validated against available industry data or finite-element analysis. The verification and validation results show that the models reasonably capture primary drivers for the sizing and design of major drivetrain components.